WorldWideScience

Sample records for simple approximate solutions

  1. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Approximate solutions to Mathieu's equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel A.; Vogt, Nicolas; Golubev, Dmitry S.; Cole, Jared H.

    2018-06-01

    Mathieu's equation has many applications throughout theoretical physics. It is especially important to the theory of Josephson junctions, where it is equivalent to Schrödinger's equation. Mathieu's equation can be easily solved numerically, however there exists no closed-form analytic solution. Here we collect various approximations which appear throughout the physics and mathematics literature and examine their accuracy and regimes of applicability. Particular attention is paid to quantities relevant to the physics of Josephson junctions, but the arguments and notation are kept general so as to be of use to the broader physics community.

  3. Simple Lie groups without the approximation property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; de Laat, Tim

    2013-01-01

    For a locally compact group G, let A(G) denote its Fourier algebra, and let M0A(G) denote the space of completely bounded Fourier multipliers on G. The group G is said to have the Approximation Property (AP) if the constant function 1 can be approximated by a net in A(G) in the weak-∗ topology...... on the space M0A(G). Recently, Lafforgue and de la Salle proved that SL(3,R) does not have the AP, implying the first example of an exact discrete group without it, namely, SL(3,Z). In this paper we prove that Sp(2,R) does not have the AP. It follows that all connected simple Lie groups with finite center...

  4. Simple de Sitter solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstein, Eva

    2008-01-01

    We present a framework for de Sitter model building in type IIA string theory, illustrated with specific examples. We find metastable de Sitter (dS) minima of the potential for moduli obtained from a compactification on a product of two nil three-manifolds (which have negative scalar curvature) combined with orientifolds, branes, fractional Chern-Simons forms, and fluxes. As a discrete quantum number is taken large, the curvature, field strengths, inverse volume, and four-dimensional string coupling become parametrically small, and the de Sitter Hubble scale can be tuned parametrically smaller than the scales of the moduli, Kaluza Klein (KK), and winding mode masses. A subtle point in the construction is that although the curvature remains consistently weak, the circle fibers of the nilmanifolds become very small in this limit (though this is avoided in illustrative solutions at modest values of the parameters). In the simplest version of the construction, the heaviest moduli masses are parametrically of the same order as the lightest KK and winding masses. However, we provide a method for separating these marginally overlapping scales, and more generally the underlying supersymmetry of the model protects against large corrections to the low-energy moduli potential

  5. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Dry Eye The SSF thanks J. Daniel Nelson, MD, Associate Medical Director, Specialty Care HealthPartners Medical Group & Clinics, and Professor of Ophthalmology, University of ...

  6. Approximative solutions of stochastic optimization problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lachout, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2010), s. 513-523 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic optimization problem * sensitivity * approximative solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/SI/lachout-approximative solutions of stochastic optimization problem.pdf

  7. Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA),Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigro, Mauro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-01

    The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.

  8. Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Nigro, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.

  9. A simple approximation method for dilute Ising systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, M.

    1996-10-01

    We describe a simple approximate method to analyze dilute Ising systems. The method takes into consideration the fluctuations of the effective field, and is based on a probability distribution of random variables which correctly accounts for all the single site kinematic relations. It is shown that the simplest approximation gives satisfactory results when compared with other methods. (author). 12 refs, 2 tabs

  10. A simple approximation for the current-voltage characteristics of high-power, relativistic diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl, E-mail: cekdahl@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    A simple approximation for the current-voltage characteristics of a relativistic electron diode is presented. The approximation is accurate from non-relativistic through relativistic electron energies. Although it is empirically developed, it has many of the fundamental properties of the exact diode solutions. The approximation is simple enough to be remembered and worked on almost any pocket calculator, so it has proven to be quite useful on the laboratory floor.

  11. Approximate radiative solutions of the Einstein equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusk, P.; Unt, V.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper the external field of a bounded source emitting gravitational radiation is considered. A successive approximation method is used to integrate the Einstein equations in Bondi's coordinates (Bondi et al, Proc. R. Soc.; A269:21 (1962)). A method of separation of angular variables is worked out and the approximate Einstein equations are reduced to key equations. The losses of mass, momentum, and angular momentum due to gravitational multipole radiation are found. It is demonstrated that in the case of proper treatment a real mass occurs instead of a mass aspect in a solution of the Einstein equations. In an appendix Bondi's new function is given in terms of sources. (author)

  12. Approximated solutions to the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, J.F.; Fernandez-Alonso, J.I.

    1977-01-01

    The authors are currently working on a couple of the well-known deficiencies of the variation method and present here some of the results that have been obtained so far. The variation method does not give information a priori on the trial functions best suited for a particular problem nor does it give information a posteriori on the degree of precision attained. In order to clarify the origin of both difficulties, a geometric interpretation of the variation method is presented. This geometric interpretation is the starting point for the exact formal solution to the fundamental state and for the step-by-step approximations to the exact solution which are also given. Some comments on these results are included. (Auth.)

  13. A simple approximation of productivity scores of fuzzy production plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2005-01-01

    This paper suggests a simple approximation procedure for the assessment of productivity scores with respect to fuzzy production plans. The procedure has a clear economic interpretation and all the necessary calculations can be performed in a spreadsheet making it highly operational...

  14. An accurate approximate solution of optimal sequential age replacement policy for a finite-time horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, R.

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to find the optimal solution of the sequential age replacement policy for a finite-time horizon. This paper presents an accurate approximation to find an approximate optimal solution of the sequential replacement policy. The proposed approximation is computationally simple and suitable for any failure distribution. Their accuracy is illustrated by two examples. Based on the approximate solution, an approximate estimate for the total cost is derived.

  15. Approximate solution methods in engineering mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boresi, A.P.; Cong, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    This is a short book of 147 pages including references and sometimes bibliographies at the end of each chapter, and subject and author indices at the end of the book. The test includes an introduction of 3 pages, 29 pages explaining approximate analysis, 41 pages on finite differences, 36 pages on finite elements, and 17 pages on specialized methods

  16. Solution of a simple inelastic scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Simple examples of elastic scattering, typically from square wells, serve as important pedagogical tools in discussion of the concepts and processes involved in elastic scattering events. An analytic solution of a model inelastic scattering system is presented here to serve in this role for inelastic events. The model and its solution are simple enough to be of pedagogical utility, but also retain enough of the important physical features to include most of the special characteristics of inelastic systems. The specific model chosen is the collision of an atom with a harmonic oscillator, interacting via a repulsive square well potential. Pedagogically important features of inelastic scattering, including its multistate character, convergence behavior, and dependence on an ''inelastic potential'' are emphasized as the solution is determined. Results are presented for various energies and strengths of inelastic scattering, which show that the model is capable of providing an elementary representation of vibrationally inelastic scattering

  17. Approximate solutions of the Wei Hua oscillator using the Pekeris ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The approximate analytical bound-state solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the. Wei Hua oscillator are carried out in N-dimensional space by taking Pekeris approximation scheme to the orbital centrifugal term. Solutions of the corresponding hyper-radial equation are obtained using the conventional Nikiforov–Uvarov ...

  18. Rational approximations to solutions of linear differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, D V; Chudnovsky, G V

    1983-08-01

    Rational approximations of Padé and Padé type to solutions of differential equations are considered. One of the main results is a theorem stating that a simultaneous approximation to arbitrary solutions of linear differential equations over C(x) cannot be "better" than trivial ones implied by the Dirichlet box principle. This constitutes, in particular, the solution in the linear case of Kolchin's problem that the "Roth's theorem" holds for arbitrary solutions of algebraic differential equations. Complete effective proofs for several valuations are presented based on the Wronskian methods and graded subrings of Picard-Vessiot extensions.

  19. A simple semi-empirical approximation for bond energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, F.E.; Giambiagi, M.; Giambiagi, M.S. de.

    1985-01-01

    A simple semi-empirical expression for bond energy, related with a generalized bond index, is proposed and applied within the IEH framework. The correlation with experimental data is good for the intermolecular bond energy of base pairs of nucleic acids and other hydrogen bonded systems. The intramolecular bond energies for a sample of molecules containing typical bonds and for hydrides are discussed. The results are compared with those obtained by other methods. (Author) [pt

  20. Approximation of entropy solutions to degenerate nonlinear parabolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Eduardo; Colombeau, Mathilde; Panov, Evgeny Yu

    2017-12-01

    We approximate the unique entropy solutions to general multidimensional degenerate parabolic equations with BV continuous flux and continuous nondecreasing diffusion function (including scalar conservation laws with BV continuous flux) in the periodic case. The approximation procedure reduces, by means of specific formulas, a system of PDEs to a family of systems of the same number of ODEs in the Banach space L^∞, whose solutions constitute a weak asymptotic solution of the original system of PDEs. We establish well posedness, monotonicity and L^1-stability. We prove that the sequence of approximate solutions is strongly L^1-precompact and that it converges to an entropy solution of the original equation in the sense of Carrillo. This result contributes to justify the use of this original method for the Cauchy problem to standard multidimensional systems of fluid dynamics for which a uniqueness result is lacking.

  1. Approximate solution fuzzy pantograph equation by using homotopy perturbation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, A. F.; Saaban, A.; Ahadkulov, H.; Alipiah, F. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is modified and formulated to find the approximate solution for its employment to solve (FDDEs) involving a fuzzy pantograph equation. The solution that can be obtained by using HPM is in the form of infinite series that converge to the actual solution of the FDDE and this is one of the benefits of this method In addition, it can be used for solving high order fuzzy delay differential equations directly without reduction to a first order system. Moreover, the accuracy of HPM can be detected without needing the exact solution. The HPM is studied for fuzzy initial value problems involving pantograph equation. Using the properties of fuzzy set theory, we reformulate the standard approximate method of HPM and obtain the approximate solutions. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated for third order fuzzy pantograph equation.

  2. Simple Methods to Approximate CPC Shape to Preserve Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jafrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound parabolic concentrator (CPC is the most efficient reflective geometry to collect light to an exit port. Anyway, to allow its actual use in solar plants or photovoltaic concentration systems, a tradeoff between system efficiency and cost reduction, the two key issues for sunlight exploitation, must be found. In this work, we analyze various methods to model an approximated CPC aimed to be simpler and more cost-effective than the ideal one, as well as to preserve the system efficiency. The manufacturing easiness arises from the use of truncated conic surfaces only, which can be realized by cheap machining techniques. We compare different configurations on the basis of their collection efficiency, evaluated by means of nonsequential ray-tracing software. Moreover, due to the fact that some configurations are beam dependent and for a closer approximation of a real case, the input beam is simulated as nonsymmetric, with a nonconstant irradiance on the CPC internal surface.

  3. A Simple Solution to Type Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...... all over. Neil Jones has stated that getting rid of these type tags was an open problem, despite possible solutions such as Torben Mogensen's “constructor specialization.” To solve this problem, John Hughes has proposed a new paradigm for partial evaluation, “Type Specialization”, based on type...... inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection...

  4. Approximate variational solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, G.O.

    2001-01-01

    Approximate solutions of the Grad-Schlueter-Shafranov equation based on variational methods are developed. The power series solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations for equilibrium are compared with direct variational results for a low aspect ratio tokamak equilibrium. (author)

  5. Simple approximation for estimating centerline gamma absorbed dose rates due to a continuous Gaussian plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overcamp, T.J.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple approximation for estimating the centerline gamma absorbed dose rates due to a continuous Gaussian plume was developed. To simplify the integration of the dose integral, this approach makes use of the Gaussian cloud concentration distribution. The solution is expressed in terms of the I1 and I2 integrals which were developed for estimating long-term dose due to a sector-averaged Gaussian plume. Estimates of tissue absorbed dose rates for the new approach and for the uniform cloud model were compared to numerical integration of the dose integral over a Gaussian plume distribution

  6. Approximate solutions of some problems of scattering of surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Choudhary

    Abstract. A class of mixed boundary value problems (bvps), occurring in the study of scattering of surface water waves by thin vertical rigid barriers placed in water of finite depth, is examined for their approximate solutions. Two different placings of vertical barriers are analyzed, namely, (i) a partially immersed barrier and.

  7. Simple and Accurate Analytical Solutions of the Electrostatically Actuated Curled Beam Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-01-01

    We present analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. We use a continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions

  8. Efficient solution of parabolic equations by Krylov approximation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallopoulos, E.; Saad, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical techniques for solving parabolic equations by the method of lines is addressed. The main motivation for the proposed approach is the possibility of exploiting a high degree of parallelism in a simple manner. The basic idea of the method is to approximate the action of the evolution operator on a given state vector by means of a projection process onto a Krylov subspace. Thus, the resulting approximation consists of applying an evolution operator of a very small dimension to a known vector which is, in turn, computed accurately by exploiting well-known rational approximations to the exponential. Because the rational approximation is only applied to a small matrix, the only operations required with the original large matrix are matrix-by-vector multiplications, and as a result the algorithm can easily be parallelized and vectorized. Some relevant approximation and stability issues are discussed. We present some numerical experiments with the method and compare its performance with a few explicit and implicit algorithms.

  9. Approximate Series Solutions for Nonlinear Free Vibration of Suspended Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaobing Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents approximate series solutions for nonlinear free vibration of suspended cables via the Lindstedt-Poincare method and homotopy analysis method, respectively. Firstly, taking into account the geometric nonlinearity of the suspended cable as well as the quasi-static assumption, a mathematical model is presented. Secondly, two analytical methods are introduced to obtain the approximate series solutions in the case of nonlinear free vibration. Moreover, small and large sag-to-span ratios and initial conditions are chosen to study the nonlinear dynamic responses by these two analytical methods. The numerical results indicate that frequency amplitude relationships obtained with different analytical approaches exhibit some quantitative and qualitative differences in the cases of motions, mode shapes, and particular sag-to-span ratios. Finally, a detailed comparison of the differences in the displacement fields and cable axial total tensions is made.

  10. Approximate solution for the reactor neutron probability distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, L.; McSwine, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Several authors have studied the Kolmogorov equation for a fission-driven chain-reacting system, written in terms of the generating function G(x,y,z,t) where x, y, and z are dummy variables referring to the neutron, delayed neutron precursor, and detector-count populations, n, m, and c, respectively. Pal and Zolotukhin and Mogil'ner have shown that if delayed neutrons are neglected, the solution is approximately negative binomial for the neutron population. Wang and Ruby have shown that if the detector effect is neglected, the solution, including the effect of delayed neutrons, is approximately negative binomial. All of the authors assumed prompt-neutron emission not exceeding two neutrons per fission. An approximate method of separating the detector effect from the statistics of the neutron and precursor populations has been proposed by Ruby. In this weak-coupling limit, it is assumed that G(x,y,z,t) = H(x,y)I(z,t). Substitution of this assumption into the Kolmogorov equation separates the latter into two equations, one for H(x,y) and the other for I(z,t). Solution of the latter then gives a generating function, which indicates that in the weak-coupling limit, the detector counts are Poisson distributed. Ruby also showed that if the detector effect is neglected in the equation for H(x,y), i.e., the detector efficiency is set to zero, then the resulting equation is identical with that considered by Wang and Ruby. The authors present here an approximate solution for H(x,y) that does not set the detector efficiency to zero

  11. Approximate solution to neutron transport equation with linear anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, G.; Ravetto, P.; Sumini, M.

    1983-01-01

    A method to obtain an approximate solution to the transport equation, when both sources and collisions show a linearly anisotropic behavior, is outlined and the possible implications for numerical calculations in applied neutronics as well as shielding evaluations are investigated. The form of the differential system of equations taken by the method is quite handy and looks simpler and more manageable than any other today available technique. To go deeper into the efficiency of the method, some typical calculations concerning critical dimension of multiplying systems are then performed and the results are compared with the ones coming from the classical Ssub(N) approximations. The outcome of such calculations leads us to think of interesting developments of the method which could be quite useful in alternative to other today widespread approximate procedures, for any geometry, but especially for curved ones. (author)

  12. The soliton solution of the PHI24 field theory in the Hartree approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenbokum, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis in a simple model which possesses at the classical level a soliton solution a quantum-mechanical soliton sector shall be constructed in a Hartree-Fock approximation without application of semiclassical procedures. To this belongs beside the determination of the excitation spectrum of the applied Hamiltonian the knowledge of the corresponding infinitely-much eigenfunctions. The existing translational invariance of a classical soliton solution which implies the existence of a degenerated ground state by presence of a massless excitation is removed by quantum fluctuations. By removing of this degeneration conventional approximation procedures for this sector of the Hilbert space become for the first time immediately possible. (HSI) [de

  13. Approximate solutions of common fixed-point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    This book presents results on the convergence behavior of algorithms which are known as vital tools for solving convex feasibility problems and common fixed point problems. The main goal for us in dealing with a known computational error is to find what approximate solution can be obtained and how many iterates one needs to find it. According to know results, these algorithms should converge to a solution. In this exposition, these algorithms are studied, taking into account computational errors which remain consistent in practice. In this case the convergence to a solution does not take place. We show that our algorithms generate a good approximate solution if computational errors are bounded from above by a small positive constant. Beginning with an introduction, this monograph moves on to study: · dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in a Hilbert space · dynamic string methods for common fixed point problems in a metric space · dynamic string-averaging version of the proximal...

  14. Approximate design theory for a simple block design with random block effects

    OpenAIRE

    Christof, Karin

    1985-01-01

    Approximate design theory for a simple block design with random block effects / K. Christof ; F. Pukelsheim. - In: Linear statistical inference / ed. by T. Calinski ... - Berlin u. a. : Springer, 1985. - S. 20-28. - (Lecture notes in statistics ; 35)

  15. Inverse kinematic solution for near-simple robots and its application to robot calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Samad A.; Roston, Gerald P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper provides an inverse kinematic solution for a class of robot manipulators called near-simple manipulators. The kinematics of these manipulators differ from those of simple-robots by small parameter variations. Although most robots are by design simple, in practice, due to manufacturing tolerances, every robot is near-simple. The method in this paper gives an approximate inverse kinematics solution for real time applications based on the nominal solution for these robots. The validity of the results are tested both by a simulation study and by applying the algorithm to a PUMA robot.

  16. On Approximate Solutions of Functional Equations in Vector Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Batko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a method of approximation of approximate solutions of functional equations in the class of functions acting into a Riesz space (algebra. The main aim of the paper is to provide a general theorem that can act as a tool applicable to a possibly wide class of functional equations. The idea is based on the use of the Spectral Representation Theory for Riesz spaces. The main result will be applied to prove the stability of an alternative Cauchy functional equation F(x+y+F(x+F(y≠0⇒F(x+y=F(x+F(y in Riesz spaces, the Cauchy equation with squares F(x+y2=(F(x+F(y2 in f-algebras, and the quadratic functional equation F(x+y+F(x-y=2F(x+2F(y in Riesz spaces.

  17. Bessel collocation approach for approximate solutions of Hantavirus infection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suayip Yuzbasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a collocation method is introduced to find the approximate solutions of Hantavirus infection model which is a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The method is based on the Bessel functions of the first kind, matrix operations and collocation points. This method converts Hantavirus infection model into a matrix equation in terms of the Bessel functions of first kind, matrix operations and collocation points. The matrix equation corresponds to a system of nonlinear equations with the unknown Bessel coefficients. The reliability and efficiency of the suggested scheme are demonstrated by numerical applications and all numerical calculations have been done by using a program written in Maple.

  18. Magnetic analysis of tokamak plasma with approximate MHD equilibrium solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Hiraki, Naoji

    1993-01-01

    A magnetic analysis method for determining equilibrium configuration parameters (plasma shape, poloidal beta and internal inductance) on a non-circular tokamak is described. The feature is to utilize an approximate MHD equilibrium solution which explicitly relates the configuration parameters with the magnetic fields picked up by magnetic sensors. So this method is suitable for the real-time analysis performed during a tokamak discharge. A least-squares fitting procedure is added to the analytical algorithm in order to reduce the errors in the magnetic analysis. The validity is investigated through the numerical calculation for a tokamak equilibrium model. (author)

  19. Approximate Solution of LR Fuzzy Sylvester Matrix Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuzzy Sylvester matrix equation AX~+X~B=C~ in which A,B are m×m and n×n crisp matrices, respectively, and C~ is an m×n LR fuzzy numbers matrix is investigated. Based on the Kronecker product of matrices, we convert the fuzzy Sylvester matrix equation into an LR fuzzy linear system. Then we extend the fuzzy linear system into two systems of linear equations according to the arithmetic operations of LR fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy approximate solution of the original fuzzy matrix equation is obtained by solving the crisp linear systems. The existence condition of the LR fuzzy solution is also discussed. Some examples are given to illustrate the proposed method.

  20. Approximate Expressions for the Period of a Simple Pendulum Using a Taylor Series Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belendez, Augusto; Arribas, Enrique; Marquez, Andres; Ortuno, Manuel; Gallego, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    An approximate scheme for obtaining the period of a simple pendulum for large-amplitude oscillations is analysed and discussed. When students express the exact frequency or the period of a simple pendulum as a function of the oscillation amplitude, and they are told to expand this function in a Taylor series, they always do so using the…

  1. Simple approximations for the batch-arrival MX/G/1 queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we consider the MX/G/I queueing system with batch arrivals. We give simple approximations for the waiting-time probabilities of individual customers. These approximations are checked numerically and they are found to perform very well for a wide variety of batch-size and service-timed

  2. Scattering in particle-hole space: simple approximations to nuclear RPA calculations in the continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1987-01-01

    The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) treatment of nuclear small amplitude vibrations including particle-hole continua is handled in terms of previously developed techniques to treat single-particle resonances in a reaction theoretical framework. A hierarchy of interpretable approximations is derived and a simple working approximation is proposed which involves a numerical effort no larger than that involved in standard, discrete RPA calculations. (Author) [pt

  3. A method for the approximate solutions of the unsteady boundary layer equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdus Sattar, Md.

    1990-12-01

    The approximate integral method proposed by Bianchini et al. to solve the unsteady boundary layer equations is considered here with a simple modification to the scale function for the similarity variable. This is done by introducing a time dependent length scale. The closed form solutions, thus obtained, give satisfactory results for the velocity profile and the skin friction to a limiting case in comparison with the results of the past investigators. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  4. Approximate solutions: ramps and periodic variations. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The aim of reactor regulation is generally to maintain reactor power at the demand power, or to vary it slowly to attain a new demand power. On the other hand, the purpose of reactor shutdown systems (SDS) is to insert rapidly, on actuation, a large negative reactivity in order to minimize an overpower, or limit the energy released during a transient, so that fuel failure is improbable. Control mechanisms are therefore characterized by: their reactivity worth (mk), which must exceed the reactivity effect which the mechanism is designed to compensate; and their insertion rate (mk/s), which must be at least as fast as the effect to be controlled. Table 5.1 gives a summary of the various control mechanisms in a CANDU 6 reactor. The reactivity worth shown for each mechanism is the static reactivity change associated with full movement of the device. In reality, the dynamic reactivity will vary in a continuous manner, not suddenly, as assumed in the previous chapter. The realistic simulation of a reactivity insertion in the reactor must then take into account the rate of insertion of reactivity, which is governed by the insertion speed of the mechanism. We have seen in the previous chapter that it is possible to solved analytically the point-kinetics equations for constant reactivity. We could generalize these solutions to step-wise reactivity variations by linking together the analytic solutions to for a sequence of step changes. This approach is not necessarily the best from a numerical point of view. By introducing one or more simplifying assumptions, it will be possible to obtain an analytical solution of arbitrary variations in reactivity or in the external source. These assumptions will undoubtedly limit the applicability of the results, but the approximate solutions obtained will allow us to describe the reactor behaviour analytically. (author)

  5. The quasi-diffusive approximation in transport theory: Local solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celaschi, M.; Montagnini, B.

    1995-01-01

    The one velocity, plane geometry integral neutron transport equation is transformed into a system of two equations, one of them being the equation of continuity and the other a generalized Fick's law, in which the usual diffusion coefficient is replaced by a self-adjoint integral operator. As the kernel of this operator is very close to the Green function of a diffusion equation, an approximate inversion by means of a second order differential operator allows to transform these equations into a purely differential system which is shown to be equivalent, in the simplest case, to a diffusion-like equation. The method, the principles of which have been exposed in a previous paper, is here extended and applied to a variety of problems. If the inversion is properly performed, the quasi-diffusive solutions turn out to be quite accurate, even in the vicinity of the interface between different material regions, where elementary diffusion theory usually fails. 16 refs., 3 tabs

  6. Comment on 'Approximation for a large-angle simple pendulum period'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Qingxin; Ding Pei

    2009-01-01

    In a recent letter, Belendez et al (2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 L25-8) proposed an alternative of approximation for the period of a simple pendulum suggested earlier by Hite (2005 Phys. Teach. 43 290-2) who set out to improve on the Kidd and Fogg formula (2002 Phys. Teach. 40 81-3). As a response to the approximation scheme, we obtain another analytical approximation for the large-angle pendulum period, which owns the simplicity and accuracy in evaluating the exact period, and moreover, for amplitudes less than 144 deg. the analytical approximate expression is more accurate than others in the literature. (letters and comments)

  7. A simple solution to type specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...... all over. Neil Jones has stated that getting rid of these type tags was an open problem, despite possible solutions such as Torben Mogensen's “constructor specialization.” To solve this problem, John Hughes has proposed a new paradigm for partial evaluation, “Type Specialization”, based on type...... from the universal type to the specific type of the residual program. Standard partial evaluation then yields a residual program without type tags, simply and efficiently....

  8. A trigonometric approximation for the tension in the string of a simple pendulum accurate for all amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, F M S

    2009-01-01

    In a previous work, O'Connell (Phys. Teach. 40, 24 (2002)) investigated the time dependence of the tension in the string of a simple pendulum oscillating within the small-angle regime. In spite of the approximation sin θ ∼ θ being accurate only for amplitudes below 7 deg., his experimental results are for a pendulum oscillating with an amplitude of about 18 deg., therefore beyond the small-angle regime. This lapse may also be found in some textbooks, laboratory manuals and internet. By noting that the exact analytical solution for this problem involves the so-called Jacobi elliptic functions, which are unknown to most students (even instructors), I take into account a sinusoidal approximate solution for the pendulum equation I introduced in a recent work (Eur. J. Phys. 29 1091 (2008)) for deriving a simple trigonometric approximation for the tension valid for all possible amplitudes. This approximation is compared to both the O'Connell and the exact results, revealing that it is accurate enough for analysing large-angle pendulum experiments. (letters and comments)

  9. Physical Applications of a Simple Approximation of Bessel Functions of Integer Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, V.; Cojocaru, S.

    2007-01-01

    Applications of a simple approximation of Bessel functions of integer order, in terms of trigonometric functions, are discussed for several examples from electromagnetism and optics. The method may be applied in the intermediate regime, bridging the "small values regime" and the "asymptotic" one, and covering, in this way, an area of great…

  10. A simple method to approximate liver size on cross-sectional images using living liver models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, D.; Mueller, M.A.; Karlo, C.; Fornaro, J.; Marincek, B.; Frauenfelder, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether a simple. diameter-based formula applicable to cross-sectional images can be used to calculate the total liver volume. Materials and methods: On 119 cross-sectional examinations (62 computed tomography and 57 magnetic resonance imaging) a simple, formula-based method to approximate the liver volume was evaluated. The total liver volume was approximated measuring the largest craniocaudal (cc), ventrodorsal (vd), and coronal (cor) diameters by two readers and implementing the equation: Vol estimated =ccxvdxcorx0.31. Inter-rater reliability, agreement, and correlation between liver volume calculation and virtual liver volumetry were analysed. Results: No significant disagreement between the two readers was found. The formula correlated significantly with the volumetric data (r > 0.85, p < 0.0001). In 81% of cases the error of the approximated volume was <10% and in 92% of cases <15% compared to the volumetric data. Conclusion: Total liver volume can be accurately estimated on cross-sectional images using a simple, diameter-based equation.

  11. Variation Iteration Method for The Approximate Solution of Nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we considered the numerical solution of the nonlinear Burgers equation using the Variational Iteration Method (VIM). The method seeks to examine the convergence of solutions of the Burgers equation at the expense of the parameters x and t of which the amount of errors depends. Numerical experimentation ...

  12. Application of simple approximate system analysis methods for reliability and availability improvement of reactor WWER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, B.; Marinova, B.; Nenkova, B.

    2001-01-01

    The method described on this report provides a set of simple, easily understood 'approximate' models applicable to a large class of system architectures. Constructing a Markov model of each redundant subsystem and its replacement after that by a pseudo-component develops the approximation models. Of equal importance, the models can be easily understood even of non-experts, including managers, high-level decision-makers and unsophisticated consumers. A necessary requirement for their application is the systems to be repairable and the mean time to repair to be much smaller than the mean time to failure. This ia a case most often met in the real practice. Results of the 'approximate' model application on a technological system of Kozloduy NPP are also presented. The results obtained can be compared quite favorably with the results obtained by using SAPHIRE software

  13. Trigonometric solutions of triangle equations. Simple Lie superalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhanov, V.V.; Shadrikov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Trigonometric solutions of the graded triangle equation are constructed for the fundamental representations of all simple (nonexceptional) Lie superalgebras with nondegenerate metric. In Sec. 1, we introduce the concept of Z 2 graded spaces and give the basic definitions. In Sec. 2, we determine fundamental representations of the Lie superalgebras sl(mn) and osp(2rs) and give explicit realizations of the Coxeter automorphisms. In secs. 3 and 4, we give the trigonometric solutions of the graded triangle equation (quantum R matrices)

  14. Approximation solutions for indifference pricing under general utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, An; Pelsser, Antoon; Vellekoop, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    With the aid of Taylor-based approximations, this paper presents results for pricing insurance contracts by using indifference pricing under general utility functions. We discuss the connection between the resulting "theoretical" indifference prices and the pricing rule-of-thumb that practitioners

  15. Approximate Solutions for Indifference Pricing under General Utility Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Pelsser, A.; Vellekoop, M.

    2007-01-01

    With the aid of Taylor-based approximations, this paper presents results for pricing insurance contracts by using indifference pricing under general utility functions. We discuss the connection between the resulting "theoretical" indifference prices and the pricing rule-of-thumb that practitioners

  16. Approximate expressions for the period of a simple pendulum using a Taylor series expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, Augusto; Marquez, Andres; Ortuno, Manuel; Gallego, Sergi; Arribas, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    An approximate scheme for obtaining the period of a simple pendulum for large-amplitude oscillations is analysed and discussed. When students express the exact frequency or the period of a simple pendulum as a function of the oscillation amplitude, and they are told to expand this function in a Taylor series, they always do so using the oscillation amplitude as the variable, without considering that if they change the variable (in this paper to the new variable m), a different Taylor series expansion may be performed which is in addition more accurate than previously published ones. Students tend to believe that there is one and only one way of performing a Taylor series expansion of a specific function. The approximate analytical formula for the period is obtained by means of a Taylor expansion of the exact frequency taking into account the Kidd-Fogg formula for the period. This approach based on the Taylor expansion of the frequency about a suitable value converges quickly even for large amplitudes. We believe that this method may be very useful for teaching undergraduate courses on classical mechanics and helping students understand nonlinear oscillations of a simple pendulum.

  17. Approximate expressions for the period of a simple pendulum using a Taylor series expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, Augusto; Marquez, Andres; Ortuno, Manuel; Gallego, Sergi [Departamento de Fisica, IngenierIa de Sistemas y TeorIa de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Arribas, Enrique, E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Informatica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avda de Espana, s/n, E-02071 Albacete (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    An approximate scheme for obtaining the period of a simple pendulum for large-amplitude oscillations is analysed and discussed. When students express the exact frequency or the period of a simple pendulum as a function of the oscillation amplitude, and they are told to expand this function in a Taylor series, they always do so using the oscillation amplitude as the variable, without considering that if they change the variable (in this paper to the new variable m), a different Taylor series expansion may be performed which is in addition more accurate than previously published ones. Students tend to believe that there is one and only one way of performing a Taylor series expansion of a specific function. The approximate analytical formula for the period is obtained by means of a Taylor expansion of the exact frequency taking into account the Kidd-Fogg formula for the period. This approach based on the Taylor expansion of the frequency about a suitable value converges quickly even for large amplitudes. We believe that this method may be very useful for teaching undergraduate courses on classical mechanics and helping students understand nonlinear oscillations of a simple pendulum.

  18. An approximate JKR solution for a general contact, including rough contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, M.

    2018-05-01

    In the present note, we suggest a simple closed form approximate solution to the adhesive contact problem under the so-called JKR regime. The derivation is based on generalizing the original JKR energetic derivation assuming calculation of the strain energy in adhesiveless contact, and unloading at constant contact area. The underlying assumption is that the contact area distributions are the same as under adhesiveless conditions (for an appropriately increased normal load), so that in general the stress intensity factors will not be exactly equal at all contact edges. The solution is simply that the indentation is δ =δ1 -√{ 2 wA‧ /P″ } where w is surface energy, δ1 is the adhesiveless indentation, A‧ is the first derivative of contact area and P‧‧ the second derivative of the load with respect to δ1. The solution only requires macroscopic quantities, and not very elaborate local distributions, and is exact in many configurations like axisymmetric contacts, but also sinusoidal waves contact and correctly predicts some features of an ideal asperity model used as a test case and not as a real description of a rough contact problem. The solution permits therefore an estimate of the full solution for elastic rough solids with Gaussian multiple scales of roughness, which so far was lacking, using known adhesiveless simple results. The result turns out to depend only on rms amplitude and slopes of the surface, and as in the fractal limit, slopes would grow without limit, tends to the adhesiveless result - although in this limit the JKR model is inappropriate. The solution would also go to adhesiveless result for large rms amplitude of roughness hrms, irrespective of the small scale details, and in agreement with common sense, well known experiments and previous models by the author.

  19. Approximate Solutions of Interactive Dynamic Influence Diagrams Using Model Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Doshi, Prashant; Qiongyu, Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Interactive dynamic influence diagrams (I-DIDs) offer a transparent and semantically clear representation for the sequential decision-making problem over multiple time steps in the presence of other interacting agents. Solving I-DIDs exactly involves knowing the solutions of possible models...

  20. Simple analytical approximation for rotationally inelastic rate constants based on the energy corrected sudden scaling law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N.; Pritchard, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the energy corrected sudden (ECS) scaling law of De Pristo et al. when conbined with the power law assumption for the basis rates k/sub l/→0proportional[l(l+1)]/sup -g/ can accurately fit a wide body of rotational energy transfer data. We develop a simple and accurate approximation to this fitting law, and in addition mathematically show the connection between it and our earlier proposed energy based law which also has been successful in describing both theoretical and experimental data on rotationally inelastic collisions

  1. A simple approximative procedure for taking into account low cycle fatigue loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G; Thomsen, K

    1996-09-01

    In this paper a simple approximative algorithm for taking into account low cycle fatigue loads is presented. Traditionally, the fatigue life consumption of a wind turbine is estimated by considering a number of (independent) load cases and performing a rainflow counting analysis on each of those. These results are then subsequently synthesized into a total load spectrum by performing a weighed sum of the number of individual load case ranges. The fatigue life consumption is thus obtained by applying the Palmgren-Miner rule on the total load spectrum. However, due to the assumption of isolated basic load cases, the above procedure fail to represent the low-frequency contributions related to the transition between those load cases. The procedure to be described in the following aims at taking the fatigue contribution, related to the transitions between the defined load cases, into account in an approximative manner. (au)

  2. Novel surgical performance evaluation approximates Standardized Incidence Ratio with high accuracy at simple means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Itay E; Gabbay, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Excess adverse events may be attributable to poor surgical performance but also to case-mix, which is controlled through the Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR). SIR calculations can be complicated, resource consuming, and unfeasible in some settings. This article suggests a novel method for SIR approximation. In order to evaluate a potential SIR surrogate measure we predefined acceptance criteria. We developed a new measure - Approximate Risk Index (ARI). "Number Needed for Event" (NNE) is the theoretical number of patients needed "to produce" one adverse event. ARI is defined as the quotient of the group of patients needed for no observed events Ge by total patients treated Ga. Our evaluation compared 2500 surgical units and over 3 million heterogeneous risk surgical patients that were induced through a computerized simulation. Surgical unit's data were computed for SIR and ARI to evaluate compliance with the predefined criteria. Approximation was evaluated by correlation analysis and performance prediction capability by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. ARI strongly correlates with SIR (r(2) = 0.87, p 0.9) 87% sensitivity and 91% specificity. ARI provides good approximation of SIR and excellent prediction capability. ARI is simple and cost-effective as it requires thorough risk evaluation of only the adverse events patients. ARI can provide a crucial screening and performance evaluation quality control tool. The ARI method may suit other clinical and epidemiological settings where relatively small fraction of the entire population is affected. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New family of simple solutions of relativistic perfect fluid hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoergo, T.; Nagy, M.I.; Csanad, M.

    2008-01-01

    A new class of accelerating, exact and explicit solutions of relativistic hydrodynamics is found-more than 50 years after the previous similar result, the Landau-Khalatnikov solution. Surprisingly, the new solutions have a simple form, that generalizes the renowned, but accelerationless, Hwa-Bjorken solution. These new solutions take into account the work done by the fluid elements on each other, and work not only in one temporal and one spatial dimensions, but also in arbitrary number of spatial dimensions. They are applied here for an advanced estimation of initial energy density and life-time of the reaction in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. New formulas are also conjectured, that yield further important increase of the initial energy density estimate and the measured life-time of the reaction if the value of the speed of sound is in the realistic range

  4. Multiconfiguration time-dependent self-consistent field approximations in the numerical solution of quantum dynamical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, Z.; Neria, E.; Nitzan, A.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the time-dependent self-consistent field approximation (TDSCF) in the numerical solution of quantum curve crossing and tunneling dynamical problems is investigated. Particular emphasis is given to multiconfiguration TDSCF (MCTDSCF) approximations, which are shown to perform considerably better with only a small increase in computational effort. We investigate a number of simple models in which a 'system' characterized by two electronic potential surfaces evolves while interacting with a 'bath' mode described by an harmonic oscillator, and compare exact numerical solutions to one- and two-configuration TDSCF approximations. We also introduce and investigate a semiclassical approximation in which the 'bath' mode is described by semiclassical wavepackets (one for each electronic state) and show that for all models investigated this scheme works very well in comparison with the fully quantum MCTDSCF approximation. This provides a potentially very useful method to simulate strongly quantum systems coupled to an essentially classical environment. (orig.)

  5. Approximate and analytical solutions for solute transport from an injection well into a single fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.S.; Yates, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    In dealing with problems related to land-based nuclear waste management, a number of analytical and approximate solutions were developed to quantify radionuclide transport through fractures contained in the porous formation. It has been reported that by treating the radioactive decay constant as the appropriate first-order rate constant, these solutions can also be used to study injection problems of a similar nature subject to first-order chemical or biological reactions. The fracture is idealized by a pair of parallel, smooth plates separated by an aperture of constant thickness. Groundwater was assumed to be immobile in the underlying and overlying porous formations due to their low permeabilities. However, the injected radionuclides were able to move from the fracture into the porous matrix by molecular diffusion (the matrix diffusion) due to possible concentration gradients across the interface between the fracture and the porous matrix. Calculation of the transient solutions is not straightforward, and the paper documents a contained Fortran program, which computes the Stehfest inversion, the Airy functions, and gives the concentration distributions in the fracture as well as in the porous matrix for both transient and steady-state cases

  6. Asymptotic shape of solutions to the perturbed simple pendulum problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsutaro Shibata

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the positive solution of the perturbed simple pendulum problem $$ u''(r + frac{N-1}{r}u'(r - g(u(t + lambda sin u(r = 0, $$ with $0 < r < R$, $ u'(0 = u(R = 0$. To understand well the shape of the solution $u_lambda$ when $lambda gg 1$, we establish the leading and second terms of $Vert u_lambdaVert_q$ ($1 le q < infty$ with the estimate of third term as $lambda o infty$. We also obtain the asymptotic formula for $u_lambda'(R$ as $lambda o infty$.

  7. An approximate analytical solution for describing surface runoff and sediment transport over hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wanghai; Wang, Quanjiu; Lin, Henry

    2018-03-01

    Soil and water loss from farmland causes land degradation and water pollution, thus continued efforts are needed to establish mathematical model for quantitative analysis of relevant processes and mechanisms. In this study, an approximate analytical solution has been developed for overland flow model and sediment transport model, offering a simple and effective means to predict overland flow and erosion under natural rainfall conditions. In the overland flow model, the flow regime was considered to be transitional with the value of parameter β (in the kinematic wave model) approximately two. The change rate of unit discharge with distance was assumed to be constant and equal to the runoff rate at the outlet of the plane. The excess rainfall was considered to be constant under uniform rainfall conditions. The overland flow model developed can be further applied to natural rainfall conditions by treating excess rainfall intensity as constant over a small time interval. For the sediment model, the recommended values of the runoff erosion calibration constant (cr) and the splash erosion calibration constant (cf) have been given in this study so that it is easier to use the model. These recommended values are 0.15 and 0.12, respectively. Comparisons with observed results were carried out to validate the proposed analytical solution. The results showed that the approximate analytical solution developed in this paper closely matches the observed data, thus providing an alternative method of predicting runoff generation and sediment yield, and offering a more convenient method of analyzing the quantitative relationships between variables. Furthermore, the model developed in this study can be used as a theoretical basis for developing runoff and erosion control methods.

  8. Analytical approximate solutions for a general class of nonlinear delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Căruntu, Bogdan; Bota, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    We use the polynomial least squares method (PLSM), which allows us to compute analytical approximate polynomial solutions for a very general class of strongly nonlinear delay differential equations. The method is tested by computing approximate solutions for several applications including the pantograph equations and a nonlinear time-delay model from biology. The accuracy of the method is illustrated by a comparison with approximate solutions previously computed using other methods.

  9. Simple Machines Forum, a Solution for Dialogue Optimization between Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura SÎNGIORZAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We developed an instrument which can ensure a quick and easy dialogue between the physicians of the Oncology Institute and family physicians. The platform we chose was Simple Machines Forum (abbreviated as SMF, a free Internet forum (BBS - Bulletin Board System application. The purpose of this article is not to detail the software platform, but to emphasize the facilities and advantages of using this solution in the medical community.

  10. Enhancement accuracy of approximated solutions of the nonlinear singular integral equations of Chew-Low type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhidkov, E.P.; Nguen Mong; Khoromskij, B.N.

    1979-01-01

    The ways of enhancement of the accuracy of approximate solutions of the Chew-Low type equation are considered. Difference schemes are proposed which allow one to obtain solution expansion in degrees of lattice step. On the basis of the expansion by the Richardson method the refinement of approximated solutions is made. Besides, the iteration process is constructed which reduces immediately to the solution of enhanced accuracy. The efficiency of the methods proposed is illustrated by numerical examples

  11. Analytical solutions for the surface response to small amplitude perturbations in boundary data in the shallow-ice-stream approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Gudmundsson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available New analytical solutions describing the effects of small-amplitude perturbations in boundary data on flow in the shallow-ice-stream approximation are presented. These solutions are valid for a non-linear Weertman-type sliding law and for Newtonian ice rheology. Comparison is made with corresponding solutions of the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, and with solutions of the full Stokes equations. The shallow-ice-stream approximation is commonly used to describe large-scale ice stream flow over a weak bed, while the shallow-ice-sheet approximation forms the basis of most current large-scale ice sheet models. It is found that the shallow-ice-stream approximation overestimates the effects of bed topography perturbations on surface profile for wavelengths less than about 5 to 10 ice thicknesses, the exact number depending on values of surface slope and slip ratio. For high slip ratios, the shallow-ice-stream approximation gives a very simple description of the relationship between bed and surface topography, with the corresponding transfer amplitudes being close to unity for any given wavelength. The shallow-ice-stream estimates for the timescales that govern the transient response of ice streams to external perturbations are considerably more accurate than those based on the shallow-ice-sheet approximation. In particular, in contrast to the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, the shallow-ice-stream approximation correctly reproduces the short-wavelength limit of the kinematic phase speed given by solving a linearised version of the full Stokes system. In accordance with the full Stokes solutions, the shallow-ice-sheet approximation predicts surface fields to react weakly to spatial variations in basal slipperiness with wavelengths less than about 10 to 20 ice thicknesses.

  12. Approximate damped oscillatory solutions and error estimates for the perturbed Klein–Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Caier; Zhang, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyze the dynamical behavior of the planar dynamical system corresponding to the perturbed Klein–Gordon equation. • Present the relations between the properties of traveling wave solutions and the perturbation coefficient. • Obtain all explicit expressions of approximate damped oscillatory solutions. • Investigate error estimates between exact damped oscillatory solutions and the approximate solutions and give some numerical simulations. - Abstract: The influence of perturbation on traveling wave solutions of the perturbed Klein–Gordon equation is studied by applying the bifurcation method and qualitative theory of dynamical systems. All possible approximate damped oscillatory solutions for this equation are obtained by using undetermined coefficient method. Error estimates indicate that the approximate solutions are meaningful. The results of numerical simulations also establish our analysis

  13. Biorthogonal Systems Approximating the Solution of the Nonlinear Volterra Integro-Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenguer MI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with obtaining a numerical method in order to approximate the solution of the nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equation. We define, following a fixed-point approach, a sequence of functions which approximate the solution of this type of equation, due to some properties of certain biorthogonal systems for the Banach spaces and .

  14. Approximate solution of the Saha equation - temperature as an explicit function of particle densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Saha equation for a plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium (TE) is approximately solved to give the temperature as an explicit function of population densities. It is shown that the derived expressions for the Saha temperature are valid approximations to the exact solution. An application of the approximate temperature to the calculation of TE plasma parameters is also described. (orig.)

  15. A learning rule for very simple universal approximators consisting of a single layer of perceptrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Peter; Burgsteiner, Harald; Maass, Wolfgang

    2008-06-01

    One may argue that the simplest type of neural networks beyond a single perceptron is an array of several perceptrons in parallel. In spite of their simplicity, such circuits can compute any Boolean function if one views the majority of the binary perceptron outputs as the binary output of the parallel perceptron, and they are universal approximators for arbitrary continuous functions with values in [0,1] if one views the fraction of perceptrons that output 1 as the analog output of the parallel perceptron. Note that in contrast to the familiar model of a "multi-layer perceptron" the parallel perceptron that we consider here has just binary values as outputs of gates on the hidden layer. For a long time one has thought that there exists no competitive learning algorithm for these extremely simple neural networks, which also came to be known as committee machines. It is commonly assumed that one has to replace the hard threshold gates on the hidden layer by sigmoidal gates (or RBF-gates) and that one has to tune the weights on at least two successive layers in order to achieve satisfactory learning results for any class of neural networks that yield universal approximators. We show that this assumption is not true, by exhibiting a simple learning algorithm for parallel perceptrons - the parallel delta rule (p-delta rule). In contrast to backprop for multi-layer perceptrons, the p-delta rule only has to tune a single layer of weights, and it does not require the computation and communication of analog values with high precision. Reduced communication also distinguishes our new learning rule from other learning rules for parallel perceptrons such as MADALINE. Obviously these features make the p-delta rule attractive as a biologically more realistic alternative to backprop in biological neural circuits, but also for implementations in special purpose hardware. We show that the p-delta rule also implements gradient descent-with regard to a suitable error measure

  16. Simple polynomial approximation to modified Bethe formula low-energy electron stopping powers data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taborda, A., E-mail: ana.taborda@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-HOM/SDI/LEDI, BP-17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Desbrée, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-HOM/SDI/LEDI, BP-17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Reis, M.A. [C" 2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, EN10 km139.7, 2685-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-08-01

    A recently published detailed and exhaustive paper on cross-sections for ionisation induced by keV electrons clearly shows that electron phenomena occurring in parallel with X-ray processes may have been dramatically overlooked for many years, mainly when low atomic number species are involved since, in these cases, the fluorescence coefficient is smaller than the Auger yield. An immediate problem is encountered while attempting to tackle the issue. Accounting for electron phenomena requires the knowledge of the stopping power of electrons within, at least, a reasonably small error. Still, the Bethe formula for stopping powers is known to not be valid for electron energies below 30 keV, and its use leads to values far off experimental ones. Recently, a few authors have addressed this problem and both detailed tables of electron stopping powers for various atomic species and attempts to simplify the calculations, have emerged. Nevertheless, its implementation in software routines to efficiently calculate keV electron effects in materials quickly becomes a bit cumbersome. Following a procedure already used to establish efficient methods to calculate ionisation cross-sections by protons and alpha particles, it became clear that a simple polynomial approximation could be set, which allows retrieving the electronic stopping powers with errors of less than 20% for energies above 500 eV and less than 50% for energies between 50 eV and 500 eV. In this work, we present this approximation which, based on just six parameters, allows to recover electron stopping power values that are less than 20% different from recently published experimentally validated tabulated data.

  17. Analytical approaches for the approximate solution of a nonlinear fractional ordinary differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, K C; Ray, P C; Bera, R K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present analysis is to apply the Adomian decomposition method and He's variational method for the approximate analytical solution of a nonlinear ordinary fractional differential equation. The solutions obtained by the above two methods have been numerically evaluated and presented in the form of tables and also compared with the exact solution. It was found that the results obtained by the above two methods are in excellent agreement with the exact solution. Finally, a surface plot of the approximate solutions of the fractional differential equation by the above two methods is drawn for 0≤t≤2 and 1<α≤2.

  18. Quantum theory of atom-surface scattering: exact solutions and evaluation of approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiroli, C.; Levi, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    In a recent article a hard corrugated surface was proposed as a simple model for atom-surface scattering. The problem was not solved exactly, however, but several alternative approximations were considered. Since these three similar, but inequivalent, approximations were proposed, the problem arose to evaluate these approximations in order to choose between them. In the present letter some exact calculations are presented which make this choice rationally possible. (Auth.)

  19. Error Estimates for Approximate Solutions of the Riccati Equation with Real or Complex Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Smoller, Joel

    2010-09-01

    A method is presented for obtaining rigorous error estimates for approximate solutions of the Riccati equation, with real or complex potentials. Our main tool is to derive invariant region estimates for complex solutions of the Riccati equation. We explain the general strategy for applying these estimates and illustrate the method in typical examples, where the approximate solutions are obtained by gluing together WKB and Airy solutions of corresponding one-dimensional Schrödinger equations. Our method is motivated by, and has applications to, the analysis of linear wave equations in the geometry of a rotating black hole.

  20. Logical gaps in the approximate solutions of the social learning game and an exact solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenjie; Wang, Xin; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2014-01-01

    After the social learning models were proposed, finding solutions to the games becomes a well-defined mathematical question. However, almost all papers on the games and their applications are based on solutions built either upon an ad-hoc argument or a twisted Bayesian analysis of the games. Here, we present logical gaps in those solutions and offer an exact solution of our own. We also introduce a minor extension to the original game so that not only logical differences but also differences in action outcomes among those solutions become visible.

  1. Approximate Analytic Solutions for the Two-Phase Stefan Problem Using the Adomian Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Adomian decomposition method (ADM is applied to solve a two-phase Stefan problem that describes the pure metal solidification process. In contrast to traditional analytical methods, ADM avoids complex mathematical derivations and does not require coordinate transformation for elimination of the unknown moving boundary. Based on polynomial approximations for some known and unknown boundary functions, approximate analytic solutions for the model with undetermined coefficients are obtained using ADM. Substitution of these expressions into other equations and boundary conditions of the model generates some function identities with the undetermined coefficients. By determining these coefficients, approximate analytic solutions for the model are obtained. A concrete example of the solution shows that this method can easily be implemented in MATLAB and has a fast convergence rate. This is an efficient method for finding approximate analytic solutions for the Stefan and the inverse Stefan problems.

  2. Solutions stability of one-dimensional parametric superconducting magnetic levitation model analysis by the first approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets', D.V.

    2009-01-01

    By the first approximation analyzing stability conditions of unperturbed solution of one-dimensional dynamic model with magnetic interaction between two superconducting rings obtained. The stability region in the frozen magnetic flux parameters space was constructed.

  3. Approximate analytical solutions of Klein-Gordon equation with Hulthen potentials for nonzero angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changyuan; Sun Dongsheng; Lu Falin

    2007-01-01

    Using the exponential function transformation approach along with an approximation for the centrifugal potential, the radial Klein-Gordon equation with the vector and scalar Hulthen potential is transformed to a hypergeometric differential equation. The approximate analytical solutions of bound states are attained for different l. The analytical energy equation and the unnormalized radial wave functions expressed in terms of hypergeometric polynomials are given

  4. Any order approximate analytical solution of the nonlinear Volterra's integral equation for accelerator dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunliang; Xie Xi; Chen Yinbao

    1991-01-01

    The universal nonlinear dynamic system equation is equivalent to its nonlinear Volterra's integral equation, and any order approximate analytical solution of the nonlinear Volterra's integral equation is obtained by exact analytical method, thus giving another derivation procedure as well as another computation algorithm for the solution of the universal nonlinear dynamic system equation

  5. Approximate analytical solution to the Boussinesq equation with a sloping water-land boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuehao; Jiang, Qinghui; Zhou, Chuangbing

    2016-04-01

    An approximate solution is presented to the 1-D Boussinesq equation (BEQ) characterizing transient groundwater flow in an unconfined aquifer subject to a constant water variation at the sloping water-land boundary. The flow equation is decomposed to a linearized BEQ and a head correction equation. The linearized BEQ is solved using a Laplace transform. By means of the frozen-coefficient technique and Gauss function method, the approximate solution for the head correction equation can be obtained, which is further simplified to a closed-form expression under the condition of local energy equilibrium. The solutions of the linearized and head correction equations are discussed from physical concepts. Especially for the head correction equation, the well posedness of the approximate solution obtained by the frozen-coefficient method is verified to demonstrate its boundedness, which can be further embodied as the upper and lower error bounds to the exact solution of the head correction by statistical analysis. The advantage of this approximate solution is in its simplicity while preserving the inherent nonlinearity of the physical phenomenon. Comparisons between the analytical and numerical solutions of the BEQ validate that the approximation method can achieve desirable precisions, even in the cases with strong nonlinearity. The proposed approximate solution is applied to various hydrological problems, in which the algebraic expressions that quantify the water flow processes are derived from its basic solutions. The results are useful for the quantification of stream-aquifer exchange flow rates, aquifer response due to the sudden reservoir release, bank storage and depletion, and front position and propagation speed.

  6. Analytic Approximation of the Solutions of Stochastic Differential Delay Equations with Poisson Jump and Markovian Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with the stochastic differential delay equations with Poisson jump and Markovian switching (SDDEsPJMSs. Most SDDEsPJMSs cannot be solved explicitly as stochastic differential equations. Therefore, numerical solutions have become an important issue in the study of SDDEsPJMSs. The key contribution of this paper is to investigate the strong convergence between the true solutions and the numerical solutions to SDDEsPJMSs when the drift and diffusion coefficients are Taylor approximations.

  7. Enhanced Multistage Homotopy Perturbation Method: Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olvera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new approach called the enhanced multistage homotopy perturbation method (EMHPM that is based on the homotopy perturbation method (HPM and the usage of time subintervals to find the approximate solution of differential equations with strong nonlinearities. We also study the convergence of our proposed EMHPM approach based on the value of the control parameter h by following the homotopy analysis method (HAM. At the end of the paper, we compare the derived EMHPM approximate solutions of some nonlinear physical systems with their corresponding numerical integration solutions obtained by using the classical fourth order Runge-Kutta method via the amplitude-time response curves.

  8. Approximate analytical solution of diffusion equation with fractional time derivative using optimal homotopy analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, optimal homotopy-analysis method is used to obtain approximate analytic solution of the time-fractional diffusion equation with a given initial condition. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Caputo sense. Unlike usual Homotopy analysis method, this method contains at the most three convergence control parameters which describe the faster convergence of the solution. Effects of parameters on the convergence of the approximate series solution by minimizing the averaged residual error with the proper choices of parameters are calculated numerically and presented through graphs and tables for different particular cases.

  9. Solution of the Chew-Low equations in the quadratic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.; Zharkov, A.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    Within the framework of the iteration scheme for constructing the general solution of the Chew-Low equations as suggested earlier the second order power contributions are found. In contrast to the linear approximation obtained before the quadratic approximation includes an infinite number of poles on the complex plane of the uniformizing variable w. It is shown that taking into account the second order corrections in the general solution allows us to select the class of solutions possessing the Born pole at w=0. The most cumbersome part of analytical computations has been carried out by computer using the algebraic system REDUCE-2

  10. Simple and accurate solution for convective-radiative fin with temperature dependent thermal conductivity using double optimal linearization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouaziz, M.N.; Aziz, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    A novel concept of double optimal linearization is introduced and used to obtain a simple and accurate solution for the temperature distribution in a straight rectangular convective-radiative fin with temperature dependent thermal conductivity. The solution is built from the classical solution for a pure convection fin of constant thermal conductivity which appears in terms of hyperbolic functions. When compared with the direct numerical solution, the double optimally linearized solution is found to be accurate within 4% for a range of radiation-conduction and thermal conductivity parameters that are likely to be encountered in practice. The present solution is simple and offers superior accuracy compared with the fairly complex approximate solutions based on the homotopy perturbation method, variational iteration method, and the double series regular perturbation method. The fin efficiency expression resembles the classical result for the constant thermal conductivity convecting fin. The present results are easily usable by the practicing engineers in their thermal design and analysis work involving fins.

  11. Approximate analytical solution of two-dimensional multigroup P-3 equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.; Milosevic, M.

    1981-01-01

    Iterative solution of multigroup spherical harmonics equations reduces, in the P-3 approximation and in two-dimensional geometry, to a problem of solving an inhomogeneous system of eight ordinary first order differential equations. With appropriate boundary conditions, these equations have to be solved for each energy group and in each iteration step. The general solution of the corresponding homogeneous system of equations is known in analytical form. The present paper shows how the right-hand side of the system can be approximated in order to derive a particular solution and thus an approximate analytical expression for the general solution of the inhomogeneous system. This combined analytical-numerical approach was shown to have certain advantages compared to the finite-difference method or the Lie-series expansion method, which have been used to solve similar problems. (orig./RW) [de

  12. Approximate analytical solution of two-dimensional multigroup P-3 equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.; Milosevic, M.

    1981-01-01

    Iterative solution of multigroup spherical harmonics equations reduces, in the P-3 approximation and in two-dimensional geometry, to a problem of solving an inhomogeneous system of eight ordinary first order differential equations. With appropriate boundary conditions, these equations have to be solved for each energy group and in each iteration step. The general solution of the corresponding homogeneous system of equations is known in analytical form. The present paper shows how the right-hand side of the system can be approximated in order to derive a particular solution and thus an approximate analytical expression for the general solution of the inhomogeneous system. This combined analytical-numerical approach was shown to have certain advantages compared to the finite-difference method or the Lie-series expansion method, which have been used to solve similar problems. (author)

  13. A simple approximation to the bivariate normal distribution with large correlation coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The bivariate normal distribution function is approximated with emphasis on situations where the correlation coefficient is large. The high accuracy of the approximation is illustrated by numerical examples. Moreover, exact upper and lower bounds are presented as well as asymptotic results on the

  14. Multiconfiguration time-dependent self-consistent field approximations in the numerical solution of quantum dynamical problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, Z.; Neria, E.; Nitzan, A. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Chemistry)

    1991-02-01

    The use of the time-dependent self-consistent field approximation (TDSCF) in the numerical solution of quantum curve crossing and tunneling dynamical problems is investigated. Particular emphasis is given to multiconfiguration TDSCF (MCTDSCF) approximations, which are shown to perform considerably better with only a small increase in computational effort. We investigate a number of simple models in which a 'system' characterized by two electronic potential surfaces evolves while interacting with a 'bath' mode described by an harmonic oscillator, and compare exact numerical solutions to one- and two-configuration TDSCF approximations. We also introduce and investigate a semiclassical approximation in which the 'bath' mode is described by semiclassical wavepackets (one for each electronic state) and show that for all models investigated this scheme works very well in comparison with the fully quantum MCTDSCF approximation. This provides a potentially very useful method to simulate strongly quantum systems coupled to an essentially classical environment. (orig.).

  15. The Pathwise Numerical Approximation of Stationary Solutions of Semilinear Stochastic Evolution Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraballo, T.; Kloeden, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Under a one-sided dissipative Lipschitz condition on its drift, a stochastic evolution equation with additive noise of the reaction-diffusion type is shown to have a unique stochastic stationary solution which pathwise attracts all other solutions. A similar situation holds for each Galerkin approximation and each implicit Euler scheme applied to these Galerkin approximations. Moreover, the stationary solution of the Euler scheme converges pathwise to that of the Galerkin system as the stepsize tends to zero and the stationary solutions of the Galerkin systems converge pathwise to that of the evolution equation as the dimension increases. The analysis is carried out on random partial and ordinary differential equations obtained from their stochastic counterparts by subtraction of appropriate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stationary solutions

  16. Loglinear Approximate Solutions to Real-Business-Cycle Models: Some Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sau-Him Paul; Ng, Philip Hoi-Tak

    2007-01-01

    Following the analytical approach suggested in Campbell, the authors consider a baseline real-business-cycle (RBC) model with endogenous labor supply. They observe that the coefficients in the loglinear approximation of the dynamic equations characterizing the equilibrium are related to the fundamental parameters in a relatively simple manner.…

  17. A Method for Generating Approximate Similarity Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard application of similarity method to find solutions of PDEs mostly results in reduction to ODEs which are not easily integrable in terms of elementary or tabulated functions. Such situations usually demand solving reduced ODEs numerically. However, there are no systematic procedures available to utilize these numerical solutions of reduced ODE to obtain the solution of original PDE. A practical and tractable approach is proposed to deal with such situations and is applied to obtain approximate similarity solutions to different cases of an initial-boundary value problem of unsteady gas flow through a semi-infinite porous medium.

  18. Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations by Modified q-Homotopy Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheed N. Huseen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified q-homotopy analysis method (mq-HAM was proposed for solving nth-order nonlinear differential equations. This method improves the convergence of the series solution in the nHAM which was proposed in (see Hassan and El-Tawil 2011, 2012. The proposed method provides an approximate solution by rewriting the nth-order nonlinear differential equation in the form of n first-order differential equations. The solution of these n differential equations is obtained as a power series solution. This scheme is tested on two nonlinear exactly solvable differential equations. The results demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the algorithm developed.

  19. Strong convergence and convergence rates of approximating solutions for algebraic Riccati equations in Hilbert spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazufumi

    1987-01-01

    The linear quadratic optimal control problem on infinite time interval for linear time-invariant systems defined on Hilbert spaces is considered. The optimal control is given by a feedback form in terms of solution pi to the associated algebraic Riccati equation (ARE). A Ritz type approximation is used to obtain a sequence pi sup N of finite dimensional approximations of the solution to ARE. A sufficient condition that shows pi sup N converges strongly to pi is obtained. Under this condition, a formula is derived which can be used to obtain a rate of convergence of pi sup N to pi. The results of the Galerkin approximation is demonstrated and applied for parabolic systems and the averaging approximation for hereditary differential systems.

  20. Approximate solution of generalized Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs system via homotopy perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Juhong [School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Shaoguan Univ., Guangdong (China); Dept. of Information Engineering, Coll. of Lishui Professional Tech., Zhejiang (China); Zheng Chunlong [School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Shaoguan Univ., Guangdong (China); Shanghai Inst. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Univ., SH (China)

    2010-04-15

    Using the homotopy perturbation method, a class of nonlinear generalized Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs systems (GGLH) is considered. Firstly, by introducing a homotopic transformation, the nonlinear problem is changed into a system of linear equations. Secondly, by selecting a suitable initial approximation, the approximate solution with arbitrary degree accuracy to the generalized Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs system is derived. Finally, another type of homotopic transformation to the generalized Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs system reported in previous literature is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  1. An explicit approximate solution to the Duffing-harmonic oscillator by a cubication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Mendez, D.I.; Fernandez, E.; Marini, S.; Pascual, I.

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinear oscillations of a Duffing-harmonic oscillator are investigated by an approximated method based on the 'cubication' of the initial nonlinear differential equation. In this cubication method the restoring force is expanded in Chebyshev polynomials and the original nonlinear differential equation is approximated by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain explicit approximate formulas for the frequency and the solution as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind and the Jacobi elliptic function, respectively. These explicit formulas are valid for all values of the initial amplitude and we conclude this cubication method works very well for the whole range of initial amplitudes. Excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones is demonstrated and discussed and the relative error for the approximate frequency is as low as 0.071%. Unlike other approximate methods applied to this oscillator, which are not capable to reproduce exactly the behaviour of the approximate frequency when A tends to zero, the cubication method used in this Letter predicts exactly the behaviour of the approximate frequency not only when A tends to infinity, but also when A tends to zero. Finally, a closed-form expression for the approximate frequency is obtained in terms of elementary functions. To do this, the relationship between the complete elliptic integral of the first kind and the arithmetic-geometric mean as well as Legendre's formula to approximately obtain this mean are used.

  2. Approximate solution to the Kolmogorov equation for a fission chain-reacting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, L.; McSwine, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    An approximate solution has been obtained for the Kolmogorov equation describing a fission chain-reacting system. The method considers the population of neutrons, delayed-neutron precursors, and detector counts. The effect of the detector is separated from the statistics of the chain reaction by a weak coupling assumption that predicts that the detector responds to the average rather than to the instantaneous neutron population. An approximate solution to the remaining equation, involving the populations of neutrons and precursors, predicts a negative-binomial behaviour for the neutron probability distribution

  3. Determinant formula for solutions of the Garnier system and Padé approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    It is known that a class of special solutions of the Garnier system is expressed by a determinant formula in terms of a certain specialization of the Schur functions with rectangular-shape partitions. Y Yamada showed that such a determinant formula for rational solutions of Riccati type can be derived by making use of the Padé approximation. In this paper, we extend Yamada’s method. We derive a determinant formula for transcendental solutions of Riccati type by showing that the Padé approximation can be utilized in order to construct a Schlesinger transformation between isomonodromic deformations. In addition, we show that this method is effective in generic solutions of the Garnier system and derive a determinant structure of them. (paper)

  4. A simple analytic approximation to the Rayleigh-Bénard stability threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Bénard linear stability problem is solved by means of a Fourier series expansion. It is found that truncating the series to just the first term gives an excellent explicit approximation to the marginal stability relation between the Rayleigh number and the wave number of the

  5. Simple and Accurate Analytical Solutions of the Electrostatically Actuated Curled Beam Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-08-17

    We present analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. We use a continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions for two commonly observed deformed beams configurations: the curled and tilted configurations. The derived analytical formulas are validated by comparing their results to experimental data in the literature and numerical results of a multi-mode reduced order model. The derived expressions do not involve any complicated integrals or complex terms and can be conveniently used by designers for quick, yet accurate, estimations. The formulas are found to yield accurate results for most commonly encountered microbeams of initial tip deflections of few microns. For largely deformed beams, we found that these formulas yield less accurate results due to the limitations of the single-mode approximations they are based on. In such cases, multi-mode reduced order models need to be utilized.

  6. Application of ADM Using Laplace Transform to Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Deformation for Cantilever Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchata Theinchai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate semianalytical solutions of Euler-Bernoulli beam equation by using Laplace transform and Adomian decomposition method (LADM. The deformation of a uniform flexible cantilever beam is formulated to initial value problems. We separate the problems into 2 cases: integer order for small deformation and fractional order for large deformation. The numerical results show the approximated solutions of deflection curve, moment diagram, and shear diagram of the presented method.

  7. Application of ADM Using Laplace Transform to Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Deformation for Cantilever Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Theinchai, Ratchata; Chankan, Siriwan; Yukunthorn, Weera

    2016-01-01

    We investigate semianalytical solutions of Euler-Bernoulli beam equation by using Laplace transform and Adomian decomposition method (LADM). The deformation of a uniform flexible cantilever beam is formulated to initial value problems. We separate the problems into 2 cases: integer order for small deformation and fractional order for large deformation. The numerical results show the approximated solutions of deflection curve, moment diagram, and shear diagram of the presented method.

  8. A multi scale approximation solution for the time dependent Boltzmann-transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, B.

    2004-03-01

    The basis of all transient simulations for nuclear reactor cores is the reliable calculation of the power production. The local power distribution is generally calculated by solving the space, time, energy and angle dependent neutron transport equation known as Boltzmann equation. The computation of exact solutions of the Boltzmann equation is very time consuming. For practical numerical simulations approximated solutions are usually unavoidable. The objective of this work is development of an effective multi scale approximation solution for the Boltzmann equation. Most of the existing methods are based on separation of space and time. The new suggested method is performed without space-time separation. This effective approximation solution is developed on the basis of an expansion for the time derivative of different approximations to the Boltzmann equation. The method of multiple scale expansion is used for the expansion of the time derivative, because the problem of the stiff time behaviour can't be expressed by standard expansion methods. This multiple scale expansion is used in this work to develop approximation solutions for different approximations of the Boltzmann equation, starting from the expansion of the point kinetics equations. The resulting analytic functions are used for testing the applicability and accuracy of the multiple scale expansion method for an approximation solution with 2 delayed neutron groups. The results are tested versus the exact analytical results for the point kinetics equations. Very good agreement between both solutions is obtained. The validity of the solution with 2 delayed neutron groups to approximate the behaviour of the system with 6 delayed neutron groups is demonstrated in an additional analysis. A strategy for a solution with 4 delayed neutron groups is described. A multiple scale expansion is performed for the space-time dependent diffusion equation for one homogenized cell with 2 delayed neutron groups. The result is

  9. On the independent particle approximation of Gauge theories: a simple example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, B.E.

    1992-08-01

    In this work, the independent particle model formulation is studied as a mean-field approximation of gauge theories using the path integral approach in the framework of quantum electrodynamics in 1+1 dimensions. It is shown how a mean-field approximation scheme can be applied to fit an effective potential to an independent particle model, building a straightforward relation between the model and the associated gauge field theory. An example is made considering the problem of massive Dirac fermions on a line, the so called massive Schwinger model. An interesting result is found, indicating a behaviour of screening of the charges in the relativistic limit of strong coupling. A forthcoming application of the method developed to confining potentials in independent quark models for QCD is in view and is briefly discussed. (author)

  10. Fall with linear drag and Wien's displacement law: approximate solution and Lambert function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    We present an approximate solution for the downward time of travel in the case of a mass falling with a linear drag force. We show how a quasi-analytical solution implying the Lambert function can be found. We also show that solving the previous problem is equivalent to the search for Wien's displacement law. These results can be of interest for undergraduate students, as they show that some transcendental equations found in physics may be solved without purely numerical methods. Moreover, as will be seen in the case of Wien's displacement law, solutions based on series expansion can be very accurate even with few terms. (paper)

  11. Numerical solution of the ekpyrotic scenario in the moduli space approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, Torquil MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    A numerical solution to the equations of motion for the ekpyrotic bulk brane scenario in the moduli space approximation is presented. The visible universe brane has positive tension, and we use a potential that goes to zero exponentially at large distance, and also goes to zero at small distance. In the case considered, no bulk brane, visible brane collision occurs in the solution. This property and the general behavior of the solution is qualitatively the same when the visible brane tension is negative, and for many different parameter choices

  12. A uniformly valid approximation algorithm for nonlinear ordinary singular perturbation problems with boundary layer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengizci, Süleyman; Atay, Mehmet Tarık; Eryılmaz, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with two-point boundary value problems for singularly perturbed nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The case when the solution only has one boundary layer is examined. An efficient method so called Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM) is used to obtain uniformly valid approximations to this kind of solutions. Four test problems are considered to check the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method. The numerical results are found in good agreement with exact and existing solutions in literature. The results confirm that SCEM has a superiority over other existing methods in terms of easy-applicability and effectiveness.

  13. Approximate Solution of Dam-break Flow of Low Viscosity Bingham Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puay, How Tion; Hosoda, Takashi

    In this study, we investigate the characteristics of dam-break flow of low viscosity Bingham fluid by deriving an approximate solution for the time development of the front position and depth at the origin of the flow. The asymptotic solutions representing the characteristic of Bingham fluid in the limit of low plastic viscosity are verified with a depth-averaged numerical model. Numerical simulations showed that with the decrease of plastic viscosity, the time development of the front position and depth at the origin approach to the theoretical asymptotic solution.

  14. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  15. The KASY synthesis programme for the approximative solution of the 3-dimensional neutron diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckel, G.; Wouters, R. de; Pilate, S.

    1977-01-01

    The synthesis code KASY for an approximate solution of the three-dimensional neutron diffusion equation is described; the state of the art as well as envisaged program extensions and the application to tasks from the field of reactor designing are dealt with. (RW) [de

  16. Solution of multigroup diffusion equations in cylindrical configuration by local polynomial approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakab, J.

    1979-05-01

    Local approximations of neutron flux density by 2nd degree polynomials are used in calculating light water reactors. The calculations include spatial kinetics tasks for the models of two- and three-dimensional reactors in the Cartesian geometry. The resulting linear algebraic equations are considered to be formally identical to the results of the differential method of diffusion equation solution. (H.S.)

  17. The neutron's Dirac-equation: Its rigorous solution at slab-like magnetic fields, non-relativistic approximation, energy spectra and statistical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongde.

    1987-03-01

    In this paper, the neutron Dirac-equation is presented. After decoupling it into two equations of the simple spinors, the rigorous solution of this equation is obtained in the case of slab-like uniform magnetic fields at perpendicular incidence. At non-relativistic approximation and first order approximation of weak field (NRWFA), our results have included all results that have been obtained in references for this case up to now. The corresponding transformations of the neutron's spin vectors are given. The single particle spectrum and its approximate expression are obtained. The characteristics of quantum statistics with the approximate expression of energy spectrum are studied. (author). 15 refs

  18. About the method of approximation of a simple closed plane curve with a sharp edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenyy A.S.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available it was noted in the article, that initially the problem of interpolation of the simple plane curve arose in the problem of simulation of subsonic flow around a body with the subsequent calculation of the velocity potential using the vortex panel method. However, as it turned out, the practical importance of this method is much wider. This algorithm can be successfully applied in any task that requires a discrete set of points which describe an arbitrary curve: potential function method, flow around an airfoil with the trailing edge (airfoil, liquid drop, etc., analytic expression, which is very difficult to obtain, creation of the font and logo and in some tasks of architecture and garment industry.

  19. Symbolic computation of analytic approximate solutions for nonlinear fractional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yezhi; Liu, Yinping; Li, Zhibin

    2013-01-01

    The Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is one of the most effective methods to construct analytic approximate solutions for nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, based on the new definition of the Adomian polynomials, Rach (2008) [22], the Adomian decomposition method and the Padé approximants technique, a new algorithm is proposed to construct analytic approximate solutions for nonlinear fractional differential equations with initial or boundary conditions. Furthermore, a MAPLE software package is developed to implement this new algorithm, which is user-friendly and efficient. One only needs to input the system equation, initial or boundary conditions and several necessary parameters, then our package will automatically deliver the analytic approximate solutions within a few seconds. Several different types of examples are given to illustrate the scope and demonstrate the validity of our package, especially for non-smooth initial value problems. Our package provides a helpful and easy-to-use tool in science and engineering simulations. Program summaryProgram title: ADMP Catalogue identifier: AENE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12011 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 575551 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MAPLE R15. Computer: PCs. Operating system: Windows XP/7. RAM: 2 Gbytes Classification: 4.3. Nature of problem: Constructing analytic approximate solutions of nonlinear fractional differential equations with initial or boundary conditions. Non-smooth initial value problems can be solved by this program. Solution method: Based on the new definition of the Adomian polynomials [1], the Adomian decomposition method and the Pad

  20. Approximate solution of the transport equation by methods of Galerkin type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaranta, J.

    1977-01-01

    Questions of the existence, uniqueness, and convergence of approximate solutions of transport equations by methods of the Galerkin type (where trial and weighting functions are the same) are discussed. The results presented do not exclude the infinite-dimensional case. Two strategies can be followed in the variational approximation of the transport operator: one proceeds from the original form of the transport equation, while the other is based on the partially symmetrized equation. Both principles are discussed in this paper. The transport equation is assumed in a discretized multigroup form

  1. Born approximation to a perturbative numerical method for the solution of the Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Gh.

    1978-05-01

    A perturbative numerical (PN) method is given for the solution of a regular one-dimensional Cauchy problem arising from the Schroedinger equation. The present method uses a step function approximation for the potential. Global, free of scaling difficulty, forward and backward PN algorithms are derived within first order perturbation theory (Born approximation). A rigorous analysis of the local truncation errors is performed. This shows that the order of accuracy of the method is equal to four. In between the mesh points, the global formula for the wavefunction is accurate within O(h 4 ), while that for the first order derivative is accurate within O(h 3 ). (author)

  2. Some approximating formulae to the solution of an abstract evolution problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngongo, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    We consider discrete semigroups of operators associated with the first two primary sub-families of A-acceptable Norsett's rational approximations to e q , S 1 (γ;q) and S 2 (γ;q) with q is an element of C and γ a real parameter, and construct approximating formulae to the solution of an abstract evolution problem. The study of convergence is reduced to exploiting previous fundamental results of the author for this class of semigroups and this results, for associated numerical schemes, in a convergence independent of the regularity of the data of the problem. (author). 17 refs, 3 tabs

  3. Approximate solutions to the deep bed filtration problem; Solucoes aproximadas para o problema de deposicao profunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julio M.; Marchesin, Dan [Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada (IMPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The deep bed filtration problem is closely related to secondary oil recovery. In this work we derive explicit solutions to two filtration problems. The filtration function varies non-linearly with the Darcy speed and linearly with the deposition, but very little. The first solution is built by the method of perturbations and although it is only an approximation it is available in multiple symmetries, including the radial geometry used in the field. The main motivation is the validation of numerical methods. The second solution is exact but it is only available in the linear symmetry, i.e., laboratory geometry. We use it to verify the accuracy of the first solution, but it can also be used to simulate the deposition in experiments. (author)

  4. Criteria for the reliability of numerical approximations to the solution of fluid flow problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foias, C.

    1986-01-01

    The numerical approximation of the solutions of fluid flows models is a difficult problem in many cases of energy research. In all numerical methods implementable on digital computers, a basic question is if the number N of elements (Galerkin modes, finite-difference cells, finite-elements, etc.) is sufficient to describe the long time behavior of the exact solutions. It was shown using several approaches that some of the estimates based on physical intuition of N are rigorously valid under very general conditions and follow directly from the mathematical theory of the Navier-Stokes equations. Among the mathematical approaches to these estimates, the most promising (which can be and was already applied to many other dissipative partial differential systems) consists in giving upper estimates to the fractal dimension of the attractor associated to one (or all) solution(s) of the respective partial differential equations. 56 refs

  5. Solution of the schrodinger equation in one dimension by simple method for a simple step potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertik, H.

    2005-01-01

    The coefficients of the transmission and reflection for the simple-step barrier potential were calculated by a simple method. Their values were entirely different from those often encountered in the literature. Especially in the case that the total energy is equal to the barrier potential, the value of 0,20 for the reflection coefficient was obtained whereas this is zero in the literature. This may be considered as an interesting point

  6. Higher order analytical approximate solutions to the nonlinear pendulum by He's homotopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A; Pascual, C; Alvarez, M L; Mendez, D I; Yebra, M S; Hernandez, A

    2009-01-01

    A modified He's homotopy perturbation method is used to calculate the periodic solutions of a nonlinear pendulum. The method has been modified by truncating the infinite series corresponding to the first-order approximate solution and substituting a finite number of terms in the second-order linear differential equation. As can be seen, the modified homotopy perturbation method works very well for high values of the initial amplitude. Excellent agreement of the analytical approximate period with the exact period has been demonstrated not only for small but also for large amplitudes A (the relative error is less than 1% for A < 152 deg.). Comparison of the result obtained using this method with the exact ones reveals that this modified method is very effective and convenient.

  7. Solutions to the linearized Navier-Stokes equations for channel flow via the WKB approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    Progress on determining semi-analytical solutions to the linearized Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible channel flow, laminar and turbulent, is reported. Use of the WKB approximation yields, e.g., solutions to initial-value problem for the inviscid Orr-Sommerfeld equation in terms of the Bessel functions J+ 1 / 3 ,J- 1 / 3 ,J1 , and Y1 and their modified counterparts for any given wave speed c = ω /kx and k⊥ ,(k⊥2 =kx2 +kz2) . Of particular note to be discussed is a sequence i = 1 , 2 , . . . of homogeneous inviscid solutions with complex k⊥ i for each speed c, (0 < c <=Umax), in the downstream direction. These solutions for the velocity component normal to the wall v are localized in the plane parallel to the wall. In addition, for limited range of negative c, (- c * <= c <= 0) , we have found upstream-traveling homogeneous solutions with real k⊥(c) . In both cases the solutions for v serve as a source for corresponding solutions to the inviscid Squire equation for the vorticity component normal to the wall ωy.

  8. Solución aproximada de sistemas diferenciales mixtos Approximated solution of differentials mixed systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge I. Castaño–Bedoya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone encontrar una solución aproximada para problemas de valor en la frontera y problemas de valor inicial de un sistema diferencial utilizando el método de los desarrollos de Fer.In this paper we propose to find an approximate solution to boundary value problems and initial value differential system problems using the method of Fer developments.

  9. Strong pairing approximation in comparison with the exact solutions to the pairing Hamiltonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunyov A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the Strong Pairing Approximation (SPA as a method with the exact particle number conservation are compared with those of the quasiparticle method (QM. It is shown that SPA comes to the same equations as QM for the gap parameter, chemical potential and one- and two-quasiparticle states. Calculations are performed for 14864Gd84 as an example, and compared with the exact solutions to the pairing Hamiltonian.

  10. Using trees to compute approximate solutions to ordinary differential equations exactly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Some recent work is reviewed which relates families of trees to symbolic algorithms for the exact computation of series which approximate solutions of ordinary differential equations. It turns out that the vector space whose basis is the set of finite, rooted trees carries a natural multiplication related to the composition of differential operators, making the space of trees an algebra. This algebraic structure can be exploited to yield a variety of algorithms for manipulating vector fields and the series and algebras they generate.

  11. Systems-based decomposition schemes for the approximate solution of multi-term fractional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Neville J.; Connolly, Joseph A.

    2009-07-01

    We give a comparison of the efficiency of three alternative decomposition schemes for the approximate solution of multi-term fractional differential equations using the Caputo form of the fractional derivative. The schemes we compare are based on conversion of the original problem into a system of equations. We review alternative approaches and consider how the most appropriate numerical scheme may be chosen to solve a particular equation.

  12. Solutions to aggregation-diffusion equations with nonlinear mobility constructed via a deterministic particle approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Fagioli, Simone; Radici, Emanuela

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the existence of weak type solutions for a class of aggregation-diffusion PDEs with nonlinear mobility obtained as large particle limit of a suitable nonlocal version of the follow-the-leader scheme, which is interpreted as the discrete Lagrangian approximation of the target continuity equation. We restrict the analysis to nonnegative initial data in $L^{\\infty} \\cap BV$ away from vacuum and supported in a closed interval with zero-velocity boundary conditions. The main novelti...

  13. Numerical Approximations to the Solution of Ray Tracing through the Crystalline Lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, A.; Gökdoğan, A.; Merdan, M.; Lakshminarayanan, V.

    2012-01-01

    An approximate analytical solution in the form of a rapidly convergent series for tracing light rays through an inhomogeneous graded index medium is developed, using the multi-step differential transform method based on the classical differential transformation method. Numerical results are compared to those obtained by the fourth-order Runge—Kutta method to illustrate the precision and effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are given in explicit and graphical forms. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  14. An approximate stationary solution for multi-allele neutral diffusion with low mutation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Conrad J; Tang, Yurong

    2016-12-01

    We address the problem of determining the stationary distribution of the multi-allelic, neutral-evolution Wright-Fisher model in the diffusion limit. A full solution to this problem for an arbitrary K×K mutation rate matrix involves solving for the stationary solution of a forward Kolmogorov equation over a (K-1)-dimensional simplex, and remains intractable. In most practical situations mutations rates are slow on the scale of the diffusion limit and the solution is heavily concentrated on the corners and edges of the simplex. In this paper we present a practical approximate solution for slow mutation rates in the form of a set of line densities along the edges of the simplex. The method of solution relies on parameterising the general non-reversible rate matrix as the sum of a reversible part and a set of (K-1)(K-2)/2 independent terms corresponding to fluxes of probability along closed paths around faces of the simplex. The solution is potentially a first step in estimating non-reversible evolutionary rate matrices from observed allele frequency spectra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Contribution of the ''simple solutions'' concept to estimate density of actinides concentrated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorel, C.; Moisy, Ph.; Dinh, B.; Blanc, P.

    2000-01-01

    In order to calculate criticality parameters of nuclear fuel solution systems, number density of nuclides are needed and they are generally estimated from density equations. Most of the relations allowing the calculation of the density of aqueous solutions containing the electrolytes HNO 3 -UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 -Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , usually called 'nitrate dilution laws' are strictly empirical. They are obtained from a fit of assumed polynomial expressions on experimental density data. Out of their interpolation range, such mathematical expressions show discrepancies between calculated and experimental data appearing in the high concentrations range. In this study, a physico-chemical approach based on the isopiestic mixtures rule is suggested. The behaviour followed by these mixtures was first observed in 1936 by Zdanovskii and expressed as: 'Binary solutions (i.e. one electrolyte in water) having a same water activity are mixed without variation of this water activity value'. With regards to this behaviour, a set of basic thermodynamic expressions has been pointed out by Ryazanov and Vdovenko in 1965 concerning enthalpy, entropy, volume of mixtures, activity and osmotic coefficient of the components. In particular, a very simple relation for the density is obtained from the volume mixture expression depending on only two physico-chemical variables: i) concentration of each component in the mixture and in their respectively binary solutions having the same water activity as the mixture and ii), density of each component respectively in the binary solution having the same water activity as the mixture. Therefore, the calculation needs the knowledge of binary data (water activity, density and concentration) of each component at the same temperature as the mixture. Such experimental data are largely published in the literature and are available for nitric acid and uranyl nitrate. Nevertheless, nitric acid binary data show large discrepancies between the authors and need to be

  16. Cleaning UF membranes with simple and formulated solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levitsky, I.; Duek, A.; Naim, R.; Arkhangelsky, E.; Gitis, V.

    2012-01-01

    The ultrafiltration membranes fouled by proteins are typically cleaned by consecutive soaking in alkali, surfactant and oxidizing solutions. We combined all three chemicals into a formulated cleaning agent and examined its efficiency to restore the water flux without damaging the membrane or

  17. Phase diagram of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model on the simple cubic lattice calculated by the linear chain approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albayrak, Erhan; Keskin, Mustafa

    2000-01-01

    The linear chain approximation is used to study the temperature dependence of the order parameters and the phase diagrams of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model on the simple cubic lattice with dipole-dipole, quadrupole-quadrupole coupling strengths and a crystal-field interaction. The problem is approached introducing first a trial one-dimensional Hamiltonian whose free energy can be calculated exactly by the transfer matrix method. Then using the Bogoliubov variational principle, the free energy of the model is determined. It is assumed that the dipolar and quadrupolar intrachain coupling constants are much stronger than the corresponding interchain constants and confined the attention to the case of nearest-neighbor interactions. The phase transitions are examined and the phase diagrams are obtained for several values of the coupling strengths in the three different planes. A comparison with other approximate techniques is also made

  18. Phase diagram of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model on the simple cubic lattice calculated by the linear chain approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Albayrak, E

    2000-01-01

    The linear chain approximation is used to study the temperature dependence of the order parameters and the phase diagrams of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model on the simple cubic lattice with dipole-dipole, quadrupole-quadrupole coupling strengths and a crystal-field interaction. The problem is approached introducing first a trial one-dimensional Hamiltonian whose free energy can be calculated exactly by the transfer matrix method. Then using the Bogoliubov variational principle, the free energy of the model is determined. It is assumed that the dipolar and quadrupolar intrachain coupling constants are much stronger than the corresponding interchain constants and confined the attention to the case of nearest-neighbor interactions. The phase transitions are examined and the phase diagrams are obtained for several values of the coupling strengths in the three different planes. A comparison with other approximate techniques is also made.

  19. The pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of simple RCN compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganic, I.G.; Draganic, Z.D.; Markovic, V.M.

    1976-01-01

    Fast kinetic spectrophotometry was used to study the absorption spectra of short-living intermediates produced by reactions of RCN molecules with H, esub(aq) - and OH. The spectra were obtained on the microsecond time scale after an electron pulse from a Febetron 707 accelerator in aqueous solutions of the following compounds: hydrocyanic acid, acetonitrile, propionitrile, malononitrile and succinonitrile. It has been found that all intermediates absorb in the U.V. range (lamba 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . In the presence of an efficient scavenger for hydroxyl radicals, the same transient spectra were registered in acid and neutral solutions suggesting that the protonations of esub(aq) - adducts of these RCN molecules were complete within a submicrosecond time interval. (author)

  20. Approximate N-Player Nonzero-Sum Game Solution for an Uncertain Continuous Nonlinear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus; Kamalapurkar, Rushikesh; Bhasin, Shubhendu; Dixon, Warren E

    2015-08-01

    An approximate online equilibrium solution is developed for an N -player nonzero-sum game subject to continuous-time nonlinear unknown dynamics and an infinite horizon quadratic cost. A novel actor-critic-identifier structure is used, wherein a robust dynamic neural network is used to asymptotically identify the uncertain system with additive disturbances, and a set of critic and actor NNs are used to approximate the value functions and equilibrium policies, respectively. The weight update laws for the actor neural networks (NNs) are generated using a gradient-descent method, and the critic NNs are generated by least square regression, which are both based on the modified Bellman error that is independent of the system dynamics. A Lyapunov-based stability analysis shows that uniformly ultimately bounded tracking is achieved, and a convergence analysis demonstrates that the approximate control policies converge to a neighborhood of the optimal solutions. The actor, critic, and identifier structures are implemented in real time continuously and simultaneously. Simulations on two and three player games illustrate the performance of the developed method.

  1. Exact Markov chain and approximate diffusion solution for haploid genetic drift with one-way mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hössjer, Ola; Tyvand, Peder A; Miloh, Touvia

    2016-02-01

    The classical Kimura solution of the diffusion equation is investigated for a haploid random mating (Wright-Fisher) model, with one-way mutations and initial-value specified by the founder population. The validity of the transient diffusion solution is checked by exact Markov chain computations, using a Jordan decomposition of the transition matrix. The conclusion is that the one-way diffusion model mostly works well, although the rate of convergence depends on the initial allele frequency and the mutation rate. The diffusion approximation is poor for mutation rates so low that the non-fixation boundary is regular. When this happens we perturb the diffusion solution around the non-fixation boundary and obtain a more accurate approximation that takes quasi-fixation of the mutant allele into account. The main application is to quantify how fast a specific genetic variant of the infinite alleles model is lost. We also discuss extensions of the quasi-fixation approach to other models with small mutation rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Iterative approximation of the solution of a monotone operator equation in certain Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Let X=L p (or l p ), p ≥ 2. The solution of the equation Ax=f, f is an element of X is approximated in X by an iteration process in each of the following two cases: (i) A is a bounded linear mapping of X into itself which is also bounded below; and, (ii) A is a nonlinear Lipschitz mapping of X into itself and satisfies ≥ m |x-y| 2 , for some constant m > 0 and for all x, y in X, where j is the single-valued normalized duality mapping of X into X* (the dual space of X). A related result deals with the iterative approximation of the fixed point of a Lipschitz strictly pseudocontractive mapping in X. (author). 12 refs

  3. Approximate solutions for the two-dimensional integral transport equation. Solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1980-11-01

    This work is divided into two parts: the first part deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one (note CEA-N-2166) treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. A set of approximate solutions for the isotropic two-dimensional neutron transport problem has been developed using the interface current formalism. The method has been applied to regular lattices of rectangular cells containing a fuel pin, cladding, and water, or homogenized structural material. The cells are divided into zones that are homogeneous. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within a cell. The coupling of the cells is effected by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. Two codes have been written: CALLIOPE uses a cylindrical cell model and one or three terms for the flux expansion, and NAUSICAA uses a two-dimensional flux representation and does a truly two-dimensional calculation inside each cell. In both codes, one or three terms can be used to make a space-independent expansion of the angular fluxes entering and leaving each side of the cell. The accuracies and computing times achieved with the different approximations are illustrated by numerical studies on two benchmark problems and by calculations performed in the APOLLO multigroup code [fr

  4. Simple electrolyte solutions: Comparison of DRISM and molecular dynamics results for alkali halide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, In Suk; Luchko, Tyler; Case, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Using the dielectrically consistent reference interaction site model (DRISM) of molecular solvation, we have calculated structural and thermodynamic information of alkali-halide salts in aqueous solution, as a function of salt concentration. The impact of varying the closure relation used with DRISM is investigated using the partial series expansion of order-n (PSE-n) family of closures, which includes the commonly used hypernetted-chain equation (HNC) and Kovalenko-Hirata closures. Results are compared to explicit molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, using the same force fields, and to experiment. The mean activity coefficients of ions predicted by DRISM agree well with experimental values at concentrations below 0.5 m, especially when using the HNC closure. As individual ion activities (and the corresponding solvation free energies) are not known from experiment, only DRISM and MD results are directly compared and found to have reasonably good agreement. The activity of water directly estimated from DRISM is nearly consistent with values derived from the DRISM ion activities and the Gibbs-Duhem equation, but the changes in the computed pressure as a function of salt concentration dominate these comparisons. Good agreement with experiment is obtained if these pressure changes are ignored. Radial distribution functions of NaCl solution at three concentrations were compared between DRISM and MD simulations. DRISM shows comparable water distribution around the cation, but water structures around the anion deviate from the MD results; this may also be related to the high pressure of the system. Despite some problems, DRISM-PSE-n is an effective tool for investigating thermodynamic properties of simple electrolytes. PMID:23387564

  5. Symbolic computation of analytic approximate solutions for nonlinear differential equations with initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yezhi; Liu, Yinping; Li, Zhibin

    2012-01-01

    The Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is one of the most effective methods for constructing analytic approximate solutions of nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, based on the new definition of the Adomian polynomials, and the two-step Adomian decomposition method (TSADM) combined with the Padé technique, a new algorithm is proposed to construct accurate analytic approximations of nonlinear differential equations with initial conditions. Furthermore, a MAPLE package is developed, which is user-friendly and efficient. One only needs to input a system, initial conditions and several necessary parameters, then our package will automatically deliver analytic approximate solutions within a few seconds. Several different types of examples are given to illustrate the validity of the package. Our program provides a helpful and easy-to-use tool in science and engineering to deal with initial value problems. Program summaryProgram title: NAPA Catalogue identifier: AEJZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4060 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 113 498 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MAPLE R13 Computer: PC Operating system: Windows XP/7 RAM: 2 Gbytes Classification: 4.3 Nature of problem: Solve nonlinear differential equations with initial conditions. Solution method: Adomian decomposition method and Padé technique. Running time: Seconds at most in routine uses of the program. Special tasks may take up to some minutes.

  6. Born approximation to a perturbative numerical method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Gh.

    1978-01-01

    A step function perturbative numerical method (SF-PN method) is developed for the solution of the Cauchy problem for the second order liniar differential equation in normal form. An important point stressed in the present paper, which seems to have been previously ignored in the literature devoted to the PN methods, is the close connection between the first order perturbation theory of the PN approach and the wellknown Born approximation, and, in general, the connection between the varjous orders of the PN corrections and the Neumann series. (author)

  7. Low-complexity computation of plate eigenmodes with Vekua approximations and the method of particular solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Gilles; Daudet, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    This paper extends the method of particular solutions (MPS) to the computation of eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of thin plates, in the framework of the Kirchhoff-Love plate theory. Specific approximation schemes are developed, with plane waves (MPS-PW) or Fourier-Bessel functions (MPS-FB). This framework also requires a suitable formulation of the boundary conditions. Numerical tests, on two plates with various boundary conditions, demonstrate that the proposed approach provides competitive results with standard numerical schemes such as the finite element method, at reduced complexity, and with large flexibility in the implementation choices.

  8. Accuracy of approximations of solutions to Fredholm equations by kernel methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gnecco, G.; Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 218, č. 14 (2012), s. 7481-7497 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1368; GA MŠk OC10047 Grant - others:CNR-AV ČR(CZ-IT) Project 2010–2012 “Complexity of Neural -Network and Kernel Computational Models Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : approximate solutions to integral equations * radial and kernel-based networks * Gaussian kernels * model complexity * analysis of algorithms Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.349, year: 2012

  9. Analytical approximate solutions of the time-domain diffusion equation in layered slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Sassaroli, Angelo; Yamada, Yukio; Zaccanti, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    Time-domain analytical solutions of the diffusion equation for photon migration through highly scattering two- and three-layered slabs have been obtained. The effect of the refractive-index mismatch with the external medium is taken into account, and approximate boundary conditions at the interface between the diffusive layers have been considered. A Monte Carlo code for photon migration through a layered slab has also been developed. Comparisons with the results of Monte Carlo simulations showed that the analytical solutions correctly describe the mean path length followed by photons inside each diffusive layer and the shape of the temporal profile of received photons, while discrepancies are observed for the continuous-wave reflectance or transmittance.

  10. Approximate Solution of Nonlinear Klein-Gordon Equation Using Sobolev Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Raza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation (KGE models many nonlinear phenomena. In this paper, we propose a scheme for numerical approximation of solutions of the one-dimensional nonlinear KGE. A common approach to find a solution of a nonlinear system is to first linearize the equations by successive substitution or the Newton iteration method and then solve a linear least squares problem. Here, we show that it can be advantageous to form a sum of squared residuals of the nonlinear problem and then find a zero of the gradient. Our scheme is based on the Sobolev gradient method for solving a nonlinear least square problem directly. The numerical results are compared with Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM. The L2, L∞, and Root-Mean-Square (RMS values indicate better accuracy of the proposed method with less computational effort.

  11. Approximate solutions of the hyperchaotic Rössler system by using the Bessel collocation scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şuayip Yüzbaşı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to give a Bessel polynomial approximation for the solutions of the hyperchaotic Rössler system. For this purpose, the Bessel collocation method applied to different problems is developed for the mentioned system. This method is based on taking the truncated Bessel expansions of the functions in the hyperchaotic Rössler systems. The suggested secheme converts the problem into a system of nonlinear algebraic equations by means of the matrix operations and collocation points, The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated by numerical applications and performed with the help of a computer code written in Maple. Also, comparison between our method and the differential transformation method is made with the accuracy of solutions.

  12. Approximate solution of space and time fractional higher order phase field equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseldeen, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper is concerned with a class of space and time fractional partial differential equation (STFDE) with Riesz derivative in space and Caputo in time. The proposed STFDE is considered as a generalization of a sixth-order partial phase field equation. We describe the application of the optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) to obtain an approximate solution for the suggested fractional initial value problem. An averaged-squared residual error function is defined and used to determine the optimal convergence control parameter. Two numerical examples are studied, considering periodic and non-periodic initial conditions, to justify the efficiency and the accuracy of the adopted iterative approach. The dependence of the solution on the order of the fractional derivative in space and time and model parameters is investigated.

  13. Two simple ansaetze for obtaining exact solutions of high dispersive nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Sergio L.

    2004-01-01

    We propose two simple ansaetze that allow us to obtain different analytical solutions of the high dispersive cubic and cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equations. Among these solutions we can find solitary wave and periodic wave solutions representing the propagation of different waveforms in nonlinear media

  14. Nonperturbative Time Dependent Solution of a Simple Ionization Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Ovidiu; Costin, Rodica D.; Lebowitz, Joel L.

    2018-02-01

    We present a non-perturbative solution of the Schrödinger equation {iψ_t(t,x)=-ψ_{xx}(t,x)-2(1 +α sinω t) δ(x)ψ(t,x)} , written in units in which \\hbar=2m=1, describing the ionization of a model atom by a parametric oscillating potential. This model has been studied extensively by many authors, including us. It has surprisingly many features in common with those observed in the ionization of real atoms and emission by solids, subjected to microwave or laser radiation. Here we use new mathematical methods to go beyond previous investigations and to provide a complete and rigorous analysis of this system. We obtain the Borel-resummed transseries (multi-instanton expansion) valid for all values of α, ω, t for the wave function, ionization probability, and energy distribution of the emitted electrons, the latter not studied previously for this model. We show that for large t and small α the energy distribution has sharp peaks at energies which are multiples of ω, corresponding to photon capture. We obtain small α expansions that converge for all t, unlike those of standard perturbation theory. We expect that our analysis will serve as a basis for treating more realistic systems revealing a form of universality in different emission processes.

  15. Numerical solution of matrix exponential in burn-up equation using mini-max polynomial approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yosuke; Chiba, Go; Tsuji, Masashi; Narabayashi, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new numerical solution of matrix exponential in burn-up depletion calculations. • The depletion calculation with extremely short half-lived nuclides can be done numerically stable with this method. • The computational time is shorter than the other conventional methods. - Abstract: Nuclear fuel burn-up depletion calculations are essential to compute the nuclear fuel composition transition. In the burn-up calculations, the matrix exponential method has been widely used. In the present paper, we propose a new numerical solution of the matrix exponential, a Mini-Max Polynomial Approximation (MMPA) method. This method is numerically stable for burn-up matrices with extremely short half-lived nuclides as the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM), and it has several advantages over CRAM. We also propose a multi-step calculation, a computational time reduction scheme of the MMPA method, which can perform simultaneously burn-up calculations with several time periods. The applicability of these methods has been theoretically and numerically proved for general burn-up matrices. The numerical verification has been performed, and it has been shown that these methods have high precision equivalent to CRAM

  16. Approximate solutions of dual fuzzy polynomials by feed-back neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jafarian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, artificial neural networks (ANNs have been extensively studied and used in different areas such as pattern recognition, associative memory, combinatorial optimization, etc. In this paper, we investigate the ability of fuzzy neural networks to approximate solution of a dual fuzzy polynomial of the form $a_{1}x+ ...+a_{n}x^n =b_{1}x+ ...+b_{n}x^n+d,$ where $a_{j},b_{j},d epsilon E^1 (for j=1,...,n.$ Since the operation of fuzzy neural networks is based on Zadeh's extension principle. For this scope we train a fuzzified neural network by back-propagation-type learning algorithm which has five layer where connection weights are crisp numbers. This neural network can get a crisp input signal and then calculates its corresponding fuzzy output. Presented method can give a real approximate solution for given polynomial by using a cost function which is defined for the level sets of fuzzy output and target output. The simulation results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Data harmonization of environmental variables: from simple to general solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baume, O.

    2009-04-01

    European data platforms often contain measurements from different regional or national networks. As standards and protocols - e.g. type of measurement devices, sensors or measurement site classification, laboratory analysis and post-processing methods, vary between networks, discontinuities will appear when mapping the target variable at an international scale. Standardisation is generally a costly solution and does not allow classical statistical analysis of previously reported values. As an alternative, harmonization should be envisaged as an integrated step in mapping procedures across borders. In this paper, several harmonization solutions developed under the INTAMAP FP6 project are presented. The INTAMAP FP6 project is currently developing an interoperable framework for real-time automatic mapping of critical environmental variables by extending spatial statistical methods to web-based implementations. Harmonization is often considered as a pre-processing step in statistical data analysis workflow. If biases are assessed with little knowledge about the target variable - in particular when no explanatory covariate is integrated, a harmonization procedure along borders or between regionally overlapping networks may be adopted (Skøien et al., 2007). In this case, bias is estimated as the systematic difference between line or local predictions. On the other hand, when covariates can be included in spatial prediction, the harmonization step is integrated in the whole model estimation procedure, and, therefore, is no longer an independent pre-processing step of the automatic mapping process (Baume et al., 2007). In this case, bias factors become integrated parameters of the geostatistical model and are estimated alongside the other model parameters. The harmonization methods developed within the INTAMAP project were first applied within the field of radiation, where the European Radiological Data Exchange Platform (EURDEP) - http://eurdep.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ - has

  18. Perturbed invariant subspaces and approximate generalized functional variable separation solution for nonlinear diffusion-convection equations with weak source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ya-Rong; Zhang, Shun-Li; Xin, Xiang-Peng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose the concept of the perturbed invariant subspaces (PISs), and study the approximate generalized functional variable separation solution for the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation with weak source by the approximate generalized conditional symmetries (AGCSs) related to the PISs. Complete classification of the perturbed equations which admit the approximate generalized functional separable solutions (AGFSSs) is obtained. As a consequence, some AGFSSs to the resulting equations are explicitly constructed by way of examples.

  19. Solution of two-dimensional equations of neutron transport in 4P0-approximation of spherical harmonics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polivanskij, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    The method to solve two-dimensional equations of neutron transport using 4P 0 -approximation is presented. Previously such approach was efficiently used for the solution of one-dimensional problems. New an attempt is made to apply the approach to solution of two-dimensional problems. Algorithm of the solution is given, as well as results of test neutron-physical calculations. A considerable as compared with diffusion approximation is shown. 11 refs

  20. A Simple General Solution for Maximal Horizontal Range of Projectile Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Busic, Boris

    2005-01-01

    A convenient change of variables in the problem of maximizing the horizontal range of the projectile motion, with an arbitrary initial vertical position of the projectile, provides a simple, straightforward solution.

  1. Solute transport in aquifers: The comeback of the advection dispersion equation and the First Order Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, A.; Zarlenga, A.; Jankovic, I.; Dagan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gradient steady flow of mean velocity U takes place in heterogeneous aquifers of random logconductivity Y = lnK , characterized by the normal univariate PDF f(Y) and autocorrelation ρY, of variance σY2 and horizontal integral scale I. Solute transport is quantified by the Breakthrough Curve (BTC) M at planes at distance x from the injection plane. The study builds on the extensive 3D numerical simulations of flow and transport of Jankovic et al. (2017) for different conductivity structures. The present study further explores the predictive capabilities of the Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE), with macrodispersivity αL given by the First Order Approximation (FOA), by checking in a quantitative manner its applicability. After a discussion on the suitable boundary conditions for ADE, we find that the ADE-FOA solution is a sufficiently accurate predictor for applications, the many other sources of uncertainty prevailing in practice notwithstanding. We checked by least squares and by comparison of travel time of quantiles of M that indeed the analytical Inverse Gaussian M with αL =σY2 I , is able to fit well the bulk of the simulated BTCs. It tends to underestimate the late arrival time of the thin and persistent tail. The tail is better reproduced by the semi-analytical MIMSCA model, which also allows for a physical explanation of the success of the Inverse Gaussian solution. Examination of the pertinent longitudinal mass distribution shows that it is different from the commonly used Gaussian one in the analysis of field experiments, and it captures the main features of the plume measurements of the MADE experiment. The results strengthen the confidence in the applicability of the ADE and the FOA to predicting longitudinal spreading in solute transport through heterogeneous aquifers of stationary random structure.

  2. The stationary sine-Gordon equation on metric graphs: Exact analytical solutions for simple topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirov, K.; Rakhmanov, S.; Matrasulov, D.; Susanto, H.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the stationary sine-Gordon equation on metric graphs with simple topologies. Exact analytical solutions are obtained for different vertex boundary conditions. It is shown that the method can be extended for tree and other simple graph topologies. Applications of the obtained results to branched planar Josephson junctions and Josephson junctions with tricrystal boundaries are discussed.

  3. Algorithms and analytical solutions for rapidly approximating long-term dispersion from line and area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Britter, Rex E.

    Predicting long-term mean pollutant concentrations in the vicinity of airports, roads and other industrial sources are frequently of concern in regulatory and public health contexts. Many emissions are represented geometrically as ground-level line or area sources. Well developed modelling tools such as AERMOD and ADMS are able to model dispersion from finite (i.e. non-point) sources with considerable accuracy, drawing upon an up-to-date understanding of boundary layer behaviour. Due to mathematical difficulties associated with line and area sources, computationally expensive numerical integration schemes have been developed. For example, some models decompose area sources into a large number of line sources orthogonal to the mean wind direction, for which an analytical (Gaussian) solution exists. Models also employ a time-series approach, which involves computing mean pollutant concentrations for every hour over one or more years of meteorological data. This can give rise to computer runtimes of several days for assessment of a site. While this may be acceptable for assessment of a single industrial complex, airport, etc., this level of computational cost precludes national or international policy assessments at the level of detail available with dispersion modelling. In this paper, we extend previous work [S.R.H. Barrett, R.E. Britter, 2008. Development of algorithms and approximations for rapid operational air quality modelling. Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 8105-8111] to line and area sources. We introduce approximations which allow for the development of new analytical solutions for long-term mean dispersion from line and area sources, based on hypergeometric functions. We describe how these solutions can be parameterized from a single point source run from an existing advanced dispersion model, thereby accounting for all processes modelled in the more costly algorithms. The parameterization method combined with the analytical solutions for long-term mean

  4. Intertemporal Asset Allocation with Habit Formation in Preferences: An Approximate Analytical Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    In this paper we derive an approximate analytical solution to the optimal con- sumption and portfolio choice problem of an infinitely-lived investor with power utility defined over the difference between consumption and an external habit. The investor is assumed to have access to two tradable......-linearized surplus consumption ratio. The "difference habit model" implies that the relative risk aversion is time-varying which is in line with recent ev- idence from the asset pricing literature. We show that accounting for habit a¤ects both the myopic and intertemporal hedge component of optimal asset demand......, and introduces an additional component that works as a hedge against changes in the investor's habit level. In an empirical application, we calibrate the model to U.S. data and show that habit formation has significant effects on both the optimal consumption and portfolio choice compared to a standard CRRA...

  5. Exact solutions for fermionic Green's functions in the Bloch-Nordsieck approximation of QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernemann, A.; Stefanis, N.G.

    1989-01-01

    A set of new closed-form solutions for fermionic Green's functions in the Bloch-Nordsieck approximation of QED is presented. A manifestly covariant phase-space path-integral method is applied for calculating the n-fermion Green's function in a classical external field. In the case of one and two fermions, explicit expressions for the full Green's functions are analytically obtained, with renormalization carried out in the modified minimal subtraction scheme. The renormalization constants and the corresponding anomalous dimensions are determined. The mass-shell behavior of the two-fermion Green's function is investigated in detail. No assumptions are made concerning the structure of asymptotic states and no IR cutoff is used in the calculations

  6. The approximate analytical solution of the internal problem of conductive and laminar free convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Popov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximate analytical solution of a problem about nonstationary free convection in the conductive and laminar mode of the Newtonian liquid in square area at the instantaneous change of temperature of a sidewall and lack of heat fluxes is submitted on top and bottom the bases. The equations of free convection in an approximation of Oberbeka-Bussinesk are linearized due to neglect by convective items. For reduction of number of hydrothermal parameters the system is given to the dimensionless look by introduction of scales for effect and explanatory variables. Transition from classical variables to the variables "whirlwind-a flow function" allowed to reduce system to a nonstationary heat conduction equation and a nonstationary nonuniform biharmonic equation, and the first is not dependent on the second. The decision in the form of a flow function is received by application integral a sine - Fourier transforms with terminating limits to a biharmonic equation at first on a variable x, and then on a variable y. The flow function has an appearance of a double series of Fourier on sine with coefficients in an integral form. Coefficients of a row represent integrals from unknown functions. On the basis of a hypothesis of an express type of integrals coefficients are calculated from the linear equation system received from boundary conditions on partial derivatives of function. Dependence of structure of a current on Prandtl's number is investigated. The cards of streamlines and isolines of components of speed describing development of a current from the moment of emergence before transition to a stationary state are received. The schedules of a field of vectors of speeds in various time illustrating dynamics of a current are provided. Reliability of a hypothesis of an express type of integral coefficients is confirmed by adequacy to physical sense and coherence of the received results with the numerical solution of a problem.

  7. Approximate solutions of the two-dimensional integral transport equation by collision probability methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard

    1977-01-01

    A set of approximate solutions for the isotropic two-dimensional neutron transport problem has been developed using the Interface Current formalism. The method has been applied to regular lattices of rectangular cells containing a fuel pin, cladding and water, or homogenized structural material. The cells are divided into zones which are homogeneous. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within a cell. The coupling of the cells is made by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. Two codes have been written: the first uses a cylindrical cell model and one or three terms for the flux expansion; the second uses a two-dimensional flux representation and does a truly two-dimensional calculation inside each cell. In both codes one or three terms can be used to make a space-independent expansion of the angular fluxes entering and leaving each side of the cell. The accuracies and computing times achieved with the different approximations are illustrated by numerical studies on two benchmark pr

  8. Structural stability of solutions to the Riemann problem for a non-strictly hyperbolic system with flux approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the Riemann problem for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws under the linear approximations of flux functions with three parameters. The approximated system also belongs to the type of triangular systems of conservation laws and this approximation does not change the structure of Riemann solutions to the original system. Furthermore, it is proven that the Riemann solutions to the approximated system converge to the corresponding ones to the original system as the perturbation parameter tends to zero.

  9. Approximate solutions for radial travel time and capture zone in unconfined aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangxiao; Haitjema, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Radial time-of-travel (TOT) capture zones have been evaluated for unconfined aquifers with and without recharge. The solutions of travel time for unconfined aquifers are rather complex and have been replaced with much simpler approximate solutions without significant loss of accuracy in most practical cases. The current "volumetric method" for calculating the radius of a TOT capture zone assumes no recharge and a constant aquifer thickness. It was found that for unconfined aquifers without recharge, the volumetric method leads to a smaller and less protective wellhead protection zone when ignoring drawdowns. However, if the saturated thickness near the well is used in the volumetric method a larger more protective TOT capture zone is obtained. The same is true when the volumetric method is used in the presence of recharge. However, for that case it leads to unreasonableness over the prediction of a TOT capture zone of 5 years or more. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Simple solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Paul

    2011-07-01

    FP Marangoni Inc., a Calgary-based service company, is presently the only oilfield service company in the world to have successfully established a way to blend vacuum and rig shakers to recapture oil-based mud, or any drilling fluid for that matter. Their VAC-Screen system is presently being utilized by several operators and has the potential to be used across a wide spectrum of drilling applications. The rotary vacuum dryer fluid recovery and cuttings drying system degraded the drilling cuttings that it processes and when this occurs, some of that stuff gets in the recovered fluid and it becomes very difficult to remove particles that are below 20 microns. Currently, VAC-Screen technology is running on about 20 rigs in Canada and the US, and more producers are showing a keen interest in using the technology. The VAC-Screen technology reduces costs and environmental impact. The main benefit is that the recovered fluid has no detrimental effects on the drilling fluid system. The going rental rate for the system is 30 per cent of the cost of competitive quality systems.

  11. Higher-order approximate solutions to the relativistic and Duffing-harmonic oscillators by modified He's homotopy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A; Pascual, C; Fernandez, E; Neipp, C; Belendez, T

    2008-01-01

    A modified He's homotopy perturbation method is used to calculate higher-order analytical approximate solutions to the relativistic and Duffing-harmonic oscillators. The He's homotopy perturbation method is modified by truncating the infinite series corresponding to the first-order approximate solution before introducing this solution in the second-order linear differential equation, and so on. We find this modified homotopy perturbation method works very well for the whole range of initial amplitudes, and the excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones has been demonstrated and discussed. The approximate formulae obtained show excellent agreement with the exact solutions, and are valid for small as well as large amplitudes of oscillation, including the limiting cases of amplitude approaching zero and infinity. For the relativistic oscillator, only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions with a maximal relative error for the approximate frequency of less than 1.6% for small and large values of oscillation amplitude, while this relative error is 0.65% for two iterations with two harmonics and as low as 0.18% when three harmonics are considered in the second approximation. For the Duffing-harmonic oscillator the relative error is as low as 0.078% when the second approximation is considered. Comparison of the result obtained using this method with those obtained by the harmonic balance methods reveals that the former is very effective and convenient

  12. Polarographic behaviour and determination of selenite and tellurite in simple solutions or in a binary mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.

    1991-01-01

    The polarographic behaviour of simple solutions of selenite and tellurite in 1 M ammonium salts of formate, acetate, tartrate, oxalate, and benzoate solutions in absence and in presence of Triton X-100 as a maximum suppressor and a temperature of 25 O C has been investigated. Schemes for the mechanism of reductions occuring at the DME have been deduced. A method for analytical determination of selenite and tellurite in simple solutions as well as in a binary mixture in the presence of 4-14 . 10 -3 % Triton X-100 is reported. (author)

  13. About simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of special exact solutions of Veselov-Novikov equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    New exact solutions, nonstationary and stationary, of Veselov-Novikov (VN) equation in the forms of simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of arbitrary number N of exact special solutions u (n) , n= 1, …, N are constructed via Zakharov and Manakov ∂-dressing method. Simple nonlinear superpositions are represented up to a constant by the sums of solutions u (n) and calculated by ∂-dressing on nonzero energy level of the first auxiliary linear problem, i.e., 2D stationary Schrödinger equation. It is remarkable that in the zero energy limit simple nonlinear superpositions convert to linear ones in the form of the sums of special solutions u (n) . It is shown that the sums u=u (k 1 ) +...+u (k m ) , 1 ⩽k 1 2 m ⩽N of arbitrary subsets of these solutions are also exact solutions of VN equation. The presented exact solutions include as superpositions of special line solitons and also superpositions of plane wave type singular periodic solutions. By construction these exact solutions represent also new exact transparent potentials of 2D stationary Schrödinger equation and can serve as model potentials for electrons in planar structures of modern electronics.

  14. About simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of special exact solutions of Veselov-Novikov equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V. [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marx prosp. 20, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    New exact solutions, nonstationary and stationary, of Veselov-Novikov (VN) equation in the forms of simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of arbitrary number N of exact special solutions u{sup (n)}, n= 1, Horizontal-Ellipsis , N are constructed via Zakharov and Manakov {partial_derivative}-dressing method. Simple nonlinear superpositions are represented up to a constant by the sums of solutions u{sup (n)} and calculated by {partial_derivative}-dressing on nonzero energy level of the first auxiliary linear problem, i.e., 2D stationary Schroedinger equation. It is remarkable that in the zero energy limit simple nonlinear superpositions convert to linear ones in the form of the sums of special solutions u{sup (n)}. It is shown that the sums u=u{sup (k{sub 1})}+...+u{sup (k{sub m})}, 1 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To k{sub 1} < k{sub 2} < Horizontal-Ellipsis < k{sub m} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To N of arbitrary subsets of these solutions are also exact solutions of VN equation. The presented exact solutions include as superpositions of special line solitons and also superpositions of plane wave type singular periodic solutions. By construction these exact solutions represent also new exact transparent potentials of 2D stationary Schroedinger equation and can serve as model potentials for electrons in planar structures of modern electronics.

  15. Solutions of simple dual bootstrap models satisfying Lee--Veneziano relation and the smallness of cut discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Hossain, M.; Tow, D.M.

    1977-07-01

    To investigate the t-dependent solutions of simple dual bootstrap models, two general formulations are discussed, one without and one with cut cancellation at the planar level. The possible corresponding production mechanisms are discussed. In contrast to Bishari's formulation, both models recover the Lee-Veneziano relation, i.e., in the peak approximation the Pomeron intercept is unity. The solutions based on an exponential form for the reduced triple-Reggeon vertex for both models are discussed in detail. Also calculated are the cut discontinuities for both models and for Bishari's and it is shown that at both the planar and cylinder levels they are small compared with the corresponding pole residues. Precocious asymptotic planarity is also found in the solutions

  16. An evaluation of solution algorithms and numerical approximation methods for modeling an ion exchange process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Sunyoung; Huang, Jingfang; Boyer, Treavor H.; Miller, Cass T.

    2010-07-01

    The focus of this work is on the modeling of an ion exchange process that occurs in drinking water treatment applications. The model formulation consists of a two-scale model in which a set of microscale diffusion equations representing ion exchange resin particles that vary in size and age are coupled through a boundary condition with a macroscopic ordinary differential equation (ODE), which represents the concentration of a species in a well-mixed reactor. We introduce a new age-averaged model (AAM) that averages all ion exchange particle ages for a given size particle to avoid the expensive Monte-Carlo simulation associated with previous modeling applications. We discuss two different numerical schemes to approximate both the original Monte-Carlo algorithm and the new AAM for this two-scale problem. The first scheme is based on the finite element formulation in space coupled with an existing backward difference formula-based ODE solver in time. The second scheme uses an integral equation based Krylov deferred correction (KDC) method and a fast elliptic solver (FES) for the resulting elliptic equations. Numerical results are presented to validate the new AAM algorithm, which is also shown to be more computationally efficient than the original Monte-Carlo algorithm. We also demonstrate that the higher order KDC scheme is more efficient than the traditional finite element solution approach and this advantage becomes increasingly important as the desired accuracy of the solution increases. We also discuss issues of smoothness, which affect the efficiency of the KDC-FES approach, and outline additional algorithmic changes that would further improve the efficiency of these developing methods for a wide range of applications.

  17. Theoretical study of the countercurrent in an ultracentrifuge-approximate solution of the countercurrent equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, R.

    1975-03-15

    Integrating the linearized Navier-Stokes equations linearized along the whole length of the centrifuge, we get a differential relation between the mean axial velocity and the centrifugal and viscosity forces on the ends. Then, these equations are integrated near the ends by a boundary layer approximation method. We assume that outside the boundary layer, the axial velocity reaches its mean value. So we obtain on the first hand the repartition of all physical quantities in the boundary layer, on the second hand a differential equation between the mean axial velocity and the boundary conditions imposed on the ends. This equation, valid both for the mechanical and thermal counter-current is solved numerically. Its solution shows the existence of a second boundary layer close to the wall of the tube. The present theory extends Martin's one in that it takes into account: (1) the action of pressure forces; (2) zero velocity on the wall with no transport; (3) the interaction between mechanical and thermal effects which tend to decrease the efficiency and the intensity of the counter-current. (author)

  18. On the use of the Lie group technique for differential equations with a small parameter: Approximate solutions and integrable equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burde, G.I.

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to the use of the Lie group technique for partial and ordinary differential equations dependent on a small parameter is developed. In addition to determining approximate solutions to the perturbed equation, the approach allows constructing integrable equations that have solutions with (partially) prescribed features. Examples of application of the approach to partial differential equations are given

  19. The exact solutions and approximate analytic solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on symmetry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Litao; Bilige, Sudao; Jie, Yingmo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we successfully obtained the exact solutions and the approximate analytic solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on the Lie symmetry, the extended tanh method and the homotopy perturbation method. In first part, we obtained the symmetries of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on the Wu-differential characteristic set algorithm and reduced it. In the second part, we constructed the abundant exact travelling wave solutions by using the extended tanh method. These solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions respectively. It should be noted that when the parameters are taken as special values, some solitary wave solutions are derived from the hyperbolic function solutions. Finally, we apply the homotopy perturbation method to obtain the approximate analytic solutions based on four kinds of initial conditions.

  20. The comparison of DYNA3D to approximate solutions for a partially- full waste storage tank subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslawsky, M.; Kennedy, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical solutions to the problem consisting of a partially-full waste tank subjected to seismic loading, embedded in soil, is classically difficult in that one has to address: soil-structure interaction, fluid-structure interaction, non-linear behavior of material, dynamic effects. Separating the problem and applying numerous assumptions will yield approximate solutions. This paper explores methods for generating these solutions accurately

  1. Elastic interaction of a crack with a microcrack array. I - Formulation of the problem and general form of the solution. II - Elastic solution for two crack configurations (piecewise constant and linear approximations)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Dolgopolsky, A.; Kachanov, M.

    1987-01-01

    The elastic interactions of a two-dimensional configuration consisting of a crack with an array of microcracks located near the tip are studied. The general form of the solution is based on the potential representations and approximations of tractions on the microcracks by polynomials. In the second part, the technique is applied to two simple two-dimensional configurations involving one and two microcracks. The problems of stress shielding and stress amplification (the reduction or increase of the effective stress intensity factor due to the presence of microcracks) are discussed, and the refinements introduced by higher order polynomial approximations are illustrated.

  2. Approximate Solutions of Delay Differential Equations with Constant and Variable Coefficients by the Enhanced Multistage Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Olvera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We expand the application of the enhanced multistage homotopy perturbation method (EMHPM to solve delay differential equations (DDEs with constant and variable coefficients. This EMHPM is based on a sequence of subintervals that provide approximate solutions that require less CPU time than those computed from the dde23 MATLAB numerical integration algorithm solutions. To address the accuracy of our proposed approach, we examine the solutions of several DDEs having constant and variable coefficients, finding predictions with a good match relative to the corresponding numerical integration solutions.

  3. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Approximation by Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Quadrature Formulae, and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, M; Haussmann, W; Hayman, W; Rogge, L

    1992-01-01

    This volume consists of the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Approximation by Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Quadrature Formulae, and Related Topics, which was held at Hanstholm, Denmark. These proceedings include the main invited talks and contributed papers given during the workshop. The aim of these lectures was to present a selection of results of the latest research in the field. In addition to covering topics in approximation by solutions of partial differential equations and quadrature formulae, this volume is also concerned with related areas, such as Gaussian quadratures, the Pompelu problem, rational approximation to the Fresnel integral, boundary correspondence of univalent harmonic mappings, the application of the Hilbert transform in two dimensional aerodynamics, finely open sets in the limit set of a finitely generated Kleinian group, scattering theory, harmonic and maximal measures for rational functions and the solution of the classical Dirichlet problem. In ...

  4. An approximate solution of the two-group critical problem for reflected slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Garcia, R.D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new approximation is developed to solve two group slab problems involving two media where one of the media is infinite. The method consists in combining the P sub(L) approximation with invariance principles. Several numerical results are reported for the critical slab problem [pt

  5. Nonlinear Dispersive Elastic Waves in Solids: Exact, Approximate, and Numerical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehtourian, Romik

    Wave motion lies at the heart of many disciplines in the physical sciences and engineering. For example, problems and applications involving light, sound, heat, or fluid flow are all likely to involve wave dynamics at some level. A particular class of problems is concerned with the propagation of elastic waves in a solid medium, such as a fiber-reinforced composite material responding to vibratory excitations, or soil and rock admitting seismic waves moments after the onset of an earthquake, or phonon transport in a semiconducting crystal like silicon. Regardless of the type of wave, the dispersion relation provides a fundamental characterization of the elastodynamic properties of the medium. The first part of the dissertation examines the propagation of a large-amplitude elastic wave in a one-dimensional homogeneous medium with a focus on the effects of inherent nonlinearities on the dispersion relation. Considering a thin rod, where the thickness is small compared to the wavelength, an exact, closed-form formulation is presented for the treatment of two types of nonlinearity in the strain-displacement gradient relation: Green-Lagrange and Hencky. The derived relation is then verified by direct time-domain simulations, examining both instantaneous dispersion (by direct observation) and short-term, pre-breaking dispersion (by Fourier transformation). A high-order perturbation analysis is also conducted yielding an explicit analytical space-time solution, which is shown to be spectrally accurate. The results establish a perfect match between theory and simulation and reveal that regardless of the strength of the nonlinearity, the dispersion relation fully embodies all information pertaining to the nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism that unfolds as an arbitrary-profiled wave evolves in the medium. In the second part of the dissertation, the analysis is extended to a continuous periodic thin rod exhibiting multiple phases or embedded local resonators. The

  6. Approximate series solution of multi-dimensional, time fractional-order (heat-like) diffusion equations using FRDTM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brajesh K; Srivastava, Vineet K

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present a new approximate series solution of the multi-dimensional (heat-like) diffusion equation with time-fractional derivative in Caputo form using a semi-analytical approach: fractional-order reduced differential transform method (FRDTM). The efficiency of FRDTM is confirmed by considering four test problems of the multi-dimensional time fractional-order diffusion equation. FRDTM is a very efficient, effective and powerful mathematical tool which provides exact or very close approximate solutions for a wide range of real-world problems arising in engineering and natural sciences, modelled in terms of differential equations.

  7. Existence and Analytic Approximation of Solutions of Duffing Type Nonlinear Integro-Differential Equation with Integral Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsaedi Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A generalized quasilinearization technique is developed to obtain a sequence of approximate solutions converging monotonically and quadratically to a unique solution of a boundary value problem involving Duffing type nonlinear integro-differential equation with integral boundary conditions. The convergence of order for the sequence of iterates is also established. It is found that the work presented in this paper not only produces new results but also yields several old results in certain limits.

  8. ABOUT SOME APPROXIMATIONS TO THE CLOSED SET OF NOT TRIVIAL SOLUTIONS OF THE EQUATIONS OF GINZBURG - LANDAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Fonarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of use of a projective iterative method for search of approximations to the closed set of not trivial generalised solutions of a boundary value problem for Ginzburg - Landau's equations of the phenomenological theory of superconduction is investigated. The projective iterative method combines a projective method and iterative process. The generalised solutions of a boundary value problem for Ginzburg - Landau's equations are critical points of a functional of a superconductor free energy.

  9. Analytic Approximate Solutions to the Boundary Layer Flow Equation over a Stretching Wall with Partial Slip at the Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Remus-Daniel; Marinca, Vasile; Marinca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Analytic approximate solutions using Optimal Homotopy Perturbation Method (OHPM) are given for steady boundary layer flow over a nonlinearly stretching wall in presence of partial slip at the boundary. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation by means of similarity transformations. Some examples are considered and the effects of different parameters are shown. OHPM is a very efficient procedure, ensuring a very rapid convergence of the solutions after only two iterations.

  10. A functional-type a posteriori error estimate of approximate solutions for Reissner-Mindlin plates and its implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Maxim; Chistiakova, Olga

    2017-06-01

    Paper is devoted to a numerical justification of the recent a posteriori error estimate for Reissner-Mindlin plates. This majorant provides a reliable control of accuracy of any conforming approximate solution of the problem including solutions obtained with commercial software for mechanical engineering. The estimate is developed on the basis of the functional approach and is applicable to several types of boundary conditions. To verify the approach, numerical examples with mesh refinements are provided.

  11. Approximate, analytic solutions of the Bethe equation for charged particle range

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, Damian C.; McNaney, James M.

    2009-01-01

    By either performing a Taylor expansion or making a polynomial approximation, the Bethe equation for charged particle stopping power in matter can be integrated analytically to obtain the range of charged particles in the continuous deceleration approximation. Ranges match reference data to the expected accuracy of the Bethe model. In the non-relativistic limit, the energy deposition rate was also found analytically. The analytic relations can be used to complement and validate numerical solu...

  12. A single continuum approximation of the solute transport in fractured porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J.T.; Lee, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    Solute transport in fractured porous media is described by the single continuum model, i.e., equivalent porous medium model. In this model, one-dimensional solute transport in the fracture and two-dimensional solute transport in the porous rock matrix is considered. The network of fractures embedded in the porous rock matrix is idealized as two orthogonally intersecting families of equally spaced, parallel fractures directed at 45 o to the regional groundwater flow direction. Governing equations are solved by the finite element method, and an upstream weighting technique is used in order to prevent the oscillation of the solution in the case of highly advection dominated transport. Breakthrough curves, similar to those of the one-dimensional solute transport problem in ordinary porous media, are obtained as a function of time according to volume or flux averaging of the concentration profile across the width of the flow region. The equivalent parameters, i.e., porosity and overall coefficient of longitudinal dispersivity, are obtained by a trial-and-error method. Analyses for the non-sorbing solute transport case show that within the range of considered parameters, and except for the region very close to the source, application of the single continuum model in the idealized fracture system is sufficient for modeling solute transport in fractured porous media. This numerical scheme is shown to be applicable to a sorbing solute and radionuclide transport. (author)

  13. Approximate analytical solutions to the condensation-coagulation equation of aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Shaviv, Nir J.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    to the coagulation limit plus a condensation correction. Our solutions are then compared with numerical results. We show that the solutions can be used to estimate the sensitivity of the cloud condensation nuclei number density to the nucleation rate of small condensation nuclei and to changes in the formation rate...

  14. Anion bridges drive salting out of a simple amphiphile from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowron, D.T.; Finney, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron diffraction with isotope substitution has been used to determine the structural changes that occur on the addition of a simple salting-out agent to a dilute aqueous alcohol solution. The striking results obtained demonstrate a relatively simple process occurs in which interamphiphile anionic salt bridges are formed between the polar groups of the alcohol molecules. These ion bridges drive an increase in the exposure of the alcohol molecule nonpolar surface to the solvent water and hence point the way to their eventual salting out by the hydrophobic effect

  15. Analytic Approximate Solutions for Unsteady Two-Dimensional and Axisymmetric Squeezing Flows between Parallel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a viscous incompressible fluid between two parallel plates due to the normal motion of the plates is investigated. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a nonlinear fourth-order differential equation by using similarity solutions. Homotopy analysis method (HAM is used to solve this nonlinear equation analytically. The convergence of the obtained series solution is carefully analyzed. The validity of our solutions is verified by the numerical results obtained by fourth-order Runge-Kutta.

  16. Solutions of the Low equation in the no-crossing approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.S.; Nogami, Y.

    1979-01-01

    In solving the Low equation for the Chew-Low model, if the crossing term is dropped a ghost state appears in the repulsive channels for a sufficiently large coupling constant. Ernst et al. suggested recently that this difficulty could be avoided by adopting a solution with a Castillejo-Dalitz-Dyson (CDD) pole in its denominator. Contrary to this suggestion, we show that the inclusion of the CDD pole, rather than avoiding the difficulty, only compounds it. We also reexamine Dyson's interpretation of the ''redundant'' CDD solutions, and point out that the Low equation we study possesses solutions to which Dyson's interpretation does not seem to apply

  17. Approximate rational Jacobi elliptic function solutions of the fractional differential equations via the enhanced Adomian decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lina; Wang Weiguo

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, an enhanced Adomian decomposition method which introduces the h-curve of the homotopy analysis method into the standard Adomian decomposition method is proposed. Some examples prove that this method can derive successfully approximate rational Jacobi elliptic function solutions of the fractional differential equations.

  18. Exact Solution of Gas Dynamics Equations Through Reduced Differential Transform and Sumudu Transform Linked with Pades Approximants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. R. Ramesh

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study the analytical method based on reduced differential transform method coupled with sumudu transform through Pades approximants. The proposed method may be considered as alternative approach for finding exact solution of Gas dynamics equation in an effective manner. This method does not require any discretization, linearization and perturbation.

  19. A New Approach for the Approximations of Solutions to a Common Fixed Point Problem in Metric Fixed Point Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Altun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide sufficient conditions for the existence of a unique common fixed point for a pair of mappings T,S:X→X, where X is a nonempty set endowed with a certain metric. Moreover, a numerical algorithm is presented in order to approximate such solution. Our approach is different to the usual used methods in the literature.

  20. An approximate and an analytical solution to the carousel-pendulum problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vial, Alexandre [Pole Physique, Mecanique, Materiaux et Nanotechnologies, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie BP-2060, F-10010 Troyes Cedex (France)], E-mail: alexandre.vial@utt.fr

    2009-09-15

    We show that an improved solution to the carousel-pendulum problem can be easily obtained through a first-order Taylor expansion, and its accuracy is determined after the obtention of an unusable analytical exact solution, advantageously replaced by a numerical one. It is shown that the accuracy is unexpectedly high, even when the ratio length of the pendulum to carousel radius approaches unity. (letters and comments)

  1. Analytical solution for the electrical properties of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with simple vanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, H.

    1982-01-01

    Although the SUPERFISH program is used for calculating the design parameters of an RFQ structure with complex vanes, an analytical solution for electrical properties of an RFQ with simple vanes provides insight into the parametric behavior of these more complicated resonators. The fields in an inclined plane wave guide with proper boundary conditions match those in one quadrant of an RFQ. The principle of duality is used to exploit the solutions to a radial transmission line in solving the field equations. Calculated are the frequency equation, frequency sensitivity factors, electric field, magnetic field, stored energy (U), power dissipation, and quality factor

  2. Accuracy analysis of automodel solutions for Lévy flight-based transport: from resonance radiative transfer to a simple general model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Sdvizhenskii, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The results of accuracy analysis of automodel solutions for Lévy flight-based transport on a uniform background are presented. These approximate solutions have been obtained for Green’s function of the following equations: the non-stationary Biberman-Holstein equation for three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer in plasma and gases, for various (Doppler, Lorentz, Voigt and Holtsmark) spectral line shapes, and the 1D transport equation with a simple longtailed step-length probability distribution function with various power-law exponents. The results suggest the possibility of substantial extension of the developed method of automodel solution to other fields far beyond physics.

  3. Approximate Analytical Solutions for Mathematical Model of Tumour Invasion and Metastasis Using Modified Adomian Decomposition and Homotopy Perturbation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhasimah Mahiddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modified decomposition method (MDM and homotopy perturbation method (HPM are applied to obtain the approximate solution of the nonlinear model of tumour invasion and metastasis. The study highlights the significant features of the employed methods and their ability to handle nonlinear partial differential equations. The methods do not need linearization and weak nonlinearity assumptions. Although the main difference between MDM and Adomian decomposition method (ADM is a slight variation in the definition of the initial condition, modification eliminates massive computation work. The approximate analytical solution obtained by MDM logically contains the solution obtained by HPM. It shows that HPM does not involve the Adomian polynomials when dealing with nonlinear problems.

  4. An approximation solution to refinery crude oil scheduling problem with demand uncertainty using joint constrained programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Genke; Xu, Guanglin; Pan, Changchun

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to develop an approximation method for scheduling refinery crude oil operations by taking into consideration the demand uncertainty. In the stochastic model the demand uncertainty is modeled as random variables which follow a joint multivariate distribution with a specific correlation structure. Compared to deterministic models in existing works, the stochastic model can be more practical for optimizing crude oil operations. Using joint chance constraints, the demand uncertainty is treated by specifying proximity level on the satisfaction of product demands. However, the joint chance constraints usually hold strong nonlinearity and consequently, it is still hard to handle it directly. In this paper, an approximation method combines a relax-and-tight technique to approximately transform the joint chance constraints to a serial of parameterized linear constraints so that the complicated problem can be attacked iteratively. The basic idea behind this approach is to approximate, as much as possible, nonlinear constraints by a lot of easily handled linear constraints which will lead to a well balance between the problem complexity and tractability. Case studies are conducted to demonstrate the proposed methods. Results show that the operation cost can be reduced effectively compared with the case without considering the demand correlation.

  5. An Approximation Solution to Refinery Crude Oil Scheduling Problem with Demand Uncertainty Using Joint Constrained Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to develop an approximation method for scheduling refinery crude oil operations by taking into consideration the demand uncertainty. In the stochastic model the demand uncertainty is modeled as random variables which follow a joint multivariate distribution with a specific correlation structure. Compared to deterministic models in existing works, the stochastic model can be more practical for optimizing crude oil operations. Using joint chance constraints, the demand uncertainty is treated by specifying proximity level on the satisfaction of product demands. However, the joint chance constraints usually hold strong nonlinearity and consequently, it is still hard to handle it directly. In this paper, an approximation method combines a relax-and-tight technique to approximately transform the joint chance constraints to a serial of parameterized linear constraints so that the complicated problem can be attacked iteratively. The basic idea behind this approach is to approximate, as much as possible, nonlinear constraints by a lot of easily handled linear constraints which will lead to a well balance between the problem complexity and tractability. Case studies are conducted to demonstrate the proposed methods. Results show that the operation cost can be reduced effectively compared with the case without considering the demand correlation.

  6. Peculiarities of solutions to the Chew Low equation in the no crossing approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    We show that the canonical presciption for finding a solution to the static Chew-Low theory of the pion-nucleon interaction breaks down for physically acceptable values of the coupling constant and form factor, if crossing symmetry is dropped. The difficulty is associated with the appearance of a pole (whose behavior is similar to a 'ghost state' pole) in the scattering amplitude in repulsive channels. We show that solutions without this pole can be obtained by including CDD poles in the denominator function, giving rise to a zero in the amplitude or the positive real axis. (orig.) [de

  7. Hybrid Approximation of Solutions of Nonlinear Operator Equations and Application to Equation of Hammerstein-Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoedu, Eric U.; Malonza, David M.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we study the hybrid iterative scheme to find a common element of a set of solutions of generalized mixed equilibrium problem, a set of common fixed points of finite family of weak relatively nonexpansive mapping, and null spaces of finite family of γ-inverse strongly monotone mappings in a 2-uniformly convex and uniformly smooth real Banach space. Our results extend, improve and generalize the results of several authors which were announced recently. An application of our theorem to the solution of equations of Hammerstein-type is of independent interest. (author)

  8. An Approximation Solution to Refinery Crude Oil Scheduling Problem with Demand Uncertainty Using Joint Constrained Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Genke; Xu, Guanglin; Pan, Changchun

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to develop an approximation method for scheduling refinery crude oil operations by taking into consideration the demand uncertainty. In the stochastic model the demand uncertainty is modeled as random variables which follow a joint multivariate distribution with a specific correlation structure. Compared to deterministic models in existing works, the stochastic model can be more practical for optimizing crude oil operations. Using joint chance constraints, the demand unc...

  9. Solution of the kinetic equation in the P3-approximation in a plane geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, Yu.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method and a program are described for solving single-velocity kinetic equations of neutron transfer for the plane geometry in the finite-difference approximation. A difference high-accuracy scheme and a matrix factorization method are used for the differential-difference equation systems. The program is written in the ALGOL-60 language and is adapted for M-20, M-220, M-222 and BESM-4 computers

  10. Linear analytical solution to the phase diversity problem for extended objects based on the Born approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrei, R.M.; Smith, C.S.; Fraanje, P.R.; Verhaegen, M.; Korkiakoski, V.A.; Keller, C.U.; Doelman, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we give a new wavefront estimation technique that overcomes the main disadvantages of the phase diversity (PD) algorithms, namely the large computational complexity and the fact that the solutions can get stuck in a local minima. Our approach gives a good starting point for an

  11. LIE GROUPS AND NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS: INVARIANT DISCRETIZATION VERSUS DIFFERENTIAL APPROXIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decio Levi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review two different methods of applying Lie group theory in the numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. On specific examples we show how the symmetry preserving discretization provides difference schemes for which the “first differential approximation” is invariant under the same Lie group as the original ordinary differential equation.

  12. Approximate analytical solution to diurnal atmospheric boundary-layer growth under well-watered conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The system of governing equations of a simplified slab model of the uniformly-mixed, purely convective, diurnal atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is shown to allow immediate solutions for the potential temperature and specific humidity as functions of the ABL height and net radiation when expressed i...

  13. Approximate treatment of two soliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaly, L.

    1979-05-01

    The so called breather solution of the sine-Gordon equation is phenomenologically described by an appropri.ately choosen potential acting between two particles. For some applications the method proves to be equivalent to other classical and quantum calculations. (author)

  14. A Closed-Form Approximation Solution for an Inventory Model with Supply Disruptions and Non-ZIO Reorder Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Heimann

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In supply chains, domestic and global, a producer must decide on an optimal quantity of items to order from suppliers and at what inventory level to place this order (the EOQ problem. We discuss how to modify the EOQ in the face of failures and recoveries by the supplier. This is the EOQ with disruption problem (EOQD. The supplier makes transitions between being capable and not being capable of filling an order in a Markov failure and recovery process. The producer adjusts the reorder point and the inventories to provide a margin of safety. Numerical solutions to the EOQD problem have been developed. In addition, a closed-form approximate solution has been developed for the zero inventory option (ZIO, where the inventory level on reordering is set to be zero. This paper develops a closed-form approximate solution for the EOQD problem when the reorder point can be non-zero, obtaining for that situation an optimal reorder quantity and optimal reorder point that represents an improvement on the optimal ZIO solution. The paper also supplies numerical examples demonstrating the cost savings against the ZIO situation, as well as the accuracy of the approximation technique.

  15. The simple solutions concept: a useful approach to estimate deviation from ideality in solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorel, C.; Pacary, V.

    2010-01-01

    The solvent extraction systems devoted to uranium purification from crude ore to spent fuel involve concentrated solutions in which deviation from ideality can not be neglected. The Simple Solution Concept based on the behaviour of isopiestic solutions has been applied to quantify the activity coefficients of metals and acids in the aqueous phase in equilibrium with the organic phase. This approach has been validated on various solvent extraction systems such as trialkylphosphates, malonamides or acidic extracting agents both on batch experiments and counter-current tests. Moreover, this concept has been successfully used to estimate the aqueous density which is useful to quantify the variation of volume and to assess critical parameters such as the number density of nuclides. (author)

  16. A simple low-computation-intensity model for approximating the distribution function of a sum of non-identical lognormals for financial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messica, A.

    2016-10-01

    The probability distribution function of a weighted sum of non-identical lognormal random variables is required in various fields of science and engineering and specifically in finance for portfolio management as well as exotic options valuation. Unfortunately, it has no known closed form and therefore has to be approximated. Most of the approximations presented to date are complex as well as complicated for implementation. This paper presents a simple, and easy to implement, approximation method via modified moments matching and a polynomial asymptotic series expansion correction for a central limit theorem of a finite sum. The method results in an intuitively-appealing and computation-efficient approximation for a finite sum of lognormals of at least ten summands and naturally improves as the number of summands increases. The accuracy of the method is tested against the results of Monte Carlo simulationsand also compared against the standard central limit theorem andthe commonly practiced Markowitz' portfolio equations.

  17. On the WKBJ approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sawi, M.

    1983-07-01

    A simple approach employing properties of solutions of differential equations is adopted to derive an appropriate extension of the WKBJ method. Some of the earlier techniques that are commonly in use are unified, whereby the general approximate solution to a second-order homogeneous linear differential equation is presented in a standard form that is valid for all orders. In comparison to other methods, the present one is shown to be leading in the order of iteration, and thus possibly has the ability of accelerating the convergence of the solution. The method is also extended for the solution of inhomogeneous equations. (author)

  18. Approximately analytical solutions of the Manning-Rosen potential with the spin-orbit coupling term and spin symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter the approximately analytical bound state solutions of the Dirac equation with the Manning-Rosen potential for arbitrary spin-orbit coupling quantum number k are carried out by taking a properly approximate expansion for the spin-orbit coupling term. In the case of exact spin symmetry, the associated two-component spinor wave functions of the Dirac equation for arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number k are presented and the corresponding bound state energy equation is derived. We study briefly two special cases; the general s-wave problem and the equal scalar and vector Manning-Rosen potential

  19. Analytic Approximations for Soliton Solutions of Short-Wave Models for Camassa-Holm and Degasperis-Procesi Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Pei; Li Zhibin; Chen Yong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the short-wave model equations are investigated, which are associated with the Camassa-Holm (CH) and Degasperis-Procesi (DP) shallow-water wave equations. Firstly, by means of the transformation of the independent variables and the travelling wave transformation, the partial differential equation is reduced to an ordinary differential equation. Secondly, the equation is solved by homotopy analysis method. Lastly, by the transformations back to the original independent variables, the solution of the original partial differential equation is obtained. The two types of solutions of the short-wave models are obtained in parametric form, one is one-cusp soliton for the CH equation while the other one is one-loop soliton for the DP equation. The approximate analytic solutions expressed by a series of exponential functions agree well with the exact solutions. It demonstrates the validity and great potential of homotopy analysis method for complicated nonlinear solitary wave problems. (general)

  20. Proposing buffer zones and simple technical solutions for safeguarding river water quality and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podimata, M. V.; Bekri, E. S.; Yannopoulos, P. C.

    2012-04-01

    Alfeios River Basin (ARB) constitutes one of the major hydrologic basins (≈3650km2) of Peloponnisos peninsula in Southern Greece. It is drained by Alfeios River and its tributaries, such as Lousios, Ladhon, Erymanthos, Kladheos, Selinous etc. The present manuscript takes a closer look at the importance of tributary basins and focuses on Erymanthos sub-basin that covers about 360 km2. Erymanthos River springs from Erymanthos Mountain that reaches altitudes of 2200 m and discharges 10 m3/sec, approximately, during the winter period, presenting a sound decrease from half to about an order of magnitude during summertime. Two factors stand out as reasons to select Erymanthos sub-basin as a case study. First, the sub-basin presents a significant variety of ecosystems and comprises a very important river system, since Erymanthos Tributary satisfies, among other uses, drinking water supply for a great majority of citizens in the region. Second, authors' experience of the study area in Research Program Pythagoras II, funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and the Operational Program for Educational and Vocational Training II (EPEAEK II) of Greece, offers a basis for better understanding of the real problems in the area. Erymanthos watershed, in fact, faces a lot of pressures, in several levels, provoked by human activities and Erymanthos Tributary is vulnerable to pollution. Recognizing the importance of clean water for healthy people, a developing economy, and a sustainable environment, the challenge of the present paper is elaborating human-induced pressures in the study area, analyzing their effects, estimating pollution factors and proposing integrated solutions/tools and a number of methodologies/initiatives used to overcome the problem of contaminating water supply in a catchment that lacks of wastewater treatment and disposal systems. The preservation of a good ecological status in Erymanthos River is not only a necessity for achieving the goals of EU Water

  1. Approximate Mathematical Modeling of Osmotic Dehydration of Cone-Shaped Fruits and Vegetables in Hypertonic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sirousazar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water loss kinetics in osmotic dehydration of cone-shaped fruits and vegetables was modeled on the basis of diffusion mechanism, using the Fick’s second law. The model was developed by taking into account the influences of the fruit geometrical characteristics, initial water content of fruit, water diffusion coefficient in fruit, and the water concentration in hypertonic solution. Based on the obtained model, it was shown that the water diffusion coefficient and the initial water concentration of fruit have direct effects on the dehydration rate and also inverse influence on the dehydration duration. The geometrical parameters of fruit and water concentration in hypertonic solution showed direct effect on the dehydration duration as well as inverse effect on the dehydration rate. The presented model seems to be useful tool to predict the dehydration kinetics of cone-shaped fruit during osmotic dehydration process and to optimize the process prior to perform the experiments.

  2. On mixed derivatives type high dimensional multi-term fractional partial differential equations approximate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Imran; Belgacem, Fethi Bin Muhammad; Asif, Naseer Ahmad; Khalil, Hammad

    2017-01-01

    In this research article, we derive and analyze an efficient spectral method based on the operational matrices of three dimensional orthogonal Jacobi polynomials to solve numerically the mixed partial derivatives type multi-terms high dimensions generalized class of fractional order partial differential equations. We transform the considered fractional order problem to an easily solvable algebraic equations with the aid of the operational matrices. Being easily solvable, the associated algebraic system leads to finding the solution of the problem. Some test problems are considered to confirm the accuracy and validity of the proposed numerical method. The convergence of the method is ensured by comparing our Matlab software simulations based obtained results with the exact solutions in the literature, yielding negligible errors. Moreover, comparative results discussed in the literature are extended and improved in this study.

  3. Approximation of Fixed Points of Nonexpansive Mappings and Solutions of Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidume CO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Let be a real -uniformly smooth Banach space with constant , . Let and be a nonexpansive map and an -strongly accretive map which is also -Lipschitzian, respectively. Let be a real sequence in that satisfies the following condition: and . For and , define a sequence iteratively in by , , . Then, converges strongly to the unique solution of the variational inequality problem (search for such that for all , where . A convergence theorem related to finite family of nonexpansive maps is also proved.

  4. Stokes system with solution-dependent threshold slip boundary conditions: Analysis, approximation and implementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haslinger, Jaroslav; Kučera, R.; Šátek, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, October 2017 (2017), s. 1-14 ISSN 1081-2865 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-01747S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Stokes system * threshold slip boundary conditions * solution dependent slip function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1081286517716222

  5. Neutron diffusion approximation solution for the the three layer borehole cylindrical geometry. Pt. 1. Theoretical description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.; Woznicka, U.

    1997-01-01

    A solution of the neutron diffusion equation is given for a three layer cylindrical coaxial geometry. The calculation is performed in two neutron-energy groups which distinguish the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes in the media irradiated by the fast point neutron source. The aim of the calculation is to define the neutron slowing down and migration lengths which are observed at a given point of the system. Generally, the slowing down and migration lengths are defined for an infinite homogenous medium (irradiated by the point neutron source) as a quotient of the neutron flux moment of the (2n + 2)-order to the moment of the 2n-order. Czubek(1992) introduced in the same manner the apparent neutron slowing down length and the apparent migration length for a given multi-region cylindrical geometry. The solutions in the present paper are applied to the method of semi-empirical calibration of neutron well-logging tools. The three-region cylindrical geometry corresponds to the borehole of radius R 1 surrounded by the intermediate region (e.g. mud cake) of thickness (R 2 -R 1 ) and finally surrounded by the geological formation which spreads from R 2 up to infinity. The cylinders of an infinite length are considered. The paper gives detailed solutions for the 0-th, 2-nd and 4-th neutron moments of the neutron fluxes for each neutron energy group and in each cylindrical layer. A comprehensive list of the solutions for integrals containing Bessel functions or their derivatives, which are absent in common tables of integrals, is also included. (author)

  6. Neutron diffusion approximation solution for the the three layer borehole cylindrical geometry. Pt. 1. Theoretical description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czubek, J.A.; Woznicka, U. [The H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    A solution of the neutron diffusion equation is given for a three layer cylindrical coaxial geometry. The calculation is performed in two neutron-energy groups which distinguish the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes in the media irradiated by the fast point neutron source. The aim of the calculation is to define the neutron slowing down and migration lengths which are observed at a given point of the system. Generally, the slowing down and migration lengths are defined for an infinite homogenous medium (irradiated by the point neutron source) as a quotient of the neutron flux moment of the (2n{sup +}2)-order to the moment of the 2n-order. Czubek(1992) introduced in the same manner the apparent neutron slowing down length and the apparent migration length for a given multi-region cylindrical geometry. The solutions in the present paper are applied to the method of semi-empirical calibration of neutron well-logging tools. The three-region cylindrical geometry corresponds to the borehole of radius R{sub 1} surrounded by the intermediate region (e.g. mud cake) of thickness (R{sub 2}-R{sub 1}) and finally surrounded by the geological formation which spreads from R{sub 2} up to infinity. The cylinders of an infinite length are considered. The paper gives detailed solutions for the 0-th, 2-nd and 4-th neutron moments of the neutron fluxes for each neutron energy group and in each cylindrical layer. A comprehensive list of the solutions for integrals containing Bessel functions or their derivatives, which are absent in common tables of integrals, is also included. (author) 6 refs, 2 figs

  7. Approximate Mathematical Modeling of Osmotic Dehydration of Cone-Shaped Fruits and Vegetables in Hypertonic Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Sirousazar

    2017-01-01

    Water loss kinetics in osmotic dehydration of cone-shaped fruits and vegetables was modeled on the basis of diffusion mechanism, using the Fick’s second law. The model was developed by taking into account the influences of the fruit geometrical characteristics, initial water content of fruit, water diffusion coefficient in fruit, and the water concentration in hypertonic solution. Based on the obtained model, it was shown that the water diffusion coefficient and the initial water concentratio...

  8. Stokes system with solution-dependent threshold slip boundary conditions: Analysis, approximation and implementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haslinger, Jaroslav; Kučera, R.; Šátek, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, October 2017 (2017), s. 1-14 ISSN 1081-2865 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-01747S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Stokes system * threshold slip boundary conditions * solution dependent slip function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http:// journals .sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1081286517716222

  9. Parallel iterative procedures for approximate solutions of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Parallel iterative procedures based on domain decomposition techniques are defined and analyzed for the numerical solution of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods. For finite element methods, in a Lagrangian framework, an efficient way for choosing the algorithm parameter as well as the algorithm convergence are indicated. Some heuristic arguments for finding the algorithm parameter for finite difference schemes are addressed. Numerical results are presented to indicate the effectiveness of the methods.

  10. Approximation of a solution for a K-positive definite operator equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1994-11-01

    Let E be a separable q-uniformly smooth Banach space, q > 1, and let A : D(A) is contained in-bar E → E be a K-positive definite operator. Let f is an element of E be arbitrary. An iterative method is constructed which converges strongly to the unique solution of the equation Ax = f. Our result resolves two questions raised in Chidume and Aneke (Applicable Analysis Vol. 50 (1993), p. 293). (author). 13 refs

  11. A fast Cauchy-Riemann solver. [differential equation solution for boundary conditions by finite difference approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghil, M.; Balgovind, R.

    1979-01-01

    The inhomogeneous Cauchy-Riemann equations in a rectangle are discretized by a finite difference approximation. Several different boundary conditions are treated explicitly, leading to algorithms which have overall second-order accuracy. All boundary conditions with either u or v prescribed along a side of the rectangle can be treated by similar methods. The algorithms presented here have nearly minimal time and storage requirements and seem suitable for development into a general-purpose direct Cauchy-Riemann solver for arbitrary boundary conditions.

  12. The auxiliary field method and approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard [LPSC Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France); Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien [Groupe de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)], E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.fr, E-mail: claude.semay@umh.ac.be, E-mail: fabien.buisseret@umh.ac.be

    2009-06-19

    The auxiliary field method is a new and efficient way to compute approximate analytical eigenenergies of the Schroedinger equation. This method has already been successfully applied to the case of central potentials of power-law and logarithmic forms. In the present work, we show that the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials of the form -{alpha}r{sup {lambda}}exp(-{beta}r) can also be analytically solved by using the auxiliary field method. Closed formulae giving the critical heights and the energy levels of these potentials are presented. Special attention is drawn to the Yukawa potential and the pure exponential potential.

  13. The auxiliary field method and approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard; Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    The auxiliary field method is a new and efficient way to compute approximate analytical eigenenergies of the Schroedinger equation. This method has already been successfully applied to the case of central potentials of power-law and logarithmic forms. In the present work, we show that the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials of the form -αr λ exp(-βr) can also be analytically solved by using the auxiliary field method. Closed formulae giving the critical heights and the energy levels of these potentials are presented. Special attention is drawn to the Yukawa potential and the pure exponential potential

  14. Supersymmetric Solution of the Schroedinger Equation for Woods-Saxon Potential by Using the Pekeris Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizi, H.; Rajabi, A.A.; Shojaei, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the three dimensional Woods-Saxon potential is studied within the context of Supersymmetry Quantum Mechanics. We have applied the SUSY method by using the Pekeris approximation to the centrifugal potential l ≠ 0 states. By application of this method, it is possible to solve the Schroedinger equation for this potential. We obtain exactly bound state spectrum and wave function of Woods-Saxon potential for nonzero angular momentum. Hamiltonian hierarchy method and the shape invariance property are used in the calculations. (authors)

  15. A maintenance policy for a system with multi-state components: an approximate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerler, Uelkue; Kaya, Alev

    2002-01-01

    For maintenance and quality assessment purposes, various performance levels for both systems and components are identified, usually as a function of the deterioration. In this study, we consider a multicomponent system where the lifetime of each component is described by several stages, (0,...,S), which are further classified as good, doubtful, preventive maintenance due (PM due) and down. A control policy is suggested where the system is replaced when a component enters a PM due or a down state and the number of components in the doubtful states (K,...,S-2) is at least N. All maintenance activities are assumed to take negligible time. The exact description of the underlying stochastic model under the policy is very complicated. We therefore propose some approximations, which allow an explicit expression for the long run average cost function, which is minimized w.r.t. (K,N) by numerical methods. Sensitivity of the model to system parameters and the performance of the approximation are investigated through several examples

  16. ISO learning approximates a solution to the inverse-controller problem in an unsupervised behavioral paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porr, Bernd; von Ferber, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2003-04-01

    In "Isotropic Sequence Order Learning" (pp. 831-864 in this issue), we introduced a novel algorithm for temporal sequence learning (ISO learning). Here, we embed this algorithm into a formal nonevaluating (teacher free) environment, which establishes a sensor-motor feedback. The system is initially guided by a fixed reflex reaction, which has the objective disadvantage that it can react only after a disturbance has occurred. ISO learning eliminates this disadvantage by replacing the reflex-loop reactions with earlier anticipatory actions. In this article, we analytically demonstrate that this process can be understood in terms of control theory, showing that the system learns the inverse controller of its own reflex. Thereby, this system is able to learn a simple form of feedforward motor control.

  17. Approximate Solutions to the Dirac Equation with Effective Mass for the Manning-Rosen Potential in N Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahar, M.K.; Yasuk, F.

    2012-01-01

    The solutions of the effective mass Dirac equation for the Manning-Rosen potential with the centrifugal term are studied approximately in N dimension. The relativistic energy spectrum and two-component spinor eigenfunctions are obtained by the asymptotic iteration method. We have also investigated eigenvalues of the effective mass Dirac-Manning-Rosen problem for α = 0 or α = 1. In this case, the Manning-Rosen potential reduces to the Hulthen potential. (author)

  18. Approximate solutions and error bounds for the wave equation in a stratified ionosphere with turning points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalesso, G.F.; Jacobson, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    A solution to the problem of a plane electromagnetic wave traveling parallel to a constant magnetic field in a horizontally stratified ionosphere was developed assuming that the permittivity of the medium can be represented as the sum of an unperturbed component and a perturbed component. The method is successfully applied to the case of a linearly varying permittivity of a lossless ionosphere with a superimposed Gaussian perturbing term. The feasibility of applying the method in the presence of an odd number of turning points is discussed. 13 refs

  19. On substructuring algorithms and solution techniques for the numerical approximation of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburger, M. D.; Nicolaides, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Substructuring methods are in common use in mechanics problems where typically the associated linear systems of algebraic equations are positive definite. Here these methods are extended to problems which lead to nonpositive definite, nonsymmetric matrices. The extension is based on an algorithm which carries out the block Gauss elimination procedure without the need for interchanges even when a pivot matrix is singular. Examples are provided wherein the method is used in connection with finite element solutions of the stationary Stokes equations and the Helmholtz equation, and dual methods for second-order elliptic equations.

  20. An Approximate Solution to the Plastic Indentation of Circular Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z.

    2018-05-01

    The plastic indentation response of circular sandwich panels loaded by the flat end of a cylinder is investigated employing a velocity field model. Using the principles of virtual velocities and minimum work, an expression for the indenter load in relation to the indenter displacement and displacement field of the deformed face sheet is derived. The analytical solutions obtained are in good agreement with those found by simulations using the ABAQUS code. The radial tensile strain of the deformed face sheet and the ratio of energy absorption rate of the core to that of the face sheet are discussed.

  1. Approximate solutions for the two-dimensional integral transport equation. The critically mixed methods of resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1980-11-01

    This work is divided into two part the first part (note CEA-N-2165) deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. These methods are applied for one-dimensional geometries with highly anisotropic scattering. In order to simplify the set of integral equation provided by the integral transport equation, the integro-differential equation is used to obtain relations that allow to lower the number of integral equation to solve; a general mathematical and numerical study is presented [fr

  2. Approximate analytical solutions in the analysis of elastic structures of complex geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloskokov, Dmitriy P.; Matrosov, Alexander V.

    2018-05-01

    A method of analytical decomposition for analysis plane structures of a complex configuration is presented. For each part of the structure in the form of a rectangle all the components of the stress-strain state are constructed by the superposition method. The method is based on two solutions derived in the form of trigonometric series with unknown coefficients using the method of initial functions. The coefficients are determined from the system of linear algebraic equations obtained while satisfying the boundary conditions and the conditions for joining the structure parts. The components of the stress-strain state of a bent plate with holes are calculated using the analytical decomposition method.

  3. Applicability of the Galerkin method to the approximate solution of the multigroup diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradovic, D.

    1970-04-01

    In the study of the nuclear reactors space-time behaviour the modal analysis is very often used though some basic mathematical problems connected with application of this methods are still unsolved. In this paper the modal analysis is identified as a set of the methods in the mathematical literature known as the Galerkin methods (or projection methods, or sometimes direct methods). Using the results of the mathematical investigations of these methods the applicability of the Galerkin type methods to the calculations of the eigenvalue and eigenvectors of the stationary and non-stationary diffusion operator, as well as for the solutions of the corresponding functional equations, is established (author)

  4. A quadratic approximation-based algorithm for the solution of multiparametric mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems

    KAUST Repository

    Domínguez, Luis F.

    2012-06-25

    An algorithm for the solution of convex multiparametric mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems arising in process engineering problems under uncertainty is introduced. The proposed algorithm iterates between a multiparametric nonlinear programming subproblem and a mixed-integer nonlinear programming subproblem to provide a series of parametric upper and lower bounds. The primal subproblem is formulated by fixing the integer variables and solved through a series of multiparametric quadratic programming (mp-QP) problems based on quadratic approximations of the objective function, while the deterministic master subproblem is formulated so as to provide feasible integer solutions for the next primal subproblem. To reduce the computational effort when infeasibilities are encountered at the vertices of the critical regions (CRs) generated by the primal subproblem, a simplicial approximation approach is used to obtain CRs that are feasible at each of their vertices. The algorithm terminates when there does not exist an integer solution that is better than the one previously used by the primal problem. Through a series of examples, the proposed algorithm is compared with a multiparametric mixed-integer outer approximation (mp-MIOA) algorithm to demonstrate its computational advantages. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  5. Scattering of particles with inclusions. Modeling and inverse problem solution in the Rayleigh-Gans approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, F A; Frontini, G L; Elicabe, G E

    2011-01-01

    An analytic model for the scattering of a spherical particle with spherical inclusions has been proposed under the RG approximation. The model can be used without limitations to describe an X-ray scattering experiment. However, for light scattering several conditions must be fulfilled. Based on this model an inverse methodology is proposed to estimate the radii of host particle and inclusions, the number of inclusions and the Distance Distribution Functions (DDF's) of the distances between inclusions and the distances between inclusions and the origin of coordinates. The methodology is numerically tested in a light scattering example in which the host particle is eliminated by matching the refractive indices of host particle and medium. The results obtained for this cluster particle are very satisfactory.

  6. Use of artificial bee colonies algorithm as numerical approximation of differential equations solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, Fariz Fahmi; Nuraini, Nuning

    2018-03-01

    The differential equation is one of the branches in mathematics which is closely related to human life problems. Some problems that occur in our life can be modeled into differential equations as well as systems of differential equations such as the Lotka-Volterra model and SIR model. Therefore, solving a problem of differential equations is very important. Some differential equations are difficult to solve, so numerical methods are needed to solve that problems. Some numerical methods for solving differential equations that have been widely used are Euler Method, Heun Method, Runge-Kutta and others. However, some of these methods still have some restrictions that cause the method cannot be used to solve more complex problems such as an evaluation interval that we cannot change freely. New methods are needed to improve that problems. One of the method that can be used is the artificial bees colony algorithm. This algorithm is one of metaheuristic algorithm method, which can come out from local search space and do exploration in solution search space so that will get better solution than other method.

  7. On flux integrals for generalized Melvin solution related to simple finite-dimensional Lie algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchuk, V.D. [VNIIMS, Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-15

    A generalized Melvin solution for an arbitrary simple finite-dimensional Lie algebra G is considered. The solution contains a metric, n Abelian 2-forms and n scalar fields, where n is the rank of G. It is governed by a set of n moduli functions H{sub s}(z) obeying n ordinary differential equations with certain boundary conditions imposed. It was conjectured earlier that these functions should be polynomials - the so-called fluxbrane polynomials. These polynomials depend upon integration constants q{sub s}, s = 1,.., n. In the case when the conjecture on the polynomial structure for the Lie algebra G is satisfied, it is proved that 2-form flux integrals Φ{sup s} over a proper 2d submanifold are finite and obey the relations q{sub s} Φ{sup s} = 4πn{sub s}h{sub s}, where the h{sub s} > 0 are certain constants (related to dilatonic coupling vectors) and the n{sub s} are powers of the polynomials, which are components of a twice dual Weyl vector in the basis of simple (co-)roots, s = 1,.., n. The main relations of the paper are valid for a solution corresponding to a finite-dimensional semi-simple Lie algebra G. Examples of polynomials and fluxes for the Lie algebras A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, A{sub 3}, C{sub 2}, G{sub 2} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 1} are presented. (orig.)

  8. On an Approximate Solution Method for the Problem of Surface and Groundwater Combined Movement with Exact Approximation on the Section Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Glazyrina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the initial-boundary problem for two nonlinear parabolic combined equations has been considered. One of the equations is set on the bounded domain Ω from R2, another equation is set along the curve lying in Ω. Both of the equations are parabolic equations with double degeneration. The degeneration can be present at the space operator. Furthermore, the nonlinear function which is under the sign of partial derivative with respect to the variable t, can be bound to zero. This problem has an applied character: such structure is needed to describe the process of surface and ground water combined movement. In this case, the desired function determines the level of water above the given impenetrable bottom, the section simulates the riverbed. The Bussinesk equation has been used for mathematical description of the groundwater filtration process in the domain Ω; a diffusion analogue of the Saint-Venant's system has been used on the section for description of the process of water level change in the open channel. Earlier, the authors proved the theorems of generalized solution existence and uniqueness for the considered problem from the functions classes which are called strengthened Sobolev spaces in the literature. To obtain these results, we used the technique which was created by the German mathematicians (H.W. Alt, S. Luckhaus, F. Otto to establish the correctness of the problems with a double degeneration. In this paper, we have proposed and investigated an approximate solution method for the above-stated problem. This method has been constructed using semidiscretization with respect to the variable t and the finite element method for space variables. Triangulation of the domain has been accomplished by triangles. The mesh has been set on the section line. On each segment of the line section lying between the nearby mesh points, on both side of this segment we have constructed the triangles with a common side which matches with

  9. Simple solution-processed titanium oxide electron transport layer for efficient inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Liang [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, Wenfei [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Institute of Hybrid Materials, Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile—The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Weichao [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Bao, Xichang, E-mail: baoxc@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Wang, Ning; Dou, Xiaowei; Han, Liangliang; Wen, Shuguang [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2014-12-31

    Titanium oxide (TiO{sub X}) is an effective electron transport layer (ETL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs). We report efficient inverted PSCs with a simple solution-processed amorphous TiO{sub X} (s-TiO{sub X}) film as an ETL. The s-TiO{sub X} film with high light transmittance was prepared by spin-coating titanium (IV) isopropoxide isopropanol solution on indium tin oxide coated glass in inert and then placed in air under room temperature for 60 min. The introduction of s-TiO{sub X} ETL greatly improved the short circuit current density of the devices. PSCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and poly(4,8-bis-alkyloxy-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-alt-alkylcarbonyl -thieno[3,4-b]thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl- C71-butyric acid methyl ester using s-TiO{sub X} film as ETL shows high power conversion efficiency of 4.29% and 6.7% under the illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, which shows enhancements compared to the conventional PSCs with poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) as anode buffer layer. In addition, the device exhibits good stability in a humid ambient atmosphere without capsulation. The results indicate that the annealing-free, simple solution processed s-TiO{sub X} film is an efficient ETL for high-performance PSCs. - Highlights: • High quality s-TiO{sub X} films were prepared by a simple, solution method without thermal treatment. • The s-TiO{sub X} films with high transmittance are very smooth. • The organic photovoltaic performance with s-TiO{sub X} film improved greatly and exhibited good stability. • The annealing-free, simple prepared s-TiO{sub X} film will be much compatible with flexible substrates.

  10. Efficient electroluminescence from a perylenediimide fluorophore obtained from a simple solution processed OLED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespedes-Guirao, F J; Fernandez-Lazaro, F; Sastre-Santos, A; Garcia-Santamaria, S; Bolink, H J

    2009-01-01

    Simple solution processed organic light emitting diodes are used to screen the performance of two types of highly efficient, narrow band red emitting fluorescent perylenediimides (PDIs). PDIs substituted at the diimide positions seem to form aggregates in the thin film architecture as evidenced by the shifted electroluminescent spectrum. When substituted on the bay position and when used both as the emitting and the electron transporting specie, bright electroluminescence with a narrow width around 610 nm reaching 500 cd m -2 at moderate voltages was observed, demonstrating the usefulness of these fluorophores for OLED applications.

  11. Simple solution-processed CuOX as anode buffer layer for efficient organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wenfei; Yang, Chunpeng; Bao, Xichang; Sun, Liang; Wang, Ning; Tang, Jianguo; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Renqiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Simple solution-processed CuO X hole transport layer for efficient organic solar cell. • Good photovoltaic performances as hole transport layer in OSCs with P3HT and PBDTTT-C as donor materials. • The device with CuO X as hole transport layer shows great improved stability compared with that of device with PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer. - Abstract: A simple, solution-processed ultrathin CuO X anode buffer layer was fabricated for high performance organic solar cells (OSCs). XPS measurement demonstrated that the CuO X was the composite of CuO and Cu 2 O. The CuO X modified ITO glass exhibit a better surface contact with the active layer. The photovoltaic performance of the devices with CuO X layer was optimized by varying the thickness of CuO X films through changing solution concentration. With P3HT:PC 61 BM as the active layer, we demonstrated an enhanced PCE of 4.14% with CuO X anode buffer layer, compared with that of PEDOT:PSS layer. The CuO X layer also exhibits efficient photovoltaic performance in devices with PBDTTT-C:PC 71 BM as the active layer. The long-term stability of CuO X device is better than that of PEDOT:PSS device. The results indicate that the easy solution-processed CuO X film can act as an efficient anode buffer layer for high-efficiency OSCs

  12. Approximate Solutions of Schrodinger Equation with Some Diatomic Molecular Interactions Using Nikiforov-Uvarov Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ituen B. Okon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a tool of conventional Nikiforov-Uvarov method to determine bound state solutions of Schrodinger equation with quantum interaction potential called Hulthen-Yukawa inversely quadratic potential (HYIQP. We obtained the energy eigenvalues and the total normalized wave function. We employed Hellmann-Feynman Theorem (HFT to compute expectation values r-2, r-1, T, and p2 for four different diatomic molecules: hydrogen molecule (H2, lithium hydride molecule (LiH, hydrogen chloride molecule (HCl, and carbon (II oxide molecule. The resulting energy equation reduces to three well-known potentials which are as follows: Hulthen potential, Yukawa potential, and inversely quadratic potential. The bound state energies for Hulthen and Yukawa potentials agree with the result reported in existing literature. We obtained the numerical bound state energies of the expectation values by implementing MATLAB algorithm using experimentally determined spectroscopic constant for the different diatomic molecules. We developed mathematica programming to obtain wave function and probability density plots for different orbital angular quantum number.

  13. A combination between Laplace transformation technique and numerical approximations to the Fokker-Planck equation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticelli, Cintia O.; Wortmann, Sergio; Segatto, Cynthia F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work is obtained a hybrid solution to the Fokker-Planck equation with energy dependency, very used in ion implantation problems. The main idea relies on the application of Laplace transform in the energy variable, and finite-difference in the spatial variable and in the angular variable. This procedure leads to a symbolic matrix problem for the transformed energy. To solve this system, is needed to do the Laplace inverse of the (sI+A) matrix, where s is a complex parameter, I is the identity matrix and A is a square matrix that was proceeded from the finite-difference in the spatial variable and in the angular variable. The matrix A is not defective, then is taken decomposition of A in a sum of two others matrices, where one is defective. It leads a iterative inversion method, similar the source fixed method combined with the diagonalization method, then is obtained the values to the angular flux. Hereafter we can to determine the energy deposited into the electronic system and in the nuclear system of the target. To comprove the results obtained, the simulation of implantation of B into Si at energies ranging from 1 KeV to 50 MeV was carried out and compared with the results by software SRIM2003. (author)

  14. A simple and effective solution to the constrained QM/MM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideaki; Kambe, Hiroyuki; Morita, Akihiro

    2018-04-01

    It is a promising extension of the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach to incorporate the solvent molecules surrounding the QM solute into the QM region to ensure the adequate description of the electronic polarization of the solute. However, the solvent molecules in the QM region inevitably diffuse into the MM bulk during the QM/MM simulation. In this article, we developed a simple and efficient method, referred to as the "boundary constraint with correction (BCC)," to prevent the diffusion of the solvent water molecules by means of a constraint potential. The point of the BCC method is to compensate the error in a statistical property due to the bias potential by adding a correction term obtained through a set of QM/MM simulations. The BCC method is designed so that the effect of the bias potential completely vanishes when the QM solvent is identical with the MM solvent. Furthermore, the desirable conditions, that is, the continuities of energy and force and the conservations of energy and momentum, are fulfilled in principle. We applied the QM/MM-BCC method to a hydronium ion(H3O+) in aqueous solution to construct the radial distribution function (RDF) of the solvent around the solute. It was demonstrated that the correction term fairly compensated the error and led the RDF in good agreement with the result given by an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation.

  15. Prediction of thermodynamic instabilities of protein solutions from simple protein–protein interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Agostino, Tommaso; Solana, José Ramón; Emanuele, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose a model of effective protein–protein interaction embedding solvent effects. ► A previous square-well model is enhanced by giving to the interaction a free energy character. ► The temperature dependence of the interaction is due to entropic effects of the solvent. ► The validity of the original SW model is extended to entropy driven phase transitions. ► We get good fits for lysozyme and haemoglobin spinodal data taken from literature. - Abstract: Statistical thermodynamics of protein solutions is often studied in terms of simple, microscopic models of particles interacting via pairwise potentials. Such modelling can reproduce the short range structure of protein solutions at equilibrium and predict thermodynamics instabilities of these systems. We introduce a square well model of effective protein–protein interaction that embeds the solvent’s action. We modify an existing model [45] by considering a well depth having an explicit dependence on temperature, i.e. an explicit free energy character, thus encompassing the statistically relevant configurations of solvent molecules around proteins. We choose protein solutions exhibiting demixing upon temperature decrease (lysozyme, enthalpy driven) and upon temperature increase (haemoglobin, entropy driven). We obtain satisfactory fits of spinodal curves for both the two proteins without adding any mean field term, thus extending the validity of the original model. Our results underline the solvent role in modulating or stretching the interaction potential

  16. Water-Reflected 233U Uranyl Nitrate Solutions in Simple Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, K.R.

    2001-01-01

    A number of critical experiments involving 233 U were performed in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Building 9213 Critical Experiments Facility during the years 1952 and 1953. These experiments, reported in Reference 1, were directed toward determining bounding values for the minimum critical mass, minimum critical volume, and maximum safe pipe size of water-moderated solutions of 233 U. Additional information on the critical experiments was found in the experimental logbooks. Two experiments utilizing uranyl nitrate (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ) solutions in simple geometry are evaluated in this report. Experiment 37 is in a 10.4-inch diameter sphere, and Experiment 39 is in a 10-inch diameter cylinder. The 233 U concentration ranges from 49 to 62 g 233 U/l. Both experiments were reflected by at least 6 inches of water in all directions. Paraffin-reflected uranyl nitrate experiments, also reported in Reference 1, are evaluated elsewhere. Experiments with smaller paraffin reflected 5-, 6-, and 7.5-inch diameter cylinders are evaluated in U233-SOL-THERM-004. Experiments with paraffin reflected 8-, 8.5-, 9-, 10-, and 12-inch diameter cylinders are evaluated in U233-SOL-THERM-002. Later experiments with highly-enriched 235 U uranyl fluoride solution in the same 10.4-inch diameter sphere are reported in HEU-SOL-THERM-010. Both experiments were judged acceptable for use as criticality-safety benchmark experiments

  17. Exact and approximate solutions for the decades-old Michaelis-Menten equation: Progress-curve analysis through integrated rate equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goličnik, Marko

    2011-01-01

    The Michaelis-Menten rate equation can be found in most general biochemistry textbooks, where the time derivative of the substrate is a hyperbolic function of two kinetic parameters (the limiting rate V, and the Michaelis constant K(M) ) and the amount of substrate. However, fundamental concepts of enzyme kinetics can be difficult to understand fully, or can even be misunderstood, by students when based only on the differential form of the Michaelis-Menten equation, and the variety of methods available to calculate the kinetic constants from rate versus substrate concentration "textbook data." Consequently, enzyme kinetics can be confusing if an analytical solution of the Michaelis-Menten equation is not available. Therefore, the still rarely known exact solution to the Michaelis-Menten equation is presented here through the explicit closed-form equation in terms of the Lambert W(x) function. Unfortunately, as the W(x) is not available in standard curve-fitting computer programs, the practical use of this direct solution is limited for most life-science students. Thus, the purpose of this article is to provide analytical approximations to the equation for modeling Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The elementary and explicit nature of these approximations can provide students with direct and simple estimations of kinetic parameters from raw experimental time-course data. The Michaelis-Menten kinetics studied in the latter context can provide an ideal alternative to the 100-year-old problems of data transformation, graphical visualization, and data analysis of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Hence, the content of the course presented here could gradually become an important component of the modern biochemistry curriculum in the 21st century. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 39 (APPROXIMATE ANALYTICAL SOLUTION)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotating machines like motors, turbines, compressors etc. are generally subjected to periodic forces and the system parameters remain more or less constant. ... parameters change and, consequently, the natural frequencies too, due to reasons of changing gyroscopic moments, centrifugal forces, bearing characteristics,.

  19. A simple model for predicting solute concentration in agricultural tile lines shortly after application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Steenhuis

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural tile drainage lines have been implicated as a source of pesticide contamination of surface waters. Field experiments were conducted and a simple model was developed to examine preferential transport of applied chemicals to agricultural tile lines. The conceptual model consists of two linear reservoirs, one near the soil surface and one near the tile drain. The connection between the two reservoirs is via preferential flow paths with very little interaction with the soil matrix. The model assumes that only part of the field contributes solutes to the tile drain. The model was evaluated with data from the field experiments in which chloride, 2,4-D, and atrazine concentrations were measured on eight tile-drained plots that were irrigated twice. Atrazine was applied two months prior to the experiment, 2,4-D was sprayed just before the first irrigation, and chloride before the second irrigation. All three chemicals were found in the tile effluent shortly after the rainfall began. Generally, the concentration increased with increased flow rates and decreased exponentially after the rainfall ceased. Although the simple model could simulate the observed chloride concentration patterns in the tile outflow for six of the eight plots, strict validation was not possible because of the difficulty with independent measurement of the data needed for a preferential flow model applied to field conditions. The results show that, to simulate pesticide concentration in tile lines, methods that can measure field averaged preferential flow characteristics need to be developed.

  20. Exact and approximate Fourier rebinning algorithms for the solution of the data truncation problem in 3-D PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouallègue, Fayçal Ben; Crouzet, Jean-François; Comtat, Claude; Fourcade, Marjolaine; Mohammadi, Bijan; Mariano-Goulart, Denis

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents an extended 3-D exact rebinning formula in the Fourier space that leads to an iterative reprojection algorithm (iterative FOREPROJ), which enables the estimation of unmeasured oblique projection data on the basis of the whole set of measured data. In first approximation, this analytical formula also leads to an extended Fourier rebinning equation that is the basis for an approximate reprojection algorithm (extended FORE). These algorithms were evaluated on numerically simulated 3-D positron emission tomography (PET) data for the solution of the truncation problem, i.e., the estimation of the missing portions in the oblique projection data, before the application of algorithms that require complete projection data such as some rebinning methods (FOREX) or 3-D reconstruction algorithms (3DRP or direct Fourier methods). By taking advantage of all the 3-D data statistics, the iterative FOREPROJ reprojection provides a reliable alternative to the classical FOREPROJ method, which only exploits the low-statistics nonoblique data. It significantly improves the quality of the external reconstructed slices without loss of spatial resolution. As for the approximate extended FORE algorithm, it clearly exhibits limitations due to axial interpolations, but will require clinical studies with more realistic measured data in order to decide on its pertinence.

  1. Approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongfang; Wu, Peng; Guo, Bo; Lü, Yanjun; Liu, Fuxi; Yu, Yingtian

    2015-01-01

    The instability of the rotor dynamic system supported by oil journal bearing is encountered frequently, such as the half-speed whirl of the rotor, which is caused by oil film lubricant with nonlinearity. Currently, more attention is paid to the physical characteristics of oil film due to an oil-lubricated journal bearing being the important supporting component of the bearing-rotor systems and its nonlinear nature. In order to analyze the lubrication characteristics of journal bearings efficiently and save computational efforts, an approximate solution of nonlinear oil film forces of a finite length turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow is proposed based on Sommerfeld and Ocvirk numbers. Reynolds equation in lubrication of a finite length turbulent journal bearing is solved based on multi-parametric principle. Load-carrying capacity of nonlinear oil film is obtained, and the results obtained by different methods are compared. The validation of the proposed method is verified, meanwhile, the relationships of load-carrying capacity versus eccentricity ratio and width-to-diameter ratio under turbulent and couple stress working conditions are analyzed. The numerical results show that both couple stress flow and eccentricity ratio have obvious influence on oil film pressure distribution, and the proposed method approximates the load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings efficiently with various width-to-diameter ratios. This research proposes an approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings with different width-to-diameter ratios, which are suitable for high eccentricity ratios and heavy loads.

  2. A Simple Approach to Derive a Novel N-Soliton Solution for a (3+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianping

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Hirota bilinear form, a simple approach without employing the standard perturbation technique, is presented for constructing a novel N-soliton solution for a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation. Moreover, the novel N-soliton solution is shown to have resonant behavior with the aid of Mathematica. (general)

  3. Excess Gibbs energy for six binary solid solutions of molecularly simple substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, L J; Staveley, L A.K.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we apply the method developed in a previous study of Ar + CH/sub 4/ to the evaluation of the excess Gibbs energy G /SUP E.S/ for solid solutions of two molecularly simple components. The method depends on combining information on the excess Gibbs energy G /SUP E.L/ for the liquid mixture of the two components with a knowledge of the (T, x) solid-liquid phase diagram. Certain thermal properties o the pure substances are also needed. G /SUP E.S/ has been calculated for binary mixtures of Ar + Kr, Kr + CH/sub 4/, CO + N/sub 2/, Kr + Xe, Ar + N/sub 2/, and Ar + CO. In general, but not always, the solid mixtures are more non-ideal than the liquid mixtures of the same composition at the same temperature. Except for the Kr + CH/sub 4/ system, the ratio r = G /SUP E.S/ /G /SUP E.L/ is larger the richer the solution in the component with the smaller molecules.

  4. A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Glacial Dynamics Based on the Shallow Ice Approximation and its Evaluation Using Analytical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Giri; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Pálsson, Finnur

    2018-03-01

    Bayesian hierarchical modeling can assist the study of glacial dynamics and ice flow properties. This approach will allow glaciologists to make fully probabilistic predictions for the thickness of a glacier at unobserved spatio-temporal coordinates, and it will also allow for the derivation of posterior probability distributions for key physical parameters such as ice viscosity and basal sliding. The goal of this paper is to develop a proof of concept for a Bayesian hierarchical model constructed, which uses exact analytical solutions for the shallow ice approximation (SIA) introduced by Bueler et al. (2005). A suite of test simulations utilizing these exact solutions suggests that this approach is able to adequately model numerical errors and produce useful physical parameter posterior distributions and predictions. A byproduct of the development of the Bayesian hierarchical model is the derivation of a novel finite difference method for solving the SIA partial differential equation (PDE). An additional novelty of this work is the correction of numerical errors induced through a numerical solution using a statistical model. This error correcting process models numerical errors that accumulate forward in time and spatial variation of numerical errors between the dome, interior, and margin of a glacier.

  5. Comparison of the Debye–Hückel and the Mean Spherical Approximation Theories for Electrolyte Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Thomsen, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamics of electrolyte solutions has been investigated by many scientists throughout the last century. While several theories have been presented, the most popular models for the electrostatic interactions are based on the Debye–Hückel and mean spherical approximation (MSA) theories....... In this paper we investigate the differences between the Debye–Hückel and the MSA theories, and comparisons of the numerical results for the Helmholtz energy and its derivatives with respect to temperature, volume and composition are presented. The investigation shows that the nonrestricted primitive MSA...... theory performs similarly to Debye–Hückel, despite the differences in the derivation. We furthermore show that the static permittivity is a key parameter for both models and that in many cases it completely dominates the results obtained from the two models. Consequently, we conclude that the simpler...

  6. An Approximate Solution for Predicting the Heat Extraction and Preventing Heat Loss from a Closed-Loop Geothermal Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisheng Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximate solutions are found for a mathematical model developed to predict the heat extraction from a closed-loop geothermal system which consists of two vertical wells (one for injection and the other for production and one horizontal well which connects the two vertical wells. Based on the feature of slow heat conduction in rock formation, the fluid flow in the well is divided into three stages, that is, in the injection, horizontal, and production wells. The output temperature of each stage is regarded as the input of the next stage. The results from the present model are compared with those obtained from numerical simulator TOUGH2 and show first-order agreement with a temperature difference less than 4°C for the case where the fluid circulated for 2.74 years. In the end, a parametric study shows that (1 the injection rate plays dominant role in affecting the output performance, (2 higher injection temperature produces larger output temperature but decreases the total heat extracted given a specific time, (3 the output performance of geothermal reservoir is insensitive to fluid viscosity, and (4 there exists a critical point that indicates if the fluid releases heat into or absorbs heat from the surrounding formation.

  7. Solving Simple Kinetics without Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez

    2016-01-01

    The solution of simple kinetic equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…

  8. Protein solution structure determination using distances from two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect experiments: Effect of approximations on the accuracy of derived structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.D.; Basus, V.J.; James, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Solution structures for many proteins have been determined to date utilizing interproton distance constraints estimated from two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect (2D NOE) spectra. Although the simple isolated spin pair approximation (ISPA) generally used can result in systematic errors in distances, the large number of constraints enables proteins structure to be defined with reasonably high resolution. Effects of these systematic errors on the resulting protein structure are examined. Iterative relaxation matrix calculations, which account for dipolar interactions between all protons in a molecule, can accurately determine internuclear distances with little or no a priori knowledge of the molecular structure. The value of this additional complexity is also addressed. To assess these distance determination methods, hypothetical experimental data, including random noise and peak overlap, are calculated for an arbitrary true protein structure. Three methods of obtaining distance constraints from 2D NOE peak intensities are examined: one entails a conservative use of ISPA, one assumes the ISPA to be fairly accurate, and on utilizes an iterative relaxation matrix method called MARDIGRAS (matrix analysis of relaxation for discerning the geometry of an aqueous structure), developed in this laboratory. An R factor for evaluating fit between experimental and calculated 2D NOE intensities is proposed

  9. Technology in rural transportation. Simple solution #6, traveler information on the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This application was identified as a promising rural Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) solution under a project sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the ENTERPRISE program. This summary describes the solution as well as o...

  10. Simple thermodynamic model of the extension of solid solution of Cu-Mo alloys processed by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, C.; Guzman, D.; Rojas, P.A.; Ordonez, Stella; Rios, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Extension of solid solution in Cu-Mo systems achieved by mechanical alloying. → Simple thermodynamic model to explain extension of solid solution of Mo in Cu. → Model gives results that are consistent with the solubility limit extension reported in other works. - Abstract: The objective of this work is proposing a simple thermodynamic model to explain the increase in the solubility limit of the powders of the Cu-Mo systems or other binary systems processed by mechanical alloying. In the regular solution model, the effects of crystalline defects, such as; dislocations and grain boundary produced during milling were introduced. The model gives results that are consistent with the solubility limit extension reported in other works for the Cu-Cr, Cu-Nb and Cu-Fe systems processed by mechanical alloying.

  11. On the (In)Validity of Tests of Simple Mediation: Threats and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Jolynn; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2015-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a popular framework for identifying underlying mechanisms in social psychology. In the context of simple mediation, we review and discuss the implications of three facets of mediation analysis: (a) conceptualization of the relations between the variables, (b) statistical approaches, and (c) relevant elements of design. We also highlight the issue of equivalent models that are inherent in simple mediation. The extent to which results are meaningful stem directly from choices regarding these three facets of mediation analysis. We conclude by discussing how mediation analysis can be better applied to examine causal processes, highlight the limits of simple mediation, and make recommendations for better practice. PMID:26985234

  12. Use Residual Correction Method and Monotone Iterative Technique to Calculate the Upper and Lower Approximate Solutions of Singularly Perturbed Non-linear Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to use the proposed residual correction method in coordination with the monotone iterative technique to obtain upper and lower approximate solutions of singularly perturbed non-linear boundary value problems. First, the monotonicity of a non-linear differential equation is reinforced using the monotone iterative technique, then the cubic-spline method is applied to discretize and convert the differential equation into the mathematical programming problems of an inequation, and finally based on the residual correction concept, complex constraint solution problems are transformed into simpler questions of equational iteration. As verified by the four examples given in this paper, the method proposed hereof can be utilized to fast obtain the upper and lower solutions of questions of this kind, and to easily identify the error range between mean approximate solutions and exact solutions.

  13. On the (In)Validity of Tests of Simple Mediation: Threats and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Pek, Jolynn; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2016-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a popular framework for identifying underlying mechanisms in social psychology. In the context of simple mediation, we review and discuss the implications of three facets of mediation analysis: (a) conceptualization of the relations between the variables, (b) statistical approaches, and (c) relevant elements of design. We also highlight the issue of equivalent models that are inherent in simple mediation. The extent to which results are meaningful stem directly from choi...

  14. A simple relation for the concentration dependence of osmotic pressure and depletion thickness in polymer solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, G.J.; Skvortsov, A.M.; Tuinier, R.

    2007-01-01

    We propose simple expressions II/IIo = 1 + and (omega/omega(ex))(3 alpha-1) and (delta(0)/delta)(2) = 1 + (omega/omega(ex))(2 alpha) for the osmotic pressure II and the depletion thickness 6 as a function of the polymer concentration omega. Here, IIo and delta 0 correspond to the dilute limit, and

  15. Derivation of a numerical solution of the 3D coupled velocity field for an ice sheet – ice shelf system, incorporating both full and approximate stress solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reerink, T.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831905; van de Wal, R.S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556; Borsboom, P.-P.

    2009-01-01

    To overcome the mechanical coupling of an ice sheet with an ice shelf, one single set of velocity equations is presented covering both the sheet and the shelf. This set is obtained by applying shared sheet-shelf approximations. The hydrostatic approximation and a constant density are the only

  16. Comparison between numeric and approximate analytic solutions for the prediction of soil metal uptake by roots. Example of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, André; Lin, Zhongbing; Sterckeman, Thibault; Nguyen, Christophe

    2018-04-01

    The dissociation of metal complexes in the soil solution can increase the availability of metals for root uptake. When it is accounted for in models of bioavailability of soil metals, the number of partial differential equations (PDEs) increases and the computation time to numerically solve these equations may be problematic when a large number of simulations are required, for example for sensitivity analyses or when considering root architecture. This work presents analytical solutions for the set of PDEs describing the bioavailability of soil metals including the kinetics of complexation for three scenarios where the metal complex in solution was fully inert, fully labile, or partially labile. The analytical solutions are only valid i) at steady-state when the PDEs become ordinary differential equations, the transient phase being not covered, ii) when diffusion is the major mechanism of transport and therefore, when convection is negligible, iii) when there is no between-root competition. The formulation of the analytical solutions is for cylindrical geometry but the solutions rely on the spread of the depletion profile around the root, which was modelled assuming a planar geometry. The analytical solutions were evaluated by comparison with the corresponding PDEs for cadmium in the case of the French agricultural soils. Provided that convection was much lower than diffusion (Péclet's number<0.02), the cumulative uptakes calculated from the analytic solutions were in very good agreement with those calculated from the PDEs, even in the case of a partially labile complex. The analytic solutions can be used instead of the PDEs to predict root uptake of metals. The analytic solutions were also used to build an indicator of the contribution of a complex to the uptake of the metal by roots, which can be helpful to predict the effect of soluble organic matter on the bioavailability of soil metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A simple high performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing paraquat in soil solution samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Mansell, Robert S; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection was developed to analyze paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-dipyridinium dichloride) herbicide content in soil solution samples. The analytical method was compared with the liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method using 14C-paraquat. Agreement obtained between the two methods was reasonable. However, the detection limit for paraquat analysis was 0.5 mg L(-1) by the HPLC method and 0.05 mg L(-1) by the LSC method. The LSC method was, therefore, 10 times more precise than the HPLC method for solution concentrations less than 1 mg L(-1). In spite of the high detection limit, the UC (nonradioactive) HPLC method provides an inexpensive and environmentally safe means for determining paraquat concentration in soil solution compared with the 14C-LSC method.

  18. A simple model for electrical charge in globular macromolecules and linear polyelectrolytes in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, M.

    2017-05-01

    We present a model for calculating the net and effective electrical charge of globular macromolecules and linear polyelectrolytes such as proteins and DNA, given the concentration of monovalent salt and pH in solution. The calculation is based on a numerical solution of the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation using a finite element discretized continuum approach. The model simultaneously addresses the phenomena of charge regulation and renormalization, both of which underpin the electrostatics of biomolecules in solution. We show that while charge regulation addresses the true electrical charge of a molecule arising from the acid-base equilibria of its ionizable groups, charge renormalization finds relevance in the context of a molecule's interaction with another charged entity. Writing this electrostatic interaction free energy in terms of a local electrical potential, we obtain an "interaction charge" for the molecule which we demonstrate agrees closely with the "effective charge" discussed in charge renormalization and counterion-condensation theories. The predictions of this model agree well with direct high-precision measurements of effective electrical charge of polyelectrolytes such as nucleic acids and disordered proteins in solution, without tunable parameters. Including the effective interior dielectric constant for compactly folded molecules as a tunable parameter, the model captures measurements of effective charge as well as published trends of pKa shifts in globular proteins. Our results suggest a straightforward general framework to model electrostatics in biomolecules in solution. In offering a platform that directly links theory and experiment, these calculations could foster a systematic understanding of the interrelationship between molecular 3D structure and conformation, electrical charge and electrostatic interactions in solution. The model could find particular relevance in situations where molecular crystal structures are not available or

  19. Large-area graphene films by simple solution casting of edge-selectively functionalized graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seo-Yoon; Jeon, In-Yup; Yang, Jieun; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Park, Sungjin; Ruoff, Rodney S; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2011-06-28

    We report edge-selective functionalization of graphite (EFG) for the production of large-area uniform graphene films by simply solution-casting EFG dispersions in dichloromethane on silicon oxide substrates, followed by annealing. The resultant graphene films show ambipolar transport properties with sheet resistances of 0.52-3.11 kΩ/sq at 63-90% optical transmittance. EFG allows solution processing methods for the scalable production of electrically conductive, optically transparent, and mechanically robust flexible graphene films for use in practice.

  20. A quadratic approximation-based algorithm for the solution of multiparametric mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems

    KAUST Repository

    Domí nguez, Luis F.; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm for the solution of convex multiparametric mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems arising in process engineering problems under uncertainty is introduced. The proposed algorithm iterates between a multiparametric nonlinear

  1. On progress of the solution of the stationary 2-dimensional neutron diffusion equation: a polynomial approximation method with error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceolin, C.; Schramm, M.; Bodmann, B.E.J.; Vilhena, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Recently the stationary neutron diffusion equation in heterogeneous rectangular geometry was solved by the expansion of the scalar fluxes in polynomials in terms of the spatial variables (x; y), considering the two-group energy model. The focus of the present discussion consists in the study of an error analysis of the aforementioned solution. More specifically we show how the spatial subdomain segmentation is related to the degree of the polynomial and the Lipschitz constant. This relation allows to solve the 2-D neutron diffusion problem for second degree polynomials in each subdomain. This solution is exact at the knots where the Lipschitz cone is centered. Moreover, the solution has an analytical representation in each subdomain with supremum and infimum functions that shows the convergence of the solution. We illustrate the analysis with a selection of numerical case studies. (author)

  2. On progress of the solution of the stationary 2-dimensional neutron diffusion equation: a polynomial approximation method with error analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceolin, C., E-mail: celina.ceolin@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Frederico Westphalen, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte; Schramm, M.; Bodmann, B.E.J.; Vilhena, M.T., E-mail: celina.ceolin@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    2015-07-01

    Recently the stationary neutron diffusion equation in heterogeneous rectangular geometry was solved by the expansion of the scalar fluxes in polynomials in terms of the spatial variables (x; y), considering the two-group energy model. The focus of the present discussion consists in the study of an error analysis of the aforementioned solution. More specifically we show how the spatial subdomain segmentation is related to the degree of the polynomial and the Lipschitz constant. This relation allows to solve the 2-D neutron diffusion problem for second degree polynomials in each subdomain. This solution is exact at the knots where the Lipschitz cone is centered. Moreover, the solution has an analytical representation in each subdomain with supremum and infimum functions that shows the convergence of the solution. We illustrate the analysis with a selection of numerical case studies. (author)

  3. Estimating the Soil Temperature Profile from a single Depth Observation: A simple Empirical Heatflow Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, T.R.H.; Owe, M.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Kooi, H.

    2008-01-01

    Two field data sets are used to model near-surface soil temperature profiles in a bare soil. It is shown that the commonly used solutions to the heat flow equations by Van Wijk perform well when applied at deeper soil layers, but result in large errors when applied to near surface layers, where more

  4. A simple approach to nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhongfu; He Jihuan

    2009-01-01

    A very simple and effective approach to nonlinear oscillators is suggested. Anyone with basic knowledge of advanced calculus can apply the method to finding approximately the amplitude-frequency relationship of a nonlinear oscillator. Some examples are given to illustrate its extremely simple solution procedure and an acceptable accuracy of the obtained solutions.

  5. Creep buckling: an experiment, an 'exact' solution and some simple thoughts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, P.; Anderson, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents attempts to analyse and understand a carefully conducted creep buckling experiment. The analysis was conducted using the ABAQUS Finite Element Code coupled to a number of plausible creep laws. The results show good agreement between ABAQUS runs and experimental deflections but it is difficult to reproduce the early loads. A simple model of buckling analysis for n-power creep laws is derived as an aid to understanding the development of the deflections for non-linear creep laws. In particular, the model suggests why deflections develop so rapidly and how the creep deflection development relates to the elastic behaviour. (author)

  6. Solution of the point kinetics equations in the presence of Newtonian temperature feedback by Pade approximations via the analytical inversion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboanber, A E; Nahla, A A

    2002-01-01

    A method based on the Pade approximations is applied to the solution of the point kinetics equations with a time varying reactivity. The technique consists of treating explicitly the roots of the inhour formula. A significant improvement has been observed by treating explicitly the most dominant roots of the inhour equation, which usually would make the Pade approximation inaccurate. Also the analytical inversion method which permits a fast inversion of polynomials of the point kinetics matrix is applied to the Pade approximations. Results are presented for several cases of Pade approximations using various options of the method with different types of reactivity. The formalism is applicable equally well to non-linear problems, where the reactivity depends on the neutron density through temperature feedback. It was evident that the presented method is particularly good for cases in which the reactivity can be represented by a series of steps and performed quite well for more general cases

  7. Adjoint eigenfunctions of temporally recurrent single-spiral solutions in a simple model of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Christopher D; Grigoriev, Roman O

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces a numerical method for computing the spectrum of adjoint (left) eigenfunctions of spiral wave solutions to reaction-diffusion systems in arbitrary geometries. The method is illustrated by computing over a hundred eigenfunctions associated with an unstable time-periodic single-spiral solution of the Karma model on a square domain. We show that all leading adjoint eigenfunctions are exponentially localized in the vicinity of the spiral tip, although the marginal modes (response functions) demonstrate the strongest localization. We also discuss the implications of the localization for the dynamics and control of unstable spiral waves. In particular, the interaction with no-flux boundaries leads to a drift of spiral waves which can be understood with the help of the response functions.

  8. Exact and approximate solutions for the one-dimensional transfer of polarized radiation, and applications to X-ray pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, P.; Nagel, W.; Ventura, J.

    1979-11-01

    Theoretical studies of the radiation from hot, strongly magnetized plasmas, as encountered in pulsars, require a knowledge of solutions to the transfer equations for polarized radiation. We present here an analytic solution of the radiative transfer equations for one-dimensional propagation across a homogeneous slab of finite depth, as well as for a semi-infinite atmosphere. Absorption, scattering and mode-exchange between the two polarizations is included, the role of this latter being crucial. A physical discussion of the solutions for certain limiting cases, and an interpretation in terms of probabilistic (quantum escape approach) arguments, fully corrobrates these solutions, and provides a better intuitive feel for the behaviour of the radiated spectra. Whereas our analytic solutions are valid for any birefringent medium (not necessarily magnetic), our numerical examples and the qualitative discussion presented refer to the particular problem of the radiation from X-ray pulsars. Large scale qualitative changes from the nonmagnetic spectra aae found, which affect both the continum and the spectral lines. (orig.) 891 WL/orig. 892 RDG

  9. Solute transport along a single fracture in a porous rock: a simple analytical solution and its extension for modeling velocity dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longcheng; Neretnieks, Ivars; Shahkarami, Pirouz; Meng, Shuo; Moreno, Luis

    2018-02-01

    A simple and robust solution is developed for the problem of solute transport along a single fracture in a porous rock. The solution is referred to as the solution to the single-flow-path model and takes the form of a convolution of two functions. The first function is the probability density function of residence-time distribution of a conservative solute in the fracture-only system as if the rock matrix is impermeable. The second function is the response of the fracture-matrix system to the input source when Fickian-type dispersion is completely neglected; thus, the effects of Fickian-type dispersion and matrix diffusion have been decoupled. It is also found that the solution can be understood in a way in line with the concept of velocity dispersion in fractured rocks. The solution is therefore extended into more general cases to also account for velocity variation between the channels. This leads to a development of the multi-channel model followed by detailed statistical descriptions of channel properties and sensitivity analysis of the model upon changes in the model key parameters. The simulation results obtained by the multi-channel model in this study fairly well agree with what is often observed in field experiments—i.e. the unchanged Peclet number with distance, which cannot be predicted by the classical advection-dispersion equation. In light of the findings from the aforementioned analysis, it is suggested that forced-gradient experiments can result in considerably different estimates of dispersivity compared to what can be found in natural-gradient systems for typical channel widths.

  10. Improved simple graphical solution for the eigenvalues of the finite square well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The three principal graphical methods for obtaining the energy eigenvalues of the finite square well potential are presented. The forms of the wavefunctions within the well, and the corresponding linear probability densities, are derived directly from the method. A simple extension of the method allows the energy level spectrum to be obtained directly on a linear energy scale. The variations of the energy eigenvalues with well depth and width are separately and jointly displayed, and explicit corresponding functional relationships are derived. Two universal graphs are deduced which allow the rapid appreciation and calculation of the dependence of the energy levels on the depth and width of the well and on the mass of the particle. (author)

  11. Aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids formed radiolytically in aqueous solutions of cyanides and simple nitriles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Draganic, Z.D.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Graganic, I.G.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic search for aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids was carried out in aqueous solutions of HCN, NH 4 CN, CH 3 CN, and C 2 H 4 CN, that had received multikilogray doses of 60 Co γ radiation. About 30 radiolytic products were identified, among them a large variety of dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids. Some of them might be of significant interest in molecular evolution studies of prebiotic processes. They originate in the free-radical-initiated chemical reactions where the additional oligomerization processes are particularly important. Most of the radiolytic products appear in both cyanides and nitriles and point to the importance of reactions involving the carbon-nitrogen triple bond

  12. A simple computational for the analysis of 2-D solute migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, Heldio Pereira

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary model for the simulation of 2-D migration patterns is presented. This computer model adopts a novel approach to the solution of the advection-dispersion equation in two dimensions through finite differences. The soil column is divided into a number of thin columns. The 1-D advection-dispersion equation is applied in the direction of flow and, using the same time increment, the 1-D diffusion equation is applied perpendicularly to the flow. The results thus obtained were compared to those of two migration experiments with two different soils. (author)

  13. A simple solution for reducing artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects in clinical magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, M.; Lowry, M.; Gibbs, P.; Pickles, M.; Turnbull, L.W.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of imaging obtained at high magnetic field strengths can be degraded by various artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects, which leads to loss of signal. Various methods have been described and used to improve the quality of the image affected by such artefacts. In this article, we describe the construction and use of a simple solution that can be used to diminish artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects in clinical imaging at 3 T field strength and thereby improve the diagnostic quality of the images obtained

  14. A simple solution for reducing artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects in clinical magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivas, M. [Department of Radiology (Yorkshire Deanery-East), Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: aprilsreenivas@hotmail.com; Lowry, M. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, 1PR, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Gibbs, P. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, 1PR, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Pickles, M. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, 1PR, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Turnbull, L.W. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, 1PR, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    The quality of imaging obtained at high magnetic field strengths can be degraded by various artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects, which leads to loss of signal. Various methods have been described and used to improve the quality of the image affected by such artefacts. In this article, we describe the construction and use of a simple solution that can be used to diminish artefacts due to conductive and dielectric effects in clinical imaging at 3 T field strength and thereby improve the diagnostic quality of the images obtained.

  15. Computationally simple, analytic, closed form solution of the Coulomb self-interaction problem in Kohn Sham density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonis, Antonios; Daene, Markus W.; Nicholson, Don M.; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    We have developed and tested in terms of atomic calculations an exact, analytic and computationally simple procedure for determining the functional derivative of the exchange energy with respect to the density in the implementation of the Kohn Sham formulation of density functional theory (KS-DFT), providing an analytic, closed-form solution of the self-interaction problem in KS-DFT. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method through ground-state calculations of the exchange potential and energy for atomic He and Be atoms, and comparisons with experiment and the results obtained within the optimized effective potential (OEP) method.

  16. Conductivity enhancement of silver nanowire networks via simple electrolyte solution treatment and solvent washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiahui; Wang, Xuelin; Chen, Hongtao; Yang, Shihua; Feng, Huanhuan; Ma, Xing; Ji, Hongjun; Wei, Jun; Li, Mingyu

    2018-06-01

    As a promising replacement material for indium tin oxide in flexible electronics, silver nanowires (AgNWs) usually need complicated post-treatment to reduce the high contact resistance across the intersections when used as transparent conductive films. In this work, a widely applicable nano-joining method for improving the overall conductivity of AgNW networks with different kinds of electrolyte solutions is presented. By treatment with an electrolyte solution with appropriate ionic strengths, the insulating surfactant layer (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP) on the AgNWs could be desorbed, and the AgNW network could be densified. The sheet resistance of the AgNW film on a glass slide is reduced by 60.9% (from 67.5 to 26.4 Ohm sq‑1) with a transmittance of 92.5%. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates that atomic diffusion occurs at the intersection of two AgNWs. Thus, metallurgical bonding on the nanometer scale is achieved across the junctions of the AgNWs, leading to a significant enhancement in the conductivity of the AgNW network.

  17. Approximate solutions of pulse transport in turbulent flow in narrow fuel element bundle geometries, using the FE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author is concerned with the flow conditions in case of narrow fuel element grids of pressurised-water reactors. Starting from the mathematical formulation of the flow processes for incompressible, isothermal flows, models of the turbulence characteristics are being developed. Besides turbulence models, and network structure the finite element method is treated as numeric solution process. Finally the results are summarized and discussed. (HAG) [de

  18. Finite volume approximation of the three-dimensional flow equation in axisymmetric, heterogeneous porous media based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-09-01

    In this work the problem of flow in three-dimensional, axisymmetric, heterogeneous porous medium domain is investigated numerically. For this system, it is natural to use cylindrical coordinate system, which is useful in describing phenomena that have some rotational symmetry about the longitudinal axis. This can happen in porous media, for example, in the vicinity of production/injection wells. The basic feature of this system is the fact that the flux component (volume flow rate per unit area) in the radial direction is changing because of the continuous change of the area. In this case, variables change rapidly closer to the axis of symmetry and this requires the mesh to be denser. In this work, we generalize a methodology that allows coarser mesh to be used and yet yields accurate results. This method is based on constructing local analytical solution in each cell in the radial direction and moves the derivatives in the other directions to the source term. A new expression for the harmonic mean of the hydraulic conductivity in the radial direction is developed. Apparently, this approach conforms to the analytical solution for uni-directional flows in radial direction in homogeneous porous media. For the case when the porous medium is heterogeneous or the boundary conditions is more complex, comparing with the mesh-independent solution, this approach requires only coarser mesh to arrive at this solution while the traditional methods require more denser mesh. Comparisons for different hydraulic conductivity scenarios and boundary conditions have also been introduced. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Simple solution-processed CuO{sub X} as anode buffer layer for efficient organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenfei [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Institute of Hybrid Materials, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yang, Chunpeng [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Bao, Xichang, E-mail: baoxc@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Sun, Liang; Wang, Ning [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tang, Jianguo [Institute of Hybrid Materials, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Weichao [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Yang, Renqiang, E-mail: yangrq@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Simple solution-processed CuO{sub X} hole transport layer for efficient organic solar cell. • Good photovoltaic performances as hole transport layer in OSCs with P3HT and PBDTTT-C as donor materials. • The device with CuO{sub X} as hole transport layer shows great improved stability compared with that of device with PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer. - Abstract: A simple, solution-processed ultrathin CuO{sub X} anode buffer layer was fabricated for high performance organic solar cells (OSCs). XPS measurement demonstrated that the CuO{sub X} was the composite of CuO and Cu{sub 2}O. The CuO{sub X} modified ITO glass exhibit a better surface contact with the active layer. The photovoltaic performance of the devices with CuO{sub X} layer was optimized by varying the thickness of CuO{sub X} films through changing solution concentration. With P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM as the active layer, we demonstrated an enhanced PCE of 4.14% with CuO{sub X} anode buffer layer, compared with that of PEDOT:PSS layer. The CuO{sub X} layer also exhibits efficient photovoltaic performance in devices with PBDTTT-C:PC{sub 71}BM as the active layer. The long-term stability of CuO{sub X} device is better than that of PEDOT:PSS device. The results indicate that the easy solution-processed CuO{sub X} film can act as an efficient anode buffer layer for high-efficiency OSCs.

  20. An approximative solution for limit load of piping branch junctions with circumferential crack and finite element validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan Fuzhen; Liu Changjun; Li Peining

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the prediction of limit load of the piping branch junctions with circumferential crack under internal pressure. Recently, we have developed a new approach for predicting the limit load of two-cylinder intersection structures with diameter ratio larger than 0.5, which has been successfully applied to defect free cases under various loading conditions. In the present work, we consider the extension of the approach to cover cracked piping branch junctions. On the basis of stress analysis in the vicinity of intersection line, a closed form of limit load solution for piping branch junctions with circumferential crack was developed. Then, 36 finite element (FE) models of piping branch junction with various dimensions of structure and crack were analyzed by using nonlinear finite element software. The limit loads from FE analysis and the proposed solution are compared with each other. Overall good agreement between the estimated solutions and the FE results provides confidence in the use of the proposed formulae for defect assessment of piping branch junctions in practice

  1. Modified method of simplest equation: Powerful tool for obtaining exact and approximate traveling-wave solutions of nonlinear PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the class of equations ∑i,j=0mAij(u){∂iu}/{∂ti}∂+∑k,l=0nBkl(u){∂ku}/{∂xk}∂=C(u) where Aij( u), Bkl( u) and C( u) are functions of u( x, t) as follows: (i) Aij, Bkl and C are polynomials of u; or (ii) Aij, Bkl and C can be reduced to polynomials of u by means of Taylor series for small values of u. For these two cases the above-mentioned class of equations consists of nonlinear PDEs with polynomial nonlinearities. We show that the modified method of simplest equation is powerful tool for obtaining exact traveling-wave solution of this class of equations. The balance equations for the sub-class of traveling-wave solutions of the investigated class of equations are obtained. We illustrate the method by obtaining exact traveling-wave solutions (i) of the Swift-Hohenberg equation and (ii) of the generalized Rayleigh equation for the cases when the extended tanh-equation or the equations of Bernoulli and Riccati are used as simplest equations.

  2. Approximate Solution of Schrödinger Equation with Pseudo-Gaussian Potential Viewed as a Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacob Theodor-Felix

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Schrödinger equation with pseudo-Gaussian potential and point out that it is basically made up by a term representing the harmonic oscillator potential and an additional term, which is actually a power series that converges rapidly. Based on this observation the system can be considered as a perturbation of harmonic oscillator. The perturbation method is used to approximate the energy levels of pseudo- Gaussian oscillator. The results are compared with those obtained in the analytic and numeric case.

  3. Simulations of free-solution electrophoresis of polyelectrolytes with a finite Debye length using the Debye-Hückel approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Owen A; Shendruk, Tyler N; Harden, James L; Slater, Gary W

    2012-08-31

    We introduce a mesoscale simulation method based on multiparticle collision dynamics (MPCD) for the electrohydrodynamics of polyelectrolytes with finite Debye lengths. By applying the Debye-Hückel approximation to assign an effective charge to MPCD particles near charged monomers, our simulations are able to reproduce the rapid rise in the electrophoretic mobility with respect to the degree of polymerization for the shortest polymer lengths followed by a small decrease for longer polymers due to charge condensation. Moreover, these simulations demonstrate the importance of a finite Debye length in accurately determining the mobility of uniformly charged polyelectrolytes and net neutral polyampholytes.

  4. Limiting cases of the small-angle scattering approximation solutions for the propagation of laser beams in anisotropic scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, M. A.; Deepak, A.

    1981-01-01

    The propagation of photons in a medium with strongly anisotropic scattering is a problem with a considerable history. Like the propagation of electrons in metal foils, it may be solved in the small-angle scattering approximation by the use of Fourier-transform techniques. In certain limiting cases, one may even obtain analytic expressions. This paper presents some of these results in a model-independent form and also illustrates them by the use of four different phase-function models. Sample calculations are provided for comparison purposes

  5. A simple digestion method with a Lefort aqua regia solution for diatom extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huipin; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Jian; Hu, Sunlin; Wang, Yuzhong; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yanji

    2015-01-01

    Presence of diatoms in tissues has been considered as a significant sign of drowning. However, there are limitations in the present extraction methods. We developed a new digestion method using the Lefort aqua regia solution (3:1 nitric acid to hydrochloric acid) for diatom extraction and evaluated the digestive capability, diatom destruction, and diatoms' recovery of this new method. The kidney tissues from rabbit mixed with water rich in diatoms were treated by the Lefort aqua regia digestion method (n = 10) and the conventional acid digestion method (n = 10). The results showed that the digestive capability of Lefort aqua regia digestion method was superior to conventional acid digestion method (p 0.05). The Lefort aqua regia reagent is an improvement over the conventional acid digestion for recovery of diatoms from tissue samples. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Similarity solution and Runge Kutta method to a thermal boundary layer model at the entrance region of a circular tube: The Lévêque Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Belhocine

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thermal entrance region, a thermal boundary layer develops and also reaches the circular tube center. The fully developed region is the zone in which the flow is both hydrodynamically and thermally developed. The heat flux will be higher near the inlet because the heat transfer coefficient is highest at the tube inlet where the thickness of the thermal boundary layer is zero and decreases gradually to the fully developed value. In this paper, the assumptions implicit in Leveque's approximation are re-examined, and the analytical solution of the problem with additional boundary conditions, for the temperature field and the boundary layer thickness through the long tube is presented. By defining a similarity variable, the governing equations are reduced to a dimensionless equation with an analytic solution in the entrance region. This report gives justification for the similarity variable via scaling analysis, details the process of converting to a similarity form, and presents a similarity solution. The analytical solutions are then checked against numerical solution programming by Fortran code obtained via using Runge-Kutta fourth order (RK4 method. Finally, others important thermal results obtained from this analysis, such as; approximate Nusselt number in the thermal entrance region was discussed in detail.

  7. Stereoselectivity of Mucorales lipases toward triradylglycerols--a simple solution to a complex problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheib, H.; Pleiss, J.; Kovac, A.; Paltauf, F.; Schmid, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    The lipases from Rhizopus and Rhizomucor are members of the family of Mucorales lipases. Although they display high sequence homology, their stereoselectivity toward triradylglycerols (sn-2 substituted triacylglycerols) varies. Four different triradylglycerols were investigated, which were classified into two groups: flexible substrates with rotatable O'-C1' ether or ester bonds adjacent to C2 of glycerol and rigid substrates with a rigid N'-C1' amide bond or a phenyl ring in sn-2. Although Rhizopus lipase shows opposite stereopreference for flexible and rigid substrates (hydrolysis in sn-1 and sn-3, respectively), Rhizomucor lipase hydrolyzes both groups of triradylglycerols preferably in sn-1. To explain these experimental observations, computer-aided molecular modeling was applied to study the molecular basis of stereoselectivity. A generalized model for both lipases of the Mucorales family highlights the residues mediating stereoselectivity: (1) L258, the C-terminal neighbor of the catalytic histidine, and (2) G266, which is located in a loop contacting the glycerol backbone of a bound substrate. Interactions with triradylglycerol substrates are dominated by van der Waals contacts. Stereoselectivity can be predicted by analyzing the value of a single substrate torsion angle that discriminates between sn-1 and sn-3 stereopreference for all substrates and lipases investigated here. This simple model can be easily applied in enzyme and substrate engineering to predict Mucorales lipase variants and synthetic substrates with desired stereoselectivity. PMID:10210199

  8. Viscoelasticity and nonlinear simple shear flow behavior of an entangled asymmetric exact comb polymer solution

    KAUST Repository

    Snijkers, F.; Kirkwood, K. M.; Vlassopoulos, D.; Leal, L. G.; Nikopoulou, A.; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Coppola, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report upon the characterization of the steady-state shear stresses and first normal stress differences as a function of shear rate using mechanical rheometry (both with a standard cone and plate and with a cone partitioned plate) and optical rheometry (with a flow-birefringence setup) of an entangled solution of asymmetric exact combs. The combs are polybutadienes (1,4-addition) consisting of an H-skeleton with an additional off-center branch on the backbone. We chose to investigate a solution in order to obtain reliable nonlinear shear data in overlapping dynamic regions with the two different techniques. The transient measurements obtained by cone partitioned plate indicated the appearance of overshoots in both the shear stress and the first normal stress difference during start-up shear flow. Interestingly, the overshoots in the start-up normal stress difference started to occur only at rates above the inverse stretch time of the backbone, when the stretch time of the backbone was estimated in analogy with linear chains including the effects of dynamic dilution of the branches but neglecting the effects of branch point friction, in excellent agreement with the situation for linear polymers. Flow-birefringence measurements were performed in a Couette geometry, and the extracted steady-state shear and first normal stress differences were found to agree well with the mechanical data, but were limited to relatively low rates below the inverse stretch time of the backbone. Finally, the steady-state properties were found to be in good agreement with model predictions based on a nonlinear multimode tube model developed for linear polymers when the branches are treated as solvent.

  9. Viscoelasticity and nonlinear simple shear flow behavior of an entangled asymmetric exact comb polymer solution

    KAUST Repository

    Snijkers, F.

    2016-03-31

    We report upon the characterization of the steady-state shear stresses and first normal stress differences as a function of shear rate using mechanical rheometry (both with a standard cone and plate and with a cone partitioned plate) and optical rheometry (with a flow-birefringence setup) of an entangled solution of asymmetric exact combs. The combs are polybutadienes (1,4-addition) consisting of an H-skeleton with an additional off-center branch on the backbone. We chose to investigate a solution in order to obtain reliable nonlinear shear data in overlapping dynamic regions with the two different techniques. The transient measurements obtained by cone partitioned plate indicated the appearance of overshoots in both the shear stress and the first normal stress difference during start-up shear flow. Interestingly, the overshoots in the start-up normal stress difference started to occur only at rates above the inverse stretch time of the backbone, when the stretch time of the backbone was estimated in analogy with linear chains including the effects of dynamic dilution of the branches but neglecting the effects of branch point friction, in excellent agreement with the situation for linear polymers. Flow-birefringence measurements were performed in a Couette geometry, and the extracted steady-state shear and first normal stress differences were found to agree well with the mechanical data, but were limited to relatively low rates below the inverse stretch time of the backbone. Finally, the steady-state properties were found to be in good agreement with model predictions based on a nonlinear multimode tube model developed for linear polymers when the branches are treated as solvent.

  10. Eddy current imaging. Limits of the born approximation and advantages of an exact solution to the inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamman, E.; Zorgati, R.

    1995-01-01

    Eddy current non-destructive testing is used by EDF to detect flaws affecting conductive objects such as steam generator tubes. With a view to obtaining ever more accurate information on equipment integrity, thereby facilitating diagnosis, studies aimed at using measurements to reconstruct an image of the flaw have been proceeding now for about ten years. In this context, our approach to eddy current imaging is based on inverse problem formalism. The direct problem, involving a mathematical model linking measurements provided by a probe with variables characterizing the defect, is dealt with elsewhere. Using the model results, we study the possibility of inverting it, i.e. of reconstructing an image of the flaw from the measurements. We first give an overview of the different inversion techniques, representative of the state of the art and all based on linearization of the inverse problem by means of the Born approximation. The model error resulting from an excessive Born approximation nevertheless severely limits the quantity of the images which can be obtained. In order to counteract this often critical error and extend the eddy current imaging application field, we have to del with the non-linear inverse problem. A method derived from recent research is proposed and implemented to ensure consistency with the exact model. Based on an 'optimization' type approach and provided with a convergence theorem, the method is highly efficient. (authors). 17 refs., 7 figs., 1 append

  11. Approximative analytic study of fermions in magnetar's crust; ultra-relativistic plane waves, Heun and Mathieu solutions and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2012-10-01

    Working with a magnetic field periodic along Oz and decaying in time, we deal with the Dirac-type equation characterizing the fermions evolving in magnetar's crust. For ultra-relativistic particles, one can employ the perturbative approach, to compute the conserved current density components. If the magnetic field is frozen and the magnetar is treated as a stationary object, the fermion's wave function is expressed in terms of the Heun's Confluent functions. Finally, we are extending some previous investigations on the linearly independent fermionic modes solutions to the Mathieu's equation and we discuss the energy spectrum and the Mathieu Characteristic Exponent.

  12. Effect of simple solutes on the long range dipolar correlations in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baul, Upayan, E-mail: upayanb@imsc.res.in; Anishetty, Ramesh, E-mail: ramesha@imsc.res.in; Vemparala, Satyavani, E-mail: vani@imsc.res.in [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India); Kanth, J. Maruthi Pradeep, E-mail: jmpkanth@gmail.com [Vectra LLC, Mount Road, Chennai 600006 (India)

    2016-03-14

    Intermolecular correlations in liquid water at ambient conditions have generally been characterized through short range density fluctuations described through the atomic pair distribution functions. Recent numerical and experimental results have suggested that such a description of order or structure in liquid water is incomplete and there exist considerably longer ranged orientational correlations in water that can be studied through dipolar correlations. In this study, using large scale classical, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using TIP4P-Ew and TIP3P models of water, we show that salts such as sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), caesium chloride (CsCl), and magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) have a long range effect on the dipolar correlations, which cannot be explained by the notion of structure making and breaking by dissolved ions. Observed effects are explained through orientational stratification of water molecules around ions and their long range coupling to the global hydrogen bond network by virtue of the sum rule for water. The observations for single hydrophilic solutes are contrasted with the same for a single methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. We observe that even a single small hydrophobe can result in enhancement of long range orientational correlations in liquid water, contrary to the case of dissolved ions, which have been observed to have a reducing effect. The observations from this study are discussed in the context of hydrophobic effect.

  13. The sagitta and lens thickness: the exact solution and a matrix approximation for lenses with toric, spherical, and cylindrical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, W F

    1989-03-01

    The exact equation for sagitta of spherical surfaces is generalized to toric surfaces which include spherical and cylindrical surfaces as special cases. Lens thickness, therefore, can be calculated accurately anywhere on a lens even in cases of extreme spherical and cylindrical powers and large diameters. The sagittae of tire- and barrel-form toric surfaces differ off the principal meridians, as is shown by a numerical example. The same holds for pulley- and capstan-form toric surfaces. A general expression is given for thickness at an arbitrary point on a toric lens. Approximate expressions are derived and re-expressed in terms of matrices. The matrix provides an elegant means of generalizing equations for spherical surfaces and lenses to toric surfaces and lenses.

  14. Analytical Solutions of Electromagnetic Fields from Current Dipole Moment on Spherical Conductor in a Low-Frequency Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Taishi; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    We analytically derive the solutions for electromagnetic fields of electric current dipole moment, which is placed in the exterior of the spherical homogeneous conductor, and is pointed along the radial direction. The dipole moment is driven in the low frequency f = 1 kHz and high frequency f = 1 GHz regimes. The electrical properties of the conductor are appropriately chosen in each frequency. Electromagnetic fields are rigorously formulated at an arbitrary point in a spherical geometry, in which the magnetic vector potential is straightforwardly given by the Biot-Savart formula, and the scalar potential is expanded with the Legendre polynomials, taking into account the appropriate boundary conditions at the spherical surface of the conductor. The induced electric fields are numerically calculated along the several paths in the low and high frequency excitation. The self-consistent solutions obtained in this work will be of much importance in a wide region of electromagnetic induction problems. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. An approximation of tribological behavior of Ti1-xAlxN coatings against animal bone in ringers solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esguerra A, A.; Arteaga, N. A.; Ipaz, L.; Aguilar, Y.; Amaya, C.; Alba de Sanchez, N.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their excellent properties, Ti-Al-N coatings have become attractive for biomedical applications. In this paper, friction and wear properties of Ti 1-x Al x N films having various aluminum contents, x, have been studied. Adhesion was measured by the scratch test technique; friction was carried out by a pin-on-disk tribometer using an animal bone-pin as counterpart and Ringer solution as simulated body fluid; and wear mechanisms were identified by scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that the coating with x = 0.41 exhibited the highest CO F, conserves its integrity as a coating, and causes the lowest wear on the bone in Ringers solution. EDS analysis was performed to determine the contents of Ti, Al and N. An X-ray diffraction study was carried out using and X pert High Score Plus diffractometer with Cu-Kα radiation (α = 1.5406 A) at grazing angle of 0.5 grades. (Author)

  16. OUR APPROACH TO TREATMENT OF NEGLECTED ACHILLES TENDON RUPTURES. IS THERE A SIMPLE SOLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Chugaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subcutaneous rupture of achilles tendon is a frequent trauma and most patients with such pathology are men of working age. Even though it is not difficult to diagnose such ruptures, especially those that need surgical treatment, there are numerous cases when patients come to a surgeon with a big delay. In such cases, the rupture becomes «chronic» or «neglected» and can be no longer treated as an acute rupture. There are many techniques of operative treatment of chronic achilles tendon ruptures, but still there is no consensus on which technique is to be considered the most simple, effective and safe.The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using peroneus brevis tendon as a graft for treatment of achilles tendon defects type 3 in Kuwada classification. Will this technique bring good and excellent results that are comparable with end-to-end suture after acute achilles tendon ruptures?Materials and methods. The present study includes 13 patients in which peroneus brevis was used for treatment of neglected achilles tendon rupture (group I and 18 patients after end-to-end suture after acute achilles tendon rupture (group II. Group I consisted of patients with neglected rupture of achilles tendon that was not previously treated due to various reasons and with a significant defect.Results. Mean surgery duration in group I was 91.9±6.6 (Me — 100 min, in group II — 43.2±2.2 (Me — 45 (p = 0.0001. damaged limb was evaluated using achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score, mean post-op follow up was around 1 year. The results were: group I — 86.6±2.28 (Me — 87, group II — 93.4±1.01 (Me — 94 (p = 0.04. This means, that despite quite high scores in group I, they are still statistically worse than scores after suture of acute rupture in group II. There was no difference in post-operative complication rate between the groups (p>0.05. The most common complication for both groups was range of motion restriction in

  17. Simple approach to approximate predictions of the vapor–liquid equilibrium curve near the critical point and its application to Lennard-Jones fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staśkiewicz, B.; Okrasiński, W.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a simple analytical form of the vapor–liquid equilibrium curve near the critical point for Lennard-Jones fluids. Coexistence densities curves and vapor pressure have been determined using the Van der Waals and Dieterici equation of state. In described method the Bernoulli differential equations, critical exponent theory and some type of Maxwell's criterion have been used. Presented approach has not yet been used to determine analytical form of phase curves as done in this Letter. Lennard-Jones fluids have been considered for analysis. Comparison with experimental data is done. The accuracy of the method is described. -- Highlights: ► We propose a new analytical way to determine the VLE curve. ► Simple, mathematically straightforward form of phase curves is presented. ► Comparison with experimental data is discussed. ► The accuracy of the method has been confirmed.

  18. Scaling laws and accurate small-amplitude stationary solution for the motion of a planar vortex filament in the Cartesian form of the local induction approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gorder, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    We provide a formulation of the local induction approximation (LIA) for the motion of a vortex filament in the Cartesian reference frame (the extrinsic coordinate system) which allows for scaling of the reference coordinate. For general monotone scalings of the reference coordinate, we derive an equation for the planar solution to the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation governing the LIA. We proceed to solve this equation perturbatively in small amplitude through an application of multiple-scales analysis, which allows for accurate computation of the period of the planar vortex filament. The perturbation result is shown to agree strongly with numerical simulations, and we also relate this solution back to the solution obtained in the arclength reference frame (the intrinsic coordinate system). Finally, we discuss nonmonotone coordinate scalings and their application for finding self-intersections of vortex filaments. These self-intersecting vortex filaments are likely unstable and collapse into other structures or dissipate completely.

  19. A simple approximation of moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of an extended stochastic theta-logistic model with non-integer powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Bandyopadhyay, Subhadip; Rana, Sourav; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi

    2016-01-01

    The stochastic versions of the logistic and extended logistic growth models are applied successfully to explain many real-life population dynamics and share a central body of literature in stochastic modeling of ecological systems. To understand the randomness in the population dynamics of the underlying processes completely, it is important to have a clear idea about the quasi-equilibrium distribution and its moments. Bartlett et al. (1960) took a pioneering attempt for estimating the moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of the stochastic logistic model. Matis and Kiffe (1996) obtain a set of more accurate and elegant approximations for the mean, variance and skewness of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of the same model using cumulant truncation method. The method is extended for stochastic power law logistic family by the same and several other authors (Nasell, 2003; Singh and Hespanha, 2007). Cumulant truncation and some alternative methods e.g. saddle point approximation, derivative matching approach can be applied if the powers involved in the extended logistic set up are integers, although plenty of evidence is available for non-integer powers in many practical situations (Sibly et al., 2005). In this paper, we develop a set of new approximations for mean, variance and skewness of the quasi-equilibrium distribution under more general family of growth curves, which is applicable for both integer and non-integer powers. The deterministic counterpart of this family of models captures both monotonic and non-monotonic behavior of the per capita growth rate, of which theta-logistic is a special case. The approximations accurately estimate the first three order moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution. The proposed method is illustrated with simulated data and real data from global population dynamics database. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A CLOSED-FORM EXPRESSION APPROXIMATING THE MIE SOLUTION FOR THE REAL-IN-LINE TRANSMISSION OF CERAMICS WITH SPHERICAL INCLUSIONS OR PORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabst W.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new closed-form expression is presented for estimating the real-in-line transmission of ceramics consisting of non-absorbing phases in dependence of the inclusion or pore size. The classic approximations to the exact Mie solution of the scattering problem for spheres are recalled (Rayleigh, Fraunhofer, Rayleigh-Gans-Debye/RGD, van de Hulst, and it is recalled that the large-size variant of the RGD approximation is the basis of the Apetz-van-Bruggen approach. All approximations and our closed-form expression are compared mutually and vis-a-vis the exact Mie solution. A parametric study is performed for monochromatic light in the visible range (600 nm for two model systems corresponding to composites of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, refractive index 1.832 with spherical alumina inclusions (refractive index 1.767, and to porous YAG ceramics with spherical pores (refractive index 1. It is shown that for the YAG-alumina composites to achieve maximum transmission with inclusion volume fractions of 1 % (and slab thickness 1 mm, inclusion sizes of up to 100 nm can be tolerated, while pore sizes of 100 nm will be completely detrimental for porosities as low as 0.1 %. While the van-de-Hulst approximation is excellent for small phase contrast and low concentration of inclusions, it fails for principal reasons for small inclusion or pore sizes. Our closed-form expression, while less precise in the aforementioned special case, is always the safer choice and performs better in most cases of practical interest, including high phase contrasts and high concentrations of inclusions or pores.

  1. Analytical solution to DGLAP integro-differential equation in a simple toy-model with a fixed gauge coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Gustavo [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Concepcion Univ. (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Cvetic, Gorazd [Univ. Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kondrashuk, Igor [Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Grupo de Matematica Aplicada; Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Grupo de Fisica de Altas Energias; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan [Talca Univ. (Chile). Inst. de Matematica y Fisica

    2016-11-15

    We consider a simple model for QCD dynamics in which DGLAP integro-differential equation may be solved analytically. This is a gauge model which possesses dominant evolution of gauge boson (gluon) distribution and in which the gauge coupling does not run. This may be N=4 supersymmetric gauge theory with softly broken supersymmetry, other finite supersymmetric gauge theory with lower level of supersymmetry, or topological Chern-Simons field theories. We maintain only one term in the splitting function of unintegrated gluon distribution and solve DGLAP analytically for this simplified splitting function. The solution is found by use of the Cauchy integral formula. The solution restricts form of the unintegrated gluon distribution as function of transfer momentum and of Bjorken x. Then we consider an almost realistic splitting function of unintegrated gluon distribution as an input to DGLAP equation and solve it by the same method which we have developed to solve DGLAP equation for the toy-model. We study a result obtained for the realistic gluon distribution and find a singular Bessel-like behaviour in the vicinity of the point x=0 and a smooth behaviour in the vicinity of the point x=1.

  2. A simple versatile solution for collecting multidimensional clinical data based on the CakePHP web application framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Clinical trials aiming for regulatory approval of a therapeutic agent must be conducted according to Good Clinical Practice (GCP). Clinical Data Management Systems (CDMS) are specialized software solutions geared toward GCP-trials. They are however less suited for data management in small non-GCP research projects. For use in researcher-initiated non-GCP studies, we developed a client-server database application based on the public domain CakePHP framework. The underlying MySQL database uses a simple data model based on only five data tables. The graphical user interface can be run in any web browser inside the hospital network. Data are validated upon entry. Data contained in external database systems can be imported interactively. Data are automatically anonymized on import, and the key lists identifying the subjects being logged to a restricted part of the database. Data analysis is performed by separate statistics and analysis software connecting to the database via a generic Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) interface. Since its first pilot implementation in 2011, the solution has been applied to seven different clinical research projects covering different clinical problems in different organ systems such as cancer of the thyroid and the prostate glands. This paper shows how the adoption of a generic web application framework is a feasible, flexible, low-cost, and user-friendly way of managing multidimensional research data in researcher-initiated non-GCP clinical projects. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Analytical inversions in remote sensing of particle size distributions. IV - Comparison of Fymat and Box-McKellar solutions in the anomalous diffraction approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fymat, A. L.; Smith, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the inverse analytical solutions, provided separately by Fymat and Box-McKellar, for reconstructing particle size distributions from remote spectral transmission measurements under the anomalous diffraction approximation can be derived using a cosine and a sine transform, respectively. Sufficient conditions of validity of the two formulas are established. Their comparison shows that the former solution is preferable to the latter in that it requires less a priori information (knowledge of the particle number density is not needed) and has wider applicability. For gamma-type distributions, and either a real or a complex refractive index, explicit expressions are provided for retrieving the distribution parameters; such expressions are, interestingly, proportional to the geometric area of the polydispersion.

  4. Approximate solutions of a nonlinear oscillator typified as a mass attached to a stretched elastic wire by the homotopy perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Belendez, T.; Neipp, C.; Hernandez, A.; Alvarez, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    The homotopy perturbation method is used to solve the nonlinear differential equation that governs the nonlinear oscillations of a system typified as a mass attached to a stretched elastic wire. The restoring force for this oscillator has an irrational term with a parameter λ that characterizes the system (0 ≤ λ ≤ 1). For λ = 1 and small values of x, the restoring force does not have a dominant term proportional to x. We find this perturbation method works very well for the whole range of parameters involved, and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones has been demonstrated and discussed. Only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions and the maximal relative error for the approximate frequency is less than 2.2% for small and large values of oscillation amplitude. This error corresponds to λ = 1, while for λ < 1 the relative error is much lower. For example, its value is as low as 0.062% for λ = 0.5.

  5. Approximate ideal multi-objective solution Q(λ) learning for optimal carbon-energy combined-flow in multi-energy power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoshun; Yu, Tao; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Limin; Huang, Linni

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimal carbon-energy combined-flow (OCECF) model is firstly established. • A novel approximate ideal multi-objective solution Q(λ) learning is designed. • The proposed algorithm has a high convergence stability and reliability. • The proposed algorithm can be applied for OCECF in a large-scale power grid. - Abstract: This paper proposes a novel approximate ideal multi-objective solution Q(λ) learning for optimal carbon-energy combined-flow in multi-energy power systems. The carbon emissions, fuel cost, active power loss, voltage deviation and carbon emission loss are chosen as the optimization objectives, which are simultaneously optimized by five different Q-value matrices. The dynamic optimal weight of each objective is calculated online from the entire Q-value matrices such that the greedy action policy can be obtained. Case studies are carried out to evaluate the optimization performance for carbon-energy combined-flow in an IEEE 118-bus system and the regional power grid of southern China.

  6. A Simple, Low-cost, and Robust System to Measure the Volume of Hydrogen Evolved by Chemical Reactions with Aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Paul; Dann, Sandie; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Adcock, Paul; Foster, Simon

    2016-08-17

    There is a growing research interest in the development of portable systems which can deliver hydrogen on-demand to proton exchange membrane (PEM) hydrogen fuel cells. Researchers seeking to develop such systems require a method of measuring the generated hydrogen. Herein, we describe a simple, low-cost, and robust method to measure the hydrogen generated from the reaction of solids with aqueous solutions. The reactions are conducted in a conventional one-necked round-bottomed flask placed in a temperature controlled water bath. The hydrogen generated from the reaction in the flask is channeled through tubing into a water-filled inverted measuring cylinder. The water displaced from the measuring cylinder by the incoming gas is diverted into a beaker on a balance. The balance is connected to a computer, and the change in the mass reading of the balance over time is recorded using data collection and spreadsheet software programs. The data can then be approximately corrected for water vapor using the method described herein, and parameters such as the total hydrogen yield, the hydrogen generation rate, and the induction period can also be deduced. The size of the measuring cylinder and the resolution of the balance can be changed to adapt the setup to different hydrogen volumes and flow rates.

  7. Wetting behavior of nonpolar nanotubes in simple dipolar liquids for varying nanotube diameter and solute-solvent interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Malay Kumar; Chandra, Amalendu, E-mail: amalen@iitk.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2015-01-21

    Atomistic simulations of model nonpolar nanotubes in a Stockmayer liquid are carried out for varying nanotube diameter and nanotube-solvent interactions to investigate solvophobic interactions in generic dipolar solvents. We have considered model armchair type single-walled nonpolar nanotubes with increasing radii from (5,5) to (12,12). The interactions between solute and solvent molecules are modeled by the well-known Lennard-Jones and repulsive Weeks-Chandler-Andersen potentials. We have investigated the density profiles and microscopic arrangement of Stockmayer molecules, orientational profiles of their dipole vectors, time dependence of their occupation, and also the translational and rotational motion of solvent molecules in confined environments of the cylindrical nanopores and also in their external peripheral regions. The present results of structural and dynamical properties of Stockmayer molecules inside and near atomistically rough nonpolar surfaces including their wetting and dewetting behavior for varying interactions provide a more generic picture of solvophobic effects experienced by simple dipolar liquids without any specific interactions such as hydrogen bonds.

  8. Approximation properties of haplotype tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreiseitl Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are locations at which the genomic sequences of population members differ. Since these differences are known to follow patterns, disease association studies are facilitated by identifying SNPs that allow the unique identification of such patterns. This process, known as haplotype tagging, is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and analyzed in terms of complexity and approximation properties. Results It is shown that the tagging problem is NP-hard but approximable within 1 + ln((n2 - n/2 for n haplotypes but not approximable within (1 - ε ln(n/2 for any ε > 0 unless NP ⊂ DTIME(nlog log n. A simple, very easily implementable algorithm that exhibits the above upper bound on solution quality is presented. This algorithm has running time O((2m - p + 1 ≤ O(m(n2 - n/2 where p ≤ min(n, m for n haplotypes of size m. As we show that the approximation bound is asymptotically tight, the algorithm presented is optimal with respect to this asymptotic bound. Conclusion The haplotype tagging problem is hard, but approachable with a fast, practical, and surprisingly simple algorithm that cannot be significantly improved upon on a single processor machine. Hence, significant improvement in computatational efforts expended can only be expected if the computational effort is distributed and done in parallel.

  9. An approximation of herd effect due to vaccinating children against seasonal influenza - a potential solution to the incorporation of indirect effects into static models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vlaenderen, Ilse; Van Bellinghen, Laure-Anne; Meier, Genevieve; Nautrup, Barbara Poulsen

    2013-01-22

    Indirect herd effect from vaccination of children offers potential for improving the effectiveness of influenza prevention in the remaining unvaccinated population. Static models used in cost-effectiveness analyses cannot dynamically capture herd effects. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to allow herd effect associated with vaccinating children against seasonal influenza to be incorporated into static models evaluating the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination. Two previously published linear equations for approximation of herd effects in general were compared with the results of a structured literature review undertaken using PubMed searches to identify data on herd effects specific to influenza vaccination. A linear function was fitted to point estimates from the literature using the sum of squared residuals. The literature review identified 21 publications on 20 studies for inclusion. Six studies provided data on a mathematical relationship between effective vaccine coverage in subgroups and reduction of influenza infection in a larger unvaccinated population. These supported a linear relationship when effective vaccine coverage in a subgroup population was between 20% and 80%. Three studies evaluating herd effect at a community level, specifically induced by vaccinating children, provided point estimates for fitting linear equations. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the target population for vaccination (children) was slightly less conservative than a previously published equation for herd effects in general. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the non-target population was considerably less conservative than the previously published equation. This method of approximating herd effect requires simple adjustments to the annual baseline risk of influenza in static models: (1) for the age group targeted by the childhood vaccination strategy (i.e. children); and (2) for other age groups not targeted (e

  10. An approximation of herd effect due to vaccinating children against seasonal influenza – a potential solution to the incorporation of indirect effects into static models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Indirect herd effect from vaccination of children offers potential for improving the effectiveness of influenza prevention in the remaining unvaccinated population. Static models used in cost-effectiveness analyses cannot dynamically capture herd effects. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to allow herd effect associated with vaccinating children against seasonal influenza to be incorporated into static models evaluating the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination. Methods Two previously published linear equations for approximation of herd effects in general were compared with the results of a structured literature review undertaken using PubMed searches to identify data on herd effects specific to influenza vaccination. A linear function was fitted to point estimates from the literature using the sum of squared residuals. Results The literature review identified 21 publications on 20 studies for inclusion. Six studies provided data on a mathematical relationship between effective vaccine coverage in subgroups and reduction of influenza infection in a larger unvaccinated population. These supported a linear relationship when effective vaccine coverage in a subgroup population was between 20% and 80%. Three studies evaluating herd effect at a community level, specifically induced by vaccinating children, provided point estimates for fitting linear equations. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the target population for vaccination (children) was slightly less conservative than a previously published equation for herd effects in general. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the non-target population was considerably less conservative than the previously published equation. Conclusions This method of approximating herd effect requires simple adjustments to the annual baseline risk of influenza in static models: (1) for the age group targeted by the childhood vaccination strategy (i.e. children); and (2

  11. An approximation of herd effect due to vaccinating children against seasonal influenza – a potential solution to the incorporation of indirect effects into static models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Vlaenderen Ilse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indirect herd effect from vaccination of children offers potential for improving the effectiveness of influenza prevention in the remaining unvaccinated population. Static models used in cost-effectiveness analyses cannot dynamically capture herd effects. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to allow herd effect associated with vaccinating children against seasonal influenza to be incorporated into static models evaluating the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination. Methods Two previously published linear equations for approximation of herd effects in general were compared with the results of a structured literature review undertaken using PubMed searches to identify data on herd effects specific to influenza vaccination. A linear function was fitted to point estimates from the literature using the sum of squared residuals. Results The literature review identified 21 publications on 20 studies for inclusion. Six studies provided data on a mathematical relationship between effective vaccine coverage in subgroups and reduction of influenza infection in a larger unvaccinated population. These supported a linear relationship when effective vaccine coverage in a subgroup population was between 20% and 80%. Three studies evaluating herd effect at a community level, specifically induced by vaccinating children, provided point estimates for fitting linear equations. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the target population for vaccination (children was slightly less conservative than a previously published equation for herd effects in general. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the non-target population was considerably less conservative than the previously published equation. Conclusions This method of approximating herd effect requires simple adjustments to the annual baseline risk of influenza in static models: (1 for the age group targeted by the childhood vaccination strategy

  12. Approximating the physical inner product of loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Thiemann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possibility of approximating the physical inner product of constrained quantum theories. In particular, we calculate the physical inner product of a simple cosmological model in two ways: firstly, we compute it analytically via a trick; secondly, we use the complexifier coherent states to approximate the physical inner product defined by the master constraint of the system. We find that the approximation is able to recover the analytic solution of the problem, which consolidates hopes that coherent states will help to approximate solutions of more complicated theories, like loop quantum gravity

  13. Visible and UV photo-detection in ZnO nanostructured thin films via simple tuning of solution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhra, Richa; Bharti, Bandna; Lee, Heung-No; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-11-08

    This study demonstrates significant visible light photo-detection capability of pristine ZnO nanostructure thin films possessing substantially high percentage of oxygen vacancies [Formula: see text] and zinc interstitials [Formula: see text], introduced by simple tuning of economical solution method. The demonstrated visible light photo-detection capability, in addition to the inherent UV light detection ability of ZnO, shows great dependency of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with the nanostructure morphology. The dependency was evaluated by analyzing the presence/percentage of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] using photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Morphologies of ZnO viz. nanoparticles (NPs), nanosheets (NSs) and nanoflowers (NFs), as a result of tuning of synthesis method contended different concentrations of defects, demonstrated different photo-detection capabilities in the form of a thin film photodetector. The photo-detection capability was investigated under different light excitations (UV; 380~420 nm, white ; λ > 420 nm and green; 490~570 nm). The as fabricated NSs photodetector possessing comparatively intermediate percentage of [Formula: see text] ~ 47.7% and [Formula: see text] ~ 13.8% exhibited superior performance than that of NPs and NFs photodetectors, and ever reported photodetectors fabricated by using pristine ZnO nanostructures in thin film architecture. The adopted low cost and simplest approach makes the pristine ZnO-NSs applicable for wide-wavelength applications in optoelectronic devices.

  14. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Peter W.; /Stanford U., ITP; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Rajendran, Surjeet; /Johns Hopkins U. /Stanford U., ITP; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  15. Simple systems abroad coupled to hight-tech solutions : MexiCultura: cooperation between Holland and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van P.; Elings, A.

    2015-01-01

    Doing business with Mexican entrepreneurs is high on the wish list of Dutch companies. That’s not so simple when you’re used to building high-tech greenhouses. Yet the local growers want to improve their current methods of production. The Dutch can be of service by offering knowledge about simple

  16. Cellular neural network to the spherical harmonics approximation of neutron transport equation in x-y geometry. Part I: Modeling and verification for time-independent solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzmand, Ahmad; Hadad, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper describes the solution of time-independent neutron transport equation. → Using a novel method based on cellular neural networks (CNNs) coupled with P N method. → Utilize the CNN model to simulate spatial scalar flux distribution in steady state. → The accuracy, stability, and capabilities of CNN model are examined in x-y geometry. - Abstract: This paper describes a novel method based on using cellular neural networks (CNN) coupled with spherical harmonics method (P N ) to solve the time-independent neutron transport equation in x-y geometry. To achieve this, an equivalent electrical circuit based on second-order form of neutron transport equation and relevant boundary conditions is obtained using CNN method. We use the CNN model to simulate spatial response of scalar flux distribution in the steady state condition for different order of spherical harmonics approximations. The accuracy, stability, and capabilities of CNN model are examined in 2D Cartesian geometry for fixed source and criticality problems.

  17. Approximation techniques for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Komzsik, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.

  18. Phase equilibria of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of methanol, (methanol + NaCl) and (ethylene glycol + NaCl) aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Dissociation conditions of H 2 S or CO 2 hydrate + inhibitor aqueous solution are reported. → Methanol, methanol + NaCl and EG + NaCl aqueous solutions are considered as inhibitors. → Comparisons are made between our experimental data and the corresponding literature data. - Abstract: This work aims at reporting the dissociation pressures of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of methanol, (methanol + NaCl) and (ethylene glycol + NaCl) aqueous solutions at different temperatures and various concentrations of inhibitor in aqueous solution. The equilibrium results were generated using an isochoric pressure-search method. These values are compared with some selected experimental data from the literature on the dissociation conditions of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of pure water to show the inhibition effects of the above mentioned aqueous solutions. Comparisons are finally made between our experimental values and the corresponding literature data. Some disagreements among the literature data and our data are found.

  19. Approximating distributions from moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawula, R. F.

    1987-11-01

    A method based upon Pearson-type approximations from statistics is developed for approximating a symmetric probability density function from its moments. The extended Fokker-Planck equation for non-Markov processes is shown to be the underlying foundation for the approximations. The approximation is shown to be exact for the beta probability density function. The applicability of the general method is illustrated by numerous pithy examples from linear and nonlinear filtering of both Markov and non-Markov dichotomous noise. New approximations are given for the probability density function in two cases in which exact solutions are unavailable, those of (i) the filter-limiter-filter problem and (ii) second-order Butterworth filtering of the random telegraph signal. The approximate results are compared with previously published Monte Carlo simulations in these two cases.

  20. Growth of Highly Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ Films from a Simple Propionate-Based Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Torres, Pol; Tang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Intensive investigations have been conducted to develop epitaxial oxide thin films with superior electromagnetic performance by low-cost chemical solution deposition routes. In this paper, a novel propionate-based precursor solution without involving any other additive was proposed and employed...... to grow superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films on LaAlO3 (LAO) single crystals. The precursor solutions are stable with a long shelf life of up to several months. Since the primary compositions are propionates after evaporating the solvent, the toxic reagents and evolved gases during solution synthesis...... and heat treatment can be eliminated completely. In this process, rapid pyrolysis and high conversation rate can also be achieved during growth of YBCO films in comparison with the conventional trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition routes. Remarkably, a 210 nm YBCO film exhibits high superconducting...

  1. Some simple solutions of Schrödinger's equation for a free particle or for an oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mark

    2018-05-01

    For a non-relativistic free particle, we show that the evolution of some simple initial wave functions made up of linear segments can be expressed in terms of Fresnel integrals. Examples include the square wave function and the triangular wave function. The method is then extended to wave functions made from quadratic elements. The evolution of all these initial wave functions can also be found for the harmonic oscillator by a transformation of the free evolutions.

  2. Higher-Order Approximation of Cubic-Quintic Duffing Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Babazadeh, H.

    2011-01-01

    We apply an Artificial Parameter Lindstedt-Poincaré Method (APL-PM) to find improved approximate solutions for strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillations with cubic-quintic nonlinear restoring force. This approach yields simple linear algebraic equations instead of nonlinear algebraic equations...

  3. Studying Equilibrium in the Chemical Reaction between Ferric and Iodide Ions in Solution Using a Simple and Inexpensive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaychuk, Pavel Anatolyevich; Kuvaeva, Alyona Olegovna

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment on the study of the chemical equilibrium based on the reaction between ferric and iodide ions in solution with the formation of ferrous ions, free iodine, and triiodide ions is developed. The total concentration of iodide and triiodide ions in the reaction mixture during the reaction is determined by the argentometric…

  4. Probing the Interplay of Size, Shape, and Solution Environment in Macromolecular Diffusion Using a Simple Refraction Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankidy, Bijith D.; Coutinho, Cecil A.; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2010-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of polymers is a critical parameter in biomedicine, catalysis, chemical separations, nanotechnology, and other industrial applications. Here, measurement of macromolecular diffusion in solutions is described using a visually instructive, undergraduate-level optical refraction experiment based on Weiner's method. To…

  5. Simple Solutions to Complex Problems: Moral Panic and the Fluid Shift from "Equity" to "Quality" in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockler, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Education is increasingly conceptualised by governments and policymakers in western democracies in terms of productivity and human capital, emphasising elements of individualism and competition over concerns around democracy and equity. More and more, solutions to intransigent educational problems related to equity are seen in terms of quality and…

  6. One Problem, Many Solutions : Simple Statistical Approaches Help Unravel the Complexity of the Immune System in an Ecological Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, Deborah M.; Versteegh, Maaike A.; Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The immune system is a complex collection of interrelated and overlapping solutions to the problem of disease. To deal with this complexity, researchers have devised multiple ways to measure immune function and to analyze the resulting data. In this way both organisms and researchers employ many

  7. One problem, many solutions: simple statistical approaches help unravel the complexity of th eimmune system in an ecological context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, D.M.; Versteegh, M.A.; Matson, K.D.; Tieleman, B.I.

    2011-01-01

    The immune system is a complex collection of interrelated and overlapping solutions to the problem of disease. To deal with this complexity, researchers have devised multiple ways to measure immune function and to analyze the resulting data. In this way both organisms and researchers employ many

  8. Approximate Likelihood

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Most physics results at the LHC end in a likelihood ratio test. This includes discovery and exclusion for searches as well as mass, cross-section, and coupling measurements. The use of Machine Learning (multivariate) algorithms in HEP is mainly restricted to searches, which can be reduced to classification between two fixed distributions: signal vs. background. I will show how we can extend the use of ML classifiers to distributions parameterized by physical quantities like masses and couplings as well as nuisance parameters associated to systematic uncertainties. This allows for one to approximate the likelihood ratio while still using a high dimensional feature vector for the data. Both the MEM and ABC approaches mentioned above aim to provide inference on model parameters (like cross-sections, masses, couplings, etc.). ABC is fundamentally tied Bayesian inference and focuses on the “likelihood free” setting where only a simulator is available and one cannot directly compute the likelihood for the dat...

  9. Diophantine approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Wolfgang M

    1980-01-01

    "In 1970, at the U. of Colorado, the author delivered a course of lectures on his famous generalization, then just established, relating to Roth's theorem on rational approxi- mations to algebraic numbers. The present volume is an ex- panded and up-dated version of the original mimeographed notes on the course. As an introduction to the author's own remarkable achievements relating to the Thue-Siegel-Roth theory, the text can hardly be bettered and the tract can already be regarded as a classic in its field."(Bull.LMS) "Schmidt's work on approximations by algebraic numbers belongs to the deepest and most satisfactory parts of number theory. These notes give the best accessible way to learn the subject. ... this book is highly recommended." (Mededelingen van het Wiskundig Genootschap)

  10. A simple and fast determination of microgram thorium in organic solution containing several hundreds times amount of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Duanzhi; Cao Benhong; Yang Jinfeng

    1991-01-01

    Using spectrophotometric method, microgram thorium in 30% TBP-kerosene system containing large amount of uranium was successfully determined after one-step back-extraction with hydrochloric acid. The recovery of thorium is more than 98%, and the separation factor α U/Th is over 1 x 10 3 . Being reliable, simple and fast, the recommended method has been used in the research on spent fuel reprocessing and is expected applicable to other neutral phosphate extraction systems such as TOPO and DMHMP

  11. Geometric approximation algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Har-Peled, Sariel

    2011-01-01

    Exact algorithms for dealing with geometric objects are complicated, hard to implement in practice, and slow. Over the last 20 years a theory of geometric approximation algorithms has emerged. These algorithms tend to be simple, fast, and more robust than their exact counterparts. This book is the first to cover geometric approximation algorithms in detail. In addition, more traditional computational geometry techniques that are widely used in developing such algorithms, like sampling, linear programming, etc., are also surveyed. Other topics covered include approximate nearest-neighbor search, shape approximation, coresets, dimension reduction, and embeddings. The topics covered are relatively independent and are supplemented by exercises. Close to 200 color figures are included in the text to illustrate proofs and ideas.

  12. Mediastinal Hodgkin lymphomas in computertomography: exact CT-based volume assessment and approximations with simple geometric models; Mediastinale Hodgkin-Lymphone in der Computertomographie. Vergleich von exakter CT-gestuetzter Volumetrie und Volumenabschaetzung mit Hilfe einfacher geometrischer Modelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battmann, A. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Dieckmann, K.; Resch, A.; Poetter, R. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wien (Austria). Universitaetsklinik Strahlentherapie und Strahlenbiologie; Battmann, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pathologie

    2001-03-01

    Background: The importance of the size of the primary tumor in lymphomas and its size after treatment is still uncertain. Assuming a prognostic relevance, an assessment of tumor volume before and after induction of chemotherapy has been performed in the pediatric Hodgkin's disease study (HD-90). Since an exact CT-scan-based volumetric tumor assessment is time-consuming and in some centers not possible, the tumor volume is often estimated based on simple geometric approximations. Aim of this study was the development of an easy to apply and nearly exact model of volume estimation compared to CT-scan-based tumor volume measurements. Material and Methods: thirty computed tomographies (CT) of mediastinal Hodgkin lymphomas of children aged 5 to 16 years have been examined. The CT scans were digitalized using a CCD camera combined with a frame grabber. Applying the Global Lab image software, the true tumor volume was determined excluding local organs, which did not belong to the lymphoma. Subsequently, volumes were assessed using simple geometric models (block, ellipsoid, octaeder) by using the maximum diameters of the tumor. The differences between the volume of the geometric models and the true volume, based on the CT scan evaluation, were compared. Results: the maximum diameters of a tumor can be used to calculate its volume based on simple geometric models. The model 'block' overestimates the volume by 89 to 268%. The model 'ellipsoid' overestimates the volume on average by 29%. The model 'octaeder' underestimates the volume on average by 18%. A division of the block volume by 2.3 approximated the geometric closest to the true volume: the average volume was overestimated by 2% in tumors with a volume larger than 20 ml. No model was sufficient to approximate tumors with a volume of less than 20 ml. Conclusions: for the estimation of tumor volumes in mediastinal Hodgkin lumphomas exceeding 20 ml, the formula 'block /2.3&apos

  13. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles in cupric chloride solutions with a simple mechanochemical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D., E-mail: ma97chen@hotamil.co [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, 606-8501, Kyoto (Japan); Ni, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Fang, J.J. [College of Electromechanical Engineering, North China University of Technology, Beijing, 100041 (China); Xiao, T. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) nanoparticles with diameter of 50-150 nm are prepared by high-energy ball milling in the various CuCl{sub 2} solutions with different [Cl{sup -}] concentration. The as-synthesized products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Finally, the effects of [Cl{sup -}] concentrations on the formation of cuprous oxide and reaction mechanism are discussed.

  14. Simple and robust near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) etching solution using Teflon tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Sanghee; Ryu, Kyungtag; Cho, Soohwa; Chung, Hoeil; Namkung, Hankyu

    2006-01-01

    The ability to monitor etching solutions using a spectroscopy directly through existing Teflon lines in electronic industries is highly beneficial and offers many advantages. A monitoring method was developed using near-infrared (NIR) measurements with Teflon tubing as a sample container for the quantification of components in the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) etching solution composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) and water. Measurements were reproducible and it was possible to use the same calibration model for different Teflon tubings. Even though partial least squares (PLS) calibration performance was slightly degraded for Teflon cells when compared to quartz cells of the similar pathlength, the calibration data correlated well with reference data. The robustness of Teflon-based NIR measurement was evaluated by predicting the spectra of 10 independent samples that were collected using five different Teflon tubes. Although, two Teflon tubes were visually less transparent than the other three, there was no significant variation in the standard error of predictions (SEPs) among the five Teflon tubes. Calibration accuracy was successfully maintained and highly repeatable prediction results were achieved. This study verifies that a Teflon-based NIR measurement is reliable for the monitoring of etching solutions and it can be successfully integrated into on-line process monitoring

  15. Controllable synthesis of spindle-like ZnO nanostructures by a simple low-temperature aqueous solution route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongxia; Zhao Yunlong; Yu Xiujun; Chen Deliang; Zhang Liwei; Xu Hongliang; Yang Daoyuan; Wang Hailong; Zhang Rui

    2011-01-01

    Spindle-like ZnO nanostructures were successfully synthesized through direct precipitation of zinc acetate aqueous solution at 60 deg. C. Phase structure, morphology and microstructure of the products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, TG-DTA, FTIR and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Result showed that hexagonal wurtzite structure ZnO nanostructures with about 100 nm in diameter and 100-200 nm in length were obtained. HMTA acted as a soft template in the process and played an important role in the formation of spindle-like ZnO nanostructures. Meanwhile, different morphologies were also obtained by altering synthetic temperature, additional agents and the ratios of Zn 2+ /OH - . Possible mechanism for the variations of morphology with synthesis parameters was also discussed in this paper.

  16. Concentrated Solutions of Single-Chain Nanoparticles: A Simple Model for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins under Crowding Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Angel J; Lo Verso, Federica; Arbe, Arantxa; Pomposo, José A; Colmenero, Juan

    2016-03-03

    By means of large-scale computer simulations and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we investigate solutions of single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs), covering the whole concentration range from infinite dilution to melt density. The analysis of the conformational properties of the SCNPs reveals that these synthetic nano-objects share basic ingredients with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), as topological polydispersity, generally sparse conformations, and locally compact domains. We investigate the role of the architecture of the SCNPs in their collapse behavior under macromolecular crowding. Unlike in the case of linear macromolecules, which experience the usual transition from self-avoiding to Gaussian random-walk conformations, crowding leads to collapsed conformations of SCNPs resembling those of crumpled globules. This behavior is already found at volume fractions (about 30%) that are characteristic of crowding in cellular environments. The simulation results are confirmed by the SANS experiments. Our results for SCNPs--a model system free of specific interactions--propose a general scenario for the effect of steric crowding on IDPs: collapse from sparse conformations at high dilution to crumpled globular conformations in cell environments.

  17. Approximate inclusion of triple excitations in combined coupled cluster/molecular mechanics: Calculations of electronic excitation energies in solution for acrolein, water, formamide, and n-methylacetamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneskov, Kristian; Gras, Eduard Matito; Kongsted, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    as being applicable for averaging over many solvent configurations derived from, for example, molecular simulations. We test the proposed model using as a benchmark the two lowest-lying valence singlet excitations (n → π* and π → π*) of acrolein, formamide, and N-methylacetamide in aqueous solution as well...

  18. A simple and effective approach to prepare injectable macroporous calcium phosphate cement for bone repair: Syringe-foaming using a viscous hydrophilic polymeric solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Weizhen; Gauthier, Olivier; Sourice, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Rethore, Gildas; Khairoun, Khalid; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Tancret, Franck; Weiss, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we propose a simple and effective strategy to prepare injectable macroporous calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) by syringe-foaming via hydrophilic viscous polymeric solution, such as using silanized-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) as a foaming agent. The Si-HPMC foamed CPCs demonstrate excellent handling properties such as injectability and cohesion. After hardening the foamed CPCs possess hierarchical macropores and their mechanical properties (Young's modulus and compressive strength) are comparable to those of cancellous bone. Moreover, a preliminary in vivo study in the distal femoral sites of rabbits was conducted to evaluate the biofunctionality of this injectable macroporous CPC. The evidence of newly formed bone in the central zone of implantation site indicates the feasibility and effectiveness of this foaming strategy that will have to be optimized by further extensive animal experiments. A major challenge in the design of biomaterial-based injectable bone substitutes is the development of cohesive, macroporous and self-setting calcium phosphate cement (CPC) that enables rapid cell invasion with adequate initial mechanical properties without the use of complex processing and additives. Thus, we propose a simple and effective strategy to prepare injectable macroporous CPCs through syringe-foaming using a hydrophilic viscous polymeric solution (silanized-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, Si-HPMC) as a foaming agent, that simultaneously meets all the aforementioned aims. Evidence from our in vivo studies shows the existence of newly formed bone within the implantation site, indicating the feasibility and effectiveness of this foaming strategy, which could be used in various CPC systems using other hydrophilic viscous polymeric solutions. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. About solution of multipoint boundary problem of static analysis of deep beam with the use of combined application of finite element method and discrete-continual finite element method. part 1: formulation of the problem and general principles of approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyakhovich Leonid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to formulation and general principles of approximation of multipoint boundary problem of static analysis of deep beam with the use of combined application of finite element method (FEM discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM. The field of application of DCFEM comprises structures with regular physical and geometrical parameters in some dimension (“basic” dimension. DCFEM presupposes finite element approximation for non-basic dimension while in the basic dimension problem remains continual. DCFEM is based on analytical solutions of resulting multipoint boundary problems for systems of ordinary differential equations with piecewise-constant coefficients.

  20. High energy approximations in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzalesi, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    New theoretical methods in hadron physics based on a high-energy perturbation theory are discussed. The approximated solutions to quantum field theory obtained by this method appear to be sufficiently simple and rich in structure to encourage hadron dynamics studies. Operator eikonal form for field - theoretic Green's functions is derived and discussion is held on how the eikonal perturbation theory is to be renormalized. This method is extended to massive quantum electrodynamics of scalar charged bosons. Possible developments and applications of this theory are given [pt

  1. Approximate transient and long time limit solutions for the band broadening induced by the thin sidewall-layer in liquid chromatography columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Ken; Desmet, Gert

    2007-11-16

    Using a combination of both analytical and numerical techniques, approximate analytical expressions have been established for the transient and long time limit band broadening, originating from the presence of a thin disturbed sidewall layer in liquid chromatography columns, including packed, monolithic as well as microfabricated columns. The established expressions can be used to compare the importance of a thin disturbed sidewall layer with that of other radial heterogeneity effects (such as transcolumn packing density variations due to the relief of packing stresses). The expressions are independent of the actual velocity profile inside the layer as long as the disturbed sidewall layer occupies less than 2.5% of the column width.

  2. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Most prestack traveltime relations we tend work with are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multi-focusing or double square-root (DSR) and the common reflection stack (CRS) equations. Using the DSR equation, I analyze the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I derive expansion based solutions of this eikonal based on polynomial expansions in terms of the reflection and dip angles in a generally inhomogenous background medium. These approximate solutions are free of singularities and can be used to estimate travetimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. A Marmousi example demonstrates the usefulness of the approach. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Equation of liquidus curve of primary crystallization of congruently melting of Asub(m)Bsub(n) compound in regular solutions approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, V.M.; Pavlova, L.M.; Moskvinova, N.A.

    1975-01-01

    A general solution was obtained for the Prigozhin and Defey equation on the basis of which a liquidus equation was derived describing the primary crystallization of Asub(m)Bsub(n)-type compounds. The Prigozhin and Defey equation described a general case of the melting process of having a narrow homogeneity region at a certain temperature T:(Asub(m)Bsub(n))sub(s) reversible m(A)sub(L) n(B)sub(L). They have obtained a differential equation for the liquids curve describing the equilibrium state between the primary Asub(m)Bsub(n) crystals and the liquid solution. The obtained equation was tested by a comparison with the experimental liquidus curves corresponding to the primary crystallization of gallium and indium sesquitellurides in Ga-Te and In-Te systems. The liquidus curves were made more precise by means of a detailed thermographic study of a series of melts located to the right and left of Ga 2 Te 3 and In 2 Te 3 compounds. Computer calculations of liquidus curves corresponding to the primary crystallization of Ga 2 Te 3 and In 2 Te 3 were carried out with the aid of the last of the above-mentioned equations. The obtained results show that the derived equations can be used in studying the nature of intermolecular reactions in systems in which congruent intermediate phases of complex composition are present

  4. A Newton-Krylov method with approximate Jacobian for implicit solution of Navier-Stokes on staggered overset-curvilinear grids with immersed boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Borazjani, Iman

    2014-11-01

    Time step-size restrictions and low convergence rates are major bottle necks for implicit solution of the Navier-Stokes in simulations involving complex geometries with moving boundaries. Newton-Krylov method (NKM) is a combination of a Newton-type method for super-linearly convergent solution of nonlinear equations and Krylov subspace methods for solving the Newton correction equations, which can theoretically address both bottle necks. The efficiency of this method vastly depends on the Jacobian forming scheme e.g. automatic differentiation is very expensive and Jacobian-free methods slow down as the mesh is refined. A novel, computationally efficient analytical Jacobian for NKM was developed to solve unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes momentum equations on staggered curvilinear grids with immersed boundaries. The NKM was validated and verified against Taylor-Green vortex and pulsatile flow in a 90 degree bend and efficiently handles complex geometries such as an intracranial aneurysm with multiple overset grids, pulsatile inlet flow and immersed boundaries. The NKM method is shown to be more efficient than the semi-implicit Runge-Kutta methods and Jabobian-free Newton-Krylov methods. We believe NKM can be applied to many CFD techniques to decrease the computational cost. This work was supported partly by the NIH Grant R03EB014860, and the computational resources were partly provided by Center for Computational Research (CCR) at University at Buffalo.

  5. An approximation of tribological behavior of Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N coatings against animal bone in ringers solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esguerra A, A.; Arteaga, N. A.; Ipaz, L.; Aguilar, Y. [Universidad del Valle, TPMR, Grupo de Investigacion en Tribologia, Polimeros, Metalurgia de Polvos y Residuos Solidos, Calle 13 No. 100-00, A. A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Amaya, C. [Centro Nacional de Asistencia Tecnica a la Industria ASTIN, SENA, Calle 52 No. 2 Bis-15, Salomia Cali (Colombia); Alba de Sanchez, N., E-mail: adriana.esguerra.arce@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Occidente, Grupo de Investigacion en Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales, Calle 25 No. 115-85, A. A. 2790 Cali (Colombia)

    2014-07-01

    Due to their excellent properties, Ti-Al-N coatings have become attractive for biomedical applications. In this paper, friction and wear properties of Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N films having various aluminum contents, x, have been studied. Adhesion was measured by the scratch test technique; friction was carried out by a pin-on-disk tribometer using an animal bone-pin as counterpart and Ringer solution as simulated body fluid; and wear mechanisms were identified by scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that the coating with x = 0.41 exhibited the highest CO F, conserves its integrity as a coating, and causes the lowest wear on the bone in Ringers solution. EDS analysis was performed to determine the contents of Ti, Al and N. An X-ray diffraction study was carried out using and X pert High Score Plus diffractometer with Cu-Kα radiation (α = 1.5406 A) at grazing angle of 0.5 grades. (Author)

  6. Hierarchical low-rank approximation for high dimensional approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Nouy, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Tensor methods are among the most prominent tools for the numerical solution of high-dimensional problems where functions of multiple variables have to be approximated. Such high-dimensional approximation problems naturally arise in stochastic analysis and uncertainty quantification. In many practical situations, the approximation of high-dimensional functions is made computationally tractable by using rank-structured approximations. In this talk, we present algorithms for the approximation in hierarchical tensor format using statistical methods. Sparse representations in a given tensor format are obtained with adaptive or convex relaxation methods, with a selection of parameters using crossvalidation methods.

  7. Hierarchical low-rank approximation for high dimensional approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Nouy, Anthony

    2016-01-07

    Tensor methods are among the most prominent tools for the numerical solution of high-dimensional problems where functions of multiple variables have to be approximated. Such high-dimensional approximation problems naturally arise in stochastic analysis and uncertainty quantification. In many practical situations, the approximation of high-dimensional functions is made computationally tractable by using rank-structured approximations. In this talk, we present algorithms for the approximation in hierarchical tensor format using statistical methods. Sparse representations in a given tensor format are obtained with adaptive or convex relaxation methods, with a selection of parameters using crossvalidation methods.

  8. The relaxation time approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gairola, R.P.; Indu, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A plausible approximation has been made to estimate the relaxation time from a knowledge of the transition probability of phonons from one state (r vector, q vector) to other state (r' vector, q' vector), as a result of collision. The relaxation time, thus obtained, shows a strong dependence on temperature and weak dependence on the wave vector. In view of this dependence, relaxation time has been expressed in terms of a temperature Taylor's series in the first Brillouin zone. Consequently, a simple model for estimating the thermal conductivity is suggested. the calculations become much easier than the Callaway model. (author). 14 refs

  9. Polynomial approximation on polytopes

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    2014-01-01

    Polynomial approximation on convex polytopes in \\mathbf{R}^d is considered in uniform and L^p-norms. For an appropriate modulus of smoothness matching direct and converse estimates are proven. In the L^p-case so called strong direct and converse results are also verified. The equivalence of the moduli of smoothness with an appropriate K-functional follows as a consequence. The results solve a problem that was left open since the mid 1980s when some of the present findings were established for special, so-called simple polytopes.

  10. Analytical approximations for wide and narrow resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suster, Luis Carlos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at developing analytical expressions for the adjoint neutron spectrum in the resonance energy region, taking into account both narrow and wide resonance approximations, in order to reduce the numerical computations involved. These analytical expressions, besides reducing computing time, are very simple from a mathematical point of view. The results obtained with this analytical formulation were compared to a reference solution obtained with a numerical method previously developed to solve the neutron balance adjoint equations. Narrow and wide resonances of U 238 were treated and the analytical procedure gave satisfactory results as compared with the reference solution, for the resonance energy range. The adjoint neutron spectrum is useful to determine the neutron resonance absorption, so that multigroup adjoint cross sections used by the adjoint diffusion equation can be obtained. (author)

  11. Analytical approximations for wide and narrow resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suster, Luis Carlos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims at developing analytical expressions for the adjoint neutron spectrum in the resonance energy region, taking into account both narrow and wide resonance approximations, in order to reduce the numerical computations involved. These analytical expressions, besides reducing computing time, are very simple from a mathematical point of view. The results obtained with this analytical formulation were compared to a reference solution obtained with a numerical method previously developed to solve the neutron balance adjoint equations. Narrow and wide resonances of U{sup 238} were treated and the analytical procedure gave satisfactory results as compared with the reference solution, for the resonance energy range. The adjoint neutron spectrum is useful to determine the neutron resonance absorption, so that multigroup adjoint cross sections used by the adjoint diffusion equation can be obtained. (author)

  12. A Newton-Krylov method with an approximate analytical Jacobian for implicit solution of Navier-Stokes equations on staggered overset-curvilinear grids with immersed boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Borazjani, Iman

    2017-02-15

    diagonal of the Jacobian further improves the performance by 42 - 74% compared to the full Jacobian. The NKM with an analytical Jacobian showed better performance than the fixed point Runge-Kutta because it converged with higher time steps and in approximately 30% less iterations even when the grid was stretched and the Reynold number was increased. In fact, stretching the grid decreased the performance of all methods, but the fixed-point Runge-Kutta performance decreased 4.57 and 2.26 times more than NKM with a diagonal Jacobian when the stretching factor was increased, respectively. The NKM with a diagonal analytical Jacobian and matrix-free method with an analytical preconditioner are the fastest methods and the superiority of one to another depends on the flow problem. Furthermore, the implemented methods are fully parallelized with parallel efficiency of 80-90% on the problems tested. The NKM with the analytical Jacobian can guide building preconditioners for other techniques to improve their performance in the future.

  13. A Newton–Krylov method with an approximate analytical Jacobian for implicit solution of Navier–Stokes equations on staggered overset-curvilinear grids with immersed boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Borazjani, Iman

    2016-01-01

    diagonal of the Jacobian further improves the performance by 42 – 74% compared to the full Jacobian. The NKM with an analytical Jacobian showed better performance than the fixed point Runge-Kutta because it converged with higher time steps and in approximately 30% less iterations even when the grid was stretched and the Reynold number was increased. In fact, stretching the grid decreased the performance of all methods, but the fixed-point Runge-Kutta performance decreased 4.57 and 2.26 times more than NKM with a diagonal Jacobian when the stretching factor was increased, respectively. The NKM with a diagonal analytical Jacobian and matrix-free method with an analytical preconditioner are the fastest methods and the superiority of one to another depends on the flow problem. Furthermore, the implemented methods are fully parallelized with parallel efficiency of 80–90% on the problems tested. The NKM with the analytical Jacobian can guide building preconditioners for other techniques to improve their performance in the future. PMID:28042172

  14. An improved saddlepoint approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Colin S; Renshaw, Eric

    2007-08-01

    Given a set of third- or higher-order moments, not only is the saddlepoint approximation the only realistic 'family-free' technique available for constructing an associated probability distribution, but it is 'optimal' in the sense that it is based on the highly efficient numerical method of steepest descents. However, it suffers from the problem of not always yielding full support, and whilst [S. Wang, General saddlepoint approximations in the bootstrap, Prob. Stat. Lett. 27 (1992) 61.] neat scaling approach provides a solution to this hurdle, it leads to potentially inaccurate and aberrant results. We therefore propose several new ways of surmounting such difficulties, including: extending the inversion of the cumulant generating function to second-order; selecting an appropriate probability structure for higher-order cumulants (the standard moment closure procedure takes them to be zero); and, making subtle changes to the target cumulants and then optimising via the simplex algorithm.

  15. Topology, calculus and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Komornik, Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Presenting basic results of topology, calculus of several variables, and approximation theory which are rarely treated in a single volume, this textbook includes several beautiful, but almost forgotten, classical theorems of Descartes, Erdős, Fejér, Stieltjes, and Turán. The exposition style of Topology, Calculus and Approximation follows the Hungarian mathematical tradition of Paul Erdős and others. In the first part, the classical results of Alexandroff, Cantor, Hausdorff, Helly, Peano, Radon, Tietze and Urysohn illustrate the theories of metric, topological and normed spaces. Following this, the general framework of normed spaces and Carathéodory's definition of the derivative are shown to simplify the statement and proof of various theorems in calculus and ordinary differential equations. The third and final part is devoted to interpolation, orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration, asymptotic expansions and the numerical solution of algebraic and differential equations. Students of both pure an...

  16. A variational solution of transport equation based on spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Zhang Ben'ai

    2002-01-01

    A variational method with differential forms gives better precision for numerical solution of transport critical problem based on spherical geometry, and its computation seems simple than other approximate methods

  17. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  18. Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.

    2006-01-01

    . The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension...

  19. Non-dimensional characterization of the friction stir/spot welding process using a simple Couette flow model part I: Constant property Bingham plastic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Gregory A.; Langerman, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A simplified model for the material flow created during a friction stir/spot welding process has been developed using a boundary driven cylindrical Couette flow model with a specified heat flux at the inner cylinder for a Bingham plastic material. Non-dimensionalization of the constant property governing equations identified three parameters that influence the velocity and temperature fields. Analytic solutions to these equations are presented and some representative results from a parametric study (parameters chosen and varied over ranges expected for the welding of a wide variety of metals) are discussed. The results also provide an expression for the critical radius (location of vanishing material velocity) as functions of the relevant non-dimensional parameters. A final study was conducted in which values for the non-dimensional heat flux parameter were chosen to produce peak dimensional temperatures on the order of 80% of the melting temperature for a typical 2000 series aluminum. Under these conditions it was discovered that the ratio of the maximum rate of shear work within the material (viscous dissipation) to the rate of energy input at the boundary due to frictional heating, ranged from about 0.0005% for the lowest pin tool rotation rate, to about 1.3% for the highest tool rotation rate studied. Curve fits to previous Gleeble data taken for a number of aluminum alloys provide reasonable justification for the Bingham plastic constitutive model, and although these fits indicate a strong temperature dependence for critical flow stress and viscosity, this work provides a simple tool for more sophisticated model validation. Part II of this study will present numerical solutions for velocity and temperature fields resulting from the non-linear coupling of the momentum and energy equations created by temperature dependent transport properties

  20. Approximation of the Doppler broadening function by Frobenius method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniel A.P.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C.

    2005-01-01

    An analytical approximation of the Doppler broadening function ψ(x,ξ) is proposed. This approximation is based on the solution of the differential equation for ψ(x,ξ) using the methods of Frobenius and the parameters variation. The analytical form derived for ψ(x,ξ) in terms of elementary functions is very simple and precise. It can be useful for applications related to the treatment of nuclear resonances mainly for the calculations of multigroup parameters and self-protection factors of the resonances, being the last used to correct microscopic cross-sections measurements by the activation technique. (author)

  1. Boundary Value Problems and Approximate Solutions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Department of Mathematics, College of Natural and Computational Scineces, Mekelle ..... In this section, the Variational Iteration Method is applied to different forms of .... Some problems in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, Ph.D. thesis, Wales.

  2. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-05-01

    Many of the explicit prestack traveltime relations used in practice are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multifocusing, based on the double square-root (DSR) equation, and the common reflection stack (CRS) approaches. Using the DSR equation, I constructed the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I recasted the eikonal in terms of the reflection angle, and thus, derived expansion based solutions of this eikonal in terms of the difference between the source and receiver velocities in a generally inhomogenous background medium. The zero-order term solution, corresponding to ignoring the lateral velocity variation in estimating the prestack part, is free of singularities and can be used to estimate traveltimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. The higher-order terms include limitations for horizontally traveling waves, however, we can readily enforce stability constraints to avoid such singularities. In fact, another expansion over reflection angle can help us avoid these singularities by requiring the source and receiver velocities to be different. On the other hand, expansions in terms of reflection angles result in singularity free equations. For a homogenous background medium, as a test, the solutions are reasonably accurate to large reflection and dip angles. A Marmousi example demonstrated the usefulness and versatility of the formulation. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Approximate Bayesian computation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Sunnåker

    Full Text Available Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC constitutes a class of computational methods rooted in Bayesian statistics. In all model-based statistical inference, the likelihood function is of central importance, since it expresses the probability of the observed data under a particular statistical model, and thus quantifies the support data lend to particular values of parameters and to choices among different models. For simple models, an analytical formula for the likelihood function can typically be derived. However, for more complex models, an analytical formula might be elusive or the likelihood function might be computationally very costly to evaluate. ABC methods bypass the evaluation of the likelihood function. In this way, ABC methods widen the realm of models for which statistical inference can be considered. ABC methods are mathematically well-founded, but they inevitably make assumptions and approximations whose impact needs to be carefully assessed. Furthermore, the wider application domain of ABC exacerbates the challenges of parameter estimation and model selection. ABC has rapidly gained popularity over the last years and in particular for the analysis of complex problems arising in biological sciences (e.g., in population genetics, ecology, epidemiology, and systems biology.

  4. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite (MFe2O4, M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders prepared by a simple aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This figure shows the specific magnetization curves of the as-prepared MFe 2 O 4 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders obtained from room temperature VSM measurement. These curves are typical for a soft magnetic material and indicate hysteresis ferromagnetism in the field ranges of ±500 Oe, ±1000 Oe, and ±2000 Oe for the CoFe 2 O 4 , MgFe 2 O 4 and MnFe 2 O 4 respectively, whereas the samples of NiFe 2 O 4 and ZnFe 2 O 4 show a superparamagnetic behavior. Highlights: ► Nanocrystalline MFe 2 O 4 powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method. ► Metal acetylacetonates and aloe vera plant-extracted solution are used. ► This biosynthetic route is very simple and provides high-yield oxide nanomaterials. ► XRD and TEM results indicate that the prepared samples have only spinel structure. ► The maximum M s of 68.9 emu/g at 10 kOe were observed for the samples of MnFe 2 O 4 . - Abstract: Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite MFe 2 O 4 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using Fe(acac) 3 , M(acac) 3 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) and aloe vera plant extracted solution. The X-ray diffraction and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the synthesized nanocrystalline have only spinel structure without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the spinel ferrite powders, as revealed by TEM, show that the NiFe 2 O 4 and CoFe 2 O 4 samples contain nanoparticles, whereas the MnFe 2 O 4 and MgFe 2 O 4 samples consist of many nanoplatelets and nanoparticles. Interestingly, the ZnFe 2 O 4 sample contains plate-like structure of networked nanocrystalline particles. Room temperature magnetization results show a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe 2 O 4 , MnFe 2 O 4 and MgFe 2 O 4 samples, whereas the samples of NiFe 2 O 4 and ZnFe 2 O 4 exhibit a superparamagnetic behavior

  5. Approximate analytic theory of the multijunction grill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtak, O.; Preinhaelter, J.

    1991-03-01

    An approximate analytic theory of the general multijunction grill is developed. Omitting the evanescent modes in the subsidiary waveguides both at the junction and at the grill mouth and neglecting multiple wave reflection, simple formulae are derived for the reflection coefficient, the amplitudes of the incident and reflected waves and the spectral power density. These quantities are expressed through the basic grill parameters (the electric length of the structure and phase shift between adjacent waveguides) and two sets of reflection coefficients describing wave reflections in the subsidiary waveguides at the junction and at the plasma. Approximate expressions for these coefficients are also given. The results are compared with a numerical solution of two specific examples; they were shown to be useful for the optimization and design of multijunction grills.For the JET structure it is shown that, in the case of a dense plasma,many results can be obtained from the simple formulae for a two-waveguide multijunction grill. (author) 12 figs., 12 refs

  6. Green-Ampt approximations: A comprehensive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shakir; Islam, Adlul; Mishra, P. K.; Sikka, Alok K.

    2016-04-01

    Green-Ampt (GA) model and its modifications are widely used for simulating infiltration process. Several explicit approximate solutions to the implicit GA model have been developed with varying degree of accuracy. In this study, performance of nine explicit approximations to the GA model is compared with the implicit GA model using the published data for broad range of soil classes and infiltration time. The explicit GA models considered are Li et al. (1976) (LI), Stone et al. (1994) (ST), Salvucci and Entekhabi (1994) (SE), Parlange et al. (2002) (PA), Barry et al. (2005) (BA), Swamee et al. (2012) (SW), Ali et al. (2013) (AL), Almedeij and Esen (2014) (AE), and Vatankhah (2015) (VA). Six statistical indicators (e.g., percent relative error, maximum absolute percent relative error, average absolute percent relative errors, percent bias, index of agreement, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency) and relative computer computation time are used for assessing the model performance. Models are ranked based on the overall performance index (OPI). The BA model is found to be the most accurate followed by the PA and VA models for variety of soil classes and infiltration periods. The AE, SW, SE, and LI model also performed comparatively better. Based on the overall performance index, the explicit models are ranked as BA > PA > VA > LI > AE > SE > SW > ST > AL. Results of this study will be helpful in selection of accurate and simple explicit approximate GA models for solving variety of hydrological problems.

  7. Excavation multiple up drafting tunnels in coastal mountains: A simple solution to resist against the severe drought in sub tropical zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daei, Mohammad Ali; Daei, Manizheh; Daei, Bijan

    2017-04-01

    At many sub tropical places in the globe, including the Persian Gulf in the south of Iran, there is continuously a tremendous amount of steam in the air, but it fails to transform to cloud because of the surrounding overheated lands. Reduction in precipitation in these regions has been extraordinary in recent years. The most probable reason is the global warming phenomena. Many dried forest remains, in these regions are referring to much more precipitations not long ago. All around the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea, Arab sea, and red sea there are enough steam to produce good precipitation nearly year round. The main missed requirement in this zone is the coldness. This fact can be well understand from a narrow green strip in Dhofar which is indebted to a cold oceanic stream that approaches to local shore during four months yearly. This natural cold stream helps a better condensation of water vapor and more precipitation but only in a narrow mountainous land. Based on this natural phenomenon, we hypothesize a different design to cool the water vapor with the same result. Prevention of close contact between the water vapors and hot lands by shooting the steam directly into the atmosphere may help to produce more cloud and rain. Making multiple vertical tunnels in mountains for upright conducting of humid air into the atmosphere can be a solution. Fortunately there are a few high mountain ranges alongside of the coastline in south part of Iran. So excavation of drafting tunnels in these mountains seems reasonable. These structures act passively, but for long term do their work without consuming energy, and making pollution. These earth tubes in some aspects resemble to Kariz, another innovative structure which invented by ancient Iranians, thousands of years ago in order to extract water from dry lands in deserts. Up drafting earth channels can be supposed as a wide vertical kariz which conduct water vapor into the atmosphere from the hot land near a warm sea, something

  8. Approximate Implicitization Using Linear Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. D. Barrowclough

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a family of algorithms for approximate implicitization of rational parametric curves and surfaces. The main approximation tool in all of the approaches is the singular value decomposition, and they are therefore well suited to floating-point implementation in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD systems. We unify the approaches under the names of commonly known polynomial basis functions and consider various theoretical and practical aspects of the algorithms. We offer new methods for a least squares approach to approximate implicitization using orthogonal polynomials, which tend to be faster and more numerically stable than some existing algorithms. We propose several simple propositions relating the properties of the polynomial bases to their implicit approximation properties.

  9. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  10. Approximate reasoning in physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of fuzzy sets provides excellent ground to deal with fuzzy observations (uncertain or imprecise signals, wavelengths, temperatures,etc.) fuzzy functions (spectra and depth profiles) and fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning. First, the basic ideas of fuzzy set theory are briefly presented. Secondly, stress is put on application of simple fuzzy set operations for matching candidate reference spectra of a spectral library to an unknown sample spectrum (e.g. IR spectroscopy). Thirdly, approximate reasoning is applied to infer an unknown property from information available in a database (e.g. crystal systems). Finally, multi-dimensional fuzzy reasoning techniques are suggested. (Author)

  11. Approximate Reanalysis in Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the finite element analysis equations. In this study, the integration of an approximate reanalysis procedure into the framework of topology optimization of continuum structures...

  12. All-Norm Approximation Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azar, Yossi; Epstein, Leah; Richter, Yossi; Woeginger, Gerhard J.; Penttonen, Martti; Meineche Schmidt, Erik

    2002-01-01

    A major drawback in optimization problems and in particular in scheduling problems is that for every measure there may be a different optimal solution. In many cases the various measures are different ℓ p norms. We address this problem by introducing the concept of an All-norm ρ-approximation

  13. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  14. Diagonal Pade approximations for initial value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, M.F.; Ratzan, L.; Pomphrey, N.; Park, W.

    1987-06-01

    Diagonal Pade approximations to the time evolution operator for initial value problems are applied in a novel way to the numerical solution of these problems by explicitly factoring the polynomials of the approximation. A remarkable gain over conventional methods in efficiency and accuracy of solution is obtained. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations analytical approximation and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses the solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using analytical and numerical approximation methods. Recently, analytical approximation methods have been largely used in solving linear and nonlinear lower-order ODEs. It also discusses using these methods to solve some strong nonlinear ODEs. There are two chapters devoted to solving nonlinear ODEs using numerical methods, as in practice high-dimensional systems of nonlinear ODEs that cannot be solved by analytical approximate methods are common. Moreover, it studies analytical and numerical techniques for the treatment of parameter-depending ODEs. The book explains various methods for solving nonlinear-oscillator and structural-system problems, including the energy balance method, harmonic balance method, amplitude frequency formulation, variational iteration method, homotopy perturbation method, iteration perturbation method, homotopy analysis method, simple and multiple shooting method, and the nonlinear stabilized march...

  16. Finite element approximation to the even-parity transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper studies the finite element method, a procedure for reducing partial differential equations to sets of algebraic equations suitable for solution on a digital computer. The differential equation is cast into the form of a variational principle, the resulting domain then subdivided into finite elements. The dependent variable is then approximated by a simple polynomial, and these are linked across inter-element boundaries by continuity conditions. The finite element method is tailored to a variety of transport problems. Angular approximations are formulated, and the extent of ray effect mitigation is examined. Complex trial functions are introduced to enable the inclusion of buckling approximations. The ubiquitous curved interfaces of cell calculations, and coarse mesh methods are also treated. A concluding section discusses limitations of the work to date and suggests possible future directions

  17. Reflection on Solutions in the Form of Refutation Texts versus Problem Solving: The Case of 8th Graders Studying Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Rafi; Safadi, Ekhlass; Meidav, Meir

    2017-01-01

    This study compared students' learning in troubleshooting and problem solving activities. The troubleshooting activities provided students with solutions to conceptual problems in the form of refutation texts; namely, solutions that portray common misconceptions, refute them, and then present the accepted scientific ideas. They required students…

  18. Modulated Pade approximant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsburg, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    In many problems, a desired property A of a function f(x) is determined by the behaviour of f(x) approximately equal to g(x,A) as x→xsup(*). In this letter, a method for resuming the power series in x of f(x) and approximating A (modulated Pade approximant) is presented. This new approximant is an extension of a resumation method for f(x) in terms of rational functions. (author)

  19. Application of the probabilistic approximate analysis method to a turbopump blade analysis. [for Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, B. H.; Mcclung, R. C.; Millwater, H. R.

    1990-01-01

    An eigenvalue analysis of a typical space propulsion system turbopump blade is presented using an approximate probabilistic analysis methodology. The methodology was developed originally to investigate the feasibility of computing probabilistic structural response using closed-form approximate models. This paper extends the methodology to structures for which simple closed-form solutions do not exist. The finite element method will be used for this demonstration, but the concepts apply to any numerical method. The results agree with detailed analysis results and indicate the usefulness of using a probabilistic approximate analysis in determining efficient solution strategies.

  20. Numerical approximations of difference functional equations and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kamont

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a theorem on the error estimate of approximate solutions for difference functional equations of the Volterra type. We apply this general result in the investigation of the stability of difference schemes generated by nonlinear first order partial differential functional equations and by parabolic problems. We show that all known results on difference methods for initial or initial boundary value problems can be obtained as particular cases of this general and simple result. We assume that the right hand sides of equations satisfy nonlinear estimates of the Perron type with respect to functional variables.

  1. Approximation algorithms for guarding holey polygons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guarding edges of polygons is a version of art gallery problem.The goal is finding the minimum number of guards to cover the edges of a polygon. This problem is NP-hard, and to our knowledge there are approximation algorithms just for simple polygons. In this paper we present two approximation algorithms for guarding ...

  2. ZnO-nanorod-array/p-GaN high-performance ultra-violet light emitting devices prepared by simple solution synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shrawan Kumar; Luan, Chunyan; To, Chap Hang; Kutsay, Oleksandr; Kováč, Jaroslav; Zapien, Juan Antonio; Bello, Igor; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2012-11-01

    Pure ultra-violet (UV) (378 nm) electroluminescence (EL) from zinc oxide (ZnO)-nanorod-array/p-gallium nitride (GaN) light emitting devices (LEDs) is demonstrated at low bias-voltages (˜4.3 V). Devices were prepared merely by solution-synthesis, without any involvement of sophisticated material growth techniques or preparation methods. Three different luminescence characterization techniques, i.e., photo-luminescence, cathodo-luminescence, and EL, provided insight into the nature of the UV emission mechanism in solution-synthesized LEDs. Bias dependent EL behaviour revealed blue-shift of EL peaks and increased peak sharpness, with increasing the operating voltage. Accelerated bias stress tests showed very stable and repeatable electrical and EL performance of the solution-synthesized nanorod LEDs.

  3. Capillary electrophoresis of chitooligosaccharides in acidic solution: simple determination using a quaternary-ammonium-modified column and indirect photometric detection with crystal violet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Toshiaki; Anraku, Nobuhiro; Kato, Ryo

    2010-02-01

    Five chitosan oligosaccharides were separated in acidic aqueous solution by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with indirect photometric detection using a positively coated capillary. Electrophoretic mobility of the chitooligosaccharides (COSs) depended on the number of monomer units in acidic aqueous solution, similar to other polyelectrolyte oligomers. The separation was developed in nitric acid aqueous solution at pH 3.0 with 1 mM Crystal Violet, using a capillary positively coated with N-trimethoxypropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride. The limit of the detection for chitooligosaccharides with two to six saccharide chains was less than 5 microM. CE determination of an enzymatically hydrolyzed COS agreed with results from HPLC. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simple method for preparation of secondary amides of phosphorylacetic acids and their use for actinide extraction and sorption from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyushin, O.I.; Sharova, E.V.; Odinets, I.L.; Lenevich, S.V.; Mastruykova, T.A.; Morgalyuk, V.P.; Tananaev, I.G.; Pribylova, G.V.; Myasoedova, G.V.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    2004-01-01

    An effective method of synthesis of secondary alkylamides of phosphorylacetic acids (APA), based on amidation of ethyl esters of phosphorylacetic acids with primary aliphatic amines, was developed. Extraction of americium(III) complexes with APA solutions in dichloroethane and uranium(VI) sorption by sorbents with non-covalently fixed APA from nitric acid solutions were studied. In the course of americium(III) extraction there is no correlation between Am III distribution factor and APA structure, whereas during uranium(VI) sorption a dependence of U VI extraction degree on the complexing agent structure is observed [ru

  5. Sparse approximation with bases

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically presents recent fundamental results on greedy approximation with respect to bases. Motivated by numerous applications, the last decade has seen great successes in studying nonlinear sparse approximation. Recent findings have established that greedy-type algorithms are suitable methods of nonlinear approximation in both sparse approximation with respect to bases and sparse approximation with respect to redundant systems. These insights, combined with some previous fundamental results, form the basis for constructing the theory of greedy approximation. Taking into account the theoretical and practical demand for this kind of theory, the book systematically elaborates a theoretical framework for greedy approximation and its applications.  The book addresses the needs of researchers working in numerical mathematics, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis. It quickly takes the reader from classical results to the latest frontier, but is written at the level of a graduate course and do...

  6. Simple prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Han M, Partin AW. Simple prostatectomy: open and robot-assisted laparoscopic approaches. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  7. Shearlets and Optimally Sparse Approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutyniok, Gitta; Lemvig, Jakob; Lim, Wang-Q

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate functions are typically governed by anisotropic features such as edges in images or shock fronts in solutions of transport-dominated equations. One major goal both for the purpose of compression as well as for an efficient analysis is the provision of optimally sparse approximations...... optimally sparse approximations of this model class in 2D as well as 3D. Even more, in contrast to all other directional representation systems, a theory for compactly supported shearlet frames was derived which moreover also satisfy this optimality benchmark. This chapter shall serve as an introduction...... to and a survey about sparse approximations of cartoon-like images by band-limited and also compactly supported shearlet frames as well as a reference for the state-of-the-art of this research field....

  8. Simple unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, W.A.; Zepeda, A.

    1987-08-01

    We present the results obtained from our systematic search of a simple Lie group that unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions in a single truly unified theory. We work with fractionally charged quarks, and allow for particles and antiparticles to belong to the same irreducible representation. We found that models based on SU(6), SU(7), SU(8) and SU(10) are viable candidates for simple unification. (author). 23 refs

  9. Approximate symmetries of Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Christopher T.; Flammia, Steven T.

    2017-08-01

    We explore the relationship between approximate symmetries of a gapped Hamiltonian and the structure of its ground space. We start by considering approximate symmetry operators, defined as unitary operators whose commutators with the Hamiltonian have norms that are sufficiently small. We show that when approximate symmetry operators can be restricted to the ground space while approximately preserving certain mutual commutation relations. We generalize the Stone-von Neumann theorem to matrices that approximately satisfy the canonical (Heisenberg-Weyl-type) commutation relations and use this to show that approximate symmetry operators can certify the degeneracy of the ground space even though they only approximately form a group. Importantly, the notions of "approximate" and "small" are all independent of the dimension of the ambient Hilbert space and depend only on the degeneracy in the ground space. Our analysis additionally holds for any gapped band of sufficiently small width in the excited spectrum of the Hamiltonian, and we discuss applications of these ideas to topological quantum phases of matter and topological quantum error correcting codes. Finally, in our analysis, we also provide an exponential improvement upon bounds concerning the existence of shared approximate eigenvectors of approximately commuting operators under an added normality constraint, which may be of independent interest.

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RATIONAL APPROXIMATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the key results of linear Chebyshev approximation theory are extended to generalized rational functions. Prominent among these is Haar’s...linear theorem which yields necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness. Some new results in the classic field of rational function Chebyshev...Furthermore a Weierstrass type theorem is proven for rational Chebyshev approximation. A characterization theorem for rational trigonometric Chebyshev approximation in terms of sign alternation is developed. (Author)

  11. Finite approximations in fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschel, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains twenty papers on work which was conducted between 1983 and 1985 in the Priority Research Program ''Finite Approximations in Fluid Mechanics'' of the German Research Society (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). Scientists from numerical mathematics, fluid mechanics, and aerodynamics present their research on boundary-element methods, factorization methods, higher-order panel methods, multigrid methods for elliptical and parabolic problems, two-step schemes for the Euler equations, etc. Applications are made to channel flows, gas dynamical problems, large eddy simulation of turbulence, non-Newtonian flow, turbomachine flow, zonal solutions for viscous flow problems, etc. The contents include: multigrid methods for problems from fluid dynamics, development of a 2D-Transonic Potential Flow Solver; a boundary element spectral method for nonstationary viscous flows in 3 dimensions; navier-stokes computations of two-dimensional laminar flows in a channel with a backward facing step; calculations and experimental investigations of the laminar unsteady flow in a pipe expansion; calculation of the flow-field caused by shock wave and deflagration interaction; a multi-level discretization and solution method for potential flow problems in three dimensions; solutions of the conservation equations with the approximate factorization method; inviscid and viscous flow through rotating meridional contours; zonal solutions for viscous flow problems

  12. Quantum tunneling beyond semiclassical approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2008-01-01

    Hawking radiation as tunneling by Hamilton-Jacobi method beyond semiclassical approximation is analysed. We compute all quantum corrections in the single particle action revealing that these are proportional to the usual semiclassical contribution. We show that a simple choice of the proportionality constants reproduces the one loop back reaction effect in the spacetime, found by conformal field theory methods, which modifies the Hawking temperature of the black hole. Using the law of black hole mechanics we give the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking area law following from the modified Hawking temperature. Some examples are explicitly worked out.

  13. Radiology clinical synopsis: a simple solution for obtaining an adequate clinical history for the accurate reporting of imaging studies on patients in intensive care units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Mervyn D.; Alam, Khurshaid

    2005-01-01

    Lack of clinical history on radiology requisitions is a universal problem. We describe a simple Web-based system that readily provides radiology-relevant clinical history to the radiologist reading radiographs of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Along with the relevant history, which includes primary and secondary diagnoses, disease progression and complications, the system provides the patient's name, record number and hospital location. This information is immediately available to reporting radiologists. New clinical information is immediately entered on-line by the radiologists as they are reviewing images. After patient discharge, the data are stored and immediately available if the patient is readmitted. The system has been in routine clinical use in our hospital for nearly 2 years. (orig.)

  14. Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability dis...

  15. Simple addition of silica to an alkane solution of Wilkinson WMe6 or Schrock W alkylidyne complex give active complex for saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Callens, Emmanuel

    2015-08-24

    Addition of PDA silica to a solution of the Wilkinson WMe6 as well as the Schrock W neopentilidyne tris neopentyl complex catalyzes linear or cyclic alkanes to produce respectively a distribution of linear alkanes from methane up to triacontane or a mixture of cyclic and macrocyclic hydrocarbons. This single catalytic system transforms also linear α-olefins into higher and lower homologues via isomerization/metathesis mechanism (ISOMET). This complex is also efficient towards functionalized olefins. Unsaturated fatty acid esters (FAEs) are converted into diesters corresponding to self-metathesis products.

  16. The triangular density to approximate the normal density: decision rules-of-thumb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, William T.; Pomroy, Thomas A.; Fuller, Douglas N.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explore the approximation of the normal density function with the triangular density function, a density function that has extensive use in risk analysis. Such an approximation generates a simple piecewise-linear density function and a piecewise-quadratic distribution function that can be easily manipulated mathematically and that produces surprisingly accurate performance under many instances. This mathematical tractability proves useful when it enables closed-form solutions not otherwise possible, as with problems involving the embedded use of the normal density. For benchmarking purposes we compare the basic triangular approximation with two flared triangular distributions and with two simple uniform approximations; however, throughout the paper our focus is on using the triangular density to approximate the normal for reasons of parsimony. We also investigate the logical extensions of using a non-symmetric triangular density to approximate a lognormal density. Several issues associated with using a triangular density as a substitute for the normal and lognormal densities are discussed, and we explore the resulting numerical approximation errors for the normal case. Finally, we present several examples that highlight simple decision rules-of-thumb that the use of the approximation generates. Such rules-of-thumb, which are useful in risk and reliability analysis and general business analysis, can be difficult or impossible to extract without the use of approximations. These examples include uses of the approximation in generating random deviates, uses in mixture models for risk analysis, and an illustrative decision analysis problem. It is our belief that this exploratory look at the triangular approximation to the normal will provoke other practitioners to explore its possible use in various domains and applications

  17. Multilevel weighted least squares polynomial approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Haji-Ali, Abdul-Lateef; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul; Wolfers, Sö ren

    2017-01-01

    , obtaining polynomial approximations with a single level method can become prohibitively expensive, as it requires a sufficiently large number of samples, each computed with a sufficiently small discretization error. As a solution to this problem, we propose

  18. Euclidean shortest paths exact or approximate algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Fajie

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews algorithms for the exact or approximate solution of shortest-path problems, with a specific focus on a class of algorithms called rubberband algorithms. The coverage includes mathematical proofs for many of the given statements.

  19. Steepest descent approximations for accretive operator equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1993-03-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition is established for the strong convergence of the steepest descent approximation to a solution of equations involving quasi-accretive operators defined on a uniformly smooth Banach space. (author). 49 refs

  20. Ordered cones and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Keimel, Klaus

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a unified approach to Korovkin-type approximation theorems. It includes classical material on the approximation of real-valuedfunctions as well as recent and new results on set-valued functions and stochastic processes, and on weighted approximation. The results are notonly of qualitative nature, but include quantitative bounds on the order of approximation. The book is addressed to researchers in functional analysis and approximation theory as well as to those that want to applythese methods in other fields. It is largely self- contained, but the readershould have a solid background in abstract functional analysis. The unified approach is based on a new notion of locally convex ordered cones that are not embeddable in vector spaces but allow Hahn-Banach type separation and extension theorems. This concept seems to be of independent interest.

  1. Modeling Rocket Flight in the Low-Friction Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan White

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a realistic model for rocket dynamics, in the presence of atmospheric drag and altitude-dependent gravity, the exact kinematic equation cannot be integrated in closed form; even when neglecting friction, the exact solution is a combination of elliptic functions of Jacobi type, which are not easy to use in a computational sense. This project provides a precise analysis of the various terms in the full equation (such as gravity, drag, and exhaust momentum, and the numerical ranges for which various approximations are accurate to within 1%. The analysis leads to optimal approximations expressed through elementary functions, which can be implemented for efficient flight prediction on simple computational devices, such as smartphone applications.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Triplet Correlation Approximations for Fluid Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallewela, Gayani N; Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Smith, Paul E

    2018-08-25

    Triplet correlations play a central role in our understanding of fluids and their properties. Of particular interest is the relationship between the pair and triplet correlations. Here we use a combination of Fluctuation Solution Theory and experimental pair radial distribution functions to investigate the accuracy of the Kirkwood Superposition Approximation (KSA), as given by integrals over the relevant pair and triplet correlation functions, at a series of state points for pure water using only experimental quantities. The KSA performs poorly, in agreement with a variety of other studies. Several additional approximate relationships between the pair and triplet correlations in fluids are also investigated and generally provide good agreement for the fluid thermodynamics for regions of the phase diagram where the compressibility is small. A simple power law relationship between the pair and triplet fluctuations is particularly successful for state points displaying low to moderately high compressibilities.

  3. SPORTS - a simple non-linear thermalhydraulic stability code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatoorgoon, V.

    1986-01-01

    A simple code, called SPORTS, has been developed for two-phase stability studies. A novel method of solution of the finite difference equations was deviced and incorporated, and many of the approximations that are common in other stability codes are avoided. SPORTS is believed to be accurate and efficient, as small and large time-steps are permitted, and hence suitable for micro-computers. (orig.)

  4. Approximate and renormgroup symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, Nail H. [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics Science; Kovalev, Vladimir F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mathematical Modeling

    2009-07-01

    ''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)

  5. Approximate and renormgroup symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimov, Nail H.; Kovalev, Vladimir F.

    2009-01-01

    ''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)

  6. Approximations of Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinai K. Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy system can uniformly approximate any real continuous function on a compact domain to any degree of accuracy. Such results can be viewed as an existence of optimal fuzzy systems. Li-Xin Wang discussed a similar problem using Gaussian membership function and Stone-Weierstrass Theorem. He established that fuzzy systems, with product inference, centroid defuzzification and Gaussian functions are capable of approximating any real continuous function on a compact set to arbitrary accuracy. In this paper we study a similar approximation problem by using exponential membership functions

  7. General Rytov approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Guy

    2015-10-01

    We examine how the Rytov approximation describing log-amplitude and phase fluctuations of a wave propagating through weak uniform turbulence can be generalized to the case of turbulence with a large-scale nonuniform component. We show how the large-scale refractive index field creates Fermat rays using the path integral formulation for paraxial propagation. We then show how the second-order derivatives of the Fermat ray action affect the Rytov approximation, and we discuss how a numerical algorithm would model the general Rytov approximation.

  8. "Ride-on" technique and other simple and logical solutions to counter most common complications of silicone implants in augmentation rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil S Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmentation rhinoplasty can be carried out using a wide range of materials including autologous bone and/or cartilage as well as alloplasts. Use of biologic bone and cartilage grafts results in lower infection rates, but they are associated with long-term resorption and donor-site morbidity. Alloplastic materials, in particular silicone, have been associated in literature with extrusion, necrosis of the tip, mobility and deviation or displacement of the implant, immobile nasal tip and infection. However, they have the advantages of being readily available and easy to reshape with no requirement for harvesting autografts. Aim: To overcome these problems associated with silicone implants for which the authors have devised a novel technique, the "rideon technique". Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 11 patients over a period of 4 years. The authors have devised a simple technique to fix the silicone implant and retain it in place. Restricting the implant to only dorsum avoided common complications related to the silicone implant. Results: The authors have used this technique in 11 patients with encouraging results. Follow-up ranged from 12 months to 36 months during which patients were assessed for implant mobility, implant extrusion and tip necrosis. There was no incidence of above mentioned complications in these patients. Conclusion: The "rideon technique" provides excellent stability to silicone implants and restricting the implant only to dorsum not only eliminates chances of tip necrosis and thus implant extrusion but also maintains natural shape, feel and mobility of the tip.

  9. Adapting to the 30-degree visual perspective by emulating the angled laparoscope: a simple and low-cost solution for basic surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Lorias Espinoza; Tapia, Fernando Montes; Arturo, Minor Martínez; Ricardo, Ordorica Flores

    2014-12-01

    The ability to handle and adapt to the visual perspectives generated by angled laparoscopes is crucial for skilled laparoscopic surgery. However, the control of the visual work space depends on the ability of the operator of the camera, who is often not the most experienced member of the surgical team. Here, we present a simple, low-cost option for surgical training that challenges the learner with static and dynamic visual perspectives at 30 degrees using a system that emulates the angled laparoscope. A system was developed using a low-cost camera and readily available materials to emulate the angled laparoscope. Nine participants undertook 3 tasks to test spatial adaptation to the static and dynamic visual perspectives at 30 degrees. Completing each task to a predefined satisfactory level ensured precision of execution of the tasks. Associated metrics (time and error rate) were recorded, and the performance of participants were determined. A total of 450 repetitions were performed by 9 residents at various stages of training. All the tasks were performed with a visual perspective of 30 degrees using the system. Junior residents were more proficient than senior residents. This system is a viable and low-cost alternative for developing the basic psychomotor skills necessary for the handling and adaptation to visual perspectives of 30 degrees, without depending on a laparoscopic tower, in junior residents. More advanced skills may then be acquired by other means, such as in the operating theater or through clinical experience.

  10. INTOR cost approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified cost approximation for INTOR parameter sets in a narrow parameter range is shown. Plausible constraints permit the evaluation of the consequences of parameter variations on overall cost. (orig.) [de

  11. Approximation and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gautschi, Walter; Rassias, Themistocles M

    2011-01-01

    Approximation theory and numerical analysis are central to the creation of accurate computer simulations and mathematical models. Research in these areas can influence the computational techniques used in a variety of mathematical and computational sciences. This collection of contributed chapters, dedicated to renowned mathematician Gradimir V. Milovanovia, represent the recent work of experts in the fields of approximation theory and numerical analysis. These invited contributions describe new trends in these important areas of research including theoretic developments, new computational alg

  12. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. On a novel iterative method to compute polynomial approximations to Bessel functions of the first kind and its connection to the solution of fractional diffusion/diffusion-wave problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuste, Santos Bravo; Abad, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    We present an iterative method to obtain approximations to Bessel functions of the first kind J p (x) (p > -1) via the repeated application of an integral operator to an initial seed function f 0 (x). The class of seed functions f 0 (x) leading to sets of increasingly accurate approximations f n (x) is considerably large and includes any polynomial. When the operator is applied once to a polynomial of degree s, it yields a polynomial of degree s + 2, and so the iteration of this operator generates sets of increasingly better polynomial approximations of increasing degree. We focus on the set of polynomial approximations generated from the seed function f 0 (x) = 1. This set of polynomials is useful not only for the computation of J p (x) but also from a physical point of view, as it describes the long-time decay modes of certain fractional diffusion and diffusion-wave problems.

  14. An efficient computer based wavelets approximation method to solve Fuzzy boundary value differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam Khan, Najeeb; Razzaq, Oyoon Abdul

    2016-03-01

    In the present work a wavelets approximation method is employed to solve fuzzy boundary value differential equations (FBVDEs). Essentially, a truncated Legendre wavelets series together with the Legendre wavelets operational matrix of derivative are utilized to convert FB- VDE into a simple computational problem by reducing it into a system of fuzzy algebraic linear equations. The capability of scheme is investigated on second order FB- VDE considered under generalized H-differentiability. Solutions are represented graphically showing competency and accuracy of this method.

  15. New and vintage solutions to enhance the plasma metabolome coverage by LC-ESI-MS untargeted metabolomics: the not-so-simple process of method performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipani, Sara; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Jáuregui, Olga; Llorach, Rafael; García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Tinahones, Francisco J; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2015-03-03

    Although LC-MS untargeted metabolomics continues to expand into exiting research domains, methodological issues have not been solved yet by the definition of unbiased, standardized and globally accepted analytical protocols. In the present study, the response of the plasma metabolome coverage to specific methodological choices of the sample preparation (two SPE technologies, three sample-to-solvent dilution ratios) and the LC-ESI-MS data acquisition steps of the metabolomics workflow (four RP columns, four elution solvent combinations, two solvent quality grades, postcolumn modification of the mobile phase) was investigated in a pragmatic and decision tree-like performance evaluation strategy. Quality control samples, reference plasma and human plasma from a real nutrimetabolomic study were used for intermethod comparisons. Uni- and multivariate data analysis approaches were independently applied. The highest method performance was obtained by combining the plasma hybrid extraction with the highest solvent proportion during sample preparation, the use of a RP column compatible with 100% aqueous polar phase (Atlantis T3), and the ESI enhancement by using UHPLC-MS purity grade methanol as both organic phase and postcolumn modifier. Results led to the following considerations: submit plasma samples to hybrid extraction for removal of interfering components to minimize the major sample-dependent matrix effects; avoid solvent evaporation following sample extraction if loss in detection and peak shape distortion of early eluting metabolites are not noticed; opt for a RP column for superior retention of highly polar species when analysis fractionation is not feasible; use ultrahigh quality grade solvents and "vintage" analytical tricks such as postcolumn organic enrichment of the mobile phase to enhance ESI efficiency. The final proposed protocol offers an example of how novel and old-fashioned analytical solutions may fruitfully cohabit in untargeted metabolomics

  16. Nonlinear Schroedinger Approximations for Partial Differential Equations with Quadratic and Quasilinear Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patrick

    We consider the approximation of solutions of two complicated, physical systems via the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS). In particular, we discuss the evolution of wave packets and long waves in two physical models. Due to the complicated nature of the equations governing many physical systems and the in-depth knowledge we have for solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, it is advantageous to use approximation results of this kind to model these physical systems. The approximations are simple enough that we can use them to understand the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the solutions, and by justifying them we can show that the behavior of the approximation captures the behavior of solutions to the original equation, at least for long, but finite time. We first consider a model of the water wave equations which can be approximated by wave packets using the NLS equation. We discuss a new proof that both simplifies and strengthens previous justification results of Schneider and Wayne. Rather than using analytic norms, as was done by Schneider and Wayne, we construct a modified energy functional so that the approximation holds for the full interval of existence of the approximate NLS solution as opposed to a subinterval (as is seen in the analytic case). Furthermore, the proof avoids problems associated with inverting the normal form transform by working with a modified energy functional motivated by Craig and Hunter et al. We then consider the Klein-Gordon-Zakharov system and prove a long wave approximation result. In this case there is a non-trivial resonance that cannot be eliminated via a normal form transform. By combining the normal form transform for small Fourier modes and using analytic norms elsewhere, we can get a justification result on the order 1 over epsilon squared time scale.

  17. Magnus approximation in the adiabatic picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klarsfeld, S.; Oteo, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    A simple approximate nonperturbative method is described for treating time-dependent problems that works well in the intermediate regime far from both the sudden and the adiabatic limits. The method consists of applying the Magnus expansion after transforming to the adiabatic basis defined by the eigenstates of the instantaneous Hamiltonian. A few exactly soluble examples are considered in order to assess the domain of validity of the approximation. (author) 32 refs., 4 figs

  18. On Covering Approximation Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Ge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Let (U';C' be a subspace of a covering approximation space (U;C and X⊂U'. In this paper, we show that and B'(X⊂B(X∩U'. Also, iff (U;C has Property Multiplication. Furthermore, some connections between outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U;C and outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U';C' are established. These results answer a question on covering approximation subspace posed by J. Li, and are helpful to obtain further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.

  19. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  20. Estimating the approximation error when fixing unessential factors in global sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobol' , I.M. [Institute for Mathematical Modelling of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tarantola, S. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, TP361, Institute of the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Via E. Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra (Italy)]. E-mail: stefano.tarantola@jrc.it; Gatelli, D. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, TP361, Institute of the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Via E. Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra (Italy)]. E-mail: debora.gatelli@jrc.it; Kucherenko, S.S. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Mauntz, W. [Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering, Dortmund University (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    One of the major settings of global sensitivity analysis is that of fixing non-influential factors, in order to reduce the dimensionality of a model. However, this is often done without knowing the magnitude of the approximation error being produced. This paper presents a new theorem for the estimation of the average approximation error generated when fixing a group of non-influential factors. A simple function where analytical solutions are available is used to illustrate the theorem. The numerical estimation of small sensitivity indices is discussed.

  1. On Convex Quadratic Approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hertog, D.; de Klerk, E.; Roos, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we prove the counterintuitive result that the quadratic least squares approximation of a multivariate convex function in a finite set of points is not necessarily convex, even though it is convex for a univariate convex function. This result has many consequences both for the field of

  2. Prestack wavefield approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Approximating The DCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg

    2005-01-01

    The Dirichlet compound multinomial (DCM), which has recently been shown to be well suited for modeling for word burstiness in documents, is here investigated. A number of conceptual explanations that account for these recent results, are provided. An exponential family approximation of the DCM...

  4. Approximation by Cylinder Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...

  5. Prestack wavefield approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2013-09-01

    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. WKB approximation in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnakov, Boris Mikhailovich

    2013-01-01

    Provides extensive coverage of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation and its applications. Presented as a sequence of problems with highly detailed solutions. Gives a concise introduction for calculating Rydberg states, potential barriers and quasistationary systems. This book has evolved from lectures devoted to applications of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin- (WKB or quasi-classical) approximation and of the method of 1/N -expansion for solving various problems in atomic and nuclear physics. The intent of this book is to help students and investigators in this field to extend their knowledge of these important calculation methods in quantum mechanics. Much material is contained herein that is not to be found elsewhere. WKB approximation, while constituting a fundamental area in atomic physics, has not been the focus of many books. A novel method has been adopted for the presentation of the subject matter, the material is presented as a succession of problems, followed by a detailed way of solving them. The methods introduced are then used to calculate Rydberg states in atomic systems and to evaluate potential barriers and quasistationary states. Finally, adiabatic transition and ionization of quantum systems are covered.

  7. Determination of the Rotational Diffusion Tensor of Macromolecules in Solution from NMR Relaxation Data with a Combination of Exact and Approximate Methods—Application to the Determination of Interdomain Orientation in Multidomain Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Ranajeet; Fushman, David; Cowburn, David

    2001-04-01

    In this paper we present a method for determining the rotational diffusion tensor from NMR relaxation data using a combination of approximate and exact methods. The approximate method, which is computationally less intensive, computes values of the principal components of the diffusion tensor and estimates the Euler angles, which relate the principal axis frame of the diffusion tensor to the molecular frame. The approximate values of the principal components are then used as starting points for an exact calculation by a downhill simplex search for the principal components of the tensor over a grid of the space of Euler angles relating the diffusion tensor frame to the molecular frame. The search space of Euler angles is restricted using the tensor orientations calculated using the approximate method. The utility of this approach is demonstrated using both simulated and experimental relaxation data. A quality factor that determines the extent of the agreement between the measured and predicted relaxation data is provided. This approach is then used to estimate the relative orientation of SH3 and SH2 domains in the SH(32) dual-domain construct of Abelson kinase complexed with a consolidated ligand.

  8. Determination of the rotational diffusion tensor of macromolecules in solution from nmr relaxation data with a combination of exact and approximate methods--application to the determination of interdomain orientation in multidomain proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, R; Fushman, D; Cowburn, D

    2001-04-01

    In this paper we present a method for determining the rotational diffusion tensor from NMR relaxation data using a combination of approximate and exact methods. The approximate method, which is computationally less intensive, computes values of the principal components of the diffusion tensor and estimates the Euler angles, which relate the principal axis frame of the diffusion tensor to the molecular frame. The approximate values of the principal components are then used as starting points for an exact calculation by a downhill simplex search for the principal components of the tensor over a grid of the space of Euler angles relating the diffusion tensor frame to the molecular frame. The search space of Euler angles is restricted using the tensor orientations calculated using the approximate method. The utility of this approach is demonstrated using both simulated and experimental relaxation data. A quality factor that determines the extent of the agreement between the measured and predicted relaxation data is provided. This approach is then used to estimate the relative orientation of SH3 and SH2 domains in the SH(32) dual-domain construct of Abelson kinase complexed with a consolidated ligand. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Approximation in two-stage stochastic integer programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Romeijnders; L. Stougie (Leen); M. van der Vlerk

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractApproximation algorithms are the prevalent solution methods in the field of stochastic programming. Problems in this field are very hard to solve. Indeed, most of the research in this field has concentrated on designing solution methods that approximate the optimal solution value.

  10. Approximation in two-stage stochastic integer programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijnders, W.; Stougie, L.; van der Vlerk, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Approximation algorithms are the prevalent solution methods in the field of stochastic programming. Problems in this field are very hard to solve. Indeed, most of the research in this field has concentrated on designing solution methods that approximate the optimal solution value. However,

  11. Tension and Approximation in Poetic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shabab, Omar A. S.; Baka, Farida H.

    2015-01-01

    Simple observation reveals that each language and each culture enjoys specific linguistic features and rhetorical traditions. In poetry translation difference and the resultant linguistic tension create a gap between Source Language and Target language, a gap that needs to be bridged by creating an approximation processed through the translator's…

  12. Simple models with ALICE fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Striet, J

    2000-01-01

    We introduce two simple models which feature an Alice electrodynamics phase. In a well defined sense the Alice flux solutions we obtain in these models obey first order equations similar to those of the Nielsen-Olesen fluxtube in the abelian higgs model in the Bogomol'nyi limit. Some numerical solutions are presented as well.

  13. Approximate Bayesian recursive estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 285, č. 1 (2014), s. 100-111 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Approximate parameter estimation * Bayesian recursive estimation * Kullback–Leibler divergence * Forgetting Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.038, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/karny-0425539.pdf

  14. Approximating Preemptive Stochastic Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Megow Nicole; Vredeveld Tjark

    2009-01-01

    We present constant approximative policies for preemptive stochastic scheduling. We derive policies with a guaranteed performance ratio of 2 for scheduling jobs with release dates on identical parallel machines subject to minimizing the sum of weighted completion times. Our policies as well as their analysis apply also to the recently introduced more general model of stochastic online scheduling. The performance guarantee we give matches the best result known for the corresponding determinist...

  15. Optimization and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Pedregal, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a basic, initial resource, introducing science and engineering students to the field of optimization. It covers three main areas: mathematical programming, calculus of variations and optimal control, highlighting the ideas and concepts and offering insights into the importance of optimality conditions in each area. It also systematically presents affordable approximation methods. Exercises at various levels have been included to support the learning process.

  16. Approximations to the Probability of Failure in Random Vibration by Integral Equation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Close approximations to the first passage probability of failure in random vibration can be obtained by integral equation methods. A simple relation exists between the first passage probability density function and the distribution function for the time interval spent below a barrier before...... passage probability density. The results of the theory agree well with simulation results for narrow banded processes dominated by a single frequency, as well as for bimodal processes with 2 dominating frequencies in the structural response....... outcrossing. An integral equation for the probability density function of the time interval is formulated, and adequate approximations for the kernel are suggested. The kernel approximation results in approximate solutions for the probability density function of the time interval, and hence for the first...

  17. SFU-driven transparent approximation acceleration on GPUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, A.; Song, S.L.; Wijtvliet, M.; Kumar, A.; Corporaal, H.

    2016-01-01

    Approximate computing, the technique that sacrifices certain amount of accuracy in exchange for substantial performance boost or power reduction, is one of the most promising solutions to enable power control and performance scaling towards exascale. Although most existing approximation designs

  18. A simple electron plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.

    2017-01-01

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  19. A simple electron plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, G., E-mail: gert.brodin@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-03-18

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  20. Fast multigrid solution of the advection problem with closed characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavneh, I. [Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Venner, C.H. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Brandt, A. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    The numerical solution of the advection-diffusion problem in the inviscid limit with closed characteristics is studied as a prelude to an efficient high Reynolds-number flow solver. It is demonstrated by a heuristic analysis and numerical calculations that using upstream discretization with downstream relaxation-ordering and appropriate residual weighting in a simple multigrid V cycle produces an efficient solution process. We also derive upstream finite-difference approximations to the advection operator, whose truncation terms approximate {open_quotes}physical{close_quotes} (Laplacian) viscosity, thus avoiding spurious solutions to the homogeneous problem when the artificial diffusivity dominates the physical viscosity.

  1. Generalized synthetic kernel approximation for elastic moderation of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Koji; Sekiya, Tamotsu; Yamamura, Yasunori.

    1975-01-01

    A method of synthetic kernel approximation is examined in some detail with a view to simplifying the treatment of the elastic moderation of fast neutrons. A sequence of unified kernel (fsub(N)) is introduced, which is then divided into two subsequences (Wsub(n)) and (Gsub(n)) according to whether N is odd (Wsub(n)=fsub(2n-1), n=1,2, ...) or even (Gsub(n)=fsub(2n), n=0,1, ...). The W 1 and G 1 kernels correspond to the usual Wigner and GG kernels, respectively, and the Wsub(n) and Gsub(n) kernels for n>=2 represent generalizations thereof. It is shown that the Wsub(n) kernel solution with a relatively small n (>=2) is superior on the whole to the Gsub(n) kernel solution for the same index n, while both converge to the exact values with increasing n. To evaluate the collision density numerically and rapidly, a simple recurrence formula is derived. In the asymptotic region (except near resonances), this recurrence formula allows calculation with a relatively coarse mesh width whenever hsub(a)<=0.05 at least. For calculations in the transient lethargy region, a mesh width of order epsilon/10 is small enough to evaluate the approximate collision density psisub(N) with an accuracy comparable to that obtained analytically. It is shown that, with the present method, an order of approximation of about n=7 should yield a practically correct solution diviating not more than 1% in collision density. (auth.)

  2. A Plea for a Simple Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widell, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a criticism of the classical speech act theory (Austin, Searle). In contrast to this theory, which operates with four to five types of basic illocutionary acts, I will argue for just one type: the assertive. Assertives are speech acts which can make locutions (propositions) tr...... and false. It is the major argument in the paper that the assertive is the only kind of illocution we need, and that any suggestion that it should be otherwise has bad consequences for ontology, logic and a decent theory of meaning....

  3. Cyclic approximation to stasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart D. Johnson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhoods of points in $mathbb{R}^n$ where a positive linear combination of $C^1$ vector fields sum to zero contain, generically, cyclic trajectories that switch between the vector fields. Such points are called stasis points, and the approximating switching cycle can be chosen so that the timing of the switches exactly matches the positive linear weighting. In the case of two vector fields, the stasis points form one-dimensional $C^1$ manifolds containing nearby families of two-cycles. The generic case of two flows in $mathbb{R}^3$ can be diffeomorphed to a standard form with cubic curves as trajectories.

  4. Stochastic quantization and mean field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jengo, R.; Parga, N.

    1983-09-01

    In the context of the stochastic quantization we propose factorized approximate solutions for the Fokker-Planck equation for the XY and Zsub(N) spin systems in D dimensions. The resulting differential equation for a factor can be solved and it is found to give in the limit of t→infinity the mean field or, in the more general case, the Bethe-Peierls approximation. (author)

  5. Explicitly solvable complex Chebyshev approximation problems related to sine polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    Explicitly solvable real Chebyshev approximation problems on the unit interval are typically characterized by simple error curves. A similar principle is presented for complex approximation problems with error curves induced by sine polynomials. As an application, some new explicit formulae for complex best approximations are derived.

  6. On Love's approximation for fluid-filled elastic tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caroli, E.; Mainardi, F.

    1980-01-01

    A simple procedure is set up to introduce Love's approximation for wave propagation in thin-walled fluid-filled elastic tubes. The dispersion relation for linear waves and the radial profile for fluid pressure are determined in this approximation. It is shown that the Love approximation is valid in the low-frequency regime. (author)

  7. Approximation of a Common Element of the Fixed Point Sets of Multivalued Strictly Pseudocontractive-Type Mappings and the Set of Solutions of an Equilibrium Problem in Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Isiogugu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong convergence of a hybrid algorithm to a common element of the fixed point sets of multivalued strictly pseudocontractive-type mappings and the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem in Hilbert spaces is obtained using a strict fixed point set condition. The obtained results improve, complement, and extend the results on multivalued and single-valued mappings in the contemporary literature.

  8. ABOUT SOLUTION OF MULTIPOINT BOUNDARY PROBLEMS OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS WITH THE USE OF COMBINED APPLICATION OF FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND DISCRETE-CONTINUAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD PART 2: SPECIAL ASPECTS OF FINITE ELEMENT APPROXIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Akimov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, the formulation of a multipoint boundary problem involves three main components: a description of the domain occupied by the structure and the corresponding subdomains; description of the conditions inside the domain and inside the corresponding subdomains, the description of the conditions on the boundary of the domain, conditions on the boundaries between subdomains. This paper is a continuation of another work published earlier, in which the formulation and general principles of the approximation of the multipoint boundary problem of a static analysis of deep beam on the basis of the joint application of the finite element method and the discrete-continual finite element method were considered. It should be noted that the approximation within the fragments of a domain that have regular physical-geometric parameters along one of the directions is expedient to be carried out on the basis of the discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM, and for the approximation of all other fragments it is necessary to use the standard finite element method (FEM. In the present publication, the formulas for the computing of displacements partial derivatives of displacements, strains and stresses within the finite element model (both within the finite element and the corresponding nodal values (with the use of averaging are presented. Boundary conditions between subdomains (respectively, discrete models and discrete-continual models and typical conditions such as “hinged support”, “free edge”, “perfect contact” (twelve basic (basic variants are available are under consideration as well. Governing formulas for computing of elements of the corresponding matrices of coefficients and vectors of the right-hand sides are given for each variant. All formulas are fully adapted for algorithmic implementation.

  9. Analysis of a Cartesian PML approximation to acoustic scattering problems in and

    KAUST Repository

    Bramble, James H.

    2013-08-01

    We consider the application of a perfectly matched layer (PML) technique applied in Cartesian geometry to approximate solutions of the acoustic scattering problem in the frequency domain. The PML is viewed as a complex coordinate shift ("stretching") and leads to a variable complex coefficient equation for the acoustic wave posed on an infinite domain, the complement of the bounded scatterer. The use of Cartesian geometry leads to a PML operator with simple coefficients, although, still complex symmetric (non-Hermitian). The PML reformulation results in a problem whose solution coincides with the original solution inside the PML layer while decaying exponentially outside. The rapid decay of the PML solution suggests truncation to a bounded domain with a convenient outer boundary condition and subsequent finite element approximation (for the truncated problem). This paper provides new stability estimates for the Cartesian PML approximations both on the infinite and the truncated domain. We first investigate the stability of the infinite PML approximation as a function of the PML strength σ0. This is done for PML methods which involve continuous piecewise smooth stretching as well as piecewise constant stretching functions. We next introduce a truncation parameter M which determines the size of the PML layer. Our analysis shows that the truncated PML problem is stable provided that the product of Mσ0 is sufficiently large, in which case the solution of the problem on the truncated domain converges exponentially to that of the original problem in the domain of interest near the scatterer. This justifies the simple computational strategy of selecting a fixed PML layer and increasing σ0 to obtain the desired accuracy. The results of numerical experiments varying M and σ0 are given which illustrate the theoretically predicted behavior. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mathematical analysis, approximation theory and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Designed for graduate students, researchers, and engineers in mathematics, optimization, and economics, this self-contained volume presents theory, methods, and applications in mathematical analysis and approximation theory. Specific topics include: approximation of functions by linear positive operators with applications to computer aided geometric design, numerical analysis, optimization theory, and solutions of differential equations. Recent and significant developments in approximation theory, special functions and q-calculus along with their applications to mathematics, engineering, and social sciences are discussed and analyzed. Each chapter enriches the understanding of current research problems and theories in pure and applied research.

  11. The random phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, P.

    1985-01-01

    RPA is the adequate theory to describe vibrations of the nucleus of very small amplitudes. These vibrations can either be forced by an external electromagnetic field or can be eigenmodes of the nucleus. In a one dimensional analogue the potential corresponding to such eigenmodes of very small amplitude should be rather stiff otherwise the motion risks to be a large amplitude one and to enter a region where the approximation is not valid. This means that nuclei which are supposedly well described by RPA must have a very stable groundstate configuration (must e.g. be very stiff against deformation). This is usually the case for doubly magic nuclei or close to magic nuclei which are in the middle of proton and neutron shells which develop a very stable groundstate deformation; we take the deformation as an example but there are many other possible degrees of freedom as, for example, compression modes, isovector degrees of freedom, spin degrees of freedom, and many more

  12. The quasilocalized charge approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, G J; Golden, K I; Donko, Z; Hartmann, P

    2005-01-01

    The quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA) has been used for some time as a formalism for the calculation of the dielectric response and for determining the collective mode dispersion in strongly coupled Coulomb and Yukawa liquids. The approach is based on a microscopic model in which the charges are quasilocalized on a short-time scale in local potential fluctuations. We review the conceptual basis and theoretical structure of the QLC approach and together with recent results from molecular dynamics simulations that corroborate and quantify the theoretical concepts. We also summarize the major applications of the QLCA to various physical systems, combined with the corresponding results of the molecular dynamics simulations and point out the general agreement and instances of disagreement between the two

  13. Improved Dutch Roll Approximation for Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Liang Yin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An improved dutch roll approximation for hypersonic vehicle is presented. From the new approximations, the dutch roll frequency is shown to be a function of the stability axis yaw stability and the dutch roll damping is mainly effected by the roll damping ratio. In additional, an important parameter called roll-to-yaw ratio is obtained to describe the dutch roll mode. Solution shows that large-roll-to-yaw ratio is the generate character of hypersonic vehicle, which results the large error for the practical approximation. Predictions from the literal approximations derived in this paper are compared with actual numerical values for s example hypersonic vehicle, results show the approximations work well and the error is below 10 %.

  14. On-the-energy-shell approximation for the heavy ion couple-channels problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, B.V.; Hussein, M.S.

    Starting with the coupled channels equations describing multiple Coulomb excitations in heavy ion collisions an approximation scheme is developed based on replacing the channel Green's functions by their on-the-energy shell forms, which permits an exact analytic solution for the scattering matrix. The trivially equivalent Coulomb polarization potential valid for strong coupling and small energy loss in the excitation processes is constructed. This potential is seen to have a very simple r-dependence. A simple formula for the sub-barrier elastic scattering cross section is then derived both by using the WRB approximation and by summing the Born series for the T-matrix. Comparison of the two forms for the elastic cross section shows that they give almost identical numerical results in the small coupling limit only. The results are also compared with the predictions of the Alder-Winther theory. (Author) [pt

  15. A Simple Model for Nonlinear Confocal Ultrasonic Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhou, Lin; Si, Li-Sheng; Gong, Xiu-Fen

    2007-01-01

    A confocally and coaxially arranged pair of focused transmitter and receiver represents one of the best geometries for medical ultrasonic imaging and non-invasive detection. We develop a simple theoretical model for describing the nonlinear propagation of a confocal ultrasonic beam in biological tissues. On the basis of the parabolic approximation and quasi-linear approximation, the nonlinear Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation is solved by using the angular spectrum approach. Gaussian superposition technique is applied to simplify the solution, and an analytical solution for the second harmonics in the confocal ultrasonic beam is presented. Measurements are performed to examine the validity of the theoretical model. This model provides a preliminary model for acoustic nonlinear microscopy.

  16. Zeolites as alcohol adsorbents from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekova Blagica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential usage of zeolites as adsorbents for the removal of organic molecules from water was investigated in a series of experiments with aqueous solutions of lower alcohols. This could represent a simple solution to the problem of cleaning up industrial wastewater as well as recovering valuable chemicals at relatively low costs. Adsorption isotherms of the Langmuir type were applied, and calculations showed that the amount of propanol adsorbed on silicalite corresponded to approximately 70% of the pore volume. The adsorption process is simple, and recovery of the more concentrated products is easily done by heat treatment and/or at lowered pressures. Adsorption experiments with aqueous acetone showed that silicalite had approximately the same adsorption capacity for acetone as for n-propanol. Heats of adsorption were determined calorimetrically.

  17. Approximate quantum Markov chains

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, David

    2018-01-01

    This book is an introduction to quantum Markov chains and explains how this concept is connected to the question of how well a lost quantum mechanical system can be recovered from a correlated subsystem. To achieve this goal, we strengthen the data-processing inequality such that it reveals a statement about the reconstruction of lost information. The main difficulty in order to understand the behavior of quantum Markov chains arises from the fact that quantum mechanical operators do not commute in general. As a result we start by explaining two techniques of how to deal with non-commuting matrices: the spectral pinching method and complex interpolation theory. Once the reader is familiar with these techniques a novel inequality is presented that extends the celebrated Golden-Thompson inequality to arbitrarily many matrices. This inequality is the key ingredient in understanding approximate quantum Markov chains and it answers a question from matrix analysis that was open since 1973, i.e., if Lieb's triple ma...

  18. Approximate analytical solution of the Dirac equation for pseudospin symmetry with modified Po schl-Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential using asymptotic iteration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratiwi, B N; Suparmi, A; Cari, C; Yunianto, M; Husein, A S

    2016-01-01

    We apllied asymptotic iteration method (AIM) to obtain the analytical solution of the Dirac equation in case exact pseudospin symmetry in the presence of modified Pcischl- Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential. The Dirac equation was solved by variables separation into one dimensional Dirac equation, the radial part and angular part equation. The radial and angular part equation can be reduced into hypergeometric type equation by variable substitution and wavefunction substitution and then transform it into AIM type equation to obtain relativistic energy eigenvalue and wavefunctions. Relativistic energy was calculated numerically by Matlab software. And then relativistic energy spectrum and wavefunctions were visualized by Matlab software. The results show that the increase in the radial quantum number n_r causes decrease in the relativistic energy spectrum. The negative value of energy is taken due to the pseudospin symmetry limit. Several quantum wavefunctions were presented in terms of the hypergeometric functions. (paper)

  19. Spline approximation, Part 1: Basic methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhov, Nikolaj; Neitzel, Frank; Petrovic, Svetozar

    2018-04-01

    In engineering geodesy point clouds derived from terrestrial laser scanning or from photogrammetric approaches are almost never used as final results. For further processing and analysis a curve or surface approximation with a continuous mathematical function is required. In this paper the approximation of 2D curves by means of splines is treated. Splines offer quite flexible and elegant solutions for interpolation or approximation of "irregularly" distributed data. Depending on the problem they can be expressed as a function or as a set of equations that depend on some parameter. Many different types of splines can be used for spline approximation and all of them have certain advantages and disadvantages depending on the approximation problem. In a series of three articles spline approximation is presented from a geodetic point of view. In this paper (Part 1) the basic methodology of spline approximation is demonstrated using splines constructed from ordinary polynomials and splines constructed from truncated polynomials. In the forthcoming Part 2 the notion of B-spline will be explained in a unique way, namely by using the concept of convex combinations. The numerical stability of all spline approximation approaches as well as the utilization of splines for deformation detection will be investigated on numerical examples in Part 3.

  20. A molecular dynamics study of intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in solution based upon a mixed quantum-classical approximation. II. Proton transfer reaction in non-polar solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, H.; Yamada, A.; Okazaki, S.

    2015-05-01

    The intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in neon solvent has been investigated by mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics (QCMD) calculations and fully classical molecular dynamics (FCMD) calculations. Comparing these calculated results with those for malonaldehyde in water reported in Part I [A. Yamada, H. Kojima, and S. Okazaki, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 084509 (2014)], the solvent dependence of the reaction rate, the reaction mechanism involved, and the quantum effect therein have been investigated. With FCMD, the reaction rate in weakly interacting neon is lower than that in strongly interacting water. However, with QCMD, the order of the reaction rates is reversed. To investigate the mechanisms in detail, the reactions were categorized into three mechanisms: tunneling, thermal activation, and barrier vanishing. Then, the quantum and solvent effects were analyzed from the viewpoint of the reaction mechanism focusing on the shape of potential energy curve and its fluctuations. The higher reaction rate that was found for neon in QCMD compared with that found for water solvent arises from the tunneling reactions because of the nearly symmetric double-well shape of the potential curve in neon. The thermal activation and barrier vanishing reactions were also accelerated by the zero-point energy. The number of reactions based on these two mechanisms in water was greater than that in neon in both QCMD and FCMD because these reactions are dominated by the strength of solute-solvent interactions.

  1. Thin-wall approximation in vacuum decay: A lemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam R.

    2018-05-01

    The "thin-wall approximation" gives a simple estimate of the decay rate of an unstable quantum field. Unfortunately, the approximation is uncontrolled. In this paper I show that there are actually two different thin-wall approximations and that they bracket the true decay rate: I prove that one is an upper bound and the other a lower bound. In the thin-wall limit, the two approximations converge. In the presence of gravity, a generalization of this lemma provides a simple sufficient condition for nonperturbative vacuum instability.

  2. Nonlinear analysis approximation theory, optimization and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Many of our daily-life problems can be written in the form of an optimization problem. Therefore, solution methods are needed to solve such problems. Due to the complexity of the problems, it is not always easy to find the exact solution. However, approximate solutions can be found. The theory of the best approximation is applicable in a variety of problems arising in nonlinear functional analysis and optimization. This book highlights interesting aspects of nonlinear analysis and optimization together with many applications in the areas of physical and social sciences including engineering. It is immensely helpful for young graduates and researchers who are pursuing research in this field, as it provides abundant research resources for researchers and post-doctoral fellows. This will be a valuable addition to the library of anyone who works in the field of applied mathematics, economics and engineering.

  3. Self-similar factor approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties

  4. The choice of optimal Discrete Interaction Approximation to the kinetic integral for ocean waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Polnikov

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of discrete configurations for the four-wave nonlinear interaction processes have been calculated and tested by the method proposed earlier in the frame of the concept of Fast Discrete Interaction Approximation to the Hasselmann's kinetic integral (Polnikov and Farina, 2002. It was found that there are several simple configurations, which are more efficient than the one proposed originally in Hasselmann et al. (1985. Finally, the optimal multiple Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA to the kinetic integral for deep-water waves was found. Wave spectrum features have been intercompared for a number of different configurations of DIA, applied to a long-time solution of kinetic equation. On the basis of this intercomparison the better efficiency of the configurations proposed was confirmed. Certain recommendations were given for implementation of new approximations to the wave forecast practice.

  5. Approximate reflection coefficients for a thin VTI layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi; Stovas, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    We present an approximate method to derive simple expressions for the reflection coefficients of P- and SV-waves for a thin transversely isotropic layer with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) embedded in a homogeneous VTI background. The layer

  6. Diffusive Wave Approximation to the Shallow Water Equations: Computational Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan; Radwan, Hany; Dalcin, Lisandro; Calo, Victor M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the use of time adaptivity applied to the one dimensional diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations. A simple and computationally economical error estimator is discussed which enables time-step size adaptivity

  7. Higher-Order Approximations of Motion of a Nonlinear Oscillator Using the Parameter Expansion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, S. S.; Domairry, G.; Davodi, A. G.; Babazadeh, H.; Seyedalizadeh Ganji, S. H.

    The main objective of this paper is to apply the parameter expansion technique (a modified Lindstedt-Poincaré method) to calculate the first, second, and third-order approximations of motion of a nonlinear oscillator arising in rigid rod rocking back. The dynamics and frequency of motion of this nonlinear mechanical system are analyzed. A meticulous attention is carried out to the study of the introduced nonlinearity effects on the amplitudes of the oscillatory states and on the bifurcation structures. We examine the synchronization and the frequency of systems using both the strong and special method. Numerical simulations and computer's answers confirm and complement the results obtained by the analytical approach. The approach proposes a choice to overcome the difficulty of computing the periodic behavior of the oscillation problems in engineering. The solutions of this method are compared with the exact ones in order to validate the approach, and assess the accuracy of the solutions. In particular, APL-PM works well for the whole range of oscillation amplitudes and excellent agreement of the approximate frequency with the exact one has been demonstrated. The approximate period derived here is accurate and close to the exact solution. This method has a distinguished feature which makes it simple to use, and also it agrees with the exact solutions for various parameters.

  8. Approximation and inference methods for stochastic biochemical kinetics—a tutorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnoerr, David; Grima, Ramon; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Stochastic fluctuations of molecule numbers are ubiquitous in biological systems. Important examples include gene expression and enzymatic processes in living cells. Such systems are typically modelled as chemical reaction networks whose dynamics are governed by the chemical master equation. Despite its simple structure, no analytic solutions to the chemical master equation are known for most systems. Moreover, stochastic simulations are computationally expensive, making systematic analysis and statistical inference a challenging task. Consequently, significant effort has been spent in recent decades on the development of efficient approximation and inference methods. This article gives an introduction to basic modelling concepts as well as an overview of state of the art methods. First, we motivate and introduce deterministic and stochastic methods for modelling chemical networks, and give an overview of simulation and exact solution methods. Next, we discuss several approximation methods, including the chemical Langevin equation, the system size expansion, moment closure approximations, time-scale separation approximations and hybrid methods. We discuss their various properties and review recent advances and remaining challenges for these methods. We present a comparison of several of these methods by means of a numerical case study and highlight some of their respective advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we discuss the problem of inference from experimental data in the Bayesian framework and review recent methods developed the literature. In summary, this review gives a self-contained introduction to modelling, approximations and inference methods for stochastic chemical kinetics. (topical review)

  9. International Conference Approximation Theory XV

    CERN Document Server

    Schumaker, Larry

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings are based on papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XV, which was held May 22–25, 2016 in San Antonio, Texas. The conference was the fifteenth in a series of meetings in Approximation Theory held at various locations in the United States, and was attended by 146 participants. The book contains longer survey papers by some of the invited speakers covering topics such as compressive sensing, isogeometric analysis, and scaling limits of polynomials and entire functions of exponential type. The book also includes papers on a variety of current topics in Approximation Theory drawn from areas such as advances in kernel approximation with applications, approximation theory and algebraic geometry, multivariate splines for applications, practical function approximation, approximation of PDEs, wavelets and framelets with applications, approximation theory in signal processing, compressive sensing, rational interpolation, spline approximation in isogeometric analysis, a...

  10. A simple model for low energy ion-solid interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajerzadeh, S.; Selvakumar, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A simple analytical model for ion-solid interactions, suitable for low energy beam depositions, is reported. An approximation for the nuclear stopping power is used to obtain the analytic solution for the deposited energy in the solid. The ratio of the deposited energy in the bulk to the energy deposited in the surface yields a ceiling for the beam energy above which more defects are generated in the bulk resulting in defective films. The numerical evaluations agree with the existing results in the literature. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Simple model for the dynamics towards metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, P.H.E.; Keskin, M.; Bodegom, E.

    1986-01-01

    Circumstances under which a quenched system will freeze in a metastable state are studied in simple systems with long-range order. The model used is the time-dependent pair approximation, based on the most probable path (MPP) method. The time dependence of the solution is shown by means of flow diagrams. The fixed points and other features of the differential equations in time are independent of the choice of the rate constants. It is explained qualitatively how the system behaves under varying descending temperatures: the role of the initial conditions, the dependence on the quenching rate, and the response to precooling

  12. Approximation of the Doppler broadening function by Frobenius method; Aproximacao da funcao de alargamento doppler atraves do metodo de Frobenius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Daniel A.P. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Quimica de Nilopolis/RJ (CEFET), RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: dpalma@cefeteq.br; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br; fernando@lmn.con.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    An analytical approximation of the Doppler broadening function {psi}(x,{xi}) is proposed. This approximation is based on the solution of the differential equation for {psi}(x,{xi}) using the methods of Frobenius and the parameters variation. The analytical form derived for {psi}(x,{xi}) in terms of elementary functions is very simple and precise. It can be useful for applications related to the treatment of nuclear resonances mainly for the calculations of multigroup parameters and self-protection factors of the resonances, being the last used to correct microscopic cross-sections measurements by the activation technique. (author)

  13. The recursive solution of the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydock, R.

    The transformation of an arbitrary quantum model and its subsequent analysis is proposed. The chain expresses mathematically the physical concept of local environment. The recursive transformation yields analytic chains for some systems, but it is also convenient and efficient for constructing numerical chain models enabling the solution of problems which are too big for numerical matrix methods. The chain model sugests new approach to quantum mechanical models. Because of the simple solution of chain models, the qualitative behaviour of different physical properties can be determined. Unlike many methods for solving quantum models, one has rigorous results about the convergence of approximation. Because they are defined recursively, the approsimations are suited to computation. (Ha)

  14. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite (MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders prepared by a simple aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maensiri, Santi, E-mail: santimaensiri@gmail.com [School of Physics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: This figure shows the specific magnetization curves of the as-prepared MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders obtained from room temperature VSM measurement. These curves are typical for a soft magnetic material and indicate hysteresis ferromagnetism in the field ranges of ±500 Oe, ±1000 Oe, and ±2000 Oe for the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} respectively, whereas the samples of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} show a superparamagnetic behavior. Highlights: ► Nanocrystalline MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method. ► Metal acetylacetonates and aloe vera plant-extracted solution are used. ► This biosynthetic route is very simple and provides high-yield oxide nanomaterials. ► XRD and TEM results indicate that the prepared samples have only spinel structure. ► The maximum M{sub s} of 68.9 emu/g at 10 kOe were observed for the samples of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using Fe(acac){sub 3}, M(acac){sub 3} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) and aloe vera plant extracted solution. The X-ray diffraction and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the synthesized nanocrystalline have only spinel structure without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the spinel ferrite powders, as revealed by TEM, show that the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples contain nanoparticles, whereas the MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples consist of many nanoplatelets and nanoparticles. Interestingly, the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample contains plate-like structure of networked nanocrystalline particles. Room temperature magnetization results show a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples, whereas the

  15. On numerical solution of Burgers' equation by homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inc, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we present the Homotopy Analysis Method (shortly HAM) for obtaining the numerical solution of the one-dimensional nonlinear Burgers' equation. The initial approximation can be freely chosen with possible unknown constants which can be determined by imposing the boundary and initial conditions. Convergence of the solution and effects for the method is discussed. The comparison of the HAM results with the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) and the results of [E.N. Aksan, Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 884; S. Kutluay, A. Esen, Int. J. Comput. Math. 81 (2004) 1433; S. Abbasbandy, M.T. Darvishi, Appl. Math. Comput. 163 (2005) 1265] are made. The results reveal that HAM is very simple and effective. The HAM contains the auxiliary parameter h, which provides us with a simple way to adjust and control the convergence region of solution series. The numerical solutions are compared with the known analytical and some numerical solutions

  16. Dynamics of unwinding of a simple entaglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegel, F.W.; Michels, J.P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of unwinding of a simple entanglement is studied in two ways, firstly using an optimal path approximation in the Rouse model and secondly by simulating the movement of a more realistic model using Brownian molecular dynamics

  17. Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, G

    2002-01-01

    Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.

  18. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  19. Quasi-fractional approximation to the Bessel functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, P.M.L.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the authors presents a simple Quasi-Fractional Approximation for Bessel Functions J ν (x), (- 1 ≤ ν < 0.5). This has been obtained by extending a method published which uses simultaneously power series and asymptotic expansions. Both functions, exact and approximated, coincide in at least two digits for positive x, and ν between - 1 and 0,4

  20. Fractional approximations for linear first order differential equation with polynomial coefficients-application to E1(x) and Z(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Zamudio-Cristi, J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described to obtain fractional approximations for linear first order differential equations with polynomial coefficients. This approximation can give good accuracy in a large region of the complex variable plane that may include all the real axis. The parameters of the approximation are solutions of algebraic equations obtained through the coefficients of the highest and lowest power of the variable after the sustitution of the fractional approximation in the differential equation. The method is more general than the asymptotical Pade method, and it is not required to determine the power series or asymptotical expansion. A simple approximation for the exponential integral is found, which give three exact digits for most of the real values of the variable. Approximations of higher accuracy and of the same degree than other authors are also obtained. (Author) [pt