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Sample records for similar temporal characteristics

  1. Similarity queries for temporal toxicogenomic expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A Smith

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for answering similarity queries about gene expression time series that is motivated by the task of characterizing the potential toxicity of various chemicals. Our approach involves two key aspects. First, our method employs a novel alignment algorithm based on time warping. Our time warping algorithm has several advantages over previous approaches. It allows the user to impose fairly strong biases on the form that the alignments can take, and it permits a type of local alignment in which the entirety of only one series has to be aligned. Second, our method employs a relaxed spline interpolation to predict expression responses for unmeasured time points, such that the spline does not necessarily exactly fit every observed point. We evaluate our approach using expression time series from the Edge toxicology database. Our experiments show the value of using spline representations for sparse time series. More significantly, they show that our time warping method provides more accurate alignments and classifications than previous standard alignment methods for time series.

  2. Spatial-Temporal Similarity Correlation between Public Transit Passengers Using Smart Card Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Faroqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of public transit smart card data has enabled several studies to focus on identifying passengers with similar spatial and/or temporal trip characteristics. However, this paper goes one step further by investigating the relationship between passengers’ spatial and temporal characteristics. For the first time, this paper investigates the correlation of the spatial similarity with the temporal similarity between public transit passengers by developing spatial similarity and temporal similarity measures for the public transit network with a novel passenger-based perspective. The perspective considers the passengers as agents who can make multiple trips in the network. The spatial similarity measure takes into account direction as well as the distance between the trips of the passengers. The temporal similarity measure considers both the boarding and alighting time in a continuous linear space. The spatial-temporal similarity correlation between passengers is analysed using histograms, Pearson correlation coefficients, and hexagonal binning. Also, relations between the spatial and temporal similarity values with the trip time and length are examined. The proposed methodology is implemented for four-day smart card data including 80,000 passengers in Brisbane, Australia. The results show a nonlinear spatial-temporal similarity correlation among the passengers.

  3. 7 CFR 51.632 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.632 Section 51.632 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.632 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics...

  4. 7 CFR 51.3202 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.3202 Section 51.3202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the onions in any container...

  5. 7 CFR 51.567 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.567 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.567 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the stalks in any package have the same general appearance and...

  6. 7 CFR 51.763 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.763 Section 51.763 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the fruits in any container are similar in color and...

  7. 7 CFR 51.3057 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.3057 Section 51.3057 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the avocados in any container are similar in shape...

  8. 7 CFR 51.694 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.694 Section 51.694 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.694 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2650 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2650 Section 51.2650 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the cherries in any container are similar in color...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1550 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1550 Section 51.1550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the potatoes in any lot have the same general shape...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1154 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1154 Section 51.1154 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the fruits in any container are...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2756 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2756 Section 51.2756 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the peanut kernels in the lot are not of distinctly...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1906 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1906 Section 51.1906 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the tomatoes are alike as to color, i.e., bright red...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2714 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2714 Section 51.2714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the peanut kernels in the lot are not of distinctly...

  15. 7 CFR 51.603 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.603 Section 51.603 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the stalks in any container have the same character...

  16. Temporal self-similar synchronization patterns and scaling in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Repulsively coupled oscillators; synchronization patterns; self-similar ... system, one expects multistable behavior in analogy to ..... More about the scaling relation between the long-period ... The third type of representation of phases is via.

  17. A similarity hypothesis for the two-point correlation tensor in a temporally evolving plane wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, D. W.; George, W. K.; Moser, R. D.; Rogers, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis demonstrated that the governing equations for the two-point velocity correlation tensor in the temporally evolving wake admit similarity solutions, which include the similarity solutions for the single-point moment as a special case. The resulting equations for the similarity solutions include two constants, beta and Re(sub sigma), that are ratios of three characteristic time scales of processes in the flow: a viscous time scale, a time scale characteristic of the spread rate of the flow, and a characteristic time scale of the mean strain rate. The values of these ratios depend on the initial conditions of the flow and are most likely measures of the coherent structures in the initial conditions. The occurrences of these constants in the governing equations for the similarity solutions indicates that these solutions, in general, will only be the same for two flows if these two constants are equal (and hence the coherent structures in the flows are related). The comparisons between the predictions of the similarity hypothesis and the data presented here and elsewhere indicate that the similarity solutions for the two-point correlation tensors provide a good approximation of the measures of those motions that are not significantly affected by the boundary conditions caused by the finite extent of real flows. Thus, the two-point similarity hypothesis provides a useful tool for both numerical and physical experimentalist that can be used to examine how the finite extent of real flows affect the evolution of the different scales of motion in the flow.

  18. 7 CFR 51.2116 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... blanchable varieties within the “California” Marketing Classification. In addition, Nonpareil or similar... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2116 Section 51.2116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  19. Temporal characteristics of cold pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Michael A; Bolding, Mark S; Cutter, Gary R; Ness, Timothy J; Zhang, Kui

    2010-08-09

    Adaptation to a sustained stimulus is an important phenomenon in psychophysical experiments. When studying the response to an experimental task, the investigator has to account for the change in perceived stimulus intensity with repeated stimulus application and, if the stimulus is sustained, for the change in intensity during the presentation. An example of a sustained stimulus is the cold pressor task (CPT). The task has been used both as an experimental pain task and to study cardiovascular physiology. In functional imaging research, the CPT has been used to evaluate cognitive processing of a noxious stimulus. Investigators typically model the stimulus in a block design as a categorical (on-off) stimulus and do not account for a temporal change in stimulus perception. If the perceived stimulus changes over time, the results may be misleading. Therefore, we characterized the time course of cold pain in human volunteers and developed a model of the temporal characteristics of perceived cold pain. Fifteen healthy participants underwent cold pain testing by immersing their right foot into a container filled with ice water (2 degrees C) for 30s alternating with a 30s immersion into a container filled with tepid water 32 degrees C (control). Participants rated the pain intensity using an electronic slide algometer. Using a mixed general linear model (effectively a polynomial regression model), we determined that pain ratings follow a crescendo-decrescendo pattern that can be described well using a quadratic model. We conclude that the time course of quantitative perception differs fundamentally from the time course of stimulus presentation. This may be important when looking for the physiological correlates of perception as opposed to the presence of a stimulus per se. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Algebraic Framework for Temporal Attribute Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhlen, M. H.; Gamper, J.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Most real-world database applications manage temporal data, i.e., data with associated time references that capture a temporal aspect of the data, typically either when the data is valid or when the data is known. Such applications abound in, e.g., the financial, medical, and scientific domains...

  1. Auditory memory for temporal characteristics of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokoll, Melanie A; Klump, Georg M; Langemann, Ulrike

    2008-05-01

    This study evaluates auditory memory for variations in the rate of sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) of noise bursts in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). To estimate the extent of the starling's auditory short-term memory store, a delayed non-matching-to-sample paradigm was applied. The birds were trained to discriminate between a series of identical "sample stimuli" and a single "test stimulus". The birds classified SAM rates of sample and test stimuli as being either the same or different. Memory performance of the birds was measured as the percentage of correct classifications. Auditory memory persistence time was estimated as a function of the delay between sample and test stimuli. Memory performance was significantly affected by the delay between sample and test and by the number of sample stimuli presented before the test stimulus, but was not affected by the difference in SAM rate between sample and test stimuli. The individuals' auditory memory persistence times varied between 2 and 13 s. The starlings' auditory memory persistence in the present study for signals varying in the temporal domain was significantly shorter compared to that of a previous study (Zokoll et al. in J Acoust Soc Am 121:2842, 2007) applying tonal stimuli varying in the spectral domain.

  2. Spatiao – Temporal Evaluation and Comparison of MM5 Model using Similarity Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Siabi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction temporal and spatial change of meteorological and environmental variables is very important. These changes can be predicted by numerical prediction models over time and in different locations and can be provided as spatial zoning maps with interpolation methods such as geostatistics (16, 6. But these maps are comparable to each other as visual, qualitative and univariate for a limited number of maps (15. To resolve this problem the similarity algorithm is used. This algorithm is a simultaneous comparison method to a large number of data (18. Numerical prediction models such as MM5 were used in different studies (10, 22, and 23. But a little research is done to compare the spatio-temporal similarity of the models with real data quantitatively. The purpose of this paper is to integrate geostatistical techniques with similarity algorithm to study the spatial and temporal MM5 model predicted results with real data. Materials and Methods The study area is north east of Iran. 55 to 61 degrees of longitude and latitude is 30 to 38 degrees. Monthly and annual temperature and precipitation actual data for the period of 1990-2010 was received from the Meteorological Agency and Department of Energy. MM5 Model Data, with a spatial resolution 0.5 × 0.5 degree were downloaded from the NASA website (5. GS+ and ArcGis software were used to produce each variable map. We used multivariate methods co-kriging and kriging with an external drift by applying topography and height as a secondary variable via implementing Digital Elevation Model. (6,12,14. Then the standardize and similarity algorithms (9,11 was applied by programming in MATLAB software to each map grid point. The spatial and temporal similarities between data collections and model results were obtained by F values. These values are between 0 and 0.5 where the value below 0.2 indicates good similarity and above 0.5 shows very poor similarity. The results were plotted on maps by MATLAB

  3. A Similarity-Based Approach for Audiovisual Document Classification Using Temporal Relation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrane Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a novel approach for video classification that bases on the analysis of the temporal relationships between the basic events in audiovisual documents. Starting from basic segmentation results, we define a new representation method that is called Temporal Relation Matrix (TRM. Each document is then described by a set of TRMs, the analysis of which makes events of a higher level stand out. This representation has been first designed to analyze any audiovisual document in order to find events that may well characterize its content and its structure. The aim of this work is to use this representation to compute a similarity measure between two documents. Approaches for audiovisual documents classification are presented and discussed. Experimentations are done on a set of 242 video documents and the results show the efficiency of our proposals.

  4. Novel fiber design with the characteristics similar to LEAF

    CERN Document Server

    Tewari, R; Jakubczyk, Z J

    2002-01-01

    A novel fiber design has been proposed for a (+d) non zero dispersion shifted fiber (NZDSF). The obtained characteristics of this fiber (such as Petermann II-mode field diameter, group delay, group velocity dispersion, dispersion slope, and effective area) are in good agreement with the commercially available (+D) NZDSF with the trade name LEAF. (6 refs).

  5. Insular epilepsy: similarities to temporal lobe epilepsy case report Epilepsia insular: similaridades à epilepsia do lobo temporal - relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR CUKIERT

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Insular epilepsy has been rarely reported and its clinical and electrographic features are poorly understood. The electrographic study of the insula is difficult since it is hidden from the brain surface by the frontal and temporal lobe. A 48 years-old woman started having simple partial autonomic and complex partial seizures with automatisms and ictal left arm paresis 8 years prior to admission. Seizure's frequency was 1 per week. Pre-operative EEG showed a right temporal lobe focus. Neuropsychological testing disclosed right fronto-temporal dysfunction. MRI showed a right anterior insular cavernous angioma. Intraoperative ECoG obtained after spliting of the sylvian fissure showed independent spiking from the insula and temporal lobe and insular spikes that spread to the temporal lobe. The cavernous angioma and the surrounding gliotic tissue were removed and the temporal lobe was left in place. Post-resection ECoG still disclosed independent temporal and insular spiking with a lower frequency. The patient has been seizure-free since surgery. Insular epilepsy may share many clinical and electroencephalographic features with temporal lobe epilepsy.A epilepsia insular tem sido raramente relatada e suas características clínicas e eletrencefalográficas são pobremente conhecidas. O estudo eletrográfico da ínsula é difícil já que ela se encontra recoberta pelos lobos frontal e temporal. Uma paciente, de 48 anos, começou a ter crises parciais simples autonômicas e crises parciais complexas com automatismos e paresia crítica de membro superior esquerdo 8 anos antes desta internação. A frequência de crises era de 1/semana . O EEG pré-operatório mostrou foco temporal direito. Testagem neuropsicológica demonstrou disfunção fronto-temporal direita. RMN demonstrou cavernoma insular anterior direito. A eletrocorticografia intraoperatória obtida após a abertura da fissura sylviana demonstrou a presença de espículas independentes na

  6. Characteristics of spectro-temporal modulation frequency selectivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Arne; Verhey, Jesko L

    2017-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that the auditory system shows frequency selectivity for spectro-temporal modulations. A recent study of the authors has shown spectro-temporal modulation masking patterns that were in agreement with the hypothesis of spectro-temporal modulation filters in the human auditory system [Oetjen and Verhey (2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137(2), 714-723]. In the present study, that experimental data and additional data were used to model this spectro-temporal frequency selectivity. The additional data were collected to investigate to what extent the spectro-temporal modulation-frequency selectivity results from a combination of a purely temporal amplitude-modulation filter and a purely spectral amplitude-modulation filter. In contrast to the previous study, thresholds were measured for masker and target modulations with opposite directions, i.e., an upward pointing target modulation and a downward pointing masker modulation. The comparison of this data set with previous corresponding data with the same direction from target and masker modulations indicate that a specific spectro-temporal modulation filter is required to simulate all aspects of spectro-temporal modulation frequency selectivity. A model using a modified Gabor filter with a purely temporal and a purely spectral filter predicts the spectro-temporal modulation masking data.

  7. LCDs are better: psychophysical and photometric estimates of the temporal characteristics of CRT and LCD monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagroix, Hayley E P; Yanko, Matthew R; Spalek, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    Many cognitive and perceptual phenomena, such as iconic memory and temporal integration, require brief displays. A critical requirement is that the image not remain visible after its offset. It is commonly believed that liquid crystal displays (LCD) are unsuitable because of their poor temporal response characteristics relative to cathode-ray-tube (CRT) screens. Remarkably, no psychophysical estimates of visible persistence are available to verify this belief. A series of experiments in which white stimuli on a black background produced discernible persistence on CRT but not on LCD screens, during both dark- and light-adapted viewing, falsified this belief. Similar estimates using black stimuli on a white background produced no visible persistence on either screen. That said, photometric measurements are available that seem to confirm the poor temporal characteristics of LCD screens, but they were obtained before recent advances in LCD technology. Using current LCD screens, we obtained photometric estimates of rise time far shorter (1-6 ms) than earlier estimates (20-150 ms), and approaching those of CRTs (<1 ms). We conclude that LCDs are preferable to CRTs when visible persistence is a concern, except when black-on-white displays are used.

  8. Different relationships between temporal phylogenetic turnover and phylogenetic similarity and in two forests were detected by a new null model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Jian; Shen, Yong; Lian, Ju-yu; Cao, Hong-lin; Ye, Wan-hui; Wu, Lin-fang; Bin, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Ecologists have been monitoring community dynamics with the purpose of understanding the rates and causes of community change. However, there is a lack of monitoring of community dynamics from the perspective of phylogeny. We attempted to understand temporal phylogenetic turnover in a 50 ha tropical forest (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) and a 20 ha subtropical forest (Dinghushan in southern China, DHS). To obtain temporal phylogenetic turnover under random conditions, two null models were used. The first shuffled names of species that are widely used in community phylogenetic analyses. The second simulated demographic processes with careful consideration on the variation in dispersal ability among species and the variations in mortality both among species and among size classes. With the two models, we tested the relationships between temporal phylogenetic turnover and phylogenetic similarity at different spatial scales in the two forests. Results were more consistent with previous findings using the second null model suggesting that the second null model is more appropriate for our purposes. With the second null model, a significantly positive relationship was detected between phylogenetic turnover and phylogenetic similarity in BCI at a 10 m×10 m scale, potentially indicating phylogenetic density dependence. This relationship in DHS was significantly negative at three of five spatial scales. This could indicate abiotic filtering processes for community assembly. Using variation partitioning, we found phylogenetic similarity contributed to variation in temporal phylogenetic turnover in the DHS plot but not in BCI plot. The mechanisms for community assembly in BCI and DHS vary from phylogenetic perspective. Only the second null model detected this difference indicating the importance of choosing a proper null model.

  9. Electroencephalogram Similarity Analysis Using Temporal and Spectral Dynamics Analysis for Propofol and Desflurane Induced Unconsciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Important information about the state dynamics of the brain during anesthesia is unraveled by Electroencephalogram (EEG approaches. Patterns that are observed through EEG related to neural circuit mechanism under different molecular targets dependent anesthetics have recently attracted much attention. Propofol, a Gamma-amino butyric acid, is known with evidently increasing alpha oscillation. Desflurane shares the same receptor action and should be similar to propofol. To explore their dynamics, EEG under routine surgery level anesthetic depth is analyzed using multitaper spectral method from two groups: propofol (n = 28 and desflurane (n = 23. The time-varying spectrum comparison was undertaken to characterize their properties. Results show that both of the agents are dominated by slow and alpha waves. Especially, for increased alpha band feature, propofol unconsciousness shows maximum power at about 10 Hz (mean ± SD; frequency: 10.2 ± 1.4 Hz; peak power, −14.0 ± 1.6 dB, while it is approximate about 8 Hz (mean ± SD; frequency: 8.3 ± 1.3 Hz; peak power, −13.8 ± 1.6 dB for desflurane with significantly lower frequency-resolved spectra for this band. In addition, the mean power of propofol is much higher from alpha to gamma band, including slow oscillation than that of desflurane. The patterns might give us an EEG biomarker for specific anesthetic. This study suggests that both of the anesthetics exhibit similar spectral dynamics, which could provide insight into some common neural circuit mechanism. However, differences between them also indicate their uniqueness where relevant.

  10. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs.We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour – giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) – to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size.We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex.Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates.Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  11. Epilepsy with temporal encephalocele: Characteristics of electrocorticography and surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, Fedor; Li, Yi; Chang, Edward F; Knowlton, Robert; Cornes, Susannah B

    2016-02-01

    Temporal lobe encephaloceles (TEs) are increasingly identified in patients with epilepsy due to advances in neuroimaging. Select patients become seizure-free with lesionectomy. In practice, however, many of these patients will undergo standard anterior temporal lobectomy. Herein we report on the first series of patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with encephalocele to undergo chronic or intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) in order to characterize the putative epileptogenic nature of these lesions and help guide surgical planning. This retrospective study includes nine adult patients with magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography (MRI/CT)-defined temporal encephalocele treated between 2007 and 2014 at University of California San Francisco (UCSF). Clinical features, ECoG, imaging, and surgical outcomes are reviewed. Six patients underwent resective epilepsy surgery. Each case demonstrated abnormal epileptiform discharges around the cortical area of the encephalocele. Two underwent tailored lesionectomy and four underwent lesionectomy plus anterior medial temporal resection. Postoperatively, five patients, including both with lesionectomy only, had Engel class Ia surgical outcome, and one had a class IIb surgical outcome. The role of TE in the pathogenesis of epilepsy is uncertain. ECoG can confirm the presence of interictal epileptiform discharges and seizures arising from these lesions. Patients overall had a very good surgical prognosis, even with selective surgical approaches. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Characteristics of temporal modulation in nonlinear propagation of broad-band lasers stacked by chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Youwen; Chen Liezun; Zhang Lifu; Deng Jianqin; Zhang Jin; Wen Shuangchun; Fu Xiquan; Fan Dianyuan

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of the temporal modulation riding on broad-band lasers stacked by chirped pulses are numerically investigated in nonlinear propagation. For the case of normal dispersion, the temporal modulations induced by interference among pulses and added artificially to simulate the noise weaken gradually with the increase of the propagation distance. For the case of anomalous dispersion, the temporal modulations induced by interference among pulses grow slowly at first, and start to grow rapidly after a long propagation distance; in contrast, the temporal modulations added artificially grow rapidly from the begin, indicating that the temporal peak of damage risk to the optics can be formed easily. (authors)

  13. Temporal characteristics of gustatory responses in rat parabrachial neurons vary by stimulus and chemosensitive neuron type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geran, Laura; Travers, Susan

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that temporal features of spike trains can increase the amount of information available for gustatory processing. However, the nature of these temporal characteristics and their relationship to different taste qualities and neuron types are not well-defined. The present study analyzed the time course of taste responses from parabrachial (PBN) neurons elicited by multiple applications of "sweet" (sucrose), "salty" (NaCl), "sour" (citric acid), and "bitter" (quinine and cycloheximide) stimuli in an acute preparation. Time course varied significantly by taste stimulus and best-stimulus classification. Across neurons, the ensemble code for the three electrolytes was similar initially but quinine diverged from NaCl and acid during the second 500 ms of stimulation and all four qualities became distinct just after 1s. This temporal evolution was reflected in significantly broader tuning during the initial response. Metric space analyses of quality discrimination by individual neurons showed that increases in information (H) afforded by temporal factors was usually explained by differences in rate envelope, which had a greater impact during the initial 2s (22.5% increase in H) compared to the later response (9.5%). Moreover, timing had a differential impact according to cell type, with between-quality discrimination in neurons activated maximally by NaCl or citric acid most affected. Timing was also found to dramatically improve within-quality discrimination (80% increase in H) in neurons that responded optimally to bitter stimuli (B-best). Spikes from B-best neurons were also more likely to occur in bursts. These findings suggest that among PBN taste neurons, time-dependent increases in mutual information can arise from stimulus- and neuron-specific differences in response envelope during the initial dynamic period. A stable rate code predominates in later epochs.

  14. Temporal characteristics of some aftershock sequences in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Solakov

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We apply statistical analysis to study the temporal distribution of aftershocks in aftershock sequences of five earthquakes which occurred in Bulgaria. We use the maximum likelihood method to estimate the parameters of the modified Omori formula for aftershock sequences which is directly based on a time series. We find that: the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameter p show a regional variation, with lower values of the decay rate in North Bulgaria; the modified Omori formula provides an appropriate representation of temporal variation of the aftershock activity in North Bulgaria; the aftershock sequences in South Bulgaria are best modeled by the combination of an ordinary aftershock sequence with secondary aftershock activity. A plot of the cumulative number of events versus the frequency-linearized time t clearly demonstrates a transition from aftershock to foreshock activity prior to the second 1986 Strazhitsa (North Bulgaria earthquake.

  15. Research on electric and thermal characteristics of plasma torch based on similarity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Changming; Tang Deli; Lan Wei

    2007-01-01

    Configuration and working principle of a DC non-transferred plasma torch have been introduced. Based on similarity theory, connections between the electric-thermal characteristics and operational parameter such as flowing gas rate and arc power have been investigated. Calculation and experiment are compared. The results indicate that the calculation results are in agreement with experimental ones. The formulas can be used for plasma torch improvement and optimization. (authors)

  16. Characteristics of Spatial Structural Patterns and Temporal Variability of Annual Precipitation in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the characteristics of the spatial structural patterns and temporal variability of annual precipitation in Ningxia.[Method] Using rotated empirical orthogonal function,the precipitation concentration index,wavelet analysis and Mann-Kendall rank statistic method,the characteristics of precipitation on the spatial-temporal variability and trend were analyzed by the monthly precipitation series in Ningxia during 1951-2008.[Result] In Ningxia,the spatial structural patterns of a...

  17. Temporal-spatial characteristics of phase-amplitude coupling in electrocorticogram for human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Ren, Ye; Liu, Chunyan; Xu, Na; Li, Xiaoli; Cong, Fengyu; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Wang, YuPing

    2017-09-01

    Neural activity of the epileptic human brain contains low- and high-frequency oscillations in different frequency bands, some of which have been used as reliable biomarkers of the epileptogenic brain areas. However, the relationship between the low- and high-frequency oscillations in different cortical areas during the period from pre-seizure to post-seizure has not been completely clarified. We recorded electrocorticogram data from the temporal lobe and hippocampus of seven patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The modulation index based on the Kullback-Leibler distance and the phase-amplitude coupling co-modulogram were adopted to quantify the coupling strength between the phase of low-frequency oscillations (0.2-10Hz) and the amplitude of high-frequency oscillations (11-400Hz) in different seizure epochs. The time-varying phase-amplitude modulogram was used to analyze the phase-amplitude coupling pattern during the entire period from pre-seizure to post-seizure in both the left and right temporal lobe and hippocampus. Channels with strong modulation index were compared with the seizure onset channels identified by the neurosurgeons and the resection channels in the clinical surgery. The phase-amplitude coupling strength (modulation index) increased significantly in the mid-seizure epoch and decrease significantly in seizure termination and post-seizure epochs (ptemporal cortex and hippocampus. The "fall-max" phase-amplitude modulation pattern, i.e., high-frequency amplitudes were largest in the low-frequency phase range [-π, 0], which corresponded to the falling edges of low-frequency oscillations, appeared in the middle period of the seizures at epileptic focus channels. Channels with strong modulation index appeared on the corresponding left or right temporal cortex of surgical resection and overlapped with the clinical resection zones in all patients. The "fall-max" pattern between the phase of low-frequency oscillation and amplitude of high

  18. INVESTIGATION OF MIS ITEM 011589A AND 3013 CONTAINERS HAVING SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G

    2006-08-23

    Recent testing has identified the presence of hydrogen and oxygen in MIS Item 011589A. This isolated observation has effectuated concern regarding the potential for flammable gas mixtures in containers in the storage inventory. This study examines the known physicochemical characteristics of MIS Item 011589A and queries the ISP Database for items that are most similar or potentially similar. Items identified as most similar are believed to have the highest probability of being chemically and structurally identical to MIS Item 011589A. Items identified as potentially like MIS Item 011589A have some attributes in common, have the potential to generate gases, but have a lower probability of having similar gas generating characteristics. MIS Item 011589A is an oxide that was generated prior to 1990 at Rocky Flats in Building 707. It was associated with foundry processing and had an actinide assay of approximately 77%. Prompt gamma analysis of MIS Item 011589A indicated the presence of chloride, fluorine, magnesium, sodium, and aluminum. Queries based on MIS representation classification and process of origin were applied to the ISP Database. Evaluation criteria included binning classification (i.e., innocuous, pressure, or pressure and corrosion), availability of prompt gamma analyses, presence of chlorine and magnesium, percentage of chlorine by weight, peak ratios (i.e., Na:Cl and Mg:Na), moisture, and percent assay. These queries identified 15 items that were most similar and 106 items that were potentially like MIS Item 011589A. Although these queries identified containers that could potentially generate flammable gases, verification and confirmation can only be accomplished by destructive evaluation and testing of containers from the storage inventory.

  19. Clinical characteristics of patients with benign nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jiyeon Kim,1 Seong Hoon Kim,2 Sung Chul Lim,2 Woojun Kim,2 Young-Min Shon3 1Department of Neurology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan, 2Department of Neurology, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, 3Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Purpose: To evaluate the evolution of nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE-NL in patients treated exclusively with antiepileptic drugs and to elucidate clinical phenotypes related to the prognosis of these patients.Methods: Clinical, radiological, and electroencephalographic (EEG findings in 84 patients with TLE-NL were reviewed. A good response group (GRG and a poor response group (PRG were defined if the duration of their seizure-free period was >1 year, or <1 year, respectively.Results: There were 46 (54.8% patients in the GRG and 38 (45.2% patients in the PRG. The number of antiepileptic drugs administered was significantly lower in the GRG than that in the PRG (1.3±0.8 vs 2.8±1.0, respectively; P<0.05. The GRG had a significantly older age of onset than the PRG and a lower occurrence of initial precipitating events, such as febrile seizures, central nervous system infection, and head trauma (P<0.05. The prevalence of EEG abnormality, presence of aura, generalized seizures, and automatism was less frequently observed in the GRG (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were significantly associated with a poor prognosis (P<0.05.Conclusion: In contrast to the commonly assumed intractability of TLE, we found that more than 54% of patients with TLE-NL achieved a long seizure-free period. Older age at onset of TLE-NL was associated with a better prognosis. However, the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were related to a poor prognosis. Future prospective

  20. Spatio - Temporal Analysis of Characteristics and Causes of Road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RTC is characterized by deaths and injuries of adult males. The causes vary from one LGA to another, but similar within contiguous LGAs. Conclusion The results should enable the orientation of deaths and injury prevention policies targeted on the adult males in the state. Keywords: Spatial Hotspots; Road Traffic Crashes; ...

  1. Spatio-temporal characteristics of PM10 concentration across Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneng, Liew; Latif, Mohd Talib; Tangang, Fredolin T.; Mansor, Haslina

    The recurrence of forest fires in Southeast Asia and associated biomass burning, has contributed markedly to the problem of trans-boundary haze and the long-range movement of pollutants in the region. Air pollutants, specifically particulate matter in the atmosphere, have received extensive attention, mainly because of their adverse effect on people's health. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of the PM10 concentration across Malaysia was analyzed by means of the rotated principal component analysis. The results suggest that the variability of the PM10 concentration can be decomposed into four dominant modes, each characterizing different spatial and temporal variations. The first mode characterizes the southwest coastal region of the Malaysian Peninsular with the PM10 showing a peak concentration during the summer monsoon i.e. when the winds are predominantly southerlies or southwesterlies, and a minimal concentration during the winter monsoon. The second mode features the region of western Borneo with the PM10 exhibiting a concentration surge in August-September, which is likely to be the result of the northward shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the subsequent rapid arrival of the rainy season. The third mode delineates the northern region of the Malaysian Peninsular with strong bimodality in the PM10 concentration. Seasonally, this component exhibits two concentration maxima during the late winter and summer monsoons, as well as two minima during the inter-monsoon periods. The fourth dominant mode characterizes the northern Borneo region which exhibits weaker seasonality of the PM10 concentration. Generally, the seasonal fluctuation of the PM10 concentration is largely associated with the seasonal variation of rainfall in the country. However, in addition to this, the PM10 concentration also fluctuates markedly in two timescale bands i.e. 10-20 days quasi-biweekly (QBW) and 30-60 days lower frequency (LF) band of the intra

  2. Floristic similarity, diversity and endemism as indicators of refugia characteristics and needs in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; Zimmerman, Dale L.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    The floras of mountain ranges, and their similarity, beta diversity and endemism, are indicative of processes of community assembly; they are also the initial conditions for coming disassembly and reassembly in response to climate change. As such, these characteristics can inform thinking on refugia. The published floras or approximations for 42 mountain ranges in the three major mountain systems (Sierra-Cascades, Rocky Mountains and Great Basin ranges) across the western USA and southwestern Canada were analysed. The similarity is higher among the ranges of the Rockies while equally low among the ranges of the Sierra-Cascades and Great Basin. Mantel correlations of similarity with geographic distance are also higher for the Rocky Mountains. Endemism is relatively high, but is highest in the Sierra-Cascades (due to the Sierra Nevada as the single largest range) and lowest in the Great Basin, where assemblages are allochthonous. These differences indicate that the geologic substrates of the Cascade volcanoes, which are much younger than any others, play a role in addition to geographic isolation in community assembly. The pattern of similarity and endemism indicates that the ranges of the Cascades will not function well as stepping stones and the endemic species that they harbor may need more protection than those of the Rocky Mountains. The geometry of the ranges is complemented by geology in setting the stage for similarity and the potential for refugia across the West. Understanding the geographic template as initial conditions for the future can guide the forecast of refugia and related monitoring or protection efforts.

  3. Evolution of spatio-temporal drought characteristics: validation, projections and effect of adaptation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, J.-P.; Martin, E.; Kitova, N.; Najac, J.; Soubeyroux, J.-M.

    2012-08-01

    Drought events develop in both space and time and they are therefore best described through summary joint spatio-temporal characteristics, such as mean duration, mean affected area and total magnitude. This paper addresses the issue of future projections of such characteristics of drought events over France through three main research questions: (1) Are downscaled climate projections able to simulate spatio-temporal characteristics of meteorological and agricultural droughts in France over a present-day period? (2) How such characteristics will evolve over the 21st century? (3) How to use standardized drought indices to represent theoretical adaptation scenarios? These questions are addressed using the Isba land surface model, downscaled climate projections from the ARPEGE General Circulation Model under three emissions scenarios, as well as results from a previously performed 50-yr multilevel and multiscale drought reanalysis over France. Spatio-temporal characteristics of meteorological and agricultural drought events are computed using the Standardized Precipitation Index and the Standardized Soil Wetness Index, respectively, and for time scales of 3 and 12 months. Results first show that the distributions of joint spatio-temporal characteristics of observed events are well simulated by the downscaled hydroclimate projections over a present-day period. All spatio-temporal characteristics of drought events are then found to dramatically increase over the 21st century, with stronger changes for agricultural droughts. Two theoretical adaptation scenarios are eventually built based on hypotheses of adaptation to evolving climate and hydrological normals, either retrospective or prospective. The perceived spatio-temporal characteristics of drought events derived from these theoretical adaptation scenarios show much reduced changes, but they call for more realistic scenarios at both the catchment and national scale in order to accurately assess the combined effect of

  4. Temporal-pattern similarity analysis reveals the beneficial and detrimental effects of context reinstatement on human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigl, Tobias; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2015-04-01

    A powerful force in human memory is the context in which memories are encoded (Tulving and Thomson, 1973). Several studies suggest that the reinstatement of neural encoding patterns is beneficial for memory retrieval (Manning et al., 2011; Staresina et al., 2012; Jafarpour et al., 2014). However, reinstatement of the original encoding context is not always helpful, for instance, when retrieving a memory in a different contextual situation (Smith and Vela, 2001). It is an open question whether such context-dependent memory effects can be captured by the reinstatement of neural patterns. We investigated this question by applying temporal and spatial pattern similarity analysis in MEG and intracranial EEG in a context-match paradigm. Items (words) were tagged by individual dynamic context stimuli (movies). The results show that beta oscillatory phase in visual regions and the parahippocampal cortex tracks the incidental reinstatement of individual context trajectories on a single-trial level. Crucially, memory benefitted from reinstatement when the encoding and retrieval contexts matched but suffered from reinstatement when the contexts did not match. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355373-12$15.00/0.

  5. A Spatial and Temporal analysis of Labour Market Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pośpiech Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of spatial methods is becoming increasingly common in social and economic research as it emphasizes the relevance of spatiality to the understanding of socio-economic facts. Once embraced, the spatial factor can substantially help explain variations in the properties being examined, thus improving the quality of their description and supporting the development of econometric models. This paper explores some of the characteristics of Poland’s job market, making an inquiry into their spatial dependencies. The study looks at the country’s labour market from a local perspective, examining its properties for spatial autocorrelation (both global and local. Linear econometric models are subsequently built for such variables as the number of persons in employment, the number of women and men in employment. The models are further investigated to assess the applicability of spatial modelling in their development.

  6. A Kinematic Description of the Temporal Characteristics of Jaw Motion for Early Chewing: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Erin M.; Green, Jordan R.; Weismer, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to describe age- and consistency-related changes in the temporal characteristics of chewing in typically developing children between the ages of 4 and 35 months and adults using high-resolution optically based motion capture technology. Method: Data were collected from 60 participants (48 children, 12…

  7. Analysis of temporal-longitudinal-latitudinal characteristics in the global ionosphere based on tensor rank-1 decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shikun; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xihai; Li, Yihong; Niu, Chao; Yang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Daizhi

    2018-03-01

    Combining analyses of spatial and temporal characteristics of the ionosphere is of great significance for scientific research and engineering applications. Tensor decomposition is performed to explore the temporal-longitudinal-latitudinal characteristics in the ionosphere. Three-dimensional tensors are established based on the time series of ionospheric vertical total electron content maps obtained from the Centre for Orbit Determination in Europe. To obtain large-scale characteristics of the ionosphere, rank-1 decomposition is used to obtain U^{(1)}, U^{(2)}, and U^{(3)}, which are the resulting vectors for the time, longitude, and latitude modes, respectively. Our initial finding is that the correspondence between the frequency spectrum of U^{(1)} and solar variation indicates that rank-1 decomposition primarily describes large-scale temporal variations in the global ionosphere caused by the Sun. Furthermore, the time lags between the maxima of the ionospheric U^{(2)} and solar irradiation range from 1 to 3.7 h without seasonal dependence. The differences in time lags may indicate different interactions between processes in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. Based on the dataset displayed in the geomagnetic coordinates, the position of the barycenter of U^{(3)} provides evidence for north-south asymmetry (NSA) in the large-scale ionospheric variations. The daily variation in such asymmetry indicates the influences of solar ionization. The diurnal geomagnetic coordinate variations in U^{(3)} show that the large-scale EIA (equatorial ionization anomaly) variations during the day and night have similar characteristics. Considering the influences of geomagnetic disturbance on ionospheric behavior, we select the geomagnetic quiet GIMs to construct the ionospheric tensor. The results indicate that the geomagnetic disturbances have little effect on large-scale ionospheric characteristics.

  8. Similar simulation study on the characteristics of the electric potential response to coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yue; Li, Zhonghui; Kong, Biao; Wang, Enyuan; Lou, Quan; Qiu, Liming; Kong, Xiangguo; Wang, Jiali; Dong, Mingfu; Li, Baolin

    2018-02-01

    An electric potential (EP) can be generated during the failure process of coal and rock. In this article, a similar physical model of coal rock was built and the characteristics of the EP responding to the process of coal mining were studied. The results showed that, at the early mining stage, the structure of coal rock strata were stable in the simulation model, the support stress of overlying coal rock strata was low and the maximum subsidence was little, while the EP change was less. With the advancement of the working face, the support stress of the overlying coal rock strata in the mined-out area changed dramatically, the maximum subsidence increased constantly, the deformation and destruction were aggravated, and cracks expanded continuously. Meanwhile, the EP response was significant with fluctuation. When significant macro damage appeared in coal rock strata, the EP signal fluctuation was violent. The overlying coal rock strata were influenced by gravity and mining activity. During the mining process, the crack growth and the friction, together with slip between coal and rock particles, resulted in the response of EP. The change in EP was closely related to the damage state and stress distribution of the coal rock strata. EP monitoring has the advantages of accurate reflection and strong anti-interference in the field. Therefore, with further study, an EP monitoring method could be applied for monitoring and early warning of coal and rock dynamic disaster, and risk evaluation in the future. The strength of the EP and its fluctuation degree could serve as the key discrimination indexes.

  9. Self-similarity and turbulence characteristics of wind turbine wakes via large-eddy simulation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, S.; Archer, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, a new large-eddy simulation code, the Wind Turbine and Turbulence Simulator (WiTTS), is developed to study the wake generated from a single wind turbine in the neutral ABL. The WiTTS formulation is based on a scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamical model of the sub-grid shear stress and uses actuator lines to simulate the effects of the rotating blades. WiTTS is first tested against wind tunnel experiments and then used to study the commonly-used assumptions of self-similarity and axis-symmetry of the wake under neutral conditions for a variety of wind speeds and turbine properties. The mean velocity deficit shows good self-similarity properties following a normal distribution in the horizontal plane at the hub-height level. Self-similarity is a less valid approximation in the vertical near the ground, due to strong wind shear and ground effects. The mean velocity deficit is strongly dependent on the thrust coefficient or induction factor. A new relationship is proposed to model the mean velocity deficit along the centerline at the hub-height level to fit the LES results piecewise throughout the wake. A logarithmic function is used in the near and intermediate wake regions whereas a power function is used in the far-wake. These two functions provide a better fit to both simulated and observed wind velocity deficits than other functions previously used in wake models such as WAsP. The wind shear and impact with the ground cause an anisotropy in the expansion of the wake such that the wake grows faster horizontally than vertically. The wake deforms upon impact with the ground and spreads laterally. WiTTS is also used to study the turbulence characteristics in the wake. Aligning with the mean wind direction, the streamwise component of turbulence intensity is the dominant among the three components and thus it is further studied. The highest turbulence intensity occurs near the top-tip level. The added turbulence intensity increases fast in the near

  10. Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of air quality index in Xuchang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghua; Tian, Zhihui

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of air pollution becomes more and more serious. Based on the geographic and seasonal climatic characteristics of Xuchang City, this paper studies the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of air quality index. The results show that: from the time point of view, air quality index shows seasonal difference. Air quality index is highest in winter and is lowest in summer. From the space point of view, there are differences between the north and the south to a certain extent. Changge City, Yuzhou city and central Xuchang county is higher than the southeast of Xiangcheng county and Yanling county. The spatial and temporal variation characteristics of air quality index in Xuchang are influenced by natural factors and human activities, and the economic development and population are the important factors affecting the urban air quality.

  11. Gangliogliomas: characteristic imaging findings and role in the temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Y; Yagishita, A [Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    Ganglioglioma is an uncommon neoplasm of the central nervous system, most frequently seen in the temporal lobe, and usually associated with medically refractory epilepsy in children and young adults. Few reports have considered ganglioglioma-associated epileptogenicity arising in the temporal lobe. The purpose of our study was to define the imaging features of ganglioglioma in the temporal lobe and their relation to the seizure foci revealed by electrocorticograms. We reviewed 24 patients with pathologically confirmed ganglioglioma in the temporal lobe. Computed tomography (CT) images showed gangliogliomas to be isodense (91.7%), and on T1-weighted images (T1-WI) most gangliogliomas (79.2%) were isointense to the gray matter. A cystic lesion was seen in 14 of 24 of the gangliogliomas (58.3%). Mass effects were not seen in any of the ten tumors without cystic components. One patient showed tumor recurrence. Dual pathology was seen in two cases (8.3%). In 23 cases, epileptogenicity was confirmed in the tumors by intraoperative electrocorticogram. The remaining case had no epileptogenicity. A tumor presenting isointensity to gray matter on T1-WI without mass effects in the medial temporal lobe in a young patient with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) might be the characteristic imaging of temporal lobe ganglioglioma. However, such tumors are not always associated with epileptogenicity, even if a ganglioglioma is found in a patient with TLE. The seizure foci may be contralateral to the ganglioglioma. Therefore, we need to investigate the hippocampus, white matter abnormalities of the ipsilateral and contralateral anterior temporal lobe, and other focal lesions closely. (orig.)

  12. Gangliogliomas: characteristic imaging findings and role in the temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Y.; Yagishita, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ganglioglioma is an uncommon neoplasm of the central nervous system, most frequently seen in the temporal lobe, and usually associated with medically refractory epilepsy in children and young adults. Few reports have considered ganglioglioma-associated epileptogenicity arising in the temporal lobe. The purpose of our study was to define the imaging features of ganglioglioma in the temporal lobe and their relation to the seizure foci revealed by electrocorticograms. We reviewed 24 patients with pathologically confirmed ganglioglioma in the temporal lobe. Computed tomography (CT) images showed gangliogliomas to be isodense (91.7%), and on T1-weighted images (T1-WI) most gangliogliomas (79.2%) were isointense to the gray matter. A cystic lesion was seen in 14 of 24 of the gangliogliomas (58.3%). Mass effects were not seen in any of the ten tumors without cystic components. One patient showed tumor recurrence. Dual pathology was seen in two cases (8.3%). In 23 cases, epileptogenicity was confirmed in the tumors by intraoperative electrocorticogram. The remaining case had no epileptogenicity. A tumor presenting isointensity to gray matter on T1-WI without mass effects in the medial temporal lobe in a young patient with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) might be the characteristic imaging of temporal lobe ganglioglioma. However, such tumors are not always associated with epileptogenicity, even if a ganglioglioma is found in a patient with TLE. The seizure foci may be contralateral to the ganglioglioma. Therefore, we need to investigate the hippocampus, white matter abnormalities of the ipsilateral and contralateral anterior temporal lobe, and other focal lesions closely. (orig.)

  13. Analysis and Modeling of Time-Correlated Characteristics of Rainfall-Runoff Similarity in the Upstream Red River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a similarity model (based on Euclidean distance between rainfall and runoff to study time-correlated characteristics of rainfall-runoff similar patterns in the upstream Red River Basin and presented a detailed evaluation of the time correlation of rainfall-runoff similarity. The rainfall-runoff similarity was used to determine the optimum similarity. The results showed that a time-correlated model was found to be capable of predicting the rainfall-runoff similarity in the upstream Red River Basin in a satisfactory way. Both noised and denoised time series by thresholding the wavelet coefficients were applied to verify the accuracy of model. And the corresponding optimum similar sets obtained as the equation solution conditions showed an interesting and stable trend. On the whole, the annual mean similarity presented a gradually rising trend, for quantitatively estimating comprehensive influence of climate change and of human activities on rainfall-runoff similarity.

  14. Effects of climate change adaptation scenarios on perceived spatio-temporal characteristics of drought events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, J.-P.; Martin, E.; Kitova, N.; Najac, J.; Soubeyroux, J.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Drought events develop in both space and time and they are therefore best described through summary joint spatio-temporal characteristics, like mean duration, mean affected area and total magnitude. This study addresses the issue of future projections of such characteristics of drought events over France through three main research questions: (1) Are downscaled climate projections able to reproduce spatio-temporal characteristics of meteorological and agricultural droughts in France over a present-day period? (2) How such characteristics will evolve over the 21st century under different emissions scenarios? (3) How would perceived drought characteristics evolve under theoretical adaptation scenarios? These questions are addressed using the Isba land surface model, downscaled climate projections from the ARPEGE General Circulation Model under three emissions scenarios, as well as results from a previously performed 50-year multilevel and multiscale drought reanalysis over France (Vidal et al., 2010). Spatio-temporal characteristics of meteorological and agricultural drought events are computed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Soil Wetness Index (SSWI), respectively, and for time scales of 3 and 12 months. Results first show that the distributions of joint spatio-temporal characteristics of observed events are well reproduced by the downscaled hydroclimate projections over a present-day period. All spatio-temporal characteristics of drought events are then found to dramatically increase over the 21st century under all considered emissions scenarios, with stronger changes for agricultural droughts. Two theoretical adaptation scenarios are eventually built based on hypotheses of adaptation to evolving climate and hydrological normals. The two scenarios differ by the way the transient adaptation is performed for a given date in the future, with reference to the normals over either the previous 30-year window ("retrospective

  15. SPATIO-TEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENT TRIP BASED ON POI AND OD DATA OF FLOAT CAR IN BEIJING

    OpenAIRE

    N. Mou; N. Mou; J. Li; L. Zhang; W. Liu; Y. Xu

    2017-01-01

    Due to the influence of the urban inherent regional functional distribution, the daily activities of the residents presented some spatio-temporal patterns (periodic patterns, gathering patterns, etc.). In order to further understand the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban residents, this paper research takes the taxi trajectory data of Beijing as a sample data and studies the spatio-temporal characteristics of the residents' activities on the weekdays. At first, according t...

  16. Acoustical Survey of Methane Plumes on North Hydrate Ridge: Constraining Temporal and Spatial Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannberg, P. K.; Trehu, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    While methane plumes associated with hydrate formations have been acoustically imaged before, little is known about their temporal characteristics. Previous acoustic surveys have focused on determining plume location, but as far as we know, multiple, repeated surveys of the same plume have not been done prior to the survey presented here. In July 2008, we acquired sixteen identical surveys within 19 hours over the northern summit of Hydrate Ridge in the Cascadia accretionary complex using the onboard 3.5 and 12 kHz echosounders. As in previous studies, the plumes were invisible to the 3.5 kHz echosounder and clearly imaged with 12 kHz. Seafloor depth in this region is ~600 m. Three distinct plumes were detected close to where plumes were located by Heeschen et al. (2003) a decade ago. Two of the plumes disappeared at ~520 m water depth, which is the depth of the top of the gas hydrate stability as determined from CTD casts obtained during the cruise. This supports the conclusion of Heeschen et al. (2003) that the bubbles are armored by gas hydrate and that they dissolve in the water column when they leave the hydrate stability zone. One of the plumes near the northern summit, however, extended through this boundary to at least 400 m (the shallowest depth recorded). A similar phenomenon was observed in methane plumes in the Gulf of Mexico, where the methane was found to be armored by an oil skin. In addition to the steady plumes, two discrete "burps" were observed. One "burp" occurred approximately 600 m to the SSW of the northern summit. This was followed by a second strong event 300m to the north an hour later. To evaluate temporal and spatial patterns, we summed the power of the backscattered signal in different depth windows for each survey. We present the results as a movie in which the backscatter power is shown in map view as a function of time. The surveys encompassed two complete tidal cycles, but no correlation between plume location or intensity and tides

  17. Methanol extract of grain dust shows complement fixing activity and other characteristics similar to tannic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skea, D; Broder, I

    1986-01-01

    We have found several similarities between tannic acid and grain dust extract prepared with methanol. Both formed a precipitate with IgG, and these interactions were inhibited by albumin. In addition, both preparations fixed complement; this activity was heat stable and was removed by prior adsorption of the preparations with hide powder. Adsorption with polyvinyl polypyrrolidone reduced the complement-fixing activity of tannic acid but not that of the methanol grain dust extract. The similarities between tannic acid and the methanol grain dust extract are consistent with the presence of a tannin or tanninlike material in grain dust. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:3709479

  18. Physical and Temporal Characteristics of Under 19, Under 21 and Senior Male Beach Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Medeiros, Rui Marcelino, Isabel Mesquita, José Manuel Palao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effects of age groups and players’ role (blocker vs. defender specialist in beach volleyball in relation to physical and temporal variables, considering quality of opposition. 1101 rallies from Under 19 (U19, 933 rallies from Under 21 (U21, and 1480 rallies from senior (senior (Men’s Swatch World Championships, 2010-2011 were observed using video match analysis. Cluster analysis was used to set teams’ competitive levels and establish quality of opposition as “balanced”, “moderate balanced” and “unbalanced” games. The analyzed variables were: temporal (duration of set, total rest time, total work time, duration of rallies, rest time between rallies and physical (number of jumps and number of hits done by defenders and blockers characteristics. A one-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and multinomial logistic regression were performed to analyze the variables studied. The analysis of temporal and physical characteristics showed differences considering age group, player’s role and quality of opposition. The duration of set, total rest time, and number of jumps done by defenders significantly increased from the U19 to senior category. Multinomial logistic regression showed that in: a balanced games, rest time between rallies was higher in seniors than in U19 or U21; number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U19 and U21; b moderate balanced games, number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U21 and number of jumps done by blockers was smaller in U19 than U21 or seniors; c unbalanced games, no significant findings were shown. This study suggests differences in players’ performances according to age group and players’ role in different qualities of opposition. The article provides reference values that can be useful to guide training and create scenarios that resemble a competition, taking into account physical and temporal characteristics.

  19. Maternal and infant characteristics: differences and similarities between the Nordic countries and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfling, Lukas; Bröms, Gabriella; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Kieler, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Data from the Nordic health care registers have been of great value in perinatal epidemiological research. It has been assumed that findings from the Nordic population (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) are applicable to other populations as well, including the population of the US. To describe and compare maternal and infant characteristics between the Nordic and the American populations as recorded in the official statistics. This population-based study included data on all females who gave birth and their infants in the Nordic countries and the US. The data were obtained from the US National Center for Health Statistics and the official statistics data for the Nordic countries. The data from all six countries included births from 2006 to 2010. The mean maternal age at delivery was lower in the US than in the Nordic countries (27.5 vs 30.3 years). Cesarean sections (32.2% vs 17.9%), low birth weight (8.2% vs 4.8%), and preterm birth (12.3% vs 5.9%) were more common in the US than in the Nordic countries. Smoking during early pregnancy was slightly less common in the US compared with Nordic countries (9.8% vs 11.2%). Restricting the data from the US to females with a university degree, characteristics such as age at delivery, birth weight, and preterm deliveries were more in alignment with the Nordic data. There are differences in some key maternal and neonatal characteristics between the Nordic countries and the US. However, some characteristics are related to socioeconomic status, suggesting that the Nordic data seem to be applicable to the part of the population in the US with a higher socioeconomic status.

  20. Physical and temporal characteristics of under 19, under 21 and senior male beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Alexandre; Marcelino, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Palao, José Manuel

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of age groups and players' role (blocker vs. defender specialist) in beach volleyball in relation to physical and temporal variables, considering quality of opposition. 1101 rallies from Under 19 (U19), 933 rallies from Under 21 (U21), and 1480 rallies from senior (senior) (Men's Swatch World Championships, 2010-2011) were observed using video match analysis. Cluster analysis was used to set teams' competitive levels and establish quality of opposition as "balanced", "moderate balanced" and "unbalanced" games. The analyzed variables were: temporal (duration of set, total rest time, total work time, duration of rallies, rest time between rallies) and physical (number of jumps and number of hits done by defenders and blockers) characteristics. A one-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and multinomial logistic regression were performed to analyze the variables studied. The analysis of temporal and physical characteristics showed differences considering age group, player's role and quality of opposition. The duration of set, total rest time, and number of jumps done by defenders significantly increased from the U19 to senior category. Multinomial logistic regression showed that in: a) balanced games, rest time between rallies was higher in seniors than in U19 or U21; number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U19) and U21; b) moderate balanced games, number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U21 and number of jumps done by blockers was smaller in U19 than U21 or seniors; c) unbalanced games, no significant findings were shown. This study suggests differences in players' performances according to age group and players' role in different qualities of opposition. The article provides reference values that can be useful to guide training and create scenarios that resemble a competition, taking into account physical and temporal characteristics. Key PointsPlayer roles, quality of opposition

  1. Spatio-temporal characteristics of self-pulse in hollow cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Ha; He, Shoujie

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of self-pulse in hollow cathode discharge at low pressure have been investigated. The voltage-current (V-I) curves, the influence of ballast resistor on the self-pulses, and the evolution of current and voltage are measured. Both the axial and radial spatio-temporal discharge images of self-pulse are recorded. The results show that there exists the hysteresis effect in the present hollow cathode discharge. The high value of ballast resistors is favourable for the observation of self-pulses. The process of the self-pulse can be divided into three stages from the temporal discharge images, i.e., the pre-discharge, the transition from mainly axial electric field to mainly radial electric field, and the decaying process. The self-pulse is suggested to originate from the mode transition of the discharge in essence

  2. Self-similarity and flow characteristics of vertical-axis wind turbine wakes: an LES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Dabiri, John O.

    2017-04-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is coupled with a turbine model to study the structure of the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). In the simulations, a tuning-free anisotropic minimum dissipation model is used to parameterise the subfilter stress tensor, while the turbine-induced forces are modelled with an actuator line technique. The LES framework is first validated in the simulation of the wake behind a model straight-bladed VAWT placed in the water channel and then used to study the wake structure downwind of a full-scale VAWT sited in the atmospheric boundary layer. In particular, the self-similarity of the wake is examined, and it is found that the wake velocity deficit can be well characterised by a two-dimensional multivariate Gaussian distribution. By assuming a self-similar Gaussian distribution of the velocity deficit, and applying mass and momentum conservation, an analytical model is developed and tested to predict the maximum velocity deficit downwind of the turbine. Also, a simple parameterisation of VAWTs for LES with very coarse grid resolutions is proposed, in which the turbine is modelled as a rectangular porous plate with the same thrust coefficient. The simulation results show that, after some downwind distance (x/D ≈ 6), both actuator line and rectangular porous plate models have similar predictions for the mean velocity deficit. These results are of particular importance in simulations of large wind farms where, due to the coarse spatial resolution, the flow around individual VAWTs is not resolved.

  3. An Investigation of Equine Mesenchymal Stem Cell Characteristics from Different Harvest Sites: More Similar Than Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla eLombana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the musculoskeletal system are a major cause of loss of use and retirement in sport horses. The use of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs for healing of traumatized tissue has gained substantial favor in clinical settings and can assist healing and tissue regeneration in orthopaedic injuries. There are two common sites of harvest of BMDMSCs, the sternum and ilium. Our objective was to determine if any differences exist in BMDMSCs acquired from the sternum and the ilium. We compared the two harvest sites in their propensity to undergo multilineage differentiation, differences in cell surface markers or gene transduction efficiencies.BMDMSCs were isolated and culture-expanded from five mL aspirates of bone marrow from sternum and ilium. The cells were then plated and cultured with appropriate differentiation medium to result in multi-lineage differentiation and cell characteristics were compared between sternal and ilial samples. Cell surface antibody expression of CD11a/18, CD34, CD44 and CD90 were evaluated using flow cytometry and gene transduction efficiencies were evaluated using GFP scAAV. There were no statistically significant differences in cell characteristics between MSCs cultured from sternum and ilium under any circumstances.

  4. Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics in the natural plague foci of Chinese Mongolian gerbils based on spatial autocorrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai-Wen; Wang, Yong; Zhuang, Da-Fang; Jiang, Xiao-San

    2017-08-07

    The nest flea index of Meriones unguiculatus is a critical indicator for the prevention and control of plague, which can be used not only to detect the spatial and temporal distributions of Meriones unguiculatus, but also to reveal its cluster rule. This research detected the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the plague natural foci of Mongolian gerbils by body flea index from 2005 to 2014, in order to predict plague outbreaks. Global spatial autocorrelation was used to describe the entire spatial distribution pattern of the body flea index in the natural plague foci of typical Chinese Mongolian gerbils. Cluster and outlier analysis and hot spot analysis were also used to detect the intensity of clusters based on geographic information system methods. The quantity of M. unguiculatus nest fleas in the sentinel surveillance sites from 2005 to 2014 and host density data of the study area from 2005 to 2010 used in this study were provided by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemic focus regions of the Mongolian gerbils remain the same as the hot spot regions relating to the body flea index. High clustering areas possess a similar pattern as the distribution pattern of the body flea index indicating that the transmission risk of plague is relatively high. In terms of time series, the area of the epidemic focus gradually increased from 2005 to 2007, declined rapidly in 2008 and 2009, and then decreased slowly and began trending towards stability from 2009 to 2014. For the spatial change, the epidemic focus regions began moving northward from the southwest epidemic focus of the Mongolian gerbils from 2005 to 2007, and then moved from north to south in 2007 and 2008. The body flea index of Chinese gerbil foci reveals significant spatial and temporal aggregation characteristics through the employing of spatial autocorrelation. The diversity of temporary and spatial distribution is mainly affected by seasonal variation, the human

  5. Temporal Variation in Oscillatory Characteristics of Long-period Tremor at Aso Volcano, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.; Ohkura, T.; Kaneshima, S.; Kawakatsu, H.

    2017-12-01

    At Aso volcano, Japan, various kinds of volcanic signals with broad frequency contents have been observed since 1930s. One of these signals is long-period tremor (LPT) with a dominant period of around 15 s, which is intermittently emitted from the volcano regardless of the surface activity. Our broadband seismic observations have revealed that LPTs are a kind of resonance oscillation of a crack-like conduit beneath the crater. In this study, aiming to detect a temporal variation of volcanic system, we analyze the long-term variation of LPTs from 1994 to the present.We first examine the temporal variation of dominant periods of LPTs (fundamental mode of around 15 s and the first overtone of around 7 s) using the continuous data recorded at broadband stations close to the active crater. The result shows a clear temporal change in the dominant periods of LPTs in 2003-2005 and 2014-2015. In 2003-2005, the periods of the two modes show correlated temporal change, and it can be interpreted as compositional and/or thermal change of hydrothermal fluids. On the other hand, in 2014-2015, the period of first overtone is almost constant at around 8 s, while that of the fundamental mode shows relatively large temporal fluctuations between 16 s and 12 s. To explain the different behavior among the two resonant modes, we examine the oscillatory characteristics of a fluid-filled crack having linearly varying thickness. With this model, we find that the ratio between resonance periods becomes smaller than that in the case of a flat crack having constant thickness. This behavior can be understood by considering the effective thickness of the crack depends on the wavelength of each resonant mode. Based on these results, the different temporal variation of dominant periods can be interpreted by depth-dependent thickness of the crack-like conduit which may be caused by pressurization and/or intrusion of magma at deeper portion of the conduit. These results suggest the importance of

  6. Structural similarity causes different category-effects depending on task characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2001-01-01

    difference was found on easy object decision tasks. In experiment 2 an advantage for natural objects was found during object decisions performed under degraded viewing conditions (lateralized stimulus presentation). It is argued that these findings can be accounted for by assuming that natural objects...... it is in difficult object decision tasks). However, when viewing conditions are degraded and performance tends to depend on global shape information (carried by low spatial frequency components), natural objects may fare better than artefacts because the global shape of natural objects reveals more of their identity......It has been suggested that category-specific impairments for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more globally visually similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage [Aphasiology 13 (1992) 169]. This account has been challenged...

  7. [Similarities and differences in absorption characteristics and composition of CDOM between Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kun; Li, Yun-mei; Wang, Qiao; Yang, Yu; Jin, Xin; Wang, Yan-fei; Zhang, Hong; Yin, Bin

    2010-05-01

    Field experiments are conducted separately in Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake on Apr. and Jun. 2009. The changes in absorption spectra of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) characteristics are analyzed using spectral differential analysis technology. According the spectral differential characteristic of absorption coefficient; absorption coefficient from 240 to 450 nm is divided into different stages, and the value of spectral slope S is calculated in each stage. In Stage A, S value of CDOM in Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake are 0.0166-0.0102 nm(-1) [average (0.0132 +/- 0.0017) nm(-1)], 0.029-0.017 nm(-1) [average (0.0214 +/- 0.0024) nm(-1)]. In Stage B, S values are 0.0187-0.0148 nm(-1) [average (0.0169 +/- 0.001) nm(-1)], 0.0179-0.0055 nm(-1) [average (0.0148 +/- 0.002) nm(-1)]. In Stage C, S values are 0.0208-0.0164 nm(-1) [average (0.0186 +/- 0.0009) nm(-1)], 0.0253-0.0161 nm(-1) [average (0.0197 +/- 0.002) nm(-1)]. The results can be concluded as: (1) Absorption coefficient of water in Taihu Lake, and its contribution to absorption of each component is less than that of water in Chaohu Lake, however the standardized absorption coefficient is larger than that in Chaohu Lake. (2) Both in Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake, derivative spectra of CDOM absorption coefficient reached valley at 260nm, then rise to top at 290 nm, CDOM absorption coefficient can be delivered into three stages. (3) Generally speaking, content of CDOM in Taihu Lake is less than in Chaohu Lake. (4) pectrum slope (S value) of CDOM is related to composition of CDOM, when content of humic acid in CDOM gets higher, S value of Stage B is the most sensitive value, then is the S value of Stage C. Oppositely, S value of Stage B gets the most sensitive value, then is the S value of Stage A; the least sensitive value is in Stage B.

  8. Characteristic Variations and Similarities in Biochemical, Molecular, and Functional Properties of Glyoxalases across Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Charanpreet; Sharma, Shweta; Hasan, Mohammad Rokebul; Pareek, Ashwani; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Sopory, Sudhir K

    2017-03-30

    The glyoxalase system is the ubiquitous pathway for the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG) in the biological systems. It comprises two enzymes, glyoxalase I (GLYI) and glyoxalase II (GLYII), which act sequentially to convert MG into d-lactate, thereby helping living systems get rid of this otherwise cytotoxic byproduct of metabolism. In addition, a glutathione-independent GLYIII enzyme activity also exists in the biological systems that can directly convert MG to d-lactate. Humans and Escherichia coli possess a single copy of GLYI (encoding either the Ni- or Zn-dependent form) and GLYII genes, which through MG detoxification provide protection against various pathological and disease conditions. By contrast, the plant genome possesses multiple GLYI and GLYII genes with a role in abiotic stress tolerance. Plants possess both Ni 2+ - and Zn 2+ -dependent forms of GLYI, and studies on plant glyoxalases reveal the various unique features of these enzymes distinguishing them from prokaryotic and other eukaryotic glyoxalases. Through this review, we provide an overview of the plant glyoxalase family along with a comparative analysis of glyoxalases across various species, highlighting similarities as well as differences in the biochemical, molecular, and physiological properties of these enzymes. We believe that the evolution of multiple glyoxalases isoforms in plants is an important component of their robust defense strategies.

  9. Family and personal characteristics of aggressive Nigerian boys: differences from and similarities with Western findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, C C; Grantham-McGregor, S

    1998-11-01

    To identify the family and child determinants of aggressive behaviour in Nigerian elementary school boys and to compare the findings with previous ones from Western studies. Forty-seven aggressive boys from four elementary schools in Lagos, Nigeria were compared with 47 matched pro-social boys. Teacher rating and peer nomination were combined to select subjects. The subjects and their parents were given structured questionnaires to obtain information on possible risk factors for aggression. Compared with pro-social boys, it was found that significantly more aggressive boys came from polygamous families and crowded homes, had more siblings, received less parental affection, were more physically punished, less supervised at home, witnessed more domestic conflicts, did poorly at school, had poorer verbal intelligence and attributed malice more readily than pro-social boys. Logistic regression indicated that the independent family predictors of aggression were crowding, little paternal affection, and corporal punishment. The independent child predictors were biased attribution and poor school achievement. Corporal punishment at school was also an independent predictor of aggression. The family and child determinants of aggressive behaviour in Nigeria are similar to those found in Western studies except for the small contribution of family instability and overwhelming influence of corporal punishment in our sample. Models of intervention developed in the West may therefore be cautiously applied to Nigerian children.

  10. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis pannus have similar qualitative metabolic characteristics and pro-inflammatory cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuzawa-Carballeda, J; Macip-Rodríguez, P M; Cabral, A R

    2008-01-01

    Pannus in osteoarthritis (OA) has only recently been characterized. Little is known, however, regarding the behavior of OA pannus in vitro compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pannus. The purpose of our study was to compare OA with RA pannus. Pannus and synovial tissue co-cultures from 5 patients with OA and 5 patients with RA obtained during arthroplasty were studied. Pannus was defined as the microscopic invasive granulation tissue covering the articular surface. Tissues were cultured for 7 days and stained with Alcian Blue technique. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) were also determined in supernatants by ELISA. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), type II collagen, TNF-alpha, IL-10 and Ki-67 expression were also detected by immunohistochemistry. All patients had vascular or fibrous pannus. Synovial proliferation, inflammatory infiltrates and a decrease of extracellular matrix proteins were observed in all tissue samples. Chondrocyte proliferation was lower in OA than RA cartilage. OA synovial tissue expressed lower levels of proteoglycans than RA synoyium. Type II collagen levels were lower in OA than in RA cartilage. Significantly higher levels of IL-1beta were found in the supernatants of RA pannus compared to OA pannus (ppannus supernatants. IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-gamma were undetectable. RA and OA pannus had similar pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine profile expression. OA cartilage, synovial tissue and pannus had lower production of proteoglycans, type II collagen and IL-1beta. It remains to be elucidated why OA pannus invades the cartilage surface but does not cause the marginal erosions typically seen in RA.

  11. Temporal characteristics of imagined and actual walking in frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hideki; Murata, Shin; Shiraiwa, Kayoko; Iwase, Hiroaki; Kodama, Takayuki

    2018-05-09

    Mental chronometry, commonly used to evaluate motor imagery ability, measures the imagined time required for movements. Previous studies investigating mental chronometry of walking have investigated healthy older adults. However, mental chronometry in frail older adults has not yet been clarified. To investigate temporal characteristics of imagined and actual walking in frail older adults. We investigated the time required for imagined and actual walking along three walkways of different widths [width(s): 50, 25, 15 cm × length: 5 m] in 29 frail older adults and 20 young adults. Imagined walking was measured with mental chronometry. We observed significantly longer imagined and actual walking times along walkways of 50, 25, and 15 cm width in frail older adults compared with young adults. Moreover, temporal differences (absolute error) between imagined and actual walking were significantly greater in frail older adults than in young adults along walkways with a width of 25 and 15 cm. Furthermore, we observed significant differences in temporal differences (constant error) between frail older adults and young adults for walkways with a width of 25 and 15 cm. Frail older adults tended to underestimate actual walking time in imagined walking trials. Our results suggest that walkways of different widths may be a useful tool to evaluate age-related changes in imagined and actual walking in frail older adults.

  12. Similar effects of lysine deficiency in muscle biochemical characteristics of fatty and lean piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Granados, P; Haro, A; Seiquer, I; Lara, L; Aguilera, J F; Nieto, R

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of feeding Lys-deficient diets on muscle biochemical characteristics, particularly intramuscular fat concentration and fatty acid profile, in a fatty (Iberian) and a conventional pig genotype (Landrace × Large White [LDW]) maintained in identical experimental conditions. Performance and plasma metabolite changes were also monitored. Twenty-eight barrows of 10 kg initial BW, 14 of Iberian and 14 of LDW breed, were randomly assigned to each of 2 experimental diets in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (2 breeds × 2 diets). Seven pigs were allocated to each treatment combination. Diets (isonitrogenous and isoenergetic; 200 g CP/kg DM and 14.7 MJ ME) based on barley, corn, corn gluten meal, and soybean meal, with identical composition, except for their Lys content (10.9 g/kg for the diet adequate in Lys and 5.2 g/kg for the diet deficient in Lys), were assayed. Pigs were housed in individual 2 m pens and fed at 85% of ad libitum intake of the Iberian genotype, of greater intake capacity. Daily feed allowance was based on BW individually measured each week. At 25 kg BW, pigs were slaughtered by exsanguination after electrical stunning. Blood samples were taken and longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles were rapidly dissected and stored frozen prior to analysis. Performance was reduced in both pig breeds when fed Lys-deficient diets, particularly in LDW pigs (breed × diet interaction, < 0.05). Intramuscular fat content increased in longissimus dorsi of Iberian ( < 0.05) and in biceps femoris of both pig genotypes ( < 0.01) when fed Lys-deficient diets. Oleic acid increased ( < 0.05) and PUFA acid decreased ( < 0.01) in longissiumus dorsi and biceps femoris of pigs of both genotypes fed Lys-deficient diets. The proportion of oxidative fibers ( < 0.001) and free carnitine content ( < 0.05) increased in longissimus dorsi of both pigs types fed Lys-deficient diets. Plasma creatinine was greater in LDW pigs

  13. IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SYNTHETIC PEPTIDES SIMILAR TO ACTUAL HIV ANTIGEN DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Korobova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of HIV vaccine remains an important goal in prophylaxis and therapy of HIV/ AIDS epidemics. There are various approaches for development of а candidate vaccine based on induction of neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immunity. Synthetic peptides are considered promising vaccine antigens since they are capable of activating both humoral and cellular immune response. HIV-1 envelope gp120 is the target for neutralizing antiviral antibodies. The V3 region of the HIV-1 gp120 is highly immunogenic and important for the virus-coreceptor interaction. In a RV144 vaccine trial, the levels of vaccine-induced IgG antibodies recognizing V1V2 regions from multiple HIV-1 subtypes show inverse correlations with a risk for HIV-1 infection. Meanwhile, HIV is characterized by high diversity. The consensus and mosaic immunogens are complete but artificial proteins, which are computationally designed to elicit immune responses with improved cross-reactive broadness. We have been studied immunogenic properties of synthetic peptides derived from V1, V2, V3 loop regions of the consensus M HIV1 (CON-S sequence group of the gp 120 envelope protein and V3 loop derived from a Russian RUA022a2 isolate. These peptides specifically reacted to HIV-positive sera in ELISA, thus indicating their similarity to appropriate HIV proteins. The peptides proved to be weakly immunogenic. Therefore, Freund complete adjuvant was used to enhance peptide immunogenicity. To assess the immunogenicity, the mice were immunized with a peptide mixture. Antibodies have been developed to every peptide from the mixture, being, predominantly, of IgG isotype. The antibody titers depended on the length of peptide sequences. However, the sera from immunized mice did not have a HIV neutralizing activity. The serum neutralization was assessed by pseudovirus-based assay, using a molecular clone of virus isolates CAP 45.2.00.G3 and QH.209.14.M.EnvA2. The virus neutralization is a

  14. Developmental characteristics of temporal sharp transients in the EEG of normal preterm and term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Magda Lahorgue

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe developmental characteristics, morphological aspects and incidence of temporal sharp transients (TST in normal preterm and term newborns at matched conceptional ages (CA. METHOD: Neonatal EEGs from two groups of normal newborns were evaluated in order to identify and characterize TST. Group I (n=40 consisted of newborns from 34 to 40 weeks of gestational age (GA that were submitted to a single EEG between 24 and 48 hours of life. Group II consisted of 10 preterm newborns with GA between 30-32 weeks, followed with a weekly EEG until they reached term. Morphology of TST was divided in 3 groups (temporal sawtooth, isolated transients or repetitive transients. TST index, density and total number were calculated in each polysomnography and related to sleep stages and CA. Laterality (right/left was also evaluated. The groups were compared at 34, 36, 38 and 40 weeks of CA. RESULTS: TST index and density decreased with the increase of CA in both groups (p<0.0001. The temporal sawtooth feature was registered in both groups only at 34 weeks. Although rare, repetitive and isolated TST were the most prevalent morphology between 36 - 40 weeks CA. Significant intragroup difference was observed in the comparison of TST density in REM and transitional sleep in GI. Moreover, isolated TST morphology was significant higher in GI at 34 weeks when compared to the others CA. No intragroup differences were observed on GII. No significant differences between the groups were observed considering TST number, index, density, morphology or laterality, at the matched CA. CONCLUSION: TST are normal features of neonatal EEG, as they are registered in normal newborns. Its incidence varies accordingly to morphology and they tend to disappear following the increase of CA. Temporal sawtooth appears more often in preterm newborns. Our results suggest that TST index, density and morphology variability may be a function of CA.

  15. [Epidemiologic and spatio-temporal characteristics of hepatitis E in China, 2004-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Q; Zuo, J L; Yan, Q; Fang, Q W; Zhang, T J

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To describe and analyze the epidemiologic and spatio-temporal characteristics of hepatitis E in China from 2004 to 2014. Methods: Data on the incidence of hepatitis E in 31 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) from 2004 to 2014, were collected. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) was applied to decompose the time-series data to accurately describe the trend of hepatitis E incidence. Mathematic model was used to estimate the annual change of incidence in each age group and the whole province. Software ArcGIS 10.1 and SaTScan 9.01 were used to analyze the spatio-temporal clusters. Results: During 2004-2014, a total of 245 414 hepatitis E cases were reported in China. The overall incidence showed a slight increase ( OR =1.05, 95 %CI : 1.03-1.10). Incidence rates on hepatitis E were discovered different across the provinces, with significant increase appearing in the southern, central and northwestern areas. The highest increase was seen in the elderly, especially in the 65-69 and 70-74 year-olds. Results from the Local spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the "high-high cluster" was moving from the north to the south and the "low-low cluster" disappeared as time went by. Data from Spatio-temporal scanning showed that there were five spatio-temporal clustering areas across the country. Conclusion: The overall incidence of hepatitis E was on the rise from 2004 to 2014, in China, but with differences seen across the areas and age groups.

  16. Spatial and temporal variation of particulate matter characteristics within office buildings - The OFFICAIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szigeti, Tamás; Dunster, Christina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Spinazzè, Andrea; Mandin, Corinne; Le Ponner, Eline; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Ventura, Gabriela; Saraga, Dikaia E; Sakellaris, Ioannis A; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Cornelissen, Eric; Bartzis, John G; Kelly, Frank J

    2017-06-01

    In the frame of the OFFICAIR project, office buildings were investigated across Europe to assess how the office workers are exposed to different particulate matter (PM) characteristics (i.e. PM 2.5 mass concentration, particulate oxidative potential (OP) based on ascorbate and reduced glutathione depletion, trace element concentration and total particle number concentration (PNC)) within the buildings. Two offices per building were investigated during the working hours (5 consecutive days; 8h per day) in two campaigns. Differences were observed for all parameters across the office buildings. Our results indicate that the monitoring of the PM 2.5 mass concentration in different offices within a building might not reflect the spatial variation of the health relevant PM characteristics such as particulate OP or the concentration of certain trace elements (e.g., Cu, Fe), since larger differences were apparent within a building for these parameters compared to that obtained for the PM 2.5 mass concentration in many cases. The temporal variation was larger for almost all PM characteristics (except for the concentration of Mn) than the spatial differences within the office buildings. These findings indicate that repeated or long-term monitoring campaigns are necessary to have information about the temporal variation of the PM characteristics. However, spatial variation in exposure levels within an office building may cause substantial differences in total exposure in the long term. We did not find strong associations between the investigated indoor activities such as printing or windows opening and the PNC values. This might be caused by the large number of factors affecting PNC indoors and outdoors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High temporal resolution in situ measurement of the effective particle size characteristics of fluvial suspended sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N D; Walling, D E; Leeks, G J L

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports the use of a LISST-100 device to monitor the effective particle size characteristics of suspended sediment in situ, and at a quasi-continuous temporal resolution. The study site was located on the River Exe at Thorverton, Devon, UK. This device has not previously been utilized in studies of fluvial suspended sediment at the storm event scale, and existing studies of suspended sediment dynamics have not involved such a high temporal resolution for extended periods. An evaluation of the field performance of the instrument is presented, with respect to innovative data collection and analysis techniques. It was found that trends in the effective particle size distribution (EPSD) and degree of flocculation of suspended sediment at the study site were highly complex, and showed significant short-term variability that has not previously been documented in the fluvial environment. The collection of detailed records of EPSD facilitated interpretation of the dynamic evolution of the size characteristics of suspended sediment, in relation to its likely source and delivery and flocculation mechanisms. The influence of measurement frequency is considered in terms of its implications for future studies of the particle size of fluvial suspended sediment employing in situ data acquisition.

  18. Muscle and bone follow similar temporal patterns of recovery from muscle-induced disuse due to botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, Sarah L; Boyd, Steven K; Zernicke, Ronald F

    2010-01-01

    If muscle force is a primary source for triggering bone adaptation, with disuse and reloading, bone changes should follow muscle changes. We examined the timing and magnitude of changes in muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and bone architecture in response to muscle inactivity following botulinum toxin (BTX) injection. We hypothesized that MCSA would return to baseline levels sooner than bone properties following BTX injection. Female BALB mice (15 weeks old) were injected with 20 muL of BTX (1 U/100 g body mass, n=18) or saline (SAL, n=18) into the posterior calf musculature of one limb. The contralateral limb (CON) served as an internal control. MCSA and bone properties were assessed at baseline, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks post-injection using in vivo micro-CT at the tibia proximal metaphysis (bone only) and diaphysis. Muscles were dissected and weighed after sacrifice. Significant GroupxLegxTime interactions indicated that the maximal decrease in MCSA (56%), proximal metaphyseal BV/TV (38%) and proximal diaphyseal Ct.Ar (7%) occurred 4 weeks after injection. There was no delay prior to bone recovery as both muscle and bone properties began to recover after this time, but MCSA and BV/TV remained 15% and 20% lower, respectively, in the BTX-injected leg than the BTX-CON leg 16 weeks post-injection. Gastrocnemius mass (primarily fast-twitch) was 14% lower in the BTX-injected leg than the SAL-injected leg, while soleus mass (primarily slow-twitch) was 15% greater in the BTX group than the SAL group. Our finding that muscle size and bone began to recover at similar times after BTX injection was unexpected. This suggested that partial weight-bearing and/or return of slow-twitch muscle activity in the BTX leg may have been sufficient to stimulate bone recovery. Alternatively, muscle function may have recovered sooner than MCSA. Our results indicated that muscle cross-sectional area, while important, may not be the primary factor associated with bone loss and recovery

  19. The Social, Physical and Temporal Characteristics of Primary School Dining Halls and Their Implications for Children's Eating Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sue N.; Murphy, Simon; Tapper, Katy; Moore, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Social, physical and temporal characteristics are known to influence the eating experience and the effectiveness of nutritional policies. As the school meal service features prominently in UK nutritional and health promotion policy, the paper's aim is to investigate the characteristics of the primary school dining context and their…

  20. Impacts of Climate Variability on the Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Water Stress in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soojun; Devineni, Naresh; Lall, Upmanu; Kim, Hung Soo

    2017-04-01

    This study intended to evaluate water stress quantitatively targeted at the Korean Peninsula and to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of its occurrence. First, the severity and multiyear influence of water stress were analyzed by realizing water balance based on water supply and demand and by calculating the normalized deficit index (NDI) and the normalized deficit cumulated (NDC) for 113 small basins in the Korean Peninsula. Next, a change in the periodic characteristics of water stress was analyzed using wavelet transform of the NDI by small basins and 3 bands of periods of 1 year, 2-4 years, and 4-8 years were separated. Through an analysis of the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) on each band, it was found that water stress occurring in the Korean Peninsula has the characteristics of spatial distribution that it is extended from the south coast to the northern area and inland as its period gets longer. An analysis of the band with a period of 2-8 years for water stress showed that it has a relationship with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Acknowledgment This research was supported by a grant (14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  1. The Spatio-Temporal Characteristics and Modeling Research of Inter-Provincial Migration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Fan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The national census data during 1995 and 2000 and during 2005 and 2010 are selected in this paper to make an analysis of the spatio-temporal characteristics of the inter-provincial population migration in China. In addition, the general regression model, the extension regression model considering the historical dependent variable and the spatial lag model are established based on the gravity model to make the regression model on China’s inter-provincial population migration over two periods of time. The results show that: (1 the inter-provincial population migration increases rapidly in size with strong geographical proximity; (2 China’s inter-provincial population migration is still in the primary stage of the general process of population migration. In other words, the inter-provincial population emigration and immigration levels have increased greatly with the economic development; (3 Statistically, the inter-provincial population migration is negatively correlated with the level of economic development in the emigrant place and the migration distance and positively correlated with the level of economic development in the immigrant place and the population scale in the emigrant and immigrant places; and (4 The spatio-temporal factor is an important explanatory variable of population migration. The introduction of the historical dependent variable and the spatial lag factor can improve the regression effect of the gravity model greatly, and the historical variable and the spatial factor have strong explanatory power for the inter-provincial population migration.

  2. Low cognitive load strengthens distractor interference while high load attenuates when cognitive load and distractor possess similar visual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Shipstead, Zach; Osaka, Naoyuki; Engle, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Studies on visual cognitive load have reported inconsistent effects of distractor interference when distractors have visual characteristic that are similar to the cognitive load. Some studies have shown that the cognitive load enhances distractor interference, while others reported an attenuating effect. We attribute these inconsistencies to the amount of cognitive load that a person is required to maintain. Lower amounts of cognitive load increase distractor interference by orienting attention toward visually similar distractors. Higher amounts of cognitive load attenuate distractor interference by depleting attentional resources needed to process distractors. In the present study, cognitive load consisted of faces (Experiments 1-3) or scenes (Experiment 2). Participants performed a selective attention task in which they ignored face distractors while judging a color of a target dot presented nearby, under differing amounts of load. Across these experiments distractor interference was greater in the low-load condition and smaller in the high-load condition when the content of the cognitive load had similar visual characteristic to the distractors. We also found that when a series of judgments needed to be made, the effect was apparent for the first trial but not for the second. We further tested an involvement of working memory capacity (WMC) in the load effect (Experiment 3). Interestingly, both high and low WMC groups received an equivalent effect of the cognitive load in the first distractor, suggesting these effects are fairly automatic.

  3. Being First Matters: Topographical Representational Similarity Analysis of ERP Signals Reveals Separate Networks for Audiovisual Temporal Binding Depending on the Leading Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecere, Roberto; Gross, Joachim; Willis, Ashleigh; Thut, Gregor

    2017-05-24

    In multisensory integration, processing in one sensory modality is enhanced by complementary information from other modalities. Intersensory timing is crucial in this process because only inputs reaching the brain within a restricted temporal window are perceptually bound. Previous research in the audiovisual field has investigated various features of the temporal binding window, revealing asymmetries in its size and plasticity depending on the leading input: auditory-visual (AV) or visual-auditory (VA). Here, we tested whether separate neuronal mechanisms underlie this AV-VA dichotomy in humans. We recorded high-density EEG while participants performed an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task including various AV-VA asynchronies and unisensory control conditions (visual-only, auditory-only) and tested whether AV and VA processing generate different patterns of brain activity. After isolating the multisensory components of AV-VA event-related potentials (ERPs) from the sum of their unisensory constituents, we ran a time-resolved topographical representational similarity analysis (tRSA) comparing the AV and VA ERP maps. Spatial cross-correlation matrices were built from real data to index the similarity between the AV and VA maps at each time point (500 ms window after stimulus) and then correlated with two alternative similarity model matrices: AV maps = VA maps versus AV maps ≠ VA maps The tRSA results favored the AV maps ≠ VA maps model across all time points, suggesting that audiovisual temporal binding (indexed by synchrony perception) engages different neural pathways depending on the leading sense. The existence of such dual route supports recent theoretical accounts proposing that multiple binding mechanisms are implemented in the brain to accommodate different information parsing strategies in auditory and visual sensory systems. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intersensory timing is a crucial aspect of multisensory integration, determining whether and how

  4. Spatio-temporal variation analysis of hydrochemical characteristics in the Luanhe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Li, Xuyong; Wang, Huiliang; Li, Wenzan

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of river pollution and assessment of spatial and temporal variation in hydrochemistry are essential to river water pollution control in the context of rapid economic growth and growing pollution threats in China. In this study, we focused on hydrochemical characteristics of the Luanhe River Basin (China) and evaluation of 12 hydrochemical variables obtained from 32 monitoring stations during 2001-2010. In each study year, the streams were monitored in the three hydrological periods (April, August, and October) to observe differences in the impacts of agricultural activity and rainfall pattern. Multivariate statistical methods were applied to the data set, and the river water hydrochemical characteristics were assessed using the water quality identification index (WQIIM). The results showed that parameters had variable contribution to water quality status in different months except for ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total nitrogen (TN), which were the most important parameters in contributing to water quality variations for all three periods. Results of WQIIM revealed that 18 sites were classified as 'meeting standard' while the other 14 sites were classified as 'not meeting standard', with most of the seriously polluted sites located in urban area, mainly due to discharge of wastewater from domestic and industrial sources. Sites with low pollution level were located primarily in smaller tributaries, whereas sites of medium and high pollution levels were in the main river channel and the larger tributaries. Our findings provide valuable information and guidance for water pollution control and water resource management in the Luanhe River Basin.

  5. Radiometric Normalization of Temporal Images Combining Automatic Detection of Pseudo-Invariant Features from the Distance and Similarity Spectral Measures, Density Scatterplot Analysis, and Robust Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira de Carvalho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric precision is difficult to maintain in orbital images due to several factors (atmospheric conditions, Earth-sun distance, detector calibration, illumination, and viewing angles. These unwanted effects must be removed for radiometric consistency among temporal images, leaving only land-leaving radiances, for optimum change detection. A variety of relative radiometric correction techniques were developed for the correction or rectification of images, of the same area, through use of reference targets whose reflectance do not change significantly with time, i.e., pseudo-invariant features (PIFs. This paper proposes a new technique for radiometric normalization, which uses three sequential methods for an accurate PIFs selection: spectral measures of temporal data (spectral distance and similarity, density scatter plot analysis (ridge method, and robust regression. The spectral measures used are the spectral angle (Spectral Angle Mapper, SAM, spectral correlation (Spectral Correlation Mapper, SCM, and Euclidean distance. The spectral measures between the spectra at times t1 and t2 and are calculated for each pixel. After classification using threshold values, it is possible to define points with the same spectral behavior, including PIFs. The distance and similarity measures are complementary and can be calculated together. The ridge method uses a density plot generated from images acquired on different dates for the selection of PIFs. In a density plot, the invariant pixels, together, form a high-density ridge, while variant pixels (clouds and land cover changes are spread, having low density, facilitating its exclusion. Finally, the selected PIFs are subjected to a robust regression (M-estimate between pairs of temporal bands for the detection and elimination of outliers, and to obtain the optimal linear equation for a given set of target points. The robust regression is insensitive to outliers, i.e., observation that appears to deviate

  6. Amplitude−temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated during subnanosecond breakdown in air and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasenko, V. F., E-mail: vft@loi.hcei.tsc.ru; Baksht, E. Kh.; Beloplotov, D. V.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I. [Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Current Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    The amplitude−temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with an amplitude of up to 100 A, as well as of the breakdown voltage and discharge current, are studied experimentally with a picosecond time resolution. The waveforms of discharge and SAEB currents are synchronized with those of the voltage pulses. It is shown that the amplitude−temporal characteristics of the SAEB depend on the gap length and the designs of the gas diode and cathode. The mechanism for the generation of runaway electron beams in atmospheric-pressure gases is analyzed on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  7. Amplitude-temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated during subnanosecond breakdown in air and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Beloplotov, D. V.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.

    2016-04-01

    The amplitude-temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with an amplitude of up to 100 A, as well as of the breakdown voltage and discharge current, are studied experimentally with a picosecond time resolution. The waveforms of discharge and SAEB currents are synchronized with those of the voltage pulses. It is shown that the amplitude-temporal characteristics of the SAEB depend on the gap length and the designs of the gas diode and cathode. The mechanism for the generation of runaway electron beams in atmospheric-pressure gases is analyzed on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  8. Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Land Use Land Cover Change Driven by Large Scale Land Transactions in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Smith, J. C.; Hijmans, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Since mid-1990s, the Cambodian government granted nearly 300 `Economic Land Concessions' (ELCs), occupying approximately 2.3 million ha to foreign and domestic organizations (primarily agribusinesses). The majority of Cambodian ELC deals have been issued in areas of both relatively low population density and low agricultural productivity, dominated by smallholder production. These regions often contain highly biodiverse areas, thereby increasing the ecological cost associated with land clearing for extractive purposes. These large-scale land transactions have also resulted in substantial and rapid changes in land-use patterns and agriculture practices by smallholder farmers. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of land use change associated with large-scale land transactions across Cambodia using multi-temporal multi-reolution remote sensing data. We identified major regions of deforestation during the last two decades using Landsat archive, global forest change data (2000-2014) and georeferenced database of ELC deals. We then mapped the deforestation and land clearing within ELC boundaries as well as areas bordering or near ELCs to quantify the impact of ELCs on local communities. Using time-series from MODIS Vegetation Indices products for the study period, we also estimated the time period over which any particular ELC deal initiated its proposed activity. We found evidence of similar patterns of land use change outside the boundaries of ELC deals which may be associated with i) illegal land encroachments by ELCs and/or ii) new agricultural practices adopted by local farmers near ELC boundaries. We also detected significant time gaps between ELC deal granting dates and initiation of land clearing for ELC purposes. Interestingly, we also found that not all designated areas for ELCs were put into effect indicating the possible proliferation of speculative land deals. This study demonstrates the potential of remote sensing techniques

  9. Spatial and temporal characteristics of droughts in Luanhe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Xu; Li, Jianzhu; Feng, Ping

    2018-02-01

    The spatial and temporal characteristics of drought are investigated for Luanhe River basin, using monthly precipitation data from 26 stations covering the common period of 1958-2011. The spatial pattern of drought was assessed by applying principal component analysis (PCA) to the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) computed on 3- and 12-month time scales. In addition, annual SPI and seasonal SPIs (including spring SPI, summer SPI, autumn SPI, and winter SPI) were also defined and considered in this study to characterize seasonal and annual drought conditions, respectively. For all seven SPI cases, three distinctive sub-regions with different temporal evolutions of droughts are well identified, respectively, representing the southeast, middle, and northwest of the Luanhe River basin. The Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test with a trend-free pre-whitening (TFPW) procedure and Sen's method were used to determine the temporal trends in the annual and seasonal SPI time series. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was employed for further detecting the periodical features of drought condition in each sub-region. Results of MK and Sen's tests show a general tendency of intensification in summer drought over the entire basin, while a significant mitigating trend in spring drought. On the whole, an aggravating trend of inter-annual drought is discovered across the basin. Based on the CWT, the drought variability in the basin is generally dominated by 16- to 64-month cycles, and the 2- to 6-year cycles appear to be obvious when concerned with annual and seasonal droughts. Furthermore, a cross wavelet analysis was performed to examine the possible links between the drought conditions and large-scale climate patterns. The teleconnections of ENSO, NAO, PDO, and AMO show significant influences on the regional droughts principally concentrated in the 16- to 64-month period, maybe responsible for the physical causes of the cyclical behavior of drought occurrences. PDO and AMO also

  10. Spatio-temporal structure, path characteristics and perceptual grouping in immediate serial spatial recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo De Lillo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Immediate serial spatial recall measures the ability to retain sequences of locations in short-term memory and is considered the spatial equivalent of digit span. It is tested by requiring participants to reproduce sequences of movements performed by an experimenter or displayed on a monitor. Different organizational factors dramatically affect serial spatial recall but they are often confounded or underspecified. Untangling them is crucial for the characterization of working-memory models and for establishing the contribution of structure and memory capacity to spatial span. We report five experiments assessing the relative role and independence of factors that have been reported in the literature. Experiment 1 disentangled the effects of spatial clustering and path-length by manipulating the distance of items displayed on a touchscreen monitor. Long-path sequences segregated by spatial clusters were compared with short-path sequences not segregated by clusters. Recall was more accurate for sequences segregated by clusters independently from path-length. Experiment 2 featured conditions where temporal pauses were introduced between or within cluster boundaries during the presentation of sequences with the same paths. Thus, the temporal structure of the sequences was either consistent or inconsistent with a hierarchical representation based on segmentation by spatial clusters but the effect of structure could not be confounded with effects of path-characteristics. Pauses at cluster boundaries yielded more accurate recall, as predicted by a hierarchical model. In Experiment 3, the systematic manipulation of sequence structure, path-length and presence of path-crossings of sequences showed that structure explained most of the variance, followed by the presence/absence of path-crossings, and path-length. Experiments 4 and 5 replicated the results of the previous experiments in immersive virtual reality navigation tasks where the viewpoint of the

  11. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Rural Economic Development in Eastern Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guogang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the regional differences of rural economic development can be easily determined, a challenging problem for research studies regarding rural economic development has been the inter-relatedness between different areas, and this challenge has been noted remarkably little in research data to date. As an empirical investigation, this study analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics of rural economic development from a period beginning in 1978 to the year 2012, in the eastern coastal region of China. In order to determine the special differentiation characteristics of rural economic development, three indexes, namely the Gini coefficient (G, Tsui–Wang index (TW and Theil index (T, were employed. To explore the inter-relatedness among the different areas, we selected a spatial autocorrelation model. The results indicated that, to a large extent, rural economic development from 1978 to 2012 in the eastern coastal region of China was greatly influenced, and the per capita annual net income changed significantly, due to the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization. Generally speaking, the annual net income constantly increased, from 87.7 USD in 1978 to 1628.1 USD in 2012. However, the calculation results indicated that the per capita income gap in the same province decreased, while the gap between the provinces presented an aggregate trend. The regional polarization widened continuously. It was also found that the spatial positive autocorrelation for the regional economy was significant, with a waving and ascending trend, and the neighbor effect of regional economic growth was continuously strengthened. Qualitative analysis of the driving mechanism was applied, and it was determined that there are three primary factors affecting the development of the rural regions, namely resource endowments, economic location and policies.

  12. Relationship between musical characteristics and temporal breathing pattern in piano performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Sakaguchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon’s exercise, J. S. Bach’s Invention, Mozart’s Sonatas, and Debussy’s Clair de lune, was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. 1 Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. 2 Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. 3 Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise, but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. 4 Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. 5 Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  13. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  14. [Spatial and temporal variations of hydrological characteristic on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Gang; Hu, Jin-Fei; Xiao, Hong-Lang; Zou, Song-Bing; Yin, Zhen-Liang

    2013-10-01

    There are few studies on the hydrological characteristics on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region at present. This paper aimed to identify the spatial and temporal variations in the origin and composition of the runoff, and to reveal the hydrological characteristics in each zone, based on the isotopic analysis of glacier, snow, frozen soil, groundwater, etc. The results showed that during the wet season, heavy precipitation and high temperature in the Mafengou River basin caused secondary evaporation which led to isotope fractionation effects. Therefore, the isotope values remained high. Temperature effects were significant. During the dry season, the temperature was low. Precipitation was in the solid state during the cold season and the evaporation was weak. Water vapor came from the evaporation of local water bodies. Therefore, less secondary evaporation and water vapor exchange occurred, leading to negative values of delta18O and deltaD. delta18O and deltaD values of precipitation and various water bodies exhibited strong seasonal variations. Precipitation exhibited altitude effects, delta18O = -0. 005 2H - 8. 951, deltaD = -0.018 5H - 34. 873. Other water bodies did not show altitude effects in the wet season and dry season, because the runoff was not only recharged by precipitation, but also influenced by the freezing and thawing process of the glacier, snow and frozen soil. The mutual transformation of precipitation, melt water, surface water and groundwater led to variations in isotopic composition. Therefore, homogenization and evaporation effect are the main control factors of isotope variations.

  15. A study of the temporal and spectral characteristics of gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.

    1983-05-01

    Gamma-ray burst data obtained from the ISEE-3 Gamma Ray Burst Spectrometer and the Solar Maximum Mission's Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) were analyzed to yield information on burst temporal and spectral characteristics. A Monte Carlo approach was used to simulate the HXRBS response to candidate spectral models. At energies above about 100 keV, the spectra are well fit by exponential forms. At lower energies, 30 keV to 60 keV, depressions below the model continua are apparent in some bursts. The depressions are not instrumental or data-reduction artifacts. The event selection criterion of the ISEE-3 experiment is based on the time to accumulate a present number of photons rather than the photon count per unit time and is consequently independent of event duration for a given burst intensity, unlike most conventional systems. As a result, a significantly greater percentage of fast, narrow events have been detected. The ratio of count rates from two ISEE-3 detectors indicates that bursts with durations or aprox. one second have much softer spectra than longer bursts

  16. The spatial-temporal characteristics of type I collagen-based extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher Allen Rucksack; Liang, Long; Lin, Daniel; Jiao, Yang; Sun, Bo

    2014-11-28

    Type I collagen abounds in mammalian extracellular matrix (ECM) and is crucial to many biophysical processes. While previous studies have mostly focused on bulk averaged properties, here we provide a comprehensive and quantitative spatial-temporal characterization of the microstructure of type I collagen-based ECM as the gelation temperature varies. The structural characteristics including the density and nematic correlation functions are obtained by analyzing confocal images of collagen gels prepared at a wide range of gelation temperatures (from 16 °C to 36 °C). As temperature increases, the gel microstructure varies from a "bundled" network with strong orientational correlation between the fibers to an isotropic homogeneous network with no significant orientational correlation, as manifested by the decaying of length scales in the correlation functions. We develop a kinetic Monte-Carlo collagen growth model to better understand how ECM microstructure depends on various environmental or kinetic factors. We show that the nucleation rate, growth rate, and an effective hydrodynamic alignment of collagen fibers fully determines the spatiotemporal fluctuations of the density and orientational order of collagen gel microstructure. Also the temperature dependence of the growth rate and nucleation rate follow the prediction of classical nucleation theory.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Insulator Contaminations Revealed by Daily Observations of Equivalent Salt Deposit Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ruan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate estimation of deposits adhering on insulators is of great significance to prevent pollution flashovers which cause huge costs worldwide. Researchers have developed sensors using different technologies to monitor insulator contamination on a fine time scale. However, there is lack of analysis of these data to reveal spatial and temporal characteristics of insulator contamination, and as a result the scheduling of periodical maintenance of power facilities is highly dependent on personal experience. Owing to the deployment of novel sensors, daily Equivalent Salt Deposit Density (ESDD observations of over two years were collected and analyzed for the first time. Results from 16 sites distributed in four regions of Hubei demonstrated that spatial heterogeneity can be seen at both the fine and coarse geographical scales, suggesting that current polluted area maps are necessary but are not sufficient conditions to guide the maintenance of power facilities. Both the local emission and the regional air pollution condition exert evident influences on deposit accumulation. A relationship between ESDD and PM10 was revealed by using regression analysis, proving that air pollution exerts influence on pollution accumulations on insulators. Moreover, the seasonality of ESDD was discovered for the first time by means of time series analysis, which could help engineers select appropriate times to clean the contamination. Besides, the trend component shows that the ESDD increases in a negative exponential fashion with the accumulation date (ESDD = a − b × exp(−time at a long time scale in real environments.

  18. Porphyromonas gulae Has Virulence and Immunological Characteristics Similar to Those of the Human Periodontal Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzo, Jason C; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Orth, Rebecca K; Mitchell, Helen L; Dashper, Stuart G; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-09-01

    Periodontitis is a significant problem in companion animals, and yet little is known about the disease-associated microbiota. A major virulence factor for the human periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis is the lysyl- and arginyl-specific proteolytic activity of the gingipains. We screened several Porphyromonas species isolated from companion animals-P. asaccharolytica, P. circumdentaria, P. endodontalis, P. levii, P. gulae, P. macacae, P. catoniae, and P. salivosa-for Lys- and Arg-specific proteolytic activity and compared the epithelial and macrophage responses and induction of alveolar bone resorption of the protease active species to that of Porphyromonas gingivalis Only P. gulae exhibited Lys-and Arg-specific proteolytic activity. The genes encoding the gingipains (RgpA/B and Kgp) were identified in the P. gulae strain ATCC 51700 and all publicly available 12 draft genomes of P. gulae strains. P. gulae ATCC 51700 induced levels of alveolar bone resorption in an animal model of periodontitis similar to those in P. gingivalis W50 and exhibited a higher capacity for autoaggregation and binding to oral epithelial cells with induction of apoptosis. Macrophages (RAW 264.7) were found to phagocytose P. gulae ATCC 51700 and the fimbriated P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 at similar levels. In response to P. gulae ATCC 51700, macrophages secreted higher levels of cytokines than those induced by P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 but lower than those induced by P. gingivalis W50, except for the interleukin-6 response. Our results indicate that P. gulae exhibits virulence characteristics similar to those of the human periodontal pathogen P. gingivalis and therefore may play a key role in the development of periodontitis in companion animals. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Long-term outcome characteristics in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without associated cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeiser, B; Hammen, T; Steinhoff, B J; Zentner, J; Schulze-Bonhage, A

    2016-10-01

    The intention of our study was to identify predictive characteristics for long-term seizure control and running down phenomenon after surgical treatment of pharmacoresistant mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with and without associated cortical dysplasia. Our study comprises a consecutive series of 458 patients who underwent surgical treatment for intractable mTLE at the Epilepsy Center Freiburg. Data evaluated included semiology, duration and frequency of seizures, results of presurgical diagnostics including video-EEG monitoring, MRI, PET and SPECT as well as postoperative seizure outcome. Results were evaluated forming two groups: Group A consisted of isolated mesiotemporal lesions. Group B comprised patients with mTLE and additional focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Statistical evaluation was based on the Kaplan Meier survival analysis, using log-rank-tests and a multivariate regression model. Postoperative running down phenomenon was defined as seizure freedom after a period of gradual reduction of postoperative seizure frequency. This was compared to patients with ongoing epilepsy. Complete seizure freedom was achieved in 65.0% of investigated patients at 1year and in 56.5% at long-term follow-up of ≥5 years after surgery. Corresponding results were 64.2% and 56.8% at 1 and ≥5 years, respectively in group A and 66.4% and 56.0%, respectively in group B. Predictive for favorable postoperative outcome in the total group were younger age at surgery, shorter duration of epilepsy, absence of secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (SGTCS), presence of strictly ipsilateral temporal interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), complete resection of the lesion as well as absence of postoperative epileptiform activity and of early postoperative seizures. In subgroup analyses, patients of group A demonstrated longer postoperative seizure-free intervals with adolescent age at surgery, short duration of epilepsy before surgery and absence of SGTCS, whereas in

  20. Multiagent-Based Simulation of Temporal-Spatial Characteristics of Activity-Travel Patterns Using Interactive Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multiagent-based reinforcement learning algorithm, in which the interactions between travelers and the environment are considered to simulate temporal-spatial characteristics of activity-travel patterns in a city. Road congestion degree is added to the reinforcement learning algorithm as a medium that passes the influence of one traveler’s decision to others. Meanwhile, the agents used in the algorithm are initialized from typical activity patterns extracted from the travel survey diary data of Shangyu city in China. In the simulation, both macroscopic activity-travel characteristics such as traffic flow spatial-temporal distribution and microscopic characteristics such as activity-travel schedules of each agent are obtained. Comparing the simulation results with the survey data, we find that deviation of the peak-hour traffic flow is less than 5%, while the correlation of the simulated versus survey location choice distribution is over 0.9.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics in the Clearness Index Derived from Global Solar Radiation Observations in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonjin Jung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal characteristics of the clearness index (KT were investigated using daily global solar irradiance measurements (290–2800 nm for the period of 2000–2014 at 21 sites in Korea, a complex region in East Asia with a distinct monsoon season and heavy aerosol loading year-round. The annual mean KT value for all sites is 0.46, with values of 0.63 and 0.25 for clear and overcast skies, respectively. The seasonal variations in monthly average KT show a minimum of 0.37 in July at all sites except for Jeju, where the value was 0.29 in January. The maximum value (KT = 0.51 is observed in October, followed by a secondary peak (KT = 0.49 during February–April. The lowest KT value (KT = 0.42 was observed at both the Seoul and Jeju sites, and the highest (KT = 0.48 in the southeastern regions. Increases in average KT exceeding 4% per decade were observed in the middle and southeastern regions, with the maximum (+8% per decade at the Daegu site. Decreasing trends (<−4% per decade were observed in the southwestern regions, with the maximum (−7% per decade at the Mokpo site. Cloud amount, relative humidity, and aerosol optical depth together explained 57% of the variance in daily mean KT values. The contributions of these three variables to variations in KT are 42%, 9% and 6%, respectively. Thus, the variations in KT in Korea can be primarily attributed to the presence of clouds and water vapor, with relatively weak aerosol effects.

  2. Spatio-temporal variation in chemical characteristics of PM10 over Indo Gangetic Plain of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S K; Mandal, T K; Srivastava, M K; Chatterjee, A; Jain, Srishti; Saxena, M; Singh, B P; Saraswati; Sharma, A; Adak, A; K Ghosh, S

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the spatio-temporal variation of chemical compositions (organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble inorganic ionic components (WSIC)) of particulate matter (PM10) over three locations (Delhi, Varanasi, and Kolkata) of Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) of India for the year 2011. The observational sites are chosen to represent the characteristics of upper (Delhi), middle (Varanasi), and lower (Kolkata) IGP regions as converse to earlier single-station observation. Average mass concentration of PM10 was observed higher in the middle IGP (Varanasi 206.2 ± 77.4 μg m(-3)) as compared to upper IGP (Delhi 202.3 ± 74.3 μg m(-3)) and lower IGP (Kolkata 171.5 ± 38.5 μg m(-3)). Large variation in OC values from 23.57 μg m(-3) (Delhi) to 12.74 μg m(-3) (Kolkata) indicating role of formation of secondary aerosols, whereas EC have not shown much variation with maximum concentration over Delhi (10.07 μg m(-3)) and minimum over Varanasi (7.72 μg m(-3)). As expected, a strong seasonal variation was observed in the mass concentration of PM10 as well as in its chemical composition over the three locations. Principal component analysis (PCA) identifies the contribution of secondary aerosol, biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, vehicular emission, and sea salt to PM10 mass concentration at the observational sites of IGP, India. Backward trajectory analysis indicated the influence of continental type aerosols being transported from the Bay of Bengal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and surrounding areas to IGP region.

  3. Temporal characteristics of inhalable mercury and arsenic aerosols in the urban atmosphere in southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Kuo, Su-Ching; Lin, Yi-Hsuan

    Urban aerosol samples for PM 10 and PM 2.5 were collected during summer (August) and winter (December) 2000 in southern Taiwan (Tainan City) to demonstrate the temporal variations of Hg and As in particulate matter (PM). The mean mass concentrations with standard deviations were 80.0±26.8 μg m -3 for PM 10 and 50.6±16.6 μg m -3 for PM 2.5. The average PM 2.5/PM 10 mass ratio for the two periods combined was 63%, indicating that fine particles were a large portion of PM 10. Particulate samples of Hg and As were analyzed within 2 days following sampling and weighing, because of the highly volatile nature of PM Hg and As. The average Hg and As values in PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 in summer were significantly lower than those in winter. PM 2.5 Hg constituted 0.34 to 5.8 ng m -3 and PM 2.5-10 Hg 0.05 to 3.1 ng m -3. PM 2.5 As constituted 1.09 to 9.51 ng m -3 and PM 2.5-10 As 0.18 to 4.14 ng m -3. In summer and winter PM 10, the Hg contents showed regular daily variation, with the higher values at daytime and lower values at nighttime, indicating conversion of gaseous Hg to the particulate phase by reaction with atmospheric oxidants under strong solar radiation during the daytime in both summer and winter. PM As behaved similar to Hg in the summer, but in the winter higher concentrations were observed during the nighttime than during the daytime, implying that the stable temperature inversion during winter nighttime caused the accumulation of PM As near the ground. In summer, SE-WSW winds carried As from an As-emitting fossil power plant to the sample area. In a similar vein, NE-WNW winter winds contributed to aerosol Hg, especially in PM 2.5, originating from a waste incinerator located NW of Tainan City.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Resident Trip Based on Poi and OD Data of Float CAR in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, N.; Li, J.; Zhang, L.; Liu, W.; Xu, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Due to the influence of the urban inherent regional functional distribution, the daily activities of the residents presented some spatio-temporal patterns (periodic patterns, gathering patterns, etc.). In order to further understand the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban residents, this paper research takes the taxi trajectory data of Beijing as a sample data and studies the spatio-temporal characteristics of the residents' activities on the weekdays. At first, according to the characteristics of the taxi trajectory data distributed along the road network, it takes the Voronoi generated by the road nodes as the research unit. This paper proposes a hybrid clustering method - based on grid density, which is used to cluster the OD (origin and destination) data of taxi at different times. Then combining with the POI data of Beijing, this research calculated the density of the POI data in the clustering results, and analyzed the relationship between the activities of residents in different periods and the functional types of the region. The final results showed that the residents were mainly commuting on weekdays. And it found that the distribution of travel density showed a concentric circle of the characteristics, focusing on residential areas and work areas. The results of cluster analysis and POI analysis showed that the residents' travel had experienced the process of "spatial relative dispersion - spatial aggregation - spatial relative dispersion" in one day.

  5. SPATIO-TEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENT TRIP BASED ON POI AND OD DATA OF FLOAT CAR IN BEIJING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the influence of the urban inherent regional functional distribution, the daily activities of the residents presented some spatio-temporal patterns (periodic patterns, gathering patterns, etc.. In order to further understand the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban residents, this paper research takes the taxi trajectory data of Beijing as a sample data and studies the spatio-temporal characteristics of the residents' activities on the weekdays. At first, according to the characteristics of the taxi trajectory data distributed along the road network, it takes the Voronoi generated by the road nodes as the research unit. This paper proposes a hybrid clustering method – based on grid density, which is used to cluster the OD (origin and destination data of taxi at different times. Then,combining with the POI data of Beijing, this research calculated the density of the POI data in the clustering results, and analyzed the relationship between the activities of residents in different periods and the functional types of the region. The final results showed that the residents were mainly commuting on weekdays. And it found that the distribution of travel density showed a concentric circle of the characteristics, focusing on residential areas and work areas. The results of cluster analysis and POI analysis showed that the residents' travel had experienced the process of "spatial relative dispersion – spatial aggregation – spatial relative dispersion" in one day.

  6. Temporal changes in patient characteristics and prior pharmacotherapy in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karasoy, Deniz; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Hansen, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Trends in patient selection and pharmacotherapy before radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of atrial fibrillation are not well studied. We examined temporal trends in RFA utilization on a nationwide scale in Denmark....

  7. Magma ascent, fragmentation and depositional characteristics of "dry" maar volcanoes: Similarities with vent-facies kimberlite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuijs, Jaap F.; Mattsson, Hannes B.

    2013-02-01

    , sufficiently large to drive magmatic fragmentation. Both eruptions were pulsating in intensity and relatively short-lived, with estimated durations of 23 and 10 h for Loolmurwak and Eledoi, respectively. The depositional characteristics of these maars, including the abundant occurrence of mantle xenoliths in the deposits, as well as their envisaged mode of emplacement show a strong similarity to the often poorly preserved vent-facies of kimberlitic diatremes. Therefore, future research on well-preserved melilititic maar-diatreme deposits may provide valuable insights into kimberlite emplacement processes.

  8. Temporal characteristics of rainfall events under three climate types in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolšak, Domen; Bezak, Nejc; Šraj, Mojca

    2016-10-01

    Temporal rainfall distribution can often have significant influence on other hydrological processes such as runoff generation or rainfall interception. High-frequency rainfall data from 30 stations in Slovenia were analysed in order to improve the knowledge about the temporal rainfall distribution within a rainfall event. Using the pre-processed rainfall data Huff curves were determined and the binary shape code (BSC) methodology was applied. Although Slovenia covers only about 20,000 km2, results indicate large temporal and spatial variability in the precipitation pattern of the analysed stations, which is in agreement with the different Slovenian climate types: sub-Mediterranean, temperate continental, and mountain climate. Statistically significant correlation was identified between the most frequent BSC types, mean annual precipitation, and rainfall erosivity for individual rainfall stations. Moreover, different temporal rainfall distributions were observed for rainfall events with shorter duration (less than 12 h) than those with longer duration (more than 24 h). Using the analysis of the Huff curves it was shown that the variability in the Huff curves decreases with increasing rainfall duration. Thus, it seems that for shorter duration convective storms a more diverse temporal rainfall distribution can be expected than for the longer duration frontal precipitation where temporal rainfall distribution shows less variability.

  9. Spectral and Temporal Characteristics of X-Ray-Bright Stars in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Marc; Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Stauffer, John R.

    1995-01-01

    We follow up our deep ROSAT imaging survey of the Pleiades (Stauffer et al. 1994) with an analysis of the spectral and temporal characteristics of the X-ray-bright stars in the Pleiades. Raymond & Smith (1977) one and two-temperature models have been used to fit the position-sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) pulse-height spectra of the dozen or so brightest sources associated with late-type Pleiades members. The best-fit temperatures suggest hot coronal temperatures for K, M, and rapidly rotating G stars, and cooler temperatures for F and slowly rotating G stars. In order to probe the many less X-ray-luminous stars, we have generated composite spectra by combining net counts from all Pleiades members according to spectral type and rotational velocity. Model fits to the composite spectra confirm the trend seen in the individual spectral fits. Particularly interesting is the apparent dependence of coronal temperature on L(sub x)/L(sub bol). A hardness-ratio analysis also confirms some of these trends. The PSPC data have also revealed a dozen or so strong X-ray flares with peak X-ray luminosities in excess of approx. 10(exp 30) ergs/sec. We have modeled the brightest of these flares with a simple quasi-static cooling loop model. The peak temperature and emission measure and the inferred electron density and plasma volume suggest a very large scale flaring event. The PSPC data were collected over a period of approx. 18 months, allowing us to search for source variability on timescales ranging from less than a day (in the case of flares) to more than a year between individual exposures. On approximately year-long timescales, roughly 25% of the late-type stars are variable. Since the Pleiades was also intensively monitored by the imaging instruments on the Einstein Observatory, we have examined X-ray luminosity variations on the 10 yr timescale between Einstein and ROSAT and find that up to 40% of the late-type stars are X-ray variable. Since there is only marginal

  10. Phenomenal characteristics associated with projecting oneself back into the past and forward into the future: influence of valence and temporal distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial

    2004-12-01

    As humans, we frequently engage in mental time travel, reliving past experiences and imagining possible future events. This study examined whether similar factors affect the subjective experience associated with remembering the past and imagining the future. Participants mentally "re-experienced" or "pre-experienced" positive and negative events that differed in their temporal distance from the present (close versus distant), and then rated the phenomenal characteristics (i.e., sensorial, contextual, and emotional details) associated with their representations. For both past and future, representations of positive events were associated with a greater feeling of re-experiencing (or pre-experiencing) than representations of negative events. In addition, representations of temporally close events (both past and future) contained more sensorial and contextual details, and generated a stronger feeling of re-experiencing (or pre-experiencing) than representations of temporally distant events. It is suggested that the way we both remember our past and imagine our future is constrained by our current goals.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Precipitation Variability and Drought Patterns in the Eastern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Mathbout, Shifa

    2016-01-01

    La precipitación es una variable muy importante del clima y la hidrología. La exploración de su distribución espacial y temporal y su variación puede dar una idea acerca de las condiciones del clima y los recursos hídricos en un futuro. Por lo tanto, el mapeo amento? Preciso de la distribución temporal y espacial resulta importante para muchas aplicaciones ya sea en hidrología, climatología, agronomía, ecología, y otras ciencias ambientales. En esta tesis, se analizan las distribuciones e...

  12. Advanced diagnosis of the temporal characteristics of ultra-short electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Yuji

    2011-05-01

    Monitoring the temporal structure of an ultra-short electron beam is an indispensable function in order to tune a machine to obtain a highly qualified beam for a recent sophisticated accelerator, such as an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), and to maintain stable X-ray laser operation. For this purpose, various instruments, such as an HEM11-mode RF beam deflector (RFDEF), a screen monitor (SCM), an electro-optic (EO) sampling method that uses a ZnTe crystal, and a beam position monitor (BPM) have been developed. The SCM that is used to observe the deflected beam image has a position resolution of 2.5 μm, which corresponds to a temporal resolution of 0.5 fs and it is installed at a position 5 m downstream from the RFDEF. The EO sampling method showed the ability to observe an electron bunch length for up to 300 fs (FWHM) at the SCSS test accelerator. The phase reference cavity of the BPM has an additional function of providing beam arrival timing information. A test for the BPM showed temporal fluctuation of 46 fs on the beam arrival timing at the test accelerator. These monitors with high temporal resolutions allow us to achieve the fine beam tuning demanded for the XFEL. The above-mentioned activities are described in this paper as a review article.

  13. Advanced diagnosis of the temporal characteristics of ultra-short electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the temporal structure of an ultra-short electron beam is an indispensable function in order to tune a machine to obtain a highly qualified beam for a recent sophisticated accelerator, such as an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), and to maintain stable X-ray laser operation. For this purpose, various instruments, such as an HEM11-mode RF beam deflector (RFDEF), a screen monitor (SCM), an electro-optic (EO) sampling method that uses a ZnTe crystal, and a beam position monitor (BPM) have been developed. The SCM that is used to observe the deflected beam image has a position resolution of 2.5 μm, which corresponds to a temporal resolution of 0.5 fs and it is installed at a position 5 m downstream from the RFDEF. The EO sampling method showed the ability to observe an electron bunch length for up to 300 fs (FWHM) at the SCSS test accelerator. The phase reference cavity of the BPM has an additional function of providing beam arrival timing information. A test for the BPM showed temporal fluctuation of 46 fs on the beam arrival timing at the test accelerator. These monitors with high temporal resolutions allow us to achieve the fine beam tuning demanded for the XFEL. The above-mentioned activities are described in this paper as a review article.

  14. Clinical characteristics, surgical and neuropsychological outcomes in drug resistant tumoral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, Sangeeta; Iyer, Vivek; Muzumdar, Dattatraya; Shah, Urvashi; Pradhan, Pranjali; Jain, Neeraj; Godge, Yogesh

    2016-12-01

    Glioneuronal tumors are found in nearly one third patients who undergo surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy with temporal lobe being the most common location. Few studies, however have concentrated on the neurological and neuropsychological outcomes after surgery, hitherto none from India. We studied 34 patients with temporal lobe tumors and drug resistant epilepsy. These patients underwent anterior temporal lobectomy or lesionectomy based on the involvement of the hippocampus and mesial temporal structures. The clinical history, EEG, neuropsychology profile and MRI were compared. Seizure outcome was categorized using Engel's classification. At a mean follow up of 62 months, 85.29% of the patients were seizure free (Engel's Class I). All 8 patients with intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) guided resection were seizure free. Presence of a residual lesion was significantly associated with persistence of seizures post surgery (p = 0.002). Group analysis revealed no significant shifts in IQ and memory scores postoperatively. There was a significant improvement in the quality of life scores (total and across all subdomains) in all patients (p temporal lobe tumors and refractory epilepsy offers complete seizure freedom in majority. Complete surgical excision of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in achieving seizure freedom. Intraoperative electrocorticography (EcoG) is a useful adjunct to ensure complete removal of epileptogenic zone, thus achieving optimal seizure freedom. There is a significant improvement in the quality of life scores (p < 0.001) with no negative impact of surgery on memory and intelligence. Even the patients who are not seizure free can achieve worthwhile improvement post surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Wang

    Full Text Available Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia monoculture system (JRMS, a wheat (Triticum aestivum monoculture system (TAMS, and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world.

  16. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world.

  17. Temporal characteristics of the influence of punishment on perceptual decision making in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, H.; Guido, B.; Heekeren, H.R.; Philiastides, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual decision making is the process by which information from sensory systems is combined and used to influence our behavior. In addition to the sensory input, this process can be affected by other factors, such as reward and punishment for correct and incorrect responses. To investigate the temporal dynamics of how monetary punishment influences perceptual decision making in humans, we collected electroencephalography (EEG) data during a perceptual categorization task whereby the punis...

  18. Spatial and temporal characteristics of poloidal waves in the terrestrial plasmasphere: a CLUSTER case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schäfer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Oscillating magnetic field lines are frequently observed by spacecraft in the terrestrial and other planetary magnetospheres. The CLUSTER mission is a very suitable tool to further study these Alfvén waves as the four CLUSTER spacecraft provide for an opportunity to separate spatial and temporal structures in the terrestrial magnetosphere. Using a large scaled configuration formed by the four spacecraft we are able to detect a poloidal Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF pulsation of the magnetic and electric field in order to analyze its temporal and spatial structures. For this purpose the measurements are transformed into a specific field line related coordinate system to investigate their specific amplitude pattern depending on the path of the CLUSTER spacecraft across oscillating field lines. These measurements are then compared with modeled spacecraft observations across a localized poloidal wave resonator in the dayside plasmasphere. A detailed investigation of theoretically expected poloidal eigenfrequencies allows us to specify the observed 16 mHz pulsation as a third harmonic oscillation. Based on this we perform a case study providing a clear identification of wave properties such as an spatial scale structure of about 0.67 RE, the azimuthal wave number m≈30, temporal evolution, and energy transport in the detected ULF pulsations.

  19. Crop characteristics and their temporal change on the Loess Plateau of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu Yongqiu,; Xie Kunqing,; Zhang Qingchun,; Zhnag Yan,; Xie Yun,; Zhang Guanghui,; Zhang Wenbo,; Ritsema, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Crop characteristics with obvious seasonal changes strongly influence soil loss. The purpose of this study is to measure and analyze the plant characteristics and their seasonal change in the Loess Plateau. A small watershed, Danangou in the Loess Plateau of north China, was selected for this study.

  20. Temporal characteristic analysis of laser-modulated pulsed X-ray source for space X-ray communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Shuang; Liu, Yunpeng; Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Da

    2018-04-01

    X-ray communication (XCOM) is a new communication type and is expected to realize high-speed data transmission in some special communication scenarios, such as deep space communication and blackout communication. This study proposes a high-speed modulated X-ray source scheme based on the laser-to-X-ray conversion. The temporal characteristics of the essential components of the proposed laser-modulated pulsed X-ray source (LMPXS) were analyzed to evaluate its pulse emission performance. Results show that the LMPXS can provide a maximum modulation rate up to 100 Mbps which is expected to significantly improve the data rate of XCOM.

  1. Transverse and temporal characteristics of a high-gain free-electron laser in the saturation regime

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Zhi Rong

    2002-01-01

    The transverse and the temporal characteristics of a high-gain free-electron laser are governed by refractive guiding and sideband instability, respectively. Using the self-consistent Vlasov-Maxwell equations, we explicitly determine the effective index of refraction and the guided radiation mode for an electron beam with arbitrary transverse size. Electrons trapped by the guided radiation execute synchrotron oscillation and hence are susceptible to the sideband instability. We explain the spectral evolution and determine the sideband growth rate. These theoretical predictions agree well with GINGER simulation results.

  2. [Temporal and spatial characteristics of ecological risk in Shunyi, Beijing, China based on landscape structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Feng Ting; Peng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Based on the remote sensing data in 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009 and 2013, this article classified the landscape types of Shunyi, and the ecological risk index was built based on landscape disturbance index and landscape fragility. The spatial auto-correlation and geostatistical analysis by GS + and ArcGIS was used to study temporal and spatial changes of ecological risk. The results showed that eco-risk degree in the study region had positive spatial correlation which decreased with the increasing grain size. Within a certain grain range (landscape, such as the banks of Chaobai River.

  3. Energetic, spectral, and temporal characteristics of a two-wave CO/sub 2/ laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertel' , I.M.; Petukhov, V.O.; Prokopov, A.P.; Tochitskii, S.Ya.; Churakov, V.V.

    1987-09-01

    This work studies the energetic and temporal parameters of a pulsed two-wave TEA CO/sub 2/ laser's radiation and the means for controlling these parameters. Obtaining the two-wave generation regime in CO/sub 2/ lasers uses, as is known, spatial splitting of the radiation, different variants of operating diffraction gratings, and placing a cell with selectively absorbing gas in the resonator. To realize the simultaneous two-wave generation regime in the present work, a double-resonant scheme is used with mutually orthogonal polarizers to spatially separate the radiation.

  4. Evaluation of spatial and temporal characteristics of GNSS-derived ZTD estimates in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isioye, Olalekan Adekunle; Combrinck, Ludwig; Botai, Joel

    2018-05-01

    This study presents an in-depth analysis to comprehend the spatial and temporal variability of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) over Nigeria during the period 2010-2014, using estimates from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data. GNSS data address the drawbacks in traditional techniques (e.g. radiosondes) by means of observing periodicities in ZTD. The ZTD estimates show weak spatial dependence among the stations, though this can be attributed to the density of stations in the network. Tidal oscillations are noticed at the GNSS stations. These oscillations have diurnal and semi-diurnal components. The diurnal components as seen from the ZTD are the principal source of the oscillations. This upshot may perhaps be ascribed to temporal variations in atmospheric water vapour on a diurnal scale. In addition, the diurnal ZTD cycles exhibited noteworthy seasonal dependence, with larger amplitudes in the rainy (wet) season and smaller ones in the harmattan (dry) season. Notably, the stations in the northern part of the country reach very high amplitudes in the months of June, July and August at the peak of the wet season, characterized by very high rainfall. This pinpoints the fact that in view of the small amount of atmospheric water vapour in the atmosphere, usually around 10%, its variations greatly influence the corresponding diurnal and seasonal discrepancies of ZTD. This study further affirms the prospective relevance of ground-based GNSS data to atmospheric studies. GNSS data analysis is therefore recommended as a tool for future exploration of Nigerian weather and climate.

  5. A test of multiple correlation temporal window characteristic of non-Markov processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arecchi, F. T.; Farini, A.; Megna, N.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a sensitive test of memory effects in successive events. The test consists of a combination K of binary correlations at successive times. K decays monotonically from K = 1 for uncorrelated events as a Markov process. For a monotonic memory fading, K1 temporal window in cognitive tasks consisting of the visual identification of the front face of the Necker cube after a previous presentation of the same. We speculate that memory effects provide a temporal window with K>1 and this experiment could be a possible first step towards a better comprehension of this phenomenon. The K>1 behaviour is maximal at an inter-measurement time τ around 2s with inter-subject differences. The K>1 persists over a time window of 1s around τ; outside this window the K1 window in pairs of successive perceptions suggests that, at variance with single visual stimuli eliciting a suitable response, a pair of stimuli shortly separated in time displays mutual correlations.

  6. Turbulence characteristics of flow in an open channel with temporally varying mobile bedforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanmaiahgari Prashanth Reddy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Turbulence of flow over mobile bedforms in natural open channels is not yet clearly understood. An attempt is made in this paper to determine the effect of naturally formed mobile bedforms on velocities, turbulent intensities and turbulent stresses. Instantaneous velocities are measured using a two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV to evaluate the turbulence structure of free surface flow over a fixed (immobile bed, a weakly mobile bed and a temporally varying mobile bed with different stages of bedform development. This paper documents the vertical distribution of velocity, turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stress and higher-order moments including skewness and turbulent diffusion factors. Analysis of the velocity distributions shows a substantial decrease of velocity near the bed with increasing bedform mobility due to increased friction. A modified logarithmic law with a reduced von Kármán constant and increased velocity shift is proposed for the case of the mobile bedforms. A significant increase in the Reynolds shear stress is observed in the mobile bedforms experiments accompanied by changes over the entire flow depth compared to an immobile bed. The skewness factor distribution was found to be different in the case of the flow over the mobile bedforms. All higher-order turbulence descriptors are found to be significantly affected by the formation of temporally varying and non-equilibrium mobile bedforms. Quadrant analysis indicates that sweep and outward events are found to be dominant in strongly mobile bedforms and govern the bedform mobility.

  7. Volutin granules of Eimeria parasites are acidic compartments and have physiological and structural characteristics similar to acidocalcisomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Lia Carolina Soares; Gomes, Fabio; Maciel, Luis Renato Maia; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia; Plattner, Helmut; Hentschel, Joachim; Kawazoe, Urara; Barrabin, Hector; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; Miranda, Kildare

    2012-01-01

    The structural organization of parasites has been the subject of investigation by many groups and has lead to the identification of structures and metabolic pathways that may represent targets for anti-parasitic drugs. A specific group of organelles named acidocalcisomes has been identified in a number of organisms, including the apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, where they have been shown to be involved in cation homeostasis, polyphosphate metabolism, and osmoregulation. Their structural counterparts in the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria have not been fully characterized. In this work, the ultrastructural and chemical properties of acidocalcisomes in Eimeria were characterized. Electron microscopy analysis of Eimeria parasites showed the dense organelles called volutin granules similar to acidocalcisomes. Immunolocalization of the vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase, considered as a marker for acidocalcisomes, showed labeling in vesicles of size and distribution similar to the dense organelles seen by electron microscopy. Spectrophotometric measurements of the kinetics of proton uptake showed a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase activity. X-ray mapping revealed significant amounts of Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, and Zn in their matrix. The results suggest that volutin granules of Eimeria parasites are acidic, dense organelles and possess structural and chemical properties analogous to those of other acidocalcisomes, suggesting a similar functional role in these parasites. PMID:21699625

  8. Temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern based on image texture spectrum descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi-Guo; Jin, Ning-De; Wang, Zhen-Ya; Zhang, Wen-Yin

    2009-11-01

    The dynamic image information of typical gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns in vertical upward pipe is captured by a highspeed dynamic camera. The texture spectrum descriptor is used to describe the texture characteristics of the processed images whose content is represented in the form of texture spectrum histogram, and four time-varying characteristic parameter indexes which represent image texture structure of different flow patterns are extracted. The study results show that the amplitude fluctuation of texture characteristic parameter indexes of bubble flow is lowest and shows very random complex dynamic behavior; the amplitude fluctuation of slug flow is higher and shows intermittent motion behavior between gas slug and liquid slug, and the amplitude fluctuation of churn flow is the highest and shows better periodicity; the amplitude fluctuation of bubble-slug flow is from low to high and oscillating frequence is higher than that of slug flow, and includes the features of both slug flow and bubble flow; the slug-churn flow loses the periodicity of slug flow and churn flow, and the amplitude fluctuation is high. The results indicate that the image texture characteristic parameter indexes of different flow pattern can reflect the flow characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow, which provides a new approach to understand the temporal and spatial evolution of flow pattern dynamics.

  9. Object-Based Land Use Classification of Agricultural Land by Coupling Multi-Temporal Spectral Characteristics and Phenological Events in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoefel, Patrick; Loew, Fabian; Conrad, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Crop maps based on classification of remotely sensed data are of increased attendance in agricultural management. This induces a more detailed knowledge about the reliability of such spatial information. However, classification of agricultural land use is often limited by high spectral similarities of the studied crop types. More, spatially and temporally varying agro-ecological conditions can introduce confusion in crop mapping. Classification errors in crop maps in turn may have influence on model outputs, like agricultural production monitoring. One major goal of the PhenoS project ("Phenological structuring to determine optimal acquisition dates for Sentinel-2 data for field crop classification"), is the detection of optimal phenological time windows for land cover classification purposes. Since many crop species are spectrally highly similar, accurate classification requires the right selection of satellite images for a certain classification task. In the course of one growing season, phenological phases exist where crops are separable with higher accuracies. For this purpose, coupling of multi-temporal spectral characteristics and phenological events is promising. The focus of this study is set on the separation of spectrally similar cereal crops like winter wheat, barley, and rye of two test sites in Germany called "Harz/Central German Lowland" and "Demmin". However, this study uses object based random forest (RF) classification to investigate the impact of image acquisition frequency and timing on crop classification uncertainty by permuting all possible combinations of available RapidEye time series recorded on the test sites between 2010 and 2014. The permutations were applied to different segmentation parameters. Then, classification uncertainty was assessed and analysed, based on the probabilistic soft-output from the RF algorithm at the per-field basis. From this soft output, entropy was calculated as a spatial measure of classification uncertainty

  10. Relationship between Spatio-Temporal Travel Patterns Derived from Smart-Card Data and Local Environmental Characteristics of Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Kyeong Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the incorporation of an automated fare-collection system into the management of public transportation, not only can the quality of transportation services be improved but also that of the data collected from users when coupled with smart-card technology. The data collected from smart cards provide opportunities for researchers to analyze big data sets and draw meaningful information out of them. This study aims to identify the relationship between travel patterns derived from smart-card data and urban characteristics. Using seven-day transit smart-card data from the public-transportation system in Seoul, the capital city of the Republic of Korea, we investigated the temporal and spatial boarding and alighting patterns of the users. The major travel patterns, classified into five clusters, were identified by utilizing the K-Spectral Centroid clustering method. We found that the temporal pattern of urban mobility reflects daily activities in the urban area and that the spatial pattern of the five clusters classified by travel patterns was closely related to urban structure and urban function; that is, local environmental characteristics extracted from land-use and census data. This study confirmed that the travel patterns at the citywide level can be used to understand the dynamics of the urban population and the urban spatial structure. We believe that this study will provide valuable information about general patterns, which represent the possibility of finding travel patterns from individuals and urban spatial traits.

  11. Spatial-temporal characteristics of lightning flash size in a supercell storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixiao; Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Yijun; Lu, Gaopeng

    2017-11-01

    The flash sizes of a supercell storm, in New Mexico on October 5, 2004, are studied using the observations from the New Mexico Lightning Mapping Array and the Albuquerque, New Mexico, Doppler radar (KABX). First, during the temporal evolution of the supercell, the mean flash size is anti-correlated with the flash rate, following a unary power function, with a correlation coefficient of - 0.87. In addition, the mean flash size is linearly correlated with the area of reflectivity > 30 dBZ at 5 km normalized by the flash rate, with a correlation coefficient of 0.88. Second, in the horizontal, flash size increases along the direction from the region near the convection zone to the adjacent forward anvil. The region of minimum flash size usually corresponds to the region of maximum flash initiation and extent density. The horizontal correspondence between the mean flash size and the flash extent density can also be fitted by a unary power function, and the correlation coefficient is > 0.5 in 50% of the radar volume scans. Furthermore, the quality of fit is positively correlated to the convective intensity. Third, in the vertical direction, the height of the maximum flash initiation density is close to the height of maximum flash extent density, but corresponds to the height where the mean flash size is relatively small. In the discussion, the distribution of the small and dense charge regions when and where convection is vigorous in the storm, is deduced to be responsible for the relationship that flash size is temporally and spatially anti-correlated with flash rate and density, and the convective intensity.

  12. Work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality: The mediating role of temporal involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.; Lippe, A.G. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the amount and nature of parent-child time mediated the association between parental work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality. We based hypotheses on the conflict and enrichment approaches, and we tested a path model using self-collected data on

  13. Work Characteristics and Parent-Child Relationship Quality: The Mediating Role of Temporal Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Anne; Van Der Lippe, Tanja; Kluwer, Esther S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the amount and nature of parent-child time mediated the association between parental work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality. We based hypotheses on the conflict and enrichment approaches, and we tested a path model using self-collected data on 1,008 Dutch fathers and 929 Dutch mothers with…

  14. Work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality : the mediating role of temporal involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.; Lippe, T. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the amount and nature of parent-child time mediated the association between parental work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality. We based hypotheses on the conflict and enrichment approaches, and we tested a path model using self-collected data on

  15. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: similar and dissimilar characteristics in neighboring areas. Possible implications for the epidemiology of thyroid cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Latina

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Medical centers worldwide report an increased frequency of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and thyroid cancer (TC, two environmentally influenced diseases. In Sicily, data on HT are available for the province of Messina (1975-2005; data on TC are available for the whole island (2002-2004, with the volcanic province of Catania having the highest incidence. OBJECTIVE: To replicate in Catania, on comparable years, the HT data of Messina. DESIGN METHODS SETTING: Review of the clinical records of patients in years 1995-2005 to compare presentation and yearly changes of HT. During 1995-2005, records were computer stored in the Endocrine Divisions of the University Hospitals of Catania and Messina, two tertiary referral centers. RESULTS: Catania is outnumbered by Messina (742 vs. 3,409 HT patients. Similar were the linear increase in the yearly number of HT patients, rates of thyroid dysfunctions though with different proportions of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism, and rates of positiveness for TgAb or TPOAb. Different were age and its yearly trend; gender distribution and rates of the sonography variants, though yearly trends were similar. CONCLUSION: The HT epidemics is smaller in Catania, with changes in presentation overlapping partially those in Messina. Whatever environmental factors might be involved, they (and/or their intensity were not necessarily the same in these provinces. Intriguingly, the expected number of TC in HT patients with thyroid nodules in Catania is congruent with that of the general population of this province, but it is far less than in the Messina province. Thus, TC and HT incidences could be influenced by distinct environmental factors.

  16. A bibliometric analysis assessing temporal changes in publication and authorship characteristics in The Knee from 1996 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, G; Wisken, E; Hing, C B; Smith, T O

    2018-03-01

    Evidence-based practice is a foundation to clinical excellence. However there remains little evidence on the characteristics of authors who contribute to the evidence-base and whether these have changed over time. The purpose of this study was to explore these characteristics by undertaking a bibliometric analysis to explore publication and authorship characteristics in a leading sub-speciality orthopaedic journal (The Knee) over a 20-year period. All articles published in The Knee in 1996, 2006 and 2016 were identified. For each article, data collected included: highest academic award; profession; gender; continent of first and last author; total number of authors; the level of evidence; and funding source. We analysed temporal changes in these variables using appropriate statistical models. A total of 413 papers were analysed. Between 1996 to 2016 there has been a significant increase in the overall number of authors, the number of paper submitted from Asia, the proportion of Level 1 or 2 tiered evidence, the proportion of people with Bachelor or Master-level degrees as their highest level of educational award and the proportion of non-medically qualified authors (Pauthorship characteristics in this sub-speciality orthopaedic journal during the past 20years. This provides encouraging indication of greater diversification and internationalisation of orthopaedic research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal evolution of the spectral lines emission and temperatures in laser induced plasmas through characteristic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredice, F.; Pacheco Martinez, P.; Sánchez-Aké, C.; Villagrán-Muniz, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose an extended Boltzmann plot method to determine the usefulness of spectral lines for plasma parameter calculations. Based on the assumption that transient plasmas are under ideal conditions during an specific interval of time Δt, (i.e. thin, homogeneous and in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)), the associated Boltzmann plots describe a surface in the space defined by the coordinates X = Energy, Y = Time and Z = ln (λ jl I j /g j A jl ), where I j is the integrated intensity of the spectral line, g j is the statistical weight of the level j, λ jl is the wavelength of the considered line and A jl is its transition rate. In order to express the Boltzmann plot surface in terms of a reduced set of constants B i , and δ i , we developed as a power series of time, the logarithm of I n (t)/I n (t 0 ), where I n (t) is the integrated intensity of any spectral line at time t, and I n (t 0 ) at initial time. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the intensity of any spectral line and consequently the temperature of the plasma can be also expressed with these constants. The comparison of the temporal evolution of the line intensity calculated using these constants with their experimental values, can be used as a criterion for selecting useful lines in plasma analysis. Furthermore, this method can also be applied to determine self-absorption or enhancement of the spectral lines, to evaluate a possible departure of LTE, and to check or estimate the upper level energy value of any spectral line. An advantage of this method is that the value of these constants does not depend on the spectral response of the detection system, the uncertainty of the transition rates belonging to the analyzed spectral lines or any other time-independent parameters. In order to prove our method, we determined the constants B i and δ i and therefore the Boltzmann plot surface from the temporal evolution of carbon lines obtained from a plasma generated by a Nd:YAG laser

  18. Temporal evolution of the spectral lines emission and temperatures in laser induced plasmas through characteristic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredice, F., E-mail: faustob@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas, P.O. Box 3 C. P.1897 Gonnet, La Plata (Argentina); Pacheco Martinez, P. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Óptica de Emisión y Láser, Universidad del Atlántico, Barranquilla (Colombia); Sánchez-Aké, C.; Villagrán-Muniz, M. [Laboratorio de Fotofísica, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-186, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose an extended Boltzmann plot method to determine the usefulness of spectral lines for plasma parameter calculations. Based on the assumption that transient plasmas are under ideal conditions during an specific interval of time Δt, (i.e. thin, homogeneous and in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)), the associated Boltzmann plots describe a surface in the space defined by the coordinates X = Energy, Y = Time and Z = ln (λ{sub jl}I{sub j}/g{sub j}A{sub jl}), where I{sub j} is the integrated intensity of the spectral line, g{sub j} is the statistical weight of the level j, λ{sub jl} is the wavelength of the considered line and A{sub jl} is its transition rate. In order to express the Boltzmann plot surface in terms of a reduced set of constants B{sub i}, and δ{sub i}, we developed as a power series of time, the logarithm of I{sub n}(t)/I{sub n}(t{sub 0}), where I{sub n}(t) is the integrated intensity of any spectral line at time t, and I{sub n}(t{sub 0}) at initial time. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the intensity of any spectral line and consequently the temperature of the plasma can be also expressed with these constants. The comparison of the temporal evolution of the line intensity calculated using these constants with their experimental values, can be used as a criterion for selecting useful lines in plasma analysis. Furthermore, this method can also be applied to determine self-absorption or enhancement of the spectral lines, to evaluate a possible departure of LTE, and to check or estimate the upper level energy value of any spectral line. An advantage of this method is that the value of these constants does not depend on the spectral response of the detection system, the uncertainty of the transition rates belonging to the analyzed spectral lines or any other time-independent parameters. In order to prove our method, we determined the constants B{sub i} and δ{sub i} and therefore the Boltzmann plot surface from the temporal

  19. Determination of Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of D-region Electron Density during Annular Solar Eclipse from VLF Network Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, T.; Hobara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A major part of the path of the annular solar eclipse of May 20, 2012 (magnitude 0.9439) was over southern Japan. The D-region ionospheric changes associated with that eclipse, led to several degree of observable perturbations of sub-ionospheric very low frequency (VLF) radio signal. The University of Electro-Communications (UEC) operates VLF observation network over Japan. The solar eclipse associated signal changes were recorded in several receiving stations (Rx) simultaneously for the VLF signals coming from NWC/19.8kHz, JJI/22.2kHz, JJY/40.0kHz, NLK/24.8kHz and other VLF transmitters (Tx). These temporal dependences of VLF signal perturbation have been analyzed and the spatio-temporal characteristics of respective sub-ionospheric perturbations has already been studied by earlier workers using 2D-Finite Difference Time Domain method of simulation. In this work, we determine the spatial scale, depth and temporal dependence of lower ionospheric perturbation in consistence with umbral and penumbral motion. We considered the 2-parameter D-region ionospheric model with exponential electron density profile. To model the solar obscuration effect over it, we assumed a generalized space-time dependent 2-dimensional elliptical Gaussian distribution for ionospheric parameters, such as, effective reflection height (h') and sharpness factor (β). The depth (△hmax, △βmax), center of shadow (lato(t), lono(t)) and spatial scale (σlat,lon) of that Gaussian distribution are used as model parameters. In the vicinity of the eclipse zone, we compute the VLF signal perturbations using Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code for several signal propagation paths. The propagation path characteristics, such as, ground and water conductivity and geomagnetic effect on ionosphere are considered from standard LWPC prescriptions. The model parameters are tuned to set an optimum agreement between our computation and observed positive and negative type of VLF perturbations. Thus

  20. Characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone in primiparous, postpartum, anovular, suckled, beef cows exposed acutely to bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauck Shaun A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological mechanism by which bulls stimulate resumption of ovarian cycling activity in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows after calving may involve the concurrent activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian (HPO axis and hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HPA axis. Thus, the objectives of this experiment were to determine if characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH in postpartum, anovular, beef cows are influenced by acute exposure to bulls. The null hypotheses were that daily, temporal characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns do not differ between cows exposed acutely to bulls or steers. Methods Sixteen cows were assigned randomly 67 +/- 4 (+/- SE after calving to be exposed to bulls (EB, n = 8 or steers (ES, n = 8 5 h daily for 9 d (D 0 to 8. Blood samples were collected daily from each cow via jugular catheters at 15-min intervals for 6 h from 1000 to 1600 h each day. The 5-h exposure period began 1 h after the start of the intensive bleeding period. Characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns (mean, baseline, pulse frequency, pulse amplitude, and pulse duration were identified by PULSAR analyses. Results Mean cortisol concentrations decreased (P 0.10 between EB and ES cows. The decrease in mean cortisol concentrations in EB and ES cows from D 0 to D 2 was attributed to cows acclimatizing to intensive blood sampling and handling procedures. Consequently, analyses for characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns included D 2 through 8 only. Cortisol mean and baseline concentrations, and pulse amplitude did not differ (P > 0.10 between EB and ES cows. However, cortisol pulse duration tended to be longer (P = 0.09 and pulse frequency was lower (P = 0.05 in EB than ES cows. LH pulse frequency was greater (P = 0.06 in EB than ES cows. All other characteristics of LH concentration patterns did not differ (P > 0.10 between EB and ES cows

  1. Monoclonal Antibodies Against Fusicoccin with Binding Characteristics Similar to the Putative Fusicoccin Receptor of Higher Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Martin; Weiler, Elmar W.

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against fusicoccin. The toxin, linked to bovine serum albumin through its t-pentenyl moiety, served as immunogen. Hybridomas secreting anti-fusicoccin antibodies were screened by radioimmunoassay employing a novel radioactive derivative, [3H]-nor-fusicoccin-alcohol of high specific activity (1.5 × 1014Bq/mole). The two monoclonal antibodies reported here are of high apparent affinity for fusicoccin (0.71 × 10−9 molar and 1.85 × 10−9 molar). This is comparable to the apparent affinity of rabbit antiserum raised against the same type of conjugate (9.3 × 10−9 molar). A method for the single step purification of the monoclonal antibodies from ascites fluid is reported. A solid-phase immunoassay, using alkaline phosphatase as enzyme, exhibits a measuring range from 0.1 to 1.5 picomoles (about 70 picograms to 1 nanogram) of fusicoccin. The displacement of [3H]-nor-fusicoccin-alcohol from the antibodies by compounds structurally related to fusicoccin exhibits similar selectivity as a microsomal binding assay with the same tracer as radiolabeled probe. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16665786

  2. The Monitoring and Spatial-Temporal Evolution Characteristic Analysis for Land Subsidence in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Zhao, W.; Yu, J.

    2018-05-01

    At present the land subsidence has been the main geological disaster in the plain area of China, and became one of the most serious disaster that restrict the social and economic sustainable development, it also is an important content in the project of national geographic conditions monitoring. With the development of economy and society, Beijing as the capital of China has experienced significant population growth in the last few decades which led to over-exploitation of the ground water to meet the water demand of more than 20 million inhabitants, especially in the urban region with high population density. However, the rainfall and surface runoff can't satisfy the need of aquifer recharge that product the land subsidence. As China's political center and a metropolis, there are a lot of large constructions, underground traffic projects and complicated municipal pipeline network, and Beijing is also an important traffic hub for national railway and highway network, all of them would be threatened by the land subsidence disaster. In this article the author used twenty ENVISAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired in 2008 June-2010 August and ten TerraSAR images acquired in 2011 June-2012 September were processed with Small Baseline Subset SAR Interferometry (SBAS-InSAR) techniques, to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of land subsidence in the urban area of Beijing.

  3. Temporal and spatial characteristics of water resources in the Yeerqiang River Basin based on remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Ran, Q.; Y Bai, L.; Feng, J. Z.; Yang, Y. M.; Guo, M. Q.; Li, H. L.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, P.; Cao, D.

    2017-07-01

    Surface water resources play an important role in the economic and social developments as well as the protection of natural ecological environment in the Yeerqiang River Basin. Based upon the six stages of land use data from 1990 to 2015, the temporal and spatial variation of surface water resources in the Yerqiang River Basin have been explored and analyzed. The results show that: (1) From 1990 to 2015, the area of natural landscape initially increased and then decreased, while the area of artificial landscape increased, which caused a slight increase in the land use degree in the study area. (2) The dynamic changes of water and glacier areas are somewhat consistent over the past 25 years, with a sharp decline between 2005-2010 and a small increase in the remaining years. The dynamic changes in areas of non-glacial water were moderate, with decrease in area of 9 km2 from 1990 to 2015. The beach area decreased, and the other water sub-classes initially increased and then decreased. (3) Over the past 25 years, the proportion of unchanged water area is 73.22%, the transfer-out proportion is 19.19%, and the transfer-in proportion is 7.59%. Generally, water types transferred to grassland and unused land. Additionally, significant transfers were observed for the conversions between glaciers and woodland, conversions between canal, lake, reservoir and beach, and conversions between beach and farmland.

  4. Temporal characteristics of decisions in hospital encounters: a threshold for shared decision making? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofstad, Eirik H; Frich, Jan C; Schei, Edvin; Frankel, Richard M; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2014-11-01

    To identify and characterize physicians' statements that contained evidence of clinically relevant decisions in encounters with patients in different hospital settings. Qualitative analysis of 50 videotaped encounters from wards, the emergency room (ER) and outpatient clinics in a department of internal medicine at a Norwegian university hospital. Clinical decisions could be grouped in a temporal order: decisions which had already been made, and were brought into the encounter by the physician (preformed decisions), decisions made in the present (here-and-now decisions), and decisions prescribing future actions given a certain course of events (conditional decisions). Preformed decisions were a hallmark in the ward and conditional decisions a main feature of ER encounters. Clinical decisions related to a patient-physician encounter spanned a time frame exceeding the duration of the encounter. While a distribution of decisions over time and space fosters sharing and dilution of responsibility between providers, it makes the decision making process hard to access for patients. In order to plan when and how to involve patients in decisions, physicians need increased awareness of when clinical decisions are made, who usually makes them, and who should make them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THE MONITORING AND SPATIAL-TEMPORAL EVOLUTION CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS FOR LAND SUBSIDENCE IN BEIJING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available At present the land subsidence has been the main geological disaster in the plain area of China, and became one of the most serious disaster that restrict the social and economic sustainable development, it also is an important content in the project of national geographic conditions monitoring. With the development of economy and society, Beijing as the capital of China has experienced significant population growth in the last few decades which led to over-exploitation of the ground water to meet the water demand of more than 20 million inhabitants, especially in the urban region with high population density. However, the rainfall and surface runoff can’t satisfy the need of aquifer recharge that product the land subsidence. As China’s political center and a metropolis, there are a lot of large constructions, underground traffic projects and complicated municipal pipeline network, and Beijing is also an important traffic hub for national railway and highway network, all of them would be threatened by the land subsidence disaster. In this article the author used twenty ENVISAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images acquired in 2008 June–2010 August and ten TerraSAR images acquired in 2011 June–2012 September were processed with Small Baseline Subset SAR Interferometry (SBAS-InSAR techniques, to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of land subsidence in the urban area of Beijing.

  6. Temporal characteristics of the influence of punishment on perceptual decision making in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Helen; Biele, Guido; Heekeren, Hauke R; Philiastides, Marios G

    2013-02-27

    Perceptual decision making is the process by which information from sensory systems is combined and used to influence our behavior. In addition to the sensory input, this process can be affected by other factors, such as reward and punishment for correct and incorrect responses. To investigate the temporal dynamics of how monetary punishment influences perceptual decision making in humans, we collected electroencephalography (EEG) data during a perceptual categorization task whereby the punishment level for incorrect responses was parametrically manipulated across blocks of trials. Behaviorally, we observed improved accuracy for high relative to low punishment levels. Using multivariate linear discriminant analysis of the EEG, we identified multiple punishment-induced discriminating components with spatially distinct scalp topographies. Compared with components related to sensory evidence, components discriminating punishment levels appeared later in the trial, suggesting that punishment affects primarily late postsensory, decision-related processing. Crucially, the amplitude of these punishment components across participants was predictive of the size of the behavioral improvements induced by punishment. Finally, trial-by-trial changes in prestimulus oscillatory activity in the alpha and gamma bands were good predictors of the amplitude of these components. We discuss these findings in the context of increased motivation/attention, resulting from increases in punishment, which in turn yields improved decision-related processing.

  7. Temporal scaling law and intrinsic characteristic of laser induced damage on the dielectric coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Jiang, Youen; Wang, Chao; Wei, Hui; Zhang, Peng; Fan, Wei; Li, Xuechun

    2018-01-01

    High power laser is essential for optical manipulation and fabrication. When the laser travels through optics and to the target finally, irreversible damage on the dielectric coating is always accompanied without knowing the law and principle of laser induced damage. Here, an experimental study of laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) Fth of the dielectric coating under different pulse duration t is implemented. We observe that the temporal scaling law of square pulse for high-reflectivity (HR) coating and anti-reflectivity (AR) coating are Fth = 9.53t0.47 and Fth = 6.43t0.28 at 1064 nm, respectively. Moreover, the intrinsic LIDT of HR coating is 62.7 J/cm2 where the coating is just 100% damaged by gradually increasing the fluence densities of a 5ns-duration pulse, which is much higher than the actual LIDT of 18.6 J/cm2. Thus, a more robust and reliable high power laser system will be a reality, even working at very high fluence, if measures are taken to improve the actual LIDT to a considerable level near the intrinsic value.

  8. Analytical Analyses of Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Infiltrated Water for Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, V. A.; Ledder, G.; Kacimov, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Disposal of excessive runoff or treated sewage into wadis and ephemeral streams is a common practice and an important hydrological problem in many Middle Eastern countries. While chemical and biological properties of the injected treated wastewater may be different from those of the receiving aquifer, the density contrast between the two fluids can be small. Therefore, studies of the fluid interface for variable density fluids or water intrusion are not directly relevant in many Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) problems. Other factors, such as the transient nature of injection and lack of detailed aquifer information must be considered. The disposed water reaching the water table through the vadose zone creates groundwater mounds, deforms the original water table, and develops finite-size convex-concave lenses of treated water over receiving water. After cessation of infiltration, these mounds flatten, water levels become horizontal, and infiltrated water becomes fully embedded in the receiving aquifer. The shape of the treated water body is controlled by the aquifer parameters, the magnitude of ambient flow, and the duration, rate, and cyclicity of infiltration. In case of limited aquifer data, advective transport modeling offers the most appropriate tools for predicting plume shapes over time, but surprisingly little work has been done on this important 3D flow problem. We investigate the lateral and vertical spreading of infiltrated water combining techniques of spatial velocity analyses by Zlotnik and Ledder (1992, 1993) with particle tracking. This approach allows for evaluating the geometry of the plume and the protection zone, the flow development phases, and other temporal and spatial effects and results can be used in conditions of limited data availability and quality. (Funding was provided by the USAID, DAI Subcontract 1001624-12S-19745)

  9. Chandra X-ray Observations of Jovian Low-latitude Emissions: Morphological, Temporal, and Spectral Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Cravens, Thomas E.; Waiate J. Hunter, Jr.; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Ford, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Chandra observed X-rays from Jupiter during 24-26 February 2003 for about 40 hours with the ACIS-S and HRC-I instruments. The analysis of Jovian low-latitude "disk" Xray emissions are presented and compared with the high-latitude "auroral" emissions. We report the first Chandra ACIS-S measured X-ray spectrum (0.3-2 keV) of Jupiter's low-latitude disk The disk X-ray emission is harder and extends to higher energies than the auroral spectrum. The temporal variation in the Jovian disk X-rays is on an average consistent with those in the solar X-rays observed by GOES, and TIMED/SSE. Contrary to the auroral X-rays, the disk emissions are uniformly distributed over Jupiter; no indication of longitudinal dependence or correlation with surface magneh field strength is visible. Also, unlike the approx. 40 +/- 20 min periodic oscillations seen in the auroral X-ray emissions, the disk emissions do not show any periodic oscillations. The disk spectrum seems to be consistent with resonant and fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays by the Jovian upper atmosphere. Jupiter's disk is found to be about 50% dimmer in soft X-rays in February 2003 compared that in December 2000, which is consistent with the decrease in solar activity. No evidence of lightning-induced X-rays is seen in the Chandra X-ray data. The Jovian disk spectra observed with Chandra-ACIS is stronger than that observed with XMM-Newton two months later during April 28-29, 2003. The XMM-Newton Xray image of Jupiter shows evidence of limb darkening on the anti-sunward side as seen from Earth, as well as an asymmetry with respect to the subsolar point: suggesting a solar driven process.

  10. [Characteristics of temporal-spatial differentiation in landscape pattern vulnerability in Nansihu Lake wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jia Xin; Li, Xin Ju

    2018-02-01

    With remote sensing images from 1985, 2000 Lantsat 5 TM and 2015 Lantsat 8 OLI as data sources, we tried to select the suitable research scale and examine the temporal-spatial diffe-rentiation with such scale in the Nansihu Lake wetland by using landscape pattern vulnerability index constructed by sensitivity index and adaptability index, and combined with space statistics such as semivariogram and spatial autocorrelation. The results showed that 1 km × 1 km equidistant grid was the suitable research scale, which could eliminate the influence of spatial heterogeneity induced by random factors. From 1985 to 2015, the landscape pattern vulnerability in the Nansihu Lake wetland deteriorated gradually. The high-risk area of landscape pattern vulnerability dramatically expanded with time. The spatial heterogeneity of landscape pattern vulnerability increased, and the influence of non-structural factors on landscape pattern vulnerability strengthened. Spatial variability affected by spatial autocorrelation slightly weakened. Landscape pattern vulnerability had strong general spatial positive correlation, with the significant form of spatial agglomeration. The positive spatial autocorrelation continued to increase and the phenomenon of spatial concentration was more and more obvious over time. The local autocorrelation mainly based on high-high accumulation zone and low-low accumulation zone had stronger spatial autocorrelation among neighboring space units. The high-high accumulation areas showed the strongest level of significance, and the significant level of low-low accumulation zone increased with time. Natural factors, such as temperature and precipitation, affected water-level and landscape distribution, and thus changed the landscape patterns vulnerability of Nansihu Lake wetland. The dominant driver for the deterioration of landscape patterns vulnerability was human activities, including social economy activity and policy system.

  11. Temporal characteristics of radiologists’ and novices’ lesion detection in viewing medical images presented rapidly and sequentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichi Nakashima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although viewing multiple stacks of medical images presented on a display is a relatively new but useful medical task, little is known about this task. Particularly, it is unclear how radiologists search for lesions in this type of image reading. When viewing cluttered and dynamic displays, continuous motion itself does not capture attention. Thus, it is effective for the target detection that observers’ attention is captured by the onset signal of a suddenly appearing target among the continuously moving distractors (i.e., a passive viewing strategy. This can be applied to stack viewing tasks, because lesions often show up as transient signals in medical images which are sequentially presented simulating a dynamic and smoothly transforming image progression of organs. However, it is unclear whether observers can detect a target when the target appears at the beginning of a sequential presentation where the global apparent motion onset signal (i.e., signal of the initiation of the apparent motion by sequential presentation occurs. We investigated the ability of radiologists to detect lesions during such tasks by comparing the performances of radiologists and novices. Results show that overall performance of radiologists is better than novices. Furthermore, the temporal locations of lesions in CT image sequences, i.e., when a lesion appears in an image sequence, does not affect the performance of radiologists, whereas it does affect the performance of novices. Results indicate that novices have greater difficulty in detecting a lesion appearing early than late in the image sequence. We suggest that radiologists have other mechanisms to detect lesions in medical images with little attention which novices do not have. This ability is critically important when viewing rapid sequential presentations of multiple CT images, such as stack viewing tasks.

  12. Investigation of the temporal evolution and spatial variation of in-cylinder engine fuel spray characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Wenjin; Hung, David L.S.; Xu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • POD quadruple decomposition can reconstruct spray structure into different parts. • Different quadruple POD parts reveal different levels of spay field intensity. • Large scale structure part dominates the CCV of the entire spray. • In-cylinder flow field has the strongest effect on CCV of spray structure. - Abstract: The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is applied to analyze the pulsing spray characteristics of the fuel injection inside a four-valve optical spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. The instantaneous spray structures are decomposed into four parts, namely the mean structure, large scale structure, transition structure and small scale structure, respectively, by using POD quadruple decomposition. The cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) of the in-cylinder pulsing spray structure are examined separately based on the four parts. Analysis results indicate that the four parts have different characteristics, and each individual part represents a specific instantaneous spray structure. First, the mean part contains more than 90% of the total intensity of the spray field throughout the whole injection process. Moreover, the large scale structure part has the highest CCV level among all four parts, and it dominates the CCV of the entire spray field. The CCV of spray can be influenced by different engine operating conditions. In particular, the in-cylinder flow field has the strongest effect on the spray CCV. The varying motion of the in-cylinder flow field significantly influences the CCV of the large scale spray part, which in turn affects the CCV characteristics of the whole spray field

  13. The impact of temporal variability of excess sludge characteristics on the effects obtained in the process of its ultrasonic disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytła, Malwina; Zielewicz, Ewa

    2017-09-13

    This paper aimed to indicate the characteristics of excess sludge, which have the greatest impact on the effects obtained during its ultrasonic disintegration (UD). The direct and technological effects observed after sludge disintegration and anaerobic digestion (AD) depend on the factors affecting the quality of its matrix and simply on the parameters of a disintegrator. Sludge samples originate from a Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Gliwice, and were collected after mechanical thickening by a monthly period. This approach allowed to observe the temporal changes of sludge characteristics, in a continuous manner. To evaluate the achieved disintegration effects, the following indicators were used: degree of disintegration (DD COD ) and the author's indicators describing the direct and technological effects of UD (ID i , IT i , IT d ), based on the changes in the sludge characteristics. Disintegration was carried out by means of an ultrasonic device equipped with a thin sonotrode. AD was conducted under mesophilic conditions for 20 days. Statistical analysis confirmed that the most important parameters of sludge, which determine obtained effects, were total and volatile solids, capillary suction time, concentration of chemical oxygen demand and pH value. The investigations have also showed that the increase in sludge temperature during its disintegration has a significant impact on the magnitude of other effects obtained in the process.

  14. Epidemic characteristics and spatio-temporal patterns of scrub typhus during 2006-2013 in Tai'an, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; Yang, H-L; Bi, Z-W; Kou, Z-Q; Zhang, L-Y; Zhang, A-H; Yang, L; Zhao, Z-T

    2015-08-01

    Tai'an, a famous cultural tourist district, is a new endemic foci of scrub typhus in northern China. Frequent reports of travel-acquired cases and absence of effective vaccine indicated a significant health problem of scrub typhus in Tai'an. Thus, descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial-temporal scan statistics were used to describe the epidemic characteristics and detect the significant clusters of the high incidence of scrub typhus at the town level in Tai'an. Results of descriptive epidemiological analysis showed a total of 490 cases were reported in Tai'an with the annual average incidence ranging from 0·48 to 2·27/100 000 during 2006-2013. Females, the elderly and farmers are the high-risk groups. Monthly changes of scrub typhus cases indicated an obvious epidemic period in autumn. Spatial-temporal distribution analysis, showed significant clusters of high incidence mainly located in eastern and northern Tai'an. Our study suggests that more effective, targeted measures for local residents should be implemented in the eastern and northern areas of Tai'an in autumn. Meanwhile, it may prove beneficial for health policy makers to advise travellers to take preventive measures in order to minimize the risk of infection of scrub typhus in Tai'an.

  15. Temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of disturbance wave in a hypersonic boundary layer due to single-frequency entropy disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenqing; Tang, Xiaojun; Lv, Hongqing; Shi, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    By using a high-order accurate finite difference scheme, direct numerical simulation of hypersonic flow over an 8° half-wedge-angle blunt wedge under freestream single-frequency entropy disturbance is conducted; the generation and the temporal and spatial nonlinear evolution of boundary layer disturbance waves are investigated. Results show that, under the freestream single-frequency entropy disturbance, the entropy state of boundary layer is changed sharply and the disturbance waves within a certain frequency range are induced in the boundary layer. Furthermore, the amplitudes of disturbance waves in the period phase are larger than that in the response phase and ablation phase and the frequency range in the boundary layer in the period phase is narrower than that in these two phases. In addition, the mode competition, dominant mode transformation, and disturbance energy transfer exist among different modes both in temporal and in spatial evolution. The mode competition changes the characteristics of nonlinear evolution of the unstable waves in the boundary layer. The development of the most unstable mode along streamwise relies more on the motivation of disturbance waves in the upstream than that of other modes on this motivation.

  16. Social capital and temporal migrant characteristic in rural Indonesia - A case of Malang Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayitno, G.

    2017-06-01

    Public participation in the planning system is often implemented in order to encourage participatory planning. The result is the planning will be implemented softly and the society can managed and maintained continuity the project by themselves. Social capital as the concept of collective action, could increase the possibility the people solve their problem together. In this research we tried to implement the concept of social capital from the migration respondent in rural community activities. In rural area, migration is commonly used by rural inhabitants to ensure the survival of their families or to pursue economic mobility to supplement dwindling household resources. Households are generally selected and invest in a family member who is viewed to have the greatest potential for generating migrant earnings and sending remittances. The increase in the number of migrants has an impact on not only household members but also activities in communities. The labor movement might affect social capital in communities. In this paper, the relation between characteristics of migrants and the level of social capital is analyzed. Characteristics of migrants and households who send them are investigated thorough questioner survey data, which were conducted in Malang Regency, Indonesia.

  17. Study on the Characteristics and Impacts of the Spatial-temporal Urban Sprawl in Chinese Coastal Cities using Ocelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Lo Seen, D.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The urban population is expected to rise 67% in developing countries and 86% in developed regions by 2050. As the most populous country in the world, China has been experiencing a remarkable urbanization process since the initialization of the reform and opening-up policies in the late 1970s. During the past several decades, the coastal zone undergone the highest urbanization and motst rapid economic development in China. Accurately understanding the characteristics of the spatial-temporal urban sprawl is helpful for urban planning on optimal land use in the future. Ocelet is an interactive visual interpretation and dynamic coding method that has been designed for studying issues related to space, time and multiple scales that are raised when dynamic landscapes are modelled. Using Ocelet, we aim to study the characteristics of the spatial-temporal urban sprawl in thirteen major Chinese coastal cities and how urban sprawl affects the surrounding land changes. Landsat MSS/TM/ETM/OLI, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) and Chinese HJ-1A data are adopted to acquire urban built-up areas and their dynamic changes from 1979 to 2013. The results show that the urban built-up area increased gradually from 1979 to 2002 (~105 km²/yr), then accelerated about four times from 2002 to 2010 (~396 km²/yr) in thirteen major Chinese coastal cities. Although the expansion slowed down since 2010, the urban built-up area still increased at a fairly high rate (~210 km²/yr) from 2010 to 2013. The urban sprawl speed and pattern in each coastal city has also been analyzed, and has been grouped in three costal zones geographically. As a result of urban sprawl, large areas of arable land, rural settlements and forests were lost in these coastal cities. The lost non-urban land types and areas are different in the three costal zones and quantified respectively.

  18. Temporal characteristics and saturation effects of organic scintillators to low-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronko, J.G.; Chase, L.F.

    1979-01-01

    Rise time, short and long term decay characteristics and possible saturation effects of the fluorescence of NE102, NE111, and doped NE111 organic scintillators were investigated using low-energy X-rays from a laser produced plasma. The laser system consisted of a pulsed Nd:glass facility operating at a pulse width of 0.2 ns at levels up to 10 J. The NE111 samples consisted of a matrix of scintillators with benzophenone, acetophenone, and piperidine each at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10 percent. The rise time of NE102 was measured at (640+-50) ps while that of both the doped and undoped NE111 was 2 ns) of irradiance used in this investigation. (Auth.)

  19. Spatial and temporal characteristics of PM2.5 and source apportionment in Wuhan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hanzhou; Guo, Qianqian

    2018-02-01

    In order to study the pollution characteristics and sources of PM2.5, the PM2.5 in Wuhan atmosphere was sampled continuously. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were employed to measure Na, K, Mg, Ca, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Cd, Fe, V, Ti, Hg, Si, while water soluble ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO4 2-) as well as carbonaceous mass (EC and OC) were analyzed using ion chromatograph(IC) and carbon analyzer, respectively. The results show: (1) In 2014 and 2015, Wuhan PM2.5 values were 81.4μg/m3and 69.2μg/m3 respectively far exceed the national standard level 2, i.e. annual average 35 μg/m3 in China, annual average limit 10 μg/m3 by the World Health Organization, the annual limit of 15 μg/m3 in the United States. (2) Taking Huaqiao and Qihao as research points, the Spring Festival effect of PM2.5 in Wuhan city is analyzed. It shows that the concentration of PM2.5 in 2014 and 2015 is before Spring Festival> during Spring Festival> after Spring Festival. As a backdrop, during the Spring Festival, Qihao PM2.5 concentration than Huaqiao average low 20 μg/m3. (3) The results of positive factor matrix factorization (PMF) analysis show that PM2.5 in Summer in Wuhan mainly comes from the automobile source, soil dust source, biomass combustion, industrial source, secondary aerosol source, combustion coal source, the contribution rate is 37.7%. 25%, 16.4%, 8.1%, 6.5%,6.4%, respectively.

  20. Spatio-temporal dynamics and synoptic characteristics of wet and drought extremes in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkuzova, Dilyara; Khan, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Synoptical-statistical analysis has been conducted using SPI index calculated for 478 stations with records from 1966 through 2013. Different parameters of SPI frequency distribution and long-term tendencies were calculated as well as spatial characteristics indicating drought and wetness propagation. Results of analysis demonstrate that during last years there is a tendency of increasing of the intensity of draught and wetness extremes over Russia. There are fewer droughts in the northern regions. The drought propagation for the European territory of Russia is decreasing in June and August, and increasing in July. The situation is opposite for the wetness tendencies. For the Asian territory of Russia, the drought propagation is significantly increasing in July along with decreasing wetness trend. Synoptic conditions favorable for the formation of wet and drought extremes were identified by comparing synoptic charts with the spatial patterns of SPI. For synoptic analysis, episodes of extremely wet (6 episodes for the APR and 7 episodes for the EPR) and drought (6 episodes for the APR and 6 for the EPR) events were classified using A. Katz' typology of weather regimes. For European part of Russia, extreme DROUGHT events are linked to the weather type named "MIXED", for Asian part of Russia - the type "CENTRAL". For European part of Russia, extreme WET events associated with "CENTRAL" type. There is a displacement of the planetary frontal zone into southward direction approximately for 5-25 degrees relatively to normal climatological position during WET extreme events linked to «EASTERN» classification type. Intercomparison of SPI calculated on the base of NOAA NCEP CPC CAMS for the same period and with the resolution 0,5 degree, month precipitation data, Era-Interim Daily fields archive for the period 1979-2014 with the resolution 0,5 degree reanalysis and observational precipitation data was done. The results of comparative analysis has been discussed.

  1. Spatio-temporal characteristics of livestock and their effects on pollution in China based on geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Liu, Yongyan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen

    2016-07-01

    Livestock pollution, caused by rural household's scatter breeding mainly, is one of the major non-point sources. Different animal manures are abundant with different nutrients. Adopting the policies, management practices, and technologies related to livestock production based on livestock structure analysis can improve the efficiency on preventing pollution. Based on statistical data, the component structure of livestock was analyzed and corresponding effect on pollution was evaluated during the period of 1992-2012 in China. The results showed that the average annual growth rate (AAGR) of total China was 1.58 % during the 20 years. Larger amounts of livestock were concentrated in Southwest China and East China. In the view of component structure, each type of livestock had different distribution characteristics and constant increasing amounts were presented during the 20 years. Cattle took the largest proportion in almost every province, and the number of heads was over 40 % of all the livestock quantity for most provinces. Pollution of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) caused by livestock excretion in East and Southeast China was much more serious than that in other regions. However, the load of COD was far less than that of TN and TP. Cattle accounted most for the livestock pollution, and swine was the second one. The intensity characteristics of TN, TP, and COD were different from that of total pollution loads. The spatio-temporal characteristics of amounts and component structure of livestock were influenced by three kinds of factors (natural, economic, and social), such as climate, topography, modes of production, feed grain sector, related policies, and area of the study regions. Different livestock excrements had different impacts on environment. According to various livestock structures and economy conditions, different disposal methods should be adopted.

  2. Application of a regularized model inversion system (REGFLEC) to multi-temporal RapidEye imagery for retrieving vegetation characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-10-14

    Accurate retrieval of canopy biophysical and leaf biochemical constituents from space observations is critical to diagnosing the functioning and condition of vegetation canopies across spatio-temporal scales. Retrieved vegetation characteristics may serve as important inputs to precision farming applications and as constraints in spatially and temporally distributed model simulations of water and carbon exchange processes. However significant challenges remain in the translation of composite remote sensing signals into useful biochemical, physiological or structural quantities and treatment of confounding factors in spectrum-trait relations. Bands in the red-edge spectrum have particular potential for improving the robustness of retrieved vegetation properties. The development of observationally based vegetation retrieval capacities, effectively constrained by the enhanced information content afforded by bands in the red-edge, is a needed investment towards optimizing the benefit of current and future satellite sensor systems. In this study, a REGularized canopy reFLECtance model (REGFLEC) for joint leaf chlorophyll (Chll) and leaf area index (LAI) retrieval is extended to sensor systems with a band in the red-edge region for the first time. Application to time-series of 5 m resolution multi-spectral RapidEye data is demonstrated over an irrigated agricultural region in central Saudi Arabia, showcasing the value of satellite-derived crop information at this fine scale for precision management. Validation against in-situ measurements in fields of alfalfa, Rhodes grass, carrot and maize indicate improved accuracy of retrieved vegetation properties when exploiting red-edge information in the model inversion process. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  3. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007–2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , SO 2 , NO x , CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NO x and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. - Highlights: • A unit-based emission inventory of coal-fired industrial boilers is developed. • Temporal trend of historical period 2007–2013 and the future till 2030 is

  4. Spatio-temporal variability in hydro-chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Salimpur, Chittagong along the Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Talukder

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse seasonal characteristics of hydro-chemical parameters in the coastal zone are significantly related to aquaculture development. In this paper, general water quality condition derived from laboratory analysis from the coastal waters of Salimpur, Chittagong is presented. Samples were collected from onshore and offshore site of two adjacent coastal locations named as North Salimpur (experimental location and South Kattoli (control during a monsoon and a dry season spanning 2013-14. The spatio-temporal variability of studied parameters were found as air temperature 26.5-32.5 ˚C, water temperature 23-33 °C, pH 7.1-7.9, DO 4.29-7.11 mg/L, BOD 1.10-3.25 mg/L, salinity 1.6-21 ppt, EC 3.40-35.68 mS/cm, TDS 2.02-21.99 g/L, TSS 0.62-2.76 g/L, transparency 4.5-14 cm, precipitation 64-1992 mm, NO2-N 1.94-2.58 µg/L, PO4-P 0.45-1.84 µg/L, SiO3-Si 130.46-956.31 µg/L during investigation period. Average values of physicochemical parameters were found to be in compliance with standard guidelines. The ship breaking activities near experimental location possess negative impacts on local geomorphology, freshwater inputs, precipitation and aquatic environment as well. Moreover, wind driven forces, tidal action, wave characteristics and changes in monsoon pattern regulate the coastal processes. This research suggests the importance of regular monitoring to assess present status of water quality and future prospect of aquaculture in the Chittagong coastal zone.

  5. Temporal and spatial variation of the limnological characteristics of a lotic ecosystem in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amintas Nazareth Rossete

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize a stream in the area of Cerrado of Mato Grosso according to limnological characteristics during an annual cycle and to assess its relationship with the hydrological regime and anthropogenic changes of the adjacent land system. Two collection points in the stream were selected which passed through the Parque do Bacaba in addition to two other in areas of anthropogenic influence, mainly cattle-raising activity. Data collection was performed bimonthly in downstream order, from September 2001 to August 2002. At the sampling sites, the water temperature, depth, water transparency, dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, suspended material and total stream discharge were verified. The spatial variations were more obvious than the temporal changes. The values of water transparency, suspended material, electric conductivity and dissolved oxygen showed the greatest variations. The lowest concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the stream were recorded in the dry period. Among the sampling sites, only the pH did not present any significant differences, and the other variables differed significantly between at least two sampling sites. Between the dry and rainy periods, only the depth of the water column and total stream discharge differed significantly.

  6. Spectral lines and characteristic of temporal variations in photoionized plasmas induced with laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, I.; Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Jarocki, R.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2017-11-01

    Spectral lines for Kr/Ne/H2 photoionized plasma in the ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis) wavelength ranges have been created using a laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV source. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target irradiated with a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The laser pulses were focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Spectral lines from photoionization in neutral Kr/Ne/H2 and up to few charged states were observed. The intense emission lines were associated with the Kr transition lines. Experimental and theoretical investigations on intensity variations for some ionic lines are presented. A decrease in the intensity with the delay time between the laser pulse and the spectrum acquisition was revealed. Electron temperature and electron density in the photoionized plasma have been estimated from the characteristic emission lines. Temperature was obtained using Boltzmann plot method, assuming that the population density of atoms and ions are considered in a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Electron density was calculated from the Stark broadening profile. The temporal evaluation of the plasma and the way of optimizing the radiation intensity of LPP EUV sources is discussed.

  7. Spatial and temporal characteristics of V1 microstimulation during chronic implantation of a microelectrode array in a behaving macaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. S.; Parker, R. A.; House, P. A.; Bagley, E.; Wendelken, S.; Normann, R. A.; Greger, B.

    2012-12-01

    Objective. It has been hypothesized that a vision prosthesis capable of evoking useful visual percepts can be based upon electrically stimulating the primary visual cortex (V1) of a blind human subject via penetrating microelectrode arrays. As a continuation of earlier work, we examined several spatial and temporal characteristics of V1 microstimulation. Approach. An array of 100 penetrating microelectrodes was chronically implanted in V1 of a behaving macaque monkey. Microstimulation thresholds were measured using a two-alternative forced choice detection task. Relative locations of electrically-evoked percepts were measured using a memory saccade-to-target task. Main results. The principal finding was that two years after implantation we were able to evoke behavioural responses to electric stimulation across the spatial extent of the array using groups of contiguous electrodes. Consistent responses to stimulation were evoked at an average threshold current per electrode of 204 ± 49 µA (mean ± std) for groups of four electrodes and 91 ± 25 µA for groups of nine electrodes. Saccades to electrically-evoked percepts using groups of nine electrodes showed that the animal could discriminate spatially distinct percepts with groups having an average separation of 1.6 ± 0.3 mm (mean ± std) in cortex and 1.0° ± 0.2° in visual space. Significance. These results demonstrate chronic perceptual functionality and provide evidence for the feasibility of a cortically-based vision prosthesis for the blind using penetrating microelectrodes.

  8. Automated attribution of remotely-sensed ecological disturbances using spatial and temporal characteristics of common disturbance classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, L. A.; Ballantyne, A.

    2017-12-01

    Forest disturbances are critical components of ecosystems. Knowledge of their prevalence and impacts is necessary to accurately describe forest health and ecosystem services through time. While there are currently several methods available to identify and describe forest disturbances, especially those which occur in North America, the process remains inefficient and inaccessible in many parts of the world. Here, we introduce a preliminary approach to streamline and automate both the detection and attribution of forest disturbances. We use a combination of the Breaks for Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) detection algorithm to detect disturbances in combination with supervised and unsupervised classification algorithms to attribute the detections to disturbance classes. Both spatial and temporal disturbance characteristics are derived and utilized for the goal of automating the disturbance attribution process. The resulting preliminary algorithm is applied to up-scaled (100m) Landsat data for several different ecosystems in North America, with varying success. Our results indicate that supervised classification is more reliable than unsupervised classification, but that limited training data are required for a region. Future work will improve the algorithm through refining and validating at sites within North America before applying this approach globally.

  9. A method for the automated assessment of temporal characteristics of functional hemispheric lateralization by transcranial Doppler sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, M; Knecht, S; Lohmann, H; Ringelstein, E B

    2004-07-01

    Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) can guide and complement investigations based on functional magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography imaging by providing continuous information on cerebral perfusion changes correlated to cerebral activation. So far, however, the role of functional TCD has been limited by a lack of sensitivity. Here, the authors present an outline of a method that increases the potential of TCD to detect perfusion changes within a vascular territory. Sensitivity on the order of 1% can be achieved by transformation of Doppler envelope curves, which accounts for systemic quasi-periodic and irregular spontaneous blood flow modulations and artificial disturbances related to the recording. A statistical technique is introduced that allows the automatic detection of time periods of significant hemispheric lateralization in evoked flow studies. Furthermore, an index of laterality is defined quantifying the extent of hemispheric dominance during stimulus processing. The analysis technique described in this article has been successfully employed in recent examinations on vision, motor activation, language, language recovery, and other cognitive tasks. The novel functional TCD technique permits valid and reproducible assessments of the temporal characteristics of functional hemispheric lateralization.

  10. Early developmental and temporal characteristics of stress-induced secretion of pituitary-adrenal hormones in prenatally stressed rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kalin, N H

    1991-08-30

    Previous experiments revealed that 14-day-old prenatally stressed rats have significantly elevated concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone suggesting these animals have an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. In these studies, however, stress-induced hormone levels were determined only immediately after exposure to an acute stressor. Therefore, in the current study, we examined in postnatal days 7, 14 and 21 prenatally stressed rats the stress-induced time course of this pituitary-adrenal hormone elevation. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone were measured in the basal state and at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h after a 10-min exposure period to foot shocks administered in the context of social isolation. Results indicated that at all 3 ages, plasma ACTH in prenatally stressed rats was significantly elevated. Corticosterone concentrations were also significantly higher in prenatally stressed than in control rats, especially in day 14 rats. Analysis of stress-induced hormone fluctuations over time indicated that by 14 days of age, both prenatally stressed than in control and control rats had significant increases in plasma ACTH and corticosterone after exposure to stress. Furthermore, although prenatally stressed rats had significantly higher pituitary-adrenal hormone concentrations than control animals, the post-stress temporal patterns of decline in ACTH and corticosterone levels were similar between groups. Results suggest that throughout the preweaning period, prenatal stress produces an HPA system that functions in a manner similar to that of controls but at an increased level.

  11. Temporal dynamics of sand dune bidirectional reflectance characteristics for absolute radiometric calibration of optical remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Craig A.; Logie, Gordon S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Attempts to use pseudoinvariant calibration sites (PICS) for establishing absolute radiometric calibration of Earth observation (EO) satellites requires high-quality information about the nature of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the surfaces used for these calibrations. Past studies have shown that the PICS method is useful for evaluating the trend of sensors over time or for the intercalibration of sensors. The PICS method was not considered until recently for deriving absolute radiometric calibration. This paper presents BRDF data collected by a high-performance portable goniometer system to develop a temporal BRDF model for the Algodones Dunes in California. By sampling the BRDF of the sand surface at similar solar zenith angles to those normally encountered by EO satellites, additional information on the changing nature of the surface can improve models used to provide absolute radiometric correction. The results demonstrated that the BRDF of a reasonably simple sand surface was complex with changes in anisotropy taking place in response to changing solar zenith angles. For the majority of observation and illumination angles, the spectral reflectance anisotropy observed varied between 1% and 5% in patterns that repeat around solar noon.

  12. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Munayco, Cesar V; Gómez, Jorge; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A; Tamerius, James; Fiestas, Victor; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, Victor A

    2011-01-01

    Highly refined surveillance data on the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic are crucial to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of the pandemic. There is little information about the spatial-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza in South America. Here we provide a quantitative description of the age-specific morbidity pandemic patterns across administrative areas of Peru. We used daily cases of influenza-like-illness, tests for A/H1N1 influenza virus infections, and laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases reported to the epidemiological surveillance system of Peru's Ministry of Health from May 1 to December 31, 2009. We analyzed the geographic spread of the pandemic waves and their association with the winter school vacation period, demographic factors, and absolute humidity. We also estimated the reproduction number and quantified the association between the winter school vacation period and the age distribution of cases. The national pandemic curve revealed a bimodal winter pandemic wave, with the first peak limited to school age children in the Lima metropolitan area, and the second peak more geographically widespread. The reproduction number was estimated at 1.6-2.2 for the Lima metropolitan area and 1.3-1.5 in the rest of Peru. We found a significant association between the timing of the school vacation period and changes in the age distribution of cases, while earlier pandemic onset was correlated with large population size. By contrast there was no association between pandemic dynamics and absolute humidity. Our results indicate substantial spatial variation in pandemic patterns across Peru, with two pandemic waves of varying timing and impact by age and region. Moreover, the Peru data suggest a hierarchical transmission pattern of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 driven by large population centers. The higher reproduction number of the first pandemic wave could be explained by high contact rates among school-age children, the age group most affected

  13. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Munayco, Cesar V.; Gómez, Jorge; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A.; Tamerius, James; Fiestas, Victor; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, Victor A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly refined surveillance data on the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic are crucial to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of the pandemic. There is little information about the spatial-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza in South America. Here we provide a quantitative description of the age-specific morbidity pandemic patterns across administrative areas of Peru. Methods We used daily cases of influenza-like-illness, tests for A/H1N1 influenza virus infections, and laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases reported to the epidemiological surveillance system of Peru's Ministry of Health from May 1 to December 31, 2009. We analyzed the geographic spread of the pandemic waves and their association with the winter school vacation period, demographic factors, and absolute humidity. We also estimated the reproduction number and quantified the association between the winter school vacation period and the age distribution of cases. Results The national pandemic curve revealed a bimodal winter pandemic wave, with the first peak limited to school age children in the Lima metropolitan area, and the second peak more geographically widespread. The reproduction number was estimated at 1.6–2.2 for the Lima metropolitan area and 1.3–1.5 in the rest of Peru. We found a significant association between the timing of the school vacation period and changes in the age distribution of cases, while earlier pandemic onset was correlated with large population size. By contrast there was no association between pandemic dynamics and absolute humidity. Conclusions Our results indicate substantial spatial variation in pandemic patterns across Peru, with two pandemic waves of varying timing and impact by age and region. Moreover, the Peru data suggest a hierarchical transmission pattern of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 driven by large population centers. The higher reproduction number of the first pandemic wave could be explained by high contact rates among school

  14. Temporal characteristics of black carbon concentrations and its potential emission sources in a southern Taiwan industrial urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chi-Chi; Liu, Jyh-Jian; Hsieh, Cheng-Ju

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the temporal characteristics of black carbon and its potential emission sources, as well as the fractions of BC in PM2.5 levels in Kaohsiung urban area, which is an industrial city in southern Taiwan. Concentrations of BC and PM2.5 are monitored continuously from March 2006 to February 2010, using an aethalometer and a tapered element oscillating microbalance monitor. Additionally, the presence of organic compounds (or UV enhanced species) in particles at the sampling site is determined using the Delta-C (UVBC-BC) value. According to long-term measurement results, BC and PM2.5 concentrations are 3.33 and 34.0 μg m(-3), respectively, in the Kaohsiung urban area. The ratio of BC/PM2.5 is approximately 11 %. Low concentration of BC and PM2.5 in the summer of this study period is mostly likely owing to meteorological conditions that favored dispersion of local air pollutants. Nevertheless, BC concentrations peaked markedly during morning hours (7:00-11:00), likely owing to local traffic congestion. Measurement results suggest that BC is released from local traffic activities and emitted from industrial activities at this sampling site. Additionally, Delta-C values are significantly higher than zero during January-March and November-December periods in this industrial urban area, implying that UV enhanced species can be observed. At this sampling site, these UV enhanced species do not only originate from household activity and solid waste burning but also release from industrial activities. The elevated Delta-C values during nighttime (18:00-6:00) in the autumn and winter seasons are likely related to those UV enhanced species in the atmosphere, which can be condensed on particle surface under low temperature conditions. According to long-term measurement results, significantly positive Delta-C values can be observed under temperatures industrial parks and a coal-fired power plant.

  15. Quantitative assessment of similarity between randomly acquired characteristics on high quality exemplars and crime scene impressions via analysis of feature size and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richetelli, Nicole; Nobel, Madonna; Bodziak, William J; Speir, Jacqueline A

    2017-01-01

    Forensic footwear evidence can prove invaluable to the resolution of a criminal investigation. Naturally, the value of a comparison varies with the rarity of the evidence, which is a function of both manufactured as well as randomly acquired characteristics (RACs). When focused specifically on the latter of these two types of features, empirical evidence demonstrates high discriminating power for the differentiation of known match and known non-match samples when presented with exemplars of high quality and exhibiting a sufficient number of clear and complex RACs. However, given the dynamic and unpredictable nature of the media, substrate, and deposition process encountered during the commission of a crime, RACs on crime scene prints are expected to exhibit a large range of variability in terms of reproducibility, clarity, and quality. Although the pattern recognition skill of the expert examiner is adept at recognizing and evaluating this type of natural variation, there is little research to suggest that objective and numerical metrics can globally process this variation when presented with RACs from degraded crime scene quality prints. As such, the goal of this study was to mathematically compare the loss and similarity of RACs in high quality exemplars versus crime-scene-like quality impressions as a function of RAC shape, perimeter, area, and common source. Results indicate that the unpredictable conditions associated with crime scene print production promotes RAC loss that varies between 33% and 100% with an average of 85%, and that when the entire outsole is taken as a constellation of features (or a RAC map), 64% of the crime-scene-like impressions exhibited 10 or fewer RACs, resulting in a 0.72 probability of stochastic dominance. Given this, individual RAC description and correspondence were further explored using five simple, but objective, numerical metrics of similarity. Statistically significant differences in similarity scores for RAC shape and size

  16. [Temporal-spatial Variation and Source Identification of Hydro-chemical Characteristics in Shima River Catchment, Dongguan City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Chen, Jian-yao; Wang, Jiang; Ke, Zhi-ting; Zhu, Ai-ping; Xu, Kai

    2015-05-01

    Shima River catchment is of strategic importance to urban water supply in Dongjiang portable water source area. To investigate the hydro-chemical characteristics of Shima River, 39 river water samples were collected in February, June and November, 2012 to analyze the major ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4(2-) , HCO3-) and nutritive salts (PO4(3-), NO3- and NH4+) and to discuss the temporal-spatial variation and controlling factors of hydro-chemical composition, relative sources identification of varied ions was performed as well. The results showed that the hydro-chemical composition exhibited significant differences in different periods. The average concentration of total dissolved solid ( TDS) and nutritive salts in different investigated periods followed the decreasing order of November > February > June. The dominant anion of Shima River was HCO3-, and Na+ + K+ were the major cations in February and November which were changed to Ca2+ in June, the hydro-chemical types were determined as HCO(3-)-Na+ and HCO(3-)- Ca2+ in dry (February and November) and rainy (June) seasons, respectively. Spatial variations of concentration of nutritive salts were mainly affected by the discharges of N- and P-containing waste water resulted from human activities. The ratio between N and P of water sample (R7) was 18.4:1 which boosted the "crazy growth" of phytoplankton and led to severe eutrophication. According to Gibbs distribution of water samples, dissolution of hydatogenic rocks was the primary factor to control the major cations of river water in dry season, however, the hydro-chemical composition was significantly affected by the combination of hydatogenic and carbonate rocks in rainy season. The deposition of sea-salts contributed less to chemical substances in river. Correlation analysis revealed that K+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO4(2-) were partly derived from the application of fertilizer and the discharge of industrial effluent; Waste water of poultry feeding and

  17. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Encephalomyelitis disseminata’ (multiple sclerosis) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are both classified as diseases of the central nervous system by the World Health Organization. This review aims to compare the phenomenological and neuroimmune characteristics of MS with those of ME/CFS. Discussion There are remarkable phenomenological and neuroimmune overlaps between both disorders. Patients with ME/CFS and MS both experience severe levels of disabling fatigue and a worsening of symptoms following exercise and resort to energy conservation strategies in an attempt to meet the energy demands of day-to-day living. Debilitating autonomic symptoms, diminished cardiac responses to exercise, orthostatic intolerance and postural hypotension are experienced by patients with both illnesses. Both disorders show a relapsing-remitting or progressive course, while infections and psychosocial stress play a large part in worsening of fatigue symptoms. Activated immunoinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (O+NS) pathways and autoimmunity occur in both illnesses. The consequences of O+NS damage to self-epitopes is evidenced by the almost bewildering and almost identical array of autoantibodies formed against damaged epitopes seen in both illnesses. Mitochondrial dysfunctions, including lowered levels of ATP, decreased phosphocreatine synthesis and impaired oxidative phosphorylation, are heavily involved in the pathophysiology of both MS and ME/CFS. The findings produced by neuroimaging techniques are quite similar in both illnesses and show decreased cerebral blood flow, atrophy, gray matter reduction, white matter hyperintensities, increased cerebral lactate and choline signaling and lowered acetyl-aspartate levels. Summary This review shows that there are neuroimmune similarities between MS and ME/CFS. This further substantiates the view that ME/CFS is a neuroimmune illness and that patients with MS are immunologically primed to

  18. Temporal-spatial characteristics and source apportionment of PM2.5 as well as its associated chemical species in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiajia; Wang, Kun; Wang, Yong; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Chuanyong; Hao, Jiming; Liu, Huanjia; Hua, Shenbing; Tian, Hezhong

    2018-02-01

    PM 2.5 and its major chemical compositions were sampled and analyzed in January, April, July and October of 2014 at Beijing (BJ), Tianjin (TJ), Langfang (LF) and Baoding (BD) in order to probe the temporal and spatial characteristics as well as source apportionment of PM 2.5 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. The results showed that PM 2.5 pollution was severe in the BTH region. The average annual concentrations of PM 2.5 at four sampling sites were in the range of 126-180 μg/m 3 , with more than 95% of sampling days exceeding 35 μg/m 3 , the limit ceiling of average annual concentration of PM 2.5 regulated in the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB3095-2012). Additionally, concentrations of PM 2.5 and its major chemical species were seasonally dependent and demonstrated spatially similar variation characteristics in the BTH region. Concentration of toxic heavy metals, such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn, were higher in winter and autumn. Secondary inorganic ions (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and NH 4 + ) were the three-major water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) of PM 2.5 and their mass ratios to PM 2.5 were higher in summer and autumn. The organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were lower in spring and summer than in autumn and winter. Five factors were selected in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model analysis, and the results showed that PM 2.5 pollution was dominated by vehicle emissions in Beijing, combustion emissions including coal burning and biomass combustion in Langfang and Baoding, and soil and construction dust emissions in Tianjin, respectively. The air mass that were derived from the south and southeast local areas around BTH regions reflected the features of short-distant and small-scale air transport. Shandong, Henan, and Hebei were identified the major potential sources-areas of secondary aerosol emissions to PM 2.5 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of sampling rate on interpretation of the temporal characteristics of radiative and convective heating in wildland flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Frankman; Brent W. Webb; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; Michael Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Time-resolved radiative and convective heating measurements were collected on a prescribed burn in coniferous fuels at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz. Evaluation of the data in the time and frequency domain indicate that this sampling rate was sufficient to capture the temporal fluctuations of radiative and convective heating. The convective heating signal contained...

  20. Characteristics of juvenile survivors reveal spatio-temporal differences in early life stage survival of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Böttcher, U.

    2014-01-01

    with previous modeling studies on the survival chances of early-stage larvae and with general spatio-temporal patterns of larval prey availability suggests that differences in survival are related to food availability during the early larval stage. Results are discussed in relation to the recruitment process...

  1. Temporal trends and characteristics of clinical trials for which only one racial or ethnic group is eligible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Egleston

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: In selected fields, there has been a modest temporal increase in single race/ethnicity inclusion requirements. Some studies may not fall under regulatory purview and hence may be less likely to include diverse samples. Conversely, some eligibility requirements may be related to health disparities research. Future work should examine whether targeted enrollment criteria facilitates development of personalized medicine or reduces trial access.

  2. Pre- and post-bronchodilator airway obstruction are associated with similar clinical characteristics but different prognosis – report from a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawalha S

    2017-04-01

    airway obstruction. When COPD was divided into Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD stages, GOLD 2 and 3–4 had an increased risk for death when compared to the nonobstructive group, also when adjusted for common confounders and comorbidities such as heart disease, diabetes, and anxiety/depression.Conclusion: Even though subjects with COPD and pre- not post-BD obstruction had fairly similar presentation of clinical characteristics, only those with COPD, specifically GOLD stage ≥2, had increased risk for death when compared with nonobstructive subjects. Keywords: epidemiology, spirometry, chronic airflow obstructions, mortality

  3. Temporal and dynamic characteristics of walking in preschool children with different level of balance: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kubisová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD is impairment in motor coordination which can be manifested also by poor balance. Some childrenwith DCD can be more dependent on visual feedback to control their movements. This fact can result in disruption of predictive control, recognition of movement errors and correcting them.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare foot pressure distribution and basic temporal and spatial variables during gait in the children with a risk of developmental defi ciency in balance and without motor diffi culties.METHODS: According to the results of the Test MABC-2 (Movement Assessment Battery for Children subjects were divided into two groups – with the risk of developmental defi ciency in balance (rBAL (n = 4, age 4.0 ± 1.2 years, weight 18.3 ± 3.5 kg, height 102.9 ± 10.6 cm and without motor diffi culties (KS (n = 9, age 4.4 ± 1.2, weight 17.9 ± 2.9 kg, height 106.4 ± 7.9 cm. Distribution of plantar pressure was detected by the Footscansystem (RSscan International, Olen, Belgium. Basic time and pressure variables were assessed in these areas: lateral and medial heel, 1st–5th metatarsal, midfoot and big toe and other toes. The gait was performed at self-selected speed, barefoot, three trials per child. Diff erences between groups were assessed by eff ect size – Cohen’s d.RESULTS: The medium eff ect was reported for pressure impulse in lateral heel, pressure peak in medial heel, pressure peak, pressure impulse and contact duration of 1st metatarsal, contact duration in 4th metatarsal and pressurepeak in area of 2nd–5th toe. Except for the pressure peak in the fi rst metatarsals, all of the mentioned parameters were higher in the KS group. Generally, the foot pressure and foot contact in the rBAL group was smaller and shorter, so their steps were faster and diff erent from a normal gait performance. Large eff ect sizes were found for contact duration in the 1st metatarsal and pressure

  4. GPS or travel diary: Comparing spatial and temporal characteristics of visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Y Scully

    Full Text Available To assess differences between GPS and self-reported measures of location, we examined visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets using a spatiotemporal framework. Data came from 446 participants who responded to a survey, filled out travel diaries of places visited, and wore a GPS receiver for seven consecutive days. Provided by Public Health Seattle King County, addresses from food permit data were matched to King County tax assessor parcels in a GIS. A three-step process was used to verify travel-diary reported visits using GPS records: (1 GPS records were temporally matched if their timestamps were within the time window created by the arrival and departure times reported in the travel diary; (2 the temporally matched GPS records were then spatially matched if they were located in a food establishment parcel of the same type reported in the diary; (3 the travel diary visit was then GPS-sensed if the name of food establishment in the parcel matched the one reported in the travel diary. To account for errors in reporting arrival and departure times, GPS records were temporally matched to three time windows: the exact time, +/- 10 minutes, and +/- 30 minutes. One third of the participants reported 273 visits to fast food restaurants; 88% reported 1,102 visits to supermarkets. Of these, 77.3 percent of the fast food and 78.6 percent supermarket visits were GPS-sensed using the +/-10-minute time window. At this time window, the mean travel-diary reported fast food visit duration was 14.5 minutes (SD 20.2, 1.7 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. For supermarkets, the reported visit duration was 23.7 minutes (SD 18.9, 3.4 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. Travel diaries provide reasonably accurate information on the locations and brand names of fast food restaurants and supermarkets participants report visiting.

  5. GPS or travel diary: Comparing spatial and temporal characteristics of visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Jason Y; Vernez Moudon, Anne; Hurvitz, Philip M; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    To assess differences between GPS and self-reported measures of location, we examined visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets using a spatiotemporal framework. Data came from 446 participants who responded to a survey, filled out travel diaries of places visited, and wore a GPS receiver for seven consecutive days. Provided by Public Health Seattle King County, addresses from food permit data were matched to King County tax assessor parcels in a GIS. A three-step process was used to verify travel-diary reported visits using GPS records: (1) GPS records were temporally matched if their timestamps were within the time window created by the arrival and departure times reported in the travel diary; (2) the temporally matched GPS records were then spatially matched if they were located in a food establishment parcel of the same type reported in the diary; (3) the travel diary visit was then GPS-sensed if the name of food establishment in the parcel matched the one reported in the travel diary. To account for errors in reporting arrival and departure times, GPS records were temporally matched to three time windows: the exact time, +/- 10 minutes, and +/- 30 minutes. One third of the participants reported 273 visits to fast food restaurants; 88% reported 1,102 visits to supermarkets. Of these, 77.3 percent of the fast food and 78.6 percent supermarket visits were GPS-sensed using the +/-10-minute time window. At this time window, the mean travel-diary reported fast food visit duration was 14.5 minutes (SD 20.2), 1.7 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. For supermarkets, the reported visit duration was 23.7 minutes (SD 18.9), 3.4 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. Travel diaries provide reasonably accurate information on the locations and brand names of fast food restaurants and supermarkets participants report visiting.

  6. Evolution of technology convergence networks in Korea: Characteristics of temporal changes in R&D according to institution type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Seongkyoon

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal changes in development of technology convergence networks by institution type, i.e., public research institute (PRI), university and industry. Using the co-classification of technological domains of patents, we identified technology convergence of Korean patents, which were filed at Korea Intellectual Properties Office (KIPO) from 1997 to 2011. We conducted a network analysis at the technology level to search for the key technology fields and frequent instances of technology convergence. The results show that technology convergence networks have grown significantly in the recent period regardless of the institution type. While industries started to conspicuously engage in technology convergence in the late 1990s, universities or PRIs did not do so until the mid-2000s. This discrepancy in the phase of technology convergence is attributed to the temporal difference in R&D stage (e.g., basic research and commercial product development). Our findings imply that corporal and governmental R&D management decision on promising technology fields will be more effective if the decision makers carefully consider the type of R&D entity in analyzing technological landscapes. PMID:29420574

  7. Evolution of technology convergence networks in Korea: Characteristics of temporal changes in R&D according to institution type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Seongkyoon; Jung, Jung-Kyu

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal changes in development of technology convergence networks by institution type, i.e., public research institute (PRI), university and industry. Using the co-classification of technological domains of patents, we identified technology convergence of Korean patents, which were filed at Korea Intellectual Properties Office (KIPO) from 1997 to 2011. We conducted a network analysis at the technology level to search for the key technology fields and frequent instances of technology convergence. The results show that technology convergence networks have grown significantly in the recent period regardless of the institution type. While industries started to conspicuously engage in technology convergence in the late 1990s, universities or PRIs did not do so until the mid-2000s. This discrepancy in the phase of technology convergence is attributed to the temporal difference in R&D stage (e.g., basic research and commercial product development). Our findings imply that corporal and governmental R&D management decision on promising technology fields will be more effective if the decision makers carefully consider the type of R&D entity in analyzing technological landscapes.

  8. Temporal lobe injury after re-irradiation of locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma using intensity modulated radiotherapy: clinical characteristics and prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Lu, Taixiang; Zhao, Chong; Shen, Jingxian; Tian, Yunming; Guan, Ying; Zeng, Lei; Xiao, Weiwei; Huang, Shaomin; Han, Fei

    2014-09-01

    Temporal lobe injury (TLI) is a debilitating complication after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), especially in patients who suffer treatment relapses and receive re-irradiation. We explored the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of TLI in locally recurrent NPC (rNPC) patients after re-irradiation using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). A total of 454 temporal lobes (TLs) from 227 locally rNPC patients were reviewed. The clinical characteristics of TLI were analyzed. In the two radiotherapy courses, the equivalent dose in 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2) for the TLs was recalculated to facilitate comparison of the individual data. The median follow-up time was 31 (range, 3-127) months. After re-irradiation using IMRT, 31.3 % (71/227) of patients developed TLI. The median latency of TLI was 15 (range, 4-100) months. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that the interval time (IT) between the two courses of radiotherapy and the summation of the maximum doses of the two radiotherapy courses (EQD2 - ∑max) were independent factors influencing TLI. The 5-year incidence of TLI for an IT ≤26 or >26 months was 35.9 and 53.7 % respectively (p = 0.024). The median maximum doses delivered to the injured TLs were significantly higher than was the case for the uninjured TLs after two courses of radiotherapy (135.3 and 129.8 Gy, respectively: p 2-year interval was found to be relatively safe.

  9. Research Analysis of temporal and spatial characteristics of eco-environmental vulnerability in the Xianshui River basin based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kun; Bai, Lin; Li, Xiao Ju; Wang, Xiao

    2018-05-01

    The Xianshui River basin is an important ecological barrier and water conservation area of Qinghai-Tibet plateau. To master the spatial and temporal differentiation of ecological environment is beneficial to the realization of the protection of regional ecological environment and the development of restoration measures. In this paper, the evaluation index system of ecological environment vulnerability was constructed from topography, climate, soil, land use and social economy. In this study, GIS and information entropy theory are combined to complete the analysis of spatial and temporal variation of vulnerability of ecological environment vulnerability in 2000-2015 years, and the main results are as follows: The ecological vulnerability of the watershed is characterized by the obvious vertical distribution, which is characterized by the gradual increase of the vulnerability of the south to the north. The evaluation results were classified as potential, micro, mild, moderate and severe, with the proportion of each grade being Micro > mild > potential > moderate > severity. The proportion of light and below accounts for more than 80% of the whole area, and the whole basin is at a medium vulnerable level. The change of overall trend indicates that the overall ecological environment of the basin has improved obviously in 15 years. The driving force factor analysis shows that the national environmental protection and restoration project is playing a significant role and plays a major driving role in the obvious improvement of the ecological environment in the basin area. However, there are still a few parts of the region that are deteriorating. This is mainly due to the special natural environment and over exploitation of hydropower resources.

  10. Error diagrams and temporal correlations in a fracture model with characteristic and power-law distributed avalanches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Y.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; Pacheco, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    to the heterogeneity of the system. In one regime, a characteristic event is observed while for the second regime a power-law spectrum of avalanches is obtained reminiscent of self-organized criticality. We find that both regimes are different when predicting large avalanches and that, in the second regime...

  11. [Spatial and temporal clustering characteristics of typhoid and paratyphoid fever and its change pattern in 3 provinces in southwestern China, 2001-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L X; Yang, B; Yan, M Y; Tang, Y Q; Liu, Z C; Wang, R Q; Li, S; Ma, L; Kan, B

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To analyze the spatial and temporal clustering characteristics of typhoid and paratyphoid fever and its change pattern in Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi provinces in southwestern China in recent years. Methods: The incidence data of typhoid and paratyphoid fever cases at county level in 3 provinces during 2001-2012 were collected from China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention and analyzed by the methods of descriptive epidemiology and geographic informatics. And the map showing the spatial and temporal clustering characters of typhoid and paratyphoid fever cases in three provinces was drawn. SaTScan statistics was used to identify the typhoid and paratyphoid fever clustering areas of three provinces in each year from 2001 to 2012. Results: During the study period, the reported cases of typhoid and paratyphoid fever declined with year. The reported incidence decreased from 30.15 per 100 000 in 2001 to 10.83 per 100 000 in 2006(annual incidence 21.12 per 100 000); while during 2007-2012, the incidence became stable, ranging from 4.75 per 100 000 to 6.83 per 100 000 (annual incidence 5.73 per 100 000). The seasonal variation of the incidence was consistent in three provinces, with majority of cases occurred in summer and autumn. The spatial and temporal clustering of typhoid and paratyphoid fever was demonstrated by the incidence map. Most high-incidence counties were located in a zonal area extending from Yuxi of Yunnan to Guiyang of Guizhou, but were concentrated in Guilin in Guangxi. Temporal and spatial scan statistics identified the positional shifting of class Ⅰ clustering area from Guizhou to Yunnan. Class Ⅰ clustering area was located around the central and western areas (Zunyi and Anshun) of Guizhou during 2001-2003, and moved to the central area of Yunnan during 2004-2012. Conclusion: Spatial and temporal clustering of typhoid and paratyphoid fever existed in the endemic areas of southwestern China, and the clustering area

  12. A preliminary spatial-temporal study of some soil characteristics in the calcareous massif of Sicó, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria Odete; Neves, Maria Manuela

    2016-04-18

    The mountainous massif of Sicó, in the centre of Portugal, is an extensive area composed of calcareous Jurassic formations. Hillside calcareous soils, with high pH, present chemical restrictions to support plant growth and are subjected to important erosion processes leading to their degradation if not protected by vegetation. In a first year of study some soil physicochemical characteristics have been measured in some geo-referenced locations of a larger design experiment and an exploratory spatial analysis has been performed. The objective of this study was to present some suggestions in order to give sustainable phosphorus fertiliser recommendations aiming to establish pastures in these soils and thus support traditional livestock activity. Ten years apart, those soil characteristics have been measured again in the same locations and comparisions have been made. The objective was to understand the variability of the soil properties under study in order to better adequate the fertiliser soil management regarding the area restoration.

  13. Temporal measurement and analysis of high-resolution spectral signatures of plants and relationships to biophysical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Rebbman, Jan; Hall, Carlton; Provancha, Mark; Vieglais, David

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of temporal reflectance signatures as a function of growing season for sand live oak (Quercus geminata), myrtle oak (Q. myrtifolia, and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) were collected during a two year study period. Canopy level spectral reflectance signatures, as a function of 252 channels between 368 and 1115 nm, were collected using near nadir viewing geometry and a consistent sun illumination angle. Leaf level reflectance measurements were made in the laboratory using a halogen light source and an environmental optics chamber with a barium sulfate reflectance coating. Spectral measurements were related to several biophysical measurements utilizing optimal passive ambient correlation spectroscopy (OPACS) technique. Biophysical parameters included percent moisture, water potential (MPa), total chlorophyll, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. Quantitative data processing techniques were used to determine optimal bands based on the utilization of a second order derivative or inflection estimator. An optical cleanup procedure was then employed that computes the double inflection ratio (DIR) spectra for all possible three band combinations normalized to the previously computed optimal bands. These results demonstrate a unique approach to the analysis of high spectral resolution reflectance signatures for estimation of several biophysical measures of plants at the leaf and canopy level from optimally selected bands or bandwidths.

  14. Temporal-spatial characteristics of severe drought events in Southwest China and their relationships to teleconnection indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P., III; Wu, C.; Hao, Y.; Xu, K.

    2017-12-01

    In the process of global warming, the frequency and intensity of a series of climate events (such as, precipitation, flood disaster, climate arid) are also being changed. Even in the today of advanced science and technology, the occurrence and severity of drought in China is still devastating impact on social and economic development. We studied the spatial and temporal variability of drought in southwestern China China and its relationships to teleconnection indices. We used the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) to investigate the variation in drought in southwestern China between 1961 and 2012 using the Mann-Kendall (MK), continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and the rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) methods. Additionally, We analyzed the relationships between the time variability of significant patterns and teleconnection indices. The PDSI shows that there is a trend of turning dry in west Tibet; while it is remarkably drying in junction of Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing provinces, and the drought in Spring is more severe than in autumn, with a changing oscillation period of 2-7a. It's found the drought strength reducing before rising without a obvious turning point. Also, the drought frequency staggered in spatial distribution, and a larger inter-annual difference. AO and SS are the most important factors among all the drought influence factors, the others differ from the importance.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Historical Oil and Gas Wells in Pennsylvania: Implications for New Shale Gas Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmore, Robert M; Sams, James I; Glosser, Deborah; Carter, Kristin M; Bain, Daniel J

    2015-10-20

    Recent large-scale development of oil and gas from low-permeability unconventional formations (e.g., shales, tight sands, and coal seams) has raised concern about potential environmental impacts. If left improperly sealed, legacy oil and gas wells colocated with that new development represent a potential pathway for unwanted migration of fluids (brine, drilling and stimulation fluids, oil, and gas). Uncertainty in the number, location, and abandonment state of legacy wells hinders environmental assessment of exploration and production activity. The objective of this study is to apply publicly available information on Pennsylvania oil and gas wells to better understand their potential to serve as pathways for unwanted fluid migration. This study presents a synthesis of historical reports and digital well records to provide insights into spatial and temporal trends in oil and gas development. Areas with a higher density of wells abandoned prior to the mid-20th century, when more modern well-sealing requirements took effect in Pennsylvania, and areas where conventional oil and gas production penetrated to or through intervals that may be affected by new Marcellus shale development are identified. This information may help to address questions of environmental risk related to new extraction activities.

  16. Characteristics of multi-organ lymphangiectasia resulting from temporal deletion of calcitonin receptor-like receptor in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Hoopes

    Full Text Available Adrenomedullin (AM and its receptor complexes, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (Calcrl and receptor activity modifying protein 2/3, are highly expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells and are required for embryonic lymphatic development. To determine the role of Calcrl in adulthood, we used an inducible Cre-loxP system to temporally and ubiquitously delete Calcrl in adult mice. Following tamoxifen injection, Calcrl(fl/fl/CAGGCre-ER™ mice rapidly developed corneal edema and inflammation that was preceded by and persistently associated with dilated corneoscleral lymphatics. Lacteals and submucosal lymphatic capillaries of the intestine were also dilated, while mesenteric collecting lymphatics failed to properly transport chyle after an acute Western Diet, culminating in chronic failure of Calcrl(fl/fl/CAGGCre-ER™ mice to gain weight. Dermal lymphatic capillaries were also dilated and chronic edema challenge confirmed significant and prolonged dermal lymphatic insufficiency. In vivo and in vitro imaging of lymphatics with either genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of AM signaling revealed markedly disorganized lymphatic junctional proteins ZO-1 and VE-cadherin. The maintenance of AM signaling during adulthood is required for preserving normal lymphatic permeability and function. Collectively, these studies reveal a spectrum of lymphatic defects in adult Calcrl(fl/fl/CAGGCre-ER™ mice that closely recapitulate the clinical symptoms of patients with corneal, intestinal and peripheral lymphangiectasia.

  17. Characteristics of multi-organ lymphangiectasia resulting from temporal deletion of calcitonin receptor-like receptor in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Samantha L; Willcockson, Helen H; Caron, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) and its receptor complexes, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (Calcrl) and receptor activity modifying protein 2/3, are highly expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells and are required for embryonic lymphatic development. To determine the role of Calcrl in adulthood, we used an inducible Cre-loxP system to temporally and ubiquitously delete Calcrl in adult mice. Following tamoxifen injection, Calcrl(fl/fl)/CAGGCre-ER™ mice rapidly developed corneal edema and inflammation that was preceded by and persistently associated with dilated corneoscleral lymphatics. Lacteals and submucosal lymphatic capillaries of the intestine were also dilated, while mesenteric collecting lymphatics failed to properly transport chyle after an acute Western Diet, culminating in chronic failure of Calcrl(fl/fl)/CAGGCre-ER™ mice to gain weight. Dermal lymphatic capillaries were also dilated and chronic edema challenge confirmed significant and prolonged dermal lymphatic insufficiency. In vivo and in vitro imaging of lymphatics with either genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of AM signaling revealed markedly disorganized lymphatic junctional proteins ZO-1 and VE-cadherin. The maintenance of AM signaling during adulthood is required for preserving normal lymphatic permeability and function. Collectively, these studies reveal a spectrum of lymphatic defects in adult Calcrl(fl/fl)/CAGGCre-ER™ mice that closely recapitulate the clinical symptoms of patients with corneal, intestinal and peripheral lymphangiectasia.

  18. Spatio-temporal characteristics of large scale motions in a turbulent boundary layer from direct wall shear stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and fluctuating wall shear stress experiments were performed on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL) under zero pressure gradient conditions. The fluctuating wall shear stress was measured using a microelectromechanical 1mm × 1mm floating element capacitive shear stress sensor (CSSS) developed at the University of Florida. The experiments elucidated the imprint of the organized motions in a TBL on the wall shear stress through its direct measurement. Spatial autocorrelation of the streamwise velocity from the PIV snapshots revealed large scale motions that scale on the order of boundary layer thickness. However, the captured inclination angle was lower than that determined using the classic method by means of wall shear stress and hot-wire anemometry (HWA) temporal cross-correlations and a frozen field hypothesis using a convection velocity. The current study suggests the large size of these motions begins to degrade the applicability of the frozen field hypothesis for the time resolved HWA experiments. The simultaneous PIV and CSSS measurements are also used for spatial reconstruction of the velocity field during conditionally sampled intense wall shear stress events. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.

  19. Temporal Characteristics of High-Frequency Lower-Limb Oscillation during Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don A. Yungher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cardinal feature of freezing of gait (FOG is high frequency (3–8 Hz oscillation of the legs, and this study aimed to quantify the temporal pattern of lower-body motion prior to and during FOG. Acceleration data was obtained from sensors attached to the back, thighs, shanks, and feet in 14 Parkinson’s disease patients performing timed-up-and-go tasks, and clinical assessment of FOG was performed by two experienced raters from video. A total of 23 isolated FOG events, defined as occurring at least 5 s after gait initiation and with no preceding FOG, were identified from the clinical ratings. The corresponding accelerometer records were analyzed within a 4 s window centered at the clinical onset of freezing. FOG-related high-frequency oscillation (an increase in power in the 3–8 Hz band >3 SD from baseline followed a distal to proximal onset pattern, appearing at the feet, shanks, thighs, and then back over a period of 250 ms. Peak power tended to decrease as the focus of oscillation moved from feet to back. There was a consistent delay (mean 872 ms between the onset of high frequency oscillation at the feet and clinical onset of FOG. We infer that FOG is characterized by high frequency oscillation at the feet, which progresses proximally and is mechanically damped at the torso.

  20. Spatio-temporal variational characteristics analysis of heavy metals pollution in water of the typical northern rivers, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Yu, Sen

    2018-04-01

    The rapid urbanization and industrialization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, according to the data obtained from the monitoring stations in the Songhua River basin, the multivariate statistical analysis methods are applied to the hydrological data of the Songhua River basin in order to examine the relation between human activities and the spatio-temporal change of heavy metals (Pb and Cu) in water. By comparing the concentrations at different flow periods, the minimum Pb concentrations are found to have occurred most frequently in low flow periods while the maximum values mostly appeared in average flow periods. Moreover, the minimum Cu concentration in the water frequently occurred in high flow periods. The results show there are low Pb and Cu concentrations in upstream and downstream sections and high concentrations in mid-stream sections, and high concentrations are most frequently measured in the sections of Ashihe' downstream and estuary. Moreover, we have predicted the future (during 2018-2025) trend of the change for the heavy metals pollution in the rivers. The results demonstrated intense human activities are the most important factor causing jump features of typical heavy metal pollution in the different periods for different sections of this study area. The research would provide decision-making and planning for the Songhua River basin during the period of China's 13th Five-Year Plan.

  1. A cross-sectional MRI study of brain regional atrophy and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Applying a cross-sectional design, we set out to further characterize the significance of extrahippocampal brain atrophy in a large sample of \\'sporadic\\' mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS). By evaluating the influence of epilepsy chronicity on structural atrophy, this work represents an important step towards the characterization of MRI-based volumetric measurements as genetic endophenotypes for this condition. METHODS: Using an automated brain segmentation technique, MRI-based volume measurements of several brain regions were compared between 75 patients with \\'sporadic\\' MTLE+HS and 50 healthy controls. Applying linear regression models, we examined the relationship between structural atrophy and important clinical features of MTLE+HS, including disease duration, lifetime number of partial and generalized seizures, and history of initial precipitating insults (IPIs). RESULTS: Significant volume loss was detected in ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebral white matter (WM). In addition, contralateral hippocampal and bilateral cerebellar grey matter (GM) volume loss was observed in left MTLE+HS patients. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and cerebral WM volume loss correlated with duration of epilepsy. This correlation was stronger in patients with prior IPIs history. Further, cerebral WM, cerebellar GM, and contralateral hippocampal volume loss correlated with lifetime number of generalized seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that multiple brain regions beyond the hippocampus are involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE+HS. IPIs are an important factor influencing the rate of regional atrophy but our results also support a role for processes related to epilepsy chronicity. The consequence of epilepsy chronicity on candidate brain regions has important implications on their application as genetic endophenotypes.

  2. Spatial and temporal characteristics of heat waves over Central Europe in an ensemble of regional climate model simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 9 (2015), s. 2351-2366 ISSN 0930-7575 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/2265 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 505539 - ENSEMBLES Program:FP6 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : heat waves * regional climate models * land–atmosphere coupling * spatial characteristics * interannual variability * ENSEMBLES project Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 4.708, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00382-015-2475-7

  3. Temporal and spatial characteristics of wet-dry climate variation in the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meiyan; Xi, Chen; Bao, Anming

    2008-10-01

    Based on the monthly temperature and rainfall data of 1961-2006, aridity is calculated and its multi-time scales characteristics in different divisions in the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains have been analyzed using Mexican Hat wavelet analysis in this article. The periodic oscillation of aridity variation and the points of abrupt change at different time scales along the time series are discovered. Also the trend of climate change is tested. Additionally, possible association of climate variation in this area with ENSO is explored using SOI date series. The research results indicate that there exist obvious regional characteristics of wet-dry climate variation in the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains. Wavelet analysis shows that there mainly exits two modes of scales (12-24 years and 4-8 years) in every division, while catastrophe point differs in different zones. To predict on the scale of 12-24 years, it will be relatively dry in mountain division and desert area in a period after 2006. In addition, the transition from warm-dry to warm-wet appears in oasis area. Correlation analysis indicted that aridity variation of the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains is affected by ENSO, while influence degree is different between areas; furthermore, this influence is one-year lagging behind ENSO in the whole area.

  4. Temporal Trends in Clinical and Pathological Characteristics for Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy Between 1995 and 2013 at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, and Stanford University Hospital, United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Mathias Dyrberg; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Kjaer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze how prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and practice patterns has affected trends in tumor characteristics in men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) in the United States and Denmark. Unlike in the United States, PSA screening has not been recommended in Denmark...... evaluated with Cochran-Armitage test for trends and chi-square testing. Results: A total of 4404 patients were included. Temporal changes in preoperative PSA, age, grade, and stage was found in both cohorts. Median preoperative PSA declined in both cohorts, while median age increased, with the Danish cohort...... showing the greatest changes in both PSA and age. In both cohorts, there was a trend for higher-risk preoperative features before RP over time. In 2010-2013, 27.7% and 21.8% of the patients were in the D'Amico high-risk group at Copenhagen and Stanford, respectively. Conclusion: Despite recommendation...

  5. Spatio-temporal drought characteristics of the tropical Paraiba do Sul River Basin and responses to the Mega Drought in 2014-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauditt, Alexandra; Metzke, Daniel; Ribbe, Lars

    2017-04-01

    The Paraiba do Sul River Basin (56.000 km2) supplies water to the Brazilian states Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Their large metropolitan areas were strongly affected by a Mega drought during the years 2014 and 2015 with severe implications for domestic water supply, the hydropower sector as well as for rural agricultural downstream regions. Longer drought periods are expected to become more frequent in the future. However, drought characteristics, low flow hydrology and the reasons for the recurrent water scarcity in this water abundant tropical region are still poorly understood. In order to separate the impact of human abstractions from hydro-climatic and catchment storage related hydrological drought propagation, we assessed the spatio-temporal distribution of drought severity and duration establishing relationships between SPI, SRI and discharge threshold drought anomalies for all subcatchments of the PdS based on a comprehensive hydro-meteorological data set of the Brazilian National Water Agency ANA. The water allocation model "Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP)" was established on a monthly basis for the entire Paraiba do Sul river basin incorporating human modifications of the hydrological system as major (hydropower) reservoirs and their operational rules, water diversions and major abstractions. It simulates reasonable discharges and reservoir levels comparable to the observed values. To evaluate the role of climate variability and drought responses for hydrological drought events, scenarios were developed to simulate discharge and reservoir level the impact of 1. Varying meteorological drought frequencies and durations and 2. Implementing operational rules as a response to drought. Uncertainties related to the drought assessment, modelling, parameter and input data were assessed. The outcome of this study for the first time provides an overview on the heterogeneous spatio-temporal drought characteristics of the Paraiba do Sul river basin and

  6. Analysis of the spatial-temporal variation characteristics of vegetative drought and its relationship with meteorological factors in China from 1982 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qiu; Liang, Liang; Luo, Xiang; Li, Yanjun; Zhang, Lianpeng

    2017-08-25

    Drought is a complex natural phenomenon that can cause reduced water supplies and can consequently have substantial effects on agriculture and socioeconomic activities. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the spatial-temporal variation characteristics of vegetative drought and its relationship with meteorological factors in China. The Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) dataset calculated from NOAA/AVHRR images from 1982 to 2010 was used to analyse the spatial-temporal variation characteristics of vegetative drought in China. This study also examined the trends in meteorological factors and their influences on drought using monitoring data collected from 686 national ground meteorological stations. The results showed that the VCI appeared to slowly rise in China from 1982 to 2010. From 1982 to 1999, the VCI rose slowly. Then, around 2000, the VCI exhibited a severe fluctuation before it entered into a relatively stable stage. Drought frequencies in China were higher, showing a spatial distribution feature of "higher in the north and lower in the south". Based on the different levels of drought, the frequencies of mild and moderate drought in four geographical areas were higher, and the frequency of severe drought was higher only in ecologically vulnerable areas, such as the Tarim Basin and the Qaidam Basin. Drought was mainly influenced by meteorological factors, which differed regionally. In the northern region, the main influential factor was sunshine duration, while the other factors showed minimal effects. In the southern region and Tibetan Plateau, the main influential factors were sunshine duration and temperature. In the northwestern region, the main influential factors were wind velocity and station atmospheric pressure.

  7. Clinical characteristics and brain PET findings in 3 cases of dissociative amnesia: disproportionate retrograde deficit and posterior middle temporal gyrus hypometabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Antérion, C; Dubas, F; Decousus, M; Jeanguillaume, C; Guedj, E

    2014-10-01

    Precipitated by psychological stress, dissociative amnesia occurs in the absence of identifiable brain damage. Its clinical characteristics and functional neural basis are still a matter of controversy. In the present paper, we report 3 cases of retrograde autobiographical amnesia, characterized by an acute onset concomitant with emotional/neurological precipitants. We present 2 cases of dissociative amnesia with fugue (cases 1 and 2), and one case of focal dissociative amnesia after a minor head trauma (case 3). The individual case histories and neuropsychological characteristics are reported, as well as the whole-brain voxel-based 18FDG-PET metabolic findings obtained at group-level in comparison to 15 healthy subjects. All patients suffered from autobiographical memory loss, in the absence of structural lesion. They had no significant impairment of anterograde memory or of executive function. Impairment of autobiographical memory was complete for two of the three patients, with loss of personal identity (cases 1 and 2). A clinical recovery was found for the two patients in whom follow-up was available (cases 2 and 3). Voxel-based group analysis highlighted a metabolic impairment of the right posterior middle temporal gyrus. 18FDG-PET was repeated in case 3, and showed a complete functional brain recovery. The situation of dissociative amnesia with disproportionate retrograde amnesia is clinically heterogeneous between individuals. Our findings may suggest that impairment of high-level integration of visual and/or emotional information processing involving dysfunction of the right posterior middle temporal gyrus could reduce triggering of multi-modal visual memory traces, thus impeding reactivation of aversive memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of the Microseismicity Preceding the 2016 M L 6.6 Meinong Earthquake in Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hsin-Chieh

    2018-02-01

    Before the M L 6.6 Meinong earthquake in 2016, intermediate-term quiescence (Q i), foreshocks, and short-term quiescence (Q s) were extracted from a comprehensive earthquake catalog. In practice, these behaviors are thought to be the seismic indicators of an earthquake precursor, and their spatiotemporal characteristics may be associated with location, magnitude, and occurrence time of the following main shock. Hence, detailed examinations were carried out to derive the spatiotemporal characteristics of these meaningful seismic behaviors. First, the spatial range of the Q i that occurred for 96 days was revealed in and around the Meinong earthquake. Second, a series of foreshocks was present for 1 day, clustered at the southeastern end of the Meinong earthquake. Third, Q s was present for 3 days and was pronounced after the foreshocks. Although these behaviors were recorded difficultly because the Q i was characterized by microseismicity at the lower cut-off magnitude, between M L 1.2 and 1.6, and most of the foreshocks were comprised of earthquakes with a magnitude lower than 1.8, they carried meaningful precursory indicators preceding the Meinong earthquake. These indicators provide the information of (1) the hypocenter, which was indicated by the area including the Q i, foreshocks, and Q s; (2) the magnitude, which could be associated to the spatial range of the Q i; (3) the asperity locations, which might be related to the areas of extraordinary low seismicity; and (4) a short-term warning leading of 3 days, which could have been announced based on the occurrence of the Q s. Particularly, Q i also appeared before strong inland earthquakes so that Q i might be an anticipative phenomenon before a strong earthquake in Taiwan.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of PV Adoption in the UK and Their Implications for the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Richard Snape

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributed renewable electricity generators facilitate decarbonising the electricity network, and the smart grid allows higher renewable penetration while improving efficiency. Smart grid scenarios often emphasise localised control, balancing small renewable generation with consumer electricity demand. This research investigates the applicability of proposed decentralised smart grid scenarios utilising a mixed strategy: quantitative analysis of PV adoption data and qualitative policy analysis focusing on policy design, apparent drivers for adoption of the deviation of observed data from the feed-in tariff impact assessment predictions. Analysis reveals that areas of similar installed PV capacity are clustered, indicating a strong dependence on local conditions for PV adoption. Analysing time series of PV adoption finds that it fits neither neo-classical predictions, nor diffusion of innovation S-curves of adoption cleanly. This suggests the influence of external factors on the decision making process. It is shown that clusters of low installed PV capacity coincide with areas of high population density and vice versa, implying that while visions of locally-balanced smart grids may be viable in certain rural and suburban areas, applicability to urban centres may be limited. Taken in combination, the data analysis, policy impact and socio-psychological drivers of adoption demonstrate the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding and modelling the adoption of technology necessary to enable the future smart grid.

  10. High speed galloping in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris): spatio-temporal and kinetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Wilson, Alan M

    2012-07-15

    The cheetah and racing greyhound are of a similar size and gross morphology and yet the cheetah is able to achieve a far higher top speed. We compared the kinematics and kinetics of galloping in the cheetah and greyhound to investigate how the cheetah can attain such remarkable maximum speeds. This also presented an opportunity to investigate some of the potential limits to maximum running speed in quadrupeds, which remain poorly understood. By combining force plate and high speed video data of galloping cheetahs and greyhounds, we show how the cheetah uses a lower stride frequency/longer stride length than the greyhound at any given speed. In some trials, the cheetahs used swing times as low as those of the greyhounds (0.2 s) so the cheetah has scope to use higher stride frequencies (up to 4.0 Hz), which may contribute to it having a higher top speed that the greyhound. Weight distribution between the animal's limbs varied with increasing speed. At high speed, the hindlimbs support the majority of the animal's body weight, with the cheetah supporting 70% of its body weight on its hindlimbs at 18 m s(-1); however, the greyhound hindlimbs support just 62% of its body weight. Supporting a greater proportion of body weight on a particular limb is likely to reduce the risk of slipping during propulsive efforts. Our results demonstrate several features of galloping and highlight differences between the cheetah and greyhound that may account for the cheetah's faster maximum speeds.

  11. A duck hepatitis B virus strain with a knockout mutation in the putative X ORF shows similar infectivity and in vivo growth characteristics to wild-type virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.; Scougall, C.A.; Will, H.; Burrell, C.J.; Jilbert, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses including human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) express X proteins, HBx and DHBx, respectively. Both HBx and DHBx are transcriptional activators and modulate cellular signaling in in vitro assays. To test whether the DHBx protein plays a role in virus infection, we compared the in vivo infectivity and growth characteristics of a DHBV3 strain with a stop codon in the X-like ORF (DHBV3-X-K.O.) to those of the wild-type DHBV3 strain. Here we report that the two strains showed no significant difference in (i) their ability to induce infection that resulted in stable viraemia measured by serum surface antigen (DHBsAg) and DHBV DNA, and detection of viral proteins and replicative DNA intermediates in the liver; (ii) the rate of spread of infection in liver and extrahepatic sites after low-dose virus inoculation; and (iii) the ability to produce transient or persistent infection under balanced age/dose conditions designed to detect small differences between the strains. Thus, none of the infection parameters assayed were detectably affected by the X-ORF knockout mutation, raising the question whether DHBx expression plays a physiological role during in vivo infection with wild-type DHBV

  12. Spatial-temporal characteristics of haze and vertical distribution of aerosols over the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yueqian; Zhang, Wu; Wang, Wenjing

    2018-04-01

    Variation of haze events occurred in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China, the characteristics of meteorological elements and the vertical distribution of aerosols during haze episodes were analyzed by utilizing data of ground observation, radiosonde and CALIPSO. The results illustrate that the frequency of haze events between 1981 and 2010 peaked in winter but bottomed out in summer and decreased from north to south in the YRD region, reaching at the lowest point in "low frequency center" - Shanghai. When haze happened, the most seriously affected area was 2-4km above the ground and the concentrated range of total backscattering coefficient (TBC) that decreased with altitude was 0.8×10 -3 -2.5×10 -3 km -1 ·sr -1 . Particulate depolarization ratio (PDR) was less than 40% in a large part and 93% aerosols over the YRD area were regular particles, while the irregular ones concentrated on 2km above the surface and the irregularity rose up but the diversity diminished when altitude increased. Color ratio (CR) was lower than 1.2 mostly at all altitudes and distributed asymmetrically above the ground. Nearly 80% aerosols under 10km were fine particles (CR1.0) clustered at 2-4km. Large particles (CR>1.2) aggregated in lower troposphere massively yet relatively smaller ones gathered in middle and upper troposphere. In the YRD region, aerosols with more powerful capabilities were wider and less regular than the ones of Northwestern China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of air pollution index and meteorological elements in Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huading, Shi; Critto, Andrea; Torresan, Silvia; Qingxian, Gao

    2018-06-13

    With the rapid economic development and the continuous population growth, several important cities in China suffer serious air pollution, especially in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei economic developing area. Based on the daily air pollution index (API) and surface meteorological elements in Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang from 2001 to 2010, the relationships between API and meteorological elements were analyzed. The statistical analysis focused on the relationships at seasonal and monthly average scales, on different air pollution grades and air pollution processes. The results revealed that the air pollution conditions in the three areas gradually improved from 2001 to 2010, especially during summer; and the worst conditions in air quality were recorded in Beijing in spring due to the influences of dust, while in Tianjin and Shijiazhuang in winter due to household heating. Meteorological elements exhibited different influences on air pollution, showing similar relationships between API in monthly averages and four meteorological elements (i.e., the average, maximum and minimum temperatures, maximum air pressure, vapor pressure, and maximum wind speed); while the relationships on a seasonal average scale demonstrated significant differences. Compared with seasonal and monthly average scales of API, the relation coefficients based on different air pollution grades were significatively lower; while the relationship between API and meteorological elements based on air pollution process reduced the smoothing effect due to the average processing of seasonal and monthly API and improved the accuracy of the results based on different air pollution grades. Finally, statistical analysis of the distribution of pollution days in different wind directions indicated the directions of extreme and maximum wind speeds that mainly influence air pollution; representing a valuable information that could support the definition of air pollution control strategies through the

  14. On the potentials of multiple climate variables in assessing the spatio-temporal characteristics of hydrological droughts over the Volta Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndehedehe, Christopher E; Awange, Joseph L; Corner, Robert J; Kuhn, Michael; Okwuashi, Onuwa

    2016-07-01

    Multiple drought episodes over the Volta basin in recent reports may lead to food insecurity and loss of revenue. However, drought studies over the Volta basin are rather generalised and largely undocumented due to sparse ground observations and unsuitable framework to determine their space-time occurrence. In this study, we examined the utility of standardised indicators (standardised precipitation index (SPI), standardised runoff index (SRI), standardised soil moisture index (SSI), and multivariate standardised drought index (MSDI)) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage to assess hydrological drought characteristics over the basin. In order to determine the space-time patterns of hydrological drought in the basin, Independent Component Analysis (ICA), a higher order statistical technique was employed. The results show that SPI and SRI exhibit inconsistent behaviour in observed wet years presupposing a non-linear relationship that reflects the slow response of river discharge to precipitation especially after a previous extreme dry period. While the SPI and SSI show a linear relationship with a correlation of 0.63, the correlation between the MSDIs derived from combining precipitation/river discharge and precipitation/soil moisture indicates a significant value of 0.70 and shows an improved skill in hydrological drought monitoring over the Volta basin during the study period. The ICA-derived spatio-temporal hydrological drought patterns show Burkina Faso and the Lake Volta areas as predominantly drought zones. Further, the statistically significant negative correlations of pacific decadal oscillations (0.39 and 0.25) with temporal evolutions of drought in Burkina Faso and Ghana suggest the possible influence of low frequency large scale oscillations in the observed wet and dry regimes over the basin. Finally, our approach in drought assessment over the Volta basin contributes to a broad framework for hydrological

  15. Characteristics of bacterial community in cloud water at Mt Tai: similarity and disparity under polluted and non-polluted cloud episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Xu, Caihong; Chen, Jianmin; Zhu, Chao; Li, Jiarong; Lv, Ganglin

    2017-04-01

    cloud water and PM2. 5 in the atmosphere have a negative impact on bacteria, playing a vital role in shaping microbial community structure. The major ions might provide nutrition to bacteria and directly influence the bacterial community, whereas PM2. 5 in air has an indirect impact on bacterial community structure. During wet deposition, soluble particulate matter was dissolved in water droplets resulting in elevated concentration in cloud water. PM2. 5 was possibly associated with different origins and pathways of air mass as determined using source tracking by the backward trajectory, mainly related to long-range transport. This work enhanced our understanding of the characteristics of bacterial ecology in the atmospheric aqueous phase, highlighting the potential influence of environmental variables on the bacterial community in cloud processes. It may provide fundamental information of the bacterial community response in cloud water under increasing pollution. However, due to the limited sample size (13 samples) collected at the summit of Mt Tai, these issues need in-depth discussion. Further studies based on an annual series of field observation experiments and laboratory simulations will continue to track these issues.

  16. Characteristics of neuronal lipofuscin in the superior temporal gyrus in Alzheimer's disease do not differ from non-diseased controls: a comparison with disease-related changes in the superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Christopher Q; Dowson, Jonathan H; Harrington, Charles; Cairns, Mary R; Wilton-Cox, Helen

    2005-05-01

    Neuronal lipofuscin characteristics in the superior temporal gyrus from 21 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and from 18 age-matched non-diseased subjects were compared with previously reported findings from the superior frontal gyrus. A discriminant function analysis of lipofuscin characteristics in the superior temporal gyrus did not provide a significant predictive level for cases whose diagnoses were correctly classified (56.4%, P=0.63). In contrast, AD-related decrease in the number of smaller lipofuscin regions in the neurons of the frontal gyrus was confirmed, and the same analysis of lipofuscin characteristics in this region gave a significant predictive level for membership of the AD group of 86.6% (P<0.001). The findings indicate that changes in neuronal lipofuscin related to AD, which may reflect an increased rate of lipofuscin formation, show differences between neocortical regions. This study provides additional information on the distribution of neuropathological characteristics in AD.

  17. Spatial and temporal characteristics of warm season convection over Pearl River Delta region, China, based on 3 years of operational radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingchao; Zhao, Kun; Xue, Ming

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the temporal and spatial characteristics and distributions of convection over the Pearl River Delta region of Guangzhou, China, during the May-September warm season, using, for the first time for such a purpose, 3 years of operational Doppler radar data in the region. Results show that convective features occur most frequently along the southern coast and the windward slope of the eastern mountainous area of Pearl River Delta, with the highest frequency occurring in June and the lowest in September among the 5 months. The spatial frequency distribution pattern also roughly matches the accumulated precipitation pattern. The occurrence of convection in this region also exhibits strong diurnal cycles. During May and June, the diurnal distribution is bimodal, with the maximum frequency occurring in the early afternoon and a secondary peak occurring between midnight and early morning. The secondary peak is much weaker in July, August, and September. Convection near the coast is found to occur preferentially on days when a southerly low-level jet (LLJ) exists, especially during the Meiyu season. Warm, moist, and unstable air is transported from the ocean to land by LLJs on these days, and the lifting along the coast by convergence induced by differential surface friction between the land and ocean is believed to be the primary cause for the high frequency along the coast. In contrast, the high frequency over mountainous area is believed to be due to orographic lifting of generally southerly flows during the warm season.

  18. The spatio-temporal characteristics of the wave structure excited by the solar terminator as deduced from TEC measurements at the global GPS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent investigations have shown that movement of the solar terminator (ST) causes generation of acoustic-gravity waves (AGW), turbulence and instabilities in the ionosphere plasma. Among all the sources of gravity waves, the moving ST has a special status, since it is a predictable phenomenon, whose characteristics are well known. Considering the ST as a stable and repetitive source of AGW, one can derive information about atmospheric conditions from the response of the medium to this input. The great variety of ST-linked phenomena in the atmosphere gave rise to a number of studies on the analysis of ionosphere parameter variations obtained by different ionosphere sounding methods. However, virtually all experimental data were obtained using indirect methods for analyzing the spectrum of ionosphere parameter variations, which can result from a number of factors. This causes difficulties in the reliable identification of ST-linked AGW, because in general case AGW can be generated by different sources either of natural or of anthropogenic origin. To identify ST-generated wave disturbances it is insufficient to register the time dependence of ionosphere parameters or their spectrum. It is necessary to measure the spatial structure of these disturbances and to compare it with spatial-temporal characteristics of ST. Another important requirement implies the continuous, global character of observations. Using long-term (1998-2007) total electron content (TEC) measurements from the IGS GPS global network and dense networks of GPS sites in USA (CORS) and Japan (GEONET), we have obtained the first evidence for the wave structure excited by the solar terminator (ST). We have found two main types of the observed TEC disturbances: large-scale (LS) 60-min variations with amplitude of about 0.5-1 TECU and medium-scale (MS) 15-min variations with amplitude of about 0.05-0.1 TECU. The first type of disturbances was predicted in theoretical investigations and registered earlier

  19. Fractal Dimension analysis for seismicity spatial and temporal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    23

    The research can further promote the application of fractal theory in the study ... spatial-temporal propagation characteristics of seismic activities, fractal theory is not ... provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of earthquakes. 2. ... random self-similar structure of the earthquake in the time series and the spatial.

  20. Study of spatial and temporal characteristics of L-band scintillations over the Indian low-latitude region and their possible effects on GPS navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. S. Rama Rao

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The scintillation data (S4-index at the L-band frequency of 1.575GHz, recorded from a total of 18 GPS receivers installed at different locations in India under the GAGAN project, have provided us with a unique opportunity, for the first time in the Indian region, to make a simultaneous study of spatio-temporal and intensity characteristics of the trans-ionospheric scintillations during the 18-month, low sunspot activity (LSSA period from January 2004 to July 2005. During this period, the occurrence of scintillations is found to be maximum around the pre-midnight hours of equinox months, with very little activity during the post-midnight hours. No significant scintillation activity is observed during the summer and winter months of the period of observation. The intensity (S4 index of the scintillation activity is stronger around the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA region in the geographic latitude range of 15° to 25° N in the Indian region. These scintillations are often accompanied by the TEC depletions with durations ranging from 5 to 25 min and magnitudes from 5 to 15 TEC units which affect the positional accuracy of the GPS by 1 to 3 m. Further, during the intense scintillation events (S4>0.45≈10 dB, the GPS receiver is found to lose its lock for a short duration of 1 to 4 min, increasing the error bounds effecting the integrity of the SBAS operation. During the present period of study, a total of 395 loss of lock events are observed in the Indian EIA region; this number is likely to increase during the high sunspot activity (HSSA period, creating more adverse conditions for the trans-ionospheric communications and the GPS-based navigation systems.

  1. Spatial and temporal characteristics of PM2.5 acidity during autumn in marine and coastal area of Bohai Sea, China, based on two-site contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Yufen; Han, Yan; Wu, Jianhui; Du, Xiang; Xu, Hong; Feng, Yinchang; Han, Suqin

    2018-04-01

    In-situ pH of atmospheric particulate, defined as the pH value of aqueous phase in ambient aerosol, has been reported to have significant influence on the formation progress of secondary aerosol, especially through the heterogeneous pathway. In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected in the marine and costal area of Bohai Sea from September 8th to October 8th in 2013, with daytime and nighttime separated. Eight water-soluble ions including SO42 -, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+, K+, Ca2 +, Na+ and Mg2 + were analyzed by ion chromatography. The in-situ pH of PM2.5 was estimated using Aerosol Inorganics Model II, with meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity) and basic chemical composition data (concentrations of water-soluble ions) serving as input. Five indicators were conjunctively applied to describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of PM2.5 acidity over Bohai Sea during autumn. As a result, strong acidity was found in both marine and coastal area. Marine area had a stronger acidity under a more NH4+-deficiency and humid condition. And the difference of PM2.5 acidity between daytime and nighttime was more obvious in coastal area than that in marine area, with stronger acidity observed during the daytime. Local SO2 emission was identified as an important factor influencing the diurnal variation of aerosol acidity. Meanwhile, sulfurous species were identified as a mixture of NH4HSO4 and H2SO4 in marine area while a mixture of NH4HSO4 and (NH4)2SO4 in the coastal area. Analysis in the impact of aerosol acidity on nitrate formation has indicated that heterogeneous pathways were important in nitrate formation in coastal area of Bohai Sea as well as the homogeneous pathways.

  2. A comprehensive emission inventory of multiple air pollutants from iron and steel industry in China: Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Tian, Hezhong; Hua, Shenbing; Zhu, Chuanyong; Gao, Jiajia; Xue, Yifeng; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Junrui

    2016-07-15

    China has become the largest producer of iron and steel throughout the world since 1996. However, as an energy-and-pollution intensive manufacturing sector, a detailed comprehensive emission inventory of air pollutants for iron and steel industry of China is still not available. To obtain and better understand the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of typical hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emissions from iron and steel production in China, a comprehensive emission inventory of multiple air pollutants, including size segregated particulate matter (TSP/PM10/PM2.5), gaseous pollutants (SO2, NOx, CO), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni etc.), as well as the more dangerous PCDD/Fs, is established with the unit-based annual activity, specific dynamic emission factors for the historical period of 1978-2011, and the future potential trends till to 2050 are forecasted by using scenario analysis. Our results show that emissions of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter have experienced a gradual increase tendency since 2000, while emissions of priority-controlled heavy metals (Hg, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, and Ni) have exhibited a short-term fluctuation during the period of 1990 to 2005. With regard to the spatial distribution of HAPs emissions in base year 2011, Bohai economic circle is identified as the top emission intensity region where iron and steel smelting plants are densely built; within iron and steel industry, blast furnaces contribute the majority of PM emissions, sinter plants account for most of gaseous pollutants and the majority of PCDD/Fs, whereas steel making processes are responsible for the majority of heavy metal emissions. Moreover, comparisons of future emission trends under three scenarios indicate that advanced technologies and integrated whole process management strategies are in great need to further diminish various hazardous air pollutants from iron and steel industry in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. A new source of mesenchymal stem cells for articular cartilage repair: MSCs derived from mobilized peripheral blood share similar biological characteristics in vitro and chondrogenesis in vivo as MSCs from bone marrow in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-Li; Zhou, Chun-Yan; Yu, Jia-Kuo

    2014-03-01

    Bone marrow (BM) has been considered as a major source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but it has many disadvantages in clinical application. However, MSCs from peripheral blood (PB) could be obtained by a less invasive method and be more beneficial for autologous transplantation than BM MSCs, which makes PB a promising source for articular cartilage repair in clinical use. To assess whether MSCs from mobilized PB of New Zealand White rabbits have similar biological characteristics in vitro and chondrogenesis in vivo as BM MSCs. Controlled laboratory study. A combined method of drug administration containing granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) plus CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 was adopted to mobilize the PB stem cells of adult New Zealand White rabbits in vitro. The isolated cells were identified as MSCs by morphological characteristics, surface markers, and differentiation potentials. A comparison between PB MSCs and BM MSCs was made in terms of biological characteristics in vitro and chondrogenesis in vivo. This issue was investigated from the aspects of morphology, immune phenotype, multiple differentiation capacity, expansion potential, antiapoptotic capacity, and ability to repair cartilage defects in vivo of PB MSCs compared with BM MSCs. Peripheral blood MSCs were successfully mobilized by the method of combined drug administration, then isolated, expanded, and identified in vitro. No significant difference was found concerning the morphology, immune phenotype, and antiapoptotic capacity between PB MSCs and BM MSCs. Significantly, MSCs from both sources compounded with decalcified bone matrix showed the same ability to repair cartilage defects in vivo. For multipluripotency, BM MSCs exhibited a more osteogenic potential and higher proliferation capacity than PB MSCs, whereas PB MSCs possessed a stronger adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential than BM MSCs in vitro. Although there are some differences in the proliferation and

  4. Quantifying spatial variability of depth of peat burn in wetlands in relation to antecedent characteristics using field data, multi-temporal and multi-spectral LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L.; Flade, L.; Virk, R.; Montgomery, J. S.; Hopkinson, C.; Thompson, D. K.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape changes in the hydrological characteristics of wetlands in some parts of the Boreal region of Canada are occurring as a result of climate-induced feedbacks and anthropogenic disturbance. Wetlands are largely resilient to wildfire, however, natural, climatic and anthropogenic disturbances can change surface water regimes and predispose wetlands to greater depth of peat burn. Over broad areas, peat loss contributes to significant pollution emissions, which can affect community health. In this study, we a) quantify depth of peat burn and relationships to antecedent conditions (species type, topography, surficial geology) within three classified wetlands found in the Boreal Plains ecoregion of western Canada; and b) examine the impacts of wildfire on post-fire ground surface energy balance to determine how peat loss might affect local hydro-climatology and surface water feedbacks. High-resolution optical imagery, pre- and post-burn multi-spectral Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR), airborne thermal infrared imagery, and field validation data products are integrated to identify multiple complex interactions within the study wetlands. LiDAR-derived depth of peat burn is within 1 cm (average) compared with measured (RMSE = 9 cm over the control surface), demonstrating the utility of LiDAR with high point return density. Depth of burn also correlates strongly with variations in Normalised Burn Ratio (NBR) determined for ground surfaces only. Antecedent conditions including topographic position, soil moisture, soil type and wetland species also have complex interactions with depth of peat loss within wetlands observed in other studies. However, while field measurements are important for validation and understanding eco-hydrological processes, results from remote sensing are spatially continuous. Temporal LiDAR data illustrate the full range of variability in depth of burn and wetland characteristics following fire. Finally, measurements of instantaneous surface

  5. Spatio-temporal characteristics of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) in the East African region via ionospheric tomography during the year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, T.; Damtie, B.; Bires, A.; Yizengaw, E.; Cilliers, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present the characteristics of the EIA in the East African sector inferred from ground-based GPS receivers via ionospheric tomography during the year 2012. For the analysis, we developed and used a 2D ionospheric tomography imaging software based on Bayesian inversion approach. To reconstruct ionospheric electron density form slant Total Electron Content (sTEC) measurements, we selected a chain of ten ground-based GPS receivers with stations' codes and geomagnetic coordinates: ARMI (3.03 °S, 109.29 °E), DEBK (4.32 °N, 109.48 °E), ASOS (1.14 °N, 106.16 °E), NEGE (3.60 °S, 111.35 °E), SHIS (3.26 °N, 110.62 °E), ASAB (4.91 °N, 114.34 °E), SHEB (7.36 °N, 110.60 °E), EBBE (9.54 °S, 104.10 °E), DODM (16.03 °S, 109.04 °E) & NAMA (11.49 °N, 113.60 °E). The temporal, spatial and storm-time characteristics of the EIA and the hourly, day-to-day and seasonal variations of the maximum electron density of F2 region (NmF2) at 15.29°S geomagnetic latitude are presented. We found that the magnitude of the peak and the width/thickness of the EIA pronounced during the equinox and weakened during the solstice seasons at 2100 LT. It is also observed that the EIA persisted for longer time in equinox season than the solstice season. The spatial appearance of the northern and southern anomalies are observed starting from 6.12 ° N and 10 ° S respectively along geomagnetic latitude during equinox season. The EIA is localized between 180 km and 450 km along the altitude during December solstice. The analysis on the NmF2 demonstrated a significant dependence on local time, day and season of the year. We also investigated the storm response of the EIA for the magnetic storm of Day Of the Year (DOY) 274-276. It is observed that the disturbance dynamo related composition change (O/N2 ratio) resulted in a well-developed EIA with an increase in the peak and the width of the EIA at 2100 LT on DOY 275 (main phase of the storm) compared to 274 (initial phase of the storm

  6. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  7. A Comparative Analysis on the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Fire Characteristics in the Amazon and Equatorial Southern Africa Using Observations from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenfu; Arellano, Avelino. F.; Raman, Aishwarya

    2015-04-01

    Tropical forest fires significantly impact atmospheric composition and regional and global climate. In particular, fires in Equatorial Southern Africa (ESA) and Amazon comprise the two largest contributors to fire emissions of chemically and radiatively-active atmospheric constituents (such as CO, BC, CO2) across the globe. Here, we investigate the spatiotemporal trends in fire characteristics between these regions using combustion signatures observed from space. Our main goals are: 1) To identify key relationships between the trends in co-emitted constituents across these regions, and, 2) To explore linkages of the observed trends in fire characteristics with the main drivers of change such as meteorology, fire practice, development patterns, and ecosystem feedbacks. We take advantage of the similarity in latitude and land area between these regions in understanding some of these drivers. Our approach begins with a multi-species analysis of trends in the observed abundance of CO, NO2, and aerosols over these regions and across the time period 2004 to 2014. We use multi-spectral retrievals of CO from Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT), tropospheric column retrievals of NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and aerosol optical depth retrievals from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. The long records from these retrievals provide a unique opportunity to study atmospheric composition across the most recent decade. While several studies in the past have reported trends over these regions, most of these studies have focused on a particular constituent. A unique aspect of this work involves understanding covariations in co-emitted constituents to provide a more comprehensive look at fire characteristics and behavior, which are yet to be fully understood. Our initial results show that the annual average of CO for ESA (~115 ppbv) is greater than that of Amazon (110 ppbv). This pattern is also seen in NO2 (ESA : ~215

  8. Chemical characteristics of hydrothermal fluids from the TAG Mound of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in August 1994: Implications for spatial and temporal variability of hydrothermal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamo, Toshitaka; Chiba, Hitoshi; Masuda, Harue; Edmonds, Henrietta N.; Fujioka, Kantaro; Kodama, Yukio; Nanba, Hiromi; Sano, Yuji

    The TAG hydrothermal mound on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (26°08‧N, 44°50‧W) was revisited in August 1994 with the submersible Shinkai 6500 in order to characterize time-series fluid chemistry prior to the ODP drilling. Fluid samples were taken from both black smokers and white smokers. Si, pH, alkalinity, H2S, major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+), major anions (Cl-, SO42-), and minor elements (Li, Sr, B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Br) as well as Sr isotope ratios were measured. We report the first Br/Cl ratios for the TAG hydrothermal fluids, showing no fractionation between Br and Cl during the fluid-rock interaction. This study shows small changes in composition of the black smoker fluids from the 1990 data (Edmond et al., 1995). Changes of pH, alkalinity, Fe, K, and 87Sr/86Sr values are suggestive of subsurface FeS precipitation and a decrease of water/rock ratio at a deeper reaction zone. Differences in chemical characteristics between the black and white smoker fluids were similarly observed as in 1990.

  9. Temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saramäki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  10. Temporal grouping effects in musical short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Simon; Mengal, Pierre; Majerus, Steve

    2018-07-01

    Recent theoretical accounts of verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory (STM) have proposed the existence of domain-general mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order information. These accounts are based on the observation of similar behavioural effects across several modalities, such as temporal grouping effects. Across two experiments, the present study aimed at extending these findings, by exploring a STM modality that has received little interest so far, STM for musical information. Given its inherent rhythmic, temporal and serial organisation, the musical domain is of interest for investigating serial order STM processes such as temporal grouping. In Experiment 1, the data did not allow to determine the presence or the absence of temporal grouping effects. In Experiment 2, we observed that temporal grouping of tone sequences during encoding improves short-term recognition for serially presented probe tones. Furthermore, the serial position curves included micro-primacy and micro-recency effects, which are the hallmark characteristic of temporal grouping. Our results suggest that the encoding of serial order information in musical STM may be supported by temporal positional coding mechanisms similar to those reported in the verbal domain.

  11. Mobile Device Impairment ... Similar Problems, Similar Solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz; Chen, Tianyi

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have defined a new type of impairment in which an able-bodied user's behaviour is impaired by both the characteristics of a device and the environment in which it is used. This behavioural change is defined as a situationally-induced impairment and is often associated with small devices used in a mobile setting or constrained…

  12. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  13. Multiscale spatial and temporal estimation of the b-value

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, R.; D'Auria, L.; Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.

    2017-12-01

    The estimation of the spatial and temporal variations of the Gutenberg-Richter b-value is of great importance in different seismological applications. One of the problems affecting its estimation is the heterogeneous distribution of the seismicity which makes its estimate strongly dependent upon the selected spatial and/or temporal scale. This is especially important in volcanoes where dense clusters of earthquakes often overlap the background seismicity. Proposed solutions for estimating temporal variations of the b-value include considering equally spaced time intervals or variable intervals having an equal number of earthquakes. Similar approaches have been proposed to image the spatial variations of this parameter as well.We propose a novel multiscale approach, based on the method of Ogata and Katsura (1993), allowing a consistent estimation of the b-value regardless of the considered spatial and/or temporal scales. Our method, named MUST-B (MUltiscale Spatial and Temporal characterization of the B-value), basically consists in computing estimates of the b-value at multiple temporal and spatial scales, extracting for a give spatio-temporal point a statistical estimator of the value, as well as and indication of the characteristic spatio-temporal scale. This approach includes also a consistent estimation of the completeness magnitude (Mc) and of the uncertainties over both b and Mc.We applied this method to example datasets for volcanic (Tenerife, El Hierro) and tectonic areas (Central Italy) as well as an example application at global scale.

  14. Baixa do Noroeste Argentino e Baixa do Chaco: caracterísitcas, diferenças e semelhanças The Northewestern Argentinean Low and The Chaco Low: their characteristics, differences and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Enrique Seluchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Baixa do Chaco e a Baixa do Noroeste Argentino são frequentemente confundidas ou tratadas como um único sistema. Isso se deve a vários fatores: o pouco conhecimento que se tem sobre elas, especialmente sobre a Baixa do Chaco, a baixa resolução das reanálises globais que as mostram como um único sistema e a relativamente escassa cobertura de dados sobre a região que ocupam. Este trabalho tenta contribuir para o melhor entendimento das diferenças e semelhanças entre ambos os sistemas, analisando algumas características dinâmicas e termodinâmicas da região em que elas atuam, com a finalidade de aprofundar seu conhecimento e de possibilitar a sua melhor identificação e diferenciação. O estudo utiliza as reanálises do modelo regional Eta/CPTEC do período (2000-2004 e considera os meses de verão, período no qual as duas baixas estão ativas. Os resultados mostraram que a Baixa do Noroeste Argentino está mais relacionada com a atividade transiente, o que pode ser comprovado através da influência do jato subtropical e da variabilidade temporal de algumas variáveis, como a pressão e a temperatura potencial equivalente. A Baixa do Chaco se desenvolve numa atmosfera mais instável do ponto de vista termodinâmico, porém menos afetada pela dinâmica das latitudes médias.The Chaco Low and the Northwestern Argentinean Low are frequently confounded or treated as a single system, due to our limited knowledge about them (especially concerning the Chaco Low, the low resolution of global analyses -that show them as a single low pressure system-, and the relatively poor data coverage over the region where they are usually located. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of the differences and similarities between them, as well as to analyze the atmospheric dynamical and thermo-dynamical conditions where they evolve. It is considered that this study will aid to a better recognition of both systems. With this purpose

  15. TEMPORAL QUERY PROCESSIG USING SQL SERVER

    OpenAIRE

    Vali Shaik, Mastan; Sujatha, P

    2017-01-01

    Most data sources in real-life are not static but change their information in time. This evolution of data in time can give valuable insights to business analysts. Temporal data refers to data, where changes over time or temporal aspects play a central role. Temporal data denotes the evaluation of object characteristics over time. One of the main unresolved problems that arise during the data mining process is treating data that contains temporal information. Temporal queries on time evolving...

  16. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  17. Longitudinal analysis reveals characteristically high proportions of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Lei, Ai-Hua; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-09-18

    The complex and dynamic vaginal microbial ecosystem is critical to both health and disease of the host. Studies focusing on how vaginal microbiota influences HIV-1 infection may face limitations in selecting proper animal models. Given that northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, they may be an optimal animal model for elucidating the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota contributes to resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. However, little is known about the composition and temporal variability of vaginal microbiota of the northern pig-tailed macaque. Here, we present a comprehensive catalog of the composition and temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota of two healthy northern pig-tailed macaques over 19 weeks using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found remarkably high proportions of a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. Atopobium and Sneathia were dominant genera, and interestingly, we demonstrated the presence of Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota. Moreover, longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota were considerably individualized. Finally, network analysis revealed that vaginal pH may influence the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota, suggesting that inter-subject variability of vaginal bacterial communities could be mirrored in inter-subject variation in correlation profiles of species with each other and with vaginal pH over time. Our results suggest that the northern pig-tailed macaque could be an ideal animal model for prospective investigation of the mechanisms by which vaginal microbiota influence susceptibility and resistance to HIV-1 infection in the context of highly polymicrobial and Lactobacillus-dominated states.

  18. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets....... Our results show that the proposed functions work better than other methods proposed in the literature....

  19. Phoneme Similarity and Confusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity between component speech sounds influences language processing in numerous ways. Explanation and detailed prediction of linguistic performance consequently requires an understanding of these basic similarities. The research reported in this paper contrasts two broad classes of approach to the issue of phoneme similarity-theoretically…

  20. Effect of selective attention on recollection and familiarity in recognition memory tasks: differential characteristics in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with and without a history of déjà vu

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaría Gago, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    The most widely accepted contemporary explanation to define the phenomenon of déjà vu revolves around the processes of familiarity and recognition. This theoretical model is based on characteristics that define this experience in healthy subjects and in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy Objective: The main objective of this work is to determine the relationship between phenomenon of familiarity and phenomenon of recall according to the presence or absence of a history of déjà vu in p...

  1. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  2. Temporal motifs in time-dependent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanen, Lauri; Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János; Saramäki, Jari

    2011-01-01

    Temporal networks are commonly used to represent systems where connections between elements are active only for restricted periods of time, such as telecommunication, neural signal processing, biochemical reaction and human social interaction networks. We introduce the framework of temporal motifs to study the mesoscale topological–temporal structure of temporal networks in which the events of nodes do not overlap in time. Temporal motifs are classes of similar event sequences, where the similarity refers not only to topology but also to the temporal order of the events. We provide a mapping from event sequences to coloured directed graphs that enables an efficient algorithm for identifying temporal motifs. We discuss some aspects of temporal motifs, including causality and null models, and present basic statistics of temporal motifs in a large mobile call network

  3. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  4. Processes of Similarity Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Levi B.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity underlies fundamental cognitive capabilities such as memory, categorization, decision making, problem solving, and reasoning. Although recent approaches to similarity appreciate the structure of mental representations, they differ in the processes posited to operate over these representations. We present an experiment that…

  5. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  6. Temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

    2012-10-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered

  7. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  8. Characteristics of attention-related body sensations. Temporal stability and associations with measures of body focus, affect, sustained attention, and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihanyi, Benedek T; Ferentzi, Eszter; Köteles, Ferenc

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the temporal stability and correlates of attention-related body sensations that emerge without external stimulation during rest and due to focused attention on a body part. To assess attention-related body sensations, participants were asked to focus on a freely chosen body area with closed eyes, and had to report whether the sensation of that area had changed. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess various aspects of body focus (body awareness, body responsiveness, somatosensory amplification, subjective somatic symptoms), and positive and negative affectivity. Previous experiences in body-mind therapies were also measured. PEBL Continuous Performance Test was used to assess sustained attention. Heart rate variability scores were based on a 3-minute long resting heart rate measurement. Fifty-eight university students (22.3 ± 3.95 years; 34 females) participated in the study. The stability of attention-related body sensations was measured 8 weeks later on a randomly chosen sub-group (n = 28). Attention-related body sensations showed a mediocre temporal stability (r ρ  = 0.47, p = 0.012). People reporting attention-related body sensations showed significantly higher body awareness, somatosensory amplification, and resting heart rate; and marginally higher somatic symptoms. No relation was found with body-mind practice, body responsiveness, positive and negative affect, the vagal component of heart rate variability, and performance in the sustained attention task. Attention-related sensations are relatively stable over time. They are connected to some, but not to all of the aspects of body focus. Further studies are needed to elaborate the influencing stable and situational factors.

  9. Insertion characteristics and placement of the Mid-Scala electrode array in human temporal bones using detailed cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Aarno; Gazibegovic, Dzemal; Tervaniemi, Jyrki; Vartiainen, Veli-Matti; Löppönen, Heikki

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the insertion results and placement of the new Advanced Bionics HiFocus Mid-Scala (HFms) electrode array, inserted through the round window membrane, in eight fresh human temporal bones using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Pre- and post-insertion CBCT scans were registered to create a 3D reconstruction of the cochlea with the array inserted. With an image fusion technique both the bony edges of the cochlea and the electrode array in situ could accurately be determined, thus enabling to identify the exact position of the electrode array within the scala tympani. Vertical and horizontal scalar location was measured at four points along the cochlea base at an angular insertion depth of 90°, 180° and 270° and at electrode 16, the most basal electrode. Smooth insertion through the round window membrane was possible in all temporal bones. The imaging results showed that there were no dislocations from the scala tympani into the scala vestibule. The HFms electrode was positioned in the middle of the scala along the whole electrode array in three out of the eight bones and in 62 % of the individual locations measured along the base of the cochlea. In only one cochlea a close proximity of the electrode with the basilar membrane was observed, indicating possible contact with the basilar membrane. The results and assessments presented in this study appear to be highly accurate. Although a further validation including histopathology is needed, the image fusion technique described in this study represents currently the most accurate method for intracochlear electrode assessment obtainable with CBCT.

  10. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  11. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  12. Temporal characteristics of atmospheric ammonia and nitrogen dioxide over China based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Xu, Wen; Liu, Xuejun; Li, Yi; Lu, Xuehe; Zhang, Yuehan; Zhang, Wuting

    2017-08-01

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen (Nr). Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are the most important precursors for Nr compounds (including N2O5, HNO3, HONO and particulate NO3- and NH4+) in the atmosphere. Understanding the changes in NH3 and NO2 has important implications for the regulation of anthropogenic Nr emissions and is a requirement for assessing the consequence of environmental impacts. We conducted the temporal trend analysis of atmospheric NH3 and NO2 on a national scale since 1980 based on emission data (during 1980-2010), satellite observation (for NH3 since 2008 and for NO2 since 2005) and atmospheric chemistry transport modeling (during 2008-2015).Based on the emission data, during 1980-2010, significant continuous increasing trends in both NH3 and NOx were observed in REAS (Regional Emission inventory in Asia, for NH3 0.17 and for NOx 0.16 kg N ha-1 yr-2) and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research, for NH3 0.24 and for NOx 0.17 kg N ha-1 yr-2) over China. Based on the satellite data and atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM) MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4), the NO2 columns over China increased significantly from 2005 to 2011 and then decreased significantly from 2011 to 2015; the satellite-retrieved NH3 columns from 2008 to 2014 increased at a rate of 2.37 % yr-1. The decrease in NO2 columns since 2011 may result from more stringent strategies taken to control NOx emissions during the 12th Five Year Plan, while no control policy has focused on NH3 emissions. Our findings provided an overall insight into the temporal trends of both NO2 and NH3 since 1980 based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling. These findings can provide a scientific background for policy makers that are attempting to control atmospheric pollution in China. Moreover, the multiple datasets

  13. Temporal characteristics of atmospheric ammonia and nitrogen dioxide over China based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling since 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen (Nr. Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 are the most important precursors for Nr compounds (including N2O5, HNO3, HONO and particulate NO3− and NH4+ in the atmosphere. Understanding the changes in NH3 and NO2 has important implications for the regulation of anthropogenic Nr emissions and is a requirement for assessing the consequence of environmental impacts. We conducted the temporal trend analysis of atmospheric NH3 and NO2 on a national scale since 1980 based on emission data (during 1980–2010, satellite observation (for NH3 since 2008 and for NO2 since 2005 and atmospheric chemistry transport modeling (during 2008–2015.Based on the emission data, during 1980–2010, significant continuous increasing trends in both NH3 and NOx were observed in REAS (Regional Emission inventory in Asia, for NH3 0.17 and for NOx 0.16 kg N ha−1 yr−2 and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research, for NH3 0.24 and for NOx 0.17 kg N ha−1 yr−2 over China. Based on the satellite data and atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4, the NO2 columns over China increased significantly from 2005 to 2011 and then decreased significantly from 2011 to 2015; the satellite-retrieved NH3 columns from 2008 to 2014 increased at a rate of 2.37 % yr−1. The decrease in NO2 columns since 2011 may result from more stringent strategies taken to control NOx emissions during the 12th Five Year Plan, while no control policy has focused on NH3 emissions. Our findings provided an overall insight into the temporal trends of both NO2 and NH3 since 1980 based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling. These findings can provide a scientific background for policy makers that are attempting to control atmospheric

  14. Physico-chemical characteristics and methanogen communities in swine and dairy manure storage tanks: spatio-temporal variations and impact on methanogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maialen; Gagnon, Nathalie; Topp, Edward; Masse, Lucie; Massé, Daniel I; Talbot, Guylaine

    2013-02-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions represent a major environmental problem associated with the management of manure from the livestock industry. Methane is the primary GHG emitted during manure outdoor storage. In this paper, the variability of two swine and two dairy manure storage tanks was surveyed, in terms of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The impact of the inter-tank and spatio-temporal variations of these parameters on the methanogenic activity of manure was ascertained. A Partial Least Square regression was carried out, which demonstrated that physico-chemical as well as microbiological parameters had a major influence on the methanogenic activity. Among the 19 parameters included in the regression, the concentrations of VFAs had the strongest negative influence on the methane emission rate of manure, resulting from their well-known inhibitory effect. The relative abundance of two amplicons in archaeal fingerprints was found to positively influence the methanogenic activity, suggesting that Methanoculleus spp. and possibly Methanosarcina spp. are major contributors to methanogenesis in storage tanks. This work gave insights into the mechanisms, which drive methanogenesis in swine and dairy manure storage tanks. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  16. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  17. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Global Warming in the Tibetan Plateau during the Last 50 Years Based on a Generalised Temperature Zone - Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanqiang; Fang, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    Temperature is one of the primary factors influencing the climate and ecosystem, and examining its change and fluctuation could elucidate the formation of novel climate patterns and trends. In this study, we constructed a generalised temperature zone elevation model (GTEM) to assess the trends of climate change and temporal-spatial differences in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) using the annual and monthly mean temperatures from 1961–2010 at 144 meteorological stations in and near the TP. The results showed the following: (1) The TP has undergone robust warming over the study period, and the warming rate was 0.318°C/decade. The warming has accelerated during recent decades, especially in the last 20 years, and the warming has been most significant in the winter months, followed by the spring, autumn and summer seasons. (2) Spatially, the zones that became significantly smaller were the temperature zones of −6°C and −4°C, and these have decreased 499.44 and 454.26 thousand sq km from 1961 to 2010 at average rates of 25.1% and 11.7%, respectively, over every 5-year interval. These quickly shrinking zones were located in the northwestern and central TP. (3) The elevation dependency of climate warming existed in the TP during 1961–2010, but this tendency has gradually been weakening due to more rapid warming at lower elevations than in the middle and upper elevations of the TP during 1991–2010. The higher regions and some low altitude valleys of the TP were the most significantly warming regions under the same categorizing criteria. Experimental evidence shows that the GTEM is an effective method to analyse climate changes in high altitude mountainous regions. PMID:23565182

  18. Temporal contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C.R.; Craig, Andrew R.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. PMID:23994260

  19. Temporal contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Information and Temporality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Flender

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Being able to give reasons for what the world is and how it works is one of the defining characteristics of modernity. Mathematical reason and empirical observation brought science and engineering to unprecedented success. However, modernity has reached a post-state where an instrumental view of technology needs revision with reasonable arguments and evidence, i.e. without falling back to superstition and mysticism. Instrumentally, technology bears the potential to ease and to harm. Easing and harming can't be controlled like the initial development of technology is a controlled exercise for a specific, mostly easing purpose. Therefore, a revised understanding of information technology is proposed based upon mathematical concepts and intuitions as developed in quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics offers unequaled opportunities because it raises foundational questions in a precise form. Beyond instrumentalism it enables to raise the question of essences as that what remains through time what it is. The essence of information technology is acausality. The time of acausality is temporality. Temporality is not a concept or a category. It is not epistemological. As an existential and thus more comprehensive and fundamental than a concept or a category temporality is ontological; it does not simply have ontic properties. Rather it exhibits general essences. Datability, significance, spannedness and openness are general essences of equiprimordial time (temporality.

  1. A Temporal Ratio Model of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D. A.; Neath, Ian; Chater, Nick

    2007-01-01

    A model of memory retrieval is described. The model embodies four main claims: (a) temporal memory--traces of items are represented in memory partly in terms of their temporal distance from the present; (b) scale-similarity--similar mechanisms govern retrieval from memory over many different timescales; (c) local distinctiveness--performance on a…

  2. Comprehensive analysis of tornado statistics in comparison to earthquakes: intensity and temporal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Schielicke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tornadoes and earthquakes are characterised by a high variability in their properties concerning intensity, geometric properties and temporal behaviour. Earthquakes are known for power-law behaviour in their intensity (Gutenberg–Richter law and temporal statistics (e.g. Omori law and interevent waiting times. The observed similarity of high variability of these two phenomena motivated us to compare the statistical behaviour of tornadoes using seismological methods and quest for power-law behaviour. In general, the statistics of tornadoes show power-law behaviour partly coextensive with characteristic scales when the temporal resolution is high (10 to 60 min. These characteristic scales match with the typical diurnal behaviour of tornadoes, which is characterised by a maximum of tornado occurrences in the late afternoon hours. Furthermore, the distributions support the observation that tornadoes cluster in time. Finally, we shortly discuss a possible similar underlying structure composed of heterogeneous, coupled, interactive threshold oscillators that possibly explains the observed behaviour.

  3. Effects of pasture management and off-stream water on temporal/spatial distribution of cattle and stream bank characteristics in cool-season grass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarte, K A; Russell, J R; Morrical, D G

    2011-10-01

    A 2-yr grazing experiment was conducted to assess the effects of grazing management on cattle distribution and pasture and stream bank characteristics. Six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures in central Iowa were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with stream access restricted to 4.9-m-wide stabilized crossings (CSR), or rotational stocking with stream access restricted to a riparian paddock (RP). Pastures were stocked with 15 fall-calving Angus cows (Bos taurus L.) from mid-May to mid-October for 153 d in 2008 and 2009. A global positioning system (GPS) collar recording cow position every 10 min was placed on at least 1 cow per pasture for 2 wk of each month from May through September. Off-stream water was provided to cattle in CSU and CSR treatments during the second of the 2 wk when GPS collars were on the cattle. A black globe temperature relative humidity index (BGTHI) was measured at 10-min intervals to match the time of the GPS measurements. Each month of the grazing season, forage characteristics (sward height, forage mass, and CP, IVDMD, and P concentrations) and bare and fecal-covered ground were measured. Stream bank erosion susceptibility was visually scored in May, August, and October (pre-, mid-, and post-stocking). Cattle in RP and CSR treatments spent less time (P CSR treatment reduced the probability (P CSR and RP treatments in the stream and streamside zones in September and October and in July and September. Streams in pastures with the CSU treatment had less stable banks (P CSR treatments. Results show that time spent by cattle near pasture streams can be reduced by RP or CSR treatments, thereby decreasing risks of sediment and nutrient loading of pasture streams even during periods of increased BGTHI.

  4. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  5. Temporal and spatial characteristics of dust devils and their contribution to the aerosol budget in East Asia-An analysis using a new parameterization scheme for dust devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaoguo; Han, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaohuan

    2018-06-01

    Dust aerosols are the main aerosol components of the atmosphere that affect climate change, but the contribution of dust devils to the atmospheric dust aerosol budget is uncertain. In this study, a new parameterization scheme for dust devils was established and coupled with WRF-Chem, and the diurnal and monthly variations and the contribution of dust devils to the atmospheric dust aerosol budget in East Asia was simulated. The results show that 1) both the diurnal and monthly variations in dust devil emissions in East Asia had unimodal distributions, with peaks in the afternoon and the summer that were similar to the observations; 2) the simulated dust devils occurred frequently in deserts, including the Gobi. The distributed area and the intensity center of the dust devil moved from east to west during the day; 3) the ratio between the availability of convective buoyancy relative to the frictional dissipation was the main factor that limited the presence of dust devils. The position of the dust devil formation, the surface temperature, and the boundary layer height determined the dust devil intensity; 4) the contribution of dust devils to atmospheric dust aerosols determined in East Asia was 30.4 ± 13%, thereby suggesting that dust devils contribute significantly to the total amount of atmospheric dust aerosols. Although the new parameterization scheme for dust devils was rough, it was helpful for understanding the distribution of dust devils and their contribution to the dust aerosol budget.

  6. Discrimination of acoustic communication signals by grasshoppers (Chorthippus biguttulus): temporal resolution, temporal integration, and the impact of intrinsic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronacher, Bernhard; Wohlgemuth, Sandra; Vogel, Astrid; Krahe, Rüdiger

    2008-08-01

    A characteristic feature of hearing systems is their ability to resolve both fast and subtle amplitude modulations of acoustic signals. This applies also to grasshoppers, which for mate identification rely mainly on the characteristic temporal patterns of their communication signals. Usually the signals arriving at a receiver are contaminated by various kinds of noise. In addition to extrinsic noise, intrinsic noise caused by stochastic processes within the nervous system contributes to making signal recognition a difficult task. The authors asked to what degree intrinsic noise affects temporal resolution and, particularly, the discrimination of similar acoustic signals. This study aims at exploring the neuronal basis for sexual selection, which depends on exploiting subtle differences between basically similar signals. Applying a metric, by which the similarities of spike trains can be assessed, the authors investigated how well the communication signals of different individuals of the same species could be discriminated and correctly classified based on the responses of auditory neurons. This spike train metric yields clues to the optimal temporal resolution with which spike trains should be evaluated. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Communication, Technology, Temporality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Martinez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a media studies that foregrounds technological objects as communicative and historical agents. Specifically, I take the digital computer as a powerful catalyst of crises in communication theories and certain key features of modernity. Finally, the computer is the motor of “New Media” which is at once a set of technologies, a historical epoch, and a field of knowledge. As such the computer shapes “the new” and “the future” as History pushes its origins further in the past and its convergent quality pushes its future as a predominate medium. As treatment of information and interface suggest, communication theories observe computers, and technologies generally, for the mediated languages they either afford or foreclose to us. My project describes the figures information and interface for the different ways they can be thought of as aspects of communication. I treat information not as semantic meaning, formal or discursive language, but rather as a physical organism. Similarly an interface is not a relationship between a screen and a human visual intelligence, but is instead a reciprocal, affective and physical process of contact. I illustrate that historically there have been conceptions of information and interface complimentary to mine, fleeting as they have been in the face of a dominant temporality of mediation. I begin with a theoretically informed approach to media history, and extend it to a new theory of communication. In doing so I discuss a model of time common to popular, scientific, and critical conceptions of media technologies especially in theories of computer technology. This is a predominate model with particular rules of temporal change and causality for thinking about mediation, and limits the conditions of possibility for knowledge production about communication. I suggest a new model of time as integral to any event of observation and analysis, and that human mediation does not exhaust the

  8. Similar or different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornér, Solveig; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Peltonen, Jouni

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has identified researcher community and supervisory support as key determinants of the doctoral journey contributing to students’ persistence and robustness. However, we still know little about cross-cultural variation in the researcher community and supervisory support experien...... counter partners, whereas the Finnish students perceived lower levels of instrumental support than the Danish students. The findings imply that seemingly similar contexts hold valid differences in experienced social support and educational strategies at the PhD level....... experienced by PhD students within the same discipline. This study explores the support experiences of 381 PhD students within the humanities and social sciences from three research-intensive universities in Denmark (n=145) and Finland (n=236). The mixed methods design was utilized. The data were collected...... counter partners. The results also indicated that the only form of support in which the students expressed more matched support than mismatched support was informational support. Further investigation showed that the Danish students reported a high level of mismatch in emotional support than their Finnish...

  9. Temporal Glare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contra...... to initially static HDR images. By conducting psychophysical studies, we validate that our method improves perceived brightness and that dynamic glare-renderings are often perceived as more attractive depending on the chosen scene.......Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast....... Even though most, if not all, subjects report perceiving glare as a bright pattern that fluctuates in time, up to now it has only been modeled as a static phenomenon. We argue that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic...

  10. Forecasting Antarctic Sea Ice Concentrations Using Results of Temporal Mixture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Junhwa; Kim, Hyun-Cheol

    2016-06-01

    Sea ice concentration (SIC) data acquired by passive microwave sensors at daily temporal frequencies over extended areas provide seasonal characteristics of sea ice dynamics and play a key role as an indicator of global climate trends; however, it is typically challenging to study long-term time series. Of the various advanced remote sensing techniques that address this issue, temporal mixture analysis (TMA) methods are often used to investigate the temporal characteristics of environmental factors, including SICs in the case of the present study. This study aims to forecast daily SICs for one year using a combination of TMA and time series modeling in two stages. First, we identify temporally meaningful sea ice signatures, referred to as temporal endmembers, using machine learning algorithms, and then we decompose each pixel into a linear combination of temporal endmembers. Using these corresponding fractional abundances of endmembers, we apply a autoregressive model that generally fits all Antarctic SIC data for 1979 to 2013 to forecast SIC values for 2014. We compare our results using the proposed approach based on daily SIC data reconstructed from real fractional abundances derived from a pixel unmixing method and temporal endmember signatures. The proposed method successfully forecasts new fractional abundance values, and the resulting images are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the reference data.

  11. Self-similar gravitational clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Fall, S.M.; Hogan, C.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of gravitational clustering is considered and several new scaling relations are derived for the multiplicity function. These include generalizations of the Press-Schechter theory to different densities and cosmological parameters. The theory is then tested against multiplicity function and correlation function estimates for a series of 1000-body experiments. The results are consistent with the theory and show some dependence on initial conditions and cosmological density parameter. The statistical significance of the results, however, is fairly low because of several small number effects in the experiments. There is no evidence for a non-linear bootstrap effect or a dependence of the multiplicity function on the internal dynamics of condensed groups. Empirical estimates of the multiplicity function by Gott and Turner have a feature near the characteristic luminosity predicted by the theory. The scaling relations allow the inference from estimates of the galaxy luminosity function that galaxies must have suffered considerable dissipation if they originally formed from a self-similar hierarchy. A method is also developed for relating the multiplicity function to similar measures of clustering, such as those of Bhavsar, for the distribution of galaxies on the sky. These are shown to depend on the luminosity function in a complicated way. (author)

  12. Identifying mechanistic similarities in drug responses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, C.

    2012-05-15

    Motivation: In early drug development, it would be beneficial to be able to identify those dynamic patterns of gene response that indicate that drugs targeting a particular gene will be likely or not to elicit the desired response. One approach would be to quantitate the degree of similarity between the responses that cells show when exposed to drugs, so that consistencies in the regulation of cellular response processes that produce success or failure can be more readily identified.Results: We track drug response using fluorescent proteins as transcription activity reporters. Our basic assumption is that drugs inducing very similar alteration in transcriptional regulation will produce similar temporal trajectories on many of the reporter proteins and hence be identified as having similarities in their mechanisms of action (MOA). The main body of this work is devoted to characterizing similarity in temporal trajectories/signals. To do so, we must first identify the key points that determine mechanistic similarity between two drug responses. Directly comparing points on the two signals is unrealistic, as it cannot handle delays and speed variations on the time axis. Hence, to capture the similarities between reporter responses, we develop an alignment algorithm that is robust to noise, time delays and is able to find all the contiguous parts of signals centered about a core alignment (reflecting a core mechanism in drug response). Applying the proposed algorithm to a range of real drug experiments shows that the result agrees well with the prior drug MOA knowledge. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  13. Similar speaker recognition using nonlinear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J.P.; Kim, M.S.; Baek, I.C.; Kwon, Y.H.; Lee, K.S.; Chang, S.W.; Yang, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Speech features of the conventional speaker identification system, are usually obtained by linear methods in spectral space. However, these methods have the drawback that speakers with similar voices cannot be distinguished, because the characteristics of their voices are also similar in spectral space. To overcome the difficulty in linear methods, we propose to use the correlation exponent in the nonlinear space as a new feature vector for speaker identification among persons with similar voices. We show that our proposed method surprisingly reduces the error rate of speaker identification system to speakers with similar voices

  14. Quantum Temporal Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Mankei; Psaltis, Demetri

    2006-01-01

    The concept of quantum temporal imaging is proposed to manipulate the temporal correlation of entangled photons. In particular, we show that time correlation and anticorrelation can be converted to each other using quantum temporal imaging.

  15. Measurement of gradient magnetic field temporal characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusek, K.; Jflek, B.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a technique of measuring the time dependence and field distortions of magnetic fields due to eddy currents (EC) produced by time-dependent magnetic field gradients. The EC measuring technique makes use of a large volume sample and selective RF excitation pulses and free induction decay (FID) (or a spin or gradient echo) to measure the out-of-phase component of the FID, which is proportional to γδB, i.e. the amount the signal is off resonance. The measuring technique is sensitive, easy to implement and interpret, and used for determining pre-emphasis compensation parameters

  16. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), occurring when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click (e.g. 0-8ms). Various temporal suppression methods for examining temporal changes in cochlear compression were evaluated and me...... under test. Temporal suppression was shown to be comparable for CEOAEs and SSOAEs, indicating similar underlying cochlear nonlinear mechanisms. This study contributes to a better understanding of the temporal properties of cochlear dynamics....

  17. The EASTNET Project: Extending the Network of Climate-Sensitive Tree-Ring Chronologies From the Eastern United States for Reconstructing the Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Climate and Drought Over the Past Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, B. M.; Cook, E. R.

    2002-12-01

    Recently, a network of gridded PDSI reconstructions for the contiguous United States was produced, based on the available network of drought-sensitive tree-ring chronologies (Cook et al. 1999). Analyses were constrained to the common period of 1700 - 1979 due to the limitations of the available tree-ring data. While several chronologies from the western U.S. span 1,000 years or more, very few chronologies from the eastern U.S. covered even the past 500 years. The objective of this project, funded by the National Science Foundation's ESH program, is to extend the tree-ring chronology network from the eastern U.S. with chronologies spanning the past 500-1,000 years. This aim is being achieved by sampling in areas that have escaped the effects of development, logging and major disturbance such as fire. The two main target species are Thuja occidentalis (eastern white cedar) and Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar). The primary terrain types are on cliffs, rocky outcrops, and other areas that have been difficult to access. We have already developed chronologies from Wisconsin, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Virginia that span from 500 to 1500 years. The temporal depth of these chronologies is being extended through the exploitation of "sub-fossil" wood found at these sites, in the form of standing-dead stems and downed and buried logs. We are also currently pursuing leads in Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey Pennsylvania, Kentucky and North Carolina where old cedar trees have either been reported or where terrain types match criteria developed for this project. In this paper we discuss the current status of the network, and explore the spatio-temporal characteristics of climate and drought across the eastern US for the past 500 years and more. We use our preliminary network to explore the regional expression of climate anomalies such as drought. Our analyses so far demonstrates multicentennial variability suggestive

  18. Optimization of temporal networks under uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesemann, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Many decision problems in Operations Research are defined on temporal networks, that is, workflows of time-consuming tasks whose processing order is constrained by precedence relations. For example, temporal networks are used to model projects, computer applications, digital circuits and production processes. Optimization problems arise in temporal networks when a decision maker wishes to determine a temporal arrangement of the tasks and/or a resource assignment that optimizes some network characteristic (e.g. the time required to complete all tasks). The parameters of these optimization probl

  19. Towards General Temporal Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    associated with the management of temporal data. Indeed, temporal aggregation is complex and among the most difficult, and thus interesting, temporal functionality to support. This paper presents a general framework for temporal aggregation that accommodates existing kinds of aggregation, and it identifies...

  20. Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Ockenfels, Axel

    2013-11-26

    Humans are attracted to similar others. As a consequence, social networks are homogeneous in sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and other characteristics--a principle called homophily. Despite abundant evidence showing the importance of interpersonal similarity and homophily for human relationships, their behavioral correlates and cognitive foundations are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceived similarity substantially increases altruistic punishment, a key mechanism underlying human cooperation. We induced (dis)similarity perception by manipulating basic cognitive mechanisms in an economic cooperation game that included a punishment phase. We found that similarity-focused participants were more willing to punish others' uncooperative behavior. This influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. Our findings demonstrate that pure similarity promotes reciprocity in ways known to encourage cooperation. At the same time, the increased willingness to punish norm violations among similarity-focused participants provides a rationale for why similar people are more likely to build stable social relationships. Finally, our findings show that altruistic punishment is differentially involved in encouraging cooperation under pure similarity vs. in-group conditions.

  1. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...

  2. Temporal modulations in speech and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nai; Patel, Aniruddh D; Chen, Lin; Butler, Henry; Luo, Cheng; Poeppel, David

    2017-10-01

    Speech and music have structured rhythms. Here we discuss a major acoustic correlate of spoken and musical rhythms, the slow (0.25-32Hz) temporal modulations in sound intensity and compare the modulation properties of speech and music. We analyze these modulations using over 25h of speech and over 39h of recordings of Western music. We show that the speech modulation spectrum is highly consistent across 9 languages (including languages with typologically different rhythmic characteristics). A different, but similarly consistent modulation spectrum is observed for music, including classical music played by single instruments of different types, symphonic, jazz, and rock. The temporal modulations of speech and music show broad but well-separated peaks around 5 and 2Hz, respectively. These acoustically dominant time scales may be intrinsic features of speech and music, a possibility which should be investigated using more culturally diverse samples in each domain. Distinct modulation timescales for speech and music could facilitate their perceptual analysis and its neural processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cultural Similarities and Differences on Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄频频; 陈于全

    2010-01-01

    Both English and Chinese are abound with idioms. Idioms are an important part of the hnguage and culture of a society. English and Chinese idioms carved with cultural characteristics account for a great part in the tramlation. This paper studies the translation of idioms concerning their cultural similarities, cultural differences and transhtion principles.

  4. 7 CFR 51.2081 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND... example, hard-shelled varieties, semi-soft shelled varieties, soft-shelled varieties and paper-shelled varieties are not mixed together, nor are any two of these types mixed under this definition. ...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1864 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND... shade of color (for example, soft-fleshed, early maturing varieties are not mixed with firm-fleshed, midseason or late varieties, or bright red varieties mixed with varieties having a purplish tinge). ...

  6. Self-similar risk characteristics of industrial accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzanov, Y.V.

    1994-01-01

    At the present time there is no logically consistent theory of risk of industrial accidents, just as for the risk of other catastrophic phenomena (natural disasters, ecological castastrophes). Moreover, there is no unique interpretation of the term risk itself in application to catastrophic phenomena, and different authors employ the concept of risk arbitrarily, often proceeding from intuitively obvious ideas. The risk of an accident is most often identified with the probability of the accident itself (with a flux of accident events), the probability of loss of life or damage due to catastrophic phenomena. However, every such concept has its own independent meaning, and identifying these concepts with risk is fraught with confusion

  7. Computed tomography of temporal bone fractures and temporal region anatomy in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownder, S; Scrivani, P V; Bezuidenhout, A; Divers, T J; Ducharme, N G

    2010-01-01

    In people, specific classifications of temporal bone fractures are associated with clinical signs and prognosis. In horses, similar classifications have not been evaluated and might be useful establishing prognosis or understanding pathogenesis of certain types of trauma. We hypothesized associations between temporal bone fracture location and orientation in horses detected during computed tomography (CT) and frequency of facial nerve (CN7) deficit, vestibulocochlear nerve (CN8) deficit, or temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO). Complex temporal region anatomy may confound fracture identification, and consequently a description of normal anatomy was included. All horses undergoing temporal region CT at our hospital between July 1998 and May 2008. Data were collected retrospectively, examiners were blinded, and relationships were investigated among temporal bone fractures, ipsilateral THO, ipsilateral CN7, or ipsilateral CN8 deficits by Chi-square or Fischer's exact tests. Seventy-nine horses had CT examinations of the temporal region (158 temporal bones). Sixteen temporal bone fractures were detected in 14 horses. Cranial nerve deficits were seen with fractures in all parts of the temporal bone (petrosal, squamous, and temporal) and, temporal bone fractures were associated with CN7 and CN8 deficits and THO. No investigated fracture classification scheme, however, was associated with specific cranial nerve deficits. Without knowledge of the regional anatomy, normal structures may be mistaken for a temporal bone fracture or vice versa. Although no fracture classification scheme was associated with the assessed clinical signs, simple descriptive terminology (location and orientation) is recommended for reporting and facilitating future comparisons.

  8. Similarity indices I: what do they measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities

  9. Similarity indices I: what do they measure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities.

  10. Temporal anteroinferior encephalocele: An underrecognized etiology of temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavalainen, Taavi; Jutila, Leena; Mervaala, Esa; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Vanninen, Ritva; Immonen, Arto

    2015-10-27

    To report the increasing frequency with which temporal anteroinferior encephalocele is a cause of adult temporal lobe epilepsy, to illustrate the clinical and imaging characteristics of this condition, and to report its surgical treatment in a series of 23 adult patients. Epilepsy patients diagnosed with temporal anteroinferior encephalocele from January 2006 to December 2013 in a national epilepsy reference center were included in this noninterventional study. Twenty-three epilepsy patients (14 female, mean age 43.8 years) were diagnosed with temporal anteroinferior encephalocele in our institute. Thirteen patients had ≥2 encephaloceles; 7 cases presented bilaterally. The estimated frequency of this condition was 0.3% among MRI examinations performed due to newly diagnosed epilepsy (n = 6) and 1.9% among drug-resistant patients referred to our center (n = 17). Nine patients with local encephalocele disconnection (n = 4) or anterior temporal lobectomy and amygdalohippocampectomy (n = 5) have become seizure-free (Engel 1) for a mean 2.8 years (range 3 months-6.2 years) of follow-up. Three patients with local encephalocele disconnection were almost seizure-free or exhibited worthwhile improvement. Histologically, all 12 surgical patients had gliosis at the base of the encephalocele; some had cortical laminar disorganization (n = 5) or mild hippocampal degeneration (n = 1). The possibility of a temporal encephalocele should be considered when interpreting MRI examinations of patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. These patients can significantly benefit from unitemporal epilepsy surgery, even in cases with bilateral encephaloceles. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. A Segment-Based Trajectory Similarity Measure in the Urban Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingchi; Zhong, Haishi; Xiao, Xianjian; Li, Xiaofang

    2017-03-06

    With the rapid spread of built-in GPS handheld smart devices, the trajectory data from GPS sensors has grown explosively. Trajectory data has spatio-temporal characteristics and rich information. Using trajectory data processing techniques can mine the patterns of human activities and the moving patterns of vehicles in the intelligent transportation systems. A trajectory similarity measure is one of the most important issues in trajectory data mining (clustering, classification, frequent pattern mining, etc.). Unfortunately, the main similarity measure algorithms with the trajectory data have been found to be inaccurate, highly sensitive of sampling methods, and have low robustness for the noise data. To solve the above problems, three distances and their corresponding computation methods are proposed in this paper. The point-segment distance can decrease the sensitivity of the point sampling methods. The prediction distance optimizes the temporal distance with the features of trajectory data. The segment-segment distance introduces the trajectory shape factor into the similarity measurement to improve the accuracy. The three kinds of distance are integrated with the traditional dynamic time warping algorithm (DTW) algorithm to propose a new segment-based dynamic time warping algorithm (SDTW). The experimental results show that the SDTW algorithm can exhibit about 57%, 86%, and 31% better accuracy than the longest common subsequence algorithm (LCSS), and edit distance on real sequence algorithm (EDR) , and DTW, respectively, and that the sensitivity to the noise data is lower than that those algorithms.

  12. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  13. An index guiding temporal planting policies for wind erosion reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.X.; Zheng, D.W.; Stigter, C.J.; He, W.Q.; Tuo, D.B.; Zhao, P.

    2006-01-01

    Vegetation cover has spatial as well as temporal characteristics, but the latter are often neglected. Temporal cover characteristics were explored to recommend planting policies for returning arable land into land better protected from serious wind erosion during late autumn, winter, and

  14. Self-similar cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, W Z [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1981-07-01

    The kinematics and dynamics of self-similar cosmological models are discussed. The degrees of freedom of the solutions of Einstein's equations for different types of models are listed. The relation between kinematic quantities and the classifications of the self-similarity group is examined. All dust local rotational symmetry models have been found.

  15. Self-similar factor approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties

  16. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  17. Personalized recommendation with corrected similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommendation has attracted a surge of interdisciplinary research. Especially, similarity-based methods in applications of real recommendation systems have achieved great success. However, the computations of similarities are overestimated or underestimated, in particular because of the defective strategy of unidirectional similarity estimation. In this paper, we solve this drawback by leveraging mutual correction of forward and backward similarity estimations, and propose a new personalized recommendation index, i.e., corrected similarity based inference (CSI). Through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, the results show a greater improvement of CSI in comparison with these mainstream baselines. And a detailed analysis is presented to unveil and understand the origin of such difference between CSI and mainstream indices. (paper)

  18. Towards Personalized Medicine: Leveraging Patient Similarity and Drug Similarity Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  19. Temporal processes involved in simultaneous reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    reflection delays and enhances the test reflection for large delays. Employing a 200-ms-long broadband noise burst as input signal, the critical delay separating these two binaural phenomena was found to be 7–10 ms. It was suggested that the critical delay refers to a temporal window that is employed......, resulting in a critical delay of about 2–3 ms for 20-ms-long stimuli. Hence, for very short stimuli the temporal window or critical delay exhibits values similar to the auditory temporal resolution as, for instance, observed in gap-detection tasks. It is suggested that the larger critical delay observed...

  20. Simultaneous use of several monitoring techniques to measure visitor load, spatio-temporal distribution and social characteristics of tourists - a case study of a cable car area in the Carpathian Mountains, Tatra National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowska, Karolina; Zięba, Antoni; Brandenburg, Christiane; Muhar, Andreas; Preisel, Hemma; Hibner, Joanna; Latosinska, Barbara; Benítez, Rafael; Bolós, Vicente; Toca-Herrera, José L.; Ziobrowski, Szymon

    2017-04-01

    Visitor monitoring is an integrate part of the effective management of recreational and protected areas. Comprehensive information concerning volume of tourist traffic, spatial-temporal distribution of visitors in a leisure setting as well as visitor socio-demographic characteristics may support understanding human behaviour and the ongoing natural processes (trail deterioration, erosion, impact on flora and fauna). Especially, vulnerable areas that in the same time serve as tourist attractions need to be carefully investigated. One of such areas is Kasprowy Wierch (1987 m.a.s.l.) - a popular cable car destination located in the Carpathian Mountains, Tatra National Park, Poland / Slovakia. The aim of this study was to define the overall visitor load and to understand visitor behaviour in the proximity of the upper cable car station at Kasprowy Wierch. The main focus of this presentation is the comparison of the used monitoring techniques and exposing the benefit of their simultaneous application. Visitor monitoring campaign was carried out in the study area in the summer season 2014. The following data collection techniques were simultaneously applied: 1) automatic counting (Eco-Counter pyroelectric sensors), 2) manual counting; 3) on-site interviews combined with trip diaries and visitor observation 4) GPS-tracking 5) registry of cable car tickets 6) registry of entries to the national park (TPN). Between 26.06.2014 and 30.09.2014 at 7 locations a continuous automatic counting of visitors was done using pyroelectric sensors (Eco-Counter). Additionally, on 18 sampling days at 12 locations direct observations (manual counting) of visitor flows was carried out. During the sampling days tourists were interviewed in the field using structured questionnaires (PAPI survey technique, N = 2639). Survey was combined with a documentation of visitors' trip itineraries via GPS-loggers and map sketches. Totally 1250 GPS-tracks of visitors and 1351 map sketches have been

  1. Análise acústica de características temporais de consoantes no Português Brasileiro Acoustic analysis of temporal characteristics of consonants from Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferraz Borges Murphy

    2009-01-01

    . Each participant, with age between eight and ten years, repeated a series of isolated words selected from a phonetically balanced list for Brazilian Portuguese. Words were acoustically analyzed considering duration of the target sound (stop or fricative consonant, and initial and final frequency values of F2, measured in Hz. Based on these values, the variation of octaves per second present in each consonant's F2 was calculated, as well as the average value considering all consonants analyzed. RESULTS: Consonants' duration varied from 31 ms to 170.5 ms. Values of F2 varied from 2617 Hz, for the initial frequency of the voiced stop /b/, to 4557 Hz, average value for the initial frequency of the voiced fricative /z/. Regarding the variation of octaves per second present in F2, the higher variation was found for the unvoiced stop /p/ (16.23 octaves per second, and the lower variation, for the unvoiced fricative /S/ (1.624 octaves per second. The average value found for all target-sounds analyzed was of approximately 6.8 octaves per second. CONCLUSION: The values observed in the study will be useful to the elaboration of auditory tests and trainings including nonverbal stimuli analogous to the temporal characteristics of speech in Brazilian Portuguese.

  2. Spatio-temporal characteristics of evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in grasslands of Xinjiang%新疆草地蒸散与水分利用效率的时空特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小涛; 罗格平

    2017-01-01

    Aims Xinjiang is located in the hinterland of the Eurasian arid areas,with grasslands widely distributed.Grasslands in Xinjiang provide significant economic and ecological benefits.However,research on evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency (WUE) of the grasslands is still relatively weak.This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal characteristics on ET and WUE in the grasslands of Xinjiang in the context of climate change.Methods The Biome-BGC model was used to determine the spatio-temporal characteristics of ET and WUE of the grasslands over the period 1979-2012 across different seasons,areas and grassland types in Xinjiang.Important findings The average annual ET in the grasslands of Xinjiang was estimated at 245.7 mm,with interannual variations generally consistent with that of precipitation.Overall,the value of ET was lower than that of precipitation.The higher values of ET mainly distributed in the Tianshan Mountains,Altai Mountains,Altun Mountains and the low mountain areas on the northern slope of Kunlun Mountains.The lower values of ET mainly distributed in the highland areas of Kunlun Mountains and the desert plains.Over the period 1979-2012,average annual ET was 183.2 mm in the grasslands of southern Xinjiang,357.9 mm in the grasslands of the Tianshan Mountains,and 221.3 mm in grasslands of northern Xinjiang.In winter,ET in grasslands of northern Xinjiang was slightly higher than that of Tianshan Mountains.Average annual ET ranked among grassland types as:mid-mountain meadow > swamp meadow > typical grassland > desert grassland > alpine meadow > saline meadow.The highest ET value occurred in summer,and the lowest ET value occurred in winter,with ET in spring being slightly higher than that in autumn.The higher WUE values mainly distributed in the areas of Tianshan Mountains and Altai Mountains.The lower WUE values mainly distributed in the highland areas of Kunlun Mountains and part of the desert plains.The average annual WUE in

  3. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  4. Advances in temporal logic

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  5. Patterns of urban violent injury: a spatio-temporal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cusimano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury related to violent acts is a problem in every society. Although some authors have examined the geography of violent crime, few have focused on the spatio-temporal patterns of violent injury and none have used an ambulance dataset to explore the spatial characteristics of injury. The purpose of this study was to describe the combined spatial and temporal characteristics of violent injury in a large urban centre.Using a geomatics framework and geographic information systems software, we studied 4,587 ambulance dispatches and 10,693 emergency room admissions for violent injury occurrences among adults (aged 18-64 in Toronto, Canada, during 2002 and 2004, using population-based datasets. We created kernel density and choropleth maps for 24-hour periods and four-hour daily time periods and compared location of ambulance dispatches and patient residences with local land use and socioeconomic characteristics. We used multivariate regressions to control for confounding factors. We found the locations of violent injury and the residence locations of those injured were both closely related to each other and clearly clustered in certain parts of the city characterised by high numbers of bars, social housing units, and homeless shelters, as well as lower household incomes. The night and early morning showed a distinctive peak in injuries and a shift in the location of injuries to a "nightlife" district. The locational pattern of patient residences remained unchanged during those times.Our results demonstrate that there is a distinctive spatio-temporal pattern in violent injury reflected in the ambulance data. People injured in this urban centre more commonly live in areas of social deprivation. During the day, locations of injury and locations of residences are similar. However, later at night, the injury location of highest density shifts to a "nightlife" district, whereas the residence locations of those most at risk of injury do not change.

  6. Age at onset in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis: impact on clinical manifestations and postsurgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Sperling, Michael R

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the demographic and clinical manifestations and postsurgical outcome of childhood-onset mesial temporal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy (MTS-TLE) and establishing the potential differences as compared to the patients with adult-onset MTS-TLE. In this retrospective study all patients with a clinical diagnosis of medically refractory TLE due to mesial temporal sclerosis, who underwent epilepsy surgery at Jefferson comprehensive epilepsy center, were recruited. Patients were prospectively registered in a database from 1986 through 2014. Postsurgical outcome was classified into two groups; seizure-free or relapsed. Clinical manifestations and outcome were compared between patients with childhood-onset MTS-TLE (i.e., age at onset of the first afebrile habitual seizure below 10 years) and those with adult-onset MTS-TLE (i.e., age at onset of the first afebrile habitual seizure 20 years or above). One hundred and twelve patients had childhood-onset MTS-TLE and 76 had adult-onset MTS-TLE. Demographic, clinical, EEG and MRI characteristics of these two groups were similar. Postoperative outcome was not statistically different between these two groups of patients (P=0.9). Temporal lobe epilepsy due to mesial temporal sclerosis is a common cause of epilepsy that can start from early childhood to late adulthood. The etiology of MTS-TLE may be different in various age groups, but it seems that when mesial temporal sclerosis is the pathological substrate of TLE, clinical manifestations and response to surgical treatment of patients are very similar in patients with childhood-onset MTS-TLE compared to those with adult-onset disease. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  8. Spatial and temporal variability of chorus and hiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolik, O.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    Whistler-mode electromagnetic waves, especially natural emissions of chorus and hiss, have been shown to influence the dynamics of the Van Allen radiation belts via quasi-linear or nonlinear wave particle interactions, transferring energy between different electron populations. Average intensities of chorus and hiss emissions have been found to increase with increasing levels of geomagnetic activity but their stochastic variations in individual spacecraft measurements are usually larger these large-scale temporal effects. To separate temporal and spatial variations of wave characteristics, measurements need to be simultaneously carried out in different locations by identical and/or well calibrated instrumentation. We use two-point survey measurements of the Waves instruments of the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) onboard two Van Allen Probes to asses spatial and temporal variability of chorus and hiss. We take advantage of a systematic analysis of this large data set which has been collected during 2012-2017 over a range of separation vectors of the two spacecraft. We specifically address the question whether similar variations occur at different places at the same time. Our results indicate that power variations are dominated by separations in MLT at scales larger than 0.5h.

  9. Indeterministic Temporal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.

  10. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  11. The use of a priori information in ICA-based techniques for real-time fMRI: an evaluation of static/dynamic and spatial/temporal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eSoldati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-time brain functional MRI (rt-fMRI allows in-vivo non-invasive monitoring of neural networks. The use of multivariate data-driven analysis methods such as independent component analysis (ICA offers an attractive trade-off between data interpretability and information extraction, and can be used during both task-based and rest experiments. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of different ICA-based procedures to monitor in real-time a target IC defined from a functional localizer which also used ICA. Four novel methods were implemented to monitor ongoing brain activity in a sliding window approach. The methods differed in the ways in which a priori information, derived from ICA algorithms, was used to monitora target independent component (IC. We implemented four different algorithms, all based on ICA. One Back-projection method used ICA to derive static spatial information from the functional localizer, off line, which was then back-projected dynamically during the real-time acquisition. The other three methods used real-time ICA algorithms that dynamically exploited temporal, spatial, or spatial-temporal priors during the real-time acquisition. The methods were evaluated by simulating a rt-fMRI experiment that used real fMRI data. The performance of each method was characterized by the spatial and/or temporal correlation with the target IC component monitored, computation time and intrinsic stochastic variability of the algorithms. In this study the Back-projection method, which could monitor more than one IC of interest, outperformed the other methods. These results are consistent with a functional task that gives stable target ICs over time. The dynamic adaptation possibilities offered by the other ICA methods proposed may offer better performance than the Back-projection in conditions where the functional activation shows higher spatial and/or temporal variability.

  12. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...... not perform well, even for data that satisfies all its assumptions....

  13. Fast business process similarity search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common for organizations to maintain collections of hundreds or even thousands of business processes. Techniques exist to search through such a collection, for business process models that are similar to a given query model. However, those techniques compare the query model to each

  14. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  15. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  16. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor. (orig.)

  17. An Alfven eigenmode similarity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Fredrickson, E; Gorelenkov, N N; Hyatt, A W; Kramer, G; Luo, Y

    2003-01-01

    The major radius dependence of Alfven mode stability is studied by creating plasmas with similar minor radius, shape, magnetic field (0.5 T), density (n e ≅3x10 19 m -3 ), electron temperature (1.0 keV) and beam ion population (near-tangential 80 keV deuterium injection) on both NSTX and DIII-D. The major radius of NSTX is half the major radius of DIII-D. The super-Alfvenic beam ions that drive the modes have overlapping values of v f /v A in the two devices. Observed beam-driven instabilities include toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE). The stability threshold for the TAE is similar in the two devices. As expected theoretically, the most unstable toroidal mode number n is larger in DIII-D

  18. Temporal scaling of groundwater level fluctuations near a stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Zhang, Y.-K.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal scaling in stream discharge and hydraulic heads in riparian wells was evaluated to determine the feasibility of using spectral analysis to identify potential surface and groundwater interaction. In floodplains where groundwater levels respond rapidly to precipitation recharge, potential interaction is established if the hydraulic head (h) spectrum of riparian groundwater has a power spectral density similar to stream discharge (Q), exhibiting a characteristic breakpoint between high and low frequencies. At a field site in Walnut Creek watershed in central Iowa, spectral analysis of h in wells located 1 m from the channel edge showed a breakpoint in scaling very similar to the spectrum of Q (~20 h), whereas h in wells located 20 and 40 m from the channel showed temporal scaling from 1 to 10,000 h without a well-defined breakpoint. The spectral exponent (??) in the riparian zone decreased systematically from the channel into the floodplain as groundwater levels were increasingly dominated by white noise groundwater recharge. The scaling pattern of hydraulic head was not affected by land cover type, although the number of analyses was limited and site conditions were variable among sites. Spectral analysis would not replace quantitative tracer or modeling studies, but the method may provide a simple means of confirming potential interaction at some sites. ?? 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Similarity principles for equipment qualification by experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Pomerening, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    A methodology is developed for seismic qualification of nuclear plant equipment by applying similarity principles to existing experience data. Experience data are available from previous qualifications by analysis or testing, or from actual earthquake events. Similarity principles are defined in terms of excitation, equipment physical characteristics, and equipment response. Physical similarity is further defined in terms of a critical transfer function for response at a location on a primary structure, whose response can be assumed directly related to ultimate fragility of the item under elevated levels of excitation. Procedures are developed for combining experience data into composite specifications for qualification of equipment that can be shown to be physically similar to the reference equipment. Other procedures are developed for extending qualifications beyond the original specifications under certain conditions. Some examples for application of the procedures and verification of them are given for certain cases that can be approximated by a two degree of freedom simple primary/secondary system. Other examples are based on use of actual test data available from previous qualifications. Relationships of the developments with other previously-published methods are discussed. The developments are intended to elaborate on the rather broad revised guidelines developed by the IEEE 344 Standards Committee for equipment qualification in new nuclear plants. However, the results also contribute to filling a gap that exists between the IEEE 344 methodology and that previously developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group. The relationship of the results to safety margin methodology is also discussed. (author)

  20. Compressional Alfven Eigenmode Similarity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2004-11-01

    NSTX and DIII-D are nearly ideal for Alfven eigenmode (AE) similarity experiments, having similar neutral beams, fast-ion to Alfven speed v_f/v_A, fast-ion pressure, and shape of the plasma, but with a factor of 2 difference in the major radius. Toroidicity-induced AE with ˜100 kHz frequencies were compared in an earlier study [1]; this paper focuses on higher frequency AE with f ˜ 1 MHz. Compressional AE (CAE) on NSTX have a polarization, dependence on the fast-ion distribution function, frequency scaling, and low-frequency limit that are qualitatively consistent with CAE theory [2]. Global AE (GAE) are also observed. On DIII-D, coherent modes in this frequency range are observed during low-field (0.6 T) similarity experiments. Experiments will compare the CAE stability limits on DIII-D with the NSTX stability limits, with the aim of determining if CAE will be excited by alphas in a reactor. Predicted differences in the frequency splitting Δ f between excited modes will also be used. \\vspace0.25em [1] W.W. Heidbrink, et al., Plasmas Phys. Control. Fusion 45, 983 (2003). [2] E.D. Fredrickson, et al., Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report PPPL-3955 (2004).

  1. Temporal ecology in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkovich, E M; Cook, B I; McLauchlan, K K; Davies, T J

    2014-11-01

    Two fundamental axes - space and time - shape ecological systems. Over the last 30 years spatial ecology has developed as an integrative, multidisciplinary science that has improved our understanding of the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation and loss. We argue that accelerating climate change - the effective manipulation of time by humans - has generated a current need to build an equivalent framework for temporal ecology. Climate change has at once pressed ecologists to understand and predict ecological dynamics in non-stationary environments, while also challenged fundamental assumptions of many concepts, models and approaches. However, similarities between space and time, especially related issues of scaling, provide an outline for improving ecological models and forecasting of temporal dynamics, while the unique attributes of time, particularly its emphasis on events and its singular direction, highlight where new approaches are needed. We emphasise how a renewed, interdisciplinary focus on time would coalesce related concepts, help develop new theories and methods and guide further data collection. The next challenge will be to unite predictive frameworks from spatial and temporal ecology to build robust forecasts of when and where environmental change will pose the largest threats to species and ecosystems, as well as identifying the best opportunities for conservation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Phytoplankton distribution in three thermally different but edaphically similar reactor cooling reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E W

    1982-01-01

    Phytoplankton community structure and the physicochemical characteristics of three reactor cooling reservoirs in close proximity and of similar age and bottom type were studied during 1978. The three reservoirs differed in thermal alteration resulting from reactor cooling water as follows: (1) considerable heating with lake-wide temperatures >30/sup 0/C, even in winter; (2) a maximal 5/sup 0/C increase occurring in only one of three major arms of the reservoir; and (3) no thermal effluent received during the study period. Considerable spatial and temporal differences in water quality and phytoplankton community structure were observed; however, water temperature independent of other environmental factors (e.g., light and nutrients) was found to be a relatively unimportant variable for explaining phytoplankton periodicity.

  3. Phytoplankton distribution in three thermally different but edaphically similar reactor cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Phytoplankton community structure and the physicochemical characteristics of three reactor cooling reservoirs in close proximity and of similar age and bottom type were studied during 1978. The three reservoirs differed in thermal alteration resulting from reactor cooling water as follows: (1) considerable heating with lake-wide temperatures >30 0 C, even in winter; (2) a maximal 5 0 C increase occurring in only one of three major arms of the reservoir; and (3) no thermal effluent received during the study period. Considerable spatial and temporal differences in water quality and phytoplankton community structure were observed; however, water temperature independent of other environmental factors (e.g., light and nutrients) was found to be a relatively unimportant variable for explaining phytoplankton periodicity

  4. Temporal distribution of alcohol related facial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai H; Qiu, Michael; Sun, Jiandong

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to address 2 important aspects of temporal pattern in alcohol-related facial fractures: (1) comparison of temporal pattern of alcohol-related facial fracture (alcohol group) presentation with non-alcohol-related fracture (non-alcohol group) presentation; (2) temporal pattern of patient demographic characteristics, injury characteristics, and surgical management in the alcohol group presentation. This study retrospectively examined the Victorian admitted episodes data set (VAED) for the years 2010 to 2013. VAED is a standardized set of data collected during all hospital presentations in Victoria. The study found higher incidence of alcohol-related facial fracture presentations during weekends and during the summer and spring months compared with non-alcohol-related fractures (statistically significant). Alcohol-related facial fractures are more likely to involve male patients in the 20- to 29-year age group, occur as a result of interpersonal violence, and require shorter hospital stays during weekend admissions (statistically significant). No statistically significant relationship has been observed in seasonal variation across all variables. This study found distinct characteristics in temporal distribution of alcohol-related facial fractures. These characteristics are, in particular, significant in weekend trauma admissions. Such information is important in workforce planning, resource distribution, and implementation of injury prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal dynamics of online petitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Lucas; Woolley-Meza, Olivia; Brockmann, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Online petitions are an important avenue for direct political action, yet the dynamics that determine when a petition will be successful are not well understood. Here we analyze the temporal characteristics of online-petition signing behavior in order to identify systematic differences between popular petitions, which receive a high volume of signatures, and unpopular ones. We find that, in line with other temporal characterizations of human activity, the signing process is typically non-Poissonian and non-homogeneous in time. However, this process exhibits anomalously high memory for human activity, possibly indicating that synchronized external influence or contagion play and important role. More interestingly, we find clear differences in the characteristics of the inter-event time distributions depending on the total number of signatures that petitions receive, independently of the total duration of the petitions. Specifically, popular petitions that attract a large volume of signatures exhibit more variance in the distribution of inter-event times than unpopular petitions with only a few signatures, which could be considered an indication that the former are more bursty. However, petitions with large signature volume are less bursty according to measures that consider the time ordering of inter-event times. Our results, therefore, emphasize the importance of accounting for time ordering to characterize human activity.

  6. Otosclerosis: Temporal Bone Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Ishai, Reuven; McKenna, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Otosclerosis is pathologically characterized by abnormal bony remodeling, which includes bone resorption, new bone deposition, and vascular proliferation in the temporal bone. Sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis is associated with extension of otosclerosis to the cochlear endosteum and deposition of collagen throughout the spiral ligament. Persistent or recurrent conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy has been associated with incomplete footplate fenestration, poor incus-prosthesis connection, and incus resorption in temporal bone specimens. Human temporal bone pathology has helped to define the role of computed tomography imaging for otosclerosis, confirming that computed tomography is highly sensitive for diagnosis, yet limited in assessing cochlear endosteal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Model-Based Approach to Constructing Music Similarity Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Kris; Lamere, Paul

    2006-12-01

    Several authors have presented systems that estimate the audio similarity of two pieces of music through the calculation of a distance metric, such as the Euclidean distance, between spectral features calculated from the audio, related to the timbre or pitch of the signal. These features can be augmented with other, temporally or rhythmically based features such as zero-crossing rates, beat histograms, or fluctuation patterns to form a more well-rounded music similarity function. It is our contention that perceptual or cultural labels, such as the genre, style, or emotion of the music, are also very important features in the perception of music. These labels help to define complex regions of similarity within the available feature spaces. We demonstrate a machine-learning-based approach to the construction of a similarity metric, which uses this contextual information to project the calculated features into an intermediate space where a music similarity function that incorporates some of the cultural information may be calculated.

  8. Similarity analysis between quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Liu, XingAo; Zhu, Changming; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Xiafen; Ian, Hou

    2018-06-01

    Similarity analyses between quantum images are so essential in quantum image processing that it provides fundamental research for the other fields, such as quantum image matching, quantum pattern recognition. In this paper, a quantum scheme based on a novel quantum image representation and quantum amplitude amplification algorithm is proposed. At the end of the paper, three examples and simulation experiments show that the measurement result must be 0 when two images are same, and the measurement result has high probability of being 1 when two images are different.

  9. Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations

  10. Modeling Timbre Similarity of Short Music Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence from a number of recent studies that most listeners are able to extract information related to song identity, emotion, or genre from music excerpts with durations in the range of tenths of seconds. Because of these very short durations, timbre as a multifaceted auditory attribute appears as a plausible candidate for the type of features that listeners make use of when processing short music excerpts. However, the importance of timbre in listening tasks that involve short excerpts has not yet been demonstrated empirically. Hence, the goal of this study was to develop a method that allows to explore to what degree similarity judgments of short music clips can be modeled with low-level acoustic features related to timbre. We utilized the similarity data from two large samples of participants: Sample I was obtained via an online survey, used 16 clips of 400 ms length, and contained responses of 137,339 participants. Sample II was collected in a lab environment, used 16 clips of 800 ms length, and contained responses from 648 participants. Our model used two sets of audio features which included commonly used timbre descriptors and the well-known Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as well as their temporal derivates. In order to predict pairwise similarities, the resulting distances between clips in terms of their audio features were used as predictor variables with partial least-squares regression. We found that a sparse selection of three to seven features from both descriptor sets-mainly encoding the coarse shape of the spectrum as well as spectrotemporal variability-best predicted similarities across the two sets of sounds. Notably, the inclusion of non-acoustic predictors of musical genre and record release date allowed much better generalization performance and explained up to 50% of shared variance ( R 2 ) between observations and model predictions. Overall, the results of this study empirically demonstrate that both acoustic features related

  11. Nontraumatic temporal subcortical hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.; Shamsnia, M.; Elliott, D.; Charity Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1990-01-01

    Thirty patients with temporal hematomas were analyzed. Four with frontal extension survived. Of 6 with ganglionic extension, three had residual deficit. Of 8 with parietal extension, 4 had delayed deterioration and died, two patients recovered, and two with peritumoral hemorrhage due to glioblastoma multiforme died. Five patients with posterior temporal hematomas recovered. In 7 patients with basal-inferior temporal hematomas, angiography showed aneurysms in 3 cases, angiomas in 2 cases and no vascular lesion in 2 cases. Of 23 cases with negative angiography and no systemic cause for temporal hematoma, 12 patients were hypertensive and 11 were normotensive. Ten hypertensive patients without evidence of chronic vascular disease had the largest hematomas, extending into the parietal or ganglionic regions. Seven of these patients died; 3 had residual deficit. Eleven normotensive and two hypertensive patients with evidence of chronic vascular change had smaller hematomas. They survived with good functional recovery. (orig.)

  12. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions, including having odd feelings — such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. Temporal lobe seizures are sometimes called ... sudden sense of unprovoked fear or joy A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened ...

  13. An electrophysiological signature of summed similarity in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Marieke K; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R; Kahana, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth electrode recordings and scalp electroencephalography. On each experimental trial, participants judged whether a test face had been among a small set of recently studied faces. Consistent with summed-similarity theory, participants' tendency to endorse a test item increased as a function of its summed similarity to the items on the just-studied list. To characterize this behavioral effect of summed similarity, we successfully fit a summed-similarity model to individual participant data from each experiment. Using the parameters determined from fitting the summed-similarity model to the behavioral data, we examined the relation between summed similarity and brain activity. We found that 4-9 Hz theta activity in the medial temporal lobe and 2-4 Hz delta activity recorded from frontal and parietal cortices increased with summed similarity. These findings demonstrate direct neural correlates of the similarity computations that form the foundation of several major cognitive theories of human recognition memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Seniority bosons from similarity transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, H.B.

    1986-01-01

    The requirement of associating in the boson space seniority with twice the number of non-s bosons defines a similarity transformation which re-expresses the Dyson pair boson images in terms of seniority bosons. In particular the fermion S-pair creation operator is mapped onto an operator which, unlike the pair boson image, does not change the number of non-s bosons. The original results of Otsuka, Arima and Iachello are recovered by this procedure while at the same time they are generalized to include g-bosons or even bosons with J>4 as well as any higher order boson terms. Furthermore the seniority boson images are valid for an arbitrary number of d- or g-bosons - a result which is not readily obtainable within the framework of the usual Marumori- or OAI-method

  15. The temporal Fresnel number in terms of ray matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhuhong; Fan Dianyuan

    1993-01-01

    By using the analogy between temporal ray matrix and the well known ray matrix, the temporal Fresnel number, which gives the qualitative and quasiquantitative characteristics (shape, width and chirp) of optical pulses, is derived. A concept of effective propagation time is introduced. Several typical examples are discussed. 6 refs

  16. Temporal Response Properties of Accessory Olfactory Bulb Neurons: Limitations and Opportunities for Decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoles-Frenkel, Michal; Kahan, Anat; Ben-Shaul, Yoram

    2018-05-23

    The vomeronasal system (VNS) is a major vertebrate chemosensory system that functions in parallel to the main olfactory system (MOS). Despite many similarities, the two systems dramatically differ in the temporal domain. While MOS responses are governed by breathing and follow a subsecond temporal scale, VNS responses are uncoupled from breathing and evolve over seconds. This suggests that the contribution of response dynamics to stimulus information will differ between these systems. While temporal dynamics in the MOS are widely investigated, similar analyses in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) are lacking. Here, we have addressed this issue using controlled stimulus delivery to the vomeronasal organ of male and female mice. We first analyzed the temporal properties of AOB projection neurons and demonstrated that neurons display prolonged, variable, and neuron-specific characteristics. We then analyzed various decoding schemes using AOB population responses. We showed that compared with the simplest scheme (i.e., integration of spike counts over the entire response period), the division of this period into smaller temporal bins actually yields poorer decoding accuracy. However, optimal classification accuracy can be achieved well before the end of the response period by integrating spike counts within temporally defined windows. Since VNS stimulus uptake is variable, we analyzed decoding using limited information about stimulus uptake time, and showed that with enough neurons, such time-invariant decoding is feasible. Finally, we conducted simulations that demonstrated that, unlike the main olfactory bulb, the temporal features of AOB neurons disfavor decoding with high temporal accuracy, and, rather, support decoding without precise knowledge of stimulus uptake time. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A key goal in sensory system research is to identify which metrics of neuronal activity are relevant for decoding stimulus features. Here, we describe the first systematic

  17. Voice similarity in identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gysel, W D; Vercammen, J; Debruyne, F

    2001-01-01

    If people are asked to discriminate visually the two individuals of a monozygotic twin (MT), they mostly get into trouble. Does this problem also exist when listening to twin voices? Twenty female and 10 male MT voices were randomly assembled with one "strange" voice to get voice trios. The listeners (10 female students in Speech and Language Pathology) were asked to label the twins (voices 1-2, 1-3 or 2-3) in two conditions: two standard sentences read aloud and a 2.5-second midsection of a sustained /a/. The proportion correctly labelled twins was for female voices 82% and 63% and for male voices 74% and 52% for the sentences and the sustained /a/ respectively, both being significantly greater than chance (33%). The acoustic analysis revealed a high intra-twin correlation for the speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) of the sentences and the fundamental frequency (F0) of the sustained /a/. So the voice pitch could have been a useful characteristic in the perceptual identification of the twins. We conclude that there is a greater perceptual resemblance between the voices of identical twins than between voices without genetic relationship. The identification however is not perfect. The voice pitch possibly contributes to the correct twin identifications.

  18. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  19. MRI findings of temporal lobe ganglioglioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Ho Kyu; Lee, Jung Kyo; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul

    1999-01-01

    Ganglioglioma is a rare primary brain tumor usually found in the temporal lobe. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristic MR findings of temporal lobe ganglioglioma. Over a seven-year period, ten patients with cerebral ganglioglioma were evaluated at our institution. Seven cases of temporal lobe ganglioma were found ; six of these involved men, and one, a woman ; their mean age was 29.6 years. In three patients, Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1-weighted images were also obtained. We retrospectively analysed the MRI findings with respect to location, size, cortical involvement, margin, cystic change, degree of enhancement, MR signal intensity, calcification and peritumoral change. In five cases, tumors were located within the temporal lobe. In one, a tumor extended from the temporal lobe to the thalamus, and in one from the temporal lobe to the thalamus and cerebral peduncle. All temporal gangliogliomas measured 1.6-3.8cm in their greatest diameter (mean diameter, 2.7cm). In all cases, the cortices were involved with the maintenance of gyriform. The tumor margin was ill defined in five cases and well defined in two. Tumors showed multiple small cystic changes in four cases, a large cyst in two, and a solid nodule in one. In three cases in which contrast media was administered, no lesions were enhanced. On T1-weighted images, iso-signal intensities were seen in five cases and high signal intensities in two. On T2-weighted images, the corresponding figures were five and two. On MRI, tumor calcification and calvarial erosion were each detected in two cases. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in whom cortical solid or cystic and poorly enhanced lesions were seen on brain MRI, and in whom associated findings such as calcification and or adjacent bony erosion were noted, ganglioglioma must be considered

  20. Musical structure analysis using similarity matrix and dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Yu; Jeong, Hong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2005-10-01

    Automatic music segmentation and structure analysis from audio waveforms based on a three-level hierarchy is examined in this research, where the three-level hierarchy includes notes, measures and parts. The pitch class profile (PCP) feature is first extracted at the note level. Then, a similarity matrix is constructed at the measure level, where a dynamic time warping (DTW) technique is used to enhance the similarity computation by taking the temporal distortion of similar audio segments into account. By processing the similarity matrix, we can obtain a coarse-grain music segmentation result. Finally, dynamic programming is applied to the coarse-grain segments so that a song can be decomposed into several major parts such as intro, verse, chorus, bridge and outro. The performance of the proposed music structure analysis system is demonstrated for pop and rock music.

  1. Image Steganalysis with Binary Similarity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharrazi Mehdi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel technique for steganalysis of images that have been subjected to embedding by steganographic algorithms. The seventh and eighth bit planes in an image are used for the computation of several binary similarity measures. The basic idea is that the correlation between the bit planes as well as the binary texture characteristics within the bit planes will differ between a stego image and a cover image. These telltale marks are used to construct a classifier that can distinguish between stego and cover images. We also provide experimental results using some of the latest steganographic algorithms. The proposed scheme is found to have complementary performance vis-à-vis Farid's scheme in that they outperform each other in alternate embedding techniques.

  2. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  3. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...... temporal ccp by developing a process calculus called ntcc. The ntcc calculus generalizes the tcc model, the latter being a temporal ccp model for deterministic and synchronouss timed reactive systems. The calculus is built upon few basic ideas but it captures several aspects of timed systems. As tcc, ntcc...... structures, robotic devises, multi-agent systems and music applications. The calculus is provided with a denotational semantics that captures the reactive computations of processes in the presence of arbitrary environments. The denotation is proven to be fully-abstract for a substantial fragment...

  4. Assessing future climatic changes of rainfall extremes at small spatio-temporal scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to influence the occurrence and magnitude of rainfall extremes and hence the flood risks in cities. Major impacts of an increased pluvial flood risk are expected to occur at hourly and sub-hourly resolutions. This makes convective storms the dominant rainfall type...... in relation to urban flooding. The present study focuses on high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) skill in simulating sub-daily rainfall extremes. Temporal and spatial characteristics of output from three different RCM simulations with 25 km resolution are compared to point rainfall extremes estimated...... from observed data. The applied RCM data sets represent two different models and two different types of forcing. Temporal changes in observed extreme point rainfall are partly reproduced by the RCM RACMO when forced by ERA40 re-analysis data. Two ECHAM forced simulations show similar increases...

  5. Empresas de trabajo temporal

    OpenAIRE

    Chico Abad, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Las empresas de trabajo temporal han ido tomando mayor relevancia debido a la estructura de la sociedad y de la economía. La entrada en vigor de la ley 14/1994 por la que se regulan las empresas de trabajo temporal suposo la incorporación al ordenamiento jurífico español de un tipo de empresas cuya actuación se habia extendido en otros países del entorno europeo. La idea general gira en torno a la flexibilidad de un nuevo marco económico y organizativo y exige a las empresas una capa...

  6. Medial temporal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.J.; Cross, D.T.; Friedman, D.P.; Bello, J.A.; Hilal, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    To better define the MR appearance of hippocampal sclerosis, the authors have reviewed over 500 MR coronal images of the temporal lobes. Many cysts were noted that analysis showed were of choroid-fissure (arachnoid) origin. Their association with seizures was low. A few nontumorous, static, medial temporal lesions, noted on T2-weighted coronal images, were poorly visualized on T1-weighted images and did not enhance with gadolinium. The margins were irregular, involved the hippocampus, and were often associated with focal atrophy. The lesions usually were associated with seizure disorders and specific electroencephalographic changes, and the authors believe they represented hippocampal sclerosis

  7. Average is Boring: How Similarity Kills a Meme's Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, Michele

    2014-09-01

    Every day we are exposed to different ideas, or memes, competing with each other for our attention. Previous research explained popularity and persistence heterogeneity of memes by assuming them in competition for limited attention resources, distributed in a heterogeneous social network. Little has been said about what characteristics make a specific meme more likely to be successful. We propose a similarity-based explanation: memes with higher similarity to other memes have a significant disadvantage in their potential popularity. We employ a meme similarity measure based on semantic text analysis and computer vision to prove that a meme is more likely to be successful and to thrive if its characteristics make it unique. Our results show that indeed successful memes are located in the periphery of the meme similarity space and that our similarity measure is a promising predictor of a meme success.

  8. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms, respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2) was impaired when a first target (T1) was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA); identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention. PMID:24994994

  9. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo eNakamura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2 was impaired when a first target (T1 was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms SOA; identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention.

  10. Sign of the Cross (Signum Crucis): observation of an uncommon ictal manifestation of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katia; Marx, Catherine; Caboclo, Luis O S F; Centeno, Ricardo S; Sakamoto, Américo C; Yacubian, Elza M T

    2009-02-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the clinical characteristics and determine the lateralizing value of ictal Sign of the Cross (SC) as a complex hand automatism (CHA) in patients evaluated by video/EEG monitoring in a comprehensive epilepsy unit. We reviewed video/EEG data of 530 patients with epilepsy recorded in a tertiary epilepsy center from 2002 to 2008. Four patients were found to have manifested a CHA similar to the SC at least once during their complex partial seizures. All patients had unilateral right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) refractory to medical treatment. The limbic system is often suggested as the critical site of religious experience. Moreover, it may be localized predominantly to the temporal regions of the right hemisphere. However, this rare and peculiar ictal manifestation may be related not only to the neural substrate and personality characteristics of TLE, but also to the general religious convictions of Brazilians.

  11. Non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy before and after anterior temporal lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Bidet-Caulet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal epilepsy, unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL - i.e. the surgical resection of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the temporal pole and the most anterior part of the temporal gyri - is an efficient treatment. There is growing evidence that anterior regions of the temporal lobe are involved in the integration and short-term memorization of object-related sound properties. However, non-verbal auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE has raised little attention. To assess non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy both before and after unilateral ATL, we developed a set of non-verbal auditory tests, including environmental sounds. We could evaluate auditory semantic identification, acoustic and object-related short-term memory, and sound extraction from a sound mixture. The performances of 26 TLE patients before and/or after ATL were compared to those of 18 healthy subjects. Patients before and after ATL were found to present with similar deficits in pitch retention, and in identification and short-term memorisation of environmental sounds, whereas not being impaired in basic acoustic processing compared to healthy subjects. It is most likely that the deficits observed before and after ATL are related to epileptic neuropathological processes. Therefore, in patients with drug-resistant TLE, ATL seems to significantly improve seizure control without producing additional auditory deficits.

  12. Musical intervention enhances infants' neural processing of temporal structure in music and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-05-10

    Individuals with music training in early childhood show enhanced processing of musical sounds, an effect that generalizes to speech processing. However, the conclusions drawn from previous studies are limited due to the possible confounds of predisposition and other factors affecting musicians and nonmusicians. We used a randomized design to test the effects of a laboratory-controlled music intervention on young infants' neural processing of music and speech. Nine-month-old infants were randomly assigned to music (intervention) or play (control) activities for 12 sessions. The intervention targeted temporal structure learning using triple meter in music (e.g., waltz), which is difficult for infants, and it incorporated key characteristics of typical infant music classes to maximize learning (e.g., multimodal, social, and repetitive experiences). Controls had similar multimodal, social, repetitive play, but without music. Upon completion, infants' neural processing of temporal structure was tested in both music (tones in triple meter) and speech (foreign syllable structure). Infants' neural processing was quantified by the mismatch response (MMR) measured with a traditional oddball paradigm using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The intervention group exhibited significantly larger MMRs in response to music temporal structure violations in both auditory and prefrontal cortical regions. Identical results were obtained for temporal structure changes in speech. The intervention thus enhanced temporal structure processing not only in music, but also in speech, at 9 mo of age. We argue that the intervention enhanced infants' ability to extract temporal structure information and to predict future events in time, a skill affecting both music and speech processing.

  13. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Recent research in the area of temporal databases has proposed a number of query languages that vary in their expressive power and the semantics they provide to users. These query languages represent a spectrum of solutions to the tension between clean semantics and efficient evaluation. Often, t...

  14. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  15. Temporal Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively...

  16. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2017-12-12

    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  17. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  18. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-8, č. článku 38076. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : temporal quantum steering * EPR steering Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  19. MULTI-TEMPORAL SAR INTERFEROMETRY FOR LANDSLIDE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dwivedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, SAR Interferometry specially InSAR and D-InSAR were extensively used for deformation monitoring related applications. Due to temporal and spatial decorrelation in dense vegetated areas, effectiveness of InSAR and D-InSAR observations were always under scrutiny. Multi-temporal InSAR methods are developed in recent times to retrieve the deformation signal from pixels with different scattering characteristics. Presently, two classes of multi-temporal InSAR algorithms are available- Persistent Scatterer (PS and Small Baseline (SB methods. This paper discusses the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterer (StaMPS based PS-InSAR and the Small Baselines Subset (SBAS techniques to estimate the surface deformation in Tehri dam reservoir region in Uttarkhand, India. Both PS-InSAR and SBAS approaches used sixteen ENVISAT ASAR C-Band images for generating single master and multiple master interferograms stack respectively and their StaMPS processing resulted in time series 1D-Line of Sight (LOS mean velocity maps which are indicative of deformation in terms of movement towards and away from the satellites. From 1D LOS velocity maps, localization of landslide is evident along the reservoir rim area which was also investigated in the previous studies. Both PS-InSAR and SBAS effectively extract measurement pixels in the study region, and the general results provided by both approaches show a similar deformation pattern along the Tehri reservoir region. Further, we conclude that StaMPS based PS-InSAR method performs better in terms of extracting more number of measurement pixels and in the estimation of mean Line of Sight (LOS velocity as compared to SBAS method. It is also proposed to take up a few major landslides area in Uttarakhand for slope stability assessment.

  20. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    as controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3......Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...... dysfunction in the epilepsy group, the mere presence of a chronic disorder with potential social stigmatization influences personality....

  1. Development of similarity theory for control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Evtushenko, V. F.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, G. V.

    2018-05-01

    The area of effective application of the traditional similarity theory and the need necessity of its development for systems are discussed. The main statements underlying the similarity theory of control systems are given. The conditions for the similarity of control systems and the need for similarity control control are formulated. Methods and algorithms for estimating and similarity control of control systems and the results of research of control systems based on their similarity are presented. The similarity control of systems includes the current evaluation of the degree of similarity of control systems and the development of actions controlling similarity, and the corresponding targeted change in the state of any element of control systems.

  2. Temporal estimation of threatening stimuli in social anxiety disorder: investigation of the effects of state anxiety and fearfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusyte, Aiste; Schneidt, Alexander; Schönenberg, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Prior studies suggest that particularly negative emotional events tend to be experienced as temporally dilated. Perceptual characteristics of the threat cue (averted or directed angry face), state as well as individual anxiety levels have been shown to contribute to the temporal distortions, but the interplay between these factors is not well understood. The present study investigated the relative contributions of these factors in a first study using clinical sample with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and healthy controls (HC). Participants performed a temporal bisection task (TBT) before and after a stress provocation phase, which served to induce state anxiety. During the TBT task, angry and neutral faces with averted vs. direct gaze were presented for the length of 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 ms, and judged regarding their similarity to the standard durations. A temporal overestimation effect for angry vs. neutral facial expressions was evident in both the HC and the SAD groups. An effect of experimentally induced state anxiety was evident solely in the SAD group, reflected in an overall increased temporal overestimation of angry vs. neutral expressions following the mood manipulation. The clinical sample may represent a high-functioning group, as the study was conducted on college students. Replication in more heterogeneous SAD samples is needed in order to draw further conclusions. These results may be relevant for the understanding of the etiology and maintenance of SAD and potentially for the development of novel intervention methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal Dietary Patterns Derived among the Adult Participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 Are Associated with Diet Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Khanna, Nitin; Boushey, Carol J; Gelfand, Saul B; Delp, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    Temporal dietary patterns, the distribution of energy or nutrient intakes observed over a period of time, is an emerging area of dietary patterns research that incorporates time of dietary intake with frequency and amount of intake to determine population clusters that may have similar characteristics or outcomes related to diet quality. We examined whether differences in diet quality were present between clusters of individuals with similar daily temporal dietary patterns. The first-day 24-hour dietary recall data from the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004, were used to determine proportional energy intake, time of intake, frequency of intake occasions, and mean diet quality. Data from 9,326 US adults aged 20 to 65 years were included. The mean diet quality, classified by the Healthy Eating Index-2005, of participant clusters with similar temporal dietary patterns derived on the basis of individual proportional energy intake, time of intake, and frequency of intake, were inferentially compared using multiple linear regression that controlled for potential confounders and other covariates (PDiet quality differences were present between US population clusters exhibiting similar daily temporal dietary patterns (Pdiet quality, demonstrating that elements beyond food and nutrient intake, such as time, can be incorporated with dietary patterns to determine links to diet quality that enhance knowledge of the complicated interplay of time and dietary patterns. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ADHD and temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    According to the official diagnostic manual, ADHD is defined by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and patterns of behaviour are characterized as failure to pay attention to details, excessive talking, fidgeting, or inability to remain seated in appropriate situations (DSM-5......). In this paper, however, I will ask if we can understand what we call ADHD in a different way than through the symptom descriptions and will advocate for a complementary, phenomenological understanding of ADHD as a certain being in the world – more specifically as a matter of a phenomenological difference...... in temporal experience and/or rhythm. Inspired by both psychiatry’s experiments with people diagnosed with ADHD and their assessment of time and phenomenological perspectives on mental disorders and temporal disorientation I explore the experience of ADHD as a disruption in the phenomenological experience...

  5. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  6. Marriage Matters: Spousal Similarity in Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schimmack; Richard Lucas

    2006-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-lagged spousal similarity in life satisfaction over a 21-year period. Analyses were based on married couples (N = 847) in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Concurrent spousal similarity was considerably higher than one-year retest similarity, revealing spousal similarity in the variable component of life satisfac-tion. Spousal similarity systematically decreased with length of retest interval, revealing simi-larity in the changing component of life sati...

  7. Similarity of eigenstates in generalized labyrinth tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiem, Stefanie; Schreiber, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The eigenstates of d-dimensional quasicrystalline models with a separable Hamiltonian are studied within the tight-binding model. The approach is based on mathematical sequences, constructed by an inflation rule P = {w → s,s → sws b-1 } describing the weak/strong couplings of atoms in a quasiperiodic chain. Higher-dimensional quasiperiodic tilings are constructed as a direct product of these chains and their eigenstates can be directly calculated by multiplying the energies E or wave functions ψ of the chain, respectively. Applying this construction rule, the grid in d dimensions splits into 2 d-1 different tilings, for which we investigated the characteristics of the wave functions. For the standard two-dimensional labyrinth tiling constructed from the octonacci sequence (b = 2) the lattice breaks up into two identical lattices, which consequently yield the same eigenstates. While this is not the case for b ≠ 2, our numerical results show that the wave functions of the different grids become increasingly similar for large system sizes. This can be explained by the fact that the structure of the 2 d-1 grids mainly differs at the boundaries and thus for large systems the eigenstates approach each other. This property allows us to analytically derive properties of the higher-dimensional generalized labyrinth tilings from the one-dimensional results. In particular participation numbers and corresponding scaling exponents have been determined.

  8. Phonological similarity and orthographic similarity affect probed serial recall of Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Lai, Yvonne C; Wu, Denise H

    2015-04-01

    The previous literature on working memory (WM) has indicated that verbal materials are dominantly retained in phonological representations, whereas other linguistic information (e.g., orthography, semantics) only contributes to verbal WM minimally, if not negligibly. Although accumulating evidence has suggested that multiple linguistic components jointly support verbal WM, the visual/orthographic contribution has rarely been addressed in alphabetic languages, possibly due to the difficulty of dissociating the effects of word forms from the effects of their pronunciations in relatively shallow orthography. In the present study, we examined whether the orthographic representations of Chinese characters support the retention of verbal materials in this language of deep orthography. In Experiments 1a and 2, we independently manipulated the phonological and orthographic similarity of horizontal and vertical characters, respectively, and found that participants' accuracy of probed serial recall was reduced by both similar pronunciations and shared phonetic radicals in the to-be-remembered stimuli. Moreover, Experiment 1b showed that only the effect of phonological, but not that of orthographic, similarity was affected by concurrent articulatory suppression. Taken together, the present results indicate the indispensable contribution of orthographic representations to verbal WM of Chinese characters, and suggest that the linguistic characteristics of a specific language not only determine long-term linguistic-processing mechanisms, but also delineate the organization of verbal WM for that language.

  9. On different forms of self similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswathy, R.K.; Mathew, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Fractal geometry is mainly based on the idea of self-similar forms. To be self-similar, a shape must able to be divided into parts that are smaller copies, which are more or less similar to the whole. There are different forms of self similarity in nature and mathematics. In this paper, some of the topological properties of super self similar sets are discussed. It is proved that in a complete metric space with two or more elements, the set of all non super self similar sets are dense in the set of all non-empty compact sub sets. It is also proved that the product of self similar sets are super self similar in product metric spaces and that the super self similarity is preserved under isometry. A characterization of super self similar sets using contracting sub self similarity is also presented. Some relevant counterexamples are provided. The concepts of exact super and sub self similarity are introduced and a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be exact super self similar in terms of condensation iterated function systems (Condensation IFS’s) is obtained. A method to generate exact sub self similar sets using condensation IFS’s and the denseness of exact super self similar sets are also discussed.

  10. Similar Task Features Shape Judgment and Categorization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Janina A.; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The distinction between similarity-based and rule-based strategies has instigated a large body of research in categorization and judgment. Within both domains, the task characteristics guiding strategy shifts are increasingly well documented. Across domains, past research has observed shifts from rule-based strategies in judgment to…

  11. A Model-Based Approach to Constructing Music Similarity Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamere Paul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have presented systems that estimate the audio similarity of two pieces of music through the calculation of a distance metric, such as the Euclidean distance, between spectral features calculated from the audio, related to the timbre or pitch of the signal. These features can be augmented with other, temporally or rhythmically based features such as zero-crossing rates, beat histograms, or fluctuation patterns to form a more well-rounded music similarity function. It is our contention that perceptual or cultural labels, such as the genre, style, or emotion of the music, are also very important features in the perception of music. These labels help to define complex regions of similarity within the available feature spaces. We demonstrate a machine-learning-based approach to the construction of a similarity metric, which uses this contextual information to project the calculated features into an intermediate space where a music similarity function that incorporates some of the cultural information may be calculated.

  12. An Energy-Based Similarity Measure for Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Brunagel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new similarity measure, called SimilB, for time series analysis, based on the cross-ΨB-energy operator (2004, is introduced. ΨB is a nonlinear measure which quantifies the interaction between two time series. Compared to Euclidean distance (ED or the Pearson correlation coefficient (CC, SimilB includes the temporal information and relative changes of the time series using the first and second derivatives of the time series. SimilB is well suited for both nonstationary and stationary time series and particularly those presenting discontinuities. Some new properties of ΨB are presented. Particularly, we show that ΨB as similarity measure is robust to both scale and time shift. SimilB is illustrated with synthetic time series and an artificial dataset and compared to the CC and the ED measures.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  14. [A Case of Amusia Following Right Temporal Subcortical Hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Narumi; Arai, Takao; Tanno, Maiko; Watanabe, Motoi; Suzuki, Tadashi; Akasaki, Yasuharu; Murayama, Yuichi

    2017-07-01

    A woman in her 60s presented with amusia due to a localized subcortical hemorrhage of the right temporal lobe. No other symptoms of higher brain dysfunction or body paralysis were observed. One characteristic symptom in this case was rhythm impairment. Few cases of this impairment have been previously reported, and the responsible lesion and underlying mechanisms are still a matter of speculation. However, in this case, a relationship with the right temporal lobe was indicated.

  15. Water-Quality Characteristics for Sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River Drainage Basins, Wyoming and Montana, Water Years 2001-05, with Temporal Patterns of Selected Long-Term Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality sampling was conducted regularly at stream sites within or near the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana during water years 2001-05 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2005) to characterize water quality in an area of coalbed natural gas development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, characterized the water quality at 22 sampling sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Data for general hydrology, field measurements, major-ion chemistry, and selected trace elements were summarized, and specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were evaluated for relations with streamflow and seasonal variability. Trend analysis for water years 1991-2005 was conducted for selected sites and constituents to assess change through time. Average annual runoff was highly variable among the stream sites. Generally, streams that have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains had more runoff as a result of higher average annual precipitation than streams that have headwaters in the plains. The Powder River at Moorhead, Mont., had the largest average annual runoff (319,000 acre-feet) of all the sites; however, streams in the Tongue River drainage basin had the highest runoff per unit area of the four major drainage basins. Annual runoff in all major drainage basins was less than average during 2001-05 because of drought conditions. Consequently, water-quality samples collected during the study period may not represent long-term water-quality con-ditions for all sites. Water-quality characteristics were highly variable generally because of streamflow variability, geologic controls, and potential land-use effects. The range of median specific-conductance values among sites was smallest in the Tongue River drainage basin. Median values in that basin ranged from 643 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm at 25?C) on the

  16. Searches over graphs representing geospatial-temporal remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Randolph; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2018-03-06

    Various technologies pertaining to identifying objects of interest in remote sensing images by searching over geospatial-temporal graph representations are described herein. Graphs are constructed by representing objects in remote sensing images as nodes, and connecting nodes with undirected edges representing either distance or adjacency relationships between objects and directed edges representing changes in time. Geospatial-temporal graph searches are made computationally efficient by taking advantage of characteristics of geospatial-temporal data in remote sensing images through the application of various graph search techniques.

  17. Poststroke Hemiparesis Impairs the Rate but not Magnitude of Adaptation of Spatial and Temporal Locomotor Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Douglas N.; Tseng, Shih-Chiao; Whitall, Jill; Morton, Susanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Persons with stroke and hemiparesis walk with a characteristic pattern of spatial and temporal asymmetry that is resistant to most traditional interventions. It was recently shown in nondisabled persons that the degree of walking symmetry can be readily altered via locomotor adaptation. However, it is unclear whether stroke-related brain damage affects the ability to adapt spatial or temporal gait symmetry. Objective Determine whether locomotor adaptation to a novel swing phase perturbation is impaired in persons with chronic stroke and hemiparesis. Methods Participants with ischemic stroke (14) and nondisabled controls (12) walked on a treadmill before, during, and after adaptation to a unilateral perturbing weight that resisted forward leg movement. Leg kinematics were measured bilaterally, including step length and single-limb support (SLS) time symmetry, limb angle center of oscillation, and interlimb phasing, and magnitude of “initial” and “late” locomotor adaptation rates were determined. Results All participants had similar magnitudes of adaptation and similar initial adaptation rates both spatially and temporally. All 14 participants with stroke and baseline asymmetry temporarily walked with improved SLS time symmetry after adaptation. However, late adaptation rates poststroke were decreased (took more strides to achieve adaptation) compared with controls. Conclusions Mild to moderate hemiparesis does not interfere with the initial acquisition of novel symmetrical gait patterns in both the spatial and temporal domains, though it does disrupt the rate at which “late” adaptive changes are produced. Impairment of the late, slow phase of learning may be an important rehabilitation consideration in this patient population. PMID:22367915

  18. Egocentric Temporal Action Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao Huang; Weiqiang Wang; Shengfeng He; Lau, Rynson W H

    2018-02-01

    We present an approach to localize generic actions in egocentric videos, called temporal action proposals (TAPs), for accelerating the action recognition step. An egocentric TAP refers to a sequence of frames that may contain a generic action performed by the wearer of a head-mounted camera, e.g., taking a knife, spreading jam, pouring milk, or cutting carrots. Inspired by object proposals, this paper aims at generating a small number of TAPs, thereby replacing the popular sliding window strategy, for localizing all action events in the input video. To this end, we first propose to temporally segment the input video into action atoms, which are the smallest units that may contain an action. We then apply a hierarchical clustering algorithm with several egocentric cues to generate TAPs. Finally, we propose two actionness networks to score the likelihood of each TAP containing an action. The top ranked candidates are returned as output TAPs. Experimental results show that the proposed TAP detection framework performs significantly better than relevant approaches for egocentric action detection.

  19. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  20. Structural controllability and controlling centrality of temporal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yujian; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Temporal networks are such networks where nodes and interactions may appear and disappear at various time scales. With the evidence of ubiquity of temporal networks in our economy, nature and society, it's urgent and significant to focus on its structural controllability as well as the corresponding characteristics, which nowadays is still an untouched topic. We develop graphic tools to study the structural controllability as well as its characteristics, identifying the intrinsic mechanism of the ability of individuals in controlling a dynamic and large-scale temporal network. Classifying temporal trees of a temporal network into different types, we give (both upper and lower) analytical bounds of the controlling centrality, which are verified by numerical simulations of both artificial and empirical temporal networks. We find that the positive relationship between aggregated degree and controlling centrality as well as the scale-free distribution of node's controlling centrality are virtually independent of the time scale and types of datasets, meaning the inherent robustness and heterogeneity of the controlling centrality of nodes within temporal networks.

  1. Large margin classification with indefinite similarities

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim; Cisse, Moustapha; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    Classification with indefinite similarities has attracted attention in the machine learning community. This is partly due to the fact that many similarity functions that arise in practice are not symmetric positive semidefinite, i.e. the Mercer

  2. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji; Genton, Marc G.; Jun, Mikyoung

    2016-01-01

    extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi

  3. Temporal Organization of Sound Information in Auditory Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Memory is a constructive and organizational process. Instead of being stored with all the fine details, external information is reorganized and structured at certain spatiotemporal scales. It is well acknowledged that time plays a central role in audition by segmenting sound inputs into temporal chunks of appropriate length. However, it remains largely unknown whether critical temporal structures exist to mediate sound representation in auditory memory. To address the issue, here we designed an auditory memory transferring study, by combining a previously developed unsupervised white noise memory paradigm with a reversed sound manipulation method. Specifically, we systematically measured the memory transferring from a random white noise sound to its locally temporal reversed version on various temporal scales in seven experiments. We demonstrate a U-shape memory-transferring pattern with the minimum value around temporal scale of 200 ms. Furthermore, neither auditory perceptual similarity nor physical similarity as a function of the manipulating temporal scale can account for the memory-transferring results. Our results suggest that sounds are not stored with all the fine spectrotemporal details but are organized and structured at discrete temporal chunks in long-term auditory memory representation.

  4. Temporal Organization of Sound Information in Auditory Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kun; Luo, Huan

    2017-01-01

    Memory is a constructive and organizational process. Instead of being stored with all the fine details, external information is reorganized and structured at certain spatiotemporal scales. It is well acknowledged that time plays a central role in audition by segmenting sound inputs into temporal chunks of appropriate length. However, it remains largely unknown whether critical temporal structures exist to mediate sound representation in auditory memory. To address the issue, here we designed an auditory memory transferring study, by combining a previously developed unsupervised white noise memory paradigm with a reversed sound manipulation method. Specifically, we systematically measured the memory transferring from a random white noise sound to its locally temporal reversed version on various temporal scales in seven experiments. We demonstrate a U-shape memory-transferring pattern with the minimum value around temporal scale of 200 ms. Furthermore, neither auditory perceptual similarity nor physical similarity as a function of the manipulating temporal scale can account for the memory-transferring results. Our results suggest that sounds are not stored with all the fine spectrotemporal details but are organized and structured at discrete temporal chunks in long-term auditory memory representation.

  5. Personality similarity and life satisfaction in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Furler Katrin; Gomez Veronica; Grob Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association between personality similarity and life satisfaction in a large nationally representative sample of 1608 romantic couples. Similarity effects were computed for the Big Five personality traits as well as for personality profiles with global and differentiated indices of similarity. Results showed substantial actor and partner effects indicating that both partners' personality traits were related to both partners' life satisfaction. Personality similar...

  6. The shifting temporalities of online news

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Henrik; Brügger, Niels

    2018-01-01

    websites (as well as other characteristics of online archives), the construction of the empirical base stands in a complex relation to the analytical framework applied. As much as the article is a historical analysis of the temporality of online news, it, thus, also offers a range of methodological......As much as news websites news can be characterised by speed and immediacy, they are also recognisable online periodicals, which accumulate preceding news items. This is, as with the constitution of time in general, linked to relations between change and continuity. This article aims to understand...... consequently employs a framework for webpage analysis that primarily focuses on the syntactical level where temporalities emerge as relations between textual elements that change at very different intervals. This framework is applied to examples from the different stages of The Guardian’s webpage from 1996...

  7. Temporal lobe volume predicts Wada memory test performance in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kan; Gong, Yunhua; Modur, Pradeep N; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Agostini, Mark; Gupta, Puneet; McColl, Roderick; Hays, Ryan; Van Ness, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The Wada test is widely used in the presurgical evaluation of potential temporal lobectomy patients to predict postoperative memory function. Expected asymmetry (EA), defined as Wada memory lateralized to the nonsurgical hemisphere, or a higher score after injection of the surgical hemisphere would be considered favorable in terms of postoperative memory outcome. However, in some cases, nonlateralized memory (NM) results, with no appreciable asymmetry, may occur because of impaired scores after both injections, often leading to denial of surgery. The reason for such nonlateralized Wada memory in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains unclear. Given that quantitative morphometric magnetic resonance imaging studies in TLE patients have shown bilateral regional atrophy in temporal and extratemporal structures, we hypothesized that the volume loss in contralateral temporal structures could contribute to nonlateralized Wada memory performance. To investigate this, we examined the relationship between the volume changes of temporal structures and Wada memory scores in patients with intractable TLE with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) using an age- and gender-matched control group. Memory was considered nonlateralized if the absolute difference in the total correct recall scores between ipsilateral and contralateral injections was memory was lateralized in 15 and nonlateralized in 6 patients, with all the nonlateralized scores being observed in left TLE. The recall scores after ipsilateral injection were significantly lower in patients with an NM profile than an EA profile (23 ± 14% vs. 59 ± 18% correct recall, p ≤ 0.001). However, the recall scores after contralateral injection were low but similar between the two groups (25 ± 17% vs. 25 ± 15% correct recall, p=0.97). Compared to controls, all the patients showed greater volume loss in the temporal regions. However, patients with a NM profile showed significantly more volume loss than those

  8. Applications of Temporal Graph Metrics to Real-World Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, John; Leontiadis, Ilias; Scellato, Salvatore; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Mascolo, Cecilia; Musolesi, Mirco; Latora, Vito

    Real world networks exhibit rich temporal information: friends are added and removed over time in online social networks; the seasons dictate the predator-prey relationship in food webs; and the propagation of a virus depends on the network of human contacts throughout the day. Recent studies have demonstrated that static network analysis is perhaps unsuitable in the study of real world network since static paths ignore time order, which, in turn, results in static shortest paths overestimating available links and underestimating their true corresponding lengths. Temporal extensions to centrality and efficiency metrics based on temporal shortest paths have also been proposed. Firstly, we analyse the roles of key individuals of a corporate network ranked according to temporal centrality within the context of a bankruptcy scandal; secondly, we present how such temporal metrics can be used to study the robustness of temporal networks in presence of random errors and intelligent attacks; thirdly, we study containment schemes for mobile phone malware which can spread via short range radio, similar to biological viruses; finally, we study how the temporal network structure of human interactions can be exploited to effectively immunise human populations. Through these applications we demonstrate that temporal metrics provide a more accurate and effective analysis of real-world networks compared to their static counterparts.

  9. Model Based Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Marla J.; Spinrad, Paul R.; Fall, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Systems that assess the real world must cope with evidence that is uncertain, ambiguous, and spread over time. Typically, the most important function of an assessment system is to identify when activities are occurring that are unusual or unanticipated. Model based temporal reasoning addresses both of these requirements. The differences among temporal reasoning schemes lies in the methods used to avoid computational intractability. If we had n pieces of data and we wanted to examine how they were related, the worst case would be where we had to examine every subset of these points to see if that subset satisfied the relations. This would be 2n, which is intractable. Models compress this; if several data points are all compatible with a model, then that model represents all those data points. Data points are then considered related if they lie within the same model or if they lie in models that are related. Models thus address the intractability problem. They also address the problem of determining unusual activities if the data do not agree with models that are indicated by earlier data then something out of the norm is taking place. The models can summarize what we know up to that time, so when they are not predicting correctly, either something unusual is happening or we need to revise our models. The model based reasoner developed at Advanced Decision Systems is thus both intuitive and powerful. It is currently being used on one operational system and several prototype systems. It has enough power to be used in domains spanning the spectrum from manufacturing engineering and project management to low-intensity conflict and strategic assessment.

  10. Multiple Temporalities, Layered Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pearson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Quotational Practices: Repeating the Future in Contemporary Art, Patrick Greaney asserts, “the past matters not only because of what actually happened but also because of the possibilities that were not realized and that still could be. Quotation evokes those possibilities. By repeating the past, artists and writers may be attempting to repeat that past’s unrealized futures.”[1]  In the information age, the Internet, for instance, provides us an expanded collection of visual information—quite literally available at our fingertips—summoning together aspects of the past and possibilities of the future into a boundless present. Sketchbook Revisions (2014–2015, a series of mixed-media paintings, represents my attempt to communicate the ways in which I experience my contemporary moment constructed from multiple temporalities excavated from my past. This body of work combines fragments of representational paintings created between 1995 and 2003 and nonrepresentational renderings produced between 2003 and 2014. Using traditional tracing paper and graphic color, I randomly select moments of my previous work to transfer and layer over selected areas of already-filled pages of a sketchbook I used from 2003 to 2004. These sketches depict objects I encountered in studio art classrooms and iconic architecture on the campus of McDaniel College, and often incorporate teaching notes. The final renditions of fragmented and layered histories enact the ways that we collectively experience multiple temporalities in the present. Quoting my various bodies of work, Sketchbook Revisions challenges both material and conceptual boundaries that determine fixed notions of artistic identity.

  11. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Joins are arguably the most important relational operators. Poor implementations are tantamount to computing the Cartesian product of the input relations. In a temporal database, the problem is more acute for two reasons. First, conventional techniques are designed for the evaluation of joins...... with equality predicates rather than the inequality predicates prevalent in valid-time queries. Second, the presence of temporally varying data dramatically increases the size of a database. These factors indicate that specialized techniques are needed to efficiently evaluate temporal joins. We address...... this need for efficient join evaluation in temporal databases. Our purpose is twofold. We first survey all previously proposed temporal join operators. While many temporal join operators have been defined in previous work, this work has been done largely in isolation from competing proposals, with little...

  12. Knowledge acquisition for temporal abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A; Musen, M A; Shahar, Y

    1996-01-01

    Temporal abstraction is the task of detecting relevant patterns in data over time. The knowledge-based temporal-abstraction method uses knowledge about a clinical domain's contexts, external events, and parameters to create meaningful interval-based abstractions from raw time-stamped clinical data. In this paper, we describe the acquisition and maintenance of domain-specific temporal-abstraction knowledge. Using the PROTEGE-II framework, we have designed a graphical tool for acquiring temporal knowledge directly from expert physicians, maintaining the knowledge in a sharable form, and converting the knowledge into a suitable format for use by an appropriate problem-solving method. In initial tests, the tool offered significant gains in our ability to rapidly acquire temporal knowledge and to use that knowledge to perform automated temporal reasoning.

  13. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  14. Music genre classification using temporal domain features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Yu; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2004-10-01

    Music genre provides an efficient way to index songs in the music database, and can be used as an effective means to retrieval music of a similar type, i.e. content-based music retrieval. In addition to other features, the temporal domain features of a music signal are exploited so as to increase the classification rate in this research. Three temporal techniques are examined in depth. First, the hidden Markov model (HMM) is used to emulate the time-varying properties of music signals. Second, to further increase the classification rate, we propose another feature set that focuses on the residual part of music signals. Third, the overall classification rate is enhanced by classifying smaller segments from a test material individually and making decision via majority voting. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed techniques.

  15. Temporal quadratic expansion nodal Green's function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cong; Jing Xingqing; Xu Xiaolin

    2000-01-01

    A new approach is presented to efficiently solve the three-dimensional space-time reactor dynamics equation which overcomes the disadvantages of current methods. In the Temporal Quadratic Expansion Nodal Green's Function Method (TQE/NGFM), the Quadratic Expansion Method (QEM) is used for the temporal solution with the Nodal Green's Function Method (NGFM) employed for the spatial solution. Test calculational results using TQE/NGFM show that its time step size can be 5-20 times larger than that of the Fully Implicit Method (FIM) for similar precision. Additionally, the spatial mesh size with NGFM can be nearly 20 times larger than that using the finite difference method. So, TQE/NGFM is proved to be an efficient reactor dynamics analysis method

  16. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  17. A Signal Processing Method to Explore Similarity in Protein Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina Vasilache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms of protein flexibility is of great importance to structural biology. The ability to detect similarities between proteins and their patterns is vital in discovering new information about unknown protein functions. A Distance Constraint Model (DCM provides a means to generate a variety of flexibility measures based on a given protein structure. Although information about mechanical properties of flexibility is critical for understanding protein function for a given protein, the question of whether certain characteristics are shared across homologous proteins is difficult to assess. For a proper assessment, a quantified measure of similarity is necessary. This paper begins to explore image processing techniques to quantify similarities in signals and images that characterize protein flexibility. The dataset considered here consists of three different families of proteins, with three proteins in each family. The similarities and differences found within flexibility measures across homologous proteins do not align with sequence-based evolutionary methods.

  18. From indoor to outdoor: Behavioural response of fish to noise exposure of different temporal structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yik Yaw Neo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, such as shipping and pile driving, produce substantial amounts of man-made noise underwater. The noise may negatively affect fish, causing physical injuries, hearing loss, physiological stress, acoustic masking and behavioural changes. Among these effects, behavioural changes are most problematic, but are understudied, especially under well-controlled field conditions. Moreover, man-made noise varies widely in terms of acoustic characteristics. The influence of temporal patterns of noise on the impacts is largely unknown. We exposed groups of European seabass to sound treatments of different temporal patterns, varying in intermittency, interval regularity and presence of amplitude 'ramp-up'. The study took place in a large octagonal floating pen (⌀ = ~12.5m in Oosterschelde, a marine inlet in the Netherlands. We tracked the fish swimming trajectories with an acoustic 3D telemetry system and looked into the behavioural changes and recovery. Upon noise exposure, the fish swam to greater depths in tighter shoals, similar to previous studies conducted in a basin. Moreover, the fish swam away from the noise source, suggesting avoidance behaviour. The different temporal patterns seemed to differ in their impact strengths although the results were not significant. These findings may carry important scientific and management implications.

  19. The temporal distribution of directional gradients under selection for an optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Haller, Benjamin C

    2014-12-01

    Temporal variation in phenotypic selection is often attributed to environmental change causing movements of the adaptive surface relating traits to fitness, but this connection is rarely established empirically. Fluctuating phenotypic selection can be measured by the variance and autocorrelation of directional selection gradients through time. However, the dynamics of these gradients depend not only on environmental changes altering the fitness surface, but also on evolution of the phenotypic distribution. Therefore, it is unclear to what extent variability in selection gradients can inform us about the underlying drivers of their fluctuations. To investigate this question, we derive the temporal distribution of directional gradients under selection for a phenotypic optimum that is either constant or fluctuates randomly in various ways in a finite population. Our analytical results, combined with population- and individual-based simulations, show that although some characteristic patterns can be distinguished, very different types of change in the optimum (including a constant optimum) can generate similar temporal distributions of selection gradients, making it difficult to infer the processes underlying apparent fluctuating selection. Analyzing changes in phenotype distributions together with changes in selection gradients should prove more useful for inferring the mechanisms underlying estimated fluctuating selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Rate equation simulation of temporal characteristics of a pulsed dye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -dependent, two-dimensional (in space) rate equation model of a .... fluorescence band of the dye is divided into ten wavelength segments of variable sizes. ... qualitative and reasonably good quantitative agreement with experimental results.

  1. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji

    2016-07-14

    Self-similar processes have been widely used in modeling real-world phenomena occurring in environmetrics, network traffic, image processing, and stock pricing, to name but a few. The estimation of the degree of self-similarity has been studied extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi-self-similarity for a random field indexed in higher dimensions. If self-similarity is not rejected, our test provides a set of estimated self-similarity indexes. The key is to test stationarity of the inverse Lamperti transformations of the process. The inverse Lamperti transformation of a self-similar process is a strongly stationary process, revealing a theoretical connection between the two processes. To demonstrate the capability of our test, we test self-similarity of fractional Brownian motions and sheets, their time deformations and mixtures with Gaussian white noise, and the generalized Cauchy family. We also apply the self-similarity test to real data: annual minimum water levels of the Nile River, network traffic records, and surface heights of food wrappings. © 2016, International Biometric Society.

  2. Auditory temporal processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Azam Navaei; Mohammadkhani, Ghassem; Motamedi, Mahmoud; Karimi, Leyla Jalilvand; Jalaei, Shohreh; Shojaei, Fereshteh Sadat; Danesh, Ali; Azimi, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    Auditory temporal processing is the main feature of speech processing ability. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, despite their normal hearing sensitivity, may present speech recognition disorders. The present study was carried out to evaluate the auditory temporal processing in patients with unilateral TLE. The present study was carried out on 25 patients with epilepsy: 11 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy and 14 with left temporal lobe epilepsy with a mean age of 31.1years and 18 control participants with a mean age of 29.4years. The two experimental and control groups were evaluated via gap-in-noise and duration pattern sequence tests. One-way ANOVA was run to analyze the data. The mean of the threshold of the GIN test in the control group was observed to be better than that in participants with LTLE and RTLE. Also, it was observed that the percentage of correct responses on the DPS test in the control group and in participants with RTLE was better than that in participants with LTLE. Patients with TLE have difficulties in temporal processing. Difficulties are more significant in patients with LTLE, likely because the left temporal lobe is specialized for the processing of temporal information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex & vision I: Spatio-temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov Israel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, which could be a basis for sex differences in sensory functions. For example, audition has clear sex differences, which are related to serum testosterone levels. Of all major sensory systems only vision has not been examined for sex differences, which is surprising because occipital lobe (primary visual projection area may have the highest density of testosterone receptors in the cortex. We have examined a basic visual function: spatial and temporal pattern resolution and acuity. Methods We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision. They were screened with a battery of standard tests that examined acuity, color vision, and stereopsis. We sampled the visual system’s contrast-sensitivity function (CSF across the entire spatio-temporal space: 6 spatial frequencies at each of 5 temporal rates. Stimuli were gratings with sinusoidal luminance profiles generated on a special-purpose computer screen; their contrast was also sinusoidally modulated in time. We measured threshold contrasts using a criterion-free (forced-choice, adaptive psychophysical method (QUEST algorithm. Also, each individual’s acuity limit was estimated by fitting his or her data with a model and extrapolating to find the spatial frequency corresponding to 100% contrast. Results At a very low temporal rate, the spatial CSF was the canonical inverted-U; but for higher temporal rates, the maxima of the spatial CSFs shifted: Observers lost sensitivity at high spatial frequencies and gained sensitivity at low frequencies; also, all the maxima of the CSFs shifted by about the same amount in spatial frequency. Main effect: there was a significant (ANOVA sex difference. Across the entire spatio-temporal domain, males were more sensitive, especially at higher spatial frequencies; similarly males had significantly better acuity at all temporal rates. Conclusion As with other sensory systems

  4. Pyramidal neurons in the septal and temporal CA1 field of the human and hedgehog tenrec hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liagkouras, Ioannis; Michaloudi, Helen; Batzios, Christos; Psaroulis, Dimitrios; Georgiadis, Marios; Künzle, Heinz; Papadopoulos, Georgios C

    2008-07-07

    The present study examines comparatively the cellular density of disector-counted/Nissl-stained CA1 pyramidal neurons and the morphometric characteristics (dendritic number/length, spine number/density and Sholl-counted dendritic branch points/20 microm) of the basal and apical dendritic systems of Golgi-impregnated CA1 neurons, in the septal and temporal hippocampus of the human and hedgehog tenrec brain. The obtained results indicate that in both hippocampal parts the cellular density of the CA1 pyramidal neurons is lower in human than in tenrec. However, while the human pyramidal cell density is higher in the septal hippocampal part than in the temporal one, in the tenrec the density of these cells is higher in the temporal part. The dendritic tree of the CA1 pyramidal cells, more developed in the septal than in temporal hippocampus in both species studied, is in general more complex in the human hippocampus. The basal and the apical dendritic systems exhibit species related morphometric differences, while dendrites of different orders exhibit differences in their number and length, and in their spine density. Finally, in both species, as well as hippocampal parts and dendritic systems, changes of dendritic morphometric features along ascending dendritic orders fluctuate in a similar way, as do the number of dendritic branch points in relation to the distance from the neuron soma.

  5. Airway disease: similarities and differences between asthma, COPD and bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Athanazio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Airway diseases are highly prevalent worldwide; however, the prevalence of these diseases is underestimated. Although these diseases present several common characteristics, they have different clinical outcomes. The differentiation between asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in the early stage of disease is extremely important for the adoption of appropriate therapeutic measures. However, because of the high prevalence of these diseases and the common pathophysiological pathways, some patients with different diseases may present with similar symptoms. The objective of this review is to highlight the similarities and differences between these diseases in terms of the risk factors, pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Study of a temporal bone of Homo heildelbergensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Rafael; Botella, Miguel; Ciges, Miguel

    2005-05-01

    The characteristic features of the Hh specimen conformed to those of other Pleistocene human fossils, indicating strong cranial structures and a heavy mandible. The mastoid was large and suggested a powerful sternocleidomastoid muscle. The inner ear and tympanic cavities were similar in size and orientation, suggesting that their functions were probably similar. Our observations suggest that the left ear of this Hh specimen was healthy. The large canaliculo-fenestral angle confirms that this ancestor was bipedal. It also strongly suggests that Hh individuals were predisposed to develop certain pathologies of the labyrinth capsule associated with bipedalism, in particular otosclerosis. We studied a temporal bone of Homo heidelbergensis (Hh) in order to investigate the clinical and physiological implications of certain morphological features, especially those associated with the evolutionary reorganization of the inner ear. The bone, found in a breach of a cave near MAáaga in southern Spain, together with Middle Upper Pleistocene faunal remains, is >300000 years old. Four analytical methods were employed. A 3D high-resolution surface laser scan was used for anatomical measurements. For the sectional analysis of the middle and inner ears of Hh we used high-resolution CT, simultaneously studying a normal temporal bone from Homo sapiens sapiens (Hss). To study the middle and inner ear spaces we used 3D reconstruction CT preceded by an intra-bone air shielding technique. To examine the tympanic cavities and measure the canaliculo fenestral angle, we used a special minimally invasive endoscopic procedure. The surface, sectional and 3D CT examinations showed that the Hh specimen was generally more robust and larger than the Hss specimen. It had a large glenoid fossa. The external meatus was wide and deep. The middle ear, and especially the mastoid, was large and widely pneumatized. There were no appreciable differences in the position and size of the labyrinthine spaces

  7. Notions of similarity for systems biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Ron; Hoehndorf, Robert; Kacprowski, Tim; Knüpfer, Christian; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Systems biology models are rapidly increasing in complexity, size and numbers. When building large models, researchers rely on software tools for the retrieval, comparison, combination and merging of models, as well as for version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of 'similarity' may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here we survey existing methods for the comparison of models, introduce quantitative measures for model similarity, and discuss potential applications of combined similarity measures. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on a combination of different model aspects. The six aspects that we define as potentially relevant for similarity are underlying encoding, references to biological entities, quantitative behaviour, qualitative behaviour, mathematical equations and parameters and network structure. We argue that future similarity measures will benefit from combining these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways to mimic users' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Investigation of psychophysical similarity measures for selection of similar images in the diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert; Shiraishi, Junji; Doi, Kunio [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States) and Department of Intelligent Image Information, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu (Japan); Department of Radiology, Duke Advanced Imaging Labs, Duke University, 2424 Erwin Road, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The presentation of images with lesions of known pathology that are similar to an unknown lesion may be helpful to radiologists in the diagnosis of challenging cases for improving the diagnostic accuracy and also for reducing variation among different radiologists. The authors have been developing a computerized scheme for automatically selecting similar images with clustered microcalcifications on mammograms from a large database. For similar images to be useful, they must be similar from the point of view of the diagnosing radiologists. In order to select such images, subjective similarity ratings were obtained for a number of pairs of clustered microcalcifications by breast radiologists for establishment of a ''gold standard'' of image similarity, and the gold standard was employed for determination and evaluation of the selection of similar images. The images used in this study were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography developed by the University of South Florida. The subjective similarity ratings for 300 pairs of images with clustered microcalcifications were determined by ten breast radiologists. The authors determined a number of image features which represent the characteristics of clustered microcalcifications that radiologists would use in their diagnosis. For determination of objective similarity measures, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed. The ANN was trained with the average subjective similarity ratings as teacher and selected image features as input data. The ANN was trained to learn the relationship between the image features and the radiologists' similarity ratings; therefore, once the training was completed, the ANN was able to determine the similarity, called a psychophysical similarity measure, which was expected to be close to radiologists' impressions, for an unknown pair of clustered microcalcifications. By use of a leave-one-out test method, the best combination of features

  9. Investigation of psychophysical similarity measures for selection of similar images in the diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert; Shiraishi, Junji; Doi, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of images with lesions of known pathology that are similar to an unknown lesion may be helpful to radiologists in the diagnosis of challenging cases for improving the diagnostic accuracy and also for reducing variation among different radiologists. The authors have been developing a computerized scheme for automatically selecting similar images with clustered microcalcifications on mammograms from a large database. For similar images to be useful, they must be similar from the point of view of the diagnosing radiologists. In order to select such images, subjective similarity ratings were obtained for a number of pairs of clustered microcalcifications by breast radiologists for establishment of a ''gold standard'' of image similarity, and the gold standard was employed for determination and evaluation of the selection of similar images. The images used in this study were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography developed by the University of South Florida. The subjective similarity ratings for 300 pairs of images with clustered microcalcifications were determined by ten breast radiologists. The authors determined a number of image features which represent the characteristics of clustered microcalcifications that radiologists would use in their diagnosis. For determination of objective similarity measures, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed. The ANN was trained with the average subjective similarity ratings as teacher and selected image features as input data. The ANN was trained to learn the relationship between the image features and the radiologists' similarity ratings; therefore, once the training was completed, the ANN was able to determine the similarity, called a psychophysical similarity measure, which was expected to be close to radiologists' impressions, for an unknown pair of clustered microcalcifications. By use of a leave-one-out test method, the best combination of features was selected. The correlation

  10. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  11. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Jensen, K; Podelski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  12. On self-similar Tolman models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The self-similar spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equation for the case of dust are identified. These form a subclass of the Tolman models. These self-similar models contain the solution recently presented by Chi [J. Math. Phys. 28, 1539 (1987)], thereby refuting the claim of having found a new solution to the Einstein field equations

  13. Mining Diagnostic Assessment Data for Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara; Hunt, Earl

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for mining multiple-choice assessment data for similarity of the concepts represented by the multiple choice responses. The resulting similarity matrix can be used to visualize the distance between concepts in a lower-dimensional space. This gives an instructor a visualization of the relative difficulty of concepts…

  14. Measuring transferring similarity via local information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Likang; Deng, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Recommender systems have developed along with the web science, and how to measure the similarity between users is crucial for processing collaborative filtering recommendation. Many efficient models have been proposed (i.g., the Pearson coefficient) to measure the direct correlation. However, the direct correlation measures are greatly affected by the sparsity of dataset. In other words, the direct correlation measures would present an inauthentic similarity if two users have a very few commonly selected objects. Transferring similarity overcomes this drawback by considering their common neighbors (i.e., the intermediates). Yet, the transferring similarity also has its drawback since it can only provide the interval of similarity. To break the limitations, we propose the Belief Transferring Similarity (BTS) model. The contributions of BTS model are: (1) BTS model addresses the issue of the sparsity of dataset by considering the high-order similarity. (2) BTS model transforms uncertain interval to a certain state based on fuzzy systems theory. (3) BTS model is able to combine the transferring similarity of different intermediates using information fusion method. Finally, we compare BTS models with nine different link prediction methods in nine different networks, and we also illustrate the convergence property and efficiency of the BTS model.

  15. On distributional assumptions and whitened cosine similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an interpretation of the whitened cosine similarity measure as a Bayes decision rule was proposed (C. Liu, "The Bayes Decision Rule Induced Similarity Measures,'' IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1086-1090, June 2007. This communication makes th...

  16. Self-Similar Traffic In Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jerjomins, R.; Petersons, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have shown that traffic in Ethernet and other wired networks is self-similar. This paper reveals that wireless network traffic is also self-similar and long-range dependant by analyzing big amount of data captured from the wireless router.

  17. Similarity Structure of Wave-Collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Similarity transformations of the cubic Schrödinger equation (CSE) are investigated. The transformations are used to remove the explicit time variation in the CSE and reduce it to differential equations in the spatial variables only. Two different methods for similarity reduction are employed and...

  18. Temporal Ventriloquism Reveals Intact Audiovisual Temporal Integration in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Michael D; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2018-02-01

    We have shown previously that amblyopia involves impaired detection of asynchrony between auditory and visual events. To distinguish whether this impairment represents a defect in temporal integration or nonintegrative multisensory processing (e.g., cross-modal matching), we used the temporal ventriloquism effect in which visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) is normally enhanced by a lagging auditory click. Participants with amblyopia (n = 9) and normally sighted controls (n = 9) performed a visual TOJ task. Pairs of clicks accompanied the two lights such that the first click preceded the first light, or second click lagged the second light by 100, 200, or 450 ms. Baseline audiovisual synchrony and visual-only conditions also were tested. Within both groups, just noticeable differences for the visual TOJ task were significantly reduced compared with baseline in the 100- and 200-ms click lag conditions. Within the amblyopia group, poorer stereo acuity and poorer visual acuity in the amblyopic eye were significantly associated with greater enhancement in visual TOJ performance in the 200-ms click lag condition. Audiovisual temporal integration is intact in amblyopia, as indicated by perceptual enhancement in the temporal ventriloquism effect. Furthermore, poorer stereo acuity and poorer visual acuity in the amblyopic eye are associated with a widened temporal binding window for the effect. These findings suggest that previously reported abnormalities in audiovisual multisensory processing may result from impaired cross-modal matching rather than a diminished capacity for temporal audiovisual integration.

  19. Investigação da temporalidade das características definidoras do diagnóstico de resposta disfuncional ao desmame ventilatório La investigación de la temporalidad de las características definitorias de diagnóstico de la respuesta disfuncional para el destete ventilatorio Investigation of the temporality of the defining characteristics of the diagnostic response to dysfunctional ventilatory weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Avellar Cerqueira

    2012-09-01

    observada. Fue posible distinguir los intervalos principales de observación y de demostración de las características que definen, a saber: temprana, intermedia y tardía. En cuanto a la gestión del proceso de destete, se podría dar algunos aportes para una mejor evaluación del protocolo.This study investigated the temporal distribution of the defining characteristics Response to Dysfunctional Ventilatory Weaning. Aimed to describe the conformation of the chronological distribution of the defining characteristics of this diagnostic in ventilated patients during the prolonged interruption of mechanical ventilation and verify the existence of a prevailing weather pattern. This is a descriptive study and exploratory quantitative approach. The subjects were adult clients admitted for clinical reasons in the Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Pro-Cardiac under prolonged mechanical ventilation and who were being weaned. With the results was obtained to confirm the hypothesis of a temporal distribution prevailing in the observed sample. It was possible to distinguish the main intervals of observation / demonstration of the defining characteristics, namely: early, intermediate and late. Regarding the management of the weaning process could be given some contributions to better assessments of protocol.

  20. Cadaveric Temporal Bone Dissection: Is It Obsolete Today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik, Sulabha M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Traditionally, surgical training in otology, is imparted by dissecting harvested human cadaveric temporal bones. However, maintenance of a cadaveric temporal bone laboratory is expensive and carries risk of exposure to infection. In recent times, other modalities of training are gaining ground and are likely to eventually replace cadaveric temporal bone dissection altogether. Objectives Other alternative methods of training are emerging. New technology like simulation and virtual reality as high-fidelity, safer alternatives, are making rapid strides as teaching tools. Other options are the use of animal temporal bones as teaching tools. The advantages of these are compared. Data Synthesis None of these modalities can replicate the innumerable anatomical variations which are a characteristic feature of the human temporal bone. A novice surgeon not only needs exposure to surgical anatomy and it's variations but also needs to develop hand-eye coordination skills to gain expertise. Conclusion Deliberate practice on human cadaveric temporal bones only, will confer both mastery in anatomy and surgical technique. The human cadaveric temporal bone is ideal simulator for training in otology.

  1. Information filtering based on transferring similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Duo; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2009-07-01

    In this Brief Report, we propose an index of user similarity, namely, the transferring similarity, which involves all high-order similarities between users. Accordingly, we design a modified collaborative filtering algorithm, which provides remarkably higher accurate predictions than the standard collaborative filtering. More interestingly, we find that the algorithmic performance will approach its optimal value when the parameter, contained in the definition of transferring similarity, gets close to its critical value, before which the series expansion of transferring similarity is convergent and after which it is divergent. Our study is complementary to the one reported in [E. A. Leicht, P. Holme, and M. E. J. Newman, Phys. Rev. E 73, 026120 (2006)], and is relevant to the missing link prediction problem.

  2. Self-similar continued root approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.

    2012-01-01

    A novel method of summing asymptotic series is advanced. Such series repeatedly arise when employing perturbation theory in powers of a small parameter for complicated problems of condensed matter physics, statistical physics, and various applied problems. The method is based on the self-similar approximation theory involving self-similar root approximants. The constructed self-similar continued roots extrapolate asymptotic series to finite values of the expansion parameter. The self-similar continued roots contain, as a particular case, continued fractions and Padé approximants. A theorem on the convergence of the self-similar continued roots is proved. The method is illustrated by several examples from condensed-matter physics.

  3. Scalar Similarity for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method allows the measurement of trace gas fluxes when no fast sensors are available for eddy covariance measurements. The flux parameterisation used in REA is based on the assumption of scalar similarity, i.e., similarity of the turbulent exchange of two scalar quantities. In this study changes in scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour were assessed using scalar correlation coefficients and spectral analysis. The influence on REA measurements was assessed by simulation. The evaluation is based on observations over grassland, irrigated cotton plantation and spruce forest. Scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour showed a distinct diurnal pattern and change within the day. Poor scalar similarity was found to be linked to dissimilarities in the energy contained in the low frequency part of the turbulent spectra ( definition.

  4. Surf similarity and solitary wave runup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative to a previ...... functional dependence on their respective surf similarity parameters. Important equivalencies in the runup of sinusoidal and solitary waves are thus revealed.......The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative...... to a previous parameterization, which was not given in an explicit form. Good coherency with experimental (breaking) runup data is preserved with this simpler parameter. A recasting of analytical (nonbreaking) runup expressions for sinusoidal and solitary waves additionally shows that they contain identical...

  5. Toward a clinic of temporality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivasseau Jonveaux, Thérèse; Batt, Martine; Trognon, Alain

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of time cells has expanded our knowledge in the field of spatial and temporal information coding and the key role of the hippocampus. The internal clock model complemented with the attentional gate model allows a more in-depth understanding of the perception of time. The motor representation of duration is ensured by the basal ganglia, while the cerebellum synchronizes short duration for the movement. The right prefrontal cortex seemingly intervenes in the handling of temporal information in working memory. The temporal lobe ensures the comparison of durations, especially the right lobe for the reference durations and the medial lobe for the reproduction of durations in episodic memory. During normal aging, the hypothesis of slowing of the temporal processor is evoked when noting the perception of the acceleration of the passage of time that seemingly occurs with advancing age. The various studies pertaining specifically to time cognition, albeit heterogeneous in terms of methodology, attest to the wide-ranging disturbances of this cognitive field during the course of numerous disorders, whether psychiatric - depression and schizophrenia notably - or neurological. Hence, perturbations in temporality are observed in focal brain lesions and in subcortical disorders, such as Parkinson's disease or Huntington's chorea. Alzheimer's disease represents a particularly fertile field of exploration with regard to time cognition and temporality. The objectified deconstruction of temporal experience provides insights into the very processes of temporality and their nature: episodic, semantic and procedural. In addition to exploration based on elementary stimuli, one should also consider the time lived, i.e. that of the subject, to better understand cognition as it relates to time. While the temporal dimension permeates the whole cognitive field, it remains largely neglected: integration of a genuine time cognition and temporality clinic in daily practice remains

  6. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-08

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval.

  7. Similarity in Bilateral Isolated Internal Orbital Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Chang; Cox, Jacob T; Sanyal, Abanti; Mahoney, Nicholas R

    2018-04-13

    In evaluating patients sustaining bilateral isolated internal orbital fractures, the authors have observed both similar fracture locations and also similar expansion of orbital volumes. In this study, we aim to investigate if there is a propensity for the 2 orbits to fracture in symmetrically similar patterns when sustaining similar trauma. A retrospective chart review was performed studying all cases at our institution of bilateral isolated internal orbital fractures involving the medial wall and/or the floor at the time of presentation. The similarity of the bilateral fracture locations was evaluated using the Fisher's exact test. The bilateral expanded orbital volumes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to assess for orbital volume similarity. Twenty-four patients with bilateral internal orbital fractures were analyzed for fracture location similarity. Seventeen patients (70.8%) had 100% concordance in the orbital subregion fractured, and the association between the right and the left orbital fracture subregion locations was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Fifteen patients were analyzed for orbital volume similarity. The average orbital cavity volume was 31.2 ± 3.8 cm on the right and 32.0 ± 3.7 cm on the left. There was a statistically significant difference between right and left orbital cavity volumes (P = 0.0026). The data from this study suggest that an individual who suffers isolated bilateral internal orbital fractures has a statistically significant similarity in the location of their orbital fractures. However, there does not appear to be statistically significant similarity in the expansion of the orbital volumes in these patients.

  8. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory II: Information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eMunoz-Lopez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory recognition memory in non-human primates differs from recognition memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition memory lasting 10-20 minutes. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30-40 seconds. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys’ auditory memory performance. It is possible, therefore, that the anatomical pathways differ. Long-term visual recognition memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC. We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for auditory processing, or that poor auditory recognition memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an auditory pathway for recognition memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG, and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 MW tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex, and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor auditory memory of rhesus monkeys.

  9. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory II: information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, M; Insausti, R; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Mishkin, M; Saunders, R C

    2015-01-01

    Auditory recognition memory in non-human primates differs from recognition memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition memory lasting 10-20 min. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30-40 s. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys' auditory memory performance. The anatomical pathways for auditory memory may differ from those in vision. Long-term visual recognition memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC). We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for auditory processing, or that poor auditory recognition memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an auditory pathway for recognition memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG), and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY) and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 mW) tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38 DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex (EC), and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor auditory memory of rhesus monkeys.

  10. Fronto-Temporal Connectivity Predicts ECT Outcome in Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M. Leaver

    2018-03-01

    MRI metrics can successfully predict ECT outcome, particularly for individuals who will not respond to treatment. Notably, connectivity with networks highly relevant to ECT and depression were consistently selected as important predictive features. These included the left DLPFC and the sgACC, which are both targets of other neurostimulation therapies for depression, as well as connectivity between motor and right temporal cortices near electrode sites. Future studies that probe additional functional and structural MRI metrics and other patient characteristics may further improve the predictive power of these and similar models.

  11. 3D City Models with Different Temporal Characteristica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    traditional static city models and those models that are built for realtime applications. The difference between the city models applies both to the spatial modelling and also when using the phenomenon time in the models. If the city models are used in visualizations without any variation in time or when......-built dynamic or a model suitable for visualization in realtime, it is required that modelling is done with level-of-detail and simplification of both the aesthetics and the geometry. If a temporal characteristic is combined with a visual characteristic, the situation can easily be seen as a t/v matrix where t...... is the temporal characteristic or representation and v is the visual characteristic or representation....

  12. Cortical Correlates of Binaural Temporal Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddins, Ann Clock; Eddins, David A

    This study was designed to evaluate binaural temporal processing in young and older adults using a binaural masking level difference (BMLD) paradigm. Using behavioral and electrophysiological measures within the same listeners, a series of stimulus manipulations was used to evaluate the relative contribution of binaural temporal fine-structure and temporal envelope cues. We evaluated the hypotheses that age-related declines in the BMLD task would be more strongly associated with temporal fine-structure than envelope cues and that age-related declines in behavioral measures would be correlated with cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) measures. Thirty adults participated in the study, including 10 young normal-hearing, 10 older normal-hearing, and 10 older hearing-impaired adults with bilaterally symmetric, mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Behavioral and CAEP thresholds were measured for diotic (So) and dichotic (Sπ) tonal signals presented in continuous diotic (No) narrowband noise (50-Hz wide) maskers. Temporal envelope cues were manipulated by using two different narrowband maskers; Gaussian noise (GN) with robust envelope fluctuations and low-noise noise (LNN) with minimal envelope fluctuations. The potential to use temporal fine-structure cues was controlled by varying the signal frequency (500 or 4000 Hz), thereby relying on the natural decline in phase-locking with increasing frequency. Behavioral and CAEP thresholds were similar across groups for diotic conditions, while the masking release in dichotic conditions was larger for younger than for older participants. Across all participants, BMLDs were larger for GN than LNN and for 500-Hz than for 4000-Hz conditions, where envelope and fine-structure cues were most salient, respectively. Specific age-related differences were demonstrated for 500-Hz dichotic conditions in GN and LNN, reflecting reduced binaural temporal fine-structure coding. No significant age effects were observed for 4000

  13. Realigning thunder and lightning: temporal adaptation to spatiotemporally distant events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Navarra

    Full Text Available The brain is able to realign asynchronous signals that approximately coincide in both space and time. Given that many experience-based links between visual and auditory stimuli are established in the absence of spatiotemporal proximity, we investigated whether or not temporal realignment arises in these conditions. Participants received a 3-min exposure to visual and auditory stimuli that were separated by 706 ms and appeared either from the same (Experiment 1 or from different spatial positions (Experiment 2. A simultaneity judgment task (SJ was administered right afterwards. Temporal realignment between vision and audition was observed, in both Experiment 1 and 2, when comparing the participants' SJs after this exposure phase with those obtained after a baseline exposure to audiovisual synchrony. However, this effect was present only when the visual stimuli preceded the auditory stimuli during the exposure to asynchrony. A similar pattern of results (temporal realignment after exposure to visual-leading asynchrony but not after exposure to auditory-leading asynchrony was obtained using temporal order judgments (TOJs instead of SJs (Experiment 3. Taken together, these results suggest that temporal recalibration still occurs for visual and auditory stimuli that fall clearly outside the so-called temporal window for multisensory integration and appear from different spatial positions. This temporal realignment may be modulated by long-term experience with the kind of asynchrony (vision-leading that we most frequently encounter in the outside world (e.g., while perceiving distant events.

  14. Positive autobiographical memory retrieval reduces temporal discounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Karolina M; Speer, Megan E; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract People generally prefer rewards sooner rather than later. This phenomenon, temporal discounting, underlies many societal problems, including addiction and obesity. One way to reduce temporal discounting is to imagine positive future experiences. Since there is overlap in the neural circuitry associated with imagining future experiences and remembering past events, here we investigate whether recalling positive memories can also promote more patient choice. We found that participants were more patient after retrieving positive autobiographical memories, but not when they recalled negative memories. Moreover, individuals were more impulsive after imagining novel positive scenes that were not related to their memories, showing that positive imagery alone does not drive this effect. Activity in the striatum and temporo parietal junction during memory retrieval predicted more patient choice, suggesting that to the extent that memory recall is rewarding and involves perspective-taking, it influences decision-making. Furthermore, representational similarity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between memory recall and decision phases correlated with the behavioral effect across participants. Thus, we have identified a novel manipulation for reducing temporal discounting—remembering the positive past—and have begun to characterize the psychological and neural mechanisms behind it. PMID:28655195

  15. Positive autobiographical memory retrieval reduces temporal discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Karolina M; Speer, Megan E; Delgado, Mauricio R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2017-10-01

    People generally prefer rewards sooner rather than later. This phenomenon, temporal discounting, underlies many societal problems, including addiction and obesity. One way to reduce temporal discounting is to imagine positive future experiences. Since there is overlap in the neural circuitry associated with imagining future experiences and remembering past events, here we investigate whether recalling positive memories can also promote more patient choice. We found that participants were more patient after retrieving positive autobiographical memories, but not when they recalled negative memories. Moreover, individuals were more impulsive after imagining novel positive scenes that were not related to their memories, showing that positive imagery alone does not drive this effect. Activity in the striatum and temporo parietal junction during memory retrieval predicted more patient choice, suggesting that to the extent that memory recall is rewarding and involves perspective-taking, it influences decision-making. Furthermore, representational similarity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between memory recall and decision phases correlated with the behavioral effect across participants. Thus, we have identified a novel manipulation for reducing temporal discounting-remembering the positive past-and have begun to characterize the psychological and neural mechanisms behind it. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Time series analysis of temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, Sandipan; Ganguly, Niloy; Mukherjee, Animesh

    2016-01-01

    A common but an important feature of all real-world networks is that they are temporal in nature, i.e., the network structure changes over time. Due to this dynamic nature, it becomes difficult to propose suitable growth models that can explain the various important characteristic properties of these networks. In fact, in many application oriented studies only knowing these properties is sufficient. For instance, if one wishes to launch a targeted attack on a network, this can be done even without the knowledge of the full network structure; rather an estimate of some of the properties is sufficient enough to launch the attack. We, in this paper show that even if the network structure at a future time point is not available one can still manage to estimate its properties. We propose a novel method to map a temporal network to a set of time series instances, analyze them and using a standard forecast model of time series, try to predict the properties of a temporal network at a later time instance. To our aim, we consider eight properties such as number of active nodes, average degree, clustering coefficient etc. and apply our prediction framework on them. We mainly focus on the temporal network of human face-to-face contacts and observe that it represents a stochastic process with memory that can be modeled as Auto-Regressive-Integrated-Moving-Average (ARIMA). We use cross validation techniques to find the percentage accuracy of our predictions. An important observation is that the frequency domain properties of the time series obtained from spectrogram analysis could be used to refine the prediction framework by identifying beforehand the cases where the error in prediction is likely to be high. This leads to an improvement of 7.96% (for error level ≤20%) in prediction accuracy on an average across all datasets. As an application we show how such prediction scheme can be used to launch targeted attacks on temporal networks. Contribution to the Topical Issue

  17. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  18. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-03-21

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users\\' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  19. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-09-07

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider the case of trajectory similarity join (TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Thus, given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. This join targets applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm\\'s per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  20. The baryonic self similarity of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alard, C.

    2014-01-01

    The cosmological simulations indicates that dark matter halos have specific self-similar properties. However, the halo similarity is affected by the baryonic feedback. By using momentum-driven winds as a model to represent the baryon feedback, an equilibrium condition is derived which directly implies the emergence of a new type of similarity. The new self-similar solution has constant acceleration at a reference radius for both dark matter and baryons. This model receives strong support from the observations of galaxies. The new self-similar properties imply that the total acceleration at larger distances is scale-free, the transition between the dark matter and baryons dominated regime occurs at a constant acceleration, and the maximum amplitude of the velocity curve at larger distances is proportional to M 1/4 . These results demonstrate that this self-similar model is consistent with the basics of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) phenomenology. In agreement with the observations, the coincidence between the self-similar model and MOND breaks at the scale of clusters of galaxies. Some numerical experiments show that the behavior of the density near the origin is closely approximated by a Einasto profile.

  1. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Henkel, Ron; Hoehndorf, Robert; Kacprowski, Tim; Knuepfer, Christian; Liebermeister, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  2. Approximate spatio-temporal top-k publish/subscribe

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lisi; Shang, Shuo

    2018-01-01

    Location-based publish/subscribe plays a significant role in mobile information disseminations. In this light, we propose and study a novel problem of processing location-based top-k subscriptions over spatio-temporal data streams. We define a new type of approximate location-based top-k subscription, Approximate Temporal Spatial-Keyword Top-k (ATSK) Subscription, that continuously feeds users with relevant spatio-temporal messages by considering textual similarity, spatial proximity, and information freshness. Different from existing location-based top-k subscriptions, Approximate Temporal Spatial-Keyword Top-k (ATSK) Subscription can automatically adjust the triggering condition by taking the triggering score of other subscriptions into account. The group filtering efficacy can be substantially improved by sacrificing the publishing result quality with a bounded guarantee. We conduct extensive experiments on two real datasets to demonstrate the performance of the developed solutions.

  3. Approximate spatio-temporal top-k publish/subscribe

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lisi

    2018-04-26

    Location-based publish/subscribe plays a significant role in mobile information disseminations. In this light, we propose and study a novel problem of processing location-based top-k subscriptions over spatio-temporal data streams. We define a new type of approximate location-based top-k subscription, Approximate Temporal Spatial-Keyword Top-k (ATSK) Subscription, that continuously feeds users with relevant spatio-temporal messages by considering textual similarity, spatial proximity, and information freshness. Different from existing location-based top-k subscriptions, Approximate Temporal Spatial-Keyword Top-k (ATSK) Subscription can automatically adjust the triggering condition by taking the triggering score of other subscriptions into account. The group filtering efficacy can be substantially improved by sacrificing the publishing result quality with a bounded guarantee. We conduct extensive experiments on two real datasets to demonstrate the performance of the developed solutions.

  4. Temporally variable macroinvertebrate-stone relationships in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    of fauna parameter and stone variable from different sampling dates (n=9-11) were rarely correlated to any of the measures of stream stability, this study has demonstrated high temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships (CV's of regression slopes). Consequently, temporally un-replicated studies......Stones were used to sample macroinvertebrates and characterise microhabitats at monthly or bimonthly intervals in six Ecuadorian streams covering a gradient in four different stability measures and other stream characteristics. The physical variables current velocity, water depth, horizontal...... of families vs. individuals) were related to the physical characteristics of individual stone habitats. My second objective was to quantify temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships and to analyse if such variability was related to overall stability of stream reaches. Partial Least Squares (PLS...

  5. Anatomical study of the pigs temporal bone by microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Leandro de Borborema; Andrade, José Santos Cruz de; Testa, José Ricardo Gurgel

    2014-01-01

    Initial study of the pig`s temporal bone anatomy in order to enable a new experimental model in ear surgery. Dissection of five temporal bones of Sus scrofa pigs obtained from UNIFESP - Surgical Skills Laboratory, removed with hole saw to avoid any injury and stored in formaldehyde 10% for better conservation. The microdissection in all five temporal bone had the following steps: inspection of the outer part, external canal and tympanic membrane microscopy, mastoidectomy, removal of external ear canal and tympanic membrane, inspection of ossicular chain and middle ear. Anatomically it is located at the same position than in humans. Some landmarks usually found in humans are missing. The tympanic membrane of the pig showed to be very similar to the human, separating the external and the middle ear. The middle ear`s appearance is very similar than in humans. The ossicular chain is almost exactly the same, as well as the facial nerve, showing the same relationship with the lateral semicircular canal. The temporal bone of the pigs can be used as an alternative for training in ear surgery, especially due the facility to find it and its similarity with temporal bone of the humans.

  6. Numerical study of similarity in prototype and model pumped turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z J; Wang, Z W; Bi, H L

    2014-01-01

    Similarity study of prototype and model pumped turbines are performed by numerical simulation and the partial discharge case is analysed in detail. It is found out that in the RSI (rotor-stator interaction) region where the flow is convectively accelerated with minor flow separation, a high level of similarity in flow patterns and pressure fluctuation appear with relative pressure fluctuation amplitude of model turbine slightly higher than that of prototype turbine. As for the condition in the runner where the flow is convectively accelerated with severe separation, similarity fades substantially due to different topology of flow separation and vortex formation brought by distinctive Reynolds numbers of the two turbines. In the draft tube where the flow is diffusively decelerated, similarity becomes debilitated owing to different vortex rope formation impacted by Reynolds number. It is noted that the pressure fluctuation amplitude and characteristic frequency of model turbine are larger than those of prototype turbine. The differences in pressure fluctuation characteristics are discussed theoretically through dimensionless Navier-Stokes equation. The above conclusions are all made based on simulation without regard to the penstock response and resonance

  7. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure.

  8. Similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Pelillo, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This accessible text/reference presents a coherent overview of the emerging field of non-Euclidean similarity learning. The book presents a broad range of perspectives on similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition methods, from purely theoretical challenges to practical, real-world applications. The coverage includes both supervised and unsupervised learning paradigms, as well as generative and discriminative models. Topics and features: explores the origination and causes of non-Euclidean (dis)similarity measures, and how they influence the performance of traditional classification alg

  9. Intact information sampling in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarian, Laura; Trinka, Eugen; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Bodner, Thomas; Unterberger, Iris; Luef, Gerhard; Delazer, Margarete

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have reported deficits in decision making under ambiguity for patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). It is unknown whether mTLE is also associated with alterations at a predecisional stage. This study aimed to gain insight into predecisional processing of patients with mTLE. We compared performance of patients with mTLE (n = 25) with that of healthy controls (n = 75) on the information sampling task (IST), a task assessing reflection-impulsivity and predecisional information sampling. Patients and healthy controls showed a similar performance pattern in both conditions of the IST as indicated by the amount of information gathered, the degree of uncertainty tolerated, and the number of decision errors made. They both also demonstrated a significant sensitivity to the different reward characteristics of the task. For the patient group, we found no significant effects on performance on the IST of epilepsy lateralization, abnormality side, structural abnormality (hippocampus vs. amygdala), and medication (monotherapy vs. polytherapy). Reflection processes and predecisional information sampling as tested by the IST are intact in mTLE. Patients collect as much information as healthy individuals and adapt their behavior according to the changing reward conditions. Our findings indicate that in well-defined risk situations, where memory demands are sufficiently minimized, patients with mTLE should be able to gather sufficient information, weight risks and benefits, and make advantageous decisions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Is similar the distribution of Chironomidae (Diptera and Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata in a river and a lateral fluvial area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida Silveira Cesar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous factors may affect the pattern of distribution of benthic fauna in a river mouth region and, among the macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae and Oligochaeta are the most abundant groups and most tolerant to environmental changes. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the controlling factors of and a possible similarity between Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblies at two close sites, the mouth of the Guareí River into the Paranapanema River (São Paulo, Brazil and its lateral fluvial area. Methods Fauna samples were collected every three months during one year. Water physical and chemical variables and sediment variables were also determined in the same period. Results Both assemblies presented low density variability over time in the lateral area due to sediment characteristics and environmental factors. Taxa Caladomyia, Parachironomus, Pristina sp., Pristina osborni, Bothrioneurum and Opistocysta funiculus were recorded at this site. The Guareí River presented both greater temporal and spatial variations, attributed mainly to a reduction in the water level. Greater organism abundance, especially of Chironomus and Tubificinae, was observed in the river. Conclusions Dissimilarity in temporal and spatial distributions of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta was attributed to peculiar characteristics of the two study sites, a river channel and a lateral area. Reduction in the water level over the year was the main controlling factor of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta richness and density in the river. In the lateral area, the presence and abundance of certain taxa were determined by the nature of the sediment and water physical and chemical variables.

  11. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    ending up with lexical data models. In particular we look upon the representations by sets of normalised tables, by sets of 1NF tables and by sets of N1NF/nested tables. At each translation step we focus on how the temporal semantic is consistently maintained. In this way we recognise the requirements...... for representation of temporal properties in different models and the correspondence between the models. The results rely on the assumptions that the temporal dimensions are interdependent and ordered. Thus for example the valid periods of existences of a property in a mini world are dependent on the transaction...... periods in which the corresponding recordings are valid. This is not the normal way of looking at temporal dimensions and we give arguments supporting our assumption....

  12. Advances in Temporal Analysis in Learning and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on a trend to analyse temporal characteristics of constructs important to learning and instruction. Different researchers have indicated that we should pay more attention to time in our research to enhance explanatory power and increase validity. Constructs formerly viewed as personal traits, such as self-regulated learning and…

  13. The spatial and temporal variations of nematofauna of recovering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatio-temporal variations in physical sediment characteristics and nematode community assemblages were investigated and compared between a natural, a 10-year reforested, and a degraded Rhizophora mucronata mangrove ecosystem in Gazi Bay, Kenya. PCA showed a clear separation of the degraded site from ...

  14. HYPOTHESIS TESTING WITH THE SIMILARITY INDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulltilocus DNA fingerprinting methods have been used extensively to address genetic issues in wildlife populations. Hypotheses concerning population subdivision and differing levels of diversity can be addressed through the use of the similarity index (S), a band-sharing coeffic...

  15. On self-similarity of crack layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, J.; Kunin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The crack layer (CL) theory of Chudnovsky (1986), based on principles of thermodynamics of irreversible processes, employs a crucial hypothesis of self-similarity. The self-similarity hypothesis states that the value of the damage density at a point x of the active zone at a time t coincides with that at the corresponding point in the initial (t = 0) configuration of the active zone, the correspondence being given by a time-dependent affine transformation of the space variables. In this paper, the implications of the self-similarity hypothesis for qusi-static CL propagation is investigated using polystyrene as a model material and examining the evolution of damage distribution along the trailing edge which is approximated by a straight segment perpendicular to the crack path. The results support the self-similarity hypothesis adopted by the CL theory.

  16. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  17. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation.......Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...... semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...

  18. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  19. Lagrangian-similarity diffusion-deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A Lagrangian-similarity diffusion model has been incorporated into the surface-depletion deposition model. This model predicts vertical concentration profiles far downwind of the source that agree with those of a one-dimensional gradient-transfer model

  20. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Parrado-Hernandez, Emilio; Meng, Anders

    Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...... semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...... for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation....

  1. Outsourced similarity search on metric data assets

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Man Lung

    2012-02-01

    This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example. Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low-initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying it to the service provider for similarity queries on the transformed data. Our techniques provide interesting trade-offs between query cost and accuracy. They are then further extended to offer an intuitive privacy guarantee. Empirical studies with real data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of offering privacy while enabling efficient and accurate processing of similarity queries.

  2. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  3. Spike voltage topography in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Asadollahi, Marjan; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lorenzo, Matthew; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-07-15

    We investigated the voltage topography of interictal spikes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to see whether topography was related to etiology for TLE. Adults with TLE, who had epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant seizures from 2011 until 2014 at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI and those with other MRI findings. The voltage topography maps of the interictal spikes at the peak were created using BESA software. We classified the interictal spikes as polar, basal, lateral, or others. Thirty-four patients were studied, from which the characteristics of 340 spikes were investigated. The most common type of spike orientation was others (186 spikes; 54.7%), followed by lateral (146; 42.9%), polar (5; 1.5%), and basal (3; 0.9%). Characteristics of the voltage topography maps of the spikes between the two groups of patients were somewhat different. Five spikes in patients with MTS had polar orientation, but none of the spikes in patients with other MRI findings had polar orientation (odds ratio=6.98, 95% confidence interval=0.38 to 127.38; p=0.07). Scalp topographic mapping of interictal spikes has the potential to offer different information than visual inspection alone. The present results do not allow an immediate clinical application of our findings; however, detecting a polar spike in a patient with TLE may increase the possibility of mesial temporal sclerosis as the underlying etiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Protein structural similarity search by Ramachandran codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chih-Hung

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structural data has increased exponentially, such that fast and accurate tools are necessary to access structure similarity search. To improve the search speed, several methods have been designed to reduce three-dimensional protein structures to one-dimensional text strings that are then analyzed by traditional sequence alignment methods; however, the accuracy is usually sacrificed and the speed is still unable to match sequence similarity search tools. Here, we aimed to improve the linear encoding methodology and develop efficient search tools that can rapidly retrieve structural homologs from large protein databases. Results We propose a new linear encoding method, SARST (Structural similarity search Aided by Ramachandran Sequential Transformation. SARST transforms protein structures into text strings through a Ramachandran map organized by nearest-neighbor clustering and uses a regenerative approach to produce substitution matrices. Then, classical sequence similarity search methods can be applied to the structural similarity search. Its accuracy is similar to Combinatorial Extension (CE and works over 243,000 times faster, searching 34,000 proteins in 0.34 sec with a 3.2-GHz CPU. SARST provides statistically meaningful expectation values to assess the retrieved information. It has been implemented into a web service and a stand-alone Java program that is able to run on many different platforms. Conclusion As a database search method, SARST can rapidly distinguish high from low similarities and efficiently retrieve homologous structures. It demonstrates that the easily accessible linear encoding methodology has the potential to serve as a foundation for efficient protein structural similarity search tools. These search tools are supposed applicable to automated and high-throughput functional annotations or predictions for the ever increasing number of published protein structures in this post-genomic era.

  5. Similarity search processing. Paralelization and indexing technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    The next Scientific-Technical Report addresses the similarity search and the implementation of metric structures on parallel environments. It also presents the state of the art related to similarity search on metric structures and parallelism technologies. Comparative analysis are also proposed, seeking to identify the behavior of a set of metric spaces and metric structures over processing platforms multicore-based and GPU-based.

  6. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2018-04-04

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  7. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Chen, Lisi; Wei, Zhewei; Jensen, Christian S.; Zheng, Kai; Kalnis, Panos

    2018-01-01

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  8. Are calanco landforms similar to river basins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, N A; Ferro, V

    2017-12-15

    In the past badlands have been often considered as ideal field laboratories for studying landscape evolution because of their geometrical similarity to larger fluvial systems. For a given hydrological process, no scientific proof exists that badlands can be considered a model of river basin prototypes. In this paper the measurements carried out on 45 Sicilian calanchi, a type of badlands that appears as a small-scale hydrographic unit, are used to establish their morphological similarity with river systems whose data are available in the literature. At first the geomorphological similarity is studied by identifying the dimensionless groups, which can assume the same value or a scaled one in a fixed ratio, representing drainage basin shape, stream network and relief properties. Then, for each property, the dimensionless groups are calculated for the investigated calanchi and the river basins and their corresponding scale ratio is evaluated. The applicability of Hack's, Horton's and Melton's laws for establishing similarity criteria is also tested. The developed analysis allows to conclude that a quantitative morphological similarity between calanco landforms and river basins can be established using commonly applied dimensionless groups. In particular, the analysis showed that i) calanchi and river basins have a geometrically similar shape respect to the parameters Rf and Re with a scale factor close to 1, ii) calanchi and river basins are similar respect to the bifurcation and length ratios (λ=1), iii) for the investigated calanchi the Melton number assumes values less than that (0.694) corresponding to the river case and a scale ratio ranging from 0.52 and 0.78 can be used, iv) calanchi and river basins have similar mean relief ratio values (λ=1.13) and v) calanchi present active geomorphic processes and therefore fall in a more juvenile stage with respect to river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Snowpack spatial and temporal variability assessment using SMP high-resolution penetrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yuriy; Sokratov, Sergey; Grebennikov, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    This research is focused on study of spatial and temporal variability of structure and characteristics of snowpack, quick identification of layers based on hardness and dispersion values received from snow micro penetrometer (SMP). We also discuss the detection of weak layers and definition of their parameters in non-alpine terrain. As long as it is the first SMP tool available in Russia, our intent is to test it in different climate and weather conditions. During two separate snowpack studies in plain and mountain landscapes, we derived density and grain size profiles by comparing snow density and grain size from snowpits and SMP measurements. The first case study was MSU meteorological observatory test site in Moscow. SMP data was obtained by 6 consecutive measurements along 10 m transects with a horizontal resolution of approximately 50 cm. The detailed description of snowpack structure, density, grain size, air and snow temperature was also performed. By comparing this information, the detailed scheme of snowpack evolution was created. The second case study was in Khibiny mountains. One 10-meter-long transect was made. SMP, density, grain size and snow temperature data was obtained with horizontal resolution of approximately 50 cm. The high-definition profile of snowpack density variation was acquired using received data. The analysis of data reveals high spatial and temporal variability in snow density and layer structure in both horizontal and vertical dimensions. It indicates that the spatial variability is exhibiting similar spatial patterns as surface topology. This suggests a strong influence from such factors as wind and liquid water pressure on the temporal and spatial evolution of snow structure. It was also defined, that spatial variation of snowpack characteristics is substantial even within homogeneous plain landscape, while in high-latitude mountain regions it grows significantly.

  10. Semantic similarity between ontologies at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Haglin, David J.

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, existing and new knowledge and datasets has been encoded in different ontologies for semantic web and biomedical research. The size of ontologies is often very large in terms of number of concepts and relationships, which makes the analysis of ontologies and the represented knowledge graph computational and time consuming. As the ontologies of various semantic web and biomedical applications usually show explicit hierarchical structures, it is interesting to explore the trade-offs between ontological scales and preservation/precision of results when we analyze ontologies. This paper presents the first effort of examining the capability of this idea via studying the relationship between scaling biomedical ontologies at different levels and the semantic similarity values. We evaluate the semantic similarity between three Gene Ontology slims (Plant, Yeast, and Candida, among which the latter two belong to the same kingdom—Fungi) using four popular measures commonly applied to biomedical ontologies (Resnik, Lin, Jiang-Conrath, and SimRel). The results of this study demonstrate that with proper selection of scaling levels and similarity measures, we can significantly reduce the size of ontologies without losing substantial detail. In particular, the performance of Jiang-Conrath and Lin are more reliable and stable than that of the other two in this experiment, as proven by (a) consistently showing that Yeast and Candida are more similar (as compared to Plant) at different scales, and (b) small deviations of the similarity values after excluding a majority of nodes from several lower scales. This study provides a deeper understanding of the application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies, and shed light on how to choose appropriate semantic similarity measures for biomedical engineering.

  11. Temporal bone trauma and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turetschek, K.; Czerny, C.; Wunderbaldinger, P.; Steiner, E.

    1997-01-01

    Fractures of the temporal bone result from direct trauma to the temporal bone or occur as one component of a severe craniocerebral injury. Complications of temporal trauma are hemotympanon, facial nerve paralysis, conductive or sensorineur hearing loss, and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. Erly recognition and an appropiate therapy may improve or prevent permanent deficits related to such complications. Only 20-30% of temporal bone fractures can be visualized by plain films. CT has displaced plain radiography in the investigation of the otological trauma because subtle bony details are best evaluated by CT which even can be reformatted in multiple projections, regardless of the original plane of scanning. Associated epidural, subdural, and intracerebral hemorrhagic lesions are better defined by MRI. (orig.) [de

  12. Temporal dimension in cognitive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decortis, F.; Cacciabue, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Increased attention has been given to the role of humans in nuclear power plant safety, but one aspect seldom considered is the temporal dimension of human reasoning. Time is recognized as crucial in human reasoning and has been the subject of empirical studies where cognitive mechanisms and strategies to face the temporal dimension have been studied. The present study shows why temporal reasoning is essential in Human Reliability Analysis and how it could be introduced in a human model. Accounting for the time dimension in human behaviour is discussed first, with reference to proven field studies. Then, theoretical modelling of the temporal dimension in human reasoning and its relevance in simulation of cognitive activities of plant operator is discussed. Finally a Time Experience Model is presented

  13. Temporal and transverse coherence of self-amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.

    1997-06-01

    The authors review the coherence properties of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). Temporally, SASE is similar to the spontaneous undulator radiation except that the spectral bandwidth is about ten times narrower compared with typical undulator radiation. The situation is quite different in the transverse dimension, where SASE is fully coherent

  14. Predicting BCI subject performance using probabilistic spatio-temporal filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Il Suk

    Full Text Available Recently, spatio-temporal filtering to enhance decoding for Brain-Computer-Interfacing (BCI has become increasingly popular. In this work, we discuss a novel, fully Bayesian-and thereby probabilistic-framework, called Bayesian Spatio-Spectral Filter Optimization (BSSFO and apply it to a large data set of 80 non-invasive EEG-based BCI experiments. Across the full frequency range, the BSSFO framework allows to analyze which spatio-spectral parameters are common and which ones differ across the subject population. As expected, large variability of brain rhythms is observed between subjects. We have clustered subjects according to similarities in their corresponding spectral characteristics from the BSSFO model, which is found to reflect their BCI performances well. In BCI, a considerable percentage of subjects is unable to use a BCI for communication, due to their missing ability to modulate their brain rhythms-a phenomenon sometimes denoted as BCI-illiteracy or inability. Predicting individual subjects' performance preceding the actual, time-consuming BCI-experiment enhances the usage of BCIs, e.g., by detecting users with BCI inability. This work additionally contributes by using the novel BSSFO method to predict the BCI-performance using only 2 minutes and 3 channels of resting-state EEG data recorded before the actual BCI-experiment. Specifically, by grouping the individual frequency characteristics we have nicely classified them into the subject 'prototypes' (like μ - or β -rhythm type subjects or users without ability to communicate with a BCI, and then by further building a linear regression model based on the grouping we could predict subjects' performance with the maximum correlation coefficient of 0.581 with the performance later seen in the actual BCI session.

  15. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of thenodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarityof nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure toanalyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large...... university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  16. A Novel Hybrid Similarity Calculation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems of similarity calculation in the traditional recommendation algorithms of nearest neighbor collaborative filtering, especially the failure in describing dynamic user preference. Proceeding from the perspective of solving the problem of user interest drift, a new hybrid similarity calculation model is proposed in this paper. This model consists of two parts, on the one hand the model uses the function fitting to describe users’ rating behaviors and their rating preferences, and on the other hand it employs the Random Forest algorithm to take user attribute features into account. Furthermore, the paper combines the two parts to build a new hybrid similarity calculation model for user recommendation. Experimental results show that, for data sets of different size, the model’s prediction precision is higher than the traditional recommendation algorithms.

  17. Universal self-similarity of propagating populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores the universal self-similarity of propagating populations. The following general propagation model is considered: particles are randomly emitted from the origin of a d-dimensional Euclidean space and propagate randomly and independently of each other in space; all particles share a statistically common--yet arbitrary--motion pattern; each particle has its own random propagation parameters--emission epoch, motion frequency, and motion amplitude. The universally self-similar statistics of the particles' displacements and first passage times (FPTs) are analyzed: statistics which are invariant with respect to the details of the displacement and FPT measurements and with respect to the particles' underlying motion pattern. Analysis concludes that the universally self-similar statistics are governed by Poisson processes with power-law intensities and by the Fréchet and Weibull extreme-value laws.

  18. Universal self-similarity of propagating populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores the universal self-similarity of propagating populations. The following general propagation model is considered: particles are randomly emitted from the origin of a d -dimensional Euclidean space and propagate randomly and independently of each other in space; all particles share a statistically common—yet arbitrary—motion pattern; each particle has its own random propagation parameters—emission epoch, motion frequency, and motion amplitude. The universally self-similar statistics of the particles’ displacements and first passage times (FPTs) are analyzed: statistics which are invariant with respect to the details of the displacement and FPT measurements and with respect to the particles’ underlying motion pattern. Analysis concludes that the universally self-similar statistics are governed by Poisson processes with power-law intensities and by the Fréchet and Weibull extreme-value laws.

  19. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Chen, Lisi; Wei, Zhewei; Jensen, Christian S.; Zheng, Kai; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm's per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  20. Phonological similarity in working memory span tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Michael; Macnamara, Brooke N; Conway, Andrew R A

    2016-08-01

    In a series of four experiments, we explored what conditions are sufficient to produce a phonological similarity facilitation effect in working memory span tasks. By using the same set of memoranda, but differing the secondary-task requirements across experiments, we showed that a phonological similarity facilitation effect is dependent upon the semantic relationship between the memoranda and the secondary-task stimuli, and is robust to changes in the representation, ordering, and pool size of the secondary-task stimuli. These findings are consistent with interference accounts of memory (Brown, Neath, & Chater, Psychological Review, 114, 539-576, 2007; Oberauer, Lewandowsky, Farrell, Jarrold, & Greaves, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 779-819, 2012), whereby rhyming stimuli provide a form of categorical similarity that allows distractors to be excluded from retrieval at recall.

  1. Unveiling Music Structure Via PLSA Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Meng, Anders; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increasing interest in developing methods for building music recommendation systems. In order to get a satisfactory performance from such a system, one needs to incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however, how to do so is not obvious. In this p......Nowadays there is an increasing interest in developing methods for building music recommendation systems. In order to get a satisfactory performance from such a system, one needs to incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however, how to do so is not obvious...... observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Additionally, this approach significantly simplifies the song retrieval phase, leading to a more practical system implementation. The suitability of the PLSA model for representing music structure is studied in a simplified...

  2. Means of temporal expressions in newspaper news and press report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čutura Ilijana R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses most frequent linguistic means for expressing the temporal frame in the printed news and press reports. With structuralism as a chosen theoretical framework, the approach of the research is qualitative and stylistic. Since the study belongs to the field of functional stylistics, the primary methods used in the study were functional-stylistic and linguistic-stylistic ones. As the study focuses on two newspaper genres, comparative-stylistic method was used as well. The analysis has been conducted on concrete linguistic excerpts from Serbian daily newspapers published throughout Serbia from 2008 to 2015. The aims of the paper are to show model of expressing temporal frame in contemporary Serbian newspapers. This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of model and the types of temporal expression as well as their variations in contemporal Serbian newspapers. The paper also aims to determine the differencies between printed news and press reports by the choice of temporal expressions. It is shown that there is a tendency of changing schematized structure of these informative genres and some innovation in relation to the choice of linguistic means for expessing the meaning of temporally close events. The research is a contribution to journalism stylistics, more precisely to the Serbian language newspaper stylistics, and also contributes to the study of linguistic and stylistic characteristics of non-literary texts. The study is also relevant because it describes the use of adverbs and adverbial expressions in the journalistic style.

  3. Large margin classification with indefinite similarities

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2016-01-07

    Classification with indefinite similarities has attracted attention in the machine learning community. This is partly due to the fact that many similarity functions that arise in practice are not symmetric positive semidefinite, i.e. the Mercer condition is not satisfied, or the Mercer condition is difficult to verify. Examples of such indefinite similarities in machine learning applications are ample including, for instance, the BLAST similarity score between protein sequences, human-judged similarities between concepts and words, and the tangent distance or the shape matching distance in computer vision. Nevertheless, previous works on classification with indefinite similarities are not fully satisfactory. They have either introduced sources of inconsistency in handling past and future examples using kernel approximation, settled for local-minimum solutions using non-convex optimization, or produced non-sparse solutions by learning in Krein spaces. Despite the large volume of research devoted to this subject lately, we demonstrate in this paper how an old idea, namely the 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) proposed more than 15 years ago, has several advantages over more recent work. In particular, the 1-norm SVM method is conceptually simpler, which makes it easier to implement and maintain. It is competitive, if not superior to, all other methods in terms of predictive accuracy. Moreover, it produces solutions that are often sparser than more recent methods by several orders of magnitude. In addition, we provide various theoretical justifications by relating 1-norm SVM to well-established learning algorithms such as neural networks, SVM, and nearest neighbor classifiers. Finally, we conduct a thorough experimental evaluation, which reveals that the evidence in favor of 1-norm SVM is statistically significant.

  4. Similarity joins in relational database systems

    CERN Document Server

    Augsten, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art database systems manage and process a variety of complex objects, including strings and trees. For such objects equality comparisons are often not meaningful and must be replaced by similarity comparisons. This book describes the concepts and techniques to incorporate similarity into database systems. We start out by discussing the properties of strings and trees, and identify the edit distance as the de facto standard for comparing complex objects. Since the edit distance is computationally expensive, token-based distances have been introduced to speed up edit distance comput

  5. Outsourced Similarity Search on Metric Data Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian S.

    2012-01-01

    . Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying......This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example...

  6. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  7. Cultural similarity and adjustment of expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The findings of a number of recent empirical studies of business expatriates, using different samples and methodologies, seem to support the counter-intuitive proposition that cultural similarity may be as difficult to adjust to as cultural dissimilarity. However, it is not obvious...... and non-EU countries. Results showed that although the perceived cultural similarity between host and home country for the two groups of investigated respondents was different, there was neither any difference in their adjustment nor in the time it took for them to become proficient. Implications...

  8. Exploring Lightning Jump Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.

  9. do Lobo Temporal: Relevância da Estimativa de Magnitude do Efeito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological tests are increasingly used as part of clinical assessment in multiple sclerosis (MS and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, the most prevalent chronic disabling neurological conditions in adulthood. Heterogeneity of clinical samples may be one important reason for null hypothesis statistical testing (NHST being frequently nonsignificant for group comparisons, but limitations in routine statistical methods may also be implicated. The present study examined the hypothesis that NHST may be an inadequate analysis strategy when comparing the performance of neurological patients with that of controls. Twenty-six TLE patients, 113 MS patients, and 117 normal controls of similar sociodemographic characteristics were compared on 11 instruments (35 scores. NHST resulted nonsignificant for 18 scores comparisons according to Bonferroni criteria, while effect size (d and power estimates were adequate for 27 comparisons. Effect size estimations should be considered as an important analytical tool in selecting appropriate neuropsychological measures for clinical use.

  10. Analysis of spatial and temporal spectra of liquid film surface in annular gas-liquid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Cherdantsev, Andrey; Heinz, Oksana; Kharlamov, Sergey; Markovich, Dmitriy

    2013-09-01

    Wavy structure of liquid film in annular gas-liquid flow without liquid entrainment consists of fast long-living primary waves and slow short-living secondary waves. In present paper, results of spectral analysis of this wavy structure are presented. Application of high-speed LIF technique allowed us to perform such analysis in both spatial and temporal domains. Power spectra in both domains are characterized by one-humped shape with long exponential tail. Influence of gas velocity, liquid Reynolds number, liquid viscosity and pipe diameter on frequency of the waves is investigated. When gravity effect is much lesser than the shear stress, similarity of power spectra at different gas velocities is observed. Using combination of spectral analysis and identification of characteristic lines of primary waves, frequency of generation of secondary waves by primary waves is measured.

  11. Similar net ecosystem exchange of beech stands located in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granier, A.; Pilegaard, K.; Jensen, N.O.

    2002-01-01

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE), as measured with eddy covariance was compared for two European beech stands for the years 1996-1999: a young beech forest (32 year-old) growing in east France, and a mature beech stand (80 year-old) located in Denmark. Those sites are included in the Carboeuroflux....../Carbodata European networks. Except for some short-term differences (1-5 days), the temporal variation of NEE followed similar patterns in both sites. This similarity followed from similar values of. (i) dates of bud break and of leaf fall; (ii) ecosystem respiration rates during winter; (iii) diurnal NEE during...

  12. Nuclear markers reveal that inter-lake cichlids' similar morphologies do not reflect similar genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Daud; Seki, Shingo; Horic, Michio; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2006-08-01

    The apparent inter-lake morphological similarity among East African Great Lakes' cichlid species/genera has left evolutionary biologists asking whether such similarity is due to sharing of common ancestor or mere convergent evolution. In order to answer such question, we first used Geometric Morphometrics, GM, to quantify morphological similarity and then subsequently used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, AFLP, to determine if similar morphologies imply shared ancestry or convergent evolution. GM revealed that not all presumed morphological similar pairs were indeed similar, and the dendrogram generated from AFLP data indicated distinct clusters corresponding to each lake and not inter-lake morphological similar pairs. Such results imply that the morphological similarity is due to convergent evolution and not shared ancestry. The congruency of GM and AFLP generated dendrograms imply that GM is capable of picking up phylogenetic signal, and thus GM can be potential tool in phylogenetic systematics.

  13. Estudo de caso de uma situação atmosférica entre 12 e 19 de setembro de 2008, com algumas características semelhantes ao evento Catarina Case study of an atmospheric situation between 12 and 19 september 2009 with some similar characteristics to the Catarina event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Miho Narukawa Iwabe

    2011-03-01

    caso é dificultada. Sistemas como o Catarina podem ser raros no Atlântico Sul, mas isso não ocorre em relação ao ambiente sinótico em que se formou o Catarina. Para melhor entender o processo atmosférico que levou à formação do Catarina, é necessário realizar experimentos numéricos de sensibilidade para o caso de setembro de 2008 com o objetivo de verificar a possibilidade do ciclone extratropical se tornar um ciclone tropical.In this work a synoptic/dynamic analysis of atmospheric conditions associated with the cyclone development occurred between 2008 September 12 and 19 is presented, aiming to highlight differences and similarities to the environment of Catarina event in March 2004. The main similarities were found in the synoptic patterns: occurrence of a pattern typical of dipole blocking associated with the potential vorticity anomaly at upper levels; a trough at middle levels with westward slope; the presence of a column of cyclonic vorticity from surface to lower stratosphere; and on the surface, the pattern of a higher pressure to the south of a lower pressure. Despite these similarities, differences that influence the intensity of the systems were found: the Catarina occurred in lower latitudes compared to the 2008 September case; the blocking pattern associated with September 2008 case was a day and a half long, while the Catarina lasted three days; the configuration of temperature advection in the 1000-500 hPa layer favored the displacement of the September 2008 event from eastward/southeastward, in contrast to Catarina, in which the warm advection to the east of the cyclone was suppressed and the local tendency of geopotential height was positive, which hinder the displacement of the system eastward; in the case of 2008 September the pattern of the meridional temperature gradient inversion on the -2.0 units of potential vorticity (UPV surface was characterized by the incursion of an elongated region of warm air from the equator toward the

  14. Clustering biomolecular complexes by residue contacts similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Lopes Maia Rodrigues, João; Trellet, Mikaël; Schmitz, Christophe; Kastritis, Panagiotis; Karaca, Ezgi; Melquiond, Adrien S J; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Garcia Lopes Maia Rodrigues, João

    Inaccuracies in computational molecular modeling methods are often counterweighed by brute-force generation of a plethora of putative solutions. These are then typically sieved via structural clustering based on similarity measures such as the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of atomic positions.

  15. 7 CFR 51.1997 - Similar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar type. 51.1997 Section 51.1997 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  16. Efficient Similarity Retrieval in Music Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Audio music is increasingly becoming available in digital form, and the digital music collections of individuals continue to grow. Addressing the need for effective means of retrieving music from such collections, this paper proposes new techniques for content-based similarity search. Each music...

  17. Similarity search of business process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumas, M.; García-Bañuelos, L.; Dijkman, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Similarity search is a general class of problems in which a given object, called a query object, is compared against a collection of objects in order to retrieve those that most closely resemble the query object. This paper reviews recent work on an instance of this class of problems, where the

  18. Evaluating gender similarities and differences using metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Ethan; Krizan, Zlatan; Teeter, Sabrina R

    2015-01-01

    Despite the common lay assumption that males and females are profoundly different, Hyde (2005) used data from 46 meta-analyses to demonstrate that males and females are highly similar. Nonetheless, the gender similarities hypothesis has remained controversial. Since Hyde's provocative report, there has been an explosion of meta-analytic interest in psychological gender differences. We utilized this enormous collection of 106 meta-analyses and 386 individual meta-analytic effects to reevaluate the gender similarities hypothesis. Furthermore, we employed a novel data-analytic approach called metasynthesis (Zell & Krizan, 2014) to estimate the average difference between males and females and to explore moderators of gender differences. The average, absolute difference between males and females across domains was relatively small (d = 0.21, SD = 0.14), with the majority of effects being either small (46%) or very small (39%). Magnitude of differences fluctuated somewhat as a function of the psychological domain (e.g., cognitive variables, social and personality variables, well-being), but remained largely constant across age, culture, and generations. These findings provide compelling support for the gender similarities hypothesis, but also underscore conditions under which gender differences are most pronounced. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Cross-kingdom similarities in microbiome functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, R.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in medical research have revealed how humans rely on their microbiome for diverse traits and functions. Similarly, microbiomes of other higher organisms play key roles in disease, health, growth and development of their host. Exploring microbiome functions across kingdoms holds

  20. Measuring structural similarity in large online networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongren; Macy, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Structural similarity based on bipartite graphs can be used to detect meaningful communities, but the networks have been tiny compared to massive online networks. Scalability is important in applications involving tens of millions of individuals with highly skewed degree distributions. Simulation analysis holding underlying similarity constant shows that two widely used measures - Jaccard index and cosine similarity - are biased by the distribution of out-degree in web-scale networks. However, an alternative measure, the Standardized Co-incident Ratio (SCR), is unbiased. We apply SCR to members of Congress, musical artists, and professional sports teams to show how massive co-following on Twitter can be used to map meaningful affiliations among cultural entities, even in the absence of direct connections to one another. Our results show how structural similarity can be used to map cultural alignments and demonstrate the potential usefulness of social media data in the study of culture, politics, and organizations across the social and behavioral sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.