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Sample records for similar sociocultural variables

  1. Relative Contributions of Socio-Cultural Variables to the Prediction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    the Prediction of Maternal Mortality in Edo South. Senatorial ... variables across the two locations (rural and urban) was early marriage/early child bearing (R2 = 0.200;. F = 401.40 ... severe bleeding, infections, obstructed or prolonged .... Analytical System (SAS) mode. Descriptive .... incontinence of urine and faeces due to.

  2. Relations of some sociocultural variables and attitudes and motivations of young Arab students learning English as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, A A; al-Ansari, S H

    2001-02-01

    This paper examined a number of variables pertaining to the sociocultural outlooks of 412 young Arab students learning English as a foreign language and the relation of their attitudes and motivations prior to their learning of the language. Analysis indicated clearly that certain variables appeared to be correlated with their attitudes and motivations more than others. Most of the students had maids in their homes, and the presence of a maid was associated with most of the psycholinguistic variables tested. Their previous learning experience of the language was positively correlated as was their knowledge of English stories. Having some sort of English games had the highest correlations (.25 to .41). Potential pedagogical implications of these results were discussed.

  3. Sociocultural variability in the Latino population: Age patterns and differences in morbidity among older US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Garcia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The US Latino population is rapidly aging and becoming increasingly diverse with respect to nativity and national origin. Increased longevity along with medical advancements in treatment have resulted in a higher number of older Latinos living with morbidity. Therefore, there is a need to understand variability in Latino health among older adults. Objective: This paper documents mid- and late-life health differences in morbidity by race/ethnicity, nativity, and country of origin among adults aged 50 and older. Methods: We use data from the 2000-2015 National Health Interview Survey to calculate age- and gender-specific proportions based on reports of five morbidity measures: hypertension, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes among non-Latino Whites and seven Latino subgroups. Results: The foreign-born from Mexico, Cuba, and Central/South America, regardless of gender, exhibit an immigrant advantage for heart disease and cancer in comparison to non-Latino Whites across all age categories. Conversely, island-born Puerto Ricans are generally characterized with higher levels of morbidity. Similarly, US-born Puerto Ricans and Mexicans exhibit morbidity patterns indicative of their minority status. Latinos, regardless of gender, were more likely to report diabetes than non-Latino Whites. Hypertension and stroke have significant variability in age patterns among US- and foreign-born Latinos. Conclusions: Recognizing the importance of within-Latino heterogeneity in health is imperative if researchers are to implement social services and health policies aimed at ameliorating the risk of disease. Contribution: Considering intersectional ethnic, nativity, and country-of-origin characteristics among older Latinos is important to better understand the underlying causes of racial/ethnic disparities in morbidity across the life course.

  4. Variability and Similarity of Gait as Evaluated by Joint Angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    . Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within...... this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can...

  5. Auto-Baecklund transformation and similarity reductions to the variable coefficients variant Boussinesq system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, M.H.M. [Department of Mathematic, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Hiliopolis, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: m_h_m_moussa@yahoo.com; El Shikh, Rehab M. [Department of Mathematic, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Hiliopolis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-02-25

    Based on the closed connections among the homogeneous balance (HB) method, Weiss-Tabor-Carneval (WTC) method and Clarkson-Kruskal (CK) method, we study Baecklund transformation and similarity reductions of the variable coefficients variant Boussinesq system. In the meantime, new exact solutions also are found.

  6. Cholera and Shigellosis: Different Epidemiology but Similar Responses to Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Benjamin A.; Rodó, Xavier; Emch, Michael; Yunus, Md.; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparative studies of the associations between different infectious diseases and climate variability, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, are lacking. Diarrheal illnesses, particularly cholera and shigellosis, provide an important opportunity to apply a comparative approach. Cholera and shigellosis have significant global mortality and morbidity burden, pronounced differences in transmission pathways and pathogen ecologies, and there is an established climate link with cholera. In particular, the specific ecology of Vibrio cholerae is often invoked to explain the sensitivity of that disease to climate. Methods and Findings The extensive surveillance data of the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh are used here to revisit the known associations between cholera and climate, and to address their similarity to previously unexplored patterns for shigellosis. Monthly case data for both the city of Dhaka and a rural area known as Matlab are analyzed with respect to their association with El Niño and flooding. Linear correlations are examined between flooding and cumulative cases, as well as for flooding and El Niño. Rank-correlation maps are also computed between disease cases in the post-monsoon epidemic season and sea surface temperatures in the Pacific. Similar climate associations are found for both diseases and both locations. Increased cases follow increased monsoon flooding and increased sea surface temperatures in the preceding winter corresponding to an El Niño event. Conclusions The similarity in association patterns suggests a systemic breakdown in population health with changing environmental conditions, in which climate variability acts primarily through increasing the exposure risk of the human population. We discuss these results in the context of the on-going debate on the relative importance of the environmental reservoir vs. secondary transmission, as well as the implications for the use of El Niño as an

  7. Similar star formation rate and metallicity variability time-scales drive the fundamental metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; McKinnon, Ryan; Marinacci, Federico; Simcoe, Robert A.; Springel, Volker; Pillepich, Annalisa; Naiman, Jill; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Weinberger, Rainer; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy

    2018-06-01

    The fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) is a postulated correlation between galaxy stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and gas-phase metallicity. At its core, this relation posits that offsets from the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) at a fixed stellar mass are correlated with galactic SFR. In this Letter, we use hydrodynamical simulations to quantify the time-scales over which populations of galaxies oscillate about the average SFR and metallicity values at fixed stellar mass. We find that Illustris and IllustrisTNG predict that galaxy offsets from the star formation main sequence and MZR oscillate over similar time-scales, are often anticorrelated in their evolution, evolve with the halo dynamical time, and produce a pronounced FMR. Our models indicate that galaxies oscillate about equilibrium SFR and metallicity values - set by the galaxy's stellar mass - and that SFR and metallicity offsets evolve in an anticorrelated fashion. This anticorrelated variability of the metallicity and SFR offsets drives the existence of the FMR in our models. In contrast to Illustris and IllustrisTNG, we speculate that the SFR and metallicity evolution tracks may become decoupled in galaxy formation models dominated by feedback-driven globally bursty SFR histories, which could weaken the FMR residual correlation strength. This opens the possibility of discriminating between bursty and non-bursty feedback models based on the strength and persistence of the FMR - especially at high redshift.

  8. Socio-cultural context of eating disorders in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Sałapa, Kinga; Józefik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between sociocultural factors and clinical eating disorders during the intensive process of Westernisation in Poland that occurred after 1989. The study population included girls diagnosed with an eating disorder according to DSM-IV criteria (n = 47 anorexia nervosa restrictive type [ANR], n = 16 anorexia binge/purge type [ANBP], n = 34 bulimia nervosa [BN], n = 19 eating disorder not otherwise specified [EDNOS]) who received consultation for the first time between 2002 and 2004 in the Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital, Kraków, Poland. The study included an age-matched normal control group [NOR] of 85 schoolgirls from Kraków. Relationships between two given qualitative features were investigated using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Correspondence analysis was applied to graphically explore the relationship. The Kruskal-Wallis test with the Bonferroni was performed to compare quantitative results across groups. Objective sociodemographic variables and responses to the 62-item Questionnaire of Socio-cultural Context were measured. The mothers of ANBP and BN patients were less professionally active than mothers of ANR patients and NOR subjects. Subjective socio-cultural factors were more relevant for the BN group than the ANR group. Questionnaire responses in the ANBP group were more similar to those in the BN group than to those in the ANR group. The most unambiguous and specific characteristic of the ANR group was a sense of belonging to the middle class. Variables that differentiated the BN group from the NOR group included the importance attached to thinness treated as an expression of power and control over one's self, as well as a multifaceted negative evaluation of one's own family, including a negative assessment of the position of women and parental lack of concern for appearance and principles of nutrition. All patients, regardless

  9. Similar or disparate brain patterns? The intra-personal EEG variability of three women with multiple personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, A R; Crayton, J W; DeVito, R; Fichtner, C G; Konopka, L M

    2006-07-01

    Quantitative EEG was used to assess the intra-personal variability of brain electrical activity for 3 women diagnosed with Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD). Two separate control groups (within-subject and between-subject) were used to test the hypothesis that the intra-personal EEG variability between 2 alters would be less than the interpersonal EEG variability between 2 controls, and similar to the intra-personal EEG variability of a single personality. This hypothesis was partially supported. In general, the 2 EEG records of a MPD subject (alter 1 vs. alter 2) were more different from one another than the 2 EEG records of a single control, but less different from one another than the EEG records of 2 separate controls. Most of the EEG variability between alters involved beta activity in the frontal and temporal lobes.

  10. Analyzing and leveraging self-similarity for variable resolution atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Travis; Collins, William

    2015-04-01

    Variable resolution modeling techniques are rapidly becoming a popular strategy for achieving high resolution in a global atmospheric models without the computational cost of global high resolution. However, recent studies have demonstrated a variety of resolution-dependent, and seemingly artificial, features. We argue that the scaling properties of the atmosphere are key to understanding how the statistics of an atmospheric model should change with resolution. We provide two such examples. In the first example we show that the scaling properties of the cloud number distribution define how the ratio of resolved to unresolved clouds should increase with resolution. We show that the loss of resolved clouds, in the high resolution region of variable resolution simulations, with the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) is an artifact of the model's treatment of condensed water (this artifact is significantly reduced in CAM5). In the second example we show that the scaling properties of the horizontal velocity field, combined with the incompressibility assumption, necessarily result in an intensification of vertical mass flux as resolution increases. We show that such an increase is present in a wide variety of models, including CAM and the regional climate models of the ENSEMBLES intercomparision. We present theoretical arguments linking this increase to the intensification of precipitation with increasing resolution.

  11. MAPA distinguishes genotype-specific variability of highly similar regulatory protein isoforms in potato tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Hummel, Jan; Egelhofer, Volker; Selbig, Joachim; van Dongen, Joost T; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2011-07-01

    Mass Accuracy Precursor Alignment is a fast and flexible method for comparative proteome analysis that allows the comparison of unprecedented numbers of shotgun proteomics analyses on a personal computer in a matter of hours. We compared 183 LC-MS analyses and more than 2 million MS/MS spectra and could define and separate the proteomic phenotypes of field grown tubers of 12 tetraploid cultivars of the crop plant Solanum tuberosum. Protein isoforms of patatin as well as other major gene families such as lipoxygenase and cysteine protease inhibitor that regulate tuber development were found to be the primary source of variability between the cultivars. This suggests that differentially expressed protein isoforms modulate genotype specific tuber development and the plant phenotype. We properly assigned the measured abundance of tryptic peptides to different protein isoforms that share extensive stretches of primary structure and thus inferred their abundance. Peptides unique to different protein isoforms were used to classify the remaining peptides assigned to the entire subset of isoforms based on a common abundance profile using multivariate statistical procedures. We identified nearly 4000 proteins which we used for quantitative functional annotation making this the most extensive study of the tuber proteome to date.

  12. Clustering by Partitioning around Medoids using Distance-Based Similarity Measures on Interval-Scaled Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Nkweteyim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is reported in this paper, the results of a study of the partitioning around medoids (PAM clustering algorithm applied to four datasets, both standardized and not, and of varying sizes and numbers of clusters. The angular distance proximity measure in addition to the two more traditional proximity measures, namely the Euclidean distance and Manhattan distance, was used to compute object-object similarity. The data used in the study comprise three widely available datasets, and one that was constructed from publicly available climate data. Results replicate some of the well known facts about the PAM algorithm, namely that the quality of the clusters generated tend to be much better for small datasets, that the silhouette value is a good, even if not perfect, guide for the optimal number of clusters to generate, and that human intervention is required to interpret generated clusters. Additionally, results also indicate that the angular distance measure, which traditionally has not been widely used in clustering, outperforms both the Euclidean and Manhattan distance metrics in certain situations.

  13. Self-similar variables and the problem of nonlocal electron heat conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Bakunin, O.G.

    1993-10-01

    Self-similar solutions of the collisional electron kinetic equation are obtained for the plasmas with one (1D) and three (3D) dimensional plasma parameter inhomogeneities and arbitrary Z eff . For the plasma parameter profiles characterized by the ratio of the mean free path of thermal electrons with respect to electron-electron collisions, γ T , to the scale length of electron temperature variation, L, one obtains a criterion for determining the effect that tail particles with motion of the non-diffusive type have on the electron heat conductivity. For these conditions it is shown that the use of a open-quotes symmetrizedclose quotes kinetic equation for the investigation of the strong nonlocal effect of suprathermal electrons on the electron heat conductivity is only possible at sufficiently high Z eff (Z eff ≥ (L/γ T ) 1/2 ). In the case of 3D inhomogeneous plasma (spherical symmetry), the effect of the tail electrons on the heat transport is less pronounced since they are spread across the radius r

  14. Sociocultural predictors of motor development of athletes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociocultural predictors of motor development of athletes from Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. ... variables as they influenced the athletes' motor skill development. The social situations, family and the schools were found to significantly ...

  15. Sociocultural mediators of remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Gillespie, Alex

    2014-01-01

    , questioning and deferring contribute to the transformation and conventionalization of the material. These diverse sociocultural mediators are integrated into a partially coherent recollection by participants self-reflecting, or as Bartlett termed it, turning around upon their schemas. We demonstrate...... that this self-reflection is both a social and a psychological process, occurring because participants are responding to their own utterances in the same way that they respond to the utterances of other people. These empirical findings are used to make a case for using discursive data to look not only...

  16. A similarity solution of time dependent MHD liquid film flow over stretching sheet with variable physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idrees

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is performed for the fluid dynamics incorporating the variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity on an unsteady two-dimensional free surface flow of a viscous incompressible conducting fluid taking into account the effect of a magnetic field. Surface tension quadratically vary with temperature while fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The boundary layer partial differential equations in cartesian coordinates are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs by similarity transformation. The developed nonlinear equations are solved analytically by Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM while numerically by using the shooting method. The Effects of natural parameters such as the variable viscosity parameter A, variable thermal conductivity parameter N, Hartmann number Ma, film Thickness, unsteadiness parameter S, Thermocapillary number M and Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles are investigated. The results for the surface skin friction coefficient f″(0, Nusselt number (heat flux -θ′(0 and free surface temperature θ(1 are presented graphically and in tabular form. Keywords: Variable viscosity and thermal conductivity, Thermocapillary number, Magnetic field, Thin film, Unsteady stretching surface

  17. A similarity solution of time dependent MHD liquid film flow over stretching sheet with variable physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, M.; Rehman, Sajid; Shah, Rehan Ali; Ullah, M.; Abbas, Tariq

    2018-03-01

    An analysis is performed for the fluid dynamics incorporating the variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity on an unsteady two-dimensional free surface flow of a viscous incompressible conducting fluid taking into account the effect of a magnetic field. Surface tension quadratically vary with temperature while fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The boundary layer partial differential equations in cartesian coordinates are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformation. The developed nonlinear equations are solved analytically by Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) while numerically by using the shooting method. The Effects of natural parameters such as the variable viscosity parameter A, variable thermal conductivity parameter N, Hartmann number Ma, film Thickness, unsteadiness parameter S, Thermocapillary number M and Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles are investigated. The results for the surface skin friction coefficient f″ (0) , Nusselt number (heat flux) -θ‧ (0) and free surface temperature θ (1) are presented graphically and in tabular form.

  18. Residents’ Attitude toward Tourism Development: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ebrahimi Meimand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Host population support for tourism development has attracted the attention of researchers in tourism studies. Given the importance of understanding local community support for tourism development, limitations in understanding their priority and lack of a socio-cultural model of support for tourism, this study attempted to model locals’ support for tourism development based on socio-cultural factors in Malaysian Homestay program. Using extensive literature review, a tourism support model was proposed including several hypothesized paths. The proposed socio-cultural research framework predicted the impact of Islamic religiosity, locals’ knowledge about tourism, intrinsic motivation factors and community attachment on locals support for tourism development through mediating variables of perceived socio-cultural benefits and costs in Malaysian Homestays. , the model and paths were tested using structural equation modelling and partial least square algorithm (PLS-SEM with the aid of SmartPLS software. Findings reveal that locals’ support for tourism development in Homestay program is a function of perceived socio-cultural benefits and costs perceived by local community and four independent variables of Islamic religiosity, knowledge about tourism, intrinsic motivations, and community attachment.

  19. Self-Similar Solutions of Variable-Coefficient Cubic-Quintic Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation with an External Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongyu; Fei Jinxi; Zheng Chunlong

    2010-01-01

    An improved homogeneous balance principle and an F-expansion technique are used to construct exact self-similar solutions to the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Such solutions exist under certain conditions, and impose constraints on the functions describing dispersion, nonlinearity, and the external potential. Some simple self-similar waves are presented. (general)

  20. Environmental Argumentation as Sociocultural Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Akerson, Valarie L.; Oldfield, Martha

    2012-01-01

    While environmental argumentation has recently received much attention from science educators, little consideration has been given to how personal identities and social relationships can either support or constrain student argumentation. This study attends to this issue by examining environmental argumentation as a sociocultural activity (how…

  1. Do birds of a feather flock together? The variable bases for African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents' selection of similar friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J V

    2000-03-01

    Variability in adolescent-friend similarity is documented in a diverse sample of African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents. Similarity was greatest for substance use, modest for academic orientations, and low for ethnic identity. Compared with Asian American and European American adolescents, African American adolescents chose friends who were less similar with respect to academic orientation or substance use but more similar with respect to ethnic identity. For all three ethnic groups, personal endorsement of the dimension in question and selection of cross-ethnic-group friends heightened similarity. Similarity was a relative rather than an absolute selection criterion: Adolescents did not choose friends with identical orientations. These findings call for a comprehensive theory of friendship selection sensitive to diversity in adolescents' experiences. Implications for peer influence and self-development are discussed.

  2. Variability in Women Faculty’s Preferences Regarding Mentor Similarity: A Multi-Institution Study in Academic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapinha, René; Ortiz-Walters, Rowena; McCracken, Caitlin M.; Hill, Emorcia V.; Reede, Joan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate which mentor similarity characteristics women faculty in academic medicine rate most important and to determine whether the importance of similarity differs among women faculty based on current and prior mentoring, demographic and personal factors, and career factors. Method Cross-sectional survey data from 3,100 women faculty at 13 purposively sampled U.S. medical schools were collected in 2012. The preferences of participants regarding the importance of mentor similarity in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, personal and career interests, and department and institution were studied. Analysis entailed chi square tests and multivariable ordered logistic models. Results Overall, respondents ranked having a mentor in the same department and institution as most important. Same department and institution were less important for those without a current mentor and for senior faculty, and were more important for Asian faculty. Same career and personal interests were less important for older faculty and more important for those with a doctorate only. Same gender was more important for Black faculty, faculty at the rank of instructor, and those without current mentoring. Overall, same race/ethnicity was rated least important; however, it was more important for racial/ethnic minorities, foreign-born faculty, and those who had never had a mentor. Conclusions Mentor preferences, as indicated by level of importance assigned to types of mentor similarity, varied among women faculty. To advance effective mentoring, characterized by high degree of mentor-mentee fit, the authors provide recommendations on matching strategies to be used in academic medicine when considering the diverse mentor preferences of women faculty. PMID:27332871

  3. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  4. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korejo, Razia; Noorani, Khurshid Jehan; Bhutta, Shereen

    2003-05-01

    To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identify the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Prospective observational study. The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi from January 1999 to June 2001. The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced contraception. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 women (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encountered in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion.

  5. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korejo, R.; Noorani, K.J.; Bhutta, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)

  6. Extending Sociocultural Theory to Group Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Sociocultural theory focuses on group processes through time, and argues that group phenomena cannot be reduced to explanation in terms of the mental states or actions of the participating individuals. This makes sociocultural theory particularly useful in the analysis of group creativity and group learning, because both group creativity and group…

  7. SOCIO-CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON EFFECTIVE ENGLISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Consequently, challenges abound in the teaching and learning of ... English in tertiary institutions in contemporary Nigeria, the influence of socio-cultural factors ... The English Language has been a crucial issue in the Nigerian education.

  8. Socio-Cultural Factors and International Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara Apsalone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-cultural factors – shared values, norms and attitudes are significant, but less acknowledged sources of international competitiveness. Previous studies have found socio-cultural factors positively affecting various aspects of international competitiveness – entrepreneurship, innovation, productivity and international cooperation. These factors are more sustainable and less affected by external environment changes in comparison with the traditional factors. Socio-cultural factors provide an opportunity to develop competitiveness strategies based on unique advantages. This research aims to explore the impact of socio-cultural factors on international competiveness in small, open economies. Analysing relationship between 400 socio-cultural indicators and competitiveness indicators such as productivity, economic development, business and government efficiency, innovation capacity and infrastructure in 37 countries, six socio-cultural factors have emerged: Collectivism and Hierarchy; Future, Cooperation and Performance Orientation, Self-expression, Monochronism and Rationality, Economic Orientation and Social structure. The first factor – Collectivism and Hierarchy – tends to reduce the international competitiveness; the other five affect it positively.

  9. Fertility and its relationship with sociocultural factors in Kuwaiti society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kandari, Y Y

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of some sociocultural variables on the fertility of Kuwaiti women. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 7749 married women (aged 15-78 years) selected randomly from 10 primary health care clinics in Kuwait. The fertility rate was 3.58 live births per woman. Fertility was higher among Sunni Muslim women, those of Bedouin ethnicity, and those in a consanguineous marriage (P relationship between fertility and respondents' educational level, occupation, age at marriage, socioeconomic status and type of marriage (consanguineous or not). There was a positive relationship between fertility and the respondents' age and the family income.

  10. Distinguishing the impacts of human activities and climate variability on runoff and sediment load change based on paired periods with similar weather conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Fei; Hessel, Rudi; Mu, Xingmin; Maroulis, Jerry; Zhao, Guangju; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-01-01

    Runoff and sediment loads from river basin are largely affected by the interplay of climate variability and human activities within the basin. However, distinguishing the impacts of climate variability and human activities would vastly improve our knowledge of water resources, climate variability

  11. THE WORLD VIEW, IDENTITY AND SOCIOCULTUR HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yur’evna Neronova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the relationship between the phenomenon of world view and sociocultural identity both individuals and the community as a whole. The research is being carried out in the context of current crisis of world view accepted in so-called art Nouveau era. This paper also presents the identity crisis typical for modern civilized societies. A new notion of sociocultural homeostasis is introduced in connection with analyzable phenomena and their mutual relations.Purpose. Study of the relationship between the phenomenon of the world view and sociocultural identity as a structural and functional mechanism.Methodology. Phenomenological and systematic methods with the elements of historical method were employed. Cultural analysis is based on using both axiological and phenomenological approach, and also the elements of semiotic approach.Results. The dependence of identity on the world view is revealed (or is being revealed?, the phenomenon of sociocultural homeostasis is singled out (or is being singled out in the capacity of the mechanism setting up the correspondence in the contradictory unity between the world view as a subjective image and concrete reality as an objective part of this contradictory. The analysis of sociocultural homeostasis is carried out (or is being carried out and the conclusion is being drown that instability of the latter leads to serious problems in the identification of both individuals and communities as a whole. Besides, (moreover the relationship between the legitimacy level of the world view and stability of sociocultural homeostasis is established. (is being established.Practical implications: the system of education.

  12. Socio-cultural impacts of contemporary tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicić, Dobrica

    2011-06-01

    The topic of the paper is devoted to analysis of socio-cultural impacts of tourism, as effects on the people of host communities resulting from their direct and indirect associations with tourists. The social and cultural impacts of tourism are the ways in which tourism is contributing to changes in value systems, individual behavior, family structure and relationships, collective lifestyles, safety levels, moral conduct, traditional ceremonies and community organizations. Special attention is devoted to considering complexity of tourists/host interrelationships and discussing the techniques for appraisal of quality and quantity of socio-cultural changes which tourism provokes in local communities.

  13. Socio-cultural predictors of reading literacy in fourth graders in Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Silva, S.L.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates socio-cultural cognitive literacy predictors for reading literacy (RL), tested in 314 fourth graders from two different levels of social economic status in Lima, Peru. The following variables were tested as predictors: word decoding, vocabulary, motivation to read, reading

  14. Sociocultural Appearance Standards and Risk Factors for Eating Disorders in Adolescents and Women of Various Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta; Sitnik-Warchulska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to verify the level of impact of sociocultural appearance standards (passive awareness and active internalization) have on body dissatisfaction, the desire to engage in a relentless pursuit of thinness, the adoption of a perfectionistic attitude toward the body, and the development of a tendency to engage in bulimic eating behavior, which can develop in adolescent girls and women of varying ages. The study group comprised 234 individuals: 95 secondary school girls, 33 high school girls, 56 female students, and 50 employed women, all of whom were living in southern Poland. Participants were not diagnosed with any psychiatric disorders (including eating disorders). The variables were measured using the Polish version of Garner's Eating Disorder Inventory and the Polish Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Physical Appearance and Body Image Inventory [based on the SATAQ-3 (Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire Scale-3)]. The findings revealed that the youngest Polish girls (aged 12-15) reported the highest level of risk factors for eating disorders. Among the entire study group, the internalization of appearance standards and the pressure associated with various media messages were determined to be predictors of the pursuit of thinness, regardless of age and body mass index values. The second most significant variable explained by the internalization of sociocultural standards was body dissatisfaction. The internalization of sociocultural norms provided a significant explanation of bulimic tendencies only in the youngest girls. Perfectionism proved not to be affected by the sociocultural impact of mass media. The adult women had the lowest average scores over the entire study population regarding exposure frequency to body images in mass media and regarding the experience of pressure exerted by sociocultural norms. The high level of internalization of sociocultural appearance standards seems to be significantly

  15. Sociocultural Appearance Standards and Risk Factors for Eating Disorders in Adolescents and Women of Various Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Izydorczyk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study was to verify the level of impact of sociocultural appearance standards (passive awareness and active internalization have on body dissatisfaction, the desire to engage in a relentless pursuit of thinness, the adoption of a perfectionistic attitude toward the body, and the development of a tendency to engage in bulimic eating behavior, which can develop in adolescent girls and women of varying ages. The study group comprised 234 individuals: 95 secondary school girls, 33 high school girls, 56 female students, and 50 employed women, all of whom were living in southern Poland. Participants were not diagnosed with any psychiatric disorders (including eating disorders. The variables were measured using the Polish version of Garner’s Eating Disorder Inventory and the Polish Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Physical Appearance and Body Image Inventory [based on the SATAQ-3 (Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire Scale-3]. The findings revealed that the youngest Polish girls (aged 12–15 reported the highest level of risk factors for eating disorders. Among the entire study group, the internalization of appearance standards and the pressure associated with various media messages were determined to be predictors of the pursuit of thinness, regardless of age and body mass index values. The second most significant variable explained by the internalization of sociocultural standards was body dissatisfaction. The internalization of sociocultural norms provided a significant explanation of bulimic tendencies only in the youngest girls. Perfectionism proved not to be affected by the sociocultural impact of mass media. The adult women had the lowest average scores over the entire study population regarding exposure frequency to body images in mass media and regarding the experience of pressure exerted by sociocultural norms. The high level of internalization of sociocultural appearance standards seems to be

  16. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Neisseria meningitidis yields groupings similar to those obtained by multilocus sequence typing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouls, Leo M; Ende, Arie van der; Damen, Marjolein; Pol, Ingrid van de

    2006-01-01

    We identified many variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci in the genomes of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, and C and utilized a number of these loci to develop a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Eighty-five N. meningitidis serogroup B and C isolates obtained

  17. Treating Women with Bulimia from a Sociocultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotelling, Kathy

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a sociocultural perspective of bulimia. Notes that since bulimia occurs in a sociocultural context, which includes a socialized developmental path with concomittant norms and values, effective treatment must address those norms and values. Recommends group therapy. (ABB)

  18. Socio-Cultural Perspectives on Causes and Intervention Strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Ngezi exclusively rely on socio-cultural intervention strategies to solve the problem of male infertility. ... infertility which integrates the socio-cultural perspectives in policy and programming, if ..... out that the concept of using traditional medicine.

  19. Sport in the Sociocultural Process. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Marie

    This anthology is an introduction to the sociocultural study of sport for those in physical education, sociology, anthropology, or any other study of human behavior in the social process. Part I provides a cultural framework, a series of definitions, and some understandings of the cultural setting of sport in American society as an orientation to…

  20. Anorexia Nervosa: Sociocultural Factors and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer

    This paper examines how the epidemiological findings of anorexia nervosa lead theorists to speculate a correlation between sociocultural factors and the development of anorexia nervosa. A section on the essential features of anorexia nervosa identifies five primary characteristics of anorexia: (1) severe weight loss; (2) a disturbance of body…

  1. Risks in socio-cultural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    An exposition is presented of the principles of a socio-cultural risk theory based on the statement 'Risk is structured uncertainty'. It deals with hazards of human behaviour, risk as a challenge, hazards in nature and in culture, in science and enterprise, to close with a few words on today's crisis and uncertainty. (Auth.)

  2. Constructivism, Socioculturalism, and Popper's World 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereiter, Carl

    1994-01-01

    Examines the concept of learning from both constructivist and sociocultural perspectives and introduces a third perspective based on K. R. Popper's philosophy of science. It is argued that constructivism cannot adequately account for the immaterial objects that Popper located in his World 3--abstract mathematical and scientific objects. (GLR)

  3. Concept "Medical Museum" as a Sociocultural Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizh, Nina V.; Slyshkin, Gennady G.; Zheltukhina, Marina R.; Privalova, Irina V.; Kravchenko, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the concept "medical museum" as a sociocultural phenomenon. The register of medical museums in Russia makes the material of research. The complex methods of analysis of the concept "medical museum" are used. The philosophical, historical, cultural, structural, communicative and semantic analysis is carried…

  4. Grace under Fire: Sociocultural Competency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Wayne W.; Bawtenheimer, Pat; Pearson, Hilary; Westwood, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Employers want employees who can communicate effectively, work as part of a team, and think on their feet. To help students acquire these qualities, the faculty of health sciences and counseling at Vancouver Community College integrated a sociocultural training model into their human relations programs. Evaluations indicate that students'…

  5. Efficient Estimation of Spectral Moments and the Polarimetric Variables on Weather Radars, Sonars, Sodars, Acoustic Flow Meters, Lidars, and Similar Active Remote Sensing Instruments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method for estimation of Doppler spectrum, its moments, and polarimetric variables on pulsed weather radars which uses over sampled echo components at a rate...

  6. The Influence of Socio-Cultural Factors on Leadership Practices for Instructional Improvement in Indonesian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawas, Umiati

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that although leadership shares similar practices across East and West, some practices have inherently distinguished socio cultural characteristics. Understanding these characteristics is important in Asian contexts since socio-cultures are a major power in determining the success or failure of a change process. This…

  7. Abordagem sociocultural: algumas vertentes e autores Sociocultural approach: some perspectives and authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira Paes Ribas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de enfocar aspectos socioculturais nas investigações em psicologia tem sido destacada por diferentes autores, em diferentes épocas, e a abordagem sociocultural representa uma fonte conceitual proveitosa neste sentido. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar e discutir algumas idéias centrais da abordagem sociocultural, mudanças pelas quais esta abordagem passou nas últimas décadas, algumas de suas vertentes e autores. Os conceitos aqui discutidos não esgotam o tema, mas podem ser úteis para tentativas de articular investigações de diferentes temas em psicologia à abordagem sociocultural. As considerações finais apontam no sentido da necessidade de incluir as investigações em psicologia em um cenário conceitual que considere a cultura e o contexto social como elementos centrais, articulando as contribuições da psicologia transcultural e da cultura.The need to approach sociocultural aspects in psychological investigations has been emphasized by different authors in different times, and the sociocultural approach represents a profitable conceptual source in this sense. The purpose of this article was to discuss some concepts of the sociocultural approach, changes by which this approach went through last decades, some of their perspectives and authors. The concepts here discussed can be useful in the attempts to articulate psychological investigations in a sociocultural approach. The conclusions point to the need of including the investigations in psychology into a conceptual approach that considers the culture and the social context as central elements, articulating the contributions of the cross-cultural psychology, and of the culture.

  8. Opposition to Women in Congregational Leadership: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Kofi Amoah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although many efforts have been made in time past in demonstrating that women are similar to men, there still appear to be a widespread persistent belief that women are indeed inferior to men even until today. What is even worrying is the theological backing that this sociocultural belief of society enjoys. One notices in the literature that God ordains, sanctions, and upholds the spiritual authority of women today as he did in time past as his official spokespersons and leaders of his people. However, the evidence and discussion presented in this paper demonstrate that problems with women being accepted as leaders by congregations, gender differences in pay and promotions, and the experiences and dissatisfaction of women clergy who feel constrained by these gender discrimination is widespread. The paper discusses this phenomenon and presents an often neglected perspective in the discourse – the sociocultural perspective. It interrogates the various stands on women and leadership in congregations. In doing this, the paper explores the position of women in the Old Testament through to the New Testament and the centuries following.

  9. Socio-Cultural Impacts in the Formation of Urban Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpaung, B. O. Y.

    2017-03-01

    In Indonesia, a group of village people tends to move from one place to another and develops a living space to create a settlement. This research is conducted by taking an example of a particular ethnic group that leaves the forestry area to a new place in the city. After some time, this group of people creates a similar or adapted socio-cultural system adapted from their origin place. The purpose of this research is to examine the socio-cultural aspects that significantly influence the emergence of urban village. This influence is interpreted as social and cultural relations with the establishment of space and significance of urban village. By focusing on this issue, this research will trace the process of how a new and unplanned settlement could emerge. The process and elements are indispensable from social and cultural factors. Essentially, the shape of bulit space is a non-physical manifestation of local people, which is established from time to time. In this case, the research’s challenge lies on the circumstance in Indonesia where society and culture influence the emergence of urban village. Physical appearance can be identified as a tipology of settlement and morphology of urban village.

  10. Socio-cultural Impacts of Contemporary Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić, Dobrica

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the paper is devoted to analysis of socio-cultural impacts of tourism, as effects on the people of host communities resulting from their direct and indirect associations with tourists. The social and cultural impacts of tourism are the ways in which tourism is contributing to changes in value systems, individual behavior, family structure and relationships, collective lifestyles, safety levels, moral conduct, traditional ceremonies and community organizations. Special ...

  11. School bullying from a sociocultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Maunder, Rachel E.; Crafter, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    School bullying is an important concern. Whilst there is growing knowledge about the nature, extent and effects of school bullying, areas of complexity in research findings remain. In this paper we develop our thinking on school bullying using a sociocultural theoretical framework. We review existing literature around three main themes: 1) The conceptualisation and interpretation of bullying; 2) The relational aspects of bullying 3) Bullying as part of someone's life trajectory. For each them...

  12. Computed tomography-based lung nodule volumetry - do optimized reconstructions of routine protocols achieve similar accuracy, reproducibility and interobserver variability to that of special volumetry protocols?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolte, H.; Riedel, C.; Knoess, N.; Hoffmann, B.; Heller, M.; Biederer, J.; Freitag, S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this in vitro and ex vivo CT study was to investigate whether the use of a routine thorax protocol (RTP) with optimized reconstruction parameters can provide comparable accuracy, reproducibility and interobserver variability of volumetric analyses to that of a special volumetry protocol (SVP). Materials and Methods: To assess accuracy, 3 polyurethane (PU) spheres (35 HU; diameters: 4, 6 and 10 mm) were examined with a recommended SVP using a multislice CT (collimation 16 x 0.75 mm, pitch 1.25, 20 mAs, slice thickness 1 mm, increment 0.7 mm, medium kernel) and an optimized RTP (collimation 16 x 1.5 mm, pitch 1.25, 100 mAs, reconstructed slice thickness 2 mm, increment 0.4 mm, sharp kernel). For the assessment of intrascan and interscan reproducibility and interobserver variability, 20 artificial small pulmonary nodules were placed in a dedicated ex vivo chest phantom and examined with identical scan protocols. The artificial lesions consisted of a fat-wax-Lipiodol registered mixture. Phantoms and ex vivo lesions were examined afterwards using commercial volumetry software. To describe accuracy the relative deviations from the true volumes of the PU phantoms were calculated. For intrascan and interscan reproducibility and interobserver variability, the 95 % normal range (95 % NR) of relative deviations between two measurements was calculated. Results: For the SVP the achieved relative deviations for the 4, 6 and 10 mm PU phantoms were - 14.3 %, - 12.7 % and - 6.8 % and were 4.5 %, - 0.6 % and - 2.6 %, respectively, for the optimized RTP. SVP showed a 95 % NR of 0 - 1.5 % for intrascan and a 95 % NR of - 10.8 - 2.9 % for interscan reproducibility. The 95 % NR for interobserver variability was - 4.3 - 3.3 %. The optimized RTP achieved a 95 % NR of - 3.1 - 4.3 % for intrascan reproducibility and a 95 % NR of - 7.0 - 3.5 % for interscan reproducibility. The 95 % NR for interobserver variability was - 0.4 - 6.8 %. (orig.)

  13. StralSV: assessment of sequence variability within similar 3D structures and application to polio RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemla, A; Lang, D; Kostova, T; Andino, R; Zhou, C

    2010-11-29

    Most of the currently used methods for protein function prediction rely on sequence-based comparisons between a query protein and those for which a functional annotation is provided. A serious limitation of sequence similarity-based approaches for identifying residue conservation among proteins is the low confidence in assigning residue-residue correspondences among proteins when the level of sequence identity between the compared proteins is poor. Multiple sequence alignment methods are more satisfactory - still, they cannot provide reliable results at low levels of sequence identity. Our goal in the current work was to develop an algorithm that could overcome these difficulties and facilitate the identification of structurally (and possibly functionally) relevant residue-residue correspondences between compared protein structures. Here we present StralSV, a new algorithm for detecting closely related structure fragments and quantifying residue frequency from tight local structure alignments. We apply StralSV in a study of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of poliovirus and demonstrate that the algorithm can be used to determine regions of the protein that are relatively unique or that shared structural similarity with structures that are distantly related. By quantifying residue frequencies among many residue-residue pairs extracted from local alignments, one can infer potential structural or functional importance of specific residues that are determined to be highly conserved or that deviate from a consensus. We further demonstrate that considerable detailed structural and phylogenetic information can be derived from StralSV analyses. StralSV is a new structure-based algorithm for identifying and aligning structure fragments that have similarity to a reference protein. StralSV analysis can be used to quantify residue-residue correspondences and identify residues that may be of particular structural or functional importance, as well as unusual or unexpected

  14. Sociocultural Meanings of Nanotechnology: Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-06-01

    This article identifies six social-science research methodologies that will be useful for charting the sociocultural meaning of nanotechnology: web-based questionnaires, vignette experiments, analysis of web linkages, recommender systems, quantitative content analysis, and qualitative textual analysis. Data from a range of sources are used to illustrate how the methods can delineate the intellectual content and institutional structure of the emerging nanotechnology culture. Such methods will make it possible in future to test hypotheses such as that there are two competing definitions of nanotechnology - the technical-scientific and the science-fiction - that are influencing public perceptions by different routes and in different directions.

  15. Curing and sociocultural separatism in South Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, L

    1985-01-01

    In much of Thailand animistic curing practices have lost ground to great tradition herbal medicine and modern scientific medicine as more people achieve literacy. Especially in urbanizing areas, Buddhist and Muslim Thais hold in the highest esteem traditional curers whose knowledge derives from patient experimentation and the study of ancient texts. However, among Malay-speaking Muslims in south Thailand, the most respected therapeutic knowledge is revelatory in nature. Southern Muslim curers are generally mystics or spirit-mediums whose direct channels of communication with the supernatural convey remedies for afflictions but also provide guidelines for maintaining sociocultural separatism.

  16. Beyond Normativity in Sociocultural Reproduction and Sociocultural Transformation: Curriculum Work--Leadership within an Evolving Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylimaki, Rose M.; Fetman, Lisa J.; Matyjasik, Erin; Brunderman, Lynnette; Uljens, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this article is to examine the contributions, gaps, and normativity problems in mainstream sociocultural theories, curriculum theory, and educational leadership studies, considering reflective education theories that provide a less normative alternative. Framework: Our framework introduces reflective education for social…

  17. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gie-Bele Vargas-Sanchez

    selected, reducing their genetic variability.

  18. Interconnection of socio-cultural adaptation and identity in the socialization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Y Rakhmanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the socio-cultural adaptation of an individual on his personality and identity structure; analyzes the processes of primary and secondary socialization in comparison with subsequent adaptation processes, as well as the possibility of a compromise between the unchanging, rigid identity and the ability to adapt flexibly to the changing context. The author identifies positive and negative aspects of adaptation in the contemporary society while testing the hypothesis that if the adaptation is successful and proceeds within the normal range, it helps to preserve the stability of social structures, but does not contribute to their development for the maladaptive behavior of individuals and groups stimulates social transformations. In the second part of the article, the author shows the relationship of the socio-cultural identity and the individual status in various social communities and tries to answer the question whether the existence and functioning of the social community as a pure ‘form’ without individuals (its members is possible. The author describes the identity phenomenon in the context of the opposition of the universal and unique, similarities and differences. The article also introduces the concept of the involvement in the socio-cultural context as one of the indicators of the completeness and depth of individual socio-cultural adaptation to a certain environment, which is quite important for the internal hierarchy of individual identity.

  19. Connecting sociocultural theory and educational practice : Galperin's approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arievitch, I.M.; Haenen, J.P.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070566135

    2005-01-01

    Learning and instruction have always been important topics in the sociocultural school of thought founded by Vygotsky and further developed by his followers. Taking sociocultural ideas as a starting point, Piotr Galperin developed an original conceptual system and a new method of investigation that

  20. The Subjectivity of the Translator and Socio-Cultural Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Denghua

    2010-01-01

    This thesis attempts to probe into the dialectical relationship between the subjectivity of the translator and socio-cultural norms. The socio-cultural norms inevitably regulate the translator's translating activity, as acceptability of the translated text is the primary concern of most translators. However, this does not mean that the…

  1. The Sociocultural Contexts of Learning in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines demographic dimensions of the work force: aging, gender, race, sexual orientation, immigration, language, religion. Suggests a workplace pedagogy that is sensitive to sociocultural context and includes the concept of workplace learning as a lifelong process, socioculturally sensitive policies, equal opportunity development, and diversity…

  2. Learning as discourse change: A sociocultural mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Per-Olof; Östman, Leif

    2002-09-01

    This paper deals with a theoretical mechanism for learning and a methodological approach for analyzing meaning making in classroom talk and action. It examines the potential of the approach for illuminating learning on a discursive level, i.e., how discourses change and how individuals become participants of new practices. Our approach involves a high-resolution analysis of how meaningful relations are built in encounters between individuals and between individuals and the world. The approach is based mainly on the work of the later Wittgenstein, but also on pragmatism and sociocultural research. To demonstrate how our approach can be used, we analyze what university students learn during a practical on insects. We specifically demonstrate how the encounters with physical pinned insects contribute to the meaning students make and how these encounters interact with other experiences during laboratory work.

  3. Classification of suicide attempters in schizophrenia using sociocultural and clinical features: A machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettige, Nuwan C; Nguyen, Thai Binh; Yuan, Chen; Rajakulendran, Thanara; Baddour, Jermeen; Bhagwat, Nikhil; Bani-Fatemi, Ali; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Mallar Chakravarty, M; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    Suicide is a major concern for those afflicted by schizophrenia. Identifying patients at the highest risk for future suicide attempts remains a complex problem for psychiatric interventions. Machine learning models allow for the integration of many risk factors in order to build an algorithm that predicts which patients are likely to attempt suicide. Currently it is unclear how to integrate previously identified risk factors into a clinically relevant predictive tool to estimate the probability of a patient with schizophrenia for attempting suicide. We conducted a cross-sectional assessment on a sample of 345 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Suicide attempters and non-attempters were clearly identified using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) and the Beck Suicide Ideation Scale (BSS). We developed four classification algorithms using a regularized regression, random forest, elastic net and support vector machine models with sociocultural and clinical variables as features to train the models. All classification models performed similarly in identifying suicide attempters and non-attempters. Our regularized logistic regression model demonstrated an accuracy of 67% and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71, while the random forest model demonstrated 66% accuracy and an AUC of 0.67. Support vector classifier (SVC) model demonstrated an accuracy of 67% and an AUC of 0.70, and the elastic net model demonstrated and accuracy of 65% and an AUC of 0.71. Machine learning algorithms offer a relatively successful method for incorporating many clinical features to predict individuals at risk for future suicide attempts. Increased performance of these models using clinically relevant variables offers the potential to facilitate early treatment and intervention to prevent future suicide attempts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PROSPECTIVE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ FOREIGN LANGUAGE SOCIOCULTURAL COMPETENCE: MONITORING PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Ishutina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the necessity and importance of the organization of prospective primary school teachers’ foreign language sociocultural competence monitoring in the educational process of high school. The author notes that prospective primary school teachers’ foreign language sociocultural competence is inseparably linked with linguomethodological competence. It is proved that the measurement of foreign language sociocultural competence of primary school foreign language teachers should be performed in the process of lingvomethodological training of the students as lingvomethodological competence occupies a dominant place and is a unifying and a backbone for other competencies of the future teacher’s professiogram. In this regard, the concept of “foreign language sociocultural competence of prospective primary school teacher” is clarified, the essence of lingvomethodological monitoring of foreign language sociocultural competence is revealed. It is emphasized that linguistic disciplines (“The practice of oral and written language”, “Practical grammar of a foreign language”, “Practical phonetics of a foreign language”, etc. and linguomethodological courses (“Methods of teaching English at primary school”, “ICT in learning foreign languages”, “Innovative technologies of learning foreign languages”, etc. play very important role in forming “foreign language sociocultural competence of prospective primary school teacher”. Specific principles of lingvomethodological monitoring of foreign language sociocultural competence are identified and characterized. They are complexity, lingvomethodological orientation, validity, multi-vector monitoring procedures.

  5. THE EVALUATION OF 7-th GRADE PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ GRAMMAR SKILLS IN TERMS OF SOCIOCULTURAL VARIABLES: ERZİNCAN SAMPLE İLKÖĞRETİM 7. SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN DİL BİLGİSİ BECERİLERİNİN SOSYOKÜLTÜREL DEĞİŞKENLER AÇISINDAN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ: ERZİNCAN ÖRNEĞİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuzhan YILMAZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to determine 7th grade primary school students' grammar skills in terms of socio-cultural variables. The sample of this study ,which was done via screening model, was selected with"cluster sampling" techniques. An achievment test was developed by taking the experts' view into consideration and this achievement test was given to students via an information form that can meaure socio-cultural behaviour. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 16. In order to test the two variables that can make difference on language skills "Independent Samples T-Test" and for more than two variables One Way ANOVA was used. When ANOVA could not meet normality hypothesis Kruskal Wallis H-Test was applied. As a result of our study it was found that the students who have their own library have better language skills and the variables such as gender, monthly income, father's/mother's job, father's/mother's level of education, ownership status of the house, having a private room, the habit of buying newspaper, studying lesson, and free time activities have not effect on students' language skills. Bu çalışma, ilköğretim 7. sınıf öğrencilerinin dil bilgisi becerilerini sosyokültürel değişkenler açısından incelemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Tarama modeliyle yapılan bu çalışmanın örneklemi “kümelere göre örnekleme” tekniğiyle seçilmiştir. Verilerin toplanması için uzman görüşleri alınarak bir başarı testi geliştirilmiş ve bu başarı testi, sosyokültürel davranışlarını ölçecek nitelikte bir bilgi formu ile öğrencilere sunulmuştur. Toplanan veriler SPSS 16 programı vasıtasıyla analiz edilmiştir. Dil bilgisi becerileri üzerinde farklılık oluşturabilecek iki değişkenin test edilmesinde “Bağımsız Gruplar Arası T-Testi (Independent Samples T-Test”, ikiden fazla değişkenin test edilmesindeyse “Tek Yönlü Varyans Analizi (One Way ANOVA” kullanılmıştır. ANOVA testinin normallik

  6. 52 Sociocultural Competence as a Basis for Functional Education: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... This paper examines the relevance of socio-cultural competence in functional ... non-material expressions of the people as well as the processes with which .... themselves in all kinds of immorality, smoking, stealing, drug ...

  7. Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Consent For Research In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Consent For Research In Nigeria: Lessons ... for Health Research Ethics in enforcing researchers' compliance with ethical standards in ... Genuine respect for human dignity requires deeper understanding of ...

  8. Articulating cultures: socio-cultural experiences of black female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Articulating cultures: socio-cultural experiences of black female immigrant students in South African schools 1. ... Gender and Behaviour ... and worrisome issue is that of the erosion of the social and cultural mores of Black3 immigrant students.

  9. Socio-cultural factors impacting male involvement in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-cultural factors impacting male involvement in the management of infertile couples at the Kenyatta National Hospital. ... that may influence male participation in the management of the infertile couples attending the KNH Infertility Clinic.

  10. Traditional Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource Management Practices in ... Ghanaian worker in general and the HR manager in particular is influenced ... face -to-face interview methods were used to obtain information for the study.

  11. Socio-cultural Issues for Sustainable Development in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-cultural Issues for Sustainable Development in Africa. ... focal areas of sustainable development – social, economic and environmental factors. ... that designed a Sustainable Integrated Rural Development in Africa (SIRDA) programme.

  12. Sociocultural context as a facilitator of student learning of function concepts in mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Díaz Obando

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Costa Rica, many secondary students have serious difficulties to establish relationships between mathematics and real-life contexts. They question the utilitarian role of the school mathematics. This fact motivated the research object of this report which evidences the need to overcome methodologies unrelated to students’ reality, toward new didactical options that help students to value mathematics, reasoning and its  applications, connecting it with their socio-cultural context. The research used a case study as a qualitative methodology and the social constructivism as an educational paradigm in which the knowledge is built by the student; as a product of his social interactions. A collection of learning situations was designed, validated, and implemented. It allowed establishing relationships between mathematical concepts and the socio-cultural context of participants. It analyzed the impact of students’socio-cultural context in their mathematics learning of basic concepts of real variable functions, consistent with the Ministry of Education (MEP Official Program.  Among the results, it was found that using students’sociocultural context improved their motivational processes, mathematics sense making, and promoted cooperative social interactions. It was evidenced that contextualized learning situations favored concepts comprehension that allow students to see mathematics as a discipline closely related with their every-day life.

  13. Comparing sociocultural features of cholera in three endemic African settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cholera mainly affects developing countries where safe water supply and sanitation infrastructure are often rudimentary. Sub-Saharan Africa is a cholera hotspot. Effective cholera control requires not only a professional assessment, but also consideration of community-based priorities. The present work compares local sociocultural features of endemic cholera in urban and rural sites from three field studies in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (SE-DRC), western Kenya and Zanzibar. Methods A vignette-based semistructured interview was used in 2008 in Zanzibar to study sociocultural features of cholera-related illness among 356 men and women from urban and rural communities. Similar cross-sectional surveys were performed in western Kenya (n = 379) and in SE-DRC (n = 360) in 2010. Systematic comparison across all settings considered the following domains: illness identification; perceived seriousness, potential fatality and past household episodes; illness-related experience; meaning; knowledge of prevention; help-seeking behavior; and perceived vulnerability. Results Cholera is well known in all three settings and is understood to have a significant impact on people’s lives. Its social impact was mainly characterized by financial concerns. Problems with unsafe water, sanitation and dirty environments were the most common perceived causes across settings; nonetheless, non-biomedical explanations were widespread in rural areas of SE-DRC and Zanzibar. Safe food and water and vaccines were prioritized for prevention in SE-DRC. Safe water was prioritized in western Kenya along with sanitation and health education. The latter two were also prioritized in Zanzibar. Use of oral rehydration solutions and rehydration was a top priority everywhere; healthcare facilities were universally reported as a primary source of help. Respondents in SE-DRC and Zanzibar reported cholera as affecting almost everybody without differentiating much for gender, age

  14. Residents’ Attitude toward Tourism Development: A Sociocultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sajad Ebrahimi Meimand; Zainab Khalifah; Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas; Abbas Mardani; Amir Abbas Najafipour; Ungku Norulkamar Ungku Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Host population support for tourism development has attracted the attention of researchers in tourism studies. Given the importance of understanding local community support for tourism development, limitations in understanding their priority and lack of a socio-cultural model of support for tourism, this study attempted to model locals’ support for tourism development based on socio-cultural factors in Malaysian Homestay program. Using extensive literature review, a tourism support model was ...

  15. The influence of socio-cultural background and product value in usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen

    2013-05-01

    This article examines the influence of socio-cultural background and product value on different outcomes of usability tests. A study was conducted in two different socio-cultural regions, Switzerland and East Germany, which differed in a number of aspects (e.g. economic power, price sensitivity and culture). Product value (high vs. low) was varied by manipulating the price of the product. Sixty-four test participants were asked to carry out five typical user tasks in the context of coffee machine usage, measuring performance, perceived usability, and emotion. The results showed that in Switzerland, high-value products were rated higher in usability than low-value products whereas in East Germany, high-value products were evaluated lower in usability. A similar interaction effect of socio-cultural background and product value was observed for user emotion. Implications are that the outcomes of usability tests do not allow for a simple transfer across cultures and that the mediating influence of perceived product value needs to be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring Mexican-origin intimate partner abuse survivors' help-seeking within their sociocultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabeck, Kalina M; Guzmán, Michele R

    2009-01-01

    Women's responses to partner abuse are shaped by their particular sociocultural contexts. In this study, quantitative data were collected from 75 Mexican-origin women who survived intimate partner abuse, to identify variables associated with help-seeking to survive relationship abuse. Help-seeking was defined as use of formal (e.g., shelter) and informal (e.g., family) sources. Variables included two cultural variables: machismo (i.e., adherence to traditional gender roles) and familismo (i.e., valuing family cohesion and reciprocity), and four sociostructural variables: income, education, English proficiency, and immigrant status. Results indicated participants with higher levels of familismo sought informal help more frequently than those with lower levels. Women with grade school education, no English proficiency, and undocumented status sought formal help less frequently than those not constrained by these barriers.

  17. Socio-Cultural Conception of Albinism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2015-04-14

    Apr 14, 2015 ... and possibly getting married especially if they are from a wealthy home. Similarly a ... male child, than the females with albinism (FWA). ... have been abandoned by their parents and guardians, taken to the forest and ..... The lack of knowledge, misinformation and negative attitudes about albinism.

  18. Digital Divide among Youth: Socio-Cultural Factors and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parycek, Peter; Sachs, Michael; Schossbock, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine socio-cultural differences in internet use (Digital Divide) among 14-year-old Austrian pupils, in particular usage scenarios and research competences. It is based on a paper presented at the International Association for the Development of the Information Society e-Society conference, 10-13 March 2011, Spain…

  19. Socio-Cultural Conception of Albinism and Sexuality Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Cultural Conception of Albinism and Sexuality Challenges among Persons with Albinism (PWA) in South-West, Nigeria. ... For the female PWA the risk of being used for money making rituals; not knowing a sincere partner; their more fragile nature and perceived fear of societal objection and hatred in seeing a ...

  20. Out of our minds: a review of sociocultural cognition theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenberg, Josh; Knobelsdorf, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Theories of mind are implicitly embedded in educational research. The predominant theory of mind during the latter half of the twentieth century has focused primarily on the individual mind in isolation, context-free problem-solving and mental representations and reasoning, what we refer to as cognitivism. Over the last two decades, CS Education researchers have begun to incorporate recent research that extends, elaborates and sometimes challenges cognitivism. These theories, which we refer to collectively as sociocultural cognition theory, view minds as cultural products, biologically evolved to be extended by tools, social interaction and embodied interaction in the world. Learning, under this perspective, is viewed as tool-mediated participation in the ongoing practices of cultural communities. In this paper, we pursue three goals. First, we provide a summary of the key principles in sociocultural cognition theory, placing this theory within a historical context with respect to the cognitive theories that it extends and challenges. Second, we integrate across different but related research efforts that all fall under the sociocultural cognition umbrella, using a uniform terminology for describing ideas represented within different discourse communities. And third, we reference a number of canonical sources in sociocultural cognition theory so as to serve as an index into this diverse literature for those wanting to explore further.

  1. The English in Japanese University Entrance Examinations: A Sociocultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locastro, Virginia

    1990-01-01

    Sociocultural and historical examination of the kind of English used in Japanese university entrance examinations suggests that such usage mirrors and reinforces general Japanese attitudes about language, language learning, and national interests, resulting in a closed system highly resistant to change. (28 references) (Author/CB)

  2. Learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural environment were investigated by looking at: 1) the nature of \\"cognitive border crossing\\" exhibited by the students from the traditional to the scientific worldview, and 2) whether or not three learning theories / hypotheses: border crossing, collaterality, and ...

  3. Sociocultural patterning of neural activity during self-reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yina; Bang, Dan; Wang, Chenbo

    2014-01-01

    ) in Chinese than in Danish participants. Moreover, the group difference in TPJ activity was mediated by a measure of a cultural value (i.e., interdependence of self-construal). Our findings suggest that individuals in different sociocultural contexts may learn and/or adopt distinct strategies for self-reflection...

  4. Application of the principles of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociocultural theory by Vygotsky (1896-1934) is a theory that has become popular in educational practice in recent years. It is especially important in the instruction of children in the preschool level as it is most suitable for their development and learning, which is more of social interaction. This paper discussed the ...

  5. Language Study: Language and Socio-Cultural Values: An Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language is an important tool in the human society. Apart from the fact that it makes communication and integration possible, it is an important aspect of the socio-cultural life of a people. To this extent, language is closely knit with culture as it embodies the society's value system and patterned way of life. This paper ...

  6. The socio-cultural implications of climate change in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change impact has remained a serious threat to man and more particularly in the water-stressed environment of north Cameroon where in most cases, man struggles for bare survival by eking out a living from a harsh or hostile climatic environment. In this region, the socio-cultural impacts can be devastating as has ...

  7. Future Time Perspective in Sociocultural Contexts: A Discussion Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2009-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) serves as a strong motivational force for individuals to engage in activities that may be instrumental in future outcomes. There has been a voluminous body of research studies, to date, that explored the importance of FTP. This article discusses FTP from sociocultural perspectives. Based on previous empirical…

  8. Socio-Cultural Problems and Maladaptive Behaviours of Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through survey research design, this study investigated the socio-cultural problems and maladaptive behaviours of post-adolescents in Nigeria. Out of 379 National Youth Service Corps (N. Y. S. C.) members drawn from various parts of Nigeria for the 2010/2011 service year, deployed to Abakaliki, Ebonyi and Izzi Local ...

  9. Socio-cultural attitudes of Igbomina tribe toward marriage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article namely: "Socio-cultural attitudes of Igbomina tribe toward marriage and abortion in Osun and Kwara states of Nigeria" by Adeleke Gbadebo Fatai has been updated with a new version bearing the author's current affiliation with significant editorial intervention. Abortion has been a social menace and its ...

  10. Socio-Cultural Factors and Ethnic Group Relationships in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Much has been discussed and written about ethnicity. This paper is therefore intended as a contribution to the management of interethnic/intercultural conflicts in Nigeria, with a focus on new ways of handling the basic socio-cultural institutions shaping ethnic consciousness. Furthermore, this paper highlights the basic ...

  11. Children's Sense of Agency in Preschool: A Sociocultural Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilppö, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rainio, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This socioculturally informed study investigated children's sense of agency in relation to their everyday life in preschool. The empirical data comprised focus groups reflection situations wherein Finnish preschool children (n. 19, aged 6-7) reflected on their everyday life with the help of photographs and drawings they made. Building on a…

  12. The socio-cultural implications of African music and dance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sets out to discuss the socio-cultural implications of African music and dance. To this end, the paper looks at African music, African dance and human culture, kinds of dance, dance and the human body, dance and the society, the interrelationship between African music and dance, the importance of dance to the ...

  13. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  14. Modernization of Management: Social and Socio-Cultural Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Marina V.; Babakaev, Sergy V.; Larionova, Anna A.; Kobyak, Marina V.; Layko, Mikhail Y.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the topic is determined by the new challenges faced by the Russian state in modern conditions that have a significant impact on public administration, which entails the need for its comprehensive modernization. In this regard, this article is aimed at the disclosure of social and socio-cultural aspects of the modernization of…

  15. Darwinism and the Behavioral Theory of Sociocultural Evolution: An Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, John

    1979-01-01

    Challenges the view that the social sciences are theoretically impoverished disciplines when compared with the natural sciences. Demonstrates that the synthesis of an abstract Darwinian model of systemic adaptation and the behavioral principles of social learning produces a logical theory of sociocultural evolution. (DB)

  16. An Explication of Vygotskian Sociocultural Theory as Evidenced by Ethomethodological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Azabdaftari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For centuries the speculations on man's mental functioning posed a great challenge for the scholars in various disciplines such as philosophy, psychology, sociocultural studies, education, ethnolinguistics, discourse analysis, literary criticism. Researchers have been pondering over the ticklish question: is it the mind making the human society, or is it the society that shapes up the human mind? Researchers not informed in Vygotsky's contribution to the resolution of the issue, may still find the vicious circular question glaring in the face. But thanks to Vygotsky's sociocultural theory (SCT, the hazy horizon has cleared away and today we are convinced of the truth of Vygotsky's claim that man's mental functioning is mediated by sociocultural artifacts (physical and psychological tools which imbue us with the capacity the shape natural environment, and in so doing change the natural circumstances in which we live, and the capacity to organize and gain voluntary control over our biologically specified mental functioning. The pivotal concept in this outlook is that man, released from biological constraints, emerges as the master of his own destiny. It goes without saying that a conception as such invests the educationists, social reformers, statesmen with a grave responsibility regarding the necessity of providing appropriate conditions for individual's cognitive, ethical and social development. Indeed, Vygotsky's position on the genesis of man's higher mental functioning which is said to be hinging on the social, cultural, and historical variables provides a viable solution to the mind-society enigma. This said, we intend to submit some ethnomethodological evidence in support of Vygotsky's claim regarding the genesis of man's higher mental conditioning.

  17. Sociocultural Factors of Survival of Males and Females in Economically Active Age: a Regional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Khasanovna Tukhtarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The period, when a person starts and completes his or her professional carrier and labour participation, in general, coincides with the age when the self-preservation behaviour develops. It is a time when a person aims for a healthy and safe lifestyle. During this period, an individual assumes the main standards, values of the self-preservation behaviour inherent in an ethnic, social and cultural macro-environment. To research the sociocultural factors of survival, we applied econometric modelling to demographic processes using the discrete and probabilistic indicators of the mortality tables of male and female in economically active age. The econometric model included the elements of spatiotemporal characteristics of territories. These characteristics are interrelated with the indicators of survival probability and the indicator of average life expectancy in the regions of Russia. We choose the major sociocultural factors by the correlation ratio of indicators and their sensitivity. The econometric analysis has revealed a high degree of sensitivity of a territorial variation of demographic and sociocultural factors in the regions of Russia, including a gender aspect. The most significant socio-economic factors, which determine the self-preservation behaviour of males, are the following: 1 the size of Gross Regional Product per capita; 2 quality of health infrastructure; 3 fixed investments; 4 population with monetary income under the subsistence minimum (share coefficient of income differentials. The female have the same hierarchy of socio-economic factors, except for the sensitivity of variables to the regional differentiation of signs. The household poverty factor has little significance for the women and it is the main difference between male and female. The built model has shown the predictive importance in the assessment of the above-mentioned factors in short and medium-term prospects.

  18. Sociocultural Theory and its Role in the Development of Language Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Hameed Panhwar; Sanaullah Ansari; Komal Ansari

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on Vygotskian theory of Socio-cultural learning and constructivist approach to teaching and learning and attempts to relate the socio-cultural theory to constructivism. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the ways socio-cultural theory helps to develop language pedagogies. Critical analysis of the literature on the socio-cultural theory suggests that the theory has potential for forming new context-oriented language teaching-learning pedagogies which c...

  19. Sociocultural Theory and Its Role in the Development of Language Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Abdul Hameed; Ansari, Sanaullah; Ansari, Komal

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on Vygotskian theory of Socio-cultural learning and constructivist approach to teaching and learning and attempts to relate the socio-cultural theory to constructivism. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the ways socio-cultural theory helps to develop language pedagogies. Critical analysis of the…

  20. Exploration of Food Culture in Kisumu: A Socio-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Argwenge Odede

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly food culture in the context of socio-cultural dimension is becoming important for sustainable urban development. In the last four years food festivals have been held in Kisumu attracting several interests both from within and without the City. The Kisumu fish night event of 2013 marked the melting point of food culture in Kisumu. This paper thus explores the noble intention of integrating food culture in Kisumu as a socio-cultural capital for the advancement of City sustainable development agenda. To an agrarian society, life is about food from its production, the processing/preservation up to the consumption or the sharing. People connect to their cultural or ethnic background through similar food patterns.  People from different cultural backgrounds eat different foods leading to the question: Are Luos in Kisumu defined by their own food culture? This study further investigated the mode of production, and storage of food resources, examined food cuisines of the Luo community in Kisumu, and assessed the food habits, practices and beliefs associated with food cuisines, as well as, the nutritional and socio-cultural values of Luo cuisines. The research employed qualitative methods of data collection such as interviews, observation, focused group discussion and photography using purposive and snowball sampling technique. Content analysis was used to draw general universal statements in thematic areas with respect to the research objectives. The study revealed that Luo community in Kisumu has a food culture laced with rich cultural practices, rituals and societal norms that defines them as a distinct cultural identity but interacts with other cultural groups in the metropolitan city of Kisumu. Further, the study confirms that indeed food culture is vital for sustainable development of urban centre granted that Kisumu largely evolved as urban centre for exchange of goods for food.

  1. Symbolic healing of early psychosis: psychoeducation and sociocultural processes of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, John Aggergaard

    2007-09-01

    This article analyzes sociocultural processes of recovery in a Danish mental health service providing two years of integrated biopsychosocial treatment following first-episode psychosis. The study is based on ethnographic research in the service and person-centered involvement with 15 clients. The analysis applies Dow's [1986 American Anthropologist 88:56-69] model of universal components of symbolic healing to elucidate sociocultural aspects of therapeutic efficacy that are alternatively disregarded as placebo or nonspecific effects. It is demonstrated how staff engaged with clients to deliver "psychoeducation" that provided scientific and biomedical theories about mental illness, constituting a shared "mythic world" that was accepted as an experiential truth and used to explain clients' illness experiences. The analysis highlights the need to supplement attention in Dow's model to the healing procedure with consideration of variability in the healing process. Depending on individual responses to the intervention, the staff's professional backgrounds and staff-client relationships different recovery models were applied. One suggested "episodic psychosis" and full recovery, and the other suggested "chronic schizophrenia" and the necessity of comprehensive life adjustments to the mental illness. The recovery models influenced clients' perspectives on illness and self as they engaged in identity work, negotiating future plans and individual life projects by including also alternative systems of explanation from the wider cultural repertoire.

  2. Sociocultural factors in public acceptance: comparative risk studies involving France, the USA and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poumadere, M.; Mays, C.

    1995-12-31

    Examples are given of two types of comparative study that explore the sociocultural factors that shape public attitudes. In the first, public perceptions of nuclear power were assessed by answers to a questionnaire on a broad range of factors by 1500 people in France and the USA. A degree of homogeniety was observed in the responses from France and the USA. Strikingly, both populations agreed in their evaluation of the health risk represented by nuclear power plant. Thus the apparently greater acceptance of nuclear power in France does not seem to be associated with a lesser perception of risk. However, presented with the statement ``We can trust the experts and engineers who build, operate and regulate nuclear power`` 66% of the French agreed compared to only 43% of the Americans. These results reflect two different types of relationship between society and authority. In the second study the approach to gaining public trust and acceptance in the siting of nuclear waste research facilities was compared between the UK and France. Striking differences were found. In this case, too, an explanation can be put forward in terms of the sociocultural variables which influence institutional decision making, particularly in the role and form given to authority. (UK).

  3. Forming engineers' sociocultural competence: Engineering ethics at tomsk polytechnic university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanina, E.; Dulzon, A.; Schwab, A.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present research is to discuss Tomsk Polytechnic University in respect of forming engineers’ sociocultural competence and teaching engineering ethics. Today international standards of training engineers cover efficient communication skills, ability to understand societal and environment context, professional and ethical responsibility. This article deals with the problem of contradiction between the need to form engineers’ sociocultural competence in Russian higher education institutions in order to meet the requirements of international accreditation organizations and the real capabilities of existing engineering curricula. We have described ethics teaching experience of TPU, studied the engineering master programs of TPU to see how the planned results are achieved. We have also given our recommendations to alter the structure of TPU educational curricula, which can also be applied in other higher education institutions.

  4. Regulation of positive and negative emotion: Effects of sociocultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Snyder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the use of emotion regulation strategies can vary by sociocultural context. In a previous study, we reported changes in the use of two different emotion regulation strategies at an annual alternative cultural event, Burning Man (McRae, Heller, John, & Gross, 2011. In this sociocultural context, as compared to home, participants reported less use of expressive suppression (a strategy generally associated with maladaptive outcomes, and greater use of cognitive reappraisal (a strategy associated with adaptive outcomes. What remained unclear was whether these changes in self-reported emotion regulation strategy use were characterized by changes in the regulation of positive emotion, negative emotion, or both. We addressed this issue in the current study by asking Burning Man participants separate questions about positive and negative emotion. Using multiple datasets, we not only replicated our previous findings, but also found that the decreased use of suppression is primarily driven by reports of decreased suppression of positive emotion at Burning Man. By contrast, the reported increased use of reappraisal is not characterized by differential reappraisal of positive and negative emotion at Burning Man. Moreover, we observed novel individual differences in the magnitude of these effects. The contextual changes in self-reported suppression that we report are strongest for men and younger participants. For those who had previously attended Burning Man, we observed lower levels of self-reported suppression in both sociocultural contexts: Burning Man and home. These findings have implications for understanding the ways in which certain sociocultural contexts may decrease suppression, and possibly minimize its associated maladaptive effects.

  5. Hosts' perception of economic and socio-cultural tourism impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Kamšek, David; Milfelner, Borut; Ogorelc, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing tourism perceptions of host communities and residents' attitudes toward tourism development has been gaining increasing attention in the tourism research. This paper examines how residents perceive positive and negative economic and socio-cultural impacts of tourism. The authors identify several differences between two groups of respondents: residents employed in tourism and other residents. The study provides tourism planners with useful information concerning specific elements ass...

  6. The Chinese experience of rapid modernization: sociocultural changes, psychological consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong eSun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.

  7. Sociocultural Factors and Bureaucratic Practices in Universities in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLOMON KOFI AMOAH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Max Weber, one of the pioneers in bureaucratic organisational studies believes in the ultimate triumph of bureaucracy over the collegial culture of universities. This paper argues that rather than ultimate triumph of bureaucracy over the collegial culture of universities (Weber 1947, the interests of universities would be better served when the bureaucratic culture is designed to accommodate some core socio-cultural expectations of organizational members, without compromising productivity.  The research examined the implications of some selected sociocultural factors for bureaucratic practices in selected universities in Ghana through a mix method approach. The findings show that, the authority structures of the two universities typify the Weberian Ideal type bureaucracy with   hierarchical culture and standardized rules and procedures for carrying out every task. This notwithstanding, the societal culture was found to be influential in shaping the bureaucratic behaviour and conducts of organizations’ members. The paper aims at bringing to the fore the strength of the informal structures in reshaping bureaucratic culture and work behaviour, and the need to consider socio-cultural contexts in designing bureaucratic organizations.

  8. The Chinese Experience of Rapid Modernization: Sociocultural Changes, Psychological Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena. PMID:27092093

  9. Socio-Cultural Factors and Intention towards Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Loon KOE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to rectify environmental degradation, government has encouraged sustainable management among businesses. In addition, researchers have also suggested a new breed of study called “sustainable entrepreneurship”, which links sustainability management to entrepreneurial activities. However, the participation of entrepreneurial firms in sustainability management is still far from satisfactory. Past studies also have found that SMEs are less active in sustainabilty initiatives and many issues related to the intention of firms for sustainability entrepreneurship is still unanswered. Therefore, this study was carried out to examine the influence of socio-cultural factors on intention towards sustainable entrepreneurship among SMEs. A total of 404 SMEs in Malaysia were surveyed by using questionnaire. Based on the statistical analyses performed, this study found that three socio-cultural factors, namely time orientation, sustainability orientation and social norm significantly influenced intention towards sustainable entrepreneurship among SMEs. Thus, in order to develop true sustainable entrepreneurs in the country, the effects of non-economic factors such as socio-cultural factors should not be underestimated. Lastly, some recommendations for future researchers have also been put forth in this paper.

  10. Historical, Socio-Cultural, and Conceptual Issues to Consider When Researching Mexican American Children and Families, and other Latino Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Buriel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order for the field of psychology in the United States to maintain its relevance and validity, it must become more inclusive in its theory and research of Latinos, who are now the largest "minority" group in the nation. In particular, due to immigration and birth rates, Mexican Americans are the largest and fastest growing segment of the Latino population. This paper addresses some of the most significant historical and socio-cultural factors contributing to the psychological nature and wellbeing of Mexican Americans. These factors should be understood and used to guide research and theory in order to make the discipline of psychology relevant for Mexican Americans. The concept of mestizaje is used to explain the biological and cultural mixing constituting the diverse origins of the Mexican people. Immigration to the U.S. is described in terms of selective socio-cultural variables giving rise to a diverse Mexican American culture that is resistant to complete assimilation. Within a U.S. context, the constructs of generational status, acculturation, and biculturalism are used to explain the socio-cultural adaptation of Mexican Americans. The special role of children in immigrant families as language and cultural brokers are also discussed, and used to explain the adjustment of Mexican American families.

  11. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as markers of dietary variation among sociocultural subgroups of Inuit in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina V L; Dahl-Petersen, Inger K; Buchardt, Bjørn

    2017-09-10

    We assessed the use of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as biomarkers for traditional versus store-bought food among the Inuit. Furthermore, we compared the isotope patterns among sociocultural population groups. As a part of a country-wide health survey in Greenland during 2005-2010, we analyzed the isotope composition of toenails from 1025 adult Inuit and meat of common species hunted for food. Information on diet and sociocultural variables was collected by interviews. Weighted by sex and place of residence to the total population of Inuit in Greenland, the average δ 13 C value in toenails was -20.2‰ and the δ 15 N value was 12.0‰ which are higher than in a general Danish omnivorous population. Both isotopes were significantly associated with other biomarkers of marine food and with results of a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The percentage of marine food in the diet was estimated at 21% from the mean δ 13 C value, 25% from the mean δ 15 N value, and 23% from the FFQ. Nail samples for analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were convenient to collect during a large population health survey among the Inuit. Isotope enrichment levels showed statistically significant associations with other biomarkers for consumption of marine food and with results of an FFQ and were used to estimate the percentage of marine food in the diet. Isotope levels were significantly associated with a novel score of sociocultural transition. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Marriage Matters: Spousal Similarity in Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schimmack; Richard Lucas

    2006-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-lagged spousal similarity in life satisfaction over a 21-year period. Analyses were based on married couples (N = 847) in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Concurrent spousal similarity was considerably higher than one-year retest similarity, revealing spousal similarity in the variable component of life satisfac-tion. Spousal similarity systematically decreased with length of retest interval, revealing simi-larity in the changing component of life sati...

  13. Physician-Researchers' Experiences of the Consent Process in the Sociocultural Context of a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Aisha Y

    2011-07-01

    Background: International guidelines for medical research involving human subjects maintain the primacy of informed consent while recognizing cultural diversity. Methods: This article draws on empirical data obtained from interviews with physician-researchers in teaching hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan, to identify social and cultural factors that affect the consent process for participants in research. Results: This article presents variable findings with regards to communication, comprehension, and decision making. While some physicians consider that social factors such as lack of education, a patriarchal family system, and skepticism about research can make patients dependent on either the physician-researcher or the family, others believe that patients do make independent decisions. Conclusions: In light of the findings, the article ends with a recommendation for communication and decision making that is sensitive to the local sociocultural environment while at the same time meeting the ethical imperative of respect for persons.

  14. Self-similar factor approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties

  15. Socio-cultural impacts of construction and regulation of the waterway of Oulujoki river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruotsala, H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of study was to clarify the socio-cultural impacts of the regulation and construction of Oulujoki river on the everyday life of people. Changes in work and livelihood, living and living satisfaction, and leisure time and recreation are considered as variables. Quantitative and qualitative methods were combined in the study. The principal study material is composed of answers to a questionnaire and of 109 thematic interviews on the topic. The hold of the study is phenomenological-hermeneutical, with the intention to interpret the matter from the viewpoint of the attitudes and requirements of the waterway users. The theoretical frame of reference was culture-ecological point of view and adaptive process. The emphasis of the study is on sociocultural adaptation. The attitude towards waterway construction and regulation was dependent on the background of the person interviewed. The attitude was considered e.g. by various interest groups and professional groups, such as farmers, inhabitants on the shore, recreation users, fishermen, municipal elected officials. Other important variables were age, family stage and sex. Big local differences in the attitudes could also be found. While prevailing values in society and peoples' modes of living are changing, also the attitude towards waterway and changes caused by waterway construction has changed in the region studied. The impacts on the sources of livelihood are minor for the moment, the impacts on living satisfaction and recreations are significant. While leisure time is increasing the recreation value of waterway increases, too. At the construction stage of the river, the economical and productional advantages took priority, and then no attention was paid to recreational use

  16. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets....... Our results show that the proposed functions work better than other methods proposed in the literature....

  17. Phoneme Similarity and Confusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity between component speech sounds influences language processing in numerous ways. Explanation and detailed prediction of linguistic performance consequently requires an understanding of these basic similarities. The research reported in this paper contrasts two broad classes of approach to the issue of phoneme similarity-theoretically…

  18. [Sociocultural factors determinants of eating habits of kindergarten schoolchildren in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Rocío; León-Larios, Fátima; Lomas-Campos, Mercedes; Albar, María-Jesús

    2016-01-01

    To examine the sociocultural factors that determine the eating habits of children aged less than 5 years who attend kindergarten school in Chachapoyas in Peru, we carried out a qualitative study by means of semi-structured interviews of 18 fathers and mothers. The key factors related to eating habits were as follows: availability and easiness to prepare foods, schedule and work done by parents, intake of coffee in children as a common practice, lack of resources and economic uncertainty for food planning, and the lack of nutritional knowledge. Similarly, beliefs that might explain some eating habits, such as the beneficial effects of eating food as a family, maternal breastfeeding, and others, or the role of nutrition for the appropriate intellectual and physical development of children were identified. Our results provide evidence about the ways parents tackle and understand their children's nutrition while, in turn, determining its quality.

  19. The sociocultural appraisals, values, and emotions (SAVE) framework of prosociality: core processes from gene to meme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, Dacher; Kogan, Aleksandr; Piff, Paul K; Saturn, Sarina R

    2014-01-01

    The study of prosocial behavior--altruism, cooperation, trust, and the related moral emotions--has matured enough to produce general scholarly consensus that prosociality is widespread, intuitive, and rooted deeply within our biological makeup. Several evolutionary frameworks model the conditions under which prosocial behavior is evolutionarily viable, yet no unifying treatment exists of the psychological decision-making processes that result in prosociality. Here, we provide such a perspective in the form of the sociocultural appraisals, values, and emotions (SAVE) framework of prosociality. We review evidence for the components of our framework at four levels of analysis: intrapsychic, dyadic, group, and cultural. Within these levels, we consider how phenomena such as altruistic punishment, prosocial contagion, self-other similarity, and numerous others give rise to prosocial behavior. We then extend our reasoning to chart the biological underpinnings of prosociality and apply our framework to understand the role of social class in prosociality.

  20. Students’ Socio-cultural Competence Development, Using English and Russian Phraseological Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit I. Kopzhasarova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of socio-cultural competence development on the basis of using English and Russian phraseological units. The authors specify the essence of the socio-cultural competence, define socio-cultural component of foreign language teaching. The authors justify their viewpoint that phraseological units, being the most valuable source of cultural information, exposing background knowledge and culture specific vocabulary, are the effective means of socio-cultural competence development. The set of exercises on socio-cultural competence development on the material of English and Russian phraseological units, developed by authors, include language and speech tasks; tasks based on project and creative research activity methods, which are the basis of development of the main socio-cultural skills that are necessary in intercultural communication

  1. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  2. Etiology of eating disorders: biological, psychological and sociocultural determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Christina Marcondes [UNIFESP; Vecchiatti, Ilka Ramalho [UNIFESP; Negrão, André Brooking [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Os transtornos alimentares possuem uma etiologia multifatorial, composta de predisposições genéticas, socioculturais e vulnerabilidades biológicas e psicológicas. Entre os fatores predisponentes, destacam-se a história de transtorno alimentar e (ou) transtorno do humor na família, os padrões de interação presentes no ambiente familiar, o contexto sociocultural, caracterizado pela extrema valorização do corpo magro, disfunções no metabolismo das monoaminas centrais e traços de personalidade. A...

  3. New approaches for the asessment and education of children under socio-cultural disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegría Majluf

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the traditional psychometric parameters thal don 't fit by workingwith children who suffer socio-cultural deprivation (or who are living under socio-cultural disadvantagesand the new assessment and education strategies for this population. Vygotsky's socio-cultural approach, that emphasizes the Zone of Proximal Development, and the Dynamic Assessment and the Mediated Learning developed by Feucrstein and complemented by Coll relatedwith the Significative Learning are stressed.

  4. Sociocultural Behavior Research and Engineering in the Department of Defense Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    sponsored by the Incisive Analysis Office is Socio-cultural Content in Language ( SCIL ). SCIL explores and develops novel designs, algorithms, methods...to meet the grand challenge of shaping the future force. DLO and programs such as IARPA’s SCIL are important for addressing persisting gaps in...programs conducting research relevant to building defense-related capabilities in sociocultural behavior. The Socio-Cultural Content in Language ( SCIL

  5. Taking an active stance: How urban elementary students connect sociocultural experiences in learning science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; Maruyama, Geoffrey; Albrecht, Nancy

    2017-12-01

    In this interpretive case study, we draw from sociocultural theory of learning and culturally relevant pedagogy to understand how urban students from nondominant groups leverage their sociocultural experiences. These experiences allow them to gain an empowering voice in influencing science content and activities and to work towards self-determining the sciences that are personally meaningful. Furthermore, tying sociocultural experiences with science learning helps generate sociopolitical awareness among students. We collected interview and observation data in an urban elementary classroom over one academic year to understand the value of urban students' sociocultural experiences in learning science and choosing science activities.

  6. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  7. Processes of Similarity Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Levi B.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity underlies fundamental cognitive capabilities such as memory, categorization, decision making, problem solving, and reasoning. Although recent approaches to similarity appreciate the structure of mental representations, they differ in the processes posited to operate over these representations. We present an experiment that…

  8. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  9. Biophysical and sociocultural factors underlying spatial trade-offs of ecosystem services in semiarid watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina García-Llorente

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biophysical and social systems are linked to form social-ecological systems whose sustainability depends on their capacity to absorb uncertainty and cope with disturbances. In this study, we explored the key biophysical and socio-cultural factors underlying ecosystem service supply in two semiarid watersheds of southern Spain. These included variables associated with the role that freshwater flows and biodiversity play in securing the system's capacity to sustain essential ecosystem services and their relationship with social demand for services, local water governance, and land-use intensification. Our results reveal the importance of considering the invisible dimensions of water and biodiversity, i.e. green freshwater flows and trait-based indicators, because of their relevance to the supply of ecosystem services. Furthermore, they uncover the importance of traditional irrigation canals, a local water governance system, in maintaining the ecosystems' capacity to supply services. The study also highlights the complex trade-offs that occur because of the spatial mismatch between ecosystem service supply (upstream and ecosystem service demand (downstream in watersheds. Finally, we found that land-use intensification generally resulted in losses of the biophysical factors that underpin the supply of some ecosystem services, increases in social demand for less diversified services, and the abandonment of local governance practices. Attempts to manage social-ecological systems toward sustainability at the local scale should identify the key biophysical and socio-cultural factors that are essential for maintaining ecosystem services and should recognize existing interrelationships between them. Land-use management should also take into account ecosystem service trade-offs and the consequences resulting from land-use intensification.

  10. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  11. COMMUNITY SOCIOCULTURAL PROJECT “GUARDIANS OF THE TIME” / PROYECTO SOCIOCULTURAL COMUNITARIO “GUARDIANES DEL TIEMPO”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Apud García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The project has as objective to contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of the inhabitants of La Pedrera by means of the community development and from a sociocultural perspective. For the achievement of these purposes a better culture profiled on the sustainable agriculture and the care of the environment is also inserted, using for it, mainly, to the new generations. In a general way, the project seeks to preserve the whole rich cultural flow inherited from final of the XIX century, and to insert him modern elements that allow him to validate an autochthonous culture.

  12. Sociocultural factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in Zomba district, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphagawani, Nanzen Caroline; Kalipeni, Ezekiel

    2017-06-01

    This study explores sociocultural and other risk factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district of Malawi. Data were obtained from 505 participants under the age of 20 years using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews held at five antenatal clinics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and chi-square analysis which allowed comparative understanding of the sociocultural risk factors for planned and unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district. The findings revealed that teenage pregnancy is a major health and social problem. Over 76% of the teenage respondents in the study had experienced unplanned pregnancy. Among the prominent factors that stood out in the analysis for this high rate of teenage pregnancy were early sex and marriage, low contraceptive use, low educational levels, low socio-economic status, lack of knowledge of reproductive and sexual health, gender inequity, and physical/sexual violence. The consequences on teenage mothers of unplanned pregnancy have been tragic and have compromised their physical, psychological and socioeconomic wellbeing, not just on them but also their families and society at large. The findings point to the need for a multi-sectoral approach to tackle the problem on teenage pregnancy in this district, and likely throughout Malawi.

  13. Socio-Cultural and Ideological Preconditions of Gender Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviytlana Storozhuk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the factors that have led to the contradiction between a legislated principle of gender equality and, broadcast from pre-modern by a number of social institutions a social differentiation by gender and discrimination generated by it, existing in modern outlook and socio-cultural life. The article shows that the concepts of natural equality of people and social consensus together with the process of secularization and desecration, developed during the modern period, transformed a social reality, but they usually do not apply to a person who is still viewed through the prism of axiological and ideological premodern paradigm. Thus, the concept of natural equality has extrapolated only to men who were considered carriers of social activity in premodern culture. It is emphasized that despite the radical changes of socio-cultural and political life of European society that occurred as a result of implementation of social modern program, a family, remaining a decentralized nucleus, was living by premodern values that gained social significance at a time when a woman acquired her social activity.

  14. Contexto sociocultural y alimentario de mujeres con embarazos de riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Sámano Sámano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Para favorecer una alimentación correcta la orientación alimentaria debe considerar factores socioculturales que condicionen patrones y preferencias del consumo de alimentos propios de cada población. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir el contexto sociocultural del embarazo y su alimentación en el ámbito doméstico, mediante un enfoque cualitativo. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a 6 mujeres con embarazo de alto riesgo bajo la técnica de saturación de la información. Las entrevistas se transcribieron y analizaron de acuerdo a Bardín con ayuda del programa Atlas TI. Se identificó: incertidumbre por el embarazo no planeado y poco apoyo de la pareja; ciertos cambios en la alimentación para mejorar la salud; percepción de una mala y buena alimentación, aunque ésta no cumplía con las características de una dieta correcta; omisión de la cena y del grupo de verduras y frutas. Las encargadas de preparar y servir los alimentos no siempre fueron las mujeres embarazadas; los alimentos percibidos peligrosos fueron consumidos y los benéficos presentaron consumo escaso. Resaltó la necesidad de capacitar a los profesionales de la salud para considerar al contexto sociocultural en la orientación alimentaria que proporcionen.

  15. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  16. Analysis of Acculturative Stress and Sociocultural Adaptation among International Students at a Non-Metropolitan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hajara; Burke, Monica Galloway

    2018-01-01

    This quantitative descriptive study analyzed levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation among international students at a non-metropolitan university in the United States related to certain demographic characteristics. Surveys were used to measure international students' levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation,…

  17. The socio-cultural significance of the diagnostic label "neurasthenia" in Japan's mental health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, T

    1989-06-01

    This paper is an attempt to explore the socio-cultural significance of deliberately disguising schizophrenia as neurasthenia, neurosis or malfunction of autonomic nervous system. To understand its significance, the socio-cultural background of Japanese attitudes toward mental illness and Japan's mental health care system is also examined from a non-Western standpoint.

  18. Educating for Financial Literacy: A Case Study with a Sociocultural Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprow Forte, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the teaching and learning in an adult financial literacy education program aimed specifically at Latina single mothers to understand the influence of sociocultural factors in this setting. Informed by critical and Latina feminist sociocultural adult learning perspectives and the transtheoretical model of behavior change,…

  19. Evolution of public relations in the activity of organizations of ukrainian socio-cultural sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Євгенія Олегівна Кияниця

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article traces the evolution of public relations in various fields of life including socio-cultural and found creative and social potential of this activity. Analysis of historical experience of using the PR-technologies in the field of sociocultural institutions promotes understanding of importance of this activity for the efficient work of organizations of this sphere

  20. Analysis Testing of Sociocultural Factors Influence on Human Reliability within Sociotechnical Systems: The Algerian Oil Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbaki Laidoune

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The explored sociocultural factors influence the human reliability both in qualitative and quantitative manners. The proposed model shows how reliability can be enhanced by some measures such as experience feedback based on, for example, safety improvements, training, and information. With that is added the continuous systems improvements to improve sociocultural reality and to reduce negative behaviors.

  1. Predicting Eating Disorder Group Membership: An Examination and Extension of the Sociocultural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Patricia A.; Crowther, Janis H.; Dalton, Ginnie; Sanftner, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine and extend portions of the sociocultural model of bulimia nervosa (Stice, E. (1994). Review of the evidence for a sociocultural model of bulimia nervosa and an exploration of the mechanisms of action. "Clinical Psychology Review," 14, 633-661; Stice, E., & Agras, W. S. (1998). Predicting onset and…

  2. Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language in Taiwan: A Socio-Cultural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Fan-Wei

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context in Taiwan based on Vygotsky's (1978) socio-cultural framework. The historical context is provided after some delineations of the educational system in Taiwan with regard to its foreign language instruction policy and development. Based upon the proposed socio-cultural framework,…

  3. Traditional & Socio-Cultural Barriers to EFL Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jameel

    2015-01-01

    This research tends to ascertain several traditional and socio-cultural barriers to English language learning in Saudi Arabia and to explore more ways than before for making teaching and learning more effective. The findings of four quantitative and qualitative surveys conducted in this regard reveal a unique traditional and socio-cultural milieu,…

  4. A Sociocultural Analysis of Social Interaction and Collaboration within the Cooking Practices of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligh, Caroline Adele; Fathima, Monalisa

    2017-01-01

    This article applies sociocultural theorizing as a tool to analyze children's collaborative cooking practices through the key sociocultural concepts of social interaction and collaboration within a school cooking club. The "everyday" activity of cooking is examined using field notes gathered through participant observations, diary…

  5. Information Literacy in the 21st Century Multicultural Classroom: Using Sociocultural Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Elise A.

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural literacy guides an instructor's pedagogy in the multicultural university classroom. By employing sociocultural literacy in the information literacy classroom, the instruction librarian can better teach students from all cultures including international students, first generation students, or students from a wide array of…

  6. Socio-Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: A Case Study of Adventurous Adult Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozfidan, Burhan; Machtmes, Krisanna L.; Demir, Husamettin

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural theories consider language learning as a social practice examines students as active participants in the construction of learning processes. This study investigates sociocultural theories' central concepts, which includes peer interaction and feedback, private speech, and self-efficacy. The present study is a case study of twenty…

  7. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  8. Sociocultural Paradoxes and Issues in E-Learning Use in Higher Education Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njenga, James Kariuki

    2018-01-01

    Sociocultural issues are major contributing factors in mass acceptance and effective use of technology. These issues are often perceived to contradict the benefits the technology brings about. E-learning use in higher education in Africa, as a technology, faces some sociocultural barriers that contradict its promise and benefits. This paper…

  9. Muscle Dysmorphia, Gender Role Stress, and Sociocultural Influences: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readdy, Tucker; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2011-01-01

    Our study explored the contribution of gender role stress (GRS) and sociocultural appearance demands to symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD) in a college sample of 219 women and 154 men. For women, five GRS subscales, sociocultural appearance demands, age, and frequency of aerobic exercise predicted MD symptoms (model R[superscript 2] = 0.33;…

  10. Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-cultural Change and Fraud in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-Cultural Change & Fraud in Uganda by Jörg Wiegratz. London and New York, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016, 375 pp. ISBN 9781783488537.......Book review of: Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-Cultural Change & Fraud in Uganda by Jörg Wiegratz. London and New York, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016, 375 pp. ISBN 9781783488537....

  11. Taking an Active Stance: How Urban Elementary Students Connect Sociocultural Experiences in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; Maruyama, Geoffrey; Albrecht, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    In this interpretive case study, we draw from sociocultural theory of learning and culturally relevant pedagogy to understand how urban students from nondominant groups leverage their sociocultural experiences. These experiences allow them to gain an empowering voice in influencing science content and activities and to work towards…

  12. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  13. Socio-cultural sustainability of pig production: Citizen perceptions in the Netherlands and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boogaard, B.K.; boekhorst, L.J.S.; Oosting, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    positive and six negative aspects on the farms for which they had to write a motivation. The qualitative analysis resulted in seven socio-cultural themes (SCT) of pig production namely: 1) meat production, 2) farm activities, 3) farm income, 4) animals, 5) housing system, 6) environment and nature, and 7......Many sustainability studies of animal production consider three pillars: the economic, environmental and socio-cultural. Farmers and animal scientists tend to put most emphasis on the economic and environmental pillar and largely ignore the socio-cultural pillar. Socio-cultural sustainability...... to gain further insights into socio-cultural sustainability of pig production. Many citizens may not know what contemporary pig production actually entails. To give people a real life experience with pig production, we conducted farm visits with citizen panels with 18 respondents in the Netherlands and 8...

  14. Patterns of Internet Usage: Learning Sphere and the Socio-cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimabadi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the curriculum and the learning targets, there are some other points –as “the culture of the real life”, “patterns of communication and virtual-life’s experiencing”, and generally “pattern of communication and internet usage”- should be considered in evaluating internet. Applying results of a survey on the impacts of both the web-based and the traditional educational methods on students’ learning and motivation, the present study explores the patterns of internet usage. Research method is experimental, using the t test for independent groups and analyzing multi-variable regression, and some points as the population, method of sampling and data gathering is explained in the article. Results show that there is a meaningful difference between the grades of the test group and the witness group; thus variable of “the internet usage” could predict changes in learning. In other words, supra-usage of internet would decrease learning and curriculum development. However, using internet for scientific and schooling would cause students to correlate their patterns of computer and internet usage. As results show, decline in entertaining usage of internet is related to the socio-cultural context, way and amount of participating in the web, and the quality of virtual learning sphere, rather than the interest or disinterest of the users.

  15. Application of Cognitive and Socio-Cultural Theories in CALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akın Güngör

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Since it is quite difficult in traditional learning atmospheres for the learners to be exposed to the target language adequately in foreign language acquisition, CALL in which virtual environment is designed in more appropriate way has given rise. Two main paradigms, cognitive model and socio-cultural theory, have also been adopted in CALL. Moreover, rather than applying one theory, combination of these paradigms is unavoidable. However, application of this combination is challenging in practice, as these two theories have different principles. Furthermore, when it comes to online education, it turns into more challenging process. In this poster this combination is presented with the help of sample applications from Gazi University.

  16. Handicrafts production: documentation and audiovisual dissemination as sociocultural appreciation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alvarenga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of scientific research, technology and innovation project in the creative economy sector, conducted from January 2014 to January 2015 that aimed to document and disclose the artisans and handicraft production of Vila de Itaúnas, ES, Brasil. The process was developed from initial conversations, followed by planning and conducting participatory workshops for documentation and audiovisual dissemination around the production of handicrafts and its relation to biodiversity and local culture. The initial objective was to promote expression and diffusion spaces of knowledge among and for the local population, also reaching a regional, state and national public. Throughout the process, it was found that the participatory workshops and the collective production of a virtual site for disclosure of practices and products contributed to the development and socio-cultural recognition of artisan and craft in the region.

  17. Creating opportunities to learn in mathematics education: a sociocultural perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Merrilyn

    2014-09-01

    The notion of `opportunities to learn in mathematics education' is open to interpretation from multiple theoretical perspectives, where the focus may be on cognitive, social or affective dimensions of learning, curriculum and assessment design, issues of equity and access, or the broad policy and political contexts of learning and teaching. In this paper, I conceptualise opportunities to learn from a sociocultural perspective. Beginning with my own research on the learning of students and teachers of mathematics, I sketch out two theoretical frameworks for understanding this learning. One framework extends Valsiner's zone theory of child development, and the other draws on Wenger's ideas about communities of practice. My aim is then to suggest how these two frameworks might help us understand the learning of others who have an interest in mathematics education, such as mathematics teacher educator-researchers and mathematicians. In doing so, I attempt to move towards a synthesis of ideas to inform mathematics education research and development.

  18. Similarity Structure of Wave-Collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Similarity transformations of the cubic Schrödinger equation (CSE) are investigated. The transformations are used to remove the explicit time variation in the CSE and reduce it to differential equations in the spatial variables only. Two different methods for similarity reduction are employed and...

  19. The relationship of drive for muscularity to sociocultural factors, self-esteem, physical attributes gender role, and social comparison in middle school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, Linda; Stein, Jonathan A

    2006-06-01

    This study examines the relationship of three sociocultural factors-media influence, peer teasing, and parent teasing/comments and three potential moderator variables-self-esteem, social comparison, and endorsement of male strength and athleticism-to drive for muscularity in middle school boys. There were 287 seventh and eighth grade boys who completed a questionnaire measuring these variables as well as body mass index (BMI) and pubertal status. Results indicated that media influence and male physical attributes endorsement were particularly important correlates of drive for muscularity. These findings have implications for programs designed to prevent body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys.

  20. Sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain: a replication and path analytic extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of 249 sojourning Malaysian undergraduates in Britain. One-hundred and ten Malay and 139 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment and socio-demographics. Overall, Malay students reported significantly poorer sociocultural adjustment than Chinese students, as well as more negative outcomes on a range of predictors. Path analysis for the total sample showed that higher family income led to greater sociocultural adjustment, but partially because it led to more contact with host and conationals, better language proficiency, lower perceived cultural differences and less perceived discrimination. Moreover, participants with higher English proficiency were better adapted, but partially because they perceived less cultural differences as well as having more contact with host nationals. Additionally, individuals reporting better sociocultural adjustment also reported better health statuses. The same model was equally useful at predicting sociocultural adjustment for both Malay and Chinese participants. These results are discussed in terms of the role played by income in buffering against the negative aspects of sociocultural adjustment.

  1. AN ANALYSIS OF THE INTENTION TO PURCHASE ON THE COLLECTIVE BUYING WEBSITES THROUGH PSYCHOLOGICAL, SOCIOCULTURAL AND SITUATIONAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivaldo Lopes de Souza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.12957/cadest.2017.25443 This article proposes to use empirical models, with good adjustment, that can provide an informative measure on the intention to buy consumers considering information about socio-cultural, psychological and situational factors associated with them. It is expected that a measure of probability provided by a model such as that proposed can be useful in strategic marketing decisions where consumers' intention to buy.To achieve the objective, initially interviewed 384 Internet users in places with large circulation of people the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. Then the data obtained from interviews, were used to estimate those models.  These models were based on assumptions of theories of the cognitive approach of consumer behavior, especially the Theory of Reasoned Action. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire containing market research questions related to psychological factors, sociocultural and situational consumer. The analysis considered only regression models of the class of generalized additive models.The most successful model presented nine variables and a single non-parametric term, obtained from smoothing splines. This model had a pseudo-R2of 0,89 and allowed to reach a percentage of correct trials of the observations of the sample equal to 94%. Keywords: Purchases intention, Regression model, Generalized Aditive Models, Consumer Behavior.

  2. Snaps, Selfies, and Shares: How Three Popular Social Media Platforms Contribute to the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating Among Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jessica F; Eaton, Asia A

    2018-06-01

    The current study aimed to integrate and test the sociocultural model of disordered eating with theories explaining the impact of mass media on the development of disordered eating for users of three popular social networking platforms. Young women social networking site (SNS) users (age 18-24) who had never received an eating disorder diagnosis (N = 637) completed questions capturing their SNS gratifications and usage, body surveillance, social comparisons, body dissatisfaction, and eating pathology. Measures were administered in one online session. Model relationships were similar across users of all three SNS platforms: Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat. Users of all platforms demonstrated a significant positive relationship between upward comparisons and disordered eating outcomes, and between body surveillance and disordered eating outcomes, although differences between models did emerge. Empirical findings support extending the sociocultural model of disordered eating to include SNS uses and gratifications.

  3. Psychological and socio-cultural risk factors for developing negative attitude and anti-health behaviour toward the body in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izydorczyk Bernadetta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the results of research concerning psychological and socio-cultural risk factors for development of negative anti-health (that is too restrictive and compensatory attitude toward one’s body in young Polish women. The study comprised 120 women, of 20 to 25 years of age, with similar socio-demographic status (marital status, living and having been brought up in multi-generation families who so far in the course of their lives have not disclosed mental or somatic disturbances (having accompanying manifestations of body image distortion. The theoretical theses for the research model were the contemporary cognitive concepts (multifactor models of body image dissatisfaction, as well as socio-cultural concepts.

  4. FEMALE SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT: AN INTERNATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Urbano Pulido

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse the socio-cultural factors that influence the likelihood of women becoming social entrepreneurs, using institutional economics. Binary logistic regression has been applied as the statistical method to test the hypotheses proposed, using data (40 countries and 56,875 individuals from the World Value Survey (WVS and the World Bank (WB. The main findings of the study reaffirm the relevance of socio-cultural factors to social entrepreneurship. Particularly, we have found that altruistic attitudes and being a member of a social organization are the most relevant socio-cultural factors for social female entrepreneurship.

  5. Sociocultural determinants of anticipated oral cholera vaccine acceptance in three African settings: a meta-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Merten, Sonja; Schindler, Christian; Ali, Said M; Nyambedha, Erick O; Lapika, Bruno; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Hutubessy, Raymond; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2016-01-14

    Controlling cholera remains a significant challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. In areas where access to safe water and sanitation are limited, oral cholera vaccine (OCV) can save lives. Establishment of a global stockpile for OCV reflects increasing priority for use of cholera vaccines in endemic settings. Community acceptance of vaccines, however, is critical and sociocultural features of acceptance require attention for effective implementation. This study identifies and compares sociocultural determinants of anticipated OCV acceptance across populations in Southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Western Kenya and Zanzibar. Cross-sectional studies were conducted using similar but locally-adapted semistructured interviews among 1095 respondents in three African settings. Logistic regression models identified sociocultural determinants of OCV acceptance from these studies in endemic areas of Southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (SE-DRC), Western Kenya (W-Kenya) and Zanzibar. Meta-analytic techniques highlighted common and distinctive determinants in the three settings. Anticipated OCV acceptance was high in all settings. More than 93% of community respondents overall indicated interest in a no-cost vaccine. Higher anticipated acceptance was observed in areas with less access to public health facilities. In all settings awareness of cholera prevention methods (safe food consumption and garbage disposal) and relating ingestion to cholera causation were associated with greater acceptance. Higher age, larger households, lack of education, social vulnerability and knowledge of oral rehydration solution for self-treatment were negatively associated with anticipated OCV acceptance. Setting-specific determinants of acceptance included reporting a reliable income (W-Kenya and Zanzibar, not SE-DRC). In SE-DRC, intention to purchase an OCV appeared unrelated to ability to pay. Rural residents were less likely than urban counterparts to accept an OCV in W-Kenya, but more

  6. Sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils and professional qualification of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Zachová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The presented text shows the results of research carried out within the dissertation thesis. The main topic is the phenomenon of sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue. The research is based on the expert belief that integration of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue into Czech schools and the training of teachers in this field is still somewhat marginal, even though there is a growing debate about increasing cultural diversity, increasing heterogeneity of schools and introduction of inclusive measures. The aim of the research was to analyze professional training of teachers in relation to the sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue. The goal was refined by the formulation of research questions: What possible problems (difficulties reflect teachers in the teaching process of foreign pupils? What procedures and strategies do teachers use to help these pupils to be integrated successfully? How do teachers assess their professional readiness for education of foreign pupils (whether they were sufficiently prepared to work with foreign pupils in the course of their undergraduate studies, where they find benefits, deficiencies in this training? How do students assess their undergraduate education for foreign-pupil teaching (whether they were ready to work with foreign pupils in their previous undergraduate education, where they find benefits, deficiencies in this training? The research used questionnaire survey techniques for teachers and students and semi-structured interviews for teachers. The partial technique was the analysis of study subjects focused on the education of foreign pupils at the Faculty of Education at West Bohemian University in Pilsen (hereinafter WBU. The research group was made up of teachers of the 1st grade of primary schools of the Pilsen and Karlovy Vary regions and students of the 4th grade of the field of Teaching for the

  7. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling of socio-cultural constructs among chamorro and non-chamorro micronesian betel nut chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L; Liu, Min; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2017-07-05

    Betel nut chewing is embedded within the cultures of South Asia, and Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific. The determinants of betel nut consumption are complex. Ongoing consumption of betel nut is affected by cultural, social, and drug-specific effects (i.e. dependence). This study's first objective was to assess the psychometric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) of the socio-cultural constructs in a survey developed for betel nut chewers. The study's second objective was to investigate the influence of socio-cultural variables on betel nut chewing behaviors among Chamorro and non-Chamorro Micronesians in Guam. The current study was a secondary analysis of a larger study (N = 600; n = 375 chewers and n = 225 former chewers) that examined socio-cultural factors that influence why chewers chew betel nut, along with assessing chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit. The socio-cultural constructs of the survey were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The socio-cultural factors were a sufficient fit with data and the instrument is reliable and valid, as indicated by various model fit indices (χ 2 (13) = 18.49 with p = .14, TLI = .99, CFI = 1.00, SRMR = .02, RMSEA = .03 with 90% CIs [.00,.07]). Cronbach's alpha, the sign and magnitude of the factor loadings, the inter-factor correlations, and the large proportion of variance extracted for each factor, all indicate that the instrument is reliable and valid. Additionally, multivariate analyses showed that socio-cultural reasons were important contributing or chewing betel nut. Participants cited chewing because their friends and family members chewed, the behavior is embedded within their culture, and it would be considered rude and disrespectful to not chew. Based on the findings, this study provides important implications pertaining to

  8. The sociocultural perspective applied to mobility and road safety: a case study through social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Parra Contreras

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the sociocultural paradigm as a theoretical framework to address mobility and road safety from the social sciences. This approach includes analysis of issues such as the uses and attributes of the car, cultural and social values associated with it, and the implications in processes in structuring and social exclusion. In order to this, we present a case study on alcohol and drugs and driving where we show the demographic, economic and occupational characteristics that mediate the different relation of the people with the car, but also their cultural characteristics, lifestyles and leisure. The research design combines data from a brief online survey with qualitative data such as tastes and preferences, from the social network Facebook. The analysis shows that there are groups of drivers who differ in their patterns of no dissociation in their consumption of alcohol / drugs and driving in terms of classical structural variables and lifestyles that are  reflected in their Facebook likes. The discussion and conclusions examine the need to analyze the social context in which road accident occurs and its usefulness in the design of awareness campaigns and intervention in road safety.

  9. Similar or different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornér, Solveig; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Peltonen, Jouni

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has identified researcher community and supervisory support as key determinants of the doctoral journey contributing to students’ persistence and robustness. However, we still know little about cross-cultural variation in the researcher community and supervisory support experien...... counter partners, whereas the Finnish students perceived lower levels of instrumental support than the Danish students. The findings imply that seemingly similar contexts hold valid differences in experienced social support and educational strategies at the PhD level....... experienced by PhD students within the same discipline. This study explores the support experiences of 381 PhD students within the humanities and social sciences from three research-intensive universities in Denmark (n=145) and Finland (n=236). The mixed methods design was utilized. The data were collected...... counter partners. The results also indicated that the only form of support in which the students expressed more matched support than mismatched support was informational support. Further investigation showed that the Danish students reported a high level of mismatch in emotional support than their Finnish...

  10. Within- and between- class variability of spectrally similar tree species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available of hyperspectral data applied to mixtures of lichen and rock,” IEEE Transactions of Geoscience and Re- mote Sensing, vol. 42(9), pp. 1934–1940, 2004. [7] R.L. Pu, P. Gong, G.S. Biging, and M.R. Larrieu, “Extraction of red edge optical parameters from Hyperion...

  11. Religion as dialogical resource: a socio-cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucal, Aleksandar; Zittoun, Tania

    2013-06-01

    William James proposed a psychological study of religion examining people's religious experiences, and to see in what sense these were good for them. The recent developments of psychology of religion moved far from that initial proposition. In this paper, we propose a sociocultural perspective to religion that renews with that initial stance. After recalling Vygtotsky's core ideas, we suggest that religion, as cultural and symbolic system, participates to the orchestration of human activities and sense-making. Such orchestration works both from within the person, through internalized values and ideas, and from without, through the person's interactions with others, discourses, cultural objects etc. This leads us to consider religions as supporting various forms of dialogical dynamics-intra-psychological dialogues, interpersonal with present, absent or imaginary others, as well as inter-group dialogues-which we illustrate with empirical vignettes. The example of religious tensions in the Balkans in the 90's highlights how much the historical-cultural embeddedness of these dynamics can also lead to the end of dialogicality, and therefore, sense-making.

  12. Beyond Population Distribution: Enhancing Sociocultural Resolution from Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, B. L.; Rose, A.

    2017-12-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, since late 1990s, we have focused on developing high resolution population distribution and dynamics data from local to global scales. Increasing resolutions of geographic data has been mirrored by population data sets developed across the community. However, attempts to increase temporal and sociocultural resolutions have been limited given the lack of high resolution data on human settlements and activities. While recent advancements in moderate to high resolution earth observation have led to better physiographic data, the approach of exploiting very high resolution (sub-meter resolution) imagery has also proven useful for generating accurate human settlement maps. It allows potential (social and vulnerability) characterization of population from settlement structures by exploiting image texture and spectral features. Our recent research utilizing machine learning and geocomputation has not only validated "poverty mapping from imagery" hypothesis, but has delineated a new paradigm of rapid analysis of high resolution imagery to enhance such "neighborhood" mapping techniques. Such progress in GIScience is allowing us to move towards the goal of creating a global foundation level database for impervious surfaces and "neighborhoods," and holds tremendous promise for key applications focusing on sustainable development including many social science applications.

  13. Sociocultural patterning of neural activity during self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Bang, Dan; Wang, Chenbo; Allen, Micah; Frith, Chris; Roepstorff, Andreas; Han, Shihui

    2014-01-01

    Western cultures encourage self-construals independent of social contexts, whereas East Asian cultures foster interdependent self-construals that rely on how others perceive the self. How are culturally specific self-construals mediated by the human brain? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we monitored neural responses from adults in East Asian (Chinese) and Western (Danish) cultural contexts during judgments of social, mental and physical attributes of themselves and public figures to assess cultural influences on self-referential processing of personal attributes in different dimensions. We found that judgments of self vs a public figure elicited greater activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in Danish than in Chinese participants regardless of attribute dimensions for judgments. However, self-judgments of social attributes induced greater activity in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) in Chinese than in Danish participants. Moreover, the group difference in TPJ activity was mediated by a measure of a cultural value (i.e. interdependence of self-construal). Our findings suggest that individuals in different sociocultural contexts may learn and/or adopt distinct strategies for self-reflection by changing the weight of the mPFC and TPJ in the social brain network.

  14. Socio-cultural factors and youth entrepreneurship in rural regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gómez-Araujo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to demonstrate the impact of two important socio-cultural factors on the level of the entrepreneurial activity of young individuals in rural regions. Design/methodology/approach – Our empirical study is based on a sample collected from an adult population survey, and analyzed using a logit model that controls for territorial and aging sources of heterogeneity. Our theoretical framework is anchored on a contingency perspective that emphasizes the unique influences of the contextual environment in driving entrepreneurial behavior. Findings – The main findings of our study is that in Spain the likelihood of being entrepreneurially active is no different for young and old individuals, and between rural and urban regions. Surprisingly, unlike shown in most studies, entrepreneurial role models do not have any effect on the entrepreneurship by young individuals in rural regions of Spain, while the negative impact of fear of failure in the entrepreneurship on young individuals in rural regions is much higher compared to the rest of the population. Originality/value – Our findings reveal that the context (regional has a more significant impact on entrepreneurship for some segments (younger individuals of the population than for others.

  15. Sociocultural and Familial Factors Associated with Weight Bias Internalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Pearl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Sociocultural and familial factors associated with weight bias internalization (WBI are currently unknown. The present study explored the relationship between interpersonal sources of weight stigma, family weight history, and WBI. Methods: Participants with obesity (N = 178, 87.6% female, 71.3% black completed questionnaires that assessed the frequency with which they experienced weight stigma from various interpersonal sources. Participants also reported the weight status of their family members and completed measures of WBI, depression, and demographics. Participant height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI. Results: Linear regression results (controlling for demographics, BMI, and depression showed that stigmatizing experiences from family and work predicted greater WBI. Experiencing weight stigma at work was associated with WBI above and beyond the effects of other sources of stigma. Participants who reported higher BMIs for their mothers had lower levels of WBI. Conclusion: Experiencing weight stigma from family and at work may heighten WBI, while having a mother with a higher BMI may be a protective factor against WBI. Prospective research is needed to understand WBI's developmental course and identify mechanisms that increase or mitigate its risk.

  16. Discovering Socio-cultural Aspects of Science Through Artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güney, Burcu Gülay; Şeker, Hayati

    2017-11-01

    Scientific literacy is one of the primary purposes of science education which briefly focuses on using and interpreting scientific explanations, understanding science within its culture. However, science curricula emphasize science with its cognitive aspects and underestimate affective and aesthetic aspects of science. Science education needs to cover beauty of science for students to cross borders between their own culture and culture of science and to achieve the aim of scientific literacy. Relating aesthetic aspects of science with content of science and paving the way for aesthetic experiences through artworks may enrich science education. The purposes of this study are to discuss the need of integrating aesthetic aspects of science in science instruction and to propose examples and pedagogical suggestions to promote aesthetic experiences into the science education. Artworks are selected to present socio-cultural aspects of science to demonstrate the culture of science, their stories are explained, and pedagogical suggestions are proposed. Advantages and difficulties of using artworks in science instruction are discussed as a result of the study.

  17. Expressed emotion and sociocultural moderation in the course of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; López, Steven R; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Kopelowicz, Alex; Zarate, Roberto

    2010-11-01

    This study examined whether the sociocultural context moderates the relationship between families' expressed emotion (EE) and clinical outcomes in schizophrenia. In a sample of 60 Mexican American caregivers and their ill relatives, we first assessed whether EE and its indices (criticism, emotional overinvolvement [EOI], and warmth) related to relapse. Second, we extended the analysis of EE and its indices to a longitudinal assessment of symptomatology. Last, we tested whether bidimensional acculturation moderated the relationship between EE (and its indices) and both relapse and symptom trajectory over time. Results indicated that EOI was associated with increased relapse and that criticism was associated with increased symptomatology. Additionally, as patients' Mexican enculturation (Spanish language and media involvement) decreased, EE was increasingly related to relapse. For symptomatology, as patients' U.S. acculturation (English language and media involvement) increased, EE was associated with increased symptoms longitudinally. Our results replicate and extend past research on how culture might shape the way family factors relate to the course of schizophrenia. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Socio-cultural factors in the development of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, D M; Garfinkel, P E

    1980-11-01

    A population of professional dance (N = 183) and modelling (N = 56) students, who by career choice must focus increased attention and control over their body shapes, was studied. Height and weight data were obtained on all subjects. In addition, a questionnaire that is useful in assessing the symptoms of anorexia nervosa, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), was administered. Results of these tests were compared with those of normal female university students (N = 59), patients with anorexia nervosa (N = 68), and music students (N = 35). Anorexia nervosa and excessive dieting concerns were overrepresented in the dance and modelling students. Twelve cases (6.5%) of primary anorexia nervosa were detected in the dance group. All but one case developed the disorder while studying dance. Within the dance group those from the most competitive environments had the greatest frequency of anorexia nervosa. These data suggest that both pressures to be slim and achievement expectations are risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa. The influence of socio-cultural determinants are discussed within the context of anorexia nervosa as a multidetermined disorder.

  19. Sociocultural influences on strategies to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles among ten cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Busija, Lucy; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Mussap, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study determined how sociocultural messages to change one's body are perceived by adolescents from different cultural groups. In total, 4904 adolescents, including Australian, Chilean, Chinese, Indo-Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, Greek, Malaysian, Chinese Malaysian, Tongans in New Zealand, and Tongans in Tonga, were surveyed about messages from family, peers, and the media to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles. Groups were best differentiated by family pressure to gain weight. Girls were more likely to receive the messages from multiple sociocultural sources whereas boys were more likely to receive the messages from the family. Some participants in a cultural group indicated higher, and others lower, levels of these sociocultural messages. These findings highlight the differences in sociocultural messages across cultural groups, but also that adolescents receive contrasting messages within a cultural group. These results demonstrate the difficulty in representing a particular message as being characteristic of each cultural group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Partner dependency and intimate partner abuse: A sociocultural grounding of spousal abuse in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated in the ext......While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated...... of dependency and attachment-related spousal violence as a form of a psychopathology. This article discusses partner dependency and jealousy-motivated spousal violence as socioculturally situated, dependent on contextual and relational conditions of meaning embedded in the communal society of Ghana....... It highlights Ghanaian communal personality, gendered socialization and meaning systems of marriage as salient sociocultural features for conceptualizing partner dependency and emotional-related spousal violence....

  1. Victoria's dirty secret: how sociocultural norms influence adolescent girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, Erin J; Lafrance, Adèle; Wilson, Anne E; Ethier, Nicole; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P

    2008-02-01

    The present studies tested whether the salience of sociocultural norms for ideal appearance leads women to base their self-worth more strongly on appearance, which in turn leads them to feel more concerned with others' perceptions and less satisfied with their bodies. Study 1 tested this model by manipulating the salience of the sociocultural norm among female university students. The model was supported. In Study 2 an intervention challenging the legitimacy of the sociocultural norm was delivered to female and male adolescents. Compared to controls, females who received this intervention were less accepting of the sociocultural norms for appearance, based their self-worth less strongly on appearance, and in turn were less concerned with others' perceptions and were more satisfied with their bodies. The implications for women are discussed.

  2. Socio-Cultural Dynamics of Education in the Context of the Post-Non-Classical Science

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    V. A. Ignatova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the interrelations between society, education and culture. Using the comparative analysis of classical approaches to defining the above spheres, the author comes to conclusion that the nature of socio-cultural processes can be explored and described most consistently by applying comprehensive models of the post-non-classical science and considering civilization, education and culture in the context of the unified dynamic flow of socio-cultural genesis. The research investigates the dialectics of socio-cultural processes in the light of systematic synergetic approach, the advancing role of education in socio-cultural dynamics being revealed and substantiated. The author emphasizes its inevitably rising priority due to sustained development of civilization bringing about the new environmentally-oriented meta-culture.The obtained results can be used in pedagogic research methodology, designing and modeling the educational process, its content, technology and organization. 

  3. Simulation-based education: understanding the socio-cultural complexity of a surgical training 'boot camp'.

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    Cleland, Jennifer; Walker, Kenneth G; Gale, Michael; Nicol, Laura G

    2016-08-01

    The focus of simulation-based education (SBE) research has been limited to outcome and effectiveness studies. The effect of social and cultural influences on SBE is unclear and empirical work is lacking. Our objective in this study was to explore and understand the complexity of context and social factors at a surgical boot camp (BC). A rapid ethnographic study, employing the theoretical lenses of complexity and activity theory and Bourdieu's concept of 'capital', to better understand the socio-cultural influences acting upon, and during, two surgical BCs, and their implications for SBE. Over two 4-day BCs held in Scotland, UK, an observer and two preceptors conducted 81 hours of observations, 14 field interviews and 11 formal interviews with faculty members (n = 10, including the lead faculty member, session leaders and junior faculty members) and participants (n = 19 core surgical trainees and early-stage residents). Data collection and inductive analysis for emergent themes proceeded iteratively. This paper focuses on three analytical themes. First, the complexity of the surgical training system and wider health care education context, and how this influenced the development of the BC. Second, participants' views of the BC as a vehicle not just for learning skills but for gaining 'insider information' on how best to progress in surgical training. Finally, the explicit aim of faculty members to use the Scottish Surgical Bootcamp to welcome trainees and residents into the world of surgery, and how this occurred. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first empirical study of a surgical BC that takes a socio-cultural approach to exploring and understanding context, complexities, uncertainties and learning associated with one example of SBE. Our findings suggest that a BC is as much about social and cultural processes as it is about individual, cognitive and acquisitive learning. Acknowledging this explicitly will help those planning similar enterprises and

  4. The Rhetoric and Reality of Leading the Inclusive School: Socio-Cultural Reflections on Lived Experiences

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    Lindy-Anne Abawi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper details a cross-cultural study of inclusive leadership practices within a basic education context in each of the following countries: Australia, Canada, and Colombia. Each school was selected after district educational leaders identified the school as being inclusive of students with diverse learning needs over an extended period of time. The researchers were particularly interested in the norms and assumptions that were evident within conversations because these were viewed as indicators of the nature of the embedded school culture within each context. School leaders and teachers were interviewed to determine the link between rhetoric and reality, and what inclusion ‘looked like’, ‘felt like’, and ‘sounded like’ at each site, and whether any discernible differences could be attributed to societal culture. A refractive phenomenological case study approach was used to capture the messages within each context and the lived experiences of the participants as they sought to cater for the needs of students. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with school leaders and teaching staff. Each researcher conducted environmental observations, documenting the impressions and insights gained from the more implicit messages communicated verbally, non-verbally, and experientially from school structures, visuals, and school ground interactions. Themes were collated from the various narratives that were recounted. Both similarities and distinct socio-cultural differences emerged.

  5. Psychosocial and sociocultural correlates of depressive symptoms among diverse African American women.

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    Holden, Kisha B; Hall, Stephanie P; Robinson, Maryam; Triplett, Sharra; Babalola, Dolapo; Plummer, Valens; Treadwell, Henrie; Bradford, L DiAnne

    2012-01-01

    African American women are faced with many challenges regarding their historical, cultural, and social structural position in the United States that may heighten their vulnerability for depression, one of the most prevalent disorders that can engender poor functionality. The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to foster greater understanding about the occurrence and correlates of depressive symptoms among a diverse convenience sample of 63 African American women recruited from a comprehensive primary health care clinic (n = 23), a small private academic institution (n = 25), and an urban community setting (n = 15). Self-report data concerning selected psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors were collected. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, and analysis of variance were used to analyze data. Results indicated several similarities and differences among the 3 groups of women concerning levels of depressive symptoms and their correlates. Among the total sample, symptoms of depression were mild among 65% of the women. Depressive symptoms were significant and positively associated with negative and ruminative thinking (r = 0.79, p indication of chronic diseases (r = 0.34, p data concerning contributors to depressive symptoms for African American women.

  6. Socio-Cultural Impacts of Educational Tourism on the Residents of Famagusta

    OpenAIRE

    Rezapouraghdam, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Apart from palpable and potent effects of the tourism on the economy and the physical environment, it can be contributed to the socio-cultural vicissitudes in the host communities. Educational tourism as one of the most influential segments of tourism both from the economic and socio-cultural standpoints has an accelerating pace of development in the whole globe. Previous studies mostly have focused on the economic impacts of educational tourism and slightly have gone through the social an...

  7. Learner interaction in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG): A sociocultural discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants’ text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a sociocultural perspective. Qualitative analysis reveals the presence of interactional features associated with the development of sociocultural competence...

  8. Sociocultural Theory and its Role in the Development of Language Pedagogy

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    Abdul Hameed Panhwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on Vygotskian theory of Socio-cultural learning and constructivist approach to teaching and learning and attempts to relate the socio-cultural theory to constructivism. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the ways socio-cultural theory helps to develop language pedagogies. Critical analysis of the literature on the socio-cultural theory suggests that the theory has potential for forming new context-oriented language teaching-learning pedagogies which can help teachers in maximising the effectiveness of their teaching and their student’s learning. The review further suggests that the language pedagogies and activities developed from the sociocultural theory of Vygotsky may not only improve students’ language skills, but it also has potential to develop students’ cognition. Since theory promotes more and more communication of students with each other through scaffolding, that is, the Zone of Proximal development (ZPD in Vygotsky’s language. Thus, the theory directly points towards the promotion of student-centred learning by establishing learner autonomy. Keywords: socio-cultural theory, language, constructivism, pedagogies, students

  9. Sociocultural and Demographic Risk Factors for the Development of Multiple Sclerosis in Kuwait: A Case - Control Study.

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    Suhail N Al-Shammri

    Full Text Available Immunological, genetic and environmental factors are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. There have been many studies on risk factors for MS but these have been mainly in Caucasian populations; robust studies in Arab populations remain relatively uncommon. This study therefore aimed to identify behavioral, socio-cultural, and demographic factors associated with development of MS in Kuwait, a high income Arab country, currently undergoing a demographic transition.In this case- control study, 195 Kuwaiti MS patients and 146 healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited. Both groups of subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, in relation to anthropometric, socio-cultural and demographic data, residence during the 1990/91 Gulf War and current and past medical history, including medications. We also clinically evaluated, and retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients to derive appropriate clinical information, including associated chronic medical illness requiring long-term treatment.On multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounders including age, gender and BMI, in all the subjects, a positive associations prevail with presence of MS and some sociocultural and demographic factors, which included non-Bedouin ethnicity (AOR 2, 95% CI 1.0-3.9, p 0.049, positive family history of MS (AOR 10.6, 95% CI 3.0-36.9, p < 0.001, and low daily sunlight exposure of < 15min/day (AOR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 p < 0.001. In addition, while 41.8% of MS patients indicated at least one comorbidity, only 26.8% of the controls reported any associated physical illness, with the suggestion that presence of certain comorbidities might increase MS risk (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.7, p < 0.001. Other risk variables such as smoking status and mode of routine outdoor dressing were not significant in all the MS subjects taken as a whole, but demonstrated variably positive

  10. Sociocultural Dimension of Hidden Content in a Professional Language Curriculum

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    Ekaterina E. Shishlova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: studying curriculum as a pedagogical problem has traditionally been reduced to the analysis of its explicit content, set in official educational documents. However, a much less studied hidden content plays a significant role in education. So, what is the role of the hidden curriculum during professional language training? The purpose of the article is to determine the potential impact of hidden curriculum on students’ conceptual worldview. Comparing the worldview presented in textbooks with students’ one has allowed us to estimate the rate of influence of hidden curr iculum. Materials and Methods: the methodological basis of the work is the cultural concept of personalityoriented education. The methodology for studying the role of hidden curriculum includes four stages: at the first stage, the authors set the criteria for selecting textbooks for analysis and do the selection; at the second stage, the authors select sociocultural concepts for analysis; at the third stage, the scheme of analysis is designed and the analysis of textbooks is done; at the fourth stage, the authors identify the potential influence of hidden curriculum on students’ conceptual worldview. Results: the structure of hidden curriculum has been determined and the scheme for analysing its subject component has been developed. The authors have identified a significant influence of hidden curriculum on students’ worldview, which represents the scientific novelty of the article. Discussion and Conclusions: the article gives the definition of a hidden curriculum which is new for Russian pedagogy and presents a methodology for its analysis in EFL textbooks. That analysis is recommended to be conducted when selecting teaching materials both i n languages and other humanities.

  11. Sociocultural behavior, sex-biased admixture, and effective population sizes in Central African Pygmies and non-Pygmies.

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    Verdu, Paul; Becker, Noémie S A; Froment, Alain; Georges, Myriam; Grugni, Viola; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Sociocultural phenomena, such as exogamy or phylopatry, can largely determine human sex-specific demography. In Central Africa, diverging patterns of sex-specific genetic variation have been observed between mobile hunter-gatherer Pygmies and sedentary agricultural non-Pygmies. However, their sex-specific demography remains largely unknown. Using population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation approaches, we inferred male and female effective population sizes, sex-specific migration, and admixture rates in 23 Central African Pygmy and non-Pygmy populations, genotyped for autosomal, X-linked, Y-linked, and mitochondrial markers. We found much larger effective population sizes and migration rates among non-Pygmy populations than among Pygmies, in agreement with the recent expansions and migrations of non-Pygmies and, conversely, the isolation and stationary demography of Pygmy groups. We found larger effective sizes and migration rates for males than for females for Pygmies, and vice versa for non-Pygmies. Thus, although most Pygmy populations have patrilocal customs, their sex-specific genetic patterns resemble those of matrilocal populations. In fact, our results are consistent with a lower prevalence of polygyny and patrilocality in Pygmies compared with non-Pygmies and a potential female transmission of reproductive success in Pygmies. Finally, Pygmy populations showed variable admixture levels with the non-Pygmies, with often much larger introgression from male than from female lineages. Social discrimination against Pygmies triggering complex movements of spouses in intermarriages can explain these male-biased admixture patterns in a patrilocal context. We show how gender-related sociocultural phenomena can determine highly variable sex-specific demography among populations, and how population genetic approaches contrasting chromosomal types allow inferring detailed human sex-specific demographic history.

  12. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

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    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  13. Cross-cultural differences in dementia: the Sociocultural Health Belief Model.

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    Sayegh, Philip; Knight, Bob G

    2013-04-01

    Many minority ethnic (ME) older adults face several culturally associated and systemic barriers to timely dementia diagnoses that may result in delays to dementia care-seeking. We aimed to develop and propose a model illustrating variables that influence dementia care-seeking among ME older adults. We conducted a literature review on the effects of these barriers on diagnostic delays and impairment levels at initial evaluation. We also strived to provide a basis for the Sociocultural Health Belief Model (SHBM) to guide future research and service planning pertaining to culture and dementia care-seeking. There was consistent evidence that ME older adults with dementia tended to have greater diagnostic delays and higher levels of cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia at initial evaluation than their non-Hispanic White counterparts. We also found several barriers to dementia care-seeking among ME groups. These barriers included lower levels of acculturation and accurate knowledge about dementia, more culturally associated beliefs about dementia, such as the perception of memory loss as normal aging and stigma associated with dementia, and health system barriers. The SHBM provides an empirically based conceptual framework for examining cross-cultural differences in dementia care-seeking among diverse groups. We provide recommendations for future research, such as the need for research with more diverse ethnic subgroups and the examination of group-specific cultural values. We conclude with a discussion of the clinical and service implications of our review, including potential interventions aimed at facilitating timely dementia diagnoses among ME older adults.

  14. Local Residents’ Perceptions of Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism in Mangochi, Malawi

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    Felix G. BELLO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine residents’ perceptions of the socio-cultural impacts of tourism in Mangochi, Malawi. This paper is based on results of a survey of 196 households together with ten key informant interviews. A concurrent triangulation mixed method was used to ensure well-validated and substantiated findings. The study findings indicate that local residents perceive specific positive and negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism in their community. Some of the positive sociocultural impacts of tourism include the provision of jobs; improved personal incomes; stimulation of the local economy and improved security in the destination area. However, the study also revealed two major negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism: the migration of people to the area in search of jobs; and the influence of Western visitors on local culture and “the way of life” of local people due to the demonstration effect. The paper indicates the degree to which local residents perceive different socio-cultural impacts of tourism development in an African local community setting. Therefore, the paper will assist tourism planners and local government in the planning and implementation of tourism development strategies for the area aiming at consolidating local residents’ support for tourism.

  15. Approach to assessing local socio-cultural impacts using projections of population growth and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Poetsch, R.

    1977-08-01

    All assessment of future domestic development projects assumes that the problems to be examined have been properly identified and defined before the application of a projection technique. An attempt is made to codify socio-cultural problems mentioned in literature and clarify how existing demographic projection techniques can be applied to assessing the problems. The relationship between changes in local population size and composition induced by in-migration and the potential for socio-cultural incompatibilities is described heuristically. For simplification, the problems expected to emerge from differences in demographic composition are classified into three categories: (1) service needs, such as those for housing, recreation, and education; (2) types of social organizations related to capacities for, or constraints on, reaping the benefits of rapid economic development and social changes (e.g., employment and income); and (3) attitudes, values, and cultural perspectives. These areas of concern are very broad, and quantitative projections of population size and composition are more easily related to the first than to the third. Although demographic projection provides a valuable tool for estimating future social change, the knowledge about cause and effect is not sufficient to support the quantification of socio-cultural impact. Therefore, the projections are used only as relative indicators and the assessments of socio-cultural impact based on them are qualitative only. Therefore, identification and assessment of socio-cultural impacts are a means of developing plans to overcome the expected problems.

  16. The Effectiveness of Urban Green Spaces and Socio-Cultural Facilities

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    Mehmet Faruk Altunkasa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a theoretical approach for mapping and determining the effectiveness of green spaces and socio-cultural facilities as providers of urban ecosystem services and urban services in the case of Adana, Turkey. Firstly, green spaces and socio-cultural facilities per capita have been determined and indexed for the neighbourhoods in the city. Then, a distance-based method for estimating the effectiveness of these facilities was used. The distances between the various neighbourhoods and between a given facility and the farthest threshold have been measured and these values have been used to determine the facility effectiveness change value for each neighbourhood. Then, effective values have been calculated and indexed by incorporating the green space and socio-cultural facility values and the effectiveness change values for the neighbourhoods. Finally, point-based effective green spaces and socio-cultural facilities index values have been converted to continuous surface values in a GIS (geographic information system environment in order to utilize as a base map for urban physical planning purposes. According to the outcomes of this study, the distribution of green spaces and socio-cultural facilities of the neighbourhoods are imbalanced and index values of these facilities range in between 45 and 84 out of 100.

  17. Improved earthen stoves in coastal areas in Bangladesh: Economic, ecological and socio-cultural evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazmul Alam, S.M.; Chowdhury, Sakila Jahan [Department of Social Sciences and Asian Languages, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987 Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    The study evaluated the economic, ecological and socio-cultural achievements of improved earthen stoves that were provided to the beneficiaries under a project to improve decreasing biomass energy utilization. A questionnaire was developed and a random sampling method was employed for selecting the samples from the population. The region has undergone a significant change with the development of shrimp aquaculture in brackish water on former paddy field. As a result the households have become dependent on the wood resources of the Sundarban (77% as their first choice of daily fuel). The fuel collection rate from the Sundarban has increased by 30% since the change to aquaculture, while the use of agricultural residues has declined by a similar amount. The introduction of the improved stove with two cook stations and a chimney resulted in a reduction of fuel use (as wood) to 540 g caput{sup -1} d{sup -1}, from the previous usage of 810 g caput{sup -1} d{sup -1} using the traditional stove. Households saved 1.5 kg d{sup -1} of fuel (one third), and reduced the cooking time by 45 min d{sup -1} (about 20%). While 85% of men and 65% of women were the major fuel collectors, the improved stove resulted in a small increase (14 taka) in the women's contribution to family income as well as a monthly saving on fuel cost of 45 taka. Respondents utilized saved time and money for household means and other economic activities. (author)

  18. Socio-cultural determinants of child mortality in southern Peru: including some methodological considerations.

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    de Meer, K; Bergman, R; Kusner, J S

    1993-02-01

    Among Amerindian children living at high altitude in the Andes in southern Peru, high child mortality rates have been reported in the literature, especially in the perinatal and neonatal period. We compared mortality rates in children calculated from retrospective survey data in 86 rural families from 2 Aymara and 3 Quechua peasant communities living at the same level of altitude (3825 m) in southern Peru. Relations between land tenure, socio-cultural factors and child mortality were studied, and methodological considerations in this field of interest are discussed. Checks on consistency of empirical data showed evidence for underreporting of neonatal female deaths with birth order 3 and more. Perinatal (124 vs 34 per 1000 births) and infant mortality (223 vs 111 per 1000 live births) was significantly higher in Aymara compared with Quechua children, but no difference was found after the first year of life. A short pregnancy interval was associated with an elevated perinatal and infant mortality rate, and a similar albeit insignificant association was found with increased maternal age. Amount of land owned and birth order were not related with child mortality. Although levels of maternal education are generally low in both cultures, a consistent decline in infant and child mortality was found with the amount of years mothers had attended school. However, the results suggest a U-shaped relationship between the amount of years of parental education and perinatal mortality in offspring. Late fetal and early neonatal mortality were particularly high in one Aymara community where mothers were found to have more years of education. Infanticide, a known phenomenon in the highlands of the Andes, is discussed in relation with the findings of the study. Although maternal and child health services are utilized by the majority of families in 4 of 5 study communities, 43 of 51 mothers under the age of 45 years reported that they delivered their last baby in the absence of

  19. The Effect of Sociocultural Factors on Maternal Short Psychiatric Status and Hyperemesis Gravidarum

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    Mehmet Baki Şentürk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate the associations between Hyperemesis Gravidarum and both sociocultural factors and psychiatric status. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective non-randomized cohort design was employed. A total of 79 patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum and 71 healthy pregnant women were enrolled. The study and control groups were compared according to results on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and sociocultural factors specific to the region. RESULTS: Anxiety, somatic concern, tension, depressive mood, hostility, motor retardation, uncooperativeness and blunted effect were found to be statistically significantly higher in patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum(p<0.01 and p<0.05. Furthermore, pregnant women living in extended families had statistically higher anxiety scores than those residing in nuclear families (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric status as well as sociocultural factors specific to the society in which the individuals live should be taken into account in assessments of patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum.

  20. Bringing Technology to Students’ Proximity: A Sociocultural Account of Technology-Based Learning Projects

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    Evode Mukama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper depicts a study carried out in Rwanda concerning university students who participated in a contest to produce short documentary films. The purpose of this research is to conceptualize these kinds of technology-based learning projects (TBLPs through a sociocultural perspective. The methodology included focus-group discussions and field notes to collect empirical data. The findings reveal that the more educational technologies capture objects of learning positioned in the students’ sociocultural proximity, the more focused the learners’ attention is on these objects. The study shows also that a change in learning projects may depend to a large extent on whether the technology relates to the students’ sociocultural proximity, that is, taking into consideration students’ physical, cultural, and contextual real world. The study recommends a community of learning/inquiry embedded in a collaborative, problem-solving dynamic involving cognitive support from peers, teachers, external specialists, and the wider community.

  1. La promoción sociocultural como habilidad profesional en la carrera Estudios Socioculturales

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    Yousy Baby Ramírez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La formación de habilidades profesionales deviene actualmente en tema que exige una respuesta desde la ciencia. La promoción sociocultural es concebida como metodología para el trabajo comunitario, sistema de acciones y proceso sociocultural; la presente investigación la asume como habilidad profesional en la formación académica del graduado de la carrera Estudios Socioculturales a través de una invariante funcional desarrollada desde el trabajo científico metodológico. El objetivo es elaborar una invariante funcional que contribuya a la preparación de los docentes para el desarrollo de la promoción sociocultural como habilidad profesional en la carrera Estudios Socioculturales.

  2. Impacts of geographical locations and sociocultural traits on the Vietnamese entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan Hoang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents new results obtained from investigating the data from a 2015 Vietnamese entrepreneurs' survey, containing 3071 observations. Evidence from the estimations using multinomial logits was found to support relationships between several sociocultural factors and entrepreneurship-related performance or traits. Specifically, those relationships include: (a) Active participation in entrepreneurs' social networks and reported value of creativity; (b) CSR-willingness and reported entrepreneurs' perseverance; (c) Transforming of sociocultural values and entrepreneurs' decisiveness; and, (d) Lessons learned from others' failures and perceived chance of success. Using geographical locations as the control variate, evaluations of the baseline-category logits models indicate their varying effects on the outcomes when combined with the sociocultural factors that are found to be statistically significant. Empirical probabilities that give further detail about behavioral patterns are provided; and toward the end, the paper offers some conclusions with some striking insights and useful explanations on the Vietnamese entrepreneurship processes.

  3. Economic and socio-cultural impacts of Mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents

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    Manisa Piuchan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the economic and socio-cultural impacts from the burgeoning mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents. Ten individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect Hong Kong residents' views. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. The results showed that the socio-cultural aspects were reported negatively with regard to culture, shopping and dining, and transportation but conversely, it had a positive impact on education and infrastructure. The economic aspect showed that residents accepted and appreciated the economic benefits brought by the inflow of mainland Chinese tourists. The Hong Kong government should consider these impacts, and then provide better solutions for residents' lives and plans to cope with the upcoming scenario which might arise regarding Hong Kong's economic boom and more tourists traveling to Hong Kong. Recommendations are also suggested in this study for further development. Keywords: Chinese tourists, economic impacts, socio-cultural impacts, tourism impacts

  4. THE SOCIOCULTURAL DIMENSION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LANGUAGE SKILLS OF PRE - SERVICE TEACHER

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    Yunaisi Pérez Vázquez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches some reflections on a pedagogic strategy for the development of the communicative abilities, from the sociocultural dimension in the teacher training process. The methods and technical that are applied they demonstrate the inadequacies that persist. consequence there are carried out reflections about the pedagogic str ategy, which is characterized by the projection, appropriation and communicative systematizing, where the performance contexts and the demands of the school environment, have singular importance. With their implementation it is achieved the derivation of the objectives and abilities for the interdisciplinary work of the teaching staff, that makes possible a system of pedagogic actions that impact positively to improve the communicative abilities, keeping in mind the incorporation of sociocultural elements in order to contribute the personal and professional development in the pedagogic context as in other sociocultural environment.

  5. Environmental factors and teenagers' personalities: The role of personal and familial Socio-Cultural Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menardo, Elisa; Balboni, Giulia; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-05-15

    Environmental (e.g., socio-cultural context), individual (e.g., genetic makeup), and interpersonal (e.g., caregiver-children relationships) factors can play a crucial role in shaping the development of the teenagers' personality. In this study, we focused on the Socio-Cultural Level that designates the set of preferences, knowledge, and behaviors that characterize an individual's way of life and depend on his or her cultural, social, and economic resources. We studied the relationship between Socio-Cultural Level (personal, maternal, and paternal) and Big Five personality traits of 191 teenagers living in the same geographical area. Results showed that Socioeconomic Status (i.e., parental education level and occupational prestige), which is the only dimension generally measured in investigations on Socio-Cultural Level, was not related with personality. In contrast, Cultural Capital and Social Capital were associated with different personality traits. Personal Cultural Capital was related to Openness to experience of boys and girls and to Extraversion of girls; personal Social Capital was related to Extraversion of girls, Emotional stability of boys, and Agreeableness of both boys and girls; maternal Cultural Capital was associated with Openness to experience of daughters. Overall, the personality of teenagers was more related to their own Cultural and Social Capital than to the Cultural and Social Capital of their parents. Moreover, the relationship between Cultural Capital and Social Capital of boys/girls and of fathers/mothers was moderate in strength. It seems that parents influence the development of personality of their teenagers indirectly, their Socio-Cultural Level shaping the Socio-Cultural Level of their sons and daughters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Jakarta socio-cultural ecology: a sustainable architecture concept in urban neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaksono, Sigit; Sasmoko; Indrianti, Y.; Widhoyoko, SA

    2017-12-01

    As a metropolitan city with densely populated and fast residential development Jakarta should be able to implement a concept that is Jakarta socio-cultural ecology Architecture as the basis of settlement development. The concept of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology architecture is characterized by residential development capabilities that reflect and express the indigenous culture, the settlements built by linking the social and economic activities of the people of Jakarta and the settlements built by maintaining the building with the value of existing heritage. The objectives of this research are 1) to find a relevant construct to housing condition in Jakarta which then called Jakarta socio-cultural ecology, and 2) to see the tendency of complex condition of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology settlement. This research uses Neuroresearch method, which is one of mix-method research method as a mixture research method between qualitative research (exploration) and quantitative research method (explanatory and confirmatory). The population of research as well as unit analysis are all settlements in Jakarta. Sampling technique using probability sampling that is with multistage sampling. The results show that nowadays the Jakarta residential complex tends to lead to socio-cultural ecology and rather reflects and expresses the indigenous culture, the residential complex in Jakarta tends to form the building has been linked fully with the social and economic activities of Jakarta society but tends to occasionally maintain buildings with existing heritage values. This study also found that indigenous culture is a significant determinant of the formation of the condition of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology.

  7. Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miccoli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho compara as experiências de sala de aula (ESA de duas universitárias na aprendizagem de língua inglesa. As ESA emergiram de entrevistas individuais, onde vídeos das aulas promoveram a reflexão. A análise revelou que experiências de natureza cognitiva, social ou afetiva influem diretamente no processo de aprendizagem e as que se referem ao contexto, à história, crenças e metas dos alunos influem indiretamente no mesmo. A singularidade de algumas experiências levou à sua categorização como ESA individuais (ESAI. Ao comparar as ESAI de duas informantes, a importância da análise sociocultural do processo de aprendizagem de sala de aula fica evidente. Concluiremos com uma defesa do valor da teoria sociocultural no estudo da aprendizagem de língua estrangeira em sala de aula e com a apresentação das implicações deste estudo para pesquisadores e professores. This paper compares the classroom experiences (CEs of two university students in their process of learning English as a foreign language (EFL. The CEs emerged from individual interviews, where classroom videos promoted reflection. The analysis revealed that cognitive, social and affective experiences directly influence the learning process and that those which refer to setting, learner’s personal background, beliefs and goal influence the learning process indirectly. The analysis also revealed the singularity of some of these CEs that led to their categorization as individual CEs (ICEs. When comparing the ICEs of the two participants, the importance of a sociocultural analysis of the classroom learning process becomes evident. We conclude with an analysis of the value of sociocultural theory in the study of classroom EFL learning and with the implications of this study for teachers and researchers.

  8. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Andersen, Anne Holst

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier......, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more...

  9. Critical Socio-Cultural Elements of the Intercultural Endeavour of English Teaching in Colombian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ximena Bonilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a study done with five English language teachers in Colombian rural areas. Questionnaires and interviews were used to see how these teachers understand their professional practice considering the contextual features of their regional workplaces. Amongst the findings, we noticed that these teachers have to mediate between local and global tensions and also deal with socio-cultural matches and mismatches in their labours. It is hoped this work raises awareness of critical socio-cultural factors involved in the teaching of English in rural settings and of the complexity of its intercultural dimension.

  10. On self-similarity of crack layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, J.; Kunin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The crack layer (CL) theory of Chudnovsky (1986), based on principles of thermodynamics of irreversible processes, employs a crucial hypothesis of self-similarity. The self-similarity hypothesis states that the value of the damage density at a point x of the active zone at a time t coincides with that at the corresponding point in the initial (t = 0) configuration of the active zone, the correspondence being given by a time-dependent affine transformation of the space variables. In this paper, the implications of the self-similarity hypothesis for qusi-static CL propagation is investigated using polystyrene as a model material and examining the evolution of damage distribution along the trailing edge which is approximated by a straight segment perpendicular to the crack path. The results support the self-similarity hypothesis adopted by the CL theory.

  11. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  12. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  13. Organizational Culture and Socio-Cultural Values: Perceptions of Managers and Employees in Five Economies in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Maria; Ardichvili, Alexandre; Gasparishvili, Alexander; Krisztian, Bela; Nemeskeri, Zsolt

    2004-01-01

    This survey-based study compared socio-cultural values and perceptions of organizational culture characteristics held by more than 3,300 managers and employees in twelve business organizations in Hungary, Russia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and the Kyrgyz Republic. Significant differences were found between the five countries on all socio-cultural and…

  14. Incorporation of Socio-Cultural Values in Damage Assessment Valuations of Contaminated Lands in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Akujuru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Damages on contaminated land have been mostly assessed for developments subsisting on the land, neglecting the goods and services derived from the land which possess only socio-cultural values. This paper aims to ascertain the importance of socio-cultural values in the total economic value of contaminated land, drawing from the experience of a coastal community oil spillage in the Niger Delta. The paper examines what constitutes a valuable interest on contaminated land and how socio-cultural factors are valued in the damage assessment process. After reviewing the literature and decided cases, a questionnaire survey was conducted and a sample valuation report was analysed. It is concluded that there exists a socio-cultural interest on contaminated land which professional valuers do not reflect in damage assessment claims. It is recommended that any comprehensive damage assessment requires the incorporation of socio-cultural values in the valuations.

  15. Psychosocial Factors in the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Cardiometabolic Risk: the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Jessica L; Penedo, Frank; Roesch, Scott C; Isasi, Carmen R; Carnethon, Mercedes; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Schneiderman, Neil; Gonzalez, Patricia; Chirinos, Diana A; Camacho, Alvaro; Teng, Yanping; Gallo, Linda C

    2017-08-01

    U.S. Hispanics/Latinos display a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), a group of co-occurring cardiometabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure) associated with higher cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher risk for MetSyn in Hispanics/Latinos, and psychosocial factors may play a role in this relationship. This cross-sectional study examined psychosocial factors in the association of SES and MetSyn components in 4,996 Hispanic/Latino adults from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study. MetSyn components were measured at the baseline examination. Participants completed interviews to determine psychosocial risks (e.g., depression) and resources (e.g., social support) within 9 months of baseline (psychosocial indicators, and three factors for MetSyn [blood pressure, lipids, metabolic factors]. SEMs showed that lower SES was related to MetSyn factors indirectly through higher psychosocial risk/lower resources (Y-Bχ 2 (df = 420) = 4412.90, p psychosocial risk/resource variables (Mackinnon's 95% asymmetric CI = -0.13 to -0.02). SES is related to metabolic variables indirectly through psychosocial factors in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos of diverse ancestries.

  16. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  17. Entrepreneurial Skills and Socio-Cultural Factors: An Empirical Analysis in Secondary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosique-Blasco, Mario; Madrid-Guijarro, Antonia; García-Pérez-de-Lema, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how entrepreneurial skills (such as creativity, proactivity and risk tolerance) and socio-cultural factors (such as role model and businessman image) affect secondary education students' propensity towards entrepreneurial options in their future careers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of…

  18. Building a Model of Employee Training through Holistic Analysis of Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While theories of adult learning and motivation are often framed as being either biological, psychological, or sociocultural, they represent a more complex, integral process. To gain a more holistic perspective of this process, a study was designed to concurrently investigate relationships between a biological factor (age), psychological factors…

  19. The Development of Mirror Self-Recognition in Different Sociocultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi; Chaudhary, Nandita; Yovsi, Relindis D.

    2012-01-01

    The overarching goal of the present study was to trace the development of mirror self-recognition (MSR), as an index of toddlers' sense of themselves and others as autonomous intentional agents, in different sociocultural environments. A total of 276 toddlers participated in the present study. Toddlers were either 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, or 21 months…

  20. Perceptions & Attitudes of Male Homosexuals from Differing Socio-Cultural & Audiological Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Daniel B.

    This study examined four male homosexual, sociocultural groups: normal-hearing homosexuals with normal-hearing parents, deaf homosexuals with normal-hearing parents, deaf homosexuals with hearing-impaired parents, and hard-of-hearing homosexuals with normal-hearing parents. Differences with regard to self-perception, identity, and attitudes were…

  1. Art and social health. Sociocultural program participation for people with funcional diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez Lemos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Martinez, M. y Rodríguez, J. (2015: “Arte y salud social. Programas de participación sociocultural para personas con diversidad funcional”, Revista Española de Discapacidad, 3 (2: 125-131.

  2. School Socio-Cultural Identity and Perceived Parental Involvement about Mathematics Learning in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsios-Rentzos, Andreas; Chaviaris, Petros; Kafoussi, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    In this quantitative study we investigated the primary school students' perceived parental involvement in mathematics with respect to different school socio-cultural identity as identified by the students' ethnicity. 493 students attending the two last grades of three primary schools participated in the study. The role of the students' grade and…

  3. Basic Behavioral Science Research for Mental Health. Sociocultural and Environmental Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of accomplishments in sociocultural and cross-cultural research and explores how culture influences the course of mental illness. The influence of race and ethnicity on mental health within a multicultural society is discussed as well as the influences of socioeconomic status, changing work roles, communities, and local…

  4. Text and Image of Advertising in Nigeria: An Enterprise of Socio-Cultural Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalamu, Taofeek

    2016-01-01

    The role of language in the construction of socio-cultural reality is inevitable. That is why text is used as a pillar that supports the explication of the intended purpose of images applied in multifaceted ad plates. It is a phenomenal tradition that has remained strong in ad campaigns. Advertisers make images and text as discrete components that…

  5. "My Home and My School": Examining Immigrant Adolescent Narratives from the Critical Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Privileging the voices of 12 recent Chinese immigrant adolescents, this multiple-case narrative study examined their home and school experiences from the critical sociocultural perspective. The adolescent stories about home testified to the significant influence of immigrant poverty, parental sacrificial altruism, and disciplinary Chinese…

  6. SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE FORMATION BY MEANS OF TRANSLATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Shapochka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of socio-cultural competence formation by means of translation / interpretation and the necessity of foreign language communicative competence formation in the process of inclusive education. The question of training of young generation for life in a multi-ethnic and multicultural society, forming skills of communication and cooperation with people of different nationalities, the foreign language learning, the formation of the communicative and socio-cultural competence is one of the main tasks of modern school to meet educational needs persons with disabilities. Today’s realities require that students with special educational needs should study a foreign language and use it in the process of learning. In turn, the use of translation in the process of learning a foreign language helps students to get new skills, to form general and specific competences, including socio-cultural competence, which promotes socialization of children with special needs, and integrating them into a comprehensive system of Ukraine. The article raises the problem of modernization of the educational system. It was established that the formation of socio-cultural competence by means of written translation is done by means of a system of exercises. Based on this system, subsystems, groups and types of exercises their systems can be developed in accordance with human activity, objectives and learning environment. It shows that the development of an inclusive approach to learning demands new solutions towards learning a foreign language at different levels of education.

  7. Adult Learning for Social Change in Museums: An Exploration of Sociocultural Learning Approaches to Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghwan; You, Jieun; Yeon Park, Soo

    2016-01-01

    This integrative literature review critically examined how scholars were articulating the work of museums to make a space for "adult learning for social change through community engagement". We applied sociocultural adult learning theories (situated learning and cultural-historical activity theory), to 25 theoretical and empirical…

  8. Sociocultural and educational factors for reading literacy decline in the Netherlands in the past decade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, A.R.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural and educational-factors in explaining the reading literacy achievement of fourth-grade children (about 10 years of age) in the Netherlands during the past decade. Using 2001, 2006 and 2011 PIRLS data, a multilevel modeling analysis was conducted to examine levels

  9. Towards Contemporary Play: Sociocultural Theory and the Digital-Consumerist Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of "contemporary" play in relation to existing ideas about children's play, learning and development from a sociocultural perspective. The need to think about the nature of contemporary play is considered in response to arguments suggesting that the quality of children's play has declined in…

  10. How Does a Newcomer Construct Identity? A Socio-Cultural Approach to Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaka, Gunnhild; Filstad, Cathrine

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop the foundations of a socio-cultural approach and to determine how this shapes our perception of a newcomer's construction of identity in two different workplaces: a high-technology delivery ward with newly employed midwives and a real estate agency with newly employed real estate agents. We explore how…

  11. Analysis Testing of Sociocultural Factors Influence on Human Reliability within Sociotechnical Systems: The Algerian Oil Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidoune, Abdelbaki; Rahal Gharbi, Med El Hadi

    2016-09-01

    The influence of sociocultural factors on human reliability within an open sociotechnical systems is highlighted. The design of such systems is enhanced by experience feedback. The study was focused on a survey related to the observation of working cases, and by processing of incident/accident statistics and semistructured interviews in the qualitative part. In order to consolidate the study approach, we considered a schedule for the purpose of standard statistical measurements. We tried to be unbiased by supporting an exhaustive list of all worker categories including age, sex, educational level, prescribed task, accountability level, etc. The survey was reinforced by a schedule distributed to 300 workers belonging to two oil companies. This schedule comprises 30 items related to six main factors that influence human reliability. Qualitative observations and schedule data processing had shown that the sociocultural factors can negatively and positively influence operator behaviors. The explored sociocultural factors influence the human reliability both in qualitative and quantitative manners. The proposed model shows how reliability can be enhanced by some measures such as experience feedback based on, for example, safety improvements, training, and information. With that is added the continuous systems improvements to improve sociocultural reality and to reduce negative behaviors.

  12. Sociocultural Experiences of Bulimic and Non-Bulimic Adolescents in a School-Based Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-01

    From a large school-based sample (N = 3,084), 49 Mainland Chinese adolescents (31 girls, 18 boys) who endorsed all DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or sub-threshold BN and 49 matched controls (31 girls, 18 boys) completed measures of demographics and sociocultural experiences related to body image. Compared to less symptomatic peers, those…

  13. Clinical Diagnostic and Sociocultural Dimensions of Deliberate Self-Harm in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.; Dawani, Varsha; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2006-01-01

    Patients' accounts complement psychiatric assessment of deliberate self-harm (DSH). In this study we examined psychiatric disorders, and sociocultural and cross-cultural features of DSH. SCID diagnostic interviews and a locally adapted EMIC interview were used to study 196 patients after DSH at a general hospital in Mumbai, India. Major depression…

  14. Risk analysis-based food safety policy: scientific factors versus socio-cultural factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, P.; Knapen, van F.; Brom, F.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the importance of socio-cultural factors in risk management and the need to incorporate these factors in a standard, internationally recognized (wto) framework. This was achieved by analysing the relevance of these factors in 3 cases
    The purpose of

  15. The Sociocultural Psychology as a Postformal Theory of Academic Achievement: Interrogating Formal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    The present paper interrogates the dominance of formal education. As formal education system relies on ability based academic achievement as a goal, exploring post-formal approaches, such as sociocultural notion of academic achievement is the hallmark of present paper. An attempt is made to interrogate the existing cultural dominance in formal…

  16. The Psychological Well-Being and Sociocultural Adaptation of Short-Term International Students in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Ryan, Dermot; Hickey, Tina

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study of the psychosocial adaptation of international students in Ireland. Using measures of social support, loneliness, stress, psychological well-being, and sociocultural adaptation, data were obtained from international students and a comparison sample of Irish students. The study found that, although…

  17. Sociocultural and Individual Influences on Muscle Gain and Weight Loss Strategies among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the role of body dissatisfaction, body image importance, sociocultural influences (media and parent and peer encouragement), self-esteem and negative affect on body change strategies to decrease weight and increase muscles in adolescent boys and girls. Surveys were administered to 587 boys and 598 girls aged between 11 and 15…

  18. Sociocultural Theory Applied to Second Language Learning: Collaborative Learning with Reference to the Chinese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongyu, Zhang; Fanyu, B.; Wanyi, Du

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the sociocultural theory (SCT). In particular, three significant concepts of Vyogtsky's theory: self-regulation, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), and scaffolding all of which have been discussed in numerous second language acquisition (SLA) and second language learning (SLL) research papers. These concepts lay the…

  19. The Influence of Global Warming Science Views and Sociocultural Factors on Willingness to Mitigate Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Benjamin C.

    2015-01-01

    The science education field readily recognizes that perceptions about science's claims and nature influence socioscientific decision making. However, sociocultural factors may overshadow these perceptions when people are forced to make personally impacting choices contextualized within actual socioscientific issues. This investigation…

  20. Plea bargaining and the religious cum socio-cultural concept of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plea bargaining and the religious cum socio-cultural concept of Yoruba ọmọlúàbí in the Nigerian political landscape. ... Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies ... It therefore, attempts to define what is meant by plea bargaining, introduction as to its ...

  1. The other side of migration in rural Nepal: sociocultural transformation and the women left behind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gartaula, H.N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between male labour out-migration and the process of sociocultural transformation in the places of origin. Taking an example from Nepal, it shows that male labour out-migration has increased women’s partici­pation in agriculture, more significantly so in

  2. "Cooking Lunch, That's Swiss": Constructing Hybrid Identities Based on Socio-Cultural Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the discursive construction and negotiation of hybrid identities within binational couples. I analyze conversations produced by Anglophones married to German-speaking Swiss residing in central Switzerland. I employ Bucholtz & Hall's sociocultural linguistic model (2004, 2005, 2010), which views identity as emergent in…

  3. Leveraging Sociocultural Theory to Create a Mentorship Program for Doctoral Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosslin, Matt; Wakefield, Jenny S.; Bennette, Phyllis; Black, James William, III

    2013-01-01

    This paper details a proposed doctoral student connections program that is based on sociocultural theory. It is designed to assist new students with starting their educational journey. This program is designed to leverage social interactions, peer mentorship, personal reflection, purposeful planning, and existing resources to assist students in…

  4. Socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development among fifth graders in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Silva, S.L.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over

  5. The Integration of Cognitive and Sociocultural Theories of Literacy Development: Why? How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive and sociocultural theories of literacy development are historically considered incommensurable in practice and in research. Cognitivists view literacy development as a succession of qualitatively varied skills whereas socioculturalists view literacy as socially and culturally embedded. Traditional educational discourses tend to reflect…

  6. Understanding Higher Education-Based Teacher Educators' Identities in Hong Kong: A Sociocultural Linguistic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rui

    2016-01-01

    While teacher educator identities have received increasing attention over the past decade, there is a lack of research on teacher educators' professional identities in the complex and shifting higher education contexts. Informed by the sociocultural linguistic perspective, this study investigates two language teacher educators' professional…

  7. Simulating crowd evacuation with socio-cultural, cognitive, and emotional elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, C. Natalie; Formolo, Daniel; Robinson, Mark A.; Minkov, Michael; Bosse, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the effects of culture, cognitions, and emotions on crisis management and prevention are analysed. An agent-based crowd evacuation simulation model was created, named IMPACT, to study the evacuation process from a transport hub. To extend previous research, various socio-cultural,

  8. A Socio-Cultural Perspective on Children's Early Language: A Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Socan, Gregor; Tašner, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of certain socio-cultural factors of the family environment on the language of toddlers and children in early childhood. The sample included 86 families with one- to six-year-old children. The data on the social, economic, and cultural factors of the family environment, parental reading literacy, parental knowledge…

  9. Socio-Cultural Theories of Cognitive Development: Implications for Teaching Theory in the Visual Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Rob

    1989-01-01

    Explicates the socio-cultural developmental theories of Vygotsky and Feuerstein which advocate teacher mediated learning in order to stimulate and accelerate development. Implications for art education include the need for the teacher to become involved in the enculturation of the child into the thinking processes and conceptual organization of…

  10. Shared Values and Socio-Cultural Norms: E-Learning Technologies from a Social Practice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Patti; Velan, Gary M.; Shulruf, Boaz

    2017-01-01

    From a perspective of social practice, learning is a socially constituted practice that is imbued with socio-culturally significant meanings and shaped by the values and norms shared within a community of learners. This focus group study examines the role of e-learning technologies in mediating the social practice of learning among coursework…

  11. Impact of Sociocultural Background and Assessment Data Upon School Psychologists' Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, E. Scott; Cummings, Jack A.

    1985-01-01

    Psychologists (N=56) participated in an adapted version of Algozzine and Ysseldyke's (1981) diagnostic simulation to investigate the effects of sociocultural background (rural vs. suburban) and assessment data (normal vs. learning disabled) on educational decisions. Findings suggest school psychologists utilize multiple sources of information but…

  12. Integrating the Ontological, Epistemological, and Sociocultural Aspects: A Holistic View of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Teng

    2016-01-01

    The three aspects of teacher change--ontological, epistemological, and sociocultural--are traditionally regarded as independent. Usually only the epistemological aspect is highlighted in formal teacher education. In this paper, I argue that a holistic and interdependent view of these aspects is needed. Thus, this paper aims to explore the process…

  13. Socio-Cultural Factors Associated with the Initiation of Opium Use in Darab, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Siavash; Movaghar, Afarin Rahimi; Craib, Kevin; Baharlou, Souzan; Mathias, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify socio-cultural factors facilitating initiation of opium use among drug users in Darab, Iran. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted. The study began in June 2006 and included 76 drug users, aged 20-43, of whom 95% (72) were male, and 5% (4) were female. The five most common factors facilitating…

  14. Socio-Cultural Variation in Reading Comprehension Development among Fifth Graders in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Silvia Morales; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over the course of fifth grade, were related to the…

  15. Influence of socio-cultural modernization on development of human capital assets in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents major points of research into socio-cultural conditions of human capital assets accumulation in Russia. Notion of social justice, social responsibility of business, realization of their role as “vehicle of capital” by employees, national mentality – all this essentially influences on efficiency of human capital assets accumulation in Russia.

  16. Bringing Technology to Students' Proximity: A Sociocultural Account of Technology-Based Learning Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukama, Evode

    2014-01-01

    This paper depicts a study carried out in Rwanda concerning university students who participated in a contest to produce short documentary films. The purpose of this research is to conceptualize these kinds of technology-based learning projects (TBLPs) through a sociocultural perspective. The methodology included focus group discussions and field…

  17. Sociocultural and psychological determinants in migrants for noncompliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Tjiam (Angela); H. Akcan (Hilal); F. Ziylan (Fatma); E. Vukovic; S.E. Loudon (Sjoukje); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J. Passchier (Jan); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia in children is low when their parents have a low level of education, speak Dutch poorly, or originate from another country. We determined how sociocultural and psychological determinants affect compliance. Methods: Included were

  18. The Problems of Contemporary Education Socio-Cultural Dimension of Military Education in Modern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Alexsandr P.; Chuikov, Oleg E.; Gavrikov, Fedor A.; Ludwig, Sergey D.

    2017-01-01

    The article reveals the essence of the sociocultural approach as a universal tool which allows considering the process of modernization of cadet education in modern Russia in the complex determining its conditions and factors. The basic mechanisms of functioning of cadet education system are the processes that form the equilibrium diad…

  19. Managing Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism on the Rural Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural destinations within and around the World Heritage Sites have been required to implement planning procedures which would attract tourists that bring economic benefits while at the same time ensuring that the socio-cultural and environmental fabric of the community is not compromised. KwaZulu-Natal province has ...

  20. SOCIO-CULTURAL AND MEDICAL INDICATORS OF THE SCHOOLCHILDREN'S QUALITY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodanka Bašić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimate of life quality is based upon medical, psychological and social indicators. It increasingly engages the attention of doctors of medicine, sociologists and psychologists.The aim of this research is to headlight some more relevant socio-cultural parametres in order to determine the quality of life of schoolchildren, that is, to determine whether the crisis in which our society has found itself has produced such socio-cultural conditions that could have induced changes in the children's quality of life and, if they have, to what extent the crisis has been reflected upon their health. The research has comprised 398 schoolchildren and their parents, three elementary schools from Nish and one in Sokobanja.The research of the socio-cultural and medical indicators of their quality of life has shown that the parent's education and ther material position have had an important influence upon the children's life quality.Since there has been no significant presence of any disease recorded in the observed children's sample, it can be concluded that the socio-cultural features have affected the children's life but they have not any significant impact upon their health.

  1. Sociocultural Attitudes and Symptoms of Bulimia: Evaluating the SATAQ with Diverse College Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashel, Mary Louise; Cunningham, Dana; Landeros, Clarinda; Cokley, Kevin O.; Muhammad, Grace

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the utility of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ; L. J. Heinberg, J. K. Thompson, & S. Stormer, 1995) for the assessment of diverse college groups, including men, women, minorities, and sorority members. Scores from the SATAQ were compared with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2; D. M.…

  2. Sociocultural Variations in the Body Image Perceptions of Urban Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Laura S.; Stormer, Colleen Cook

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the influences of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and ethnic peer group composition on awareness and internalization of socially sanctioned standards of appearance using the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Adolescence Questionnaire. Findings for 208 adolescent females highlight the importance of multiple ecological factors in…

  3. Socio-cultural proximity, daily life and shopping tourism in the Dutch–German border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szytniewski, Bianca B.; Spierings, Bas; van der Velde, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses feelings of socio-cultural proximity and distance with a specific focus on the tourist experience in cross-border shopping and everyday life practices in border regions. We examined shopping practices of Dutch border crossers who visit the German town Kleve in the Dutch–German

  4. The Impact of TV Viewing Motivations on Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    A study examined the impact of TV viewing motivations on 126 Asian students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Subjects were enrolled in a midsize university in the New England area. TV viewing motivation was measured by A. M. Rubin's TV Viewing Motivations Scale. Psychological adjustment was measured by W. Zung's Self Rating Depression…

  5. Internalization of the Sociocultural Ideal: Weight-Related Attitudes and Dieting Behaviors among Young Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent girls regarding body dissatisfaction, dieting, and internalization of sociocultural values, media-influenced knowledge, acceptance of varied body shapes, and media exposure. Girls understood media influence on self-image and behavior and accepted varied body shapes. Significant numbers reported dissatisfaction with weight and…

  6. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescent Girls: Testing the Influence of Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Daniel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-01-01

    In Western cultures, girls' self-esteem declines substantially during middle adolescence, with changes in body image proposed as a possible explanation. Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. In a study of 136 U.K. girls aged 11-16, experimental exposure to either ultra-thin…

  7. Ligwomi Cult: A Facilitator of the Socio-Cultural Development of Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ligwomi cult practiced among Igbo Imabana people of Abi Local Government Area of Cross River State is unlike other cults whose activities are regarded as nefarious. This cult has great socio-cultural significance and has brought some remarkable development in Igbo Imabana. We are poised to investigate such ...

  8. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  9. Clustering eating habits: frequent consumption of different dietary patterns among the Italian general population in the association with obesity, physical activity, sociocultural characteristics and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoth, Francesca; Scalese, Marco; Siciliano, Valeria; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-06-01

    (a) To identify clusters of eating patterns among the Italian population aged 15-64 years, focusing on typical Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) items consumption; (b) to examine the distribution of eating habits, as identified clusters, among age classes and genders; (c) evaluate the impact of: belonging to a specific eating cluster, level of physical activity (PA), sociocultural and psychological factors, as elements determining weight abnormalities. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected using self-reporting questionnaires administered to a sample of 33,127 subjects participating in the Italian population survey on alcohol and other drugs (IPSAD(®)2011). The cluster analysis was performed on a subsample (n = 5278 subjects) which provided information on eating habits, and adapted to identify categories of eating patterns. Stepwise multinomial regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between weight categories and eating clusters, adjusted for the following background variables: PA levels, sociocultural and psychological factors. Three clusters were identified: "Mediterranean-like", "Western-like" and "low fruit/vegetables". Frequent consumption of Med-diet patterns was more common among females and elderly. The relationship between overweight/obesity and male gender, educational level, PA, depression and eating disorders (p obesity. The low consumption of Med-diet patterns among youth, and the frequent association of sociocultural, psychological issues and inappropriate lifestyle with overweight/obesity, highlight the need for an interdisciplinary approach including market policies, to promote a wider awareness of the Mediterranean eating habit benefits in combination with an appropriate lifestyle.

  10. Evaluating gender similarities and differences using metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Ethan; Krizan, Zlatan; Teeter, Sabrina R

    2015-01-01

    Despite the common lay assumption that males and females are profoundly different, Hyde (2005) used data from 46 meta-analyses to demonstrate that males and females are highly similar. Nonetheless, the gender similarities hypothesis has remained controversial. Since Hyde's provocative report, there has been an explosion of meta-analytic interest in psychological gender differences. We utilized this enormous collection of 106 meta-analyses and 386 individual meta-analytic effects to reevaluate the gender similarities hypothesis. Furthermore, we employed a novel data-analytic approach called metasynthesis (Zell & Krizan, 2014) to estimate the average difference between males and females and to explore moderators of gender differences. The average, absolute difference between males and females across domains was relatively small (d = 0.21, SD = 0.14), with the majority of effects being either small (46%) or very small (39%). Magnitude of differences fluctuated somewhat as a function of the psychological domain (e.g., cognitive variables, social and personality variables, well-being), but remained largely constant across age, culture, and generations. These findings provide compelling support for the gender similarities hypothesis, but also underscore conditions under which gender differences are most pronounced. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Broadening the examination of sociocultural constructs relevant to African-American colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, V L Sanders; Harris, J; Clark, E M; Purnell, J; Deshpande, A D

    2015-01-01

    The importance of sociocultural constructs as influences on cancer attitudes and screening has been established in the literature. This paper reports on the efforts to explore alternatives to sociocultural constructs previously associated with African-American cancer screening, but with low acceptance among community members or incomplete measurement (empowerment and collectivism) and develop a measure for a recently identified construct of interest (privacy). We report preliminary psychometric data on these sociocultural scales and their associations with cancer attitudes. African-Americans (N = 1021), 50-75 years of age participated in this study. Participants were identified via a listed sample and completed a telephone survey administered via call center. Sociocultural attitudes were assessed using items identified through computerized database searches, reviewed by advisory panels, edited and tested using cognitive response strategies. Cancer screening pros and cons, cancer worry, perceived cancer risk, colorectal cancer (CRC) screening subjective norms, and perceived self-efficacy for colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) were also assessed. Confirmatory factor analyses and multivariate analyses were conducted to provide support for the validity of the constructs and to understand the associations among the selected sociocultural constructs (empowerment, collectivism, and privacy) and cancer beliefs and attitudes (CRC perceived benefits and barriers, perceived risks, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control/self-efficacy). Consistent with the literature, the factor analytic model (RMSEA for the model was .062; 90% CI: .060-.065) provided support for the empowerment, collectivism, and privacy constructs. The modified collectivism and privacy scales had acceptable reliability. The privacy scale demonstrated the strongest associations with measures of cancer beliefs and attitudes. The implication of the findings and need for further scale

  12. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of thenodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarityof nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure toanalyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large...... university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  13. Self-similar cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, W Z [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1981-07-01

    The kinematics and dynamics of self-similar cosmological models are discussed. The degrees of freedom of the solutions of Einstein's equations for different types of models are listed. The relation between kinematic quantities and the classifications of the self-similarity group is examined. All dust local rotational symmetry models have been found.

  14. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  15. Personalized recommendation with corrected similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommendation has attracted a surge of interdisciplinary research. Especially, similarity-based methods in applications of real recommendation systems have achieved great success. However, the computations of similarities are overestimated or underestimated, in particular because of the defective strategy of unidirectional similarity estimation. In this paper, we solve this drawback by leveraging mutual correction of forward and backward similarity estimations, and propose a new personalized recommendation index, i.e., corrected similarity based inference (CSI). Through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, the results show a greater improvement of CSI in comparison with these mainstream baselines. And a detailed analysis is presented to unveil and understand the origin of such difference between CSI and mainstream indices. (paper)

  16. Towards Personalized Medicine: Leveraging Patient Similarity and Drug Similarity Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  17. Socio-Cultural Context and Bulling Others in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Carmen; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria A; Blanco, Carlos; Sala, Regina; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this epidemiological study was to examine, using an ecological perspective, which individual and distal contextual factors (familial, social and cultural) are associated with bullying other children across two different sites. Our sample included 1,271 Puerto Rican children 10 and older years of age at baseline residing in the South Bronx in New York and in the Standard Metropolitan Area in San Juan and Caguas, Puerto Rico. Bullying others was assessed through parents' and children's response to one item in the conduct disorder section of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC IV). Child, family, social and cultural factors were examined as independent variables with bullying others as dependent variable in hierarchical models adjusting for gender, maternal education, poverty, single parent household and site. Prevalence of bullying others was 15.2% in South Bronx versus 4.6% in Puerto Rico (p<0.0001). Poor social adjustment and academic achievement, parental harsh discipline, negative school environment, exposure to violence, peer delinquency and level of acculturation in the child were all risk factors for bullying others. Child acculturation accounted for site differences in rates of bullying others. We conclude that, besides the school context, specific aspects of the community, family, and culture influence the development of bullying perpetration and should be targets for interventions and prevention programs. Minority youth living in at-risk contexts may benefit from contextually sensitive preventive interventions that address how assimilation into a high-risk context may increase involvement in bullying perpetration.

  18. EL CARÁCTER SOCIOCULTURAL DE LA ENSEÑANZA EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR (THE SOCIOCULTURAL NATURE OF TEACHING IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obregón Rodríguez Carmen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Como la escuela en general, el ámbito de la educación superior también nos ofrece un escenario privilegiado para recabar evidencias del carácter sociocultural del pensamiento. Fundada en las exploraciones de Vigotzky y expandida por sus seguidores, la perspectiva sociocultural establece que nuestro pensamiento en general, y las funciones mentales superiores en particular, están por definición culturalmente mediados; y que no hay forma de no estar culturalmente situados cuando llevamos a cabo una acción, usualmente acorde con los patrones aceptados por el grupo social al que se pertenece (acción mediada. A partir de estas aseveraciones, este ensayo intenta justificar la importancia de un mayor conocimiento del contexto cultural que tiene lugar al interior de la educación superior, y una mejor comprensión de las implicaciones que las diferencias disciplinarias tienen en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje; dar cuenta de algunos hallazgos de incursiones de la investigación empírica a este respecto; y cerrar enmarcando los aportes concretos de este ejercicio dentro de una eminente preocupación por encontrar nuevas formas de articular la multiculturalidad; de integrar la diversidad que nos habita y nos estructura, y que forma parte de nuestras herencias y de nuestro presente cultural.Abstract:Just like school does in a general sense, higher education creates a privileged setting for collecting evidences of the sociocultural nature of thinking. Grounded in Vygotsky’s explorations and extended by his colleagues, the sociocultural perspective establishes that our thinking in a broad sense, and higher psychological functioning in particular, are by definition culturally mediated; and that there is no other way than to be culturally situated when taking action, usually following patterns accepted by the social group to which one belongs (mediated action. Parting from those statements, this essay attempts to justify the importance of a

  19. The Role of Sociocultural Influences on Symptoms of Muscle Dysmorphia and Eating Disorders in Men, and the Mediating Effects of Perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryer, Rachel; Farr, Melissa; Hiramatsu, Izumi; Quinton, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism in the relationship between sociocultural influences (i.e., media, peer, and teasing) and symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD) and eating disorders (ED). A nonclinical sample of males (N = 158, Mage = 26.94, SD = 5.50) completed measures of perfectionism, MD, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia. Susceptibility to appearance-based messages from the media, their peers, and family was also measured. Analyses confirmed the partial mediating role of self-oriented perfectionism only for drive for thinness. In contrast, socially prescribed perfectionism was found to be a partial mediator between all three sociocultural variables and measures of both MD and ED; except for those between peer influence and body dissatisfaction, and teasing and bulimia symptomatology. These two relationships were fully mediated by socially prescribed perfectionism. Results suggest that vulnerability to MD and ED depend on pre-existing perfectionistic attitudes, particularly that of socially prescribed perfectionism.

  20. Current Trends in the Detection of Sociocultural Signatures: Data-Driven Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Bell, Eric B.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2014-09-15

    The harvesting of behavioral data and their analysis through evidence-based reasoning enable the detection of sociocultural signatures in their context to support situation awareness and decision making. Harvested data are used as training materials from which to infer computational models of sociocultural behaviors or calibrate parameters for such models. Harvested data also serve as evidence input that the models use to provide insights about observed and future behaviors for targets of interest. The harvested data is often the result of assembling diverse data types and aggregating them into a form suitable for analysis. Data need to be analyzed to bring out the categories of content that are relevant to the domain being addressed in order to train or run a model. If, for example, we are modeling the intent of a group to engage in violent behavior using messages that the group has broadcasted, then these messages need to be processed to extract and measure indicators of violent intent. The extracted indicators and the associated measurements (e.g. rates or counts of occurrence) can then be used to train/calibrate and run computational models that assess the propensity for violence expressed in the source message. Ubiquitous access to the Internet, mobile telephony and technologies such as digital photography and digital video have enabled social media application platforms such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter that are altering the nature of human social interaction. The fast increasing pace of online social interaction introduces new challenges and opportunities for gathering sociocultural data. Challenges include the development of harvesting and processing techniques tailored to new data environments and formats (e.g. Twitter, Facebook), the integration of social media content with traditional media content, and the protection of personal privacy. As these and other challenges are addressed, a new wealth of behavioral data and data analysis methods becomes

  1. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  2. Differences in occupational, transportation, domestic, and leisure-time physical activities: do geographical location and socio-cultural status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Alain P; Lariviere, Michel; Pong, Raymond; Snelling, Susan; Young, Nancy

    2012-02-01

    Researchers have recently expressed their concern for the health of Francophones and rural dwellers in Canada. Their levels of physical activity may explain part of the observed differences. However, little is known about the physical activity levels of these 2 groups. The purpose of this study was to assess levels of physical activity among a sample of Francophones and rural dwellers. The study also assessed the associations of various types of physical activity to measures of health status. A quota-based convenience sample of 256 adults from Northern Ontario was surveyed using the IPAQ and the SF-12. There were no significant differences in activity levels between language groups (P = .06) or geographical groups (P = .22) on the combined dependent variables based on MANOVA. Leisure-time physical activity scores were consistently associated to better physical component summary scores of the SF-12. Implications for practice include that leisure-time physical activities have been at the forefront of public health promotion, and our findings support this approach. Further, population specific interventions are indeed important, however, within this Canadian context when identifying target groups one must look beyond sociocultural status or geographical location.

  3. Desarrollo de la competencia sociocultural: uso de materiales audiovisuales en las clases de ELE en situación de inmersión sociocultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Roses-Nieves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En los cursos de español como lengua extranjera (ELE de la Universidad de Oriente ingresan cada año estudiantes extranjeros que se sienten motivados a conocer el idioma, así como todas las particularidades referenciales y diferenciales que han venido conformando la cultura cubana. Por ello, al analizar las nuevas necesidades generadas por este aprendiz, no deja de sorprender que en las clases se utilicen generalmente muestras audiovisuales que centran su atención en los aspectos lingüísticos con una escasa integración con los socioculturales; lo que interfiere en la interacción comunicativa de los estudiantes en los contextos de actuación. Por estas razones, el propósito del artículo es mostrar las peculiaridades del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la competencia sociocultural, mediante el empleo de materiales audiovisuales en la enseñanza del ELE en situación de inmersión sociocultural.

  4. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  5. Acculturation Attitudes and Sociocultural Adaptation of Chinese Mainland Sojourners in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyi Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within these years, there has been a significant increase in the number of Chinese Mainland sojourners studying in Hong Kong. Due to the huge differences in various aspects like language, culture, cultural value, it would be considerably difficult for the Chinese Mainland students to adapt to the Hong Kong environment. This article investigates the ways for a group of doctoral students from Chinese Mainland to acculturate in Hong Kong. With the help of questionnaires, the difficulties that the sojourners have encountered in social situations are measured. It is found out that age and gender may have influenced the participants’ acculturation strategies, and interpersonal relationship is that which the subjects have the most difficulties with, while academic domain is the area with the least difficulties. Meanwhile, the results have shown that competence of local language is not a determinant factor of the sociocultural adaptation, and female subjects seem to adapt better than male subjects. Keywords: sojourner, acculturation, sociocultural adaptation, acculturation strategy

  6. Oral health in children and adolescents with different socio-cultural and socio-economic backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Twetman, Svante; Sundby, Annette

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence and severity of dental caries in children and adolescents and to relate these findings to the subject's socio-cultural and socio-economic backgrounds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study in 12 706 children aged 5, 7, 12 and 15 years was conducted...... in 2006. Data on children's caries experience were collected from public oral health registers and pooled with socio-cultural and socio-economic data obtained from official statistics. The study population represented 76% of all registered inhabitants. RESULTS: Among 5- and 7-year-old children with non...... preventive strategy is proposed to meet the needs of children in risk of caries, and appropriate oral health-promotion programmes should be organized in collaboration with leaders from different ethnic minorities....

  7. Cognitive and sociocultural aspects of robotized technology: innovative processes of adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvesko, S. B.; Kvesko, B. B.; Kornienko, M. A.; Nikitina, Y. A.; Pankova, N. M.

    2018-05-01

    The paper dwells upon interaction between socio-cultural phenomena and cognitive characteristics of robotized technology. The interdisciplinary approach was employed in order to cast light on the manifold and multilevel identity of scientific advance in terms of robotized technology within the mental realm. Analyzing robotized technology from the viewpoint of its significance for the modern society is one of the upcoming trends in the contemporary scientific realm. The robots under production are capable of interacting with people; this results in a growing necessity for the studies on social status of robotized technological items. Socio-cultural aspect of cognitive robotized technology is reflected in the fact that the nature becomes ‘aware’ of itself via human brain, a human being tends to strives for perfection in their intellectual and moral dimensions.

  8. Clinical diagnostic and sociocultural dimensions of deliberate self-harm in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkar, Shubhangi R; Dawani, Varsha; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2006-04-01

    Patients' accounts complement psychiatric assessment of deliberate self-harm (DSH). In this study we examined psychiatric disorders, and sociocultural and cross-cultural features of DSH. SCID diagnostic interviews and a locally adapted EMIC interview were used to study 196 patients after DSH at a general hospital in Mumbai, India. Major depression was the most common diagnosis (38.8%), followed by substance use disorders (16.8%), but 44.4% of patients did not meet criteria for an enduring Axis-I disorder (no diagnosis, V-code, or adjustment disorder). Psychache arising from patient-identified sociocultural contexts and stressors complements, but does not necessarily fulfill, criteria for explanatory psychiatric disorders.

  9. Learning motivation and giftedness in sociocultural diverse Latin America and the Caribbean societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla Blumen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical review aims to integrate state-of-the-art learning motivation theoretical concepts within the context of gifted and talent development models for native children living in Latin America and the Caribbean sociocultural diverse societies. Motivation as a determinant factor and a promoter of gifted achievement is analyzed. Also the relation between motivation, outstanding performance and underachievement is discussed and tendencies found in social-emotional development of the gifted linked to motivation are explored. Final remarks are given on the significant role of motivation in the achievement of gifted and talented children living under diverse socio-cultural influences that bias their performance on standardized measures. Recommendations highlight the importance of further research, in order to reach a convergence of theoretical and practical elements needed to promote Latin American children's talent.

  10. USES OF SOCIAL MEDIA TO PROMOTE ASEAN SOCIO-CULTURAL COMMUNITY IN VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas Basar Gezgin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global openness of Vietnam brought out very fast major social changes. The country is a party to a number of international economic agreements and frameworks including World Trade Organization, Trans Pacific Partnership as well as ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations. External economic factors such as those associated with South East Asian integration are coupled with ASEAN’s ambition to set up a socio-cultural community in addition to the economic community. In the meantime, the popularity of social media is rapidly growing in Vietnam with more than 30 million Vietnamese Facebook accounts. Considering these 2 major influences, ie social media and regional integration efforts, this article proposes a number of recommendations to use social media to promote ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

  11. Latin Loans In French Contemporary Advertising: Socio-Cultural, Linguistic and Psychological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kudinova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the Latin language borrowings in the modern French language. The functioning of Latin borrowings in French advertising is analyzed. The attention is drown to the socio-cultural, linguistic and psychological aspects of this functioning. General trends concerning latinisms in French language are the clear proof of the importance and vitality of Latin into French society. It was shown that the Latin language has greatly influenced the French cultural memory and common European culture.

  12. Broadening the examination of socio-cultural constructs relevant to African American colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, V. L.; Harris, J.; Clark, E.M.; Purnell, J.; Deshpande, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of socio-cultural constructs as influences on cancer attitudes and screening has been established in the literature. This paper reports on efforts to explore alternatives to constructs previously associated with African American cancer screening, but with low acceptance among community members or incomplete measurement (empowerment and collectivism) and develop a measure for a recently identified construct of interest (privacy). We report preliminary psychometric data on these socio-cultural scales and their associations with cancer attitudes. African Americans (N=1021), 50 to 75 years of age participated in this study. Participants were identified via a listed sample and completed a telephone survey administered via call center. Socio-cultural attitudes were assessed using items identified through computerized database searches, reviewed by advisory panels, edited and tested using cognitive response strategies. Cancer screening pros and cons, cancer worry, perceived cancer risk, colorectal cancer screening subjective norms, and perceived self-efficacy for colorectal cancer screening were also assessed. Confirmatory factor analyses and multivariate analyses were conducted to provide support for the validity of the constructs and to understand the associations among the selected socio-cultural constructs (empowerment, collectivism and empowerment) and cancer beliefs and attitudes (CRC perceived benefits and barriers, perceived risks, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control/self-efficacy). Consistent with the literature, the factor analytic model (RMSEA for the model was 0.062; 90% CI: 0.060-0.065) provided support for the empowerment, collectivism and privacy constructs. The modified collectivism and privacy scales had acceptable reliability. The privacy scale demonstrated the strongest associations with measures of cancer beliefs and attitudes. The implication of the findings and need for further scale development activities is discussed

  13. Socio-cultural inhibitors to use of modern contraceptive techniques in rural Uganda: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagenyi, Allen; Reid, Alice; Ntozi, James; Atuyambe, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Family planning is one of the cost-effective strategies in reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates. Yet in Uganda, the contraceptive prevalence rate is only 30% among married women in conjunction with a persistently high fertility rate of 6.2 children per woman. These demographic indicators have contributed to a high population growth rate of over 3.2% annually. This study examines the role of socio-cultural inhibitions in the use of modern contraceptives in rural Uganda. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted in 2012 among men aged 15-64 and women aged 15-49 in the districts of Mpigi and Bugiri in rural Uganda. Eighteen selected focus group discussions (FGDs), each internally homogeneous, and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among men and women. Data were collected on sociocultural beliefs and practices, barriers to modern contraceptive use and perceptions of and attitudes to contraceptive use. All interviews were tape recoded, translated and transcribed verbatim. All the transcripts were coded, prearranged into categories and later analyzed using a latent content analysis approach, with support of ATLAS.ti qualitative software. Suitable quotations were used to provide in-depth explanations of the findings. Results Three themes central in hindering the uptake of modern contraceptives emerged: (i) persistence of socio-cultural beliefs and practices promoting births (such as polygamy, extending family lineage, replacement of the dead, gender-based violence, power relations and twin myths). (ii) Continued reliance on traditional family planning practices and (iii) misconceptions and fears about modern contraception. Conclusion Sociocultural expectations and values attached to marriage, women and child bearing remain an impediment to using family planning methods. The study suggests a need to eradicate the cultural beliefs and practices that hinder people from using contraceptives, as well as a need to scale

  14. Sociocultural Behavior Sensemaking: State of the Art in Understanding the Operational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    data are then processed and 54 | Visualization for sociocultural understanding assimilated into climate models to better visualize the dynamics of...makers to quickly identify the key policy levers that control system behavior. The C- ROADS model of global climate change (Sterman et al., 2012...data values to generate a trend forecast—the latter is called an Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average ( ARIMA ). The order of the models is

  15. Socio-cultural inhibitors to use of modern contraceptive techniques in rural Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagenyi, Allen; Reid, Alice; Ntozi, James; Atuyambe, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Family planning is one of the cost-effective strategies in reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates. Yet in Uganda, the contraceptive prevalence rate is only 30% among married women in conjunction with a persistently high fertility rate of 6.2 children per woman. These demographic indicators have contributed to a high population growth rate of over 3.2% annually. This study examines the role of socio-cultural inhibitions in the use of modern contraceptives in rural Uganda. This was a qualitative study conducted in 2012 among men aged 15-64 and women aged 15-49 in the districts of Mpigi and Bugiri in rural Uganda. Eighteen selected focus group discussions (FGDs), each internally homogeneous, and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among men and women. Data were collected on sociocultural beliefs and practices, barriers to modern contraceptive use and perceptions of and attitudes to contraceptive use. All interviews were tape recoded, translated and transcribed verbatim. All the transcripts were coded, prearranged into categories and later analyzed using a latent content analysis approach, with support of ATLAS.ti qualitative software. Suitable quotations were used to provide in-depth explanations of the findings. Three themes central in hindering the uptake of modern contraceptives emerged: (i) persistence of socio-cultural beliefs and practices promoting births (such as polygamy, extending family lineage, replacement of the dead, gender-based violence, power relations and twin myths). (ii) Continued reliance on traditional family planning practices and (iii) misconceptions and fears about modern contraception. Sociocultural expectations and values attached to marriage, women and child bearing remain an impediment to using family planning methods. The study suggests a need to eradicate the cultural beliefs and practices that hinder people from using contraceptives, as well as a need to scale-up family planning services and sensitization

  16. An exploration of socio-cultural and organizational factors affecting women's access to educational leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Korkor Owusu, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Recent global reports indicate that women have made tremendous improvements in educational enrolment and labour participation but are woefully underrepresented in top leadership positions. Moreover, studies have shown that feminine leadership strategies are embraced but leadership is still perceived as a prerogative of men in many societies. This study therefore sought to explore the socio-cultural and organizational factors influencing the underrepresentation of women in educational leadersh...

  17. Sociocultural Appearance Standards and Risk Factors for Eating Disorders in Adolescents and Women of Various Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadetta Izydorczyk; Katarzyna Sitnik-Warchulska

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to verify the level of impact of sociocultural appearance standards (passive awareness and active internalization) have on body dissatisfaction, the desire to engage in a relentless pursuit of thinness, the adoption of a perfectionistic attitude toward the body, and the development of a tendency to engage in bulimic eating behavior, which can develop in adolescent girls and women of varying ages. The study group comprised 234 individuals: 95 secondary sch...

  18. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...... not perform well, even for data that satisfies all its assumptions....

  19. Fast business process similarity search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common for organizations to maintain collections of hundreds or even thousands of business processes. Techniques exist to search through such a collection, for business process models that are similar to a given query model. However, those techniques compare the query model to each

  20. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  1. Health behavior change models and their socio-cultural relevance for breast cancer screening in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashing-Giwa, K

    1999-01-01

    Models of health behavior provide the conceptual bases for most of the breast cancer screening intervention studies. These models were not designed for and have not been adequately tested with African American women. The models discussed in this paper are: The Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Transtheoretical Model. This paper will examine the socio-cultural relevance of these health behavior models, and discuss specific socio-cultural dimensions that are not accounted for by these paradigms. It is critical that researchers include socio-cultural dimensions, such as interconnectedness, health socialization, ecological factors and health care system factors into their intervention models with African American women. Comprehensive and socio-culturally based investigations are necessary to guide the scientific and policy challenge for reducing breast cancer mortality in African American women.

  2. Predictors of international students’ psychological and sociocultural adjustment to the context of reception while studying at Aarhus University, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    as adaptation challenges. This paper investigates international students’ psychological and sociocultural adjustment to studying at Aarhus University in Denmark. Both international students (n = 129) and domestic students (n = 111) participated in the study. The international students did not report impaired...... psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally......, the level of English proficiency alone predicted sociocultural adjustment. Values of vertical individualism and horizontal collectivism predicted psychological adjustment. Finally, integration was found to be a significantly more adaptive acculturation orientation than separation in regard to sociocultural...

  3. ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIOCULTURAL CONDITIONS OF FORMATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the ambiguous contextual manifestations that accompany the process of formation of Russian entrepreneurial community. The work presents the research results of the specifics of these manifestations derived based on the analysis of various materials from Russian official, scientific and sociopolitical as well as international sources. "Attitude towards entrepreneurship" is regarded as the most important sociocultural component of the development of the entrepreneurship as a social practice. The identified economic and political as well as sociocultural trends that accompany the formation of the modern Russian entrepreneurship reflect the incompleteness stage of the market reforms in Russia. The creation of the modern ethical basis of the development of the entrepreneurship and its interaction with the society is assumed as one of the ways to accelerate these reforms. The outcome of the present interdisciplinary work - which is in its own way “a view from the outside” - in the author’s opinion, indicates the equivalence of sociocultural and economic and political range of problems for the modern stage of development of the entrepreneurship in Russia.

  4. Community Lenses Revealing the Role of Sociocultural Environment on Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M.; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I. J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify perceptions of how sociocultural environment enabled and hindered physical activity (PA) participation. Design Community-based participatory research. Setting Two semirural and two urban communities located in Alberta, Canada. Participants Thirty-five people (74.3% females, 71.4% aged 25–64 years) across the four communities. Method PhotoVoice activities occurred over 3 months during the spring of 2009. Participants were asked to document perceived environmental attributes that might foster or inhibit PA in their community. Photographs and narratives were shared in one-on-one interviews. Line-by-line coding of the transcripts was independently conducted by two researchers using an inductive approach. Codes were arranged into themes and subthemes, which were then organized into the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework. Results Six main themes (accompanied by subthemes) emerged: sociocultural aesthetics, safety, social involvement, PA motivation, cultural ideas of recreation, and car culture. Representative quotes and photographs illustrate enablers and obstacles identified by participants. Conclusion This PhotoVoice study revealed how aspects of participants’ sociocultural environments shaped their decisions to be physically active. Providing more PA resources is only one step in the promotion of supportive environments. Strategies should also account for the beautification and maintenance of communities, increasing feelings of safety, enhancement of social support among community members, popularization of PA, and mitigating car culture, among others. PMID:25973966

  5. Explaining suicide in an urban slum of Mumbai, India: a sociocultural autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkar, Shubhangi R; Nagarsekar, Balkrishna; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2009-01-01

    Health demographic mortality studies use verbal autopsies to identify suicide as a cause of death. Psychological autopsies focus almost exclusively on associated high-risk psychiatric disorders. New approaches considering contextual factors are needed for preventing suicide and promoting mental health. This study examined explanations of suicide reported by surviving family members or close friends with reference to social, cultural, and environmental conditions as well as the challenges of life in the Malavani slum of Mumbai. An EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalog) interview based on a cultural epidemiological framework considered underlying problems, perceived causes, and sociocultural contexts. It was administered to survivors of 76 people who had died by suicide (56.6% women). Accounts of underlying problems typically referred to various aspects of tension (73.7%). Perceived causes often identified multiple factors. The sociocultural contexts of suicide included the victimization of women, the personal and social impact of problem drinking, marital problems, physical health problems, mental tension, possession and sorcery. Women were particularly vulnerable to the impact of problem drinking by a spouse or father. This study demonstrates the value of an approach to sociocultural autopsy examining local contexts and explanations of suicide. Findings highlight needs for both mental health services and culturally sensitive social interventions.

  6. Socio-cultural determinants of anticipated acceptance of an oral cholera vaccine in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, N; Schaetti, C; Chaignat, C-L; Hutubessy, R; Nyambedha, E O; Mbonga, L A; Weiss, M G

    2013-03-01

    Determinants of anticipated acceptance of an oral cholera vaccine (OCV) were studied in urban and rural communities of Western Kenya. An explanatory model interview administered to 379 community residents assessed anticipated vaccine acceptance at various prices from no cost to full-cost recovery, socio-cultural features of cholera and social characteristics. Nearly all (99%) residents indicated willingness to accept a no-cost OCV, 95% at a price of US$ 0·8, 73% at US$ 4·2 and 59% at US$ 8·4. Logistic regression models analysed socio-cultural determinants of anticipated OCV acceptance. Prominence of non-specific symptoms for cholera was negatively associated with acceptance. A cholera-specific symptom (thirst), self-help referring to prayer, income and education were positively associated. In the high-cost model, education was no longer significant and reliance on herbal treatment was a significant determinant of vaccine non-acceptance. Findings suggest high motivation for OCVs, if affordable. Socio-cultural determinants are better predictors of anticipated acceptance than socio-demographic factors alone.

  7. Sociocultural Barriers Related to Late-Stage Presentation of Breast Cancer in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ann A; Khouchani, Mouna; Renne, Elisha P

    2018-04-23

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer affecting women globally and in Morocco, where more than one fourth of patients are diagnosed at advanced stages. This study aimed to investigate sociocultural barriers that contribute to delayed presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer among women in Marrakesh, Morocco. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 breast cancer patients who received care at the CHU Mohammed VI Hospital in Marrakesh to elicit barriers to diagnosis and treatment and ease of access to care. Interviews with breast cancer patients revealed several themes regarding structural and sociocultural barriers to initial diagnosis and treatment. Structural barriers included high treatment-associated costs for patients and their families, burden of transportation to central treatment centers, and limited access to appropriate health care resources. Sociocultural barriers included perceived attack on one's identity associated with breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, influence of the local community, and ideas of faith, spirituality, and conception of death. Findings from this study can help identify areas for improved access and education of patients in order to improve breast cancer diagnostic and treatment efforts and enhance opportunities for early detection.

  8. Nursing students' views of sociocultural factors in clinical learning: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgaran, Ideh; Parvizy, Soroor; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is description of nursing students' views of sociocultural factors in clinical learning. A qualitative content analysis was conducted to describe nursing students' views of sociocultural factors in clinical learning. The participants consisted of 21 nursing students. Semi-structured and interactive interviews were used to collect data. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed, and then, they were analyzed using Qualitative Content Analysis and Max Qualitative Data Analysis 2010. From the transcripts, a remarkable number of primary themes, main themes, and sub-themes emerged. The main themes consisted of elements related to "society and culture", "family", "staff", and "classmates". The themes encompassed a spectrum of facilitators of and impediments to clinical learning. The findings showed that the administrators of nursing education should coordinate with faculty and staff by adopting interactive and participatory solutions, including the establishment of clinical learning teams and the transformation of hospitals into suitable sociocultural environments for education. © 2012 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2012 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  9. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Holst Andersen, A.

    2009-02-15

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research note is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption but also obstacles for changing the scale of energy consumption, i.e. moderating the growth in how much energy is consumed or even reducing consumption volumes. (au)

  10. Socio-Cultural Factors of the Russian Reforming Process of the 18-20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Korobkov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern Russian reforms aimed at moving the society to a new stage of development are going through a complicated, contradictory way, with great social costs and zigzags of the political course of power. This poses the task of identifying and overcoming the inhibiting factors in the development of the country. One of the most effective mechanisms of such work is the study of the three-hundred-year experience of Russian reformation and the identification of timeless sociocultural and mental risk factors affecting the nature and content of reforms. This article is devoted to this purpose. In the course of study, we have drawn the conclusions about the deterrent effect on the development of the country of such features of Russian society as its socio-cultural split, absence of internal mechanisms for the self-development of society, lack of a dialogue between government and society, whose relationships are determined by the principle of "antisocial state - anti-state society", mental characteristics of the Russian intelligentsia, which dogmatically implements particular ideas at the expense of economic expediency and common sense, orientation of the ruling elite on the Western values as opposed to national traditions, conservatism and lack of conscious reformative motivation of the masses. This leads to the need to correlate the current reforms not only with the current trends of socio-economic development, but also with the sociocultural foundations of Russian society and the peculiarities of its mentality.

  11. Community Lenses Revealing the Role of Sociocultural Environment on Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2016-01-01

    To identify perceptions of how sociocultural environment enabled and hindered physical activity (PA) participation. Community-based participatory research. Two semirural and two urban communities located in Alberta, Canada. Thirty-five people (74.3% females, 71.4% aged 25-64 years) across the four communities. PhotoVoice activities occurred over 3 months during the spring of 2009. Participants were asked to document perceived environmental attributes that might foster or inhibit PA in their community. Photographs and narratives were shared in one-on-one interviews. Line-by-line coding of the transcripts was independently conducted by two researchers using an inductive approach. Codes were arranged into themes and subthemes, which were then organized into the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework. Six main themes (accompanied by subthemes) emerged: sociocultural aesthetics, safety, social involvement, PA motivation, cultural ideas of recreation, and car culture. Representative quotes and photographs illustrate enablers and obstacles identified by participants. This PhotoVoice study revealed how aspects of participants' sociocultural environments shaped their decisions to be physically active. Providing more PA resources is only one step in the promotion of supportive environments. Strategies should also account for the beautification and maintenance of communities, increasing feelings of safety, enhancement of social support among community members, popularization of PA, and mitigating car culture, among others.

  12. Socio-cultural impacts of large-scale cruise tourism in Souq Mutrah, Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Gutberlet

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The following paper explores socio-cultural impacts of large-scale cruise liner tourism on the traditional bazaar (souq in the district of Mutrah. The souq is located opposite the port in the Omani capital Muscat. Large-scale cruise tourism in Muscat started only in 2004 and has increased in scale and numbers in the past years. 24 cruise vessels with around 7600 passengers arrived in Muscat in 2005. Seven years later 135 cruise liners carrying 257,000 tourists docked in Muscat. Due to this dramatic rise of international cruise ships, the socio-cultural impacts have increased for local residents, shop vendors/owners and tourists alike. To capture those socio-cultural impacts on Souq Mutrah, a survey of cruise tourists was conducted by a questionnaire. In addition, the researcher used participatory observation, counting, and in-depth interviews with different stakeholders of the local community and different types of tourists during the cruise seasons 2012/13 and 2013/14. Moreover, content analysis of statistics and local media publications were used. Results indicate that the souq has become “the core of a tourist bubble”, where crowding is a major problem and local residents avoid the place. The social carrying capacity of the souq has been reached. Omani vendors are leaving their businesses and renting their shops out to expatriates. Since contemporary cruise tourists are low spenders, expatriate shop sellers have become more aggressive.

  13. Ethical and Sociocultural Aspects of Sexual Function and Dysfunction in Both Sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Sandrine; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista; Rosenbaum, Talli; Abdo, Carmita; Byers, E Sandra; Graham, Cynthia; Nobre, Pedro; Wylie, Kevan; Brotto, Lori

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to highlight the salient sociocultural factors contributing to sexual health and dysfunction and to offer recommendations for culturally sensitive clinical management and research as well for an ethically sound sexual health care, counseling and medical decision-making. There are limited data on the impact of sociocultural factors on male and female sexual function as well as on ethical principles to follow when clinical care falls outside of traditional realms of medically indicated interventions. This study reviewed the current literature on sociocultural and ethical considerations with regard to male and female sexual dysfunction as well as cultural and cosmetic female and male genital modification procedures. It is recommended that clinicians evaluate their patients and their partners in the context of culture and assess distressing sexual symptoms regardless of whether they are a recognized dysfunction. Both clinicians and researchers should develop culturally sensitive assessment skills and instruments. There are a number of practices with complex ethical issues (eg, female genital cutting, female and male cosmetic genital surgery). Future International Committee of Sexual Medicine meetings should seek to develop guidelines and associated recommendations for a separate, broader chapter on ethics. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. HORIZONTAL OBJECTIVES OF EU PROGRAMMES AND THE SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT FOR EAP MEMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Teodora MANOLESCU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As the Eastern Partnership (EaP was founded in 2009, between European Union (EU and six countries from Eastern Europe, its main goal was to create adequate conditions for economic integration, social and regional development of the EaP country members. Based on the same principles as the EU was built, international law and fundamental values (e.g. human rights, freedom, democracy, rule of law, sustainable development and also good governance, the EaP was regularly analysed and renewed (once every two years in order to better respond to the needs of Eastern European countries. Even so, while the economic context was especially considered, there are still some actions to be undertaken with regards to socio-cultural factors. Therefore the aim of the paper is to analyse the socio-cultural context of the six Eastern European EaP members (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine in order to make recommendations regarding their absorption capacity when integrating the horizontal EU objectives into the funding neighbourhood instruments. Our main research question is: what is the right approach for developing operational funding programmes (individual/bilateral or partnership/multilateral participations for EaP members: is it by maintaining the EU horizontal objective or by adapting these objectives from the beginning considering the socio-cultural context?

  15. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  16. A Case Study on Socio-cultural Impacts of Tourism in the city of Jaipur, Rajasthan: India

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Dr. Manika

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the community perceptions of the socio-cultural impacts of culture and heritage tourism in particular and examines the extent to which they coincide with the tourism impact literature. This study not only deals with socio-cultural impacts perceived by residents as the impacts of tourism development but also identify the effects of demographic variation on the residents' attitudes towards tourism. Considering the relationship between residents and tourism, the present stu...

  17. Importance-performance matrix analysis of the factors influencing international students’ psychological and sociocultural adaptations using SmartPLS

    OpenAIRE

    Shafaei, Azadeh; Razak, Nordin Abd

    2015-01-01

    With the increase in international mobility in higher education especially in Asia, the issue of cross-cultural adaptation becomes paramount since international students try to overcome challenges and flourish psychologically and socioculturally in a new environment. Therefore, this study is conducted to identify the factors influencing international postgraduate students’ psychological and sociocultural adaptations in Malaysian public universities, an emerging education hub in the region. It...

  18. Personality Similarity and Conflict among Female College Roommates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckert, Teresa M.; Mueller, Michael A.; Roberts, Lisa L.; Hannah, Aaron P.; Jones, Matt A.; Masters, Shauna; Bibbs, Shari; Bergman, Shawn M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of personality similarity on compatibility and conflict was studied among roommate pairs. Self-reported data were collected for frequency of conflict, liking, personality measures, "morningness," choice vs. assigned, length of rooming together, length of relationship, and socioeconomic variables. Although some variables show…

  19. An Alfven eigenmode similarity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Fredrickson, E; Gorelenkov, N N; Hyatt, A W; Kramer, G; Luo, Y

    2003-01-01

    The major radius dependence of Alfven mode stability is studied by creating plasmas with similar minor radius, shape, magnetic field (0.5 T), density (n e ≅3x10 19 m -3 ), electron temperature (1.0 keV) and beam ion population (near-tangential 80 keV deuterium injection) on both NSTX and DIII-D. The major radius of NSTX is half the major radius of DIII-D. The super-Alfvenic beam ions that drive the modes have overlapping values of v f /v A in the two devices. Observed beam-driven instabilities include toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE). The stability threshold for the TAE is similar in the two devices. As expected theoretically, the most unstable toroidal mode number n is larger in DIII-D

  20. Compressional Alfven Eigenmode Similarity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2004-11-01

    NSTX and DIII-D are nearly ideal for Alfven eigenmode (AE) similarity experiments, having similar neutral beams, fast-ion to Alfven speed v_f/v_A, fast-ion pressure, and shape of the plasma, but with a factor of 2 difference in the major radius. Toroidicity-induced AE with ˜100 kHz frequencies were compared in an earlier study [1]; this paper focuses on higher frequency AE with f ˜ 1 MHz. Compressional AE (CAE) on NSTX have a polarization, dependence on the fast-ion distribution function, frequency scaling, and low-frequency limit that are qualitatively consistent with CAE theory [2]. Global AE (GAE) are also observed. On DIII-D, coherent modes in this frequency range are observed during low-field (0.6 T) similarity experiments. Experiments will compare the CAE stability limits on DIII-D with the NSTX stability limits, with the aim of determining if CAE will be excited by alphas in a reactor. Predicted differences in the frequency splitting Δ f between excited modes will also be used. \\vspace0.25em [1] W.W. Heidbrink, et al., Plasmas Phys. Control. Fusion 45, 983 (2003). [2] E.D. Fredrickson, et al., Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report PPPL-3955 (2004).

  1. SOCIOCULTURAL INTEGRATION AS A TOOL FOR CONSTRUCTIVE CONFLICT RESOLUTION: THE CASE OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Popov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of sociocultural integration as a tool for resolving regional conflicts. The modern theory of conflict resolution focuses on the ability of the sociocultural integration in the transformation of destructive identity-based conflicts into conflicts of interest. The author considers the systemic factors of the identity-based conflicts and emphasizes destabilizing role of the politicization of ethnicity. Ethnic mobilization, social inequalities, economic polarization and civic identity crisis are structural factors that determine the acuity of ethnic tension and escalation of regional identity conflicts as a result. Contradictions between the modernization system and social disintegration are the primary source of identity conflicts in theNorth Caucasus. Regionalization takes conflictogenic form in this case, i.e. the specifics of regional conflicts is associated with a conflict of static (traditionalization and dynamic (modernization types of social propagation. Structurally, escalation of violence in regional conflicts is determined by the intensity and scope of ethnic mobilization and social dissatisfaction as necessary conditions of a collision. Regional conflicts affect existentially meaningful collective values and group identities, that is why the participants are involved emotionally into identification conflicts; due to their emotional charge and irrationality, identity conflicts are no longer a means of overcoming social frustrations, but a destructive goal in itself, i.e. ethnicity polarization and negative cultural stereotypes in perceiving “the others” play a key role in initiating such conflicts. The following must be considered for discussing anti-conflict mechanisms of sociocultural integration in theNorth Caucasus. First, sociocultural integration is a political project with its content determined to a wide extent by defense challenges of the polyethnic Russian society. Second, development of the

  2. Three Southern high school biology teachers' perspectives on teaching evolution: Sociocultural influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzer, Peggy Mckewen

    Organizations in science and science education call for students to have a thorough understanding of the theory of evolution. Yet many high school biology teachers do not teach evolution and/or include creationism in their instruction (National Academy of Science, 1998). Historically, the controversy surrounding evolution has created tension for teachers. This case study explored the sociocultural influences related to teaching evolution in three Southern 10th-grade public high school biology classrooms. It also explored the socially and culturally embedded influences on teachers' instructional goals and personal perspectives toward evolution as well as modification of instruction when evolution is taught. Theoretically framed using symbolic interactionism and sociocultural theory, data were collected between October 2003 and April 2004 and included classroom observations two to three times per week, artifacts, and in-depth interviews of the participating teachers, their science department chairpersons, their students, and a Protestant minister. The classroom teachers were unaware of the focus of the study until after evolution was taught. The analysis used in this study was an inductive, interpretative approach that allowed exploration of the sociocultural influences that affect how teachers teach evolution. The sociocultural influences and the lived experiences of each teacher created a continuum for teaching evolution. One of the participating teachers who was heavily involved in the community and one of its fundamentalist churches elected to avoid teaching evolution. Another participating teacher at the same school integrated the theory of evolution in every unit. The third teacher who taught in another school elected to teach evolution in a superficial manner to avoid conflict. The data revealed that the participating teachers' sociocultural situatedness influenced their decisions and instruction on evolution. The influence of strong religious beliefs within

  3. Similarity analysis between quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Liu, XingAo; Zhu, Changming; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Xiafen; Ian, Hou

    2018-06-01

    Similarity analyses between quantum images are so essential in quantum image processing that it provides fundamental research for the other fields, such as quantum image matching, quantum pattern recognition. In this paper, a quantum scheme based on a novel quantum image representation and quantum amplitude amplification algorithm is proposed. At the end of the paper, three examples and simulation experiments show that the measurement result must be 0 when two images are same, and the measurement result has high probability of being 1 when two images are different.

  4. Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations

  5. Self-similar gravitational clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Fall, S.M.; Hogan, C.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of gravitational clustering is considered and several new scaling relations are derived for the multiplicity function. These include generalizations of the Press-Schechter theory to different densities and cosmological parameters. The theory is then tested against multiplicity function and correlation function estimates for a series of 1000-body experiments. The results are consistent with the theory and show some dependence on initial conditions and cosmological density parameter. The statistical significance of the results, however, is fairly low because of several small number effects in the experiments. There is no evidence for a non-linear bootstrap effect or a dependence of the multiplicity function on the internal dynamics of condensed groups. Empirical estimates of the multiplicity function by Gott and Turner have a feature near the characteristic luminosity predicted by the theory. The scaling relations allow the inference from estimates of the galaxy luminosity function that galaxies must have suffered considerable dissipation if they originally formed from a self-similar hierarchy. A method is also developed for relating the multiplicity function to similar measures of clustering, such as those of Bhavsar, for the distribution of galaxies on the sky. These are shown to depend on the luminosity function in a complicated way. (author)

  6. Seniority bosons from similarity transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, H.B.

    1986-01-01

    The requirement of associating in the boson space seniority with twice the number of non-s bosons defines a similarity transformation which re-expresses the Dyson pair boson images in terms of seniority bosons. In particular the fermion S-pair creation operator is mapped onto an operator which, unlike the pair boson image, does not change the number of non-s bosons. The original results of Otsuka, Arima and Iachello are recovered by this procedure while at the same time they are generalized to include g-bosons or even bosons with J>4 as well as any higher order boson terms. Furthermore the seniority boson images are valid for an arbitrary number of d- or g-bosons - a result which is not readily obtainable within the framework of the usual Marumori- or OAI-method

  7. Modeling Timbre Similarity of Short Music Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence from a number of recent studies that most listeners are able to extract information related to song identity, emotion, or genre from music excerpts with durations in the range of tenths of seconds. Because of these very short durations, timbre as a multifaceted auditory attribute appears as a plausible candidate for the type of features that listeners make use of when processing short music excerpts. However, the importance of timbre in listening tasks that involve short excerpts has not yet been demonstrated empirically. Hence, the goal of this study was to develop a method that allows to explore to what degree similarity judgments of short music clips can be modeled with low-level acoustic features related to timbre. We utilized the similarity data from two large samples of participants: Sample I was obtained via an online survey, used 16 clips of 400 ms length, and contained responses of 137,339 participants. Sample II was collected in a lab environment, used 16 clips of 800 ms length, and contained responses from 648 participants. Our model used two sets of audio features which included commonly used timbre descriptors and the well-known Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as well as their temporal derivates. In order to predict pairwise similarities, the resulting distances between clips in terms of their audio features were used as predictor variables with partial least-squares regression. We found that a sparse selection of three to seven features from both descriptor sets-mainly encoding the coarse shape of the spectrum as well as spectrotemporal variability-best predicted similarities across the two sets of sounds. Notably, the inclusion of non-acoustic predictors of musical genre and record release date allowed much better generalization performance and explained up to 50% of shared variance ( R 2 ) between observations and model predictions. Overall, the results of this study empirically demonstrate that both acoustic features related

  8. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  9. Correct Bayesian and frequentist intervals are similar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper argues that Bayesians and frequentists will normally reach numerically similar conclusions, when dealing with vague data or sparse data. It is shown that both statistical methodologies can deal reasonably with vague data. With sparse data, in many important practical cases Bayesian interval estimates and frequentist confidence intervals are approximately equal, although with discrete data the frequentist intervals are somewhat longer. This is not to say that the two methodologies are equally easy to use: The construction of a frequentist confidence interval may require new theoretical development. Bayesians methods typically require numerical integration, perhaps over many variables. Also, Bayesian can easily fall into the trap of over-optimism about their amount of prior knowledge. But in cases where both intervals are found correctly, the two intervals are usually not very different. (orig.)

  10. Formulation of similarity porous media systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.M.; Ford, W.T.; Ruttan, A.; Strauss, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical formulation of the Porous Media System (PMS) describing two-phase, immiscible, compressible fluid flow in linear, homogeneous porous media is reviewed and expanded. It is shown that families of common vertex, coaxial parabolas and families of parallel lines are the only families of curves on which solutions of the PMS may be constant. A coordinate transformation is used to change the partial differential equations of the PMS to a system of ordinary differential equations, referred to as a similarity Porous Media System (SPMS), in which the independent variable denotes movement from curve to curve in a selected family of curves. Properties of solutions of the first boundary value problem are developed for the SPMS

  11. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  12. Sociocultural experiences, body image, and indoor tanning among young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Manne, Sharon L; Greene, Kathryn; Darabos, Katie; Carpenter, Amanda; Hudson, Shawna V; Coups, Elliot J

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this survey study was to evaluate a model of body image influences on indoor tanning behavior. Participants were 823 young adult women recruited from a probability-based web panel in the United States. Consistent with our hypothesized model, tanning-related sociocultural experiences were indirectly associated with lifetime indoor tanning use and intentions to tan as mediated through tan surveillance and tan dissatisfaction. Findings suggest the need for targeting body image constructs as mechanisms of behavior change in indoor tanning behavioral interventions.

  13. The Dubai Community Psychiatric Survey: II. Development of the Socio-cultural Change Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, P; Ghubash, R; Hamdi, E

    1993-04-01

    The Dubai Community Psychiatric Survey was carried out to assess the effect of very rapid social change on the mental health of women in Dubai, one of the United Arab Emirates. In order to measure social change at an individual level, we developed a questionnaire covering behaviour and attitudes in a wide range of situations, the Socio-cultural Change Questionnaire (ScCQ). In this paper we give an account of the considerations that determined the form of the ScCQ, its structural characteristics, and its validity.

  14. A Socio-Cultural Model Based on Empirical Data of Cultural and Social Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to integrate culture and social relationship as a computational term in an embodied conversational agent system by employing empirical and theoretical approach. We propose a parameter-based model that predicts nonverbal expressions appropriate for specific cultures...... in different social relationship. So, first, we introduce the theories of social and cultural characteristics. Then, we did corpus analysis of human interaction of two cultures in two different social situations and extracted empirical data and finally, by integrating socio-cultural characteristics...... with empirical data, we establish a parameterized network model that generates culture specific non-verbal expressions in different social relationships....

  15. Perfectionism in Body Dissatisfaction, Sociocultural Influence of the Thinness model and Symptoms of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Franco Paredes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess if perfectionism components explained body dissatisfaction (BD, sociocultural influences of aesthetic model (SIAM and symptoms of eating disorders (ED. The sample comprised 30 women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN, 35 women with Eating Disorder not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS and 63 women without ED. A regression analysis showed that concern over mistakes (CM and doubt about actions explained BD and SIAM in the BN sample; while concern over mistakes only explained SIAM in the EDNOS sample. These findings evidence that two perfectionism components contribute to vulnerability of thinness ideal and BD among women, which constitute two important risk factors for ED.

  16. UN ANÁLISIS SOCIOCULTURAL SOBRE LA MATERNIDAD Y EL ABORTO EN LA LITERATURA ARGENTINA RECIENTE

    OpenAIRE

    Astorino, Julieta; Saporosi, Lucas; Zicavo, Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    Entendiendo que se habla de la maternidad y el aborto desde una pluralidad de discursos, el presente artículo se propone analizar, desde una perspectiva sociocultural, las representaciones sobre la maternidad y la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo presentes en la literatura de ficción argentina durante el trienio 2006-2009. A partir del análisis de una serie de textos literarios seleccionados, se busca indagar los vínculos entre la construcción de la maternidad como relación social y la li...

  17. Cadaveric organ donation in China: A crossroads for ethics and sociocultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yijin; Elliott, Robert; Li, Linzi; Yang, Tongwei; Bai, Yusen; Ma, Wen

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we will discuss several ethical issues concerning cadaveric organ donation from the perspective of sociocultural factors that are unique to China under the condition that China has ended the use of executed prisoner's organs for transplants. It is found that though great developments have been made in organ transplantation, the ethical issues relating to organ transplantation still face dilemmas in China. It is argued that organ donation and transplantation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this paper can be carefully considered.

  18. Socio-cultural determinants of anticipated acceptance of an oral cholera vaccine in Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    SUNDARAM, N.; SCHAETTI, C.; CHAIGNAT, C.-L.; HUTUBESSY, R.; NYAMBEDHA, E. O.; MBONGA, L. A.; WEISS, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Determinants of anticipated acceptance of an oral cholera vaccine (OCV) were studied in urban and rural communities of Western Kenya. An explanatory model interview administered to 379 community residents assessed anticipated vaccine acceptance at various prices from no cost to full-cost recovery, socio-cultural features of cholera and social characteristics. Nearly all (99%) residents indicated willingness to accept a no-cost OCV, 95% at a price of US$ 0?8, 73% at US$ 4?2 and 59% at ...

  19. “El perfil sociocultural de los graduados universitarios: el caso de la UNGS”

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Marcos Silvestre

    2015-01-01

    La presente ponencia se enmarca en un proyecto de beca de investigación otorgada por Consejo Interuniversitario Nacional (CIN) en Octubre del 2014, en la carrera de grado Lic. En Educación de La Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS). El trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar el análisis, las metodologías empleadas y las primeras conclusiones sobre el estudio "El perfil Sociocultural de los graduados universitario: el caso de la UNGS". El proyecto se propuso elaborar un es...

  20. Can sociocultural and historical mechanisms influence the development of borderline personality disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Joel; Lis, Eric

    2013-02-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common and severe clinical problem. While cross-cultural research suggests that this condition can be identified in different societies, indirect evidence suggests that BPD and some of its associated symptoms (suicidality and self-harm) have a higher prevalence in developed countries. If so, sociocultural and historical mechanisms may have influenced the development of the disorder. While the vulnerabilities underlying BPD are broad and nonspecific, specific symptoms can be shaped by culture. The mechanisms involve the influence of a "symptom bank," as well as the role of social contagion. These trends may be related to a decrease in social cohesion and social capital in modern societies.

  1. Sociocultural factors and breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Dinah A; Faulkner, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and efforts at early diagnosis have not been very successful because the public has scant knowledge about the disease, a large percentage of breast cancer cases are diagnosed late and mainly rural SSA women's practice of breast self-examination is poor. In this paper, we argue that an examination of the social and cultural contexts of SSA that influence breast cancer diagnosis and management in the region is needed. We discuss the implications of sociocultural factors, such as gender roles and spirituality, on breast cancer diagnosis and management in SSA.

  2. SOCIOCULTURAL STAFF OF LEADERS OF CHON IN OREL REGION IN 1922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verizhnikov Alexei Nikolaevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is the complex sociocultural characteristics of the commanders of units of special approach on the territory of Orel province in 1922. The information about the age of commanders, their educational level, the extent of their military training, office and battle experience, family status is given. The author comes to the conclusion that men at the age between 25 and 30, family (as a rule, with primary education and military training, sufficient office and battle experience stood at the head of Orel ChON at the moment of its final organizational formation.

  3. La afinidad electiva entre consumo cultural y percepción sociocultural: el caso de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Peters Núñez

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo demuestra la afinidad electiva entre consumo cultural y percepción sociocultural. A partir de los datos de la Encuesta de participación y consumo cultural 2009, de Chile, se muestra evidencia estadística de que el consumo cultural mantiene una afinidad electiva con las valoraciones democráticas, políticas, sociales y ciudadanas de los consumidores. Esta tendencia también es observable entre las personas que pertenecen a segmentos de la población con bajos ingresos económi...

  4. A web in the patriarchal clan system: tactics of intimate partners in the Japanese sociocultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihama, Mieko

    2005-10-01

    Only recently has Japanese society come to realize the magnitude of domestic violence as a serious social problem. Using focus group methodology, this study investigated the function and the sociocultural reinforcements of male partner violence. The analysis of the participants' accounts of various types of violence their partners perpetrated, which were accompanied by an elaborate collection of tactics to reinforce the effects of the violence, has led to the conceptualization of partners' violence as a spider web. The Japanese patriarchal clan system and underlying ideology of male superiority fosters the maintenance of this web.

  5. Maternal Child Abuse and its Association with Maternal Anxiety in the Socio-Cultural Context of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esmaeili Douki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of parental violence has been an area of major public concern. There are few available data detailing the ways parents and other caregivers discipline children, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study focuses on the prevalence of different types of maternal child abuse and its association with maternal anxiety in the socio-cultural context of Iran.Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 mothers with the last child aged from 1 month to 12 years old who attended the Amirkola Children’s Referral Hospital in Mazandaran Province, Iran, seeking healthcare services for their children. Demographic characteristics of the mothers, their children and reactions to conflicts with children were evaluated by a validated version of Conflict Tactics Scale for Parent and Child. Also, the relationship between maternal anxiety and child abuse was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The association between variables was examined by Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multivariate regression.Results: The prevalence of mother-to-child corporal punishment, severe physical abuse and very severe physical abuse were 436 (78%, 260 (46% and 180 (32%, respectively. Verbal emotional abuse was reported by 506 (90% participants and nonverbal emotional abuse was reported in 374 (67% cases. A correlation was observed between child abuse and mothers’ age (p=0.02, as well as with the number of children in the family (p=0.03, and the mothers’ trait anxiety (p<0.001.Conclusion: Overall, the assessment of maternal child abuse should be an important focus for evaluation in mothers with anxiety and vice versa, when child abuse is suspected, maternal psychological assessment should be essential.

  6. Physical culture as a phenomenon of the development of socio-cultural competence of future teachers of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Ivanii

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to substantiate the phenomenon of formation of physical culture of the individual in terms of theoretical and methodological approaches to the development of socio-cultural competence of future teachers. Material : 22 literary sources analyzed on the issue of formation of physical culture of the individual. Used cultural studies, axiological and competence approach. Results : define the concept of socio-cultural competence of the teacher of physical education. Competence is considered as an integrative motivational tumor - activity sphere of the individual. It determines the focus of an expert on the formation of spiritual values and is the foundation for its further self-development. Disclosed structure sociocultural competence of the teacher in the unity components: cognitive, motivational-value, behavioral. For each component defined system of spiritual values. The system covers the socio- psychological, mental and cultural values of physical culture. Conclusions : the sociocultural competence of the teacher of physical education meaningful and functionally related to the values of the physical culture of the individual. Spiritual, value the personality of the teacher - is the foundation for all of the components of socio-cultural competence. This competence provides social and cultural development of the individual.

  7. The influence of sociocultural factors on the eating attitudes of Lebanese and Cypriot students: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeni, N; Gharibeh, N; Katsounari, I

    2013-07-01

    The present comparative cross-cultural study aimed to explore the relationship between eating behaviour and sociocultural influences with respect to appearance and body image in female university students from two cultural contexts, namely Cyprus and Lebanon. The Dutch Eating Behavior questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire were used to assess sociocultural influences and body image, respectively, in 200 students from each country. The results indicated that the Lebanese students were more likely to engage in emotional and external eating and their body image was impacted to a larger extent by sociocultural agents, including media influences, compared to the Cypriot students. Also, a positive relationship was found between emotional and external eating in both cultures. Finally, sociocultural influences correlated positively with external eating only in the Cypriot sample. Culture-specific factors, such as the societal values and norms, as well as the Westernisation history of each country, are discussed as underpinnings for the differences found. These findings are significant for understanding the rise of eating pathology in these two cultures and provide evidence for a need to consider cultural environment when designing public health policies addressing the negative aspects of nutrition transition. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  9. Application of the principle of similarity fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Sengers, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    Possible applications of the principle of similarity to fluid mechanics is described and illustrated. In correlating thermophysical properties of fluids, the similarity principle transcends the traditional corresponding states principle. In fluid mechanics the similarity principle is useful in correlating flow processes that can be modeled adequately with one independent variable (i.e., one-dimensional flows). In this paper we explore the concept of transforming the conservation equations by combining similarity principles for thermophysical properties with those for fluid flow. We illustrate the usefulness of the procedure by applying such a transformation to calculate two phase critical mass flow through a nozzle

  10. The Performance of Variable Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. McNamara; Henry R. Oppenheimer

    1991-01-01

    Variable annuities have become increasingly important in retirement plans. This paper provides an examination of the investment performance of variable annuities for the period year-end 1973 to year-end 1988. Returns, risk, and selectivity measures are analyzed for the sample of annuities, for individual variable annuities, and for subsamples of annuities with similar portfolio size and turnover. While the investment returns of variable annuities were greater than inflation over the period, t...

  11. The Aesthetic Value of Socio-Cultural Identities and the Cultural Dimension of the Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaros Elias Mavromatidis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes an individual theoretical study on how the landscape could be shaped by economic globalization and political restructuring. Providing a socio-cultural approach to the landscape notion I am trying to discover through the international literature the subjective dimension on landscape definition, in order to understand its ‘cultural dimension’. In this paper, the notion of ‘virtual landscape’ is introduced in order to investigate the incoherence that exists in the nowadays megacities regarding their social reality and their iconic existence through architecture and urban planning. In addition, it is also explored in theory how an ideological turn is re-inforced through political orientation focusing on ‘virtual landscape’ images in order to obtain a favorable publicity in a contemporary context of ‘globalised cities’ consisting in the elimination of the ‘cultural landscape’. Therefore, this contribution has as main objective to define, negotiate and start the debate on radical socio-cultural approaches of landscape notion in the nowadays ‘megacities’, inside a strict capitalistic context.

  12. The meaning of nervios: a sociocultural analysis of symptom presentation in San Jose, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, S M

    1981-03-01

    The foundation of the symbolic tradition in medical anthropology is the examination of a patient's experience of a category of illness. The interpretation of folk explanations of etiology and nosology provides insight into the cultural definition of what constitutes an illness, how and why an illness is labeled, and how the afflicted individual should be treated. Further, the analysis of sociocultural meaning emerges as a critical theoretical contribution to our understanding of health and culture. Allen Young in his article "Some Implications of Medical Beliefs and Practices for Social Anthropology" suggests " that if we want to learn the social meaning of sickness, we must understand that 'signs,' whatever their genesis, become 'symptoms' because they are expressed, elicited, and perceived in socially acquired ways" (1976: 14). He further states that some categories of sickness are particularly interesting in that they enable people to organize the illness event into an episode that has form and meaning (1976: 19-20). Nervios is an example of a symptom that has acquired a special sociocultural pattern of expression, elicitation and perception in San Jose, Costa Rica. The empirical study of symptom presentation in general medicine and psychiatric outpatient clinics describes the patients who present the symptom and their associated attributes and explanations of the symptom's occurrence. The meaning of nervios is then discussed within a social interactional and symbolic framework.

  13. Text and Image of Advertising in Nigeria: An Enterprise of Socio-Cultural Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeek Dalamu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of language in the construction of socio-cultural reality is inevitable. That is why text is used as a pillar that supports the explication of the intended purpose of images applied in multifaceted ad plates. It is a phenomenal tradition that has remained strong in ad campaigns. Advertisers make images and text as discrete components that are inseparable. Images and texts are sedimentary devices in ads, which we can consider as the social position that motivates this enquiry. After the selection of ten ads from various social strata, semiotics viewed from the stances of Saussure and Peirce has been applied along with social semiotics to analyze the ads. The study reveals that ads and advertisers are keen to the promotion of culture with the use of images with textual collaboration. Reference to antiquity has been exposed as a very useful material in ads because it fascinates the public by reproducing their about-to-be-forgotten cultural heritage. Social exercises in the ads create side attractions that lead to assorted photographic entertainment. Besides boosting the audience social knowledge, socio-cultural reproduction experienced in ads can propel the concerned agencies to repackage our cultural beauties as a means of economic growth and emancipation. Keywords: Advertising, Consumer, Language Function, Social System, Semiotics

  14. Impactul spectacolului de teatru asupra procesului sociocultural în oglinda criticii teatrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfrida Koroliova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the history of theatre development since its appearance and up-to-date in the relations and mutual influences with social consciousness through theoretical visions. Following the analysis, the transformation of theatrical forms determined by the socio-cultural atmosphere of the era is highlighted. The emergence and development of theatrical critique is studied in their context. In the Republic of Moldova, theatrical critique developed in close connection with the theatre, which was meant to educate the new man. At the turn of the XX – XXI centuries, a decline in local theatre critique is recorded, which no longer has time for a thorough analysis of artistic successes and failures, but nurtures the newspaper reportage of the day and the dithyrambic style. The multi-secular history of European theatrical art, whose indispensable part is the Moldovan theatre as well, being reflected in social consciousness and recorded in the media, allows us to see the transformation of man and of society in the socio-cultural space.

  15. Features structuring image of Ukraine in socio-political and socio-cultural discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Pocelujko

    2015-08-01

    Layers of socio-political discourse under defined-State officially and historically historiographical discourses. These discourses present the image of the state in the context of national history as the source, where by means of targeted public policy is formed and implemented state identity as the language of institutional communication. Images states that officially created in-state and historically historiographic discourses as a set of ethnic myths, frames, stereotypes intended to create mechanisms of perception and interpretation of the past of the country, used in educational policy as a tool for national identity with the corresponding identity discourse. Socio-cultural discourse and the corresponding image of the state is characterized by a strong plurality, conceptuality, multyparadyhmality. In the socio-cultural discourse is conceptualization image of the state as part of the living world as opposed to social and political discourse, in which the image of the state appears more like dogmatic ideological construct, which tends to uniqueness. In the scientific discourse in constructing the image of the state is dominated intellectual and conceptual component, while in the state mediadyskurs-image formed on the basis of emotional and social representations stained. Latest distributed in makroteksts designed to create appropriate social attitudes, sensatsion, mobilizing different social groups on a variety of events and more

  16. The Sociocultural and Economic Evolution of Mansaf in Hartha, Northern Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Abdelkarim Ali Alobiedat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food and cooking techniques play key roles in preserving cultural sustainability and individual identity. Everything people eat becomes a part of not only their biological being, but also represents and identifies a part of a community’s sociocultural fabric. Using the loom approach, a new model to heritage interpretation, this paper intends to examine the sociocultural and economic dynamics during the preparation, cooking, and eating of mansaf—Jordan’s national dish—throughout its history. To reconstruct the heritage of mansaf and present it as a complete picture, both the tangible heritage, such as cooking equipment, whether modern or traditional, and the intangible heritage, such as the cooking techniques and associated traditions and activities, were analyzed. Mansaf has changed greatly over the past decades; however, living memory does not extend much beyond the 1940s within the informants to further examine mansaf’s changes in the case study of the village of Hartha, Northwest Jordan. Mansaf still remains an important signifier of major occasions, a tie to local heritage, and part of local and national identities.

  17. Personal equations: reflections on the history of fieldwork, with special reference to sociocultural anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklick, Henrika

    2011-03-01

    In the latter part of the nineteenth century, diverse sciences grounded in natural history made a virtue of field research that somehow tested scientists' endurance; disciplinary change derived from the premise that witnesses were made reliable by character-molding trials. The turn to the field was a function of structural transformations in various quarters, including (but hardly limited to) global politics, communications systems, and scientific institutions, and it conduced to biogeographical explanations, taxonomic schemes that admitted of heterogeneity, and affective research styles. Sociocultural anthropology, which took specialized shape at the beginning of the twentieth century, shared many properties with other field sciences, but its method--participant observation-was distinctive. Critical to the method's definition were the efforts of the British experimental psychologist-anthropologist W. H. R. Rivers, who relied on notions then widespread in Europe and the United States. The discipline's future mythic hero, Bronislaw Malinowski, embraced Rivers's model. For both men, proper fieldwork meant using the researcher's body as an instrument and entailed understanding both the anthropologist's body and the research subject's body as energy systems; this symmetry facilitated a relativist perspective. Participant observation remains central to sociocultural anthropology, but the discipline's pedagogic habits contributed to loss of memory of its energetic conceptualization.

  18. EL CARÁCTER SOCIOCULTURAL DE LA ENSEÑANZA EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR

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    Carmen Obregón Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Como la escuela en general, el ámbito de la educación superior también nos ofrece un escenario privilegiado para recabar evidencias del carácter sociocultural del pensamiento. Fundada en las exploraciones de Vigotzky y expandida por sus seguidores, la perspectiva sociocultural establece que nuestro pensamiento en general, y las funciones mentales superiores en particular, están por definición culturalmente mediados; y que no hay forma de no estar culturalmente situados cuando llevamos a cabo una acción, usualmente acorde con los patrones aceptados por el grupo social al que se pertenece (acción mediada. A partir de estas aseveraciones, este ensayo intenta justificar la importancia de un mayor conocimiento del contexto cultural que tiene lugar al interior de la educación superior, y una mejor comprensión de las implicaciones que las diferencias disciplinarias tienen en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje; dar cuenta de algunos hallazgos de incursiones de la investigación empírica a este respecto; y cerrar enmarcando los aportes concretos de este ejercicio dentro de una eminente preocupación por encontrar nuevas formas de articular la multiculturalidad; de integrar la diversidad que nos habita y nos estructura, y que forma parte de nuestras herencias y de nuestro presente cultural.

  19. Residents' Attitude, Knowledge, and Perceived Preparedness Toward Caring for Patients from Diverse Sociocultural Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jessie Kimbrough; Cooper, Lisa A; Green, Alexander R; Bertram, Amanda; Wright, Letitia; Matusko, Niki; McCullough, Wayne; Sisson, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Training residents to deliver care to increasingly diverse patients in the United States is an important strategy to help alleviate racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes. Cross-cultural care training of residents continues to present challenges. This study sought to explore the associations among residents' cross-cultural attitudes, preparedness, and knowledge about disparities to better elucidate possible training needs. Methods: This cross-sectional study used web-based questionnaires from 2013 to 2014. Eighty-four internal medicine residency programs with 954 residents across the United States participated. The main outcome was perceived preparedness to care for sociocultural diverse patients. Key Results: Regression analysis showed attitude toward cross-cultural care (beta coefficient [β]=0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.64, p attitude toward cross-cultural care and their level of exposure to patients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. Future studies should examine the role of residents' cross-cultural care-related attitudes on their ability to care for diverse patients.

  20. Foundations of Socio-Cultural Ecology: Consequences for Media Education and Mobile Learning in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Rummler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual paper offers insights to the foundations of Socio-Cultural Ecology and relates this concept to traditional concepts of Ecology e.g. media ecology or Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of child development. It will further discuss the term «ecology» as a relation between learners and their surrounding physical and structural world, e. g. an ecology of resources or the classroom as an ecological system. Thirdly more recent concepts in ecology will be considered e. g. Digital Media Ecology including media ecology (German: Medienökologie from a German perspective. This contribution tries to describe common principles of (media ecologies and will ask after their meaning and relation to media education and mobile learning. One of the main results is the realisation that cultural practices of school learning and cultural practices of media acquisition take place in different worlds or in different ecological spheres. The question is thus again of how to bridge these ecological spheres, and how «agency» developed outside school, can be nourished inside school. In other words: how can we bridge socio-cultural and technological structures within these cultural practices.

  1. Effect of mangrove rehabilitation on socio-cultural of pulau sembilan society, North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Harahap, F. K.; Wati, R.; Putri, L. A. P.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove forests in North Sumatera, Indonesia existed in the east coast of Sumatera Island and commonly found in Serdang Bedagai, Deli Serdang, Batubara, Tanjung Balai, Asahan, Labuhanbatu until Langkat. The effect of rehabilitated mangrove on socio-cultural of Pulau Sembilan society, Langkat, North Sumatra, Indonesia was studied. The rehabilitation was carried on May 2015 using indirect planting of 2,100 Rhizophora apiculata seedlings. Two times of observations, May and August 2015 were made to monitor and evaluate 400 rehabilitated seedlings. Sixty of 600 households were surveyed using Slovin formula to obtain community perspective on the socio-cultural impact of mangrove rehabilitation. Results showed that the growth of R. apiculata seedlings were 73.3% during four months observations. The restoration affected 65, 58.3 and 35 % of economic, social, and cultural of Pulau Sembilan society, respectively. The perspective of community on the land-use change led to 66.7% was disagreed that mangroves to be converted, 60% respondents stated that mangrove condition was degraded even worse than previously existed. Therefore, to resolve the degraded mangrove, community perspective on rehabilitation was needed (85.5%) and actively involved (88.3%). The present results suggested that the high recommendation for a rehabilitation program for the degraded area was by integrating the stake holders (government, university, and non-governmental organization) and local communities count on the mangrove ecosystems.

  2. Workplace learning from a socio-cultural perspective: creating developmental space during the general practice clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwet, J; Zwietering, P J; Teunissen, P W; van der Vleuten, C P M; Scherpbier, A J J A

    2011-08-01

    Workplace learning in undergraduate medical education has predominantly been studied from a cognitive perspective, despite its complex contextual characteristics, which influence medical students' learning experiences in such a way that explanation in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes and single determinants of instructiveness is unlikely to suffice. There is also a paucity of research which, from a perspective other than the cognitive or descriptive one, investigates student learning in general practice settings, which are often characterised as powerful learning environments. In this study we took a socio-cultural perspective to clarify how students learn during a general practice clerkship and to construct a conceptual framework that captures this type of learning. Our analysis of group interviews with 44 fifth-year undergraduate medical students about their learning experiences in general practice showed that students needed developmental space to be able to learn and develop their professional identity. This space results from the intertwinement of workplace context, personal and professional interactions and emotions such as feeling respected and self-confident. These forces framed students' participation in patient consultations, conversations with supervisors about consultations and students' observation of supervisors, thereby determining the opportunities afforded to students to mind their learning. These findings resonate with other conceptual frameworks and learning theories. In order to refine our interpretation, we recommend that further research from a socio-cultural perspective should also explore other aspects of workplace learning in medical education.

  3. Gestão Cooperativa, Ambiente Institucional e Sociocultural: o caso Brasil-Paraguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Resquetti Tarifa

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as influências do ambiente institucional e sociocultural na gestão cooperativista da C. Vale - Cooperativa Agroindustrial comparativamente às unidades brasileiras paranaenses mais representativas e as unidades sediadas no Paraguai. As análises do ambiente institucional tomaram como base a Nova Economia Institucional com ênfase na teoria de Douglass North (1990 sobre as instituições e ocorreram com entrevistas in loco a cada unidade cooperativa contemplada pela amostra. As análises do ambiente cultural pautaram-se na caracterização da cultura organizacional de cada unidade cooperativa, conforme o Competing Value Model desenvolvido por Cameron e Quinn (1998. As análises do ambiente social se embasaram no conceito teórico de capital social e nas respectivas características identificadas nas unidades, por meio da adaptação do modelo proposto pelo grupo de estudos do Banco Mundial (BM, elaborado por Grootaert et al. (2003, via análises de conteúdo e das entrevistas realizadas. Como resultado à problemática estabelecida, concluiu-se que, mesmo a C. Vale sendo uma única cooperativa, há influências do ambiente institucional e sociocultural no processo de gestão nas unidades cooperativas paranaenses e paraguaias. Por fim, conforme a proposta de agrupamento das unidades cooperativas com base nos dados coletados, foram identificados quatro clusters específicos.

  4. CORTESÍA SOCIOCULTURAL EN LAS SOCIEDADES MEDELLINENSE Y JAPONESA: UNA INTRODUCCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Son Jang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un análisis intercultural de la sociedad medellinense y la japonesa, teniendo en cuenta la variabilidad de la cortesía sociocultural de una cultura a otra, con el fin de que sirva de apoyo para los aprendices de una segunda lengua o lengua extranjera. Como punto de partida, se acude a nociones como pragmática en interlengua, transferencia pragmática y el modelo de la cortesía verbal de Brown y Levinson (1987, junto con las nociones de face flattering acts (FFAs, cortesía mitigadora, cortesía valorizante, imagen de autonomía y afiliación, y los contenidos concretos de estas últimas dos categorías. El corpus del estudio se basa en algunos episodios recogidos en Medellín y en Japón. El análisis se centra en algunos actos de habla, especialmente en las relaciones interpersonales no solidarias. En este tipo de relaciones, en la sociedad medellinense se prefiere salvar la imagen positiva, y en la japonesa, la imagen negativa. Es importante señalar explícitamente la variabilidad de la cortesía sociocultural de una cultura a otra, no sólo a los aprendices avanzados de una segunda lengua o lengua extranjera, sino también a los principiantes.

  5. THE CONCEPT OF LOCAL-SMART-HOUSING: TOWARDS SOCIO-CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY OF VERNACULAR SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmirHosein GhaffarianHoseini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent decades have witnessed the widespread manifestation of intelligent building design development around the world. Meanwhile, the concept of smart housing as one of the main issues of intelligent building design development has stimulated various architects and designers to make use of it for the sake of sustainable housing. However, this study represents a gap in smart housing design owing to the lack of a deep consideration on cultural values of users for ensuring the socio-cultural sustainability as one of the objectives of sustainable smart housing designs. Accordingly, the study puts forward the concept of local-smart-housing through utilization of appropriate vernacular architectural features and cultural values of vernacular settlements in smart housing design in order to reinforce the sociocultural sustainability. Meanwhile, this study is limited to the Malay context in order to identify the vernacular features of Malay vernacular settlement’s functional spaces for utilization in smart housing design to make them culturally responsive. Correspondingly, this study proposes the concept of local-smart-housing based on the incorporation of intelligent building design and utilization of vernacular features for enhancing the quality of life for users.

  6. School Culture: Reflections on Speaking from a sociocultural view of educational psychology

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    Eduardo Guzmán Utreras

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The following article discusses the relative importance of school culture as the main element of educational intervention to be considered by the educational psychology, understood in this context as a discipline plays in formal educational settings. From a sociocultural school look, culture and intervention, it seeks to synthesize some basic elements that must be taken into account in developing the practice of psychologists in these areas, giving rise to complex, embedded interventions in a context education and in relation to all participating actors and members of the institutions, thus creating the potential to develop shared changes and transformations between those who build this school culture. The following sections granted emphasize three specific points and tensions highlight and work as proposed: 1 The problem of school culture and the inclusion of educational psychologist; 2 School culture as an object of interest from a sociocultural look; and their interaction with the curriculum; and 3 a description of some basic guidelines for intervention counselors from the school culture, from the perspective of an educational psychologist focused on a cultural paradigm.

  7. Evolution of cultural traits occurs at similar relative rates in different world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2014-11-22

    A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles.

  8. "Nothing special, everything is maamuli": socio-cultural and family practices influencing the perinatal period in urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Shanti; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura; Razee, Husna; Ritchie, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting. Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women's experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of 'hot' and 'cold' foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events. A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will help plan culturally appropriate integrated perinatal

  9. “Nothing Special, Everything Is Maamuli”: Socio-Cultural and Family Practices Influencing the Perinatal Period in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Shanti; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura; Razee, Husna; Ritchie, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting. Methods and Findings Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women’s experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events. Conclusions A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will

  10. "Nothing special, everything is maamuli": socio-cultural and family practices influencing the perinatal period in urban India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Raman

    Full Text Available Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting.Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women's experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of 'hot' and 'cold' foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events.A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will help plan culturally appropriate

  11. Variability in GPS sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauncey, DL; King, EA; Bignall, HE; Lovell, JEJ; Kedziora-Chudczer, L; Tzioumis, AK; Tingay, SJ; Macquart, JP; McCulloch, PM

    2003-01-01

    Flux density monitoring data at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz is presented for a sample of 33 southern hemisphere GPS sources, drawn from the 2.7 GHz Parkes survey. This monitoring data, together with VLBI monitoring data, shows that a small fraction of these sources, similar to10%, vary. Their variability falls

  12. The effect of socio-cultural characteristics on the effectiveness of teamwork: a study in the Gülhane Military Medical Faculty Training Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelen, Özay; Teke, Abdulkadir; Cihangiroglu, Necmettin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, our aim was to determine the effect of the socio-cultural characteristics of health workers on the effectiveness of teamwork. In this study, a questionnaire method was used for data collection. To this end, a scale was first developed to assess the effectiveness of teamwork. The study was conducted in 34 departments/divisions within the GMMF Training Hospital with 423 health workers. "Specialist opinion" was used to determine the content validity of the "Teamwork Effectiveness Scale" developed for this study, while "factor analysis" was used to test the scale's construct validity. Cronbach Alpha values were calculated to test the reliability of the scale. To determine the effect of socio-cultural characteristics on the effectiveness of teamwork, the "Kruskal-Wallis" test, the "Mann-Whitney U" test and "Logistic Regression Analysis" were used within the context of the study. Based on the study results, it was observed that "assignment, "age" and "status" did not have an effect on the effectiveness of teamwork (p > 0.05). On the other hand, a significant and negative relationship was observed between "the obligation to perform compulsory service" and the attitudes that considered teamwork to be effective (p = 0.029). Similarly, a difference was identified between the workers' attitudes towards the effectiveness of teamwork depending on the size of the place of assignment (p = 0,042). It was thus observed that the "effectiveness of teamwork" was affected by the presence or absence of the "obligation to perform compulsory service" and by the "size of the place of assignment.

  13. Sobre las habilidades espaciales y la dimensión sociocultural del aprendizaje de "lo geométrico"

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Melissa; Cantoral, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    En esta comunicación se establece la primera aproximación a un proyecto de investigación, enmarcado bajo la Teoría Socioepistemológica, que busca responder de qué manera las culturas a través de la historia han logrado apropiarse del espacio y cómo ésta apropiación ha sido influenciada por su entorno sociocultural. Para ello se presenta el estado del arte, dando a conocer algunos estudios en torno a la visualización espacial y a la profunda interacción de lo sociocultural en el aprendizaje de...

  14. The Position of a Teacher as a Factor of Forming Students' Socio-Cultural Identities (On the Example of the Russian Civil Identity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakurova, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents experience of structuring and description of teachers' position in the process of forming socio-cultural identity of the person, detailed in regard to the process of formation of one of the subtypes of socio-cultural identity--Russian civil identity. We identified and described real subjective, nominally subjective and…

  15. Teachers' Knowledge and Views on the Use of Learners' Socio-Cultural Background in Teaching Natural Sciences in Grade 9 Township Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavuru, Lydia; Ramnarain, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    This article explores teachers' knowledge and views on the role of learners' socio-cultural background when teaching Natural Sciences to Grade 9 learners at three South African township schools. Within a socio-cultural framework, the research investigated how teachers accommodate learners' cultural norms and values, religion and beliefs,…

  16. Development of similarity theory for control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Evtushenko, V. F.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, G. V.

    2018-05-01

    The area of effective application of the traditional similarity theory and the need necessity of its development for systems are discussed. The main statements underlying the similarity theory of control systems are given. The conditions for the similarity of control systems and the need for similarity control control are formulated. Methods and algorithms for estimating and similarity control of control systems and the results of research of control systems based on their similarity are presented. The similarity control of systems includes the current evaluation of the degree of similarity of control systems and the development of actions controlling similarity, and the corresponding targeted change in the state of any element of control systems.

  17. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  18. Gender differences in erotic plasticity--evolutionary or sociocultural forces? Comment on Baumeister (2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J S; Durik, A M

    2000-05-01

    R. F. Baumeister (2000) argued that there are gender differences in erotic plasticity, meaning that women are more influenced by cultural and social factors than men are. He attributed the gender difference in erotic plasticity to evolutionary, biological forces. We propose an alternative account of the data using a multifactor sociocultural model that rests on 4 assertions: (a) Men have more power than women on many levels including the institutional and the interpersonal levels, (b) education increases women's power, (c) groups with less power (women) pay more attention to and adapt their behavior more to the group with more power (men) than the reverse, and (d) gender roles powerfully shape behavior, and heterosexuality is a more important element of the male role than the female role.

  19. The wetlands of Magdalena medio Antioqueno from a physical and socio-cultural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero Acosta, Humberto; Durango Lopez, Consuelo; Giraldo Castro, Carlos Augusto

    2001-01-01

    Wetlands are ecosystems with environmental and ecological importance that require of a new methodological and legal focus that allows developing conservation policies in agreement with the natural and socio-cultural conditions. In the Magdalena Medio Antioqueno, CORANTIOQUIA region, were recognized 362 wetlands, divided in two main groups; in Puerto Nare and Puerto Berrio to the south prevails herbaceous wetlands without permanent surface water, locally known as Bajos. In Yondo the wetlands have permanent surface water. The environmental dynamic depends from the geomorphologic and hydrological conditions and are affected in a differential way by the human action. The region is the result of a long occupation process that begins in prehistoric times and had changed depending on the different historical moments. This complex social configuration has given origin to diverse perceptions and types of appropriation of the wetlands what explains the identified environmental circumstances

  20. [BIOETHICS FACED WITH SOCIOCULTURAL DIVERSITY, THE IMPACT OF THE MEANING GIVEN TO AN UNFINISHED CONCEPT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Ana; Bouffard, Chantal

    2015-10-01

    At a time in which the ethical awareness towards socio-cultural diversity is a necessity, it seems of paramount importance to explore what is meant by bioethics. Without being exhaustive, this paper suggests to scrutinize the key defnitions of bioethics, considering their evolution over time as well as their convergence with anthropology. Starting with its global and its restricted definitions, this article examines certain differences or definitional imprecisions in the light of the concepts used by bioethicists and anthropologists in their conception of bioethics. While this exercise shows the pertinence of the conceptual tools proposed by anthropology to facilitate the cultural diversity's integration into bioethics, it ultimately challenges an anthropological approach that has been unable to mainstream this knowledge into the definition of bioethics.

  1. Socio-cultural context, child development and beginning reading in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Thorne

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the fact that many children in Peru are not able to read fluently when they finish elementary school. To analyze this shortcoming it presents an overview of the Peruvian context, the education system, the multilingual and the socio-cultural background and identifies the difficult conditions in which Peruvian children grow and its consequences in child development and beginning reading. The paper discusses different aspectsof developmental psychology and puts the accent on Bronfenbrenner's theory and the developmental approach to education. It offers, also, a review of several studies on reading in Peru. Finally it emphasizes the advantages of incorporating the ecological theory and the developmental approach to education

  2. Economic culture of the Tuvans within the scope of the sociocultural approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Popkov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors argue that for the periods of social turmoil, understanding culture as a set of norms controlling social behavior is limited and insufficient. A more adequate approach would involve interpreting culture as a specific historical version of the society’s existence in its qualitative form. This hearkens back to the sociocultural approach which postulates the culture as an ensemble, and the sociocultural construed as the social in the cultural variety. In this context, economic culture might be seen as a set of qualitative features of a specific economic entity shaped by the local conditions of development. With all its peculiarities, an economic culture appears an element of this sociocultural diversity. Studying the economic culture of Tuvans through the lens of the sociocultural approach and the notion of this diversity allows us to outline several important aspects of this issue, rarely addressed by the existing academic discourse. A focus should be made, for instance, not only on the dominant nomadic culture, but also on subdominant economic cultures which helped shape a number of skills and techniques. While nomadism helped develop unhurried and contemplative attitude to life, hunting demanded dynamic change, and agriculture and crafts called for diligence and meticulousness. A brief glance at the economic history of Tuvans allowed the authors to conclude that economic diversity both provides stability to the economic culture of Tuvan society and expresses its variegation, its capacity to develop through numerous modifications. This polymorphism acts as an important resource which helps launch the alternate routes of ethnic development. These routes rarely appear self-evident under the dominant type of economic culture which had been shaping the traditional life of Tuvan society. Tapping into this alternative potential can prove an important reserve for future development. An overview of ethnographic data helps

  3. A Socio-Cultural Diagnosis of Adolescent Diets in Comitán, Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Elizabeth Ramírez Domínguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on group interviews with adolescents (pre-university level students from various educational institutions and socio-cultural backgrounds in Comitán, Chiapas (Mexico, was undertaken to identify the settings for the dietary practices of young people. Using a multi-dimensional analysis, we found that the predominant paradigm in public health, based on concepts such as risk factors and lifestyle, tends to obscure the complexity of social processes and to place responsibility for health on each individual. The dietary practices of adolescents are determined by the dynamics established in school and family environments and occur in a context of time pressures as well as the poor provision and choice of foods. We noted a discrepancy between knowledge on the one hand and dietary practices, weight control and perceived risks or expectations concerning body image on the other.

  4. Sociocultural contexts and worker safety and health: findings of a study with Chinese immigrant restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny; Bruck, Annie

    2009-02-01

    More immigrants are seeking employment in restaurants. Drawing data from an ethnographic study, this article discusses what and how sociocultural contexts shape the safety and health of immigrant restaurant workers. Eighteen Chinese immigrants from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan participated in the study. Data generation methods included a questionnaire, individual and focus group interviews, and participant observations. Ethnographic analysis revealed that immigration mechanisms, demands of English proficiency for employment, and existence of networks and ethnic communities shaped the participants' employment choices. Working hours and schedules, interpersonal relationships at work, job design and training, occupational safety and health training, and national events and economy further influenced the participants' occupational experiences and well-being. Issues were noted with job security, mental health, family relationships, and risks for occupational injuries and illnesses. Implications for occupational health nursing research and practice to reduce immigrant workers' vulnerability to poor safety and health outcomes conclude this article.

  5. La precarización del trabajo desde una perspectiva sociocultural en un contexto fronterizo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Solís

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la conformación del mercado de trabajo de la industria del vestido en Tijuana; se identifican los factores estructurales generadores de precariedad y, según las vivencias respecto a ella, se reconstruyen perfiles distintos de los y las trabajadoras. El objetivo de esta propuesta analítica es mostrar la manera en que se entrelazan las escalas micro, meso y macrosocial reproduciendo o produciendo las condiciones de precariedad que prevalecen en los empleos de la industria de la confección en Tijuana. Para interpretar la experiencia de la precariedad, se aborda su dimensión sociocultural, al darle un papel central a los significados que le otorgan las personas al trabajo.

  6. Towards a Discourse for Criticism in Language Teaching: Analysis of Sociocultural Representations in Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rosa Vargas Torres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article states that in order to exercise citizenship with responsibility, language teachers need to popularize a discourse for criticism in which students and teachers transcend tacit knowledge and common sense due to meta-cognition and argumentation and reach systematic knowledge and procedures posed by experts in the different disciplines. As illustrated inside, the source and objective of analysis by means of which this discourse can be contextualized in language teaching is the language of mass media and all the sociocultural and signifying practices that it invokes. We conclude that through the analysis of mass media it is possible to educate students with the basic knowledge and skills necessary to interact critically in the world.

  7. Socio-cultural and economic factors affecting food consumption patterns in the Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, A O

    1993-04-01

    Several factors have been found to determine the dietary habits of the people in the Arab world. Food consumption pattern has dramatically changed in some Arab countries as a result of sudden increase in income from oil revenue. It is believed that food subsidy policy has adversely affected the food habits in the Gulf states by encouraging the intake of fat, sugar, rice, wheat flour and meat. Socio-cultural factors such as religion, beliefs, food preferences, gender discrimination, education and women's employment all have a noticeable influence on food consumption patterns in this region. Mass media, especially televised food advertisements, play an important role in modifying the dietary habits. The migration movement, particularly that which was carried out during the 70s has a great impact on the food practices in many Arab countries. Comprehensive studies on social, cultural and economic factors associated with food consumption patterns in the Arab region are highly recommended.

  8. The breast cancer fanfare: Sociocultural factors and women's health in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Dinah A

    2017-04-01

    Traditional notions of the "full" woman and sociocultural beliefs about gender roles contribute to a unique experience of breast cancer in Africa. I used the critical feminist lens to analyze dis-courses about breast cancer in mainstream Ghanaian media. I found that breast cancer awareness is promoted amidst fanfare and that cultural notions of the female breasts, including their sexual appeal, are implied in breast cancer discourse. This obscures a nuanced understanding of the disease and women's health globally, limits the power of women to name their experiences, and contributes to the late presentation of the dis-ease in sub-Saharan Africa. I discuss the implications of the findings for international, interdisciplinary scholarship.

  9. Transnational organizational considerations for sociocultural differences in ethics and virtual team functioning in laboratory animal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-05-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working with sociocultural differences in ethics and by knowing how to facilitate appropriate virtual team actions. Associated practices include implementing codes and policies transcend cultural, ethnic, or other boundaries and equipping virtual teams with the needed technology, support, and rewards to ensure timely and productive work that ultimately promotes good science and patient safety in drug development.

  10. Addressing socio-cultural values in the use and management of Baltic herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignatius, Suvi; Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    , and is mainly used for animal feed and fishmeal and oil. Harmful dioxins in Baltic herring have been offered as an explanation for its reduced human consumption. We argue that dioxins are only part of the explanation while sociocultural values also influence the use and management of the fish resource....... By applying the justification theory of Boltanski and Thévenot to expert workshop discussions and a literature review, we investigate (1) what values people in Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Estonia associate with Baltic herring; and (2) which values determine the way the fish resource is used. Our study...... indicates that management decisions related to Baltic herring are predominantly guided by economic values and industrial efficiency. Profit optimisation in the fishery together with the image problem that Baltic herring suffers from, seem to have contributed to the devaluation of this fish species as food...

  11. Socio-cultural animation in hospitals and the right to access culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušana Findeisen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-cultural animation has a long tradition in French hospitals. It started in most probability with a theatre performance staged by Marquis de Sade between 1800-1810, while he was patient of a Parisian hospital. The theatrical performance was attended by ”le Tout Paris” – all notables of the city. In 1999, a convention of ”Culture and Health” was signed and culture has been moving to hospitals ever since, transforming them into open institutions, with patients and staff having acquired a different perspective on body and culture. Moreover, Slovenian Third Age University has been educating and training cultural mediators (its students for transmitting culture and knowledge gained at the U3A to patients, patients’ relatives and staff within the University Clinical Centre Ljubljana. In this article, author sets a frame of mind for examining the importance and implications of a fundamental universal right – the right to culture.

  12. THE CONTRIBUTION OF SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY TO THE PROBLEM OF INSTRUCTIONAL INTERACTIONS IN THE SECOND LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernova, N.A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of a continuum of regulation being also important to understanding Vygotsky’s view of cognitive development which clearly suggests that communicative collaboration with adults or more skilled peers contributes to the development of self-regulation, that is, the capacity for independent problem solving and self-directed activity. Attention is drawn to the fact that in the language classroom, using sociocultural theory and its tenets as a framework, we would see a highly interactive classroom, where the students’ zone of proximal development is identified through strategies such as portfolios, and dialogue journals. Necessity of compiling a textbook based on the above-mentioned principles is stressed.

  13. Comparison of Effective Socio-Cultural and Psychological Factors in Women Suicide in Iran and Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abolhassan Ryazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to study socio-cultural and psychological effective factors contributing to suicide, as well as comparing these factors among Iranian and Tajik women who attempted suicide. The present study was a qualitative study in which 60 patients (30 from each country participated. Each of these participants went through an in-depth interview. Results of the study showed that the most important factors considering suicide attempt in both groups were as follows: domestic violence, cultural induction, family cold relations, forced marriages, too much responsibility, lack of privacy, polygamy, irrational biases and lack of communication between generations. Tajik men, despite the law of monogamy, prefer polygamy and marry more than one woman. Tajik people also, prohibit burring body of a woman who is dead after a suicide atempt in Muslim cemetery.

  14. Affect and Health Behavior Co-Occurrence: The Emerging Roles of Transdiagnostic Factors and Sociocultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of scientific work addressing relations among affective states and health correlates has focused primarily on their co-occurrence and a limited range of health conditions. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent advances in this emerging field of work that addresses the nature and interplay between affective states and disorders, in terms of their impact and consequences from health status and behavior. This Special Issue is organized into three parts classified as (a) co-occurrence and interplay between (b) transdiagnostic factors and (c) sociocultural factors. It is hoped that this issue will (a) alert readers to the significance of this work at different levels of analysis, (b) illustrate the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches, and (c) identify fecund areas for future systematic study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Postnatal depression and socio-cultural practices among postnatal mothers in Kota Bahru, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azidah, A K; Shaiful, B I; Rusli, N; Jamil, M Y

    2006-03-01

    This is a cross sectional study to determine the relationship of postnatal depression (PND) and socio-cultural practices post-delivery among women in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Four hundred and twenty one pregnant women were screened for depression between 36 - 42 weeks of pregnancy, 1 week and 4 - 6 weeks postpartum using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The women also completed questionnaires on socio-demography, psychosocial support and traditional postnatal care. The prevalence of PND at 4-6 weeks postpartum was 20.7%. Depressive symptoms at the end of pregnancy (p<0.05) and one week postpartum (p<0.05), worry about the baby (p<0.05), use of traditional medication (p<0.05) and traditional massage (p<0.05) were significantly associated with PND.

  16. Implicaciones educativas de la teoría sociocultural de Vigotsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lupita Chaves Salas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es analizar la teo-ría sociocultural del Lev Vigotsky y reflexionar sobre lasimplicaciones educativas de dicha teoría en los procesosde enseñanza y aprendizaje que se organizan en la es-cuela. Con base en los postulados de Vigotsky, se invita alas docentes y los docentes a repensar su práctica peda-gógica y a promover cambios en su labor profesional conel fin de ofrecer una educación más contextualizada ysignificativa que ayude a formar personas críticas y crea-tivas que contribuyan a construir una sociedad más de-mocrática y solidaria

  17. Sociocultural Influences on Arab Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jasmine J; Donnelly, Tam T; Ewashen, Carol; McKiel, Elaine; Raffin, Shelley; Kinch, Janice

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer, the most common cancer among Arab women in Qatar, significantly affects the morbidity and mortality of Arab women largely because of low participation rates in breast cancer screening. We used a critical ethnographic approach to uncover and describe factors that influence Arab women's breast cancer screening practices. We conducted semistructured interviews with 15 health care practitioners in Qatar. Through thematic analysis of the data, we found three major factors influencing breast cancer screening practices: (a) beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding women's bodies, health, and illness; (b) religious beliefs and a culturally sensitive health care structure; and (c) culturally specific gender relations and roles. Arab women's health practices cannot be understood in isolation from the sociocultural environment. The problem of low rates of breast cancer screening practices and supportive interventions must be addressed within the context and not be limited to the individual.

  18. Some socio-cultural factors influencing fertility behaviour: a case study of Yoruba women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, B

    1989-12-01

    The sociocultural factors impacting on fertility behavior among the Yoruba of Nigeria were investigated in a sample of 330 women, 199 from Ife-Ife urban area and 131 from 3 rural villages also in the Oranmiyan Local Government Area. All study participants were Yoruba women married to Yoruba men who had at least 1 child; their mean age was 34.5 years and 41% had no education. The study was conducted during 1987. The responses confirmed the close link between marriage and procreation in this culture. Children are valued as a source of prestige to a woman, and childless women are stigmatized. The reasons for which children are valued were found to vary according to educational level. 77% of women with no education compared with 41% of those with high levels of education value children as a source of caretaking in old age. In contrast, 44% of highly educated women versus 11% of uneducated women valued children as a source of joy. Educated women were also more likely than women with no education to view motherhood as a means of fulfilling God's command to continue the human race. In terms of sex preference, higher percentages of educated and urban women wanted their 1st child to be a male and son preference has strong religious, legal, and social status significance in the Yoruban culture. However, all respondents indicated they wanted to have children of both sexes. More information on sociocultural factors examined in this study is needed to help in the design of a population policy for the Yoruba.

  19. Sociocultural barriers to maternity services delivery: a qualitative meta-synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumankuuro, J; Crockett, J; Wang, S

    2018-04-01

    Maternal and neonatal healthcare outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remain poor despite decades of different health service delivery interventions and stakeholder investments. Qualitative studies have attributed these results, at least in part, to sociocultural beliefs and practices. Thus there is a need to understand, from an overarching perspective, how these sociocultural beliefs affect maternal and neonatal health (MNH) outcomes. A qualitative meta-synthesis of primary studies on cultural beliefs and practices associated with maternal and neonatal health care was carried out, incorporating research conducted in any country within SSA, using data from men, women and health professionals gathered through focus group discussions, structured and semistructured interviews. A systematic search was carried out on seven electronic databases, Scopus, Ovid Medline, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, Humanities and Social Sciences (Informit), EMBASE and Web of Science, and on Google Scholar, using both manual and electronic methods, between 1st January 1990 and 1st January 2017. The terms 'cultural beliefs'; 'cultural beliefs AND maternal health'; 'cultural beliefs OR maternal health'; 'traditional practices' and 'maternal health' were used in the search. Key components of cultural beliefs and practices associated with adverse health outcomes on pregnancy, labour and the postnatal period were identified in five overarching factors: (a) pregnancy secrecy; (b) labour complications attributed to infidelity; (c) mothers' autonomy and reproductive services; (d) marital status, trust in traditional medicines and traditional birth attendants; and (e) intergenerational beliefs attached to the 'ordeal' of giving birth. Cultural beliefs and practices related to maternal and neonatal health care are intergenerational. Therefore, intensive community-specific education strategies to facilitate behaviour changes are required for improved MNH outcomes. Adopting practical approaches such as

  20. An ISBD perspective on the sociocultural challenges of managing bipolar disorder: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oedegaard, Christine H; Berk, Lesley; Berk, Michael; Youngstrom, Eric A; Dilsaver, Steven C; Belmaker, Robert H; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Fasmer, Ole B; Engebretsen, Ingunn M

    2016-11-01

    Clinical management of bipolar disorder patients might be affected by culture and is further dependent on the context of healthcare delivery. There is a need to understand how healthcare best can be delivered in various systems and cultures. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain knowledge about culture-specific values, beliefs and practices in the medical care provided to patients with bipolar disorders from a provider perspective in various areas of the world. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) network provided the framework for this qualitative study. An electronic interview with open-ended questions was administered to 19 international experts on bipolar spectrum disorder representing the International Society for Bipolar Disorders chapter network in 16 countries and six continents. In addition, there were two in-depth interviews with bipolar spectrum disorder experts done prior to the survey. The data were analysed using content analysis, and the information was structured using the software NVivo by QSR International Pty Ltd. All participants described sociocultural factors as important in healthcare delivery to bipolar patients in their part of the world, both in accessing healthcare and in providing culturally appropriate care. Factors that affected the provider's ability to supply good clinical management of patients were access to treatment options and long-term follow-up, as well as general strategies to combat stigma. In some societies, the patients' use of alternative treatments, gender issues and religion were also important factors. Understanding the impact of such culturally specific factors was overall regarded as essential for proper treatment interventions. Sociocultural factors clearly affect the nature and quality of medical services delivered to bipolar patients. Financial, social and cultural factors affect patients' health-seeking behaviour, and this highlights the need for knowledge about such factors in

  1. Pain worlds: towards the integration of a sociocultural perspective of pain in clinical physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killick, Lara; Davenport, Todd E

    2014-12-01

    The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF) model has been advocated as a model of function to conceptualize physical therapist practice. Among its advances, the WHO-ICF model explicitly recognizes the existence of social factors that may influence patients' and clients' understanding of pain. However, understandings of the historical, social and cultural processes that shape the individual and collective experiences of pain and the therapeutic relationship remain limited. We call for a more intentional and sustained dialogue between clinical practice and sociology to help elucidate the nature, characteristics, complexities and clinical implications of one specific element of the WHO-ICF model, environmental factors. The purpose of this review is to advocate for the continued adoption of a sociological lens to help physical therapists better understand the broader networks of people, ideologies and practices in which people 'in pain' are enmeshed and the historical, geographical and cultural spaces in which they operate. In this review, we discuss existing empirical findings in sociology to introduce the concept of 'pain worlds', which can be applied by physical therapists to help characterize the sociocultural factors identified in the WHO-ICF model. Pain worlds is designed to complement the WHO-ICF model and assist in developing interdisciplinary research agendas that illuminate and examine the role, significance and clinical implications of sociocultural and environmental dimensions of pain. We conclude with a brief set of recommendations for the development of such translational research agendas and call for the integration of pain worlds in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Sociocultural and psychological determinants in migrants for noncompliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjiam, Angela M; Akcan, Hilal; Ziylan, Fatma; Vukovic, Elizabet; Loudon, Sjoukje E; Looman, Caspar W N; Passchier, Jan; Simonsz, Huibert J

    2011-12-01

    Compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia in children is low when their parents have a low level of education, speak Dutch poorly, or originate from another country. We determined how sociocultural and psychological determinants affect compliance. Included were amblyopic children between the ages of 3 and 6, living in low socio-economic status (SES) areas. Compliance with occlusion therapy was measured electronically. Their parents completed an oral questionnaire, based on the "Social Position & Use of Social Services by Migrants and Natives" questionnaire that included demographics and questions on issues like education, employment, religion and social contacts. Parental fluency in Dutch was rated on a five-point scale. Regression analysis was used to describe the relationship between the level of compliance and sociocultural and psychological determinants. Data from 45 children and their parents were analyzed. Mean electronically measured compliance was 56 ± 44 percent. Children whose parents had close contact with their neighbors or who were highly dependent on their family demonstrated low levels of compliance. Children of parents who were members of a club and who had positive conceptualizations of Dutch society showed high levels of compliance. Poor compliance was also associated with low income, depression, and when patching interfered with the child's outdoor activity. Religion was not associated with compliance. Poor compliance with occlusion therapy seems correlated with indicators of social cohesion. High social cohesion at micro level, i.e., family, neighbors and friends, and low social cohesion on macro level, i.e., Dutch society, are associated with noncompliance. However, such parents tend to speak Dutch poorly, so it is difficult to determine its actual cause.

  3. On regional differences in sick leave : the role of work, individual and health characteristics and socio-cultural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemsterboer, W.; Stewart, R.; Groothoff, J.; Nijhuis, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Regional differences in sick leave frequency and duration determinants were studied between different professions (sale and cleaning) in different regions in the Netherlands (Utrecht and South Limburg) and the influence of socio-cultural factors on those determinants was explored.

  4. Trouble on My Mind: Toward a Framework of Humanizing Critical Sociocultural Knowledge for Teaching and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from the work of philosophers Sylvia Wynter and Ian Hacking, in this conceptual article I argue why a humanizing critical approach to sociocultural knowledge is needed for teacher education, particularly in preparing teachers to work effectively with black students. In light of enduring concerns in teacher education with improving the…

  5. Social maturity of the identity of seniors as condition of successful adaptation to the modern sociocultural environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov A.K.

    2017-01-01

    this article describes social maturity of the identity of seniors as a condition of successful adaptation to the modern sociocultural environment, marks out some criteria of definition of socially mature personality, gives definition to the concept «social competence of the personality».

  6. Disjunction between Language Policy and Children's Sociocultural Ecology--An Analysis of English-Medium Education Policy in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Syed Abdul; David, Maya Khemlani; Dumanig, Francisco Perlas

    2015-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and constructionists propose that language learning is a socially and culturally mediated process, and they emphasize on social interaction. This study examines the amount of students' exposure to the school language to account for the link between English-medium policies in low-fee English-medium schools and children's…

  7. Influences of Sociocultural Factors Within the Clinical Learning Environment on Students' Perceptions of Learning: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Mary Ann

    A persistent deficit in new graduate nurses' clinical reasoning skill exists. Clinical reasoning is best learned in the sociocultural clinical learning environment (CLE), yet many CLEs fail to engage nursing students in the cognitive work of nursing that promotes development of clinical reasoning. Despite two decades of recommendations to improve CLEs based on students' perceptions of learning, widespread improvement remains elusive. The aim of this review was to synthesize what is known about the influence of sociocultural factors in the acute-care CLE on prelicensure nursing students' perceptions of learning, for the purpose of identifying factors that when modified may promote improvement of clinical reasoning skill. The integrative review methodology was used to synthesize and identify gaps in evidence on students' perceptions of learning in the acute-care CLE. Global commonalities exist in the impact of the sociocultural CLE on students' perceptions of learning, including overall sociocultural atmosphere, membership in the health care team, supervisory relationships, peer relationships, and clinical education structure. This review provides evidence that modification of CLE factors and examination of their influence on measurable learning outcomes such as clinical reasoning are the necessary next steps to facilitate improvement of new graduate nurses' clinical reasoning skill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Commitment in Age-Gap Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: A Test of Evolutionary and Socio-Cultural Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmiller, Justin J.; Agnew, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    Little research has addressed age-gap romantic relationships (romantic involvements characterized by substantial age differences between partners). Drawing on evolutionary and socio-cultural perspectives, the present study examined normative beliefs and commitment processes among heterosexual women involved in age-gap and age-concordant…

  9. Socio-cultural factors and school engagement : A study among Turkish, Moroccan, Assyrian and native Dutch youth in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, I.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the impact of socio-cultural factors on school engagement of minority students in Dutch secondary schools. This question was raised because studies that focus on the impact of structural or institutional factors were often left with an 'ethnic residual'. This ethnic

  10. Body-Image Evaluation and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A Test of Sociocultural and Social Comparison Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G.; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A.

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion…

  11. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Incompatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La

    2011-01-01

    Some theories have posited that African American youth are academic underachievers because of sociocultural factors. We label this point of view the cultural incompatibility perspective. Ogbu's oppositional culture theory and Steele's stereotype threat theory are selected as popular examples of this viewpoint. A critical review of the literature…

  12. Influence of Sociocultural Differences in Translating Euphemistic Expressions from English into Arabic in "A Grain of Wheat"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anber, Sameerah Jabbar; Swear, Muna Abdual Hussein

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the sociocultural differences in translating Euphemistic expressions from English into Arabic. Particularly, the study took the novel "A Grain of Wheat" to show the differences of these expressions usage by two translators from different cultures. The study adapts a qualitative approach applied in Leppihalme's…

  13. Agency-communion and interest in prosocial behavior: social motives for assimilation and contrast explain sociocultural inconsistencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Sedikides, Constantine; Lüdtke, Oliver; Neberich, Wiebke

    2014-10-01

    Identifying the "prosocial personality" is a classic project in personality psychology. However, personality traits have been elusive predictors of prosocial behavior, with personality-prosociality relations varying widely across sociocultural contexts. We propose the social motives perspective to account for such sociocultural inconsistencies. According to this perspective, a focal quality of agency (e.g., competence, independence, openness) is the motive to swim against the social tide-agentic social contrast. Conversely, a focal quality of communion (e.g., warmth, interdependence, agreeableness) is the motive to swim with the social tide-communal social assimilation. We report two cross-sectional studies. Study 1 (N = 131,562) defined social context at the country level (11 European countries), whereas Study 2 (N = 56,395) defined it at the country level (11 European countries) and the city level (296 cities within these countries). Communion predicted interest in prosocial behavior comparatively strongly in sociocultural contexts where such interest was common and comparatively weakly where such interest was uncommon. Agency predicted interest in prosocial behavior comparatively strongly in sociocultural contexts where such interest was uncommon and comparatively weakly where such interest was common. The results supported the social motives perspective. Also, the findings help to reestablish the importance of personality for understanding prosociality. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. From Sociocultural Disintegration to Community Connectedness Dimensions of Local Community Concepts and Their Effects on Psychological Health of Its Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Sørensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of community mental health promotion studies in Lofoten, Norway, the concept of sociocultural integration is used to describe properties of a local community that are related to people's psychological health. Starting with Durkheim's description of a cohesive society, we compare different concepts that are related to sociocultural integration, for example, sense of community, social capital, and social cohesion. We then examine the relationship of various individual oriented social psychological concepts to sociocultural integration. These concepts often share theoretical and operational definitions. The concept of sociocultural integration in the Lofoten studies was proved to be very valuable in understanding how the properties of a community can affect people's mental health and their social psychological properties. It has also shown its value in the planning of mental health services and demonstrating its success in concrete community-based mental health promotion projects. Thus they could make important contributions to further studies and actions in local communities where the intersection between the individual, their social network, and their local community occurs.

  15. Teacher Beliefs and the Mediation of Curriculum Innovation in Scotland: A Socio-Cultural Perspective on Professional Development and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carolyn S.; Priestley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate socio-cultural factors underpinning curriculum change by examining teacher beliefs in the context of professional development. Scottish teachers in the study were participating in policy implementation based on formative assessment. Teachers were selected who were positive about the formative assessment…

  16. A Sociocultural-Theory-Based Study of the Impact of Mediation during Post- Observation Conferences on Language Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The post-observation conference offers a potentially fecund context for promoting language teacher learning, but very little research has been conducted into how this actually happens. Taking Vygotskian sociocultural theory as its theoretical framework, this study examined the mediational discourse of a series of post-observation conferences…

  17. Social-Cognitive and Socio-Cultural Predictors of Hepatitis B Virus-Screening in Turkish Migrants, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, V.J.J. van der; Empelen, P. van; Looman, C.W.N.; Richardus, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important health problem in the Turkish Dutch. Screening is necessary for detection and prevention of HBV. We aimed to identify social-cognitive and socio-cultural determinants of HBV-screening intention among Turkish Dutch. A cross-sectional survey was carried out

  18. Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, and Educational Challenges of Administering a Sino-US Joint Venture Campus in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in…

  19. Introducing Computers to Kindergarten Children Based on Vygotsky's Theory about Socio-Cultural Learning: The Greek Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pange, Jenny; Kontozisis, Dimitrios

    2001-01-01

    Greek preschoolers' level of knowledge about computers was examined as they participated in a classroom project to introduce them to new technologies. The project was based on Vygotsky's theory of socio-cultural learning. Findings suggest that this approach is a successful way to introduce new technologies to young children. (JPB)

  20. Analyse linguistique, normes scolaires et differenciations socio-culturelles (Linguistic Analysis, Educational Standards, and Socio-Cultural Differentiation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Frederic

    1980-01-01

    Questions the validity of some child language studies that measure cognitive ability by the degree of complexity of the linguistic expression. Claims that these studies ignore many facets of the children's sociocultural experience as well as the influence of situational factors on their choice of linguistic codes, perpetuating socially biased…

  1. Katimavik Participant's Manual, Book VII, Socio-Cultural Activities = Katimavik manuel du participant, cahier VII, activites socio-culturelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OPCAN, Montreal (Quebec).

    The bilingual student manual, devoted to the socio-cultural learning activity portion of Katimavik (a nine-month volunteer community service and experiential learning program for 17 to 21 year old Canadians), contains sections on learning program objectives and trimester guidelines, optional activities, resume recordkeeping, general topic…

  2. Body dissatisfaction and socio-cultural factors in women with and without BED: their relation with eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Díaz, M L; Franco-Paredes, K; Mancilla-Díaz, J M; Alvarez-Rayón, G; López-Aguilar, X; Ocampo Téllez-Girón, T; Soto-González, Y

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to assess the role of body dissatisfaction and socio-cultural factors on eating psychopathology in women with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and women without BED. Seventy obese women consecutively evaluated participated: 35 with BED and 35 without BED who attended for the first time in a weight loss program. All participants completed a battery of questionnaires, including: Body Shape Questionnaire, Questionnaire of Influences on the Aesthetic Body Shape Model, Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns, Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, and they were interviewed with the Interview for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorder-IV. The Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Hip Ratio and Body Fat were calculated. The results showed that 21% of obese women who participated in a weight reduction program met BED criteria. The scores of body dissatisfaction, influences of socio-cultural factors and eating psychopathology were higher in women with BED compared with women without BED. In the same way, significantly stronger correlations were found among influences of socio-cultural factors, specifically, influence of advertisement, social relations and eating psychopathology in women with BED than women without BED. It is concluded that the high body dissatisfaction as well as stronger associations among influence of socio-cultural factors and eating psychopathology could play an important role in women with BED.

  3. College Athletes' Reflective Judgment: A Moderator between Sport and Sociocultural Pressures, Body Ideal Internalization, and Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Catie A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the sociocultural model of eating disorder development among male and female college student-athletes as moderated by students' level of Reflective Judgment, a stage theory of adult epistemology marked by increasing cognitive complexity. A review of literature on the established relationships between…

  4. Breaking the circle: Challenging Western sociocultural norms for appearance influences young women's attention to appearance-related media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischner, I.H.S.; Schie, H.T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Paying attention to thin media models may negatively affect women's self-evaluation. This study aimed to reduce the amount of attention that young women give to appearance-related information by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance, and studied the moderating role of self-esteem.

  5. Study of urban spatial utilization on socio-cultural and environment based on sustainability index (study in Denpasar city)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryananda, N. G. A. K.; Hasibuan, H. S.; Madiasworo, T.

    2018-03-01

    The rapid development of tourism and population growth in Denpasar City stimulated the dynamic changes in the spatial utilization. This study aims to analyse the impact of spatial utilization on sociocultural and environment and formulate the sustainable spatial utilization that accommodate both social and environmental aspects. This research uses methods of spatial analysis and sustainability index. The results showed that during the period of 2011 to 2015 there was an increase of settlement and tourism land uses, meanwhile at the same period the paddy field decreased. The impact of spatial utilization on sociocultural leads to unsustainable, that showed by the decreasing of the sociocultural index from 1.038 in 2011 to 1.036 in 2015. The low of sociocultural index was stated by the increasing poverty, the obedience of traditional rules of purity radius of Temple and the height limit of the building. The impact of spatial utilization on environmental leads to unsustainable, with the environmental index of 1.065 in 2011 decreased to 1.056 in 2015. The decline of environmental index is due to reduced green open space and paddy field. The strategy formulation of sustainable spatial utilization is done by integrating traditional rules into spatial planning, plan the vertical building, strengthening implementation of traditional rules, implementation of perennial paddy field, and the establishment of traditional task control unit of spatial control.

  6. The Socioculturally Constructed Multivoiced Self as a Framework for Christian Education of Second-Generation Korean American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. Steve

    2002-01-01

    This article proposes a new framework for theory and practice of Christian education for second-generation Korean American young adults using the literature of sociocultural constructionism and the multivoiced self. This framework can provide holistic nurture and future trajectories in which to encourage a reflexive, praxis-generating faith. The…

  7. Self-Reported Use of Emotional Display Rules in the Netherlands and Iran: Evidence for Sociocultural Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novin, Sheida; Banerjee, Robin; Dadkhah, Asghar; Rieffe, Carolien

    2009-01-01

    Sociocultural differences in children's use and understanding of emotional display rules have been under-researched. In the present study, 56 Dutch and 56 Iranian children aged 10-11 years took part in a structured interview about their experiences of using emotional display rules. In comparison with the Dutch children, the Iranian sample was more…

  8. Likelihood to Use Employee Assistance Programs: The Effects of Sociodemographic, Social-Psychological, Sociocultural, Organizational, and Community Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, LaCheata, And Others

    1991-01-01

    Employees (n=62) from large telephone communications company completed questionnaires assessing relationship between likelihood to use Employee Assistance Program (EAP) services and five domains: sociodemographic, social-psychological, sociocultural, organizational, and community. Found that women and individuals in higher income and educational…

  9. A Socio-Cultural Reframing of Science and Dis/ability in Education: Past Problems, Current Concerns, and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, David J.; Valle, Jan W.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we assert the value of a socio-cultural reframing of science and dis/ability in education. We begin by problematizing current issues in education pertaining to the often-unquestioned concept of dis/ability and the impact that has upon research, theory, practice, and policy. As our topic is broad, we have chosen to focus upon four…

  10. Pre- and Post-Migration Determinants of Socio-Cultural Integration of African Immigrants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, T.; de Haas, H.

    2015-01-01

    Using a unique dataset (N=2,014), we examine the pre- and post-migration determinants of socio-cultural integration among first-generation immigrant groups in southern Europe: Moroccan and Senegalese migrants in Spain, and Egyptian and Ghanaian migrants in Italy. The results of the pooled and

  11. The Relationship of Cultural Similarity, Communication Effectiveness and Uncertainty Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Jolene; Olebe, Margaret

    To investigate the relationship of cultural similarity/dissimilarity, communication effectiveness, and communication variables associated with uncertainty reduction theory, a study examined two groups of students--a multinational group living on an "international floor" in a dormitory at a state university and an unrelated group of U.S.…

  12. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  13. Self-similarity in incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Ali; Kavvas, M Levent

    2015-12-01

    The self-similarity conditions of the 3-dimensional (3D) incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained by utilizing one-parameter Lie group of point scaling transformations. It is found that the scaling exponents of length dimensions in i = 1, 2, 3 coordinates in 3-dimensions are not arbitrary but equal for the self-similarity of 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. It is also shown that the self-similarity in this particular flow process can be achieved in different time and space scales when the viscosity of the fluid is also scaled in addition to other flow variables. In other words, the self-similarity of Navier-Stokes equations is achievable under different fluid environments in the same or different gravity conditions. Self-similarity criteria due to initial and boundary conditions are also presented. Utilizing the proposed self-similarity conditions of the 3D hydrodynamic flow process, the value of a flow variable at a specified time and space can be scaled to a corresponding value in a self-similar domain at the corresponding time and space.

  14. Sociocultural tailoring of a healthy lifestyle intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd-Martin, Gia; Martinez, Maria C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Meininger, Janet C

    2013-11-27

    Suboptimal lifestyle factors in combination with genetic susceptibility contribute to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. We describe a community-academic collaboration that developed and explored the feasibility of implementing a socioculturally tailored, healthy lifestyle intervention integrating genomics and family history education to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes among Latinos. The community-based participatory research was conducted with communities in Kentucky, which has a rapidly growing Latino population. This growth underscores the need for socioculturally appropriate health resources. Su Corazon, Su Vida (Your Heart, Your Life) is a Spanish-language, healthy lifestyle educational program to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. Twenty natural leaders from an urban Latino community in Kentucky participated in sociocultural tailoring of the program and development of a genomics and family history module. The tailored program was presented to 22 participants to explore implementation feasibility and assess appropriateness for community use. Preintervention and postintervention assessments of genomic knowledge and lifestyle behaviors and qualitative postintervention evaluations were conducted. Postintervention improvements in health-promoting lifestyle choices and genomic knowledge specific to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes suggested that the program may be effective in reducing risk. Feedback indicated the program was socioculturally acceptable and responsive to community needs. These findings indicated that a tailored healthy lifestyle program integrating genomics and family history education was socioculturally appropriate and may feasibly be implemented to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in a Latino community with limited health care resources. The project highlights contributions of community-based processes in tailoring

  15. On different forms of self similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswathy, R.K.; Mathew, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Fractal geometry is mainly based on the idea of self-similar forms. To be self-similar, a shape must able to be divided into parts that are smaller copies, which are more or less similar to the whole. There are different forms of self similarity in nature and mathematics. In this paper, some of the topological properties of super self similar sets are discussed. It is proved that in a complete metric space with two or more elements, the set of all non super self similar sets are dense in the set of all non-empty compact sub sets. It is also proved that the product of self similar sets are super self similar in product metric spaces and that the super self similarity is preserved under isometry. A characterization of super self similar sets using contracting sub self similarity is also presented. Some relevant counterexamples are provided. The concepts of exact super and sub self similarity are introduced and a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be exact super self similar in terms of condensation iterated function systems (Condensation IFS’s) is obtained. A method to generate exact sub self similar sets using condensation IFS’s and the denseness of exact super self similar sets are also discussed.

  16. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  17. Socio-cultural factors of formation of musical preferences of Ukrainian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Nesterenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of social and cultural factors on the musical preferences of students in Ukraine has been analysed in the article. The following factors have been selected: the type of society and social change in the polical fields of economy, culture, technology, students, musical paradigm. The urgency of the analysis of the genesis, development and change of musical preferences of students has been proven, the necessity to study the influence of sociocultural factors on the formation of musical preferences in modern society has been grounded. This allowed characterising the musical preferences as a socio-cultural phenomenon that present signs and society, and culture of the society. It has been found that the development of technology, such as the invention and use of the gramophone, phonograph, cinema, radio, television, and later a tape recorder, computer, Internet, mobile communications and the latest gadgets, has enhanced the formation of musical preferences.It has contributed meeting the needs and inquiries of students, which are studying musical art, the use of individual trajectories of formation of formal and informal musical preferences. Formal preferences are associated with the activities of social institutions and social organizations. In this context, the musical preferences and those recommended “from above” have been considered to be two different ways of formation of musical preferences in a totalitarian society. The variety of musical preferences has been determined. State-formed musical preferences have been identified and characterized by a second method of forming a musical preferences, which is based on the perception of diversity and is not approved by the musical culture of the individually selected samples, “from below” groups, which are defined as individual and personal, or informal, musical preferences. The musical preferences of students, related to situations of social changes that have occurred in the spheres

  18. Attitudinal Dispositions of Students toward the English Language: Sociolinguistic and Sociocultural Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Erdemir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The status, value, and importance of a language is often measured by the attitudes toward that language. Learning a second or foreign language and attaining proficiency in it is closely related to the attitudes of learners toward the language. A few studies have investigated language attitudes of Turkish students toward the English language in Turkey. However, the same issue has not been explored among Turkish students learning and using the English language in a country where English is spoken as the first language.Purpose: This exploratory study investigated the attitudes of Turkish students toward learning and using English language as they lived and pursued their university degrees in a northeastern city in the United States. The study examined students’ attitudinal dispositions toward English based on sociolinguistic and sociocultural considerations.Methods: The study included 8 student participants (4 male and 4 female who were born in Turkey and spoke Turkish as their native language. They were all enrolled in a state university studying different programs in Engineering Sciences and Social Sciences. Data were collected conducting in-depth interviews with students over a two-month period. Participants were interviewed twice individually, and 16 interviews were conducted in total. Each interview took 50 to 60 minutes and was transcribed by the researcher. Data analysis included (1 intensive (rereadings of interview transcripts and identifying attitudinal themes and patterns in the data through emergent coding; and (2 making qualitative connections among themes and patterns through identifying their consistency by applying axial coding. Coded dataset was then descriptively interpreted in its entirety.Findings: Participants displayed mostly positive dispositions toward learning and using the English language; however, their attitudinal patterns varied with regards to sociolinguistic and sociocultural considerations

  19. Sociocultural perspective on organ and tissue donation among reservation-dwelling American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Stabnow, Wendy

    2005-11-01

    To discover the sociocultural patterns that influence decisions about organ and tissue donation among American Indian (AI) adults. This qualitative ethnographic study used a social-ecological framework. A snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 21 Oglala Lakota Sioux participants (age >or= 19 years) living on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using open-ended questions derived from the social-ecological perspective of Stokols (1992). Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were categorized into construct codes to identify concepts and to discover emerging themes. Personal and environmental themes regarding organ and tissue donation emerged. There were two personal themes: uncertain knowledge and the diabetes crisis. Participants knew very little about organ and tissue donation but there was a basic understanding of donor/recipient compatibility. The prevalence of diabetes in the community is contributing to a dire need for kidney donors. The diabetes crisis was acknowledged by every participant. There were three environmental themes: cultural transitions, healthcare system competence and outreach efforts. Traditional cultural beliefs such as entering the spirit world with an intact body were acknowledged. However, conversations reflected re-examination of traditional beliefs because of the need for kidney donors. The healthcare environmental context of organ and tissue donation emerged as a theme. Participants were not confident that the local health system was prepared to either address traditional beliefs about organ and tissue donation or implement a donation protocol. The final theme was the environmental context of outreach efforts. Participants desired relevant outreach targeted to the community and disseminated through local communication networks including the family, the media and tribal leaders. Sociocultural factors relevant to the personal and environmental context of the

  20. El enfoque sociocultural en el estudio del desarrollo y la educación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Martínez Rodríguez

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se abordan los fundamentos teóricos y metodológicos del enfoque sociocultural o sociohistórico del desarrollo de las funciones psicológicas superiores, que proviene de los planteamientos de Vygotsky y sus colaboradores (Luria y Leontiev. Esta teoría del desarrollo se caracteriza hacer énfasis en el origen social de los fenómenos psicológicos, y utilizar un postulado de carácter metodológico que tiene que ver con la acción mediada como unidad de análisis. Sobre la base de este enfoque, se pretende explicar las relaciones que se establecen entre el aprendizaje y el desarrollo, extendiendo las nociones de mediación semiótica y de zona de desarrollo próximo, como líneas de reflexión teórica que guían la elaboración de nuestros conceptos y las aproximaciones empíricas que hacemos en el campo de la educación. En la última parte de este ensayo se busca vincular tales planteamientos con nuestro contexto educativo y se aportan algunas consideraciones que pueden ser de utilidad para orientar la práctica educativa, así como la investigación sobre el desarrollo psicológico. AbstractThis paper focuses on the theoretical and methodological basis of the sociocultural or sociohistorical approach to the development of higher psychological processes, which derives from the work of Vygotsky’s and his colleagues’ (Luria and Leontiev. This theory of development emphasises on the social origin of the psychological phenomena, and uses a methodological postulate related to mediated action as a unit of analysis. Based on this approach, we intend to explain the relationship between learning and development, taking the notions of eemiotic mediation and proximal zone as the lines of theoretical reflection to elaborate our concepts and empirical approximations in the field of education. In the last part of the essay we try to link those postulates to our educational context. We also point out some considerations that may be

  1. Large margin classification with indefinite similarities

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim; Cisse, Moustapha; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    Classification with indefinite similarities has attracted attention in the machine learning community. This is partly due to the fact that many similarity functions that arise in practice are not symmetric positive semidefinite, i.e. the Mercer

  2. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji; Genton, Marc G.; Jun, Mikyoung

    2016-01-01

    extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi

  3. Personality similarity and life satisfaction in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Furler Katrin; Gomez Veronica; Grob Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association between personality similarity and life satisfaction in a large nationally representative sample of 1608 romantic couples. Similarity effects were computed for the Big Five personality traits as well as for personality profiles with global and differentiated indices of similarity. Results showed substantial actor and partner effects indicating that both partners' personality traits were related to both partners' life satisfaction. Personality similar...

  4. Self-similar expansion of dusts in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, H.; Yu, M.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The self-similar expansion of two species of dust particles in an equilibrium plasma is investigated by means of fluid as well as Vlasov theories. It is found that under certain conditions the density of the dust with the smaller charge-to-mass ratio can vanish at a finite value of the self-similar variable, while the density of the remaining dust species attains a plateau. The kinetic theory predicts a secondary decay in which the latter density eventually also vanishes

  5. Learning English Vocabulary in a Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL Environment: A Sociocultural Study of Migrant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kham Sila Ahmad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of a group of six non-native English speaking migrant women’s experiences learning English vocabulary in a mobile assisted language learning (MALL environment at a small community centre in Western Australia. A sociocultural approach to learning vocabulary was adopted in designing the MALL lessons that the women undertook. The women provided demographic information, responded to questions in a pre-MALL semi-structured interview, attended the MALL lessons, and completed a post-MALL semi-structured interview. This study explores the sociocultural factors that affect migrant women’s language learning in general, and vocabulary in particular. The women’s responses to MALL lessons and using the tablet reveal a positive effect in their vocabulary learning.

  6. Illness beliefs and the sociocultural context of diabetes self-management in British South Asians: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neesha R; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Bundy, Christine; Kennedy, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Reeves, David

    2015-05-10

    British South Asians have a higher incidence of diabetes and poorer health outcomes compared to the general UK population. Beliefs about diabetes are known to play an important role in self-management, yet little is known about the sociocultural context in shaping beliefs. This study aimed to explore the influence of sociocultural context on illness beliefs and diabetes self-management in British South Asians. A mixed methods approach was used. 67 participants recruited using random and purposive sampling, completed a questionnaire measuring illness beliefs, fatalism, health outcomes and demographics; 37 participants completed a social network survey interview and semi-structured interviews. Results were analysed using SPSS and thematic analysis. Quantitative data found certain social network characteristics (emotional and illness work) were related to perceived concern, emotional distress and health outcomes (p work remained a significant predictor of perceived concern and emotional distress related to diabetes (p culturally appropriate interventions to modify beliefs and support self-management in this population.

  7. The importance of socio-cultural context for understanding students' meaning making in the study of genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Anniken; Arnseth, Hans Christian

    2009-03-01

    In this rejoinder to Ann Kindfield and Grady Venville's comments on our article "Reconsidering conceptual change from a socio-cultural perspective: Analyzing students' meaning making in genetics in collaborative learning activities," we elaborate on some of the critical issues they raise. Their comments make apparent some of the crucial differences between a socio-cultural and a socio-cognitive approach towards conceptual change. We have selected some issues that are addressed, either implicitly or explicitly, in their comments. The main issues discussed are talk and interaction as data, the significance of context in interaction studies, the feasibility of generic claims in small-scale interaction studies, and the difference between studying students' understanding of science concepts as opposed to studying the construction of meaning.

  8. Social-cognitive and socio-cultural predictors of hepatitis B virus-screening in Turkish migrants, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Y J J; van Empelen, P; Looman, C W N; Richardus, J H

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important health problem in the Turkish Dutch. Screening is necessary for detection and prevention of HBV. We aimed to identify social-cognitive and socio-cultural determinants of HBV-screening intention among Turkish Dutch. A cross-sectional survey was carried out amongst 335 Turkish Dutch, aged 16-40 years. Respondents showed favorable scores for the potential determinants of HBV-screening. Attitude, perceived behaviour control, social support and social norm, and the level of satisfaction with Dutch health care proved to be directly associated with screening intention. Relevant socio-cultural beliefs were shame, stigma, the association of screening with sexuality and family values. Persons with lower screening intentions had lower scores for attitude, perceived behaviour control, social support and subjective norms, but scored higher for feelings of shame and stigma regarding hepatitis B. This study shows how cultural values and social-cognitive factors are related to HBV-screening intention.

  9. Do silêncio à polifonia : contributos da teoria sociocultural para a educação online

    OpenAIRE

    Aires, Luísa

    2003-01-01

    No presente artigo exploram-se as potencialidades da teoria sociocultural e a sua aplicação à análise dos processos educativos online. Parte-se da seguinte questão básica: qual é a relevância teórico-metodológica da teoria sociocultural para a interpretação da acção educativa, em geral, e da acção educativa online, em particular? A forte imbricação entre indivíduos, contextos e instrumentos mediadores ganha especial consistência nas investigações desenvolvidas no âmbito desta corr...

  10. Typology of Video Gamers in Croatia: Some Socio-Cultural Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Krolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a large scale online survey of the video gaming population in Croatia (N=3251 conducted in 2014. The theoretical part discusses approaches to mapping of videogaming profiles, as well as problems in defining and conceptualizing the video gamer and video gaming as a culture, relying first and foremost on compatible sociological perspectives (Crawford, 2011. The emphasis is laid on the importance of expanding the standard socio- demographic elements of profiling in order to establish a more concise typology of video gamers. The methodological part describes the instruments used, the main characteristics of the sample, as well as the cluster analysis method that was used in creating the video gamers typology. The results of the cluster analysis point to the existence of six different gaming types, grouped mainly around genre preferences but also pointing to differences considering the level of self-identification with gaming culture, intensity of playing, participatory practices and selected dimensions of value orientations. The additional analysis of the clusters shows differences among gamers in terms of technological, content-based and interaction-based characteristics of genres, concluding that specific genres are more compatible with those players that are more tolerant, whilst others are linked more to the insular and particular socio-cultural frameworks.

  11. Structural and Socio-cultural Barriers to Prenatal Care in a US Marshallese Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Britni L; Purvis, Rachel S; Bing, Williamina Ioanna; Rubon-Chutaro, Jellesen; Hawley, Nicola L; Delafield, Rebecca; Adams, Ingrid K; McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2018-02-22

    Objectives Pacific Islanders are disproportionately burdened by poorer perinatal health outcomes with higher rates of pre-term births, low birth weight babies, infant mortality, and inadequate or no prenatal care. The aim of this study is to examine Marshallese mothers' beliefs, perceptions, and experiences of prenatal care and to identify potential barriers. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with Marshallese mothers, who were 18 years or older, and living in Arkansas. Focus groups focused on mothers' beliefs, perceptions, and experiences of prenatal care. A thematic qualitative analysis was conducted to identify salient themes within the data. Results The results demonstrated that negotiating health insurance, transportation, and language barriers were all major structural barriers that constrain prenatal care. The social-cultural barriers that emerged included a lack of understanding of the importance of seeking early and consistent prenatal care, as well as how to navigate the healthcare process. The more complicated challenges that emerged were the feelings of shame and embarrassment due to the perception of their age or being unmarried during pregnancy not being acceptable in American culture. Furthermore, the participants described perceived discrimination from prenatal care providers. Lastly, the participants described fear as a barrier to seeking out prenatal care. Conclusions for Practice This study identified both structural and socio-cultural barriers that can be incorporated into suggestions for policy makers to aid in alleviating maternal health disparities among Pacific Islander women. Further research is needed to address the Marshallese mothers' perceived discrimination from maternal health care providers.

  12. Initial Writing Learning from a Socio-Cultural Perspective: A Learning Experience on the Research Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ivoneth Lozano Rodríguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the fundamentals of the training process of researchers on the Master in Pedagogy of the Mother Tongue context are explained. The reflection is oriented from projects that are developed in the first writing cycle. It presents the accompaniment process in the disciplinary, pedagogical, didactic and investigative field, starting from the teaching of writing problem in the first education. It starts from recognizing prescriptive and normative practices of language teaching in which writing is unknown as a social activity and the evolutionary process is not taken into account, nor a scaffolding that enhances what children already know favors their appropriation from social interaction and the granting of differentiated aid. In the same way, the article shows how, from the action research, transformative didactic proposals are being constructed, within the pedagogy by projects framework. That seek to correspond with the fundamentals of an interaction and sociocultural theory of learning and with a socio-discursive perspective of the acquisition of writing in which it is recognized as a fundamentally social, intentional, situated activity and its learning is constructed in interaction processes.

  13. Analysing young children’s thinking about natural phenomena: A sociocultural/cultural historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JILL ROBBINS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vygotsky’s sociocultural/cultural historical theory emphasised the notion of semiotic mediation – or how thinking is transformed through signs (such as language and cultural tools (such as drawings from an intermental to an intramental plane. While the ideas of Vygotsky have become well-accepted within research in early childhood education in Australia, they are somewhat slower to be adopted within science education research. Yet they offer the potential for gaining new understandings of how young children’s thinking about the world develops. This article will demonstrate one way in which aspects of Vygotsky’s (1987-1999 work, particularly his ideas about semiotic mediation can inform analysis of children’s thinking about the world. Focusing on conversations with children about natural phenomena, and drawings they completed during those conversations, the analysis identifies a number of significant issues that are not normally revealed within the dominant forms of analysis which draw on constructivist perspectives. The findings, which reveal complex and dynamic aspects of children’s thinking, have implications for both teachers and researchers working with young children – especially within science education and science education research.

  14. Sociocultural determinants of the help-seeking behavior of patients with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K M; Inui, T S; Kleinman, A M; Womack, W M

    1982-02-01

    This descriptive study employed semistructured interviewing and questionnaire administration to delineate the sociocultural determinants of the help-seeking process in 48 psychiatric patients. The help-seeking process is considered in two stages. The first stage starts from the recognition of initial symptoms and ends in the first contact with a mental health professional. The second stage is defined as that time between the first contact and actual participation in a planned treatment program. In both stages, patients typically go through phases of lay consultation, nonpsychiatric professional consultation, and referral. The multiple steps which are usually involved in help seeking often result in significant delay of both mental health contact and treatment. The help-seeking process was found to correlate strongly with ethnicity. Both Asians and Blacks showed more extended family involvement, and the involvement of key family members tended to be persistent and intensive in Asians. Ethnicity was also associated with the length of delay, with Asians showing the longest delay and Caucasians the least. These ethnic differences were also reflected in help-seeking pathway assignment using Lin's criteria. Although modernity and parochialism, as measured by the level of modernization and the cohesiveness of the social network system of the subjects, were also found to be correlated with delay, they appeared to exert an influence independent from that of ethnicity.

  15. A socio-cultural instrumental approach to emotion regulation: Culture and the regulation of positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoming; Tamir, Maya; Miyamoto, Yuri

    2018-02-01

    We propose a sociocultural instrumental approach to emotion regulation. According to this approach, cultural differences in the tendency to savor rather than dampen positive emotions should be more pronounced when people are actively pursuing goals (i.e., contexts requiring higher cognitive effort) than when they are not (i.e., contexts requiring lower cognitive efforts), because cultural beliefs about the utility of positive emotions should become most relevant when people are engaging in active goal pursuit. Four studies provided support for our theory. First, European Americans perceived more utility and less harm of positive emotions than Japanese did (Study 1). Second, European Americans reported a stronger relative preference for positive emotions than Asians, but this cultural difference was larger in high cognitive effort contexts than in moderate or low cognitive effort contexts (Study 2). Third, European Americans reported trying to savor rather than dampen positive emotions more than Asians did when preparing to take an exam, a typical high cognitive effort context (Studies 3-4), but these cultural differences were attenuated when an exam was not expected (Study 3) and disappeared when participants expected to interact with a stranger (Study 4). These findings suggest that cultural backgrounds and situational demands interact to shape how people regulate positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A socio-cultural approach to learning in the practice setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Ciara

    2010-11-01

    Practice learning is an essential part of the curriculum and accounts for approximately 60% of the current pre-registration nursing programmes in the Republic of Ireland. The nature and quality of the clinical learning environment and the student nurses\\' experience of their practice placements is recognised as being influential in promoting the integration of theory and practice. However, the problem experienced by many learners is how to relate their theoretical knowledge to the situation-at-hand within the practice setting. Socio-cultural or activity theories of learning seek to explain the social nature of learning and propose that knowledge and learning are considered to be contextually situated. Lave and Wenger (1991) argue that learning is integrated with practice and through engagement with a community of practice, by means of sponsorship; students become increasingly competent in their identity as practitioners. This paper examines the changes which have occurred within the pre-registration nursing curriculum in the Republic of Ireland with the transition from the apprenticeship system to the graduate programme, and the resulting reduction in clinical learning hours. It also examines the potential impact on the development of student learning with the implementation of the concepts proposed by Lave and Wenger to learning in the practice setting.

  17. SOCIOCULTURAL DYNAMIC OF MODERNITY: INTERACTION AND IMPACT OF MIGRATION AND SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Averina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the driving factors of socio-cultural dynamics of modernity, as one of which examines migration and its consequences. Recent wave of refugees’ giant stream from the Middle East, mainly Islamic religion, hit the quiet and secured Western Europe that was the object of their aspirations. The countries of Western Europe priority oriented on secular values are radically far from the familiar world of migrants, which exacerbates for the latter a problem of transitional period.Active participation in various forms of sports interaction and success achievement in this field is proposed and grounded in the article as the optimal way of effective inculturation of migrants in the European community. The attempt to use sport as an element of cultural innovation has been made repeatedly which shows its creative potential. Various tendencies, such as Taylorism, futurism (Russian and European, fascism, Soviet “anthroposociology”, functionalism and ideological movement of technocrats actively exploited symbols, images, features and ideas of sport. The field of sport acts as a space of opportunities for exercise, playback and development of behavior patterns as for specific individuals and for certain social groups with the subsequent carrying over to real life with a certain degree of success.

  18. Socio-cultural workshops with children and youth from the Social Occupational Therapy perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Bardi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational therapists, throughout the history, faced the need to offer actions pertaining to socio-cultural issues in different populations with whom they interact, being required to develop actions relevant to these contexts. In addition, interventions specifically within the scope of culture have also been understood as the scope of this work. Objective: To report the METUIA experience of the ‘Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo’, illustrating, from the perspective of social occupational therapy, cultural workshops and individual and territorial follow-ups during six months, in the cultural context of a suburb neighborhood in the city of Vitoria, ES, Brazil. Method: The activities collective development aimed at expanding the support of social networks, the empowerment of children and youth participants and the joint construction of processes of autonomy, social participation and life projects to their own cultural identities. Results: The cultural workshops provided the identification of different demands by the children, adolescents and young people, based on the articulation between different views and reflections that were placed in shock through the recognition of alterity between the groups and occupational therapists. Conclusion: It is hoped that the experiments described here can contribute to the consolidation of occupational therapists actions in culture, bringing elements that can promote reflections for a field that still needs to be systematized as a producer of professional practice and research, especially in the social area.

  19. The Effect of Peer Scaffolding on Developing L2 Pragmatic Knowledge: A Sociocultural Perspectiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Fakher Ajabshir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Building upon the sociocultural theory of Vygotsky, the aim of this study was to explore the immediate and delayed effects of peer scaffolding on EFL learners' comprehension and production of requests and apologies. The participants were 86 Iranian EFL learners who, drawing on their scores in the Pragmatic Listening Test (PLT and Oral Discourse Completion Test (ODCT, were homogenized in terms of their L2 pragmatic proficiency. Subsequently, they were randomly assigned to the control and scaffolding groups. Both groups received metapragmatic instruction on requests and apologies; however, the scaffolding group engaged in collaborative problem-solving tasks during which they needed to read the situations with pragmatically problematic items and jointly work out their appropriate alternatives to them. The results of pretest-posttest-delayed posttest comparison revealed the outperformance of the scaffolding group compared with the control group in both measures of comprehension and production of requests and apologies. The pragmatic gains were also found to be maintained over a period of a month. The findings have implications in language teaching and pedagogy and suggest that pragmatic knowledge is likely to emerge from assisted performance.

  20. Socio-cultural factors affecting the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada-Adegbola, H O

    2004-06-01

    There is a disproportionate share of AIDS cases over the years in Africa. This has occurred in racial and ethnic minority populations, a finding likely related to social, economic and cultural factors. Certain socio-cultural and religious practices such as polygamy and giving a daughter away in marriage without considering the social life of the man are likely contributory factors to the higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS in women in this part of the world. This is illustrated with a case of Mr. M. S. who married two wives within four months interval, having lived a promiscuous life before marriage. One of the wives was a virgin at the time of marriage. Neither of wives had any symptoms suggestive of STD or HIV before marriage, however, the three of them tested positive to HIV-1 following a visit to the special treatment clinic. He had genital herpes and his two wives also had vulvovaginal candidiasis, genital herpes and condyloma accuminata (genital warts). The husband would not want his HIV status declared to the wives. There is therefore a need to enact law on pre-marriage HIV screening for intending couples. Couple Pre-and post-test counseling must be encouraged and promoted. In addition, women should be empowered to negotiate safer sex.

  1. Sociocultural Characteristic, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors Among a Sample of Kuwaiti Male University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sejari, Maha

    2017-03-01

    In the past six decades, the Kuwaiti population has been exposed to rapid transformation in the quality of diet intake, daily activities, and career types. This major socioeconomic shift was accompanied by the introduction of both communicable and noncommunicable chronic diseases afflicting people of all ages. This article aims to detect a relationship between sociocultural characteristics-such as physical activity, dietary habits, and smoking-and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted among 262 male university students in Kuwait; participants were selected by using a convenient nonrandom opportunistic sample. Associated social and health factors were obtained using a closed-ended questionnaire. BMI and blood tests that include clusters of MetS risk components were drawn from participants in primary health care clinics. More than half of the participants were overweight and obese; 74.4% of the participants reported they did not visit a nutritionist; 69.8% said that they are currently not on a diet; 53.4% of the students were nonsmokers; 42.7% reported moderate to very low daily physical activity. The prevalence of MetS components increased among students with older age, employed, and married ( p students needs to be considered by Kuwaiti community members and the government to highlight the risk factors of MetS on individuals' well-being, quality of life, and life expectation.

  2. Sociocultural Factors that Affect Chewing Behaviors among Betel Nut Chewers and Ex-Chewers on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-12-01

    Areca nut (betel nut) is chewed by an estimated 10% of the world's population which is equivalent to about 600 million people. It is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and has been linked to various types of oral cancer. Chewing areca predominates in South and South East Asia, East Africa, and the Western Pacific and has important social and cultural implications. The purpose of the pilot study was twofold: (1) to examine sociocultural factors that affect why people on Guam chew betel nut, their chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit; and (2) to pilot two surveys (one for chewers and one for ex-chewers) to be used in a larger study in the future. A mixed methods design was employed that included surveys pertaining to their status (chewer or ex-chewer) and in-depth interviews. A total of 30 adults participated in this pilot study: adult betel nut chewers (n = 15) and ex-chewers (n = 15). Chewing betel nut is a learned behavior, embedded within the culture, and is viewed as an important cultural identifier. Socially, chewing is viewed as positive. Chewers stated that they were not as aware of health issues; however, ex-chewers stated health reasons for quitting.

  3. Private speech in teacher-learner interactions in an EFL context: A sociocultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouzar Gheisari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically framed within Vygotskyan sociocultural theory (SCT of mind, the present study investigated resurfacing of private speech markers by Iranian elementary female EFL learners in teacher-learner interactions. To this end, an elementary EFL class including 12 female learners and a same-sex teacher were selected as the participants of the study. As for the data, six 30-minute reading comprehension tasks with the interval of every two weeks were videotaped, while each participant was provided with a sensitive MP3 player to keep track of very low private speech markers. Instances of externalized private speech markers were coded and reports were generated for the patterns of private speech markers regarding their form and content. While a high number of literal translation, metalanguage, and switching to L1 mid-utterance were reported, the generated number of such private markers as self-directed questions, reading aloud, reviewing, and self-explanations in L2 was comparatively less which could be due to low L2 proficiency of the learners. The findings of the study, besides highlighting the importance of paying more attention to private speech as a mediating tool in cognitive regulation of learners in doing tasks in L2, suggest that teachers’ type of classroom practice is effective in production of private speech. Pedagogically speaking, the results suggest that instead of seeing L1 private speech markers as detrimental to L2 learning, they should be seen as signs of cognitive regulation when facing challenging tasks.

  4. Sociocultural Context of Suicidal Behaviour in the Sundarban Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of mental illness in nonfatal deliberate self-harm (DSH is controversial, especially in Asian countries. This prospective study examined the role of psychiatric disorders, underlying social and situational problems, and triggers of DSH in a sample of 89 patients hospitalised in primary care hospitals of the Sundarban Delta, India. Data were collected by using a specially designed DSH register, Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC, and clinical interview. Psychiatric diagnosis was made following the DSM-IV guidelines. The majority of subjects were young females (74.2% and married (65.2%. Most of them (69.7% were uncertain about their “intention to die,” and pesticide poisoning was the commonest method (95.5%. Significant male-female differences were found with respect to education level, occupation, and venue of the DSH attempt. Typical stressors were conflict with spouse, guardians, or in-laws, extramarital affairs, chronic physical illness, and failed love affairs. The major depressive disorder (14.6% was the commonest psychiatric diagnosis followed by adjustment disorder (6.7%; however 60.7% of the cases had no psychiatric illness. Stressful life situations coupled with easy access to lethal pesticides stood as the risk factor. The sociocultural dynamics behind suicidal behaviour and community-specific social stressors merit detailed assessment and timely psychosocial intervention. These findings will be helpful to design community-based mental health clinical services and community action in the region.

  5. La solución de problemas cognitivos. Una reflexión cognitiva sociocultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Montealegre

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, que se basa en la psicología histórico-cultural, enfatiza la solución de problemas como función psicológica superior ligada con otras funciones psíquicas: lenguaje, pensamiento, razonamiento, etc. Presenta una reflexión sociocultural sobre la solución de problemas cognitivos al abordar: 1. El pensamiento productivo (creativo: los métodos de investigación y los instrumentos (artefactos de mediación; 2. La ciencia cognitiva: el sistema de procesamiento de información, la cognición distribuida y la formación de acciones mentales; 3. El conflicto sociocognitivo: las interacciones sociales, el conflicto estructurante, la regulación sociocognitiva y la zona de desarrollo próximo. Concluye en la necesidad de formar la solución de problemas desarrollando: el pensamiento productivo, las estrategias cognitivas y el análisis de conceptos y hechos sociales

  6. Understanding Sociocultural Factors Contributing to HIV Risk Among Ayoreo Bolivian Sex Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Entrambasaguas, Olga María; Granero-Molina, José; Hernández-Padilla, Jose; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano

    2015-01-01

    The Bolivian indigenous Ayoreo ethnic people are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Ayoreo women who also work in sex trades belong to an extremely high-risk group, and prevention programs are not delivering effective outcomes for them. The aim of our study was to explore, describe, and understand behavioral and cultural patterns related to sexual and reproductive health in Ayoreo sex workers. A qualitative-ethnographic study was designed; data were collected through participant observation and in-depth interviews with sex workers and key informants. Two fundamental themes contributing to HIV risk for female Ayoreo sex workers in Bolivia emerged: reproductive/sexual freedom and sociocultural risk determinants. We concluded that the in-depth examination of the sexual-reproductive culture amongst the Ayoreo has provided useful information, which might contribute to the cultural adaptation and design of future policies and prevention programs for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in this group. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A PERSPECTIVA SOCIOCULTURAL E A FORMAÇÃO DE PROFESSORES DE LÍNGUAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Biondo Salomão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende traçar um histórico do desenvolvimento da formação de professores de línguas no Brasil e no exterior, assim como discutir os postulados da perspectiva sociocultural, de Vygotsky, como base teórica na qual a formação pode se ancorar na contemporaneidade. Uma vez que aprender a ensinar hoje é entendido como um processo longo e complexo de desenvolvimento, resultado da participação em práticas sociais e contextos associados ao ensino e aprendizagem, pretendemos discutir de que modo tal perspectiva teórica vem ao encontro de uma visão interpretativista da realidade e propicia elementos para a (reconstrução e transformação das práticas docentes, colocando o conhecimento como íntima e dinamicamente ligado à experiência e destacando o papel do agenciamento humano em seu próprio desenvolvimento.

  8. A PERSPECTIVA SOCIOCULTURAL E A FORMAÇÃO DE PROFESSORES DE LÍNGUAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Biondo Salomão

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende traçar um histórico do desenvolvimento da formação de professores de línguas no Brasil e no exterior, assim como discutir os postulados da perspectiva sociocultural, de Vygotsky, como base teórica na qual a formação pode se ancorar na contemporaneidade. Uma vez que aprender a ensinar hoje é entendido como um processo longo e complexo de desenvolvimento, resultado da participação em práticas sociais e contextos associados ao ensino e aprendizagem, pretendemos discutir de que modo tal perspectiva teórica vem ao encontro de uma visão interpretativista da realidade e propicia elementos para a (reconstrução e transformação das práticas docentes, colocando o conhecimento como íntima e dinamicamente ligado à experiência e destacando o papel do agenciamento humano em seu próprio desenvolvimento.

  9. Linking Task-based Language Teaching and Sociocultural Theory: Private Speech and Scaffolding in Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Tahmasebi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sociocultural Theory, mediations in second language learning include (1 mediation by others (2 mediation by self (3 and mediation by artifacts, which incorporates brilliant insights for EFL contexts (Lantolf, 2000. Putting these ideas in a task-based method, the present study aimed at examining the contribution of scaffolding and private speech in improving EFL learners’ skills and seeking how learners performance might link to  social or interpersonal activities they engage in. Screened through an Oxford Placement Test, 54 EFL freshmen taking a reading comprehension course participated in this study and formed two randomly divided groups and pretested using a 30-item TOEFL test of reading comprehension. The control group benefited from a teacher, who paraphrased, summarized and provided the meaning of the new words and expressions. The experimental group was asked to do the same tasks through collaboration, private speech and artifacts. Students' performances were video-taped to be used for discourse analyses and provide measures of fluency, accuracy and complexity (Iwashita, Elder, & McNamara, 2001. Two types of measurements were used: 1 a final test of reading comprehension, 2 an oral presentation of a text whose readability matched that of the texts used during the experiment. The students' performances on presenting the text orally were rated based on the idea units recalled (Johnson, 1970. The data analysis revealed no difference between the two groups in the final test, but in oral presentation, the experimental group outperformed the control group.

  10. Sostenibilidad sociocultural del turismo: propuestas para el cantón Playas. Provincia del Guayas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lázaro Quintero Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo forma parte de la investigación “Propuesta de un Modelo de Desarrollo Turístico Sostenible para el cantón Playas, provincia del Guayas, Ecuador”. En este caso solo se hace referencia a la propuesta de un modelo de sostenibilidad sociocultural de los impactos del turismo. La investigación se realiza en el cantón Playas debido a la importancia estratégica que tiene el desarrollo del turismo para este territorio gracias a su efecto multiplicador en el resto de las actividades económicas. La metodología de la investigación ha incluido un estudio cuantitativo y cualitativo del territorio, así como, entrevistas y encuestas a los actores locales. Para lograr el objetivo de esta investigación se ha realizado un análisis social y cultural considerando los recursos patrimoniales y socioculturales de la zona. El estudio comprende programas y proyectos que permiten formular una propuesta de turismo sostenible que sea inclusiva y respetuosa con las comunidades y sus culturas.

  11. Professional nursing in Iran: an overview of its historical and sociocultural framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Lipson, Juliene G; Emami, Azita

    2004-01-01

    Nursing in Iran has progressed from the apprenticeship style of nurse training to the higher education sector, with the baccalaureate degree required for registered nurses. Despite these many changes since the Islamic Revolution, nursing is still striving for acceptance and recognition as a profession. This article describes how nursing is conceptualized and practiced in Iran and provides insight into underlying sociocultural forces that have affected the profession in recent years. Nursing education and research, the current status of nursing in the health care system, and the public image of nursing are described based on combining information from several sources: clinical experience, academic experience, and selected qualitative research findings on Iranian nurses' experiences and perceptions of their work. Because knowledge of modern Iranian nursing was inaccessible in English until very recently, this description adds to the literature on the nursing profession cross-nationally. It shows that in Iran, as in other West and East Asian countries, the image of nurses has not changed despite advances in nursing practice, education, and research, necessitating professional socialization and policy changes.

  12. Identifying Socio-Cultural Factors That Impact the Use of Open Educational Resources in Local Public Administrations

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Stoffregen; Jan M. Pawlowski; Eric Ras; Snezana Scepanovic; Dragica Zugic

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to define relevant barriers to the exchange of Open Educational Resources in local public administrations. Building upon a cultural model, eleven experts were interviewed and asked to evaluate several factors, such as openness in discourse, learning at the workplace, and superior support, among others. The result is a set of socio-cultural factors that shape the use of Open Educational Resources in public administrations. Significant factors are, in...

  13. Gender-based Restrictions in Tourism: An Example of the Phenomenon of Avaton in the Modern Socio-cultural Expanse

    OpenAIRE

    Kapilevich, L.V.; Karvounis, Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of the impact of tourism, including pilgrimage, on the socio-cultural environment of modern society, changes and reformatting of the gender restrictions of religious content. Investigated the access restrictions based on gender to objects of tourist interest as an example of socio-religious phenomenon “avaton” monastic republic of Athos in Northern Greece. Avaton regarded as a characteristic example of the alignment and sustained physical boundaries of the ...

  14. The Impact of Tourism on the Socio-Cultural Environment in the Gorce National Park and its Vicinity

    OpenAIRE

    Luberda, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the problems of tourism in terms of its relationship with the social as well as cultural environment. The purpose of the article was to examine how tourism affects the socio-cultural environment in the Gorce National Park and its vicinity. I examined whether tourist traffic in the Park brings about more benefits or problems, and whether changes taking place in communities visited by tourists are positive or negative? The impact of tourism on the socio-cult...

  15. One dimensional beam. Asymptotic and self similar solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feix, M.R.; Duranceau, J.L.; Besnard, D.

    1982-06-01

    Rescaling transformations provide a useful tool to solve nonlinear problems described by partial derivative equations. A brief review of this method is presented together with the connection with the self similar solutions obtained by compacting the independent variable with one of them (the time). The general theory is reported through examples found in Plasma Physics with a careful distinction between systems described by Hamiltonian and others where irreversible phenomena, like diffusion, are taken into account

  16. Similarity Solutions for Multiterm Time-Fractional Diffusion Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Elsaid, A.; Abdel Latif, M. S.; Maneea, M.

    2016-01-01

    Similarity method is employed to solve multiterm time-fractional diffusion equation. The orders of the fractional derivatives belong to the interval (0,1] and are defined in the Caputo sense. We illustrate how the problem is reduced from a multiterm two-variable fractional partial differential equation to a multiterm ordinary fractional differential equation. Power series solution is obtained for the resulting ordinary problem and the convergence of the series solution is discussed. Based on ...

  17. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji

    2016-07-14

    Self-similar processes have been widely used in modeling real-world phenomena occurring in environmetrics, network traffic, image processing, and stock pricing, to name but a few. The estimation of the degree of self-similarity has been studied extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi-self-similarity for a random field indexed in higher dimensions. If self-similarity is not rejected, our test provides a set of estimated self-similarity indexes. The key is to test stationarity of the inverse Lamperti transformations of the process. The inverse Lamperti transformation of a self-similar process is a strongly stationary process, revealing a theoretical connection between the two processes. To demonstrate the capability of our test, we test self-similarity of fractional Brownian motions and sheets, their time deformations and mixtures with Gaussian white noise, and the generalized Cauchy family. We also apply the self-similarity test to real data: annual minimum water levels of the Nile River, network traffic records, and surface heights of food wrappings. © 2016, International Biometric Society.

  18. Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Ockenfels, Axel

    2013-11-26

    Humans are attracted to similar others. As a consequence, social networks are homogeneous in sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and other characteristics--a principle called homophily. Despite abundant evidence showing the importance of interpersonal similarity and homophily for human relationships, their behavioral correlates and cognitive foundations are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceived similarity substantially increases altruistic punishment, a key mechanism underlying human cooperation. We induced (dis)similarity perception by manipulating basic cognitive mechanisms in an economic cooperation game that included a punishment phase. We found that similarity-focused participants were more willing to punish others' uncooperative behavior. This influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. Our findings demonstrate that pure similarity promotes reciprocity in ways known to encourage cooperation. At the same time, the increased willingness to punish norm violations among similarity-focused participants provides a rationale for why similar people are more likely to build stable social relationships. Finally, our findings show that altruistic punishment is differentially involved in encouraging cooperation under pure similarity vs. in-group conditions.

  19. Breaking the circle: challenging Western sociocultural norms for appearance influences young women's attention to appearance-related media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischner, Isabelle H S; van Schie, Hein T; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-06-01

    Paying attention to thin media models may negatively affect women's self-evaluation. This study aimed to reduce the amount of attention that young women give to appearance-related information by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance, and studied the moderating role of self-esteem. Seventy-one college women either received norm-confirming, norm-challenging, or no information regarding the sociocultural norms for appearance. Subsequently, participants' visual attention to appearance-related and neutral advertisements was measured using an eye-tracker. The results demonstrate that when no information or norm-confirming information was received, women with lower self-esteem paid more attention to the appearance-related advertisements than women with higher self-esteem. Importantly however, when norm-challenging information was received, women with lower self-esteem paid significantly less attention to the appearance-related ads than women with lower self-esteem who did not receive this manipulation. These findings indicate that challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance can attenuate the amount of attention women give to appearance-related media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aproximación a la Animación Sociocultural desde una perspectiva didáctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana CALVO SASTRE

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo principal de este artículo es plantear algunas reflexiones sobre los procesos de Animación Sociocultural desde una perspectiva didáctica. Para ello se analiza, por un lado, la relación entre la Animación Sociocultural como práctica educativa y la Didáctica como disciplina centrada en el estudio de los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Este análisis se realiza desde una perspectiva de complementariedad entendiendo la Didáctica como un marco referencial para la Animación Sociocultural y, a su vez, planteando la Animación Sociocultural como un campo que amplía los espacios de acción, reflexión e investigación de la Didáctica. Por otro lado, el apartado final del artículo se centra de manera específica en la perspectiva del Curriculum y su relación con la Animación Sociocultural. Se analizan, sobre todo, aquellas teorías que conciben la práctica del Curriculum como un proceso de investigación y, de manera más específica, aquellas que expresan una visión crítica del mismo puesto que constituyen la concepción del Curriculum en la que mejor se acomoda la Animación Sociocultural desde los planteamientos que de este concepto se realizan a lo largo del artículo.ABSTRACT: The principal objective of this article is to establish some reflections on the processes of Socio-cultural Animation («Community education» in Anglo- Saxon contexts from a didactic perspective. Thus, in one part, we analyze the relationship between Socio-cultural Animation as an educational practice and Didactics as a discipline centered on the study of teaching-learning processes. This analysis is carried out from a complementary perspective, if we understand Didactics as a referential framework for Socio-cultural Animation and, in turn, establish Sociocultural Animation as a field that extends the areas of action, reflection, and investigation of Didactics. Then, the final part of the article centers specifically on the perspective

  1. Menarche and menstruation through the eyes of pubescent students in eastern Taiwan: implications in sociocultural influence and gender differences issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2013-03-01

    Menstruation is a significant part of women's lives. It has been studied from many perspectives to draw various conclusions about biological and physiological development, gender differences, and sociocultural environments. The purpose of this study was to explore how male and female pubescent students perceive and interpret menarche and menstruation and how their perceptions reflect gender differences and the sociocultural environment in eastern Taiwan. This was an exploratory qualitative study that employed focus group interviews. Data were collected from 20 girls and 27 boys, aged 10-12 years, who were recruited from two elementary schools. Participants engaged in 19 focus group discussions, which lasted 45-60 minutes each. Discussion transcripts were collected, encoded, categorized, and analyzed using the Atlas V 5.0 software. The central theme in menarche and menstruation experiences among pubescent students in eastern Taiwan can be summarized as, "Struggling to grow up amidst contradictions," an attitude that reflects gender divisions and sociocultural representations and practices. Generally, participants' views on menstruation fell within five subthemes: "Ambiguous," "Disregarded," "Dirty," "Personal," and "Transitional." These themes were analyzed within the contexts of society, school, and family. In line with previous research, this study shows the need for more individual reproductive health consultations, reliable sex education, and well-planned health policies to assist pubescent students manage menstruation. In addition, this study suggests that the subjugation of girls and women remains a critical issue that must be addressed and challenged.

  2. Rural Hispanic populations at risk in developing diabetes: sociocultural and familial challenges in promoting a healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuman, Amy N; Scholl, Juliann C; Wilkinson, Kenton

    2013-01-01

    Type II diabetes affects Hispanic populations disproportionately and is the fifth leading cause of death for Hispanic people in the United States ( Smith & Barnett, 2005 ). Risk of diabetes is of great concern throughout the United States and is clearly of epidemic proportions for regions such as the Southwest and Texas where the primary minority populations are Mexican American. We conducted four focus groups with a total of 49 Hispanic participants (23 adults and 26 adolescents) from rural West Texas communities to gain insights about participants' eating habits, knowledge of diabetes, and potential barriers to preventive care. From the data, we identified a three-tiered predisposition or vulnerability to diabetes-heredity; preferences for unhealthy, culturally based food; and temptations from U.S. mainstream fast food culture. These vulnerabilities added to the sociocultural concerns that participants identified-importance of parental and familial modeling; challenges to healthy eating based on a culturally based diet and mainstream fast food culture; and a lack of support from the larger sociocultural networks such as teachers, community leaders, and the media. From these data, we have a better understanding of familial and sociocultural factors that need to be addressed in the development of preventive public awareness and educational plans. We outline implications for practitioners and educators from an integrated cultural biomedical approach.

  3. An idiographic and nomothetic approach to the study of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' socio-cultural stressors and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal relations of socio-cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stressors, enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination) and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors. Utilizing an idiographic and nomothetic approach, we conducted lagged analyses to examine how individuals' fluctuations in stressors predicted subsequent adjustment. Further, we investigated potential threshold effects by examining if the impact of fluctuations in stressors differed at varying levels of stressors. Mexican-origin adolescent females (N = 184) participated in yearly in-home assessments across 5 years and reported on their experiences of acculturative and enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination, depressive symptoms, and risk-taking behaviors. Findings revealed that within-person fluctuations in acculturative stressors and, to a lesser extent, perceived discrimination related to youths' depressive symptoms. For risk-taking behaviors, however, only within-person fluctuations in enculturative stressors emerged as significant. Further, a threshold effect emerged in the link between enculturative stressors and risk-taking behaviors, suggesting that fluctuations in enculturative stressors predicted changes in risk-taking behaviors at high levels of enculturative stressors but not low levels. Our findings highlight the differential relations between socio-cultural stressors and adolescent females' adjustment and suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing depressive symptoms should attend to any degree of change in socio-cultural stressors, whereas programs focused on risk-taking behaviors should be especially attuned to levels of enculturative stress.

  4. An Idiographic and Nomothetic Approach to the Study of Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers’ Socio-Cultural Stressors and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal relations of socio-cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stressors, enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination) and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors. Utilizing an idiographic and nomothetic approach, we conducted lagged analyses to examine how individuals’ fluctuations in stressors predicted subsequent adjustment. Further, we investigated potential threshold effects by examining if the impact of fluctuations in stressors differed at varying levels of stressors. Mexican-origin adolescent females (N = 184) participated in yearly in-home assessments across 5 years and reported on their experiences of acculturative and enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination, depressive symptoms, and risk-taking behaviors. Findings revealed that within-person fluctuations in acculturative stressors, and to a lesser extent, perceived discrimination, related to youths’ depressive symptoms. For risk-taking behaviors, however, only within-person fluctuations in enculturative stressors emerged as significant. Further, a threshold effect emerged in the link between enculturative stressors and risk-taking behaviors, suggesting that fluctuations in enculturative stressors predicted changes in risk-taking behaviors at high levels of enculturative stressors, but not low levels. Our findings highlight the differential relations between socio-cultural stressors and adolescent females’ adjustment, and suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing depressive symptoms should attend to any degree of change in socio-cultural stressors, whereas programs focused on risk-taking behaviors should be especially attuned to levels of enculturative stress. PMID:25099084

  5. Biological and socio-cultural factors during the school years predicting women’s lifetime educational attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, C. Emily; Cohen, Alison K.; Deardorff, Julianna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lifetime educational attainment is an important predictor of health and well-being for women in the United States. In the current study, we examine the roles of socio-cultural factors in youth and an understudied biological life event, pubertal timing, in predicting women’s lifetime educational attainment. METHODS Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (N = 3889), we conducted sequential multivariate linear regression analyses to investigate the influences of macro-level and family-level socio-cultural contextual factors in youth (region of country, urbanicity, race/ethnicity, year of birth, household composition, mother’s education, mother’s age at first birth) and early menarche, a marker of early pubertal development, on women’s educational attainment after age 24. RESULTS Pubertal timing and all socio-cultural factors in youth, other than year of birth, predicted women’s lifetime educational attainment in bivariate models. Family factors had the strongest associations. When family factors were added to multivariate models, geographic region in youth and pubertal timing were no longer significant. CONCLUSION Our findings provide additional evidence that family factors should be considered when developing comprehensive and inclusive interventions in childhood and adolescence to promote lifetime educational attainment among girls. PMID:26830508

  6. Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanador, Laura Del Pilar Cadena; Radi, Daniel Sebastián Salazar; Pinto, Luis Enrique Vásquez; Pinzón, Cristian Eduardo Pérez; Carreño, Manuel Felipe Castro

    2014-09-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable mortality. The prevalence of smoking in adolescents in high schools ranges from 23.5% to 41%, respectively. In Colombia, these figures are similar and students entering the University are exposed to initiate smoking. The purpose of this study was to establish the determinants associated with the initiation of tobacco smoking among university students. A case-control paired by sex and age study design was used. The study population was the students of a private university of Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia. The final sample consisted of 167 cases and 314 controls randomly select undergraduate university students. Data analysis was performed using a Logistic regression model adjusted by gender and age; using the initiation of tobacco smoking as the dependent variable, and as independent variables relationship with parents, history of parental smoking, university social environment, being away from hometown, steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smokes, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and Francis Score. THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT (ODDS RATIO [OR]: 32.70, 7.40-144.55), being away from hometown (OR: 3.06, 1.55-6.07), history of steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smoke (OR: 2.87, 1.43-5.76), a bad relationship with the father (OR: 8.01, 2.01-31.83), history of tobacco consumption of the mother (OR: 2.66, 1.37-5.17) and alcohol consumption (OR: 4.79, 1.91-12.00) appeared as determinants of initiation of tobacco smoking. As protector factors we found media advertisement (OR: 0.19, 0.05-0.71), light physical activity 2-3 times a week (OR: 0.33, 0.12-0.88), and a high result in Francis score (OR: 0.95, 0.919-0.99). University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco.

  7. Validation of interpersonal support evaluation list-12 (ISEL-12) scores among English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanics/Latinos from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Erin L; Roesch, Scott C; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Penedo, Frank J; Llabre, Maria M; Weitzman, Orit B; Navas-Nacher, Elena L; Perreira, Krista M; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Ponguta, Liliana A; Johnson, Timothy P; Gallo, Linda C

    2014-06-01

    The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12; Cohen, Mermelstein, Kamarck, & Hoberman, 1985) is broadly employed as a short-form measure of the traditional ISEL, which measures functional (i.e., perceived) social support. The ISEL-12 can be scored by summing the items to create an overall social support score; three subscale scores representing appraisal, belonging, and tangible social support have also been proposed. Despite extensive use, studies of the psychometric properties of ISEL-12 scores have been limited, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest and fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. The current study investigated the reliability and structural and convergent validity of ISEL-12 scores using data from 5,313 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Participants completed measures in English or Spanish and identified their ancestry as Dominican, Central American, Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or South American. Cronbach's alphas suggested adequate internal consistency for the total score for all languages and ancestry groups; coefficients for the subscale scores were not acceptable. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the one-factor and three-factor models fit the data equally well. Results from multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a similar one-factor structure with equivalent response patterns and variances between language groups and ancestry groups. Convergent validity analyses suggested that the total social support score related to scores of social network integration, life engagement, perceived stress, and negative affect (depression, anxiety) in the expected directions.

  8. The Effect of Script Similarity on Executive Control in Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Coderre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for executive control (EC during bilingual language processing is thought to enhance these abilities, conferring a ‘bilingual advantage’ on EC tasks. Recently, the reliability and robustness of the bilingual advantage has been questioned, with many variables reportedly affecting the size and presence of the bilingual advantage. This study investigates one further variable that may affect bilingual EC abilities: the similarity of a bilingual’s two languages. We hypothesize that bilinguals whose two languages have a larger degree of orthographic overlap will require greater EC to manage their languages compared to bilinguals who use two languages with less overlap. We tested three groups of bilinguals with language pairs ranging from high- to low-similarity (German-English (GE, Polish-English (PE, and Arabic-English (AE, respectively and a group of English monolinguals on a Stroop and Simon task. Two components of the bilingual advantage were investigated: an interference advantage, such that bilinguals have smaller interference effects than monolinguals; and a global RT advantage, such that bilinguals are faster overall than monolinguals. Between bilingual groups, these effects were expected to be modulated by script similarity. AE bilinguals showed the smallest Stroop interference effects, but the longest overall RTs in both tasks. These seemingly contradictory results are explained by the presence of cross-linguistic interference in the Stroop task. We conclude that similar-script bilinguals demonstrated more effective domain-general EC than different-script bilinguals, since high orthographic overlap creates more cross-linguistic activation and increases the daily demands on cognitive control. The role of individual variation is also discussed. These results suggest that script similarity is an important variable to consider in investigations of bilingual executive control abilities.

  9. Notions of similarity for systems biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Ron; Hoehndorf, Robert; Kacprowski, Tim; Knüpfer, Christian; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Systems biology models are rapidly increasing in complexity, size and numbers. When building large models, researchers rely on software tools for the retrieval, comparison, combination and merging of models, as well as for version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of 'similarity' may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here we survey existing methods for the comparison of models, introduce quantitative measures for model similarity, and discuss potential applications of combined similarity measures. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on a combination of different model aspects. The six aspects that we define as potentially relevant for similarity are underlying encoding, references to biological entities, quantitative behaviour, qualitative behaviour, mathematical equations and parameters and network structure. We argue that future similarity measures will benefit from combining these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways to mimic users' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Similar speaker recognition using nonlinear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J.P.; Kim, M.S.; Baek, I.C.; Kwon, Y.H.; Lee, K.S.; Chang, S.W.; Yang, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Speech features of the conventional speaker identification system, are usually obtained by linear methods in spectral space. However, these methods have the drawback that speakers with similar voices cannot be distinguished, because the characteristics of their voices are also similar in spectral space. To overcome the difficulty in linear methods, we propose to use the correlation exponent in the nonlinear space as a new feature vector for speaker identification among persons with similar voices. We show that our proposed method surprisingly reduces the error rate of speaker identification system to speakers with similar voices

  11. Variable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, J.B.; McBride, T.R.; Covic, J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention describes an automatic variable collimator which controls the width and thickness of X-ray beams in X-ray diagnostic medical equipment, and which is particularly adapted for use with computerized axial tomographic scanners. A two-part collimator is provided which shapes an X-ray beam both prior to its entering an object subject to radiographic analysis and after the attenuated beam has passed through the object. Interposed between a source of radiation and the object subject to radiographic analysis is a first or source collimator. The source collimator causes the X-ray beam emitted by the source of radiation to be split into a plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams. Disposed within the source collimator is a movable aperture plate which may be used to selectively vary the thickness of the plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams transmitted through the source collimator. A second or receiver collimator is interposed between the object subject to radiographic analysis and a series of radiation detectors. The receiver collimator is disposed to receive the attenuated X-ray beams passing through the object subject to radiographic analysis. Located within the receiver collimator are a plurality of movable aperture plates adapted to be displaced relative to a plurality of fixed aperture plates for the purpose of varying the width and thickness of the attenuated X-ray beams transmitted through the object subject to radiographic analysis. The movable aperture plates of the source and receiver collimators are automatically controlled by circuitry which is provided to allow remote operation of the movable aperture plates

  12. On self-similar Tolman models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The self-similar spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equation for the case of dust are identified. These form a subclass of the Tolman models. These self-similar models contain the solution recently presented by Chi [J. Math. Phys. 28, 1539 (1987)], thereby refuting the claim of having found a new solution to the Einstein field equations

  13. Mining Diagnostic Assessment Data for Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara; Hunt, Earl

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for mining multiple-choice assessment data for similarity of the concepts represented by the multiple choice responses. The resulting similarity matrix can be used to visualize the distance between concepts in a lower-dimensional space. This gives an instructor a visualization of the relative difficulty of concepts…

  14. Similarity indices I: what do they measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities

  15. Measuring transferring similarity via local information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Likang; Deng, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Recommender systems have developed along with the web science, and how to measure the similarity between users is crucial for processing collaborative filtering recommendation. Many efficient models have been proposed (i.g., the Pearson coefficient) to measure the direct correlation. However, the direct correlation measures are greatly affected by the sparsity of dataset. In other words, the direct correlation measures would present an inauthentic similarity if two users have a very few commonly selected objects. Transferring similarity overcomes this drawback by considering their common neighbors (i.e., the intermediates). Yet, the transferring similarity also has its drawback since it can only provide the interval of similarity. To break the limitations, we propose the Belief Transferring Similarity (BTS) model. The contributions of BTS model are: (1) BTS model addresses the issue of the sparsity of dataset by considering the high-order similarity. (2) BTS model transforms uncertain interval to a certain state based on fuzzy systems theory. (3) BTS model is able to combine the transferring similarity of different intermediates using information fusion method. Finally, we compare BTS models with nine different link prediction methods in nine different networks, and we also illustrate the convergence property and efficiency of the BTS model.

  16. On distributional assumptions and whitened cosine similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an interpretation of the whitened cosine similarity measure as a Bayes decision rule was proposed (C. Liu, "The Bayes Decision Rule Induced Similarity Measures,'' IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1086-1090, June 2007. This communication makes th...

  17. Self-Similar Traffic In Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jerjomins, R.; Petersons, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have shown that traffic in Ethernet and other wired networks is self-similar. This paper reveals that wireless network traffic is also self-similar and long-range dependant by analyzing big amount of data captured from the wireless router.

  18. Similarity indices I: what do they measure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities.

  19. Population, Reproduction and IVF in New Caledonia: Exploring Sociocultural and Caring Dimensions of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Jane Marks

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Both sustainability and sustainable development have multiple meanings that are underpinned by diverse normative visions. Nonetheless, sustainable development is currently centre-stage at the global level. The main goal of this paper is to critically examine these important concepts, in particular their social and cultural dimensions, and to make a conceptual offering: that of ‘caring sustainable development.’ This way of thinking about sustainable development aims to grapple in a situated way with the different normative underpinnings of sustainability in order to support the building of a common future. The paper briefly examines populations, reproduction (both biological and sociocultural and human in vitro fertilization (IVF, as important sites for thinking about caring sustainable development. It draws on research in New Caledonia examining which populations and which sociocultural social practices are encouraged or sustained, or not. It finds that historically there are many examples of things and people being neglected and not cared for, or being encouraged to ‘develop’ in problematic ways. By contrast, recent practices associated with IVF suggest ways forward that would enable caring sustainable development. Résumé La durabilité et le développement durable ont des significations multiples, qui sont sous-tendues par diverses visions normatives. Néanmoins, le développement durable occupe actuellement une place centrale sur le plan mondial. Le but principal de cet article est d’examiner de manière critique ces concepts importants, en particulier leurs dimensions sociales et culturelles, et de faire une contribution conceptuelle qui est celle de la notion du ‘care dans le développement durable ’. Cette façon de penser au développement durable vise à aborder ces différents fondements normatifs, de façon localisée, pour soutenir la construction à long terme d’un futur commun. L’article examine ensuite

  20. On dogs, people, and a rabies epidemic: results from a sociocultural study in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, Maria Digna Winda; Bardosh, Kevin Louis; Sunandar; Basri, C; Basuno, E; Jatikusumah, A; Arief, R A; Putra, A A G; Rukmantara, A; Estoepangestie, A T S; Willyanto, I; Natakesuma, I K G; Sumantra, I P; Grace, D; Unger, F; Gilbert, J

    2015-01-01

    few were found to report rabid animals to livestock officers (12 %) and a significant number believed that washing a bite wound was not important (62 %). Moreover, free-roaming dog practices and discarding of unwanted female puppies still continue and possibly create difficulties for rabies elimination as these practices potentially increase the stray dog population. We identified three major sociocultural aspects with potential for community-driven interventions to optimize current rabies elimination efforts: integrating local notions of ahimsa (non-violence) into education campaigns, engaging communities through the local banjar sociopolitical system, and working with traditional legal structures to increase local compliance with rabies control. The human-dog relationship in Bali is multifaceted. Due to the uniqueness of the culture and the local beliefs, and encouraged by a socioeconomic aspect, a number of local practices were found to be constituting risk factors for continued rabies spread. Community knowledge and attitudes, which can consequently result in behavioral changes, needs to be improved across different genders, ages, educational backgrounds, and roles in the community, regardless of the individual village's experiences with rabies. Furthermore, community-driven activities based on sociocultural conditioning and community capacity at the banjar and village levels, such as public awareness activities, vaccination, dog registration, dog population management, and rapid response to dog bites, were identified as being able to complement the rabies control program in Bali. The program also needs recognition or acknowledgement from governments, especially local government as well as regular mentoring to improve and sustain community participation.