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Sample records for similar problem studied

  1. Mobile Device Impairment ... Similar Problems, Similar Solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz; Chen, Tianyi

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have defined a new type of impairment in which an able-bodied user's behaviour is impaired by both the characteristics of a device and the environment in which it is used. This behavioural change is defined as a situationally-induced impairment and is often associated with small devices used in a mobile setting or constrained…

  2. Similarity problems and completely bounded maps

    CERN Document Server

    Pisier, Gilles

    2001-01-01

    These notes revolve around three similarity problems, appearing in three different contexts, but all dealing with the space B(H) of all bounded operators on a complex Hilbert space H. The first one deals with group representations, the second one with C* -algebras and the third one with the disc algebra. We describe them in detail in the introduction which follows. This volume is devoted to the background necessary to understand these three problems, to the solutions that are known in some special cases and to numerous related concepts, results, counterexamples or extensions which their investigation has generated. While the three problems seem different, it is possible to place them in a common framework using the key concept of "complete boundedness", which we present in detail. Using this notion, the three problems can all be formulated as asking whether "boundedness" implies "complete boundedness" for linear maps satisfying certain additional algebraic identities. Two chapters have been added on the HALMO...

  3. A Quantum Approach to Subset-Sum and Similar Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Daskin, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the subset-sum problem by using a quantum heuristic approach similar to the verification circuit of quantum Arthur-Merlin games. Under described certain assumptions, we show that the exact solution of the subset sum problem my be obtained in polynomial time and the exponential speed-up over the classical algorithms may be possible. We give a numerical example and discuss the complexity of the approach and its further application to the knapsack problem.

  4. Learning by similarity in coordination problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.

    -, č. 324 (2007), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : similarity * learning * case-based reasoning Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp324.pdf

  5. Similarity solutions for phase-change problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canright, D.; Davis, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    A modification of Ivantsov's (1947) similarity solutions is proposed which can describe phase-change processes which are limited by diffusion. The method has application to systems that have n-components and possess cross-diffusion and Soret and Dufour effects, along with convection driven by density discontinuities at the two-phase interface. Local thermal equilibrium is assumed at the interface. It is shown that analytic solutions are possible when the material properties are constant.

  6. An Analysis of Looking Back Method in Problem-Based Learning: Case Study on Congruence and Similarity in Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, U.; Wahyudin, W.; Prabawanto, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to understand how learners do look back their idea of problem solving. This research is based on qualitative approach with case study design. Participants in this study were xx students of Junior High School, who were studying the material of congruence and similarity. The supporting instruments in this research are test and interview sheet. The data obtained were analyzed by coding and constant-comparison. The analysis find that there are three ways in which the students review the idea of problem solving, which is 1) carried out by comparing answers to the completion measures exemplified by learning resources; 2) carried out by examining the logical relationship between the solution and the problem; and 3) carried out by means of confirmation to the prior knowledge they have. This happens because most students learn in a mechanistic way. This study concludes that students validate the idea of problem solving obtained, influenced by teacher explanations, learning resources, and prior knowledge. Therefore, teacher explanations and learning resources contribute to the success or failure of students in solving problems.

  7. The Similar Structures and Control Problems of Complex Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the naturally evolving complex systems, such as biotic and social ones, are considered. Focusing on their structures, a feature is noteworthy, i.e., the similarity in structures. The relations between the functions and behaviors of these systems and their similar structures will be studied. Owing to the management of social systems and the course of evolution of biotic systems may be regarded as control processes, the researches will be within the scope of control problems. Moreover, since it is difficult to model for biotic and social systems, it will start with the control problems of complex systems, possessing similar structures, in engineering.The obtained results show that for either linear or nonlinear systems and for a lot of control problemssimilar structures lead to a series of simplifications. In general, the original system may be decomposed into reduced amount of subsystems with lower dimensions and simpler structures. By virtue of such subsystems, the control problems of original system can be solved more simply.At last, it turns round to observe the biotic and social systems and some analyses are given.

  8. Compressional Alfven Eigenmode Similarity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2004-11-01

    NSTX and DIII-D are nearly ideal for Alfven eigenmode (AE) similarity experiments, having similar neutral beams, fast-ion to Alfven speed v_f/v_A, fast-ion pressure, and shape of the plasma, but with a factor of 2 difference in the major radius. Toroidicity-induced AE with ˜100 kHz frequencies were compared in an earlier study [1]; this paper focuses on higher frequency AE with f ˜ 1 MHz. Compressional AE (CAE) on NSTX have a polarization, dependence on the fast-ion distribution function, frequency scaling, and low-frequency limit that are qualitatively consistent with CAE theory [2]. Global AE (GAE) are also observed. On DIII-D, coherent modes in this frequency range are observed during low-field (0.6 T) similarity experiments. Experiments will compare the CAE stability limits on DIII-D with the NSTX stability limits, with the aim of determining if CAE will be excited by alphas in a reactor. Predicted differences in the frequency splitting Δ f between excited modes will also be used. \\vspace0.25em [1] W.W. Heidbrink, et al., Plasmas Phys. Control. Fusion 45, 983 (2003). [2] E.D. Fredrickson, et al., Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report PPPL-3955 (2004).

  9. Similarities of discrete and continuous Sturm-Liouville problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghanbari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a study on the analogous properties of discrete and continuous Sturm-Liouville problems arising in matrix analysis and differential equations, respectively. Green's functions in both cases have analogous expressions in terms of the spectral data. Most of the results associated to inverse problems in both cases are identical. In particular, in both cases Weyl's m-function determines the Sturm-Liouville operators uniquely. Moreover, the well known Rayleigh-Ritz Theorem in linear algebra can be proved by using the concept of Green's function in discrete case.

  10. Several Similarity Measures of Interval Valued Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Their Application in Pattern Recognition Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interval valued neutrosophic soft set introduced by Irfan Deli in 2014[8] is a generalization of neutrosophic set introduced by F. Smarandache in 1995[19], which can be used in real scientific and engineering applications. In this paper the Hamming and Euclidean distances between two interval valued neutrosophic soft sets (IVNS sets are defined and similarity measures based on distances between two interval valued neutrosophic soft sets are proposed. Similarity measure based on set theoretic approach is also proposed. Some basic properties of similarity measures between two interval valued neutrosophic soft sets is also studied. A decision making method is established for interval valued neutrosophic soft set setting using similarity measures between IVNS sets. Finally an example is given to demonstrate the possible application of similarity measures in pattern recognition problems.

  11. Study the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Joyce S.

    1990-01-01

    The initial step of a strategic process for solving mathematical problems, "studying the question," is discussed. A lesson plan for teaching students to identify and revise arithmetic problems is presented, involving directed instruction and supervised practice. (JDD)

  12. A Numerical Framework for Self-Similar Problems in Plasticity: Indentation in Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    A new numerical framework specialized for analyzing self-similar problems in plasticity is developed. Self-similarity in plasticity is encountered in a number of different problems such as stationary cracks, void growth, indentation etc. To date, such problems are handled by traditional Lagrangian...... procedures that may be associated with severe numerical difficulties relating to sufficient discretization, moving contact points, etc. In the present work, self-similarity is exploited to construct the numerical framework that offers a simple and efficient method to handle self-similar problems in history...... numerical simulations [3] when possible. To mimic the condition for the analytical predictions, the wedge indenter is considered nearly flat and the material is perfectly plastic with a very low yield strain. Under these conditions, [1][2] proved analytically the existence of discontinuities in the slip...

  13. The self-similar field and its application to a diffusion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelitsch, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a continuum approach which accounts for self-similarity as a symmetry property of an infinite medium. A self-similar Laplacian operator is introduced which is the source of self-similar continuous fields. In this way ‘self-similar symmetry’ appears in an analogous manner as transverse isotropy or cubic symmetry of a medium. As a consequence of the self-similarity the Laplacian is a non-local fractional operator obtained as the continuum limit of the discrete self-similar Laplacian introduced recently by Michelitsch et al (2009 Phys. Rev. E 80 011135). The dispersion relation of the Laplacian and its Green’s function is deduced in closed forms. As a physical application of the approach we analyze a self-similar diffusion problem. The statistical distributions, which constitute the solutions of this problem, turn out to be Lévi-stable distributions with infinite variances characterizing the statistics of one-dimensional Lévi flights. The self-similar continuum approach introduced in this paper has the potential to be applied on a variety of scale invariant and fractal problems in physics such as in continuum mechanics, electrodynamics and in other fields. (paper)

  14. In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group Approach to the Nuclear Many-Body Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergert, Heiko; Bogner, Scott K.; Lietz, Justin G.; Morris, Titus D.; Novario, Samuel J.; Parzuchowski, Nathan M.; Yuan, Fei

    We present a pedagogical discussion of Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) methods, in particular the In-Medium SRG (IMSRG) approach for solving the nuclear many-body problem. These methods use continuous unitary transformations to evolve the nuclear Hamiltonian to a desired shape. The IMSRG, in particular, is used to decouple the ground state from all excitations and solve the many-body Schrödinger equation. We discuss the IMSRG formalism as well as its numerical implementation, and use the method to study the pairing model and infinite neutron matter. We compare our results with those of Coupled cluster theory (Chap. 8), Configuration-Interaction Monte Carlo (Chap. 9), and the Self-Consistent Green's Function approach discussed in Chap. 11 The chapter concludes with an expanded overview of current research directions, and a look ahead at upcoming developments.

  15. Local non-similarity method through the Crocco's transformation in boundary layer problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, R.G.M.

    1981-04-01

    The coordinate transformation developed by L. Crocco to obtain the solution of the compressible fluid flows over isotermal flat plates is originally employed in the present work, with the purpose of adding its inherent advantage to the Non-Similarity Method idealized by E.M. Sparrow, in the solution of the incompressible non-similar boundary layers. The Crocco's transformation is applied to the conservation equation for forced convection, laminar, constant properties and two-dimensional flows over solids. Two non-similar problems arisen from freestream velocity distribution, the cylinder in crossflow and the Howarth's retarded flow, are solved with a view to illustrating the new procedure. In those solutions the effect of frictional heat is also considered. The results of hydrodynamic and thermal problems are compared with available published information and good agreement was observed. (Author) [pt

  16. Using Response Surface Analysis to Interpret the Impact of Parent?Offspring Personality Similarity on Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, Aart; Laceulle, Odillia M.; Van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Ormel, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Personality similarity between parent and offspring has been suggested to play an important role in offspring's development of externalizing problems. Nonetheless, much remains unknown regarding the nature of this association. This study aimed to investigate the effects of parent?offspring similarity at different levels of personality traits, comparing expectations based on evolutionary and goodness?of?fit perspectives. Two waves of data from the TRAILS study (N?=?1587, 53% girls) we...

  17. The effects of similarity in sexual excitation, inhibition, and mood on sexual arousal problems and sexual satisfaction in newlywed couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Amy D; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah; Heiman, Julia R; Rafaeli, Eshkol

    2012-05-01

    Despite the importance of sexuality for romantic relationships, there has been little research attention to individual differences and dyadic variables, including couple similarity, and their association with sexual problems and satisfaction. The current study examined the effects of the propensity for sexual inhibition and sexual excitation scales (SIS/SES) and the effects of different mood states on sexuality (Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire [MSQ]), at both the individual and the dyad level, on sexual arousal problems and sexual satisfaction. Similarity in SIS/SES and MSQ was measured in a nonclinical sample of 35 newlywed couples and operationally defined as the within-couple, z-transformed correlations between the two partners' item responses. Sexual arousal problems were assessed using self-report measures (Demographic and Sexual History Questionnaire) and focused on the past 3 months. Sexual satisfaction was assessed using the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction. Regression analyses revealed that greater similarity in the effects of anxiety and stress on sexuality was associated with more reported sexual arousal problems of wives. In contrast, the husbands' sexual arousal problems were related only to their own higher SIS1 scores. Higher SES scores predicted lower sexual satisfaction for both husbands and wives. Wives who reported strong positive mood effects on their sexuality indicated greater sexual satisfaction, while husbands who were more similar to their wives in the effect of positive moods on sexuality indicated greater sexual satisfaction. The findings show that, above and beyond one's own sexual propensities, similarity in various aspects of sexuality predicts sexual problems (more so in women) and sexual satisfaction (in both men and women). © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Seismodynamics of extended underground structures and soils: Statement of the problem and self-similar solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgievskii, D. V.; Israilov, M. Sh.

    2015-07-01

    In the problems of common vibrations of extended underground structures (pipelines and tunnels) and soil, an approach of the one-dimensional deformation of the medium is developed; this approach is based on the assumption that the soil deformation in the direction of seismic wave propagation coinciding with the pipeline axis is prevailing. The analytic solutions are obtained in the cases where the wave velocity in the soil is respectively less or greater than the wave velocity in the pipeline. The parameters influencing the pipeline fracture are revealed and methods for increasing the seismic stability of such structures are given. The possibility of the pipeline fatigue fracture is pointed out. The statements and solutions of parabolic problems modeling the physical phenomena in soils in the case of discontinuous velocity on the boundaries at the initial time are given. The notion of generalized vorticity diffusion is introduced and the cases of self-similarity existence are classified. A detailed analysis is performed for the non-Newtonian polynomial fluid, the medium close in properties to the rigidly ideally plastic body, and the viscoplastic Shvedov—Bingham body. In the case of physically linear medium, new self-similar solutions are obtained which describe the process of unsteady axially symmetric shear in spherical coordinates. The first approximation to the asymptotic solution of the problem of the vortex sheet diffusion is constructed in a medium with small polynomial nonlinearity. The solutions polynomially decreasing to zero as the self-similar variable increases are proposed in the class of two-constant fluids.

  19. Exact self-similar solutions for the magnetized Noh Z pinch problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Zalesak, S. T.; Gardiner, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    A self-similar solution is derived for a radially imploding cylindrical plasma with an embedded, azimuthal magnetic field. The plasma stagnates through a strong, outward propagating shock wave of constant velocity. This analysis is an extension of the classic Noh gasdynamics problem to its ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) counterpart. The present exact solution is especially suitable as a test for MHD codes designed to simulate linear Z pinches. To demonstrate the application of the new solution to code verification, simulation results from the cylindrical R-Z version of Mach2 and the 3D Cartesian code Athena are compared against the analytic solution. Alternative routines from the default ones in Athena lead to significant improvement of the results, thereby demonstrating the utility of the self-similar solution for verification.

  20. Studies in the Hyperbolic Circle Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherubini, Giacomo

    In this thesis we study the remainder term e(s) in the hyperbolic lattice point counting problem. Our main approach to this problem is that of the spectral theory of automorphic forms. We show that the function e(s) exhibits properties similar to those of almost periodic functions, and we study d...

  1. How Are Traits Related to Problem Behavior in Preschoolers? Similarities and Contrasts between Temperament and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of empirical research relating temperament models and personality hinders conceptual integration and holds back research linking childhood traits to problem behavior or maladjustment. This study evaluates, within a sample of 443 preschoolers, the relationships between children's maladaptation and traits measured by three temperament…

  2. A nonlinear eigenvalue problem for self-similar spherical force-free magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät III, Martin-Luther Universität, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Low, B. C. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado 80307 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    An axisymmetric force-free magnetic field B(r, θ) in spherical coordinates is defined by a function r sin θB{sub φ}=Q(A) relating its azimuthal component to its poloidal flux-function A. The power law r sin θB{sub φ}=aA|A|{sup 1/n}, n a positive constant, admits separable fields with A=(A{sub n}(θ))/(r{sup n}) , posing a nonlinear boundary-value problem for the constant parameter a as an eigenvalue and A{sub n}(θ) as its eigenfunction [B. C. Low and Y. Q Lou, Astrophys. J. 352, 343 (1990)]. A complete analysis is presented of the eigenvalue spectrum for a given n, providing a unified understanding of the eigenfunctions and the physical relationship between the field's degree of multi-polarity and rate of radial decay via the parameter n. These force-free fields, self-similar on spheres of constant r, have basic astrophysical applications. As explicit solutions they have, over the years, served as standard benchmarks for testing 3D numerical codes developed to compute general force-free fields in the solar corona. The study presented includes a set of illustrative multipolar field solutions to address the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) issues underlying the observation that the solar corona has a statistical preference for negative and positive magnetic helicities in its northern and southern hemispheres, respectively; a hemispherical effect, unchanging as the Sun's global field reverses polarity in successive eleven-year cycles. Generalizing these force-free fields to the separable form B=(H(θ,φ))/(r{sup n+2}) promises field solutions of even richer topological varieties but allowing for φ-dependence greatly complicates the governing equations that have remained intractable. The axisymmetric results obtained are discussed in relation to this generalization and the Parker Magnetostatic Theorem. The axisymmetric solutions are mathematically related to a family of 3D time-dependent ideal MHD solutions for a polytropic fluid of index γ = 4

  3. The study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Woo Ghon; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-11-15

    The study was performed to investigate cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring of the Korean family by lateral cephalometric analysis. The lateral cephalograms consist of the 8 families comprising 16 parents, 5 sons and 7 daughters. In order to make an investigation of the similarity, 12 measuring points were set up, and 22 linear measurements on each depth, height and 5 angular measurements were made. The author drew up the profilograms to compare parents with offspring in each family group. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no common similarity on specific region between parents and offspring in each family group. 2. There was partial similarity between single parent and offspring. 3. The partial similarity between single parent and offspring was noted on the upper face in general.

  4. The study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Woo Ghon; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1975-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring of the Korean family by lateral cephalometric analysis. The lateral cephalograms consist of the 8 families comprising 16 parents, 5 sons and 7 daughters. In order to make an investigation of the similarity, 12 measuring points were set up, and 22 linear measurements on each depth, height and 5 angular measurements were made. The author drew up the profilograms to compare parents with offspring in each family group. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no common similarity on specific region between parents and offspring in each family group. 2. There was partial similarity between single parent and offspring. 3. The partial similarity between single parent and offspring was noted on the upper face in general.

  5. Similarities and Differences between Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Problems vs. Alcohol and Substance Use Problems in Relation to the Progressive Model of Self-stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belle Gavriel-Fried

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: People with gambling as well as substance use problems who are exposed to public stigmatization may internalize and apply it to themselves through a mechanism known as self-stigma. This study implemented the Progressive Model for Self-Stigma which consists four sequential interrelated stages: awareness, agreement, application and harm on three groups of individuals with gambling, alcohol and other substance use problems. It explored whether the two guiding assumptions of this model (each stage is precondition for the following stage which are trickle-down in nature, and correlations between proximal stages should be larger than correlations between more distant stages would differentiate people with gambling problems from those with alcohol and other substance use problems in terms of their patterns of self-stigma and in terms of the stages in the model.Method: 37 individuals with gambling problems, 60 with alcohol problems and 51 with drug problems who applied for treatment in rehabilitation centers in Israel in 2015–2016 were recruited. They completed the Self-stigma of Mental Illness Scale-Short Form which was adapted by changing the term “mental health” to gambling, alcohol or drugs, and the DSM-5-diagnostic criteria for gambling, alcohol or drug disorder.Results: The assumptions of the model were broadly confirmed: a repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that in all three groups there was a difference between first two stages (aware and agree and the latter stages (apply and harm. In addition, the gambling group differed from the drug use and alcohol groups on the awareness stage: individuals with gambling problems were less likely to be aware of stigma than people with substance use or alcohol problems.Conclusion: The internalization of stigma among individuals with gambling problems tends to work in a similar way as for those with alcohol or drug problems. The differences between the gambling group and the alcohol and other

  6. AD/HD Symptoms and Conduct Problems: Similarities and Differences in Maternal Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniadaki, Katerina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Kakouros, Efthymios; Karaba, Rania

    2006-01-01

    Several theories attempt to explain the high co-occurrence of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and Conduct Problems (CP). A strong possibility is that AD/HD behaviours lead to the development of CP, due to family coercive interaction patterns, maintained through parental false beliefs regarding child problem behaviour. We compared…

  7. Culture and postpartum mood problems: similarities and differences in the experiences of first- and second-generation Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamisachvili, Lana; Ardiles, Paola; Mancewicz, Grazyna; Thompson, Sherry; Rabin, Kapri; Ross, Lori E

    2013-04-01

    Few studies have examined the role of culture in a woman's experience of postpartum mood problems (PPMP). This study explored differences and similarities in experiences of PPMP between first- and second-generation Canadian women. In this exploratory qualitative study, we interviewed nine first-generation and eight second-generation women who were clients of the Women's Health Centre at St. Joseph's Health Centre in Toronto, Canada. Using semistructured interviews, we explored how women perceived and experienced PPMP. Four themes reflected cultural issues: PPMP stigma, relationship with parents/in-laws, internalization of society's expectations of motherhood, and identity issues/relationship with self. The results of this study contribute to a limited literature on possible contributing factors to PPMP and can inform development of resources for delivering culturally appropriate mental health care for women dealing with PPMP.

  8. Numerical study of similarity in prototype and model pumped turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z J; Wang, Z W; Bi, H L

    2014-01-01

    Similarity study of prototype and model pumped turbines are performed by numerical simulation and the partial discharge case is analysed in detail. It is found out that in the RSI (rotor-stator interaction) region where the flow is convectively accelerated with minor flow separation, a high level of similarity in flow patterns and pressure fluctuation appear with relative pressure fluctuation amplitude of model turbine slightly higher than that of prototype turbine. As for the condition in the runner where the flow is convectively accelerated with severe separation, similarity fades substantially due to different topology of flow separation and vortex formation brought by distinctive Reynolds numbers of the two turbines. In the draft tube where the flow is diffusively decelerated, similarity becomes debilitated owing to different vortex rope formation impacted by Reynolds number. It is noted that the pressure fluctuation amplitude and characteristic frequency of model turbine are larger than those of prototype turbine. The differences in pressure fluctuation characteristics are discussed theoretically through dimensionless Navier-Stokes equation. The above conclusions are all made based on simulation without regard to the penstock response and resonance

  9. Identification of spectrally similar materials using the USGS Tetracorder algorithm: The calcite-epidote-chlorite problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J.B.; Bove, D.J.; Mladinich, C.S.; Rockwell, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    A scheme to discriminate and identify materials having overlapping spectral absorption features has been developed and tested based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Tetracorder system. The scheme has been applied to remotely sensed imaging spectroscopy data acquired by the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instrument. This approach was used to identify the minerals calcite, epidote, and chlorite in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado. The study was motivated by the need to characterize the distribution of calcite in the watershed and assess its acid-neutralizing potential with regard to acidic mine drainage. Identification of these three minerals is difficult because their diagnostic spectral features are all centered at 2.3 ??m, and have similar shapes and widths. Previous studies overestimated calcite abundance as a result of these spectral overlaps. The use of a reference library containing synthetic mixtures of the three minerals in varying proportions was found to simplify the task of identifying these minerals when used in conjunction with a rule-based expert system. Some inaccuracies in the mineral distribution maps remain, however, due to the influence of a fourth spectral component, sericite, which exhibits spectral absorption features at 2.2 and 2.4 ??m that overlap the 2.3-??m absorption features of the other three minerals. Whereas the endmember minerals calcite, epidote, chlorite, and sericite can be identified by the method presented here, discrepancies occur in areas where all four occur together as intimate mixtures. It is expected that future work will be able to reduce these discrepancies by including reference mixtures containing sericite. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A study of concept-based similarity approaches for recommending program examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Roya; Brusilovsky, Peter

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates a range of concept-based example recommendation approaches that we developed to provide example-based problem-solving support in the domain of programming. The goal of these approaches is to offer students a set of most relevant remedial examples when they have trouble solving a code comprehension problem where students examine a program code to determine its output or the final value of a variable. In this paper, we use the ideas of semantic-level similarity-based linking developed in the area of intelligent hypertext to generate examples for the given problem. To determine the best-performing approach, we explored two groups of similarity approaches for selecting examples: non-structural approaches focusing on examples that are similar to the problem in terms of concept coverage and structural approaches focusing on examples that are similar to the problem by the structure of the content. We also explored the value of personalized example recommendation based on student's knowledge levels and learning goal of the exercise. The paper presents concept-based similarity approaches that we developed, explains the data collection studies and reports the result of comparative analysis. The results of our analysis showed better ranking performance of the personalized structural variant of cosine similarity approach.

  11. Spectral Classification of Similar Materials using the Tetracorder Algorithm: The Calcite-Epidote-Chlorite Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J. Brad; Bove, Dana; Mladinich, Carol; Clark, Roger; Rockwell, Barnaby; Swayze, Gregg; King, Trude; Church, Stanley

    2001-01-01

    Recent work on automated spectral classification algorithms has sought to distinguish ever-more similar materials. From modest beginnings separating shade, soil, rock and vegetation to ambitious attempts to discriminate mineral types and specific plant species, the trend seems to be toward using increasingly subtle spectral differences to perform the classification. Rule-based expert systems exploiting the underlying physics of spectroscopy such as the US Geological Society Tetracorder system are now taking advantage of the high spectral resolution and dimensionality of current imaging spectrometer designs to discriminate spectrally similar materials. The current paper details recent efforts to discriminate three minerals having absorptions centered at the same wavelength, with encouraging results.

  12. Problems of Togetherness and Similarity of Shakarim Kudayberdiyev and L.N. Tolstoy’s Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagymbay Zhumagulov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the comparative analysis of oeuvre of two great representatives of Russian and Kazakh nations – Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy and Shakarim Kudayberdiyev. Authors of article find the common features of thinkers’ talent and spirit, emphasize some facts of their lives and oeuvres. Having generalized everything told about unity and similarity of writers’ oeuvres, authors found common features in their lives, which catalyzed the eternal fight of humanism against sinister

  13. Size distribution of dust grains: A problem of self-similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, TH.; Dorschner, J.; Guertler, J.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution functions describing the results of natural processes frequently show the shape of power laws. It is an open question whether this behavior is a result simply coming about by the chosen mathematical representation of the observational data or reflects a deep-seated principle of nature. The authors suppose the latter being the case. Using a dust model consisting of silicate and graphite grains Mathis et al. (1977) showed that the interstellar extinction curve can be represented by taking a grain radii distribution of power law type n(a) varies as a(exp -p) with 3.3 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 3.6 (example 1) as a basis. A different approach to understanding power laws like that in example 1 becomes possible by the theory of self-similar processes (scale invariance). The beta model of turbulence (Frisch et al., 1978) leads in an elementary way to the concept of the self-similarity dimension D, a special case of Mandelbrot's (1977) fractal dimension. In the frame of this beta model, it is supposed that on each stage of a cascade the system decays to N clumps and that only the portion beta N remains active further on. An important feature of this model is that the active eddies become less and less space-filling. In the following, the authors assume that grain-grain collisions are such a scale-invarient process and that the remaining grains are the inactive (frozen) clumps of the cascade. In this way, a size distribution n(a) da varies as a(exp -(D+1))da (example 2) results. It seems to be highly probable that the power law character of the size distribution of interstellar dust grains is the result of a self-similarity process. We can, however, not exclude that the process leading to the interstellar grain size distribution is not fragmentation at all

  14. Similarities and Differences of the Emerging Prison Problems in England and Wales vs. Kosovo: a Sociological and Criminological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Arben Lubach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prisons are probably the most debatable institutions within the Criminal Justice System in any given country and as such demand contemporary explanation and understanding. Despite the fact that prisons affect the life of many people, not only of those incarcerated but also of their families and friends, nevertheless they do not receive the necessary attention; instead they remain the most enigmatic and less interesting organizations amongst the Criminal Justice System in general. This paper, by using a literature review approach, looks into some of the most important debates, similarities and differences respectively, about prisons in England and Wales, and Kosovo. Whilst most of the problems both countries face are of similar nature, Kosovo nevertheless faces some additional problems which are not visible in the England and Wales prisons. The paper further examines the causes of these problems in the Kosovo prisons and the involvement of the international community and their efforts in assisting Kosovo in fixing the problems in the field of corrections as part of the Kosovo state-building process. The paper will show that both countries face difficulties with similar problem areas such as overcrowding, running costs, and so on. However, compared to England and Wales, the problems Kosovo prison system is facing are of a more serious and complicated nature which require serious involvement of the Kosovo government and policy makers as well as the international community which has been present in Kosovo since 1999.

  15. Similar problems, different solutions: comparing refuse collection in the Netherlands and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, Germà; Fageda, Xavier; Dijkgraaf, Elbert; Gradus, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Because of differences in institutional arrangements, public service markets, and national traditions regarding government intervention, local public service provision can vary greatly. In this paper we compare the procedures adopted by the local governments of The Netherlands and Spain in arranging for the provision of solid waste collection. We find that Spain faces a problem of consolidation, opting more frequently to implement policies of privatization and cooperation, at the expense of competition. By contrast, The Netherlands, which has larger municipalities on average, resorts somewhat less to privatization and cooperation, and more to competition. Both options-cooperation and competition-have their merits when striving to strike a balance between transaction costs and scale economies. The choices made in organizational reform seem to be related to several factors, among which the nature of the political system and the size of municipalities appear to be relevant.

  16. Self-similar variables and the problem of nonlocal electron heat conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Bakunin, O.G.

    1993-10-01

    Self-similar solutions of the collisional electron kinetic equation are obtained for the plasmas with one (1D) and three (3D) dimensional plasma parameter inhomogeneities and arbitrary Z eff . For the plasma parameter profiles characterized by the ratio of the mean free path of thermal electrons with respect to electron-electron collisions, γ T , to the scale length of electron temperature variation, L, one obtains a criterion for determining the effect that tail particles with motion of the non-diffusive type have on the electron heat conductivity. For these conditions it is shown that the use of a open-quotes symmetrizedclose quotes kinetic equation for the investigation of the strong nonlocal effect of suprathermal electrons on the electron heat conductivity is only possible at sufficiently high Z eff (Z eff ≥ (L/γ T ) 1/2 ). In the case of 3D inhomogeneous plasma (spherical symmetry), the effect of the tail electrons on the heat transport is less pronounced since they are spread across the radius r

  17. Multidimensional Riemann problem with self-similar internal structure. Part II - Application to hyperbolic conservation laws on unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Dumbser, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Multidimensional Riemann solvers that have internal sub-structure in the strongly-interacting state have been formulated recently (D.S. Balsara (2012, 2014) [5,16]). Any multidimensional Riemann solver operates at the grid vertices and takes as its input all the states from its surrounding elements. It yields as its output an approximation of the strongly interacting state, as well as the numerical fluxes. The multidimensional Riemann problem produces a self-similar strongly-interacting state which is the result of several one-dimensional Riemann problems interacting with each other. To compute this strongly interacting state and its higher order moments we propose the use of a Galerkin-type formulation to compute the strongly interacting state and its higher order moments in terms of similarity variables. The use of substructure in the Riemann problem reduces numerical dissipation and, therefore, allows a better preservation of flow structures, like contact and shear waves. In this second part of a series of papers we describe how this technique is extended to unstructured triangular meshes. All necessary details for a practical computer code implementation are discussed. In particular, we explicitly present all the issues related to computational geometry. Because these Riemann solvers are Multidimensional and have Self-similar strongly-Interacting states that are obtained by Consistency with the conservation law, we call them MuSIC Riemann solvers. (A video introduction to multidimensional Riemann solvers is available on http://www.elsevier.com/xml/linking-roles/text/html". The MuSIC framework is sufficiently general to handle general nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple space dimensions. It can also accommodate all self-similar one-dimensional Riemann solvers and subsequently produces a multidimensional version of the same. In this paper we focus on unstructured triangular meshes. As examples of different systems of conservation laws we

  18. Problem-Oriented Project Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Danielsen, Oluf

    2012-01-01

    , providing lectures and seminars, giving assignments, and marking papers and essays is complemented and in some ways overruled by a new role as supervisor and facilitator for the group of students working with a research problem that they have picked themselves. However, different dimensions of this new...... teacher role can be observed – from expert in an academic field to a role that focuses more on processes, methodological dimensions, and the importance of a reflexive approach. In some situations, the role as social mediator is needed questioning and assisting the members of the group in the complex task...

  19. Problem-oriented project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Danielsen, Oluf

    2010-01-01

    and marking papers / essays is complemented and in some way overruled by a new role as supervisor and facilitator for the group of students working with a research problem, they themselves have picked. However different dimensions of this new teacher role can be seen – from expert in an academic field (result......-oriented focusing on how the final product demonstrates the students’ ‘correct’ way to handle the academic aspects of the subject in mind) to a role more focusing on processes, methodological dimensions and stressing the importance of a reflexive approach. Some teachers may even tend to take on a role...

  20. Response problems in a vacation panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine A. Vogt; Susan I. Stewart

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates response problems encountered in a panel study of travel behavior. Though the overall response rate to the three-wave panel study was acceptable (over 60%), three types of response problems were encountered: refusal, non-response, and attrition. In a follow-up phone survey, a sample of individuals from each problem response group was questioned...

  1. Modeling the angular motion dynamics of spacecraft with a magnetic attitude control system based on experimental studies and dynamic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkov, V. M.; Medvedskii, A. L.; Terentyev, V. V.; Firsyuk, S. O.; Shemyakov, A. O.

    2017-12-01

    The problem of spacecraft attitude control using electromagnetic systems interacting with the Earth's magnetic field is considered. A set of dimensionless parameters has been formed to investigate the spacecraft orientation regimes based on dynamically similar models. The results of experimental studies of small spacecraft with a magnetic attitude control system can be extrapolated to the in-orbit spacecraft motion control regimes by using the methods of the dimensional and similarity theory.

  2. A Microgenetic Study of Insightful Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luwel, Koen; Siegler, Robert S.; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2008-01-01

    An eight-session microgenetic study of acquisition of an insightful problem-solving strategy was conducted. A total of 35 second graders who did not use this insightful strategy initially were assigned to two groups that differed in the frequency of problems likely to facilitate discovery and generalization of the strategy. Children in the…

  3. Common Group Problems: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Sanford B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A field study of a naturally functioning group (N=125) was conducted to identify common group problems. Trained observers attended group meetings and described the problems encountered. Difficulties of cohesion, leadership, sub-group formation, and personality conflict were identified. (RC)

  4. Study on sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems. As a result of consideration, the followings were found. (1) In general, solutions to some kinds of questions can be deduced from basic laws using some theories or methodologies in the field of the natural science or engineering. The approach to resolve maintenance related social problems is similar to the approach in the natural science or engineering. (2) The points of view based on fundamental human rights, market principles and community principles, and so on, are very important in resolving maintenance related social problems and can be placed as theories or tools for resolution. (3) If such theories or tools for resolving maintenance related social problems as described above are systematically prepared, it is estimated that it becomes very much easier to resolve maintenance related social problems. (author)

  5. In Silico target fishing: addressing a "Big Data" problem by ligand-based similarity rankings with data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian; Xu, Yuan; Li, Shanshan; Wang, Yulan; Peng, Jianlong; Luo, Cheng; Luo, Xiaomin; Zheng, Mingyue; Chen, Kaixian; Jiang, Hualiang

    2014-01-01

    Ligand-based in silico target fishing can be used to identify the potential interacting target of bioactive ligands, which is useful for understanding the polypharmacology and safety profile of existing drugs. The underlying principle of the approach is that known bioactive ligands can be used as reference to predict the targets for a new compound. We tested a pipeline enabling large-scale target fishing and drug repositioning, based on simple fingerprint similarity rankings with data fusion. A large library containing 533 drug relevant targets with 179,807 active ligands was compiled, where each target was defined by its ligand set. For a given query molecule, its target profile is generated by similarity searching against the ligand sets assigned to each target, for which individual searches utilizing multiple reference structures are then fused into a single ranking list representing the potential target interaction profile of the query compound. The proposed approach was validated by 10-fold cross validation and two external tests using data from DrugBank and Therapeutic Target Database (TTD). The use of the approach was further demonstrated with some examples concerning the drug repositioning and drug side-effects prediction. The promising results suggest that the proposed method is useful for not only finding promiscuous drugs for their new usages, but also predicting some important toxic liabilities. With the rapid increasing volume and diversity of data concerning drug related targets and their ligands, the simple ligand-based target fishing approach would play an important role in assisting future drug design and discovery.

  6. The problem analysis for empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, E.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a systematic methodology for the development of a problem analysis for cross-sectional, empirical research. This methodology is referred to as the 'Annabel approach'. It is suitable both for academic studies and applied (business) studies. In addition it can be used for both

  7. Wildfire and Spatial Patterns in Forests in Northwestern Mexico: The United States Wishes It Had Similar Fire Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Stephens

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the ecological effect of wildfire is important to resource managers, especially from forests in which past anthropogenic influences, e.g., fire suppression and timber harvesting, have been limited. Changes to forest structure and regeneration patterns were documented in a relatively unique old-growth Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest in northwestern Mexico after a July 2003 wildfire. This forested area has never been harvested and fire suppression did not begin until the 1970s. Fire effects were moderate especially considering that the wildfire occurred at the end of a severe, multi-year (1999-2003 drought. Shrub consumption was an important factor in tree mortality and the dominance of Jeffrey pine increased after fire. The Baja California wildfire enhanced or maintained a patchy forest structure; similar spatial heterogeneity should be included in US forest restoration plans. Most US forest restoration plans include thinning from below to separate tree crowns and attain a narrow range for residual basal area/ha. This essentially produces uniform forest conditions over broad areas that are in strong contrast to the resilient forests in northern Baja California. In addition to producing more spatial heterogeneity in restoration plans of forests that once experienced frequent, low-moderate intensity fire regimes, increased use of US wildfire management options such as wildland fire use as well as appropriate management responses to non-natural ignitions could also be implemented at broader spatial scales to increase the amount of burning in western US forests.

  8. NONSTANDARD PROBLEMS IN STUDYING THE PROPERTIES FUNCTIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuzmich

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider two non-standard problems that may be offered to students for independent solution in the study of fundamental properties of functions in the course of mathematical analysis. These tasks are wearing creativity and contribute to a better understanding of students to concepts such as monotonicity and continuity of the function.

  9. The traveling salesman problem a computational study

    CERN Document Server

    Applegate, David L; Chvatal, Vasek; Cook, William J

    2006-01-01

    This book presents the latest findings on one of the most intensely investigated subjects in computational mathematics--the traveling salesman problem. It sounds simple enough: given a set of cities and the cost of travel between each pair of them, the problem challenges you to find the cheapest route by which to visit all the cities and return home to where you began. Though seemingly modest, this exercise has inspired studies by mathematicians, chemists, and physicists. Teachers use it in the classroom. It has practical applications in genetics, telecommunications, and neuroscience.

  10. A Comparison Study on Similarity and Dissimilarity Measures in Clustering Continuous Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Seyed Shirkhorshidi

    Full Text Available Similarity or distance measures are core components used by distance-based clustering algorithms to cluster similar data points into the same clusters, while dissimilar or distant data points are placed into different clusters. The performance of similarity measures is mostly addressed in two or three-dimensional spaces, beyond which, to the best of our knowledge, there is no empirical study that has revealed the behavior of similarity measures when dealing with high-dimensional datasets. To fill this gap, a technical framework is proposed in this study to analyze, compare and benchmark the influence of different similarity measures on the results of distance-based clustering algorithms. For reproducibility purposes, fifteen publicly available datasets were used for this study, and consequently, future distance measures can be evaluated and compared with the results of the measures discussed in this work. These datasets were classified as low and high-dimensional categories to study the performance of each measure against each category. This research should help the research community to identify suitable distance measures for datasets and also to facilitate a comparison and evaluation of the newly proposed similarity or distance measures with traditional ones.

  11. Some Problems of the Kazakh Drama Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagymbay Zhumagulov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses theoretical and literary problems of national drama in the Kazakh literary of 1960s-1980s, analyzes the most significant works, devoted to the study of innovation in the poetry and the drama of the Kazakh system of genres, comprehensively studies literary tradition in scientific and methodological literature and determined its role in the development of the Kazakh drama

  12. Several problems in accelerator shielding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Hirayama, Hideo; Ban, Shuichi.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, the utilization of accelerators has increased rapidly, and the increase of accelerating energy and beam intensity is also remarkable. The studies on accelerator shielding have become important, because the amount of radiation emitted from accelerators increased, the regulation of the dose of environmental radiation was tightened, and the cost of constructing shielding rose. As the plans of constructing large accelerators have been made successively, the survey on the present state and the problems of the studies on accelerator shielding was carried out. Accelerators are classified into electron accelerators and proton accelerators in view of the studies on shielding. In order to start the studies on accelerator shielding, first, the preparation of the cross section data is indispensable. The cross sections for generating Bremsstrahlung, photonuclear reactions generating neutrons, generation of neutrons by hadrons, nuclear reaction of neutrons and generation of gamma-ray by hadrons are described. The generation of neutrons and gamma-ray as the problems of thick targets is explained. The shielding problems are complex and diversified, but in this paper, the studies on the shielding, by which basic data are obtainable, are taken up, such as beam damping and side wall shielding. As for residual radioactivity, main nuclides and the difference of residual radioactivity according to substances have been studied. (J.P.N.)

  13. Benchmark Problems of the Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Podgorney, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelkar, Sharad M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McClure, Mark W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Danko, George [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ghassemi, Ahmad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Pengcheng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bahrami, Davood [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barbier, Charlotte [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cheng, Qinglu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chiu, Kit-Kwan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Detournay, Christine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elsworth, Derek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fang, Yi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Furtney, Jason K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gan, Quan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gao, Qian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guo, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, Yue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horne, Roland N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Kai [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Im, Kyungjae [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Norbeck, Jack [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Safari, M. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sesetty, Varahanaresh [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tao, Qingfeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); White, Signe K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wong, Yang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xia, Yidong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-02

    A diverse suite of numerical simulators is currently being applied to predict or understand the performance of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). To build confidence and identify critical development needs for these analytical tools, the United States Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office has sponsored a Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS), with participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories. A principal objective for the study was to create a community forum for improvement and verification of numerical simulators for EGS modeling. Teams participating in the study were those representing U.S. national laboratories, universities, and industries, and each team brought unique numerical simulation capabilities to bear on the problems. Two classes of problems were developed during the study, benchmark problems and challenge problems. The benchmark problems were structured to test the ability of the collection of numerical simulators to solve various combinations of coupled thermal, hydrologic, geomechanical, and geochemical processes. This class of problems was strictly defined in terms of properties, driving forces, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. Study participants submitted solutions to problems for which their simulation tools were deemed capable or nearly capable. Some participating codes were originally developed for EGS applications whereas some others were designed for different applications but can simulate processes similar to those in EGS. Solution submissions from both were encouraged. In some cases, participants made small incremental changes to their numerical simulation codes to address specific elements of the problem, and in other cases participants submitted solutions with existing simulation tools, acknowledging the limitations of the code. The challenge problems were based on the enhanced geothermal systems research conducted at Fenton Hill, near Los Alamos, New Mexico, between 1974 and 1995. The problems

  14. Predictive modeling of human perception subjectivity: feasibility study of mammographic lesion similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua; Hudson, Kathleen; Bradley, Yong; Daley, Brian J.; Frederick-Dyer, Katherine; Tourassi, Georgia

    2012-02-01

    The majority of clinical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) studies disregard human perception subjectivity, aiming to duplicate the consensus expert assessment of the visual similarity on example cases. The purpose of our study is twofold: i) discern better the extent of human perception subjectivity when assessing the visual similarity of two images with similar semantic content, and (ii) explore the feasibility of personalized predictive modeling of visual similarity. We conducted a human observer study in which five observers of various expertise were shown ninety-nine triplets of mammographic masses with similar BI-RADS descriptors and were asked to select the two masses with the highest visual relevance. Pairwise agreement ranged between poor and fair among the five observers, as assessed by the kappa statistic. The observers' self-consistency rate was remarkably low, based on repeated questions where either the orientation or the presentation order of a mass was changed. Various machine learning algorithms were explored to determine whether they can predict each observer's personalized selection using textural features. Many algorithms performed with accuracy that exceeded each observer's self-consistency rate, as determined using a cross-validation scheme. This accuracy was statistically significantly higher than would be expected by chance alone (two-tailed p-value ranged between 0.001 and 0.01 for all five personalized models). The study confirmed that human perception subjectivity should be taken into account when developing CBIR-based medical applications.

  15. Comparative Study on Water Impact Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Liang; Yang, Hao; Yan, Shiqiang; Ma, Qingwei; Bihnam, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative numerical study for the water impact problems due to dropping of triangular wedges or ship sections. In the numerical investigation, both the dynamic mesh technique and immersed boundary method adopting fixed Cartesian grids have been adopted in order to conform to the motion of the structure. For the former, a multiple-phase solver with the volume of fluid for identifying the free surface is implemented. In the simulation using this method, both the compress...

  16. Experimental Study of Dowel Bar Alternatives Based on Similarity Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichun Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a small-scaled accelerated loading test based on similarity theory and Accelerated Pavement Analyzer was developed to evaluate dowel bars with different materials and cross-sections. Jointed concrete specimen consisting of one dowel was designed as scaled model for the test, and each specimen was subjected to 864 thousand loading cycles. Deflections between jointed slabs were measured with dial indicators, and strains of the dowel bars were monitored with strain gauges. The load transfer efficiency, differential deflection, and dowel-concrete bearing stress for each case were calculated from these measurements. The test results indicated that the effect of the dowel modulus on load transfer efficiency can be characterized based on the similarity model test developed in the study. Moreover, round steel dowel was found to have similar performance to larger FRP dowel, and elliptical dowel can be preferentially considered in practice.

  17. Emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity during the Mars 520 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcová, Iva; Gushin, Vadim; Vinokhodova, Alla; Lukavský, Jirí

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the dynamics of changes in emotional energy, work self-efficacy and perceived similarity in the crew of the Mars 520 experimental study. The study comprised six volunteers, all men, between 27-38 yr of age (M = 32.16; SD = 4.99). The Mars 520 experimental study simulated all the elements of the proposed Mars mission that could be ground simulated, i.e., traveling to Mars, orbiting it, landing, and returning to Earth. During the simulation, measures of emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity were repeated every month. The data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models. Emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity gradually increased in the course of the simulation. There was no evidence for a so-called third quarter phenomenon (the most strenuous period of group isolation, psychologically, emotionally, and socially) in our data. On the contrary, work self-efficacy, emotional energy, and group cohesion (indexed here by the subject's perceived similarity to others) increased significantly in the course of the simulation, with the latter two variables showing positive growth in the group functioning.

  18. Problems in the Study of lineaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Vladimir; Kholmyanskii, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The study of linear objects in upper crust, called lineaments, led at one time to a major scientific results - discovery of the planetary regmatic network, the birth of some new tectonic concepts, establishment of new search for signs of mineral deposits. But now lineaments studied not enough for such a promising research direction. Lineament geomorphology has a number of problems. 1.Terminology problems. Lineament theme still has no generally accepted terminology base. Different scientists have different interpretations even for the definition of lineament We offer an expanded definition for it: lineaments - line features of the earth's crust, expressed by linear landforms, geological linear forms, linear anomalies of physical fields may follow each other, associated with faults. The term "lineament" is not identical to the term "fault", but always lineament - reasonable suspicion to fault, and this suspicion is justified in most cases. The structure lineament may include only the objects that are at least presumably can be attributed to the deep processes. Specialists in the lineament theme can overcome terminological problems if together create a common terminology database. 2. Methodological problems. Procedure manual selection lineaments mainly is depiction of straight line segments along the axes of linear morphostructures on some cartographic basis. Reduce the subjective factors of manual selection is possible, following a few simple rules: - The choice of optimal projection, scale and quality of cartographic basis; - Selection of the optimal type of linear objects under study; - The establishment of boundary conditions for the allocation lineament (minimum length, maximum bending, the minimum length to width ratio, etc.); - Allocation of an increasing number of lineaments - for representative sampling and reduce the influence of random errors; - Ranking lineaments: fine lines (rank 3) combined to form larger lineaments rank 2; which, when combined

  19. Studies in nonlinear problems of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matkowsky, B.J.

    1992-07-01

    Emphasis has been on combustion and flame propagation. The research program was on modeling, analysis and computation of combustion phenomena, with emphasis on transition from laminar to turbulent combustion. Nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation were investigated in the transition. Stability of combustion waves, and transitions to complex waves are described. Combustion waves possess large activation energies, so that chemical reactions are significant only in thin layers, or reaction zones. In limit of infinite activation energy, the zones shrink to moving surfaces, (fronts) which must be found during the analysis, so that (moving free boundary problems). The studies are carried out for limiting case with fronts, while the numerical studies are carried out for finite, though large, activation energy. Accurate resolution of the solution in the reaction zones is essential, otherwise false predictions of dynamics are possible. Since the the reaction zones move, adaptive pseudo-spectral methods were developed. The approach is based on a synergism of analytical and computational methods. The numerical computations build on and extend the analytical information. Furthermore, analytical solutions serve as benchmarks for testing the accuracy of the computation. Finally, ideas from analysis (singular perturbation theory) have induced new approaches to computations. The computational results suggest new analysis to be considered. Among the recent interesting results, was spatio-temporal chaos in combustion. One goal is extension of the adaptive pseudo-spectral methods to adaptive domain decomposition methods. Efforts have begun to develop such methods for problems with multiple reaction zones, corresponding to problems with more complex, and more realistic chemistry. Other topics included stochastics, oscillators, Rysteretic Josephson junctions, DC SQUID, Markov jumps, laser with saturable absorber, chemical physics, Brownian movement, combustion synthesis, etc.

  20. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  1. QSAR and docking studies of anthraquinone derivatives by similarity cluster prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsa, Alexandra M; Harsa, Teodora E; Diudea, Mircea V

    2016-01-01

    Forty anthraquinone derivatives have been downloaded from PubChem database and investigated in a quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) study. The models describing log P and LD50 of this set were built up on the hypermolecule scheme that mimics the investigated receptor space; the models were validated by the leave-one-out procedure, in the external test set and in a new version of prediction by using similarity clusters. Molecular docking approach using Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm was made on this class of anthraquinones with respect to 3Q3B receptor. The best scored molecules in the docking assay were used as leaders in the similarity clustering procedure. It is demonstrated that the LD50 data of this set of anthraquinones are related to the binding energies of anthraquinone ligands to the 3Q3B receptor.

  2. Structure modulates similarity-based interference in sluicing: An eye tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A. Harris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In cue-based content-addressable approaches to memory, a target and its competitors are retrieved in parallel from memory via a fast, associative cue-matching procedure under a severely limited focus of attention. Such a parallel matching procedure could in principle ignore the serial order or hierarchical structure characteristic of linguistic relations. I present an eye tracking while reading experiment that investigates whether the sentential position of a potential antecedent modulates the strength of similarity-based interference, a well-studied effect in which increased similarity in features between a target and its competitors results in slower and less accurate retrieval overall. The manipulation trades on an independently established Locality bias in sluiced structures to associate a wh-remnant (which ones in clausal ellipsis with the most local correlate (some wines, as in The tourists enjoyed some wines, but I don’t know which ones. The findings generally support cue-based parsing models of sentence processing that are subject to similarity-based interference in retrieval, and provide additional support to the growing body of evidence that retrieval is sensitive to both the structural position of a target antecedent and its competitors, and the specificity of retrieval cues.

  3. Self-similarity and flow characteristics of vertical-axis wind turbine wakes: an LES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Dabiri, John O.

    2017-04-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is coupled with a turbine model to study the structure of the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). In the simulations, a tuning-free anisotropic minimum dissipation model is used to parameterise the subfilter stress tensor, while the turbine-induced forces are modelled with an actuator line technique. The LES framework is first validated in the simulation of the wake behind a model straight-bladed VAWT placed in the water channel and then used to study the wake structure downwind of a full-scale VAWT sited in the atmospheric boundary layer. In particular, the self-similarity of the wake is examined, and it is found that the wake velocity deficit can be well characterised by a two-dimensional multivariate Gaussian distribution. By assuming a self-similar Gaussian distribution of the velocity deficit, and applying mass and momentum conservation, an analytical model is developed and tested to predict the maximum velocity deficit downwind of the turbine. Also, a simple parameterisation of VAWTs for LES with very coarse grid resolutions is proposed, in which the turbine is modelled as a rectangular porous plate with the same thrust coefficient. The simulation results show that, after some downwind distance (x/D ≈ 6), both actuator line and rectangular porous plate models have similar predictions for the mean velocity deficit. These results are of particular importance in simulations of large wind farms where, due to the coarse spatial resolution, the flow around individual VAWTs is not resolved.

  4. Emerging quasi-0D states at vanishing total entropy of the 1D hard sphere system: A coarse-grained similarity to the car parking problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frusawa, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    A coarse-grained system of one-dimensional (1D) hard spheres (HSs) is created using the Delaunay tessellation, which enables one to define the quasi-0D state. It is found from comparing the quasi-0D and 1D free energy densities that a frozen state due to the emergence of quasi-0D HSs is thermodynamically more favorable than fluidity with a large-scale heterogeneity above crossover volume fraction of ϕc=e/(1+e)=0.731⋯ , at which the total entropy of the 1D state vanishes. The Delaunay-based lattice mapping further provides a similarity between the dense HS system above ϕc and the jamming limit in the car parking problem.

  5. Emerging quasi-0D states at vanishing total entropy of the 1D hard sphere system: A coarse-grained similarity to the car parking problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frusawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A coarse-grained system of one-dimensional (1D) hard spheres (HSs) is created using the Delaunay tessellation, which enables one to define the quasi-0D state. It is found from comparing the quasi-0D and 1D free energy densities that a frozen state due to the emergence of quasi-0D HSs is thermodynamically more favorable than fluidity with a large-scale heterogeneity above crossover volume fraction of ϕ c =e/(1+e)=0.731⋯ , at which the total entropy of the 1D state vanishes. The Delaunay-based lattice mapping further provides a similarity between the dense HS system above ϕ c and the jamming limit in the car parking problem.

  6. Indicators of corporate financial success: Similar studies in South Africa and the USA, different results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHvH de Wet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to test whether findings by Johnson and Soenen (2003 regarding indicators of successful companies in the USA also apply to South African JSE-listed companies. Problem investigated: To date, no South African study has tried to determine the indicators of the financial success of local companies specifically along the lines of Johnson and Soenen's (2003 study. Determining whether the indicators found to be most highly significant in the US study also apply in South Africa would constitute valuable information in the South African context. Approach: The study tested the significance of the linear relationships between possible indicators of financial success and three measures of financial success for South African companies and compared them to the results of the US study. Findings: The findings revealed that the relationships are far less significant for South African companies. Value of research: The study highlighted the fact that indicators of financial success for US companies are not necessarily contributors to the success of South African listed companies and that models developed in different environments should therefore be used with caution when applied in South Africa. Conclusion: Further studies need to be undertaken in order to identify the most significant South African indicators of corporate financial success.

  7. Multidimensional Riemann problem with self-similar internal structure - part III - a multidimensional analogue of the HLLI Riemann solver for conservative hyperbolic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Nkonga, Boniface

    2017-10-01

    Just as the quality of a one-dimensional approximate Riemann solver is improved by the inclusion of internal sub-structure, the quality of a multidimensional Riemann solver is also similarly improved. Such multidimensional Riemann problems arise when multiple states come together at the vertex of a mesh. The interaction of the resulting one-dimensional Riemann problems gives rise to a strongly-interacting state. We wish to endow this strongly-interacting state with physically-motivated sub-structure. The fastest way of endowing such sub-structure consists of making a multidimensional extension of the HLLI Riemann solver for hyperbolic conservation laws. Presenting such a multidimensional analogue of the HLLI Riemann solver with linear sub-structure for use on structured meshes is the goal of this work. The multidimensional MuSIC Riemann solver documented here is universal in the sense that it can be applied to any hyperbolic conservation law. The multidimensional Riemann solver is made to be consistent with constraints that emerge naturally from the Galerkin projection of the self-similar states within the wave model. When the full eigenstructure in both directions is used in the present Riemann solver, it becomes a complete Riemann solver in a multidimensional sense. I.e., all the intermediate waves are represented in the multidimensional wave model. The work also presents, for the very first time, an important analysis of the dissipation characteristics of multidimensional Riemann solvers. The present Riemann solver results in the most efficient implementation of a multidimensional Riemann solver with sub-structure. Because it preserves stationary linearly degenerate waves, it might also help with well-balancing. Implementation-related details are presented in pointwise fashion for the one-dimensional HLLI Riemann solver as well as the multidimensional MuSIC Riemann solver.

  8. Do hospital shift charge nurses from different cultures experience similar stress? An international cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admi, Hanna; Eilon-Moshe, Yael

    2016-11-01

    There is a need to improve understanding of role stress and how it affects nurses' wellbeing, burnout and health; and hence the quality and safety of patients' care, organizational outcomes and costs. The focus is on shift charge nurses in hospitals who are accountable during a specific shift for the patients' care and staff functioning in accordance with hospital and unit policy. To compare perceptions of stress and its intensity among hospital shift charge nurses amongst three countries: Israel, USA (state of Ohio) and Thailand. A cross-sectional study was performed across three countries, focusing on a convenience sample of 2616 hospital shift charge nurses recruited from 23 general hospitals. A validated shift Charge Nurse Stress Questionnaire was used to assess impacts of four factors: patient & family complaints, lack of resources, responsibility burden and professional conflict. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic and professional characteristics of the participants. Chi square and the Fisher Exact Test were performed to test for demographic differences amongst the three samples. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare mean stress levels amongst the study samples. The mean stress level for the total sample was 2.84 (±0.71) on a Likert scale of 1-5, implying moderate stress levels. Significant differences in stress levels were found among countries, with Thai nurses scoring the highest and Israeli nurses the lowest. Similar perceptions of stress intensity were found for all countries, with the factors "responsibility burden" and "lack of resources" considered the most stressful. Israeli and American nurses perceived similar situations as stressful and different from those perceived by Thai nurses. The findings can be partially explained by demographic, professional and cultural differences. Similarities along with differences were found in the nature and levels of stress experienced across the studied countries. A

  9. Decreasing scoring errors on Wechsler Scale Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Michele L; Ray, Glen E; Zachar, Peter; Underhill, Andrea T; LoBello, Steven G

    2007-10-01

    Studies of graduate students learning to administer the Wechsler scales have generally shown that training is not associated with the development of scoring proficiency. Many studies report on the reduction of aggregated administration and scoring errors, a strategy that does not highlight the reduction of errors on subtests identified as most prone to error. This study evaluated the development of scoring proficiency specifically on the Wechsler (WISC-IV and WAIS-III) Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests during training by comparing a set of 'early test administrations' to 'later test administrations.' Twelve graduate students enrolled in an intelligence-testing course participated in the study. Scoring errors (e.g., incorrect point assignment) were evaluated on the students' actual practice administration test protocols. Errors on all three subtests declined significantly when scoring errors on 'early' sets of Wechsler scales were compared to those made on 'later' sets. However, correcting these subtest scoring errors did not cause significant changes in subtest scaled scores. Implications for clinical instruction and future research are discussed.

  10. EGS4, case study and tutor problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Tutor problems having sub-directory of EGS4 code for electron transfer through medium like metal plate of tantalum, sodium iodides radiation detectors are discussed. Semi infinite slab of material is placed in a vacuum and a pencil beam of electrons or photons is incident at the origin travelling along the Z-axis is described

  11. Numerical study on similarity of plume infrared radiation between reduced-scale solid rocket motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoying

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to determine the similarities in plume radiation between reduced and full-scale solid rocket models in ground test conditions through investigation of flow and radiation for a series of scale ratios ranging from 0.1 to 1. The radiative transfer equation (RTE considering gas and particle radiation in a non-uniform plume has been adopted and solved by the finite volume method (FVM to compute the three dimensional, spectral and directional radiation of a plume in the infrared waveband 2–6 μm. Conditions at wavelengths 2.7 μm and 4.3 μm are discussed in detail, and ratios of plume radiation for reduced-scale through full-scale models are examined. This work shows that, with increasing scale ratio of a computed rocket motor, area of the high-temperature core increases as a 2 power function of the scale ratio, and the radiation intensity of the plume increases with 2–2.5 power of the scale ratio. The infrared radiation of plume gases shows a strong spectral dependency, while that of Al2O3 particles shows spectral continuity of gray media. Spectral radiation intensity of a computed solid rocket plume’s high temperature core increases significantly in peak radiation spectra of plume gases CO and CO2. Al2O3 particles are the major radiation component in a rocket plume. There is good similarity between contours of plume spectral radiance from different scale models of computed rockets, and there are two peak spectra of radiation intensity at wavebands 2.7–3.0 μm and 4.2–4.6 μm. Directed radiation intensity of the entire plume volume will rise with increasing elevation angle.

  12. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes: a six-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is the consequence of a threatened identity due to its relative size combined with too much similarity on a vital part of its identity, namely language. To test this hypothesis, 832 high-school students from six different ethnic/national entities (France, Germany, Austria, the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the French- and Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium, and The Netherlands) completed a questionnaire on liking and similarity ratings. The results-to a large extent-showed that differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity with another nation, pose a threat to the identity of the smaller nation or ethnic group. Differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity, were associated with asymmetries in mutual liking on one hand and asymmetrical perceptions of similarity to the other country on the other hand. The conclusions of this study are consistent with findings of earlier research and stress the importance of language for a nation's identity. Moreover, the findings support social identity theory as a useful theory for understanding intergroup and international relations. Les nations voisines linguistiquement similaires qui diffèrent en taille sont souvent asymétriques dans leurs relations attitudinales l'une envers l'autre: les citoyens des nations plus petites tendent à voir les nations plus grandes comme moins sympathiques et moins semblables et vice-versa. Notre hypothèse était que la réaction des nations plus petites est la conséquence d'un sentiment de menace à l'identité dû à leur taille réduite combinée avec trop de similitudes concernant une partie vitale de leur identité: c'est-à-dire le langage. Pour

  13. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes : A six-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is

  14. Lung structure and function similarities between primary ciliary dyskinesia and mild cystic fibrosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Marco; Montella, Silvia; Mollica, Carmine; Carnovale, Vincenzo; Iacotucci, Paola; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Tosco, Antonella; Cervasio, Mariarosaria; Raia, Valeria; Santamaria, Francesca

    2017-04-12

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) are increasingly compared. There are no chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) comparative studies of PCD and CF. We assessed clinical, functional, microbiological and MRI findings in PCD and mild CF patients in order to evaluate different expression of lung disease. Twenty PCD (15.1 years) and 20 CF subjects with mild respiratory impairment (16 years, 70% with pancreatic insufficiency) underwent MRI, spirometry, and sputum cultures when clinically stable. MRI was scored using the modified Helbich system. PCD was diagnosed later than CF (9.9 versus 0.6 years, p = 0.03), despite earlier symptoms (0.1 versus 0.6 years, p = 0.02). In the year preceding the study, patients from both groups underwent two systemic antibiotic courses (p = 0.48). MRI total scores were 11.6 ± 0.7 and 9.1 ± 1 in PCD and CF, respectively. FEV 1 and FVC Z-scores were -1.75 (range, -4.6-0.7) and -0.6 (-3.9-1.8) in PCD, and -0.9 (range, -5.4-2.3) and -0.3 (-3.4-2.5) in CF, respectively. No difference was found between lung function or structure, despite a higher MRI subscore of collapse/consolidation in PCD versus CF (1.6 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.2, p < 0.001). These findings were confirmed after data-control for diagnostic delay. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were more frequent in CF than in PCD (p = 0.05 and p = 0.003, respectively). MRI is a valuable radiation-free tool for comparative PCD and CF lung disease assessment. Patients with PCD may exhibit similar MRI and lung function changes as CF subjects with mild pulmonary disease. Delay in PCD diagnosis is unlikely the only determinant of similarities.

  15. The Value Capture Brand Leaders by Own Brands. An Exploratory Study on Packaging Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Rufino Bambuy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Retail own brand are presenting growth, even with small investment in promotion. In this context, packaging can be a fundamental element in the communication of these offers to the consumer. Starting from the hypothesis that own brands adopt packaging strategies similar to the leading brands, aiming to capture brand equity, an offer set of 13 categories gathered from 3 retail chains that offer own brands was compared and attributed similarity scores. Using content analysis result in identifying high degree of similarity, when comparing own brand packaging to the leading brands of each category.

  16. A study of weld quality in ultrasonic spot welding of similar and dissimilar metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sarraf, Z; Lucas, M

    2012-01-01

    Several difficulties are faced in joining thinner sheets of similar and dissimilar materials from fusion welding processes such as resistance welding and laser welding. Ultrasonic metal welding overcomes many of these difficulties by using high frequency vibration and applied pressure to create a solid-state weld. Ultrasonic metal welding is an effective technique in joining small components, such as in wire bonding, but is also capable of joining thicker sheet, depending on the control of welding conditions. This study presents the design, characterisation and test of a lateral-drive ultrasonic metal welding device. The ultrasonic welding horn is modelled using finite element analysis and its vibration behaviour is characterised experimentally to ensure ultrasonic energy is delivered to the weld coupon. The welding stack and fixtures are then designed and mounted on a test machine to allow a series of experiments to be conducted for various welding and ultrasonic parameters. Weld strength is subsequently analysed using tensile-shear tests. Control of the vibration amplitude profile through the weld cycle is used to enhance weld strength and quality, providing an opportunity to reduce part marking. Optical microscopic examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to investigate the weld quality. The results show how the weld quality is particularly sensitive to the combination of clamping force and vibration amplitude of the welding tip.

  17. Cultural similarities and differences in medical professionalism: a multi-region study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandratilake, Madawa; McAleer, Sean; Gibson, John

    2012-03-01

    Over the last two decades, many medical educators have sought to define professionalism. Initial attempts to do so were focused on defining professionalism in a manner that allowed for universal agreement. This quest was later transformed into an effort to 'understand professionalism' as many researchers realised that professionalism is a social construct and is culture-sensitive. The determination of cultural differences in the understanding of professionalism, however, has been subject to very little research, possibly because of the practical difficulties of doing so. In this multi-region study, we illustrate the universal and culture-specific aspects of medical professionalism as it is perceived by medical practitioners. Forty-six professional attributes were identified by reviewing the literature. A total of 584 medical practitioners, representing the UK, Europe, North America and Asia, participated in a survey in which they indicated the importance of each of these attributes. We determined the 'essentialness' of each attribute in different geographic regions using the content validity index, supplemented with kappa statistics. With acceptable levels of consensus, all regional groups identified 29 attributes as 'essential', thereby indicating the universality of these professional attributes, and six attributes as non-essential. The essentialness of the rest varied by regional group. This study has helped to identify regional similarities and dissimilarities in understandings of professionalism, most of which can be explained by cultural differences in line with the theories of cultural dimensions and cultural value. However, certain dissonances among regions may well be attributable to socio-economic factors. Some of the responses appear to be counter-cultural and demonstrate practitioners' keenness to overcome cultural barriers in order to provide better patient care. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  18. Similar simulation study on the characteristics of the electric potential response to coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yue; Li, Zhonghui; Kong, Biao; Wang, Enyuan; Lou, Quan; Qiu, Liming; Kong, Xiangguo; Wang, Jiali; Dong, Mingfu; Li, Baolin

    2018-02-01

    An electric potential (EP) can be generated during the failure process of coal and rock. In this article, a similar physical model of coal rock was built and the characteristics of the EP responding to the process of coal mining were studied. The results showed that, at the early mining stage, the structure of coal rock strata were stable in the simulation model, the support stress of overlying coal rock strata was low and the maximum subsidence was little, while the EP change was less. With the advancement of the working face, the support stress of the overlying coal rock strata in the mined-out area changed dramatically, the maximum subsidence increased constantly, the deformation and destruction were aggravated, and cracks expanded continuously. Meanwhile, the EP response was significant with fluctuation. When significant macro damage appeared in coal rock strata, the EP signal fluctuation was violent. The overlying coal rock strata were influenced by gravity and mining activity. During the mining process, the crack growth and the friction, together with slip between coal and rock particles, resulted in the response of EP. The change in EP was closely related to the damage state and stress distribution of the coal rock strata. EP monitoring has the advantages of accurate reflection and strong anti-interference in the field. Therefore, with further study, an EP monitoring method could be applied for monitoring and early warning of coal and rock dynamic disaster, and risk evaluation in the future. The strength of the EP and its fluctuation degree could serve as the key discrimination indexes.

  19. Similar representations of sequence knowledge in young and older adults: A study of effector independent transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sebastiaan Barnhoorn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system.We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65 – 74 and 32 young adults (18 – 30. During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two 6-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences

  20. Similarity in Evolutionary Histories of Eocene Sediments from Subathu and Cambay Basins: Geochemical and Palaeontological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Halder, K.; Sarkar, S.

    2017-12-01

    elements may support increased erosional power, manifested as a quantitative increase in detrital flux for both the basins. So the geochemical and paleontological studies of Subathu and Cambay Shale Formations reveal similar evolutionary history in spite of their different tectonic scenario.

  1. A NUMERICAL STUDY OF UNIVERSALITY AND SELF-SIMILARITY IN SOME FAMILIES OF FORCED LOGISTIC MAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabassa, Pau; Jorba, Angel; Carles Tatjer, Joan

    We explore different two-parametric families of quasi-periodically Forced Logistic Maps looking for universality and self-similarity properties. In the bifurcation diagram of the one-dimensional Logistic Map, it is well known that there exist parameter values s(n) where the 2(n)-periodic orbit is

  2. Problems of procedure for studying crack resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, A.V.; Uskov, E.I.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures are developed for studying crack resistance in sintered hot-worked tungsten within 20-2200 deg C. Certain structural properties of the installation for studying high-temperature crack resistance of tungsten are considered. Technological peculiarities of eccentric tensile strength of tungsten specimens and methodical peculiarities of initjation and fixation of initial cracks in specimens of different tungsten alloys are studied

  3. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  4. Deep absorption line studies of quiescent galaxies at z similar z ~ 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Sune; Gallazzi, Anna Rita; Zirm, Andrew Wasmuth

    2012-01-01

    the majority of its stars at z > 3 and currently has little or no ongoing star formation. We compile a sample of three other z similar to 2 quiescent galaxies with measured velocity dispersions, two of which are also post-starburst like. Their dynamical-mass-size relation is offset significantly less than...... the stellar-mass-size relation from the local early-type relations, which we attribute to a lower central dark matter fraction. Recent cosmological merger simulations agree qualitatively with the data, but cannot fully account for the evolution in the dark matter fraction. The z similar to 2 FP requires......We present dynamical and structural scaling relations of quiescent galaxies at z = 2, including the dynamical-mass-size relation and the first constraints on the fundamental plane (FP). The backbone of the analysis is a new, very deep Very Large Telescope/X-shooter spectrum of a massive, compact...

  5. Area-wide pest management of locusts and grasshoppers: The striking similarities of problems and solutions in Africa and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Grasshoppers and locusts are among the most devastating pests of human agriculture. These insects cause serious damage to crops and forage on every arable continent, and their depredations have become the basis for legends, myths, and (in recent times) complex political and economic programmes. No pest problem spans such immense areas, with up to 8 million ha treated for rangeland grasshoppers during outbreaks in the US and 16 million km 2 prone to outbreaks of the Desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal, alone. The traditional management approach has involved extensive, regionalised control programmes, but recent trends suggest a decentralised future for grasshopper and locust management. Hence, we have a dynamic situation that presents the opportunity for a comparative analysis of the costs and benefits of an area-wide approach to pest management at different scales. As political, cultural, and communication barriers between scientists dissolve, the possibility of learning from one another's experiences (both failures and successes) promises to dramatically accelerate the rate of innovation, progress and discovery in pest management. For example, the recent advances in Reduced Agent-Area Treatments (RAAT, in which insecticide is applied to swaths, separated by untreated swaths or buffers) for management of rangeland grasshoppers in the US (Lockwood and Schell 1997) are based on the adaptation of tactics developed by African, Australian, Asian, and European scientists (Rachadi and Foucart 1996, Musuna and Mugisha 1997, Scherer and Celestin 1997, Wilps and Diop 1997, Launois and Rachadi 1997). The key to successful adaptation of management methods must begin with intellectual modesty and nationalistic humility so that the insights of non-scientists and experts from outside one's country are given respect and serious consideration. It is subsequently necessary to recognise the essential similarities and differences between land use systems and understand the

  6. Social Studies and the Problem of Evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Explores the issue of whether evil exists in the world and the best ways to confront it. Claims that the ubiquitousness of evil places a responsibility on social studies educators to address it in the classroom. Offers six suggestions for teaching students about the existence and implications of evil. (CMK)

  7. Preliminary study of some problems in deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilly, Louis; Garderet, Philippe; Lecomte, Alain; Max, Jacques

    1975-07-01

    After defining convolution operator, its physical meaning and principal properties are given. Several deconvolution methods are analysed: method of Fourier Transform and iterative numerical methods. Positivity of measured magnitude has been object of a new Yvon Biraud's method. Analytic prolongation of Fourier transform applied to unknow fonction, has been studied by M. Jean-Paul Sheidecker. An important bibliography is given [fr

  8. Study of Problems of Individual's Social Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duisenbayev, Abay K.; Baltymova, Mira R.; Akzholova, Aktoty T.; Bazargaliyev, Gabit B.; Zhumagaziyev, Arman Zh.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the study of social education of the individual as an integral process covering all stages of human development, supported by factors of modern development of children, adolescents, youth in the conditions of reforming education. Currently, the scientific literature has accumulated a sufficient fund of theoretical knowledge,…

  9. Numerical Study on Similarity of Plume’s Infrared Radiation from Reduced Scaling Solid Rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Similarity of plume radiation between reduced scaling solid rocket models and full scale ones in ground conditions has been taken for investigation. Flow and radiation of plume from solid rockets with scaling ratio from 0.1 to 1 have been computed. The radiative transfer equation (RTE is solved by the finite volume method (FVM in infrared band 2~6 μm. The spectral characteristics of plume gases have been calculated with the weighted-sum-of-gray-gas (WSGG model, and those of the Al2O3 particles have been solved by the Mie scattering model. Our research shows that, with the decreasing scaling ratio of the rocket engine, the radiation intensity of the plume decreases with 1.5~2.5 power of the scaling ratio. The infrared radiation of the plume gases shows a strong spectral dependency, while that of the Al2O3 particles shows grey property. Spectral radiation intensity of the high temperature core of the solid rocket plume increases greatly in the peak absorption spectrum of plume gases. Al2O3 particle is the major radiation composition in the rocket plume, whose scattering coefficient is much larger than its absorption coefficient. There is good similarity between spectral variations of plumes from different scaling solid rockets. The directional plume radiation rises with the increasing azimuth angle.

  10. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  11. Processes of Similarity Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Levi B.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity underlies fundamental cognitive capabilities such as memory, categorization, decision making, problem solving, and reasoning. Although recent approaches to similarity appreciate the structure of mental representations, they differ in the processes posited to operate over these representations. We present an experiment that…

  12. Guar gum and scleroglucan interactions with borax: experimental and theoretical studies of an unexpected similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Mazzuca, Claudia; Sandolo, Chiara; Margheritelli, Silvia; Alhaique, Franco; Coviello, Tommasina; Palleschi, Antonio

    2010-10-21

    Guar gum is a galactomannan that assumes a very flexible conformation in solution, while Scleroglucan is a very rigid polysaccharide that dissolves in water as triple helices. Both polymers can form gels in the presence of borax. Despite their structural differences, the freeze-dried gel systems of both polymers, when compressed to form tablets, show a peculiar anisotropic swelling in water that reflects an amazing similarity in terms of their molecular properies. In this paper the behavior of the Guar/borax gel is compared with that of Scleroglucan/borax. The macroscopic properties of the two systems were characterized in terms of rheological measurements. Atomic force microscopy images and molecular dynamics simulation allowed to evaluate, at molecular level, the effect of borax addition to the Guar polymer. Both experiments show that an increasing of the polymer rigidity is produced by borax. The role played by galactose in the side chain was also discussed.

  13. Criminological problems of studying crime consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitov R.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of crime consequences is studied as a total social and not social, direct and indirect damage caused by crime. The quantitative and qualitative indicators of these consequences are shown. It is determined that concept of crime does not embrace its consequences and victims. The qualitative indicators of crime consequences imply the consequences’ character and structure; the quantitative indicators imply cumulative consequences of certain kinds of crime, the dynamics of certain kinds of consequences and coefficient of certain crime consequences. It is proved that not only physical and juridical persons, but also the public, authorities and associations (groups of people having no indication of juridical person must be recognized as crime sufferers. It is argued that crimes can cause property and moral damage (goodwill damage, ecological damage, considerable damage of interests protected by the law, information, managerial damage and other kinds of damage. Theoretically according to criminal law a crime sufferer is a physical, juridical person, an authority, the public, group of people who suffered from physical, property, moral or other kind of damage caused by a completed or uncompleted crime. The author proves the necessity to fix the concept of crime sufferer in criminal law. The concept of victim should include Russian criminal actualities, foreign experience and embrace not only physical but also juridical persons and groups of people suffered from crimes.

  14. Antarctic Lithosphere Studies: Progress, Problems and Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W. D.; Wilson, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    In the sixty years since the International Geophysical Year, studies of the Antarctic lithosphere have progressed from basic geological observations and sparse geophysical measurements to continental-scale datasets of radiometric dates, ice thickness, bedrock topography and characteristics, seismic imaging and potential fields. These have been augmented by data from increasingly dense broadband seismic and geodetic networks. The Antarctic lithosphere is known to have been an integral part, indeed a "keystone" of the Pangea ( 250-185Ma) and Gondwanaland ( 540-180 Ma) supercontinents. It is widely believed to have been part of hypothetical earlier supercontinents Rodinia ( 1.0-0.75 Ga) and Columbia (Nuna) ( 2.0-1.5 Ga). Despite the paucity of exposure in East Antarctica, the new potential field datasets have emboldened workers to extrapolate Precambrian geological provinces and structures from neighboring continents into Antarctica. Hence models of the configuration of Columbia and its evolution into Rodinia and Gondwana have been proposed, and rift-flank uplift superimposed on a Proterozoic orogenic root has been hypothesized to explain the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains. Mesozoic-Cenozoic rifting has imparted a strong imprint on the West Antarctic lithosphere. Seismic tomographic evidence reveals lateral variation in lithospheric thickness, with the thinnest zones within the West Antarctic rift system and underlying the Amundsen Sea Embayment. Upper mantle low velocity zones are extensive, with a deeper mantle velocity anomaly underlying Marie Byrd Land marking a possible mantle plume. Misfits between crustal motions measured by GPS and GIA model predictions can, in part, be linked with the changes in lithosphere thickness and mantle rheology. Unusually high uplift rates measured by GPS in the Amundsen region can be interpreted as the response of regions with thin lithosphere and weak mantle to late Holocene ice mass loss. Horizontal displacements across the TAM

  15. The Work-Study Interface: Similarities and Differences between Ethnic Minority and Ethnic Majority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; de Meijer, Lonneke A.; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2017-01-01

    Given the poorer academic outcomes of non-Western ethnic minority students compared to ethnic majority students, we investigated whether differences exist in work-study interface between ethnic groups. We tested a work-study interface model, in which the work-related factors work-study congruence, job control, job demands, work hours, job…

  16. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards

  17. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan Sebastiaan; Döhring, Falko R.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is

  18. Study of Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems Among Medical Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Good quality sleep and adequate amount of sleep are important in order to have better cognitive performance and avoid health problems and psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates, interns and postgraduate students ...

  19. Evaluating Students' Beliefs in Problem Solving Process: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Guven, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving is not simply a process that ends when an answer is found; it is a scientific process that evolves from understanding the problem to evaluating the solution. This process is affected by several factors. Among these, one of the most substantial is belief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beliefs of high school students…

  20. Problems of Clinical Nurse Performance Appraisal System: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Nikpeyma

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study reveal that the nurse performance appraisal system confronts with various problems. Some of these problems are related to organizational context while the others concerned structure, process and results of the performance appraisal system. In order to achieve high quality of patient care as the final goal of performance appraisal, changing and revision of this system is necessary.

  1. Dimensionally similar studies of confinement and H-mode transition in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.

    2001-01-01

    Joint experiments on confinement and L-H transition were performed in ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The confinement experiments suggest that the invariance principle is not always fulfilled at high density. For the L-H transition studies, the dimensionless variables taken at the plasma edge can be in general only made identical per pair, due to the condition imposed by the L-H transition. This new approach to investigate the L-H physics suggests a weak dependence of the L-H transition mechanism on collisionality. (author)

  2. Dimensionally similar studies of confinement and H-mode transition in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.

    1999-01-01

    Joint experiments on confinement and L-H transition were performed in ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The confinement experiments suggest that the invariance principle is not always fulfilled at high density. For the L-H transition studies, the dimensionless variables taken at the plasma edge can be in general only made identical per pair, due to the condition imposed by the L-H transition. This new approach to investigate the L-H physics suggests a weak dependence of the L-H transition mechanism on collisionality. (author)

  3. A study of the predictive model on the user reaction time using the information amount and its similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Jin; Heo, Gyun Young; Chang, Soon Heung

    2004-01-01

    There are lots of studies on the user interface evaluation since it started. Recent studies focus on the contextual information of the user interface. We knew that the user reaction time increases as the amount of information increases. But, the relation between the contextual information and the user reaction time may be unknown. In this study, we proposed the similarity as one of the contextual information. We can expect that the similarity decreases the user reaction time. The goal of this study is to find some correlation about the user reaction time with both the information amount and the similarity. The experiment was performed with 20 participants. The results of experiment demonstrated our proposals

  4. Two Echelon Supply Chain Integrated Inventory Model for Similar Products: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parjane, Manoj Baburao; Dabade, Balaji Marutirao; Gulve, Milind Bhaskar

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model towards minimization of total cost across echelons in a multi-product supply chain environment. The scenario under consideration is a two-echelon supply chain system with one manufacturer, one retailer and M products. The retailer faces independent Poisson demand for each product. The retailer and the manufacturer are closely coupled in the sense that the information about any depletion in the inventory of a product at a retailer's end is immediately available to the manufacturer. Further, stock-out is backordered at the retailer's end. Thus the costs incurred at the retailer's end are the holding costs and the backorder costs. The manufacturer has only one processor which is time shared among the M products. Production changeover from one product to another entails a fixed setup cost and a fixed set up time. Each unit of a product has a production time. Considering the cost components, and assuming transportation time and cost to be negligible, the objective of the study is to minimize the expected total cost considering both the manufacturer and retailer. In the process two aspects are to be defined. Firstly, every time a product is taken up for production, how much of it (production batch size, q) should be produced. Considering a large value of q favors the manufacturer while a small value of q suits the retailers. Secondly, for a given batch size q, at what level of retailer's inventory (production queuing point), the batch size S of a product be taken up for production by the manufacturer. A higher value of S incurs more holding cost whereas a lower value of S increases the chance of backorder. A tradeoff between the holding and backorder cost must be taken into consideration while choosing an optimal value of S. It may be noted that due to multiple products and single processor, a product `taken' up for production may not get the processor immediately, and may have to wait in a queue. The `S

  5. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Caler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341 to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394, Black (n = 261, or Asian/other (n = 177. Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  6. Ethics in scientific communication: study of a problem case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R L

    1994-12-01

    The hypothermia experiments performed on humans during the Second World War at the German concentration camp in Dachau have been regarded as crimes against humanity, disguised as medical research. For almost 50 years, scientists maintained that the study produced valuable, even if not totally reliable, information. In recent years, the results from the Dachau hypothermia project were glamorized with life-saving potential and a heated ethical dialogue was activated about the use of life-saving but tainted scientific information. In the wake of the debate, an in-depth examination of the scientific rigour of the project was performed and revealed that neither the science nor the scientists from Dachau could be trusted and that the data were worthless. The body of medical opinion accepted the unfavourable determination but a few scientists and ethicists have continued to endorse the validity, of at least parts, of the Dachau hypothermia data. The conduct of the scientific communications about the Dachau hypothermia experiments by the scientific and ethical communities invites serious consideration of a possible ethical misadventure. It appears that for almost 50 years, the results of the study had been endorsed without careful examination of the scientific base of the experiments and that secondary citation of relevant original material may have been commonly employed. These infractions contributed to a myth that good science was practised by the Nazis at Dachau. The more recent emphasis on the life-saving potential of the Dachau data, without citation of credible supporting evidence, has also been misleading. Similarly, acceptance of a determination by an in-depth examination that the 'whole' Dachau project if flawed with simultaneous endorsement of the validity of 'parts' of the results, poses an ethical problem. It is advisable that before seeking ethical consultation about the use of unethically obtained data, scientists should examine the quality of science behind

  7. A study on the quantitative model of human response time using the amount and the similarity of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Jin

    2006-02-01

    The mental capacity to retain or recall information, or memory is related to human performance during processing of information. Although a large number of studies have been carried out on human performance, little is known about the similarity effect. The purpose of this study was to propose and validate a quantitative and predictive model on human response time in the user interface with the basic concepts of information amount, similarity and degree of practice. It was difficult to explain human performance by only similarity or information amount. There were two difficulties: constructing a quantitative model on human response time and validating the proposed model by experimental work. A quantitative model based on the Hick's law, the law of practice and similarity theory was developed. The model was validated under various experimental conditions by measuring the participants' response time in the environment of a computer-based display. Human performance was improved by degree of similarity and practice in the user interface. Also we found the age-related human performance which was degraded as he or she was more elder. The proposed model may be useful for training operators who will handle some interfaces and predicting human performance by changing system design

  8. Postprocedural problems in an overdenture population: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Ronald L; Qian, Fang

    2004-05-01

    This study reports on endodontic and other post-procedural problems experienced by overdenture patients from 1973 to 1996. There were 395 subjects enrolled in the study; 273 fulfilled the recall criteria. At recall, all subjects were examined by a single examiner, and appropriate maintenance care was performed. The 273 subjects had 666 abutments and 626 endodontically treated teeth; of these, 51 subjects had postprocedural problems in 81 teeth. Thus, 87.1% of the endodontically treated teeth had no postprocedural problems, and 12.9% had postprocedural problems. Of the subpopulation with postprocedural problems, the most common problem was endodontically treated teeth developing periradicular lesions (37.0%) because of recurrent caries causing loss of the restoration sealing the root canal. Twenty of the 30 teeth were successfully retreated. The next most common problem was vertical root fractures (30.9%), followed by vital teeth developing periradicular lesions (19.8%). Most of the failures could have been prevented by better oral hygiene. Vertical root fractures were statistically associated with abutments in the maxilla and opposed by natural teeth; protection of these abutments with thimble crowns could prevent fractures.

  9. Behavioral Problems in Iranian Epileptic Children; A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aludari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders in childhood, prevalence of which is increasing. Unpredictable and chronic nature of the disease affects physical, social and mental functions of the children and their family. This study was aimed to compare behavioral problems in epileptic children group versus healthy control group. Materials and Methods This study is a case-control one conducted from January 2013 to June 2016 in Tehran, Iran. The epileptic children in age of 7-10 years old that were diagnosed by neurologist referred to the researcher for further process. Their parents were provided with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL to be completed. For matching by age and gender, the healthy group was sampled after the epilepsy group. Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used for statistical analysis. Results In this study 94 children with epilepsy and 83 healthy children in age of 7-10 years old were studied. The results indicated that there were significantly higher behavioral problems in the children with epilepsy than in control group in nine categories of seclusiveness, physical complaints, anxiety and depression, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and other problems. Comparison of two generalized and partial epilepsy groups indicated that there was a significant difference only in attention problems (p = 0.024. Conclusion The present study indicates that the children with epilepsy have more behavioral problems as compared to control group. Therefore, educational and psychological interventions are necessary for supporting desirable psychosocial growth and development of such children.

  10. Radiation transformation studies: are they relevant to radiation protection problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, C.B.; Mothersill, C.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the difficulties of studying radio-carcinogenesis in humans, several in vitro systems are utilised. These cell transformation systems are reviewed, with particular emphasis on their relevance to human radiological protection problems. Most available systems use rodent fibroblasts. These are discussed in detail. Attention is drawn to certain artefacts which can cause problems with interpretation of such data. The relevance of these systems is questionable because of species differences, particularly concerning life span and because most human tumours are derived from epithelial cells. New epithelial culture systems and three-dimensional tissue culture methods becoming available are discussed in the light of their potential for addressing radiation protection problems. (author)

  11. Studies on microstructure, mechanical and pitting corrosion behaviour of similar and dissimilar stainless steel gas tungsten arc welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Raffi; Dilkush; Srinivasa Rao, K.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to weld dissimilar alloys of 5mm thick plates i.e., austenitic stainless steel (316L) and duplex stainless steel (2205) and compared with that of similar welds. Welds are made with conventional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process with two different filler wires namely i.e., 309L and 2209. Welds were characterized using optical microscopy to observe the microstructural changes and correlate with mechanical properties using hardness, tensile and impact testing. Potentio-dynamic polarization studies were carried out to observe the pitting corrosion behaviour in different regions of the welds. Results of the present study established that change in filler wire composition resulted in microstructural variation in all the welds with different morphology of ferrite and austenite. Welds made with 2209 filler showed plate like widmanstatten austenite (WA) nucleated at grain boundaries. Compared to similar stainless steel welds inferior mechanical properties was observed in dissimilar stainless steel welds. Pitting corrosion resistance is observed to be low for dissimilar stainless steel welds when compared to similar stainless steel welds. Overall study showed that similar duplex stainless steel welds having favorable microstructure and resulted in better mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Relatively dissimilar stainless steel welds made with 309L filler obtained optimum combination of mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance when compared to 2209 filler and is recommended for industrial practice.

  12. Accident data study of concrete construction companies' similarities and differences between qualified and non-qualified workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arquillos, Antonio; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Gibb, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss findings from an analysis of accidents in concrete construction companies in Spain and to compare the accident rates of qualified and non-qualified workers. A total of 125,021 accidents between 2003 and 2008 involving both blue-collar and white-collar workers were analysed, comparing the variables of occupation, age, company staff, length of service, location of the accident, together with the severity of the accidents. Results showed that lack of experience in the first month is more significant in non-qualified workers and experienced supervisors and that head injuries are more likely to lead to fatalities. The most remarkable similarity was that fatal accidents to and from the worksite are a problem common to both groups of workers.

  13. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen eVan Beek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10 and large problem size (sum > 10 and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1 and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component (LPC, which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties.

  14. Similar metabolic responses in pigs and humans to breads with different contents and compositions of dietary fibers: a metabolomics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Hartvigsen, Merete; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2014-01-01

    Background: In nutritional studies, pigs are often used as models for humans because of nutritional and physiologic similarities. However, evidence supporting similar metabolic responses to nutritional interventions is lacking. Objective: The objective was to establish whether pigs and humans...... respond similarly to a nutritional intervention. Using metabolomics, we compared the acute metabolic response to 4 test breads between conventional pigs (growing) and adult human subjects (with the metabolic syndrome). Design: Six catheterized pigs and 15 human subjects were tested in a randomized...... different basal metabolome concentrations in the plasma of pigs and humans. Humans had higher contents of phosphatidylcholines, oleic acid, and carnitine in plasma, possibly reflecting a higher intake of meats and fats. In pigs, betaine, choline, creatinine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine were higher...

  15. A study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring in cleft lip with or without palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Su Beom; Lee, Un Gyeong; Na, Seung Mog; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any similarity existed in craniofacial morphology between parents and offspring in cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 28 families comprising 28 fathers, 28 mothers and 28 cleft patients. The measurements of cleft patients compared with those of their fathers, mothers and midparents. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their fathers; ramal height (Ar-Go), mandibular angle (angle MP-RP). 2. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their mothers; cranial base angle (angle NSBa), relation of maxilla to the cranial base (angle SNA), relation of maxilla to the cranial base(soft tissue: ?BaN S n), angle of inferior border of mandible (angle SNL-MP ) and convexity of nose apex (soft tissue: angle N P rnPog ) . 3. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their midparents; ramal height (Ar-Go), cranial base angle (angle NSBa), relation of maxilla to the cranial base (soft tissue: angle BaN S n), Y axis angle (angle NSGn) and mandibular angle (angle MP-RP). 4. There was no similar measurements between the cleft patients and their fathers and mothers simultaneously

  16. A study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring in cleft lip with or without palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Su Beom; Lee, Un Gyeong; Na, Seung Mog; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any similarity existed in craniofacial morphology between parents and offspring in cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 28 families comprising 28 fathers, 28 mothers and 28 cleft patients. The measurements of cleft patients compared with those of their fathers, mothers and midparents. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their fathers; ramal height (Ar-Go), mandibular angle (angle MP-RP). 2. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their mothers; cranial base angle (angle NSBa), relation of maxilla to the cranial base (angle SNA), relation of maxilla to the cranial base(soft tissue: ?BaN{sup S}n), angle of inferior border of mandible (angle SNL-MP) and convexity of nose apex (soft tissue: angle N'PrnPog'). 3. There were similar measurements between the cleft patients and their midparents; ramal height (Ar-Go), cranial base angle (angle NSBa), relation of maxilla to the cranial base (soft tissue: angle BaN{sup S}n), Y axis angle (angle NSGn) and mandibular angle (angle MP-RP). 4. There was no similar measurements between the cleft patients and their fathers and mothers simultaneously

  17. A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna

    2010-08-01

    The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.

  18. Sound Problems in Interpreting: a Comparative Study of Undergraduate Program at Sebelas Maret State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Nur Hidayat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is to classify the problem triggers in consecutive interpreting especially in listening. The objectives of the research are to find out the relationship between listening skills and sound problem by comparing the test results of English student and non-English student and prove that students’ problem triggers are closely related to the writing and reading performances which are caused by listening skill problems such as domain in comprehension, similar word, etc. The method used in the research is descriptive qualitative. The participants are English Department and non English student. Technique of collecting data in the research uses questionnaire, test, and interview. The biggest problem faced by non-English student group is numbering and proper names. It is 34 % which occupy in first rank. Whereas the percentage of English student in comprehension is 27%, then the numbering and proper names, the last is similar word which has 20%. Meanwhile, the test result of English group is 84.5 and non-English group is 60. It represent the background knowledge factors are also play an important role in doing the test. In conclusion, there is relationship between students’ problem triggers, writing and reading performances, especially homophone errors. So, the hypothesis is accepted and it strengthens a currently underdeveloped theory that sounds problem play an important role in listening.

  19. Ethical problems and moral sensitivity in physiotherapy: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulju, Kati; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2013-08-01

    This study identified and described ethical problems encountered by physiotherapists in their practice and physiotherapists' moral sensitivity in ethical situations. A questionnaire-based survey was constructed to identify ethical problems, and the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire Revised version was used to measure moral sensitivity. Physiotherapists (n = 116) working in public health services responded to the questionnaire. Based on the results, most of the physiotherapists encounter ethical problems weekly. They concern mainly financial considerations, equality and justice, professionalism, unethical conduct of physiotherapists or other professions and patients' self-determination. The dimension of moral strength was emphasised in physiotherapists' self-evaluations of their moral sensitivity. As a conclusion, ethical problems do occur not only at individual level but also at organisational and society level. Physiotherapists seem to have moral strength for speaking on behalf of the patient. Scarce resources make them feel insufficient but much could still be done to provide quality care in co-operation with other health-care professionals.

  20. Safety of pressurized water reactors: problems and corresponding studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogne, F.

    1976-01-01

    The author recalls the safety problems subject to researches in the CEA, either because of their importance or because studies made abroad were not sufficiently developed or were classified or in order to acquire an independent judgement when safety is concerned. Those problems and studies are submitted referring to the 3 existing shields between man and dangerous materials: fuel element can, thermal shield, (pressure vessel and pipes), biological shield of which the behaviour is studied in connection with outside aggressions such as earthquakes, plane crashes, chemical explosions.. [fr

  1. Study for the design method of multi-agent diagnostic system to improve diagnostic performance for similar abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Hirotsugu; Gofuku, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents on industrial plants cause large loss on human, economic, social credibility. In recent, studies of diagnostic methods using techniques of machine learning such as support vector machine is expected to detect the occurrence of abnormality in a plant early and correctly. There were reported that these diagnostic machines has high accuracy to diagnose the operating state of industrial plant under mono abnormality occurrence. But the each diagnostic machine on the multi-agent diagnostic system may misdiagnose similar abnormalities as a same abnormality if abnormalities to diagnose increases. That causes that a single diagnostic machine may show higher diagnostic performance than one of multi-agent diagnostic system because decision-making considering with misdiagnosis is difficult. Therefore, we study the design method for multi-agent diagnostic system to diagnose similar abnormality correctly. This method aimed to realize automatic generation of diagnostic system where the generation process and location of diagnostic machines are optimized to diagnose correctly the similar abnormalities which are evaluated from the similarity of process signals by statistical method. This paper explains our design method and reports the result evaluated our method applied to the process data of the fast-breeder reactor Monju

  2. Integrating Study Skills and Problem Solving into Remedial Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornick, Jonathan; Guy, G. Michael; Beckford, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Students at a large urban community college enrolled in seven classes of an experimental remedial algebra programme, which integrated study skills instruction and collaborative problem solving. A control group of seven classes was taught in a traditional lecture format without study skills instruction. Student performance in the course was…

  3. Training Problems of Religious Studies in Independent Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Erpay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Kazakhstan training questions about religious studies still didn't receive enough attention since after statehood formation and before independence the Kazakhs endured a set of various historical events. Some of these events negatively affected people's consciousness. Seventy years of atheistic education changed people’s spiritual and cultural basis, as a result religious concepts partially lost the importance. After independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan started raise questions about teaching religious studies. However, heterogeneity in religious beliefs of the population to some extent negatively influences training in religious studies. Therefore study of the reasons for emergence of this problem turned into an actual problem. Within this article the genesis analysis of modern training problems in religious studies was carried out and ways of their decision were considered. Currently some religious studies teaching centers and preparation of the corresponding experts are formed. However, despite of the training standards are identical for all centers, ways of their implementation differ from each other. The reason for that – features of the outlook created under the influence of historical factors. These features cause necessity of teaching religious studies in high school. In article the questions on this problem was considered and necessary answers were given. The main method used in research work is the c omparative historical method. In summary it is necessary to specify that authors within article do the full analysis of questions of teaching of the subject "Religious studies" and offer solutions of these questions.

  4. Froude number fractions to increase walking pattern dynamic similarities: application to plantar pressure study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, P; Bisiaux, M; Lafortune, M A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if using similar walking velocities obtained from fractions of the Froude number (N(Fr)) and leg length can lead to kinematic and kinetic similarities and lower variability. Fifteen male subjects walked on a treadmill at 0.83 (VS(1)) and 1.16ms(-1) (VS(2)) and then at two similar velocities (V(Sim27) and V(Sim37)) determined from two fractions of the N(Fr) (0.27 and 0.37) so that the average group velocity remained unchanged in both conditions (VS(1)=V (Sim27)andVS(2)=V (Sim37)). N(Fr) can theoretically be used to determine walking velocities proportional to leg lengths and to establish dynamic similarities between subjects. This study represents the first attempt at using this approach to examine plantar pressure. The ankle and knee joint angles were studied in the sagittal plane and the plantar pressure distribution was assessed with an in-shoe measurement device. The similarity ratios were computed from anthropometric parameters and plantar pressure peaks. Dynamically similar conditions caused a 25% reduction in leg joint angles variation and a 10% significant decrease in dimensionless pressure peak variability on average of five footprint locations. It also lead to heel and under-midfoot pressure peaks proportional to body mass and to an increase in the number of under-forefoot plantar pressure peaks proportional to body mass and/or leg length. The use of walking velocities derived from N(Fr) allows kinematic and plantar pressure similarities between subjects to be observed and leads to a lower inter-subject variability. In-shoe pressure measurements have proven to be valuable for the understanding of lower extremity function. Set walking velocities used for clinical assessment mask the effects of body size and individual gait mechanics. The anthropometric scaling of walking velocities (fraction of N(Fr)) should improve identification of unique walking strategies and pathological foot functions.

  5. Reader-Responses of Pregnant Adolescents and Teenage Mothers to Young Adult Novels Portraying Protagonists with Problems Similar and Dissimilar to the Readers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, Elizabeth Ann

    Applying reader response theory, a study explored the responses of 19 pregnant adolescents and teenage mothers to two dissimilar young adult novels, one about teenage pregnancy and one about adolescent alcoholism. Quantitative analysis, using a modified version of the Purves-Rippere (1968) system, and qualitative analysis of written answers to…

  6. Personality Traits, Sexual Problems, and Sexual Orientation: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits, namely neuroticism, have been suggested as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction in heterosexual samples. However, no evidence was found regarding homosexual samples. This study aimed to analyze the differences on personality traits between heterosexual and homosexual men and women with and without sexual problems. Participants were 285 individuals (142 men, 143 women) who completed a web-based survey. Participants answered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptomatology Inventory, and questions regarding sexual problems. The groups of men and women with and without sexual problems were matched for sociodemographic variables. A 2 (Group) × 2 (Sexual Orientation) multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted separately for each gender. Results indicated a significant main effect for group and for sexual orientation in male and female samples. Men with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism, whereas women with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism and lower on extraversion when compared with healthy controls, regardless of sexual orientation. In addition, gay men scored higher on neuroticism and lesbian women scored higher on conscientiousness compared with the heterosexual groups. The present findings emphasize the central role of neuroticism on sexual problems in both men and women regardless of sexual orientation.

  7. Computational Study on a PTAS for Planar Dominating Set Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Ping Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominating set problem is a core NP-hard problem in combinatorial optimization and graph theory, and has many important applications. Baker [JACM 41,1994] introduces a k-outer planar graph decomposition-based framework for designing polynomial time approximation scheme (PTAS for a class of NP-hard problems in planar graphs. It is mentioned that the framework can be applied to obtain an O(2ckn time, c is a constant, (1+1/k-approximation algorithm for the planar dominating set problem. We show that the approximation ratio achieved by the mentioned application of the framework is not bounded by any constant for the planar dominating set problem. We modify the application of the framework to give a PTAS for the planar dominating set problem. With k-outer planar graph decompositions, the modified PTAS has an approximation ratio (1 + 2/k. Using 2k-outer planar graph decompositions, the modified PTAS achieves the approximation ratio (1+1/k in O(22ckn time. We report a computational study on the modified PTAS. Our results show that the modified PTAS is practical.

  8. Disclosure of minor mental health problems: an exploratory theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B; Healy, D

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore people's experiences, concerns and beliefs about disclosing minor mental health problems by focusing on the ways in which such disclosures are interpreted. Approximately half of people with mental health problems do not seek help. The decision to consult represents just one aspect of the process of revealing one's illness to others. People with mental health problems are known to be reluctant to reveal the existence of those problems through fear of how others might then view them. A qualitative approach was employed. In-depth interviews were carried out with 47 users and nonusers of community mental health services. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed. The data suggest that when people reveal minor mental health problems others interpret these in relation to a number of perceived contextual factors. These include perceptions of the severity and duration of any possible causes, the inner 'strength' of the person, the expected ability of the person to either solve or suppress the experience, and the form and context of the expression itself. The data presented included individuals who were seeking help for relatively 'minor' mental health problems (primarily depression and anxiety) and individuals who had no current mental health problems but routinely managed expressions of their own emotions. Throughout the data there appeared to be no distinct difference between these two groups other than one of the severity of psychological experience. The key elements involved in the interpretation of people's expressions of sadness were essentially the same as those involved in the interpretation of expressions of depression. An appreciation of these contextual factors influencing the interpretation and disclosure of minor mental health problems may aid the development of more person-centred mental health services and inform the content of health education in the mental health field.

  9. Study on ant colony optimization for fuel loading pattern problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Hironori; Kitada, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Modified ant colony optimization (ACO) was applied to the in-core fuel loading pattern (LP) optimization problem to minimize the power peaking factor (PPF) in the modeled 1/4 symmetry PWR core. Loading order was found to be important in ACO. Three different loading orders with and without the adjacent effect between fuel assemblies (FAs) were compared, and it was found that the loading order from the central core is preferable because many selections of FAs to be inserted are available in the core center region. LPs were determined from pheromone trail and heuristic information, which is a priori knowledge based on the feature of the problem. Three types of heuristic information were compared to obtain the desirable performance of searching LPs with low PPF. Moreover, mutation operation, such as the genetic algorithm (GA), was introduced into the ACO algorithm to avoid searching similar LPs because heuristic information used in ACO tends to localize the searching space in the LP problem. The performance of ACO with some improvement was compared with those of simulated annealing and GA. In conclusion, good performance can be achieved by setting proper heuristic information and mutation operation parameter in ACO. (author)

  10. Driving clinical study efficiency by using a productivity breakdown model: comparative evaluation of a global clinical study and a similar Japanese study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Sengoku, S; Kimura, H

    2011-02-01

    A fundamental management imperative of pharmaceutical companies is to contain surging costs of developing and launching drugs globally. Clinical studies are a research and development (R&D) cost driver. The objective of this study was to develop a productivity breakdown model, or a key performance indicator (KPI) tree, for an entire clinical study and to use it to compare a global clinical study with a similar Japanese study. We, thereby, hope to identify means of improving study productivity. We developed the new clinical study productivity breakdown model, covering operational aspects and cost factors. Elements for improving clinical study productivity were assessed from a management viewpoint by comparing empirical tracking data from a global clinical study with a Japanese study with similar protocols. The following unique and material differences, beyond simple international difference in cost of living, that could affect the efficiency of future clinical trials were identified: (i) more frequent site visits in the Japanese study, (ii) head counts at the Japanese study sites more than double those of the global study and (iii) a shorter enrollment time window of about a third that of the global study at the Japanese study sites. We identified major differences in the performance of the two studies. These findings demonstrate the potential of the KPI tree for improving clinical study productivity. Trade-offs, such as those between reduction in head count at study sites and expansion of the enrollment time window, must be considered carefully. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Present status and problems of radionuclide studies in emergency cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kiyoshi

    1983-01-01

    Scintigraphy is just right for diagnosing emergency cases due to its noninvasive and simple method, but emergency radionuclide studies have not become practical as a result of difficulty problems. Recently, nuclear medical devices have become easier to use in operations. It is become of this, that I have submitted this report regarding the problems of radionuclide studies in emergency cases. There were 101 cases (1.4 %) out of 7,310 cases for the year period Sept. 1981 - Aug. 1982. The studies consisted of 12 brain imaging cases, 9 plumonary imaging cases, 22 cardiac study cases (cardio-angiography cases 8, 99m-Tc-PYP myocardium imaging cases 12, 201-Tl myocardium imaging cases 2), 12 renal study cases, 11 G.I. blood loss cases, 35 peripheral angiography cases. In the near future, we will have to be ready to perform emergency radionuclide studies if the need arises. (author)

  12. Exploring men's and women's experiences of depression and engagement with health professionals: more similarities than differences? A qualitative interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziebland Sue

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is argued that the ways in which women express emotional distress mean that they are more likely to be diagnosed with depression, while men's relative lack of articulacy means their depression is hidden. This may have consequences for communicating with health professionals. The purpose of this analysis was to explore how men and women with depression articulate their emotional distress, and examine whether there are gender differences or similarities in the strategies that respondents found useful when engaging with health professionals. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews with 22 women and 16 men in the UK who identified themselves as having had depression, recruited through general practitioners, psychiatrists and support groups. Results We found gender similarities and gender differences in our sample. Both men and women found it difficult to recognise and articulate mental health problems and this had consequences for their ability to communicate with health professionals. Key gender differences noted were that men tended to value skills which helped them to talk while women valued listening skills in health professionals, and that men emphasised the importance of getting practical results from talking therapies in their narratives, as opposed to other forms of therapy which they conceptualised as 'just talking'. We also found diversity among women and among men; some respondents valued a close personal relationship with health professionals, while others felt that this personal relationship was a barrier to communication and preferred 'talking to a stranger'. Conclusion Our findings suggest that there is not a straightforward relationship between gender and engagement with health professionals for people with depression. Health professionals need to be sensitive to patients who have difficulties in expressing emotional distress and critical of gender stereotypes which suggest that women invariably find it easy to

  13. Scaffolding for solving problem in static fluid: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koes-H, Supriyono; Muhardjito, Wijaya, Charisma P.

    2018-01-01

    Problem solving is one of the basic abilities that should be developed from learning physics. However, students still face difficulties in the process of non-routine problem-solving. Efforts are necessary to be taken in order to identify such difficulties and the solutions to solve them. An effort in the form of a diagnosis of students' performance in problem solving can be taken to identify their difficulties, and various instructional scaffolding supports can be utilized to eliminate the difficulties. This case study aimed to describe the students' difficulties in solving static fluid problems and the effort to overcome such difficulties through different scaffolding supports. The research subjects consisted of four 10-grade students of (Public Senior High School) SMAN 4 Malang selected by purposive sampling technique. The data of students' difficulties were collected via think-aloud protocol implemented on students' performance in solving non-routine static fluid problems. Subsequently, combined scaffolding supports were given to the students based on their particular difficulties. The research findings pointed out that there were several conceptual difficulties discovered from the students when solving static fluid problems, i.e. the use of buoyancy force formula, determination of all forces acting on a plane in a fluid, the resultant force on a plane in a fluid, and determination of a plane depth in a fluid. An effort that can be taken to overcome such conceptual difficulties is providing a combination of some appropriate scaffolding supports, namely question prompts with specific domains, simulation, and parallel modeling. The combination can solve students' lack of knowledge and improve their conceptual understanding, as well as help them to find solutions by linking the problems with their prior knowledge. According to the findings, teachers are suggested to diagnose the students' difficulties so that they can provide an appropriate combination of

  14. A Genetic Study of Problem Behaviors in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.C.G. van den Oord (Edwin)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral/emotional problems are common among children of preschool and school age. Verhulst, and Koot (1992, p. 130) reviewed prevalence studies published since 1965. They reported a median prevalence rate for general psychiatric dysfunction in children and adolescents of l3%. This

  15. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  16. Procedural justice and prisoners’ mental health problems: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. Aim The aims of this

  17. Embracing Wicked Problems: The Turn to Design in Composition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marback, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Recent appeal to the concept of design in composition studies benefits teaching writing in digital media. Yet the concept of design has not been developed enough to fully benefit composition instruction. This article develops an understanding of design as a matter of resolving wicked problems and makes a case for the advantages of this…

  18. Study of ODE limit problems for reaction-diffusion equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacson Simsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study ODE limit problems for reaction-diffusion equations for large diffusion and we study the sensitivity of nonlinear ODEs with respect to initial conditions and exponent parameters. Moreover, we prove continuity of the flow and weak upper semicontinuity of a family of global attractors for reaction-diffusion equations with spatially variable exponents when the exponents go to 2 in \\(L^{\\infty}(\\Omega\\ and the diffusion coefficients go to infinity.

  19. Mental health problems among conflict-affected adults in Grozny, Chechnya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Amanda J; Feo, Concetta; Idrisov, Kyuri; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Lenglet, Annick; Tsatsaeva, Zalina; Bolton, Paul; Bass, Judith

    2016-01-01

    A decade of conflict in Chechnya destroyed infrastructure and resulted in widespread exposure to violence. Amidst substantial reconstruction, periodic violence has contributed to an ongoing atmosphere of insecurity. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the mental health and psychosocial problems affecting adult Chechens in this context to inform development of assessment tools for an evaluation study related to individual counseling. Data were collected in July 2014. A convenience sample of 59 Chechen adults was asked to Free List all problems affecting people in the area. Four problems were explored further in 19 Key Interviewee (KI) interviews, with respondents identified using snowball sampling. Data analysis was conducted in Russian by the Chechen interviewers. Multiple mental health and psychosocial problems emerged, including 'bad psychological health', 'depression', 'stress and nervous people', and 'problems in the family'. Aggression, 'emotional blowing', and 'not adequate' behavior were frequently reported indicators of these problems, with negative effects on the whole family. Chechens reported seeking help through informal social networks, psychiatric and psychological services, and Islamic Centers. Chechens reported mental health and psychosocial problems similar to those experienced in other post-conflict settings. The description of 'emotional blowing' mirrored prior findings in Chechen asylum seekers and fits within a cluster of cultural concepts of distress featuring anger that has been identified in other conflict-affected populations. Further exploration of the nature and prevalence of this construct, as well as evaluations of interventions aimed at reducing these symptoms, is warranted.

  20. Variability in Women Faculty’s Preferences Regarding Mentor Similarity: A Multi-Institution Study in Academic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapinha, René; Ortiz-Walters, Rowena; McCracken, Caitlin M.; Hill, Emorcia V.; Reede, Joan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate which mentor similarity characteristics women faculty in academic medicine rate most important and to determine whether the importance of similarity differs among women faculty based on current and prior mentoring, demographic and personal factors, and career factors. Method Cross-sectional survey data from 3,100 women faculty at 13 purposively sampled U.S. medical schools were collected in 2012. The preferences of participants regarding the importance of mentor similarity in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, personal and career interests, and department and institution were studied. Analysis entailed chi square tests and multivariable ordered logistic models. Results Overall, respondents ranked having a mentor in the same department and institution as most important. Same department and institution were less important for those without a current mentor and for senior faculty, and were more important for Asian faculty. Same career and personal interests were less important for older faculty and more important for those with a doctorate only. Same gender was more important for Black faculty, faculty at the rank of instructor, and those without current mentoring. Overall, same race/ethnicity was rated least important; however, it was more important for racial/ethnic minorities, foreign-born faculty, and those who had never had a mentor. Conclusions Mentor preferences, as indicated by level of importance assigned to types of mentor similarity, varied among women faculty. To advance effective mentoring, characterized by high degree of mentor-mentee fit, the authors provide recommendations on matching strategies to be used in academic medicine when considering the diverse mentor preferences of women faculty. PMID:27332871

  1. Comparing the similarity of responses received from studies in Amazon's Mechanical Turk to studies conducted online and with direct recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bartneck

    Full Text Available Computer and internet based questionnaires have become a standard tool in Human-Computer Interaction research and other related fields, such as psychology and sociology. Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT service is a new method of recruiting participants and conducting certain types of experiments. This study compares whether participants recruited through AMT give different responses than participants recruited through an online forum or recruited directly on a university campus. Moreover, we compare whether a study conducted within AMT results in different responses compared to a study for which participants are recruited through AMT but which is conducted using an external online questionnaire service. The results of this study show that there is a statistical difference between results obtained from participants recruited through AMT compared to the results from the participant recruited on campus or through online forums. We do, however, argue that this difference is so small that it has no practical consequence. There was no significant difference between running the study within AMT compared to running it with an online questionnaire service. There was no significant difference between results obtained directly from within AMT compared to results obtained in the campus and online forum condition. This may suggest that AMT is a viable and economical option for recruiting participants and for conducting studies as setting up and running a study with AMT generally requires less effort and time compared to other frequently used methods. We discuss our findings as well as limitations of using AMT for empirical studies.

  2. Comparing the similarity of responses received from studies in Amazon's Mechanical Turk to studies conducted online and with direct recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartneck, Christoph; Duenser, Andreas; Moltchanova, Elena; Zawieska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Computer and internet based questionnaires have become a standard tool in Human-Computer Interaction research and other related fields, such as psychology and sociology. Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) service is a new method of recruiting participants and conducting certain types of experiments. This study compares whether participants recruited through AMT give different responses than participants recruited through an online forum or recruited directly on a university campus. Moreover, we compare whether a study conducted within AMT results in different responses compared to a study for which participants are recruited through AMT but which is conducted using an external online questionnaire service. The results of this study show that there is a statistical difference between results obtained from participants recruited through AMT compared to the results from the participant recruited on campus or through online forums. We do, however, argue that this difference is so small that it has no practical consequence. There was no significant difference between running the study within AMT compared to running it with an online questionnaire service. There was no significant difference between results obtained directly from within AMT compared to results obtained in the campus and online forum condition. This may suggest that AMT is a viable and economical option for recruiting participants and for conducting studies as setting up and running a study with AMT generally requires less effort and time compared to other frequently used methods. We discuss our findings as well as limitations of using AMT for empirical studies.

  3. Does Problem-Based Learning Improve Problem Solving Skills?--A Study among Business Undergraduates at Malaysian Premier Technical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Z. Abdul; Abdullah, N. H.; Anthony, E.; Salleh, B. Mohd; Kamarulzaman, R.

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based Learning (PBL) approach has been widely used in various disciplines since it is claimed to improve students' soft skills. However, empirical supports on the effect of PBL on problem solving skills have been lacking and anecdotal in nature. This study aimed to determine the effect of PBL approach on students' problem solving skills…

  4. Gender similarities and differences in brain activation strategies: Voxel-based meta-analysis on fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRyalat, Saif Aldeen

    2017-01-01

    Gender similarities and differences have long been a matter of debate in almost all human research, especially upon reaching the discussion about brain functions. This large scale meta-analysis was performed on functional MRI studies. It included more than 700 active brain foci from more than 70 different experiments to study gender related similarities and differences in brain activation strategies for three of the main brain functions: Visual-spatial cognition, memory, and emotion. Areas that are significantly activated by both genders (i.e. core areas) for the tested brain function are mentioned, whereas those areas significantly activated exclusively in one gender are the gender specific areas. During visual-spatial cognition task, and in addition to the core areas, males significantly activated their left superior frontal gyrus, compared with left superior parietal lobule in females. For memory tasks, several different brain areas activated by each gender, but females significantly activated two areas from the limbic system during memory retrieval tasks. For emotional task, males tend to recruit their bilateral prefrontal regions, whereas females tend to recruit their bilateral amygdalae. This meta-analysis provides an overview based on functional MRI studies on how males and females use their brain.

  5. Does Solving Insight-Based Problems Differ from Solving Learning-Based Problems? Some Evidence from an ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Roza; Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We asked: "What are the similarities and differences in mathematical processing associated with solving learning-based and insight-based problems?" To answer this question, the ERP research procedure was employed with 69 male adolescent subjects who solved specially designed insight-based and learning-based tests. Solutions of…

  6. Atopic conditions and mental health problems: a 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Green, Kristian; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that atopic conditions at 15/16 years of age affect both internalized and externalized mental health problems 3 years later. Combined school and postal survey was conducted in urban and rural settings. A total of 3,674 adolescents (70.1% response rate) were followed at two time points and interviewed with similar questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-10) was used to assess internalized problems, and two subscales (conduct problems and hyperactivity) from the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure externalized mental health problems. The atopic conditions investigated were asthma, hay fever and eczema by asking the adolescents whether these conditions were present or not. There was an increase in the prevalence of internalized mental health problems from about 17-25% and a decrease in externalized mental health problems and number of atopic conditions in the follow-up period. Of the atopic conditions, hay fever was most prevalent with about 34% at 15 years of age and 20% at 18. The asthma prevalence was at 10 and 5% and eczema at 25 and 10%, respectively. Internalized mental health problems among girls were significantly associated with atopic conditions 3 years earlier, also after controlling for confounding variables. To live with atopic conditions seem to affect the mood and level of anxiety among adolescent girls. This should be kept in mind by health professionals treating young girls with atopic conditions.

  7. Continuous vs. blocks of physiotherapy for motor development in children with cerebral palsy and similar syndromes: A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Anne-Louise; Rutz, Erich; Juenemann, Stephanie; Brunner, Reinald

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether physiotherapy is more effective when applied in blocks or continuously in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A prospective randomized cross-over design study compared the effect of regular physiotherapy (baseline) with blocks of physiotherapy alternating with no physiotherapy over one year. Thirty-nine institutionalized children with CP and clinically similar syndromes (6-16 years old, Gross Motor Function Classification Scale II-IV) were included. During the first scholastic year, group A received regular physiotherapy, group B blocks of physiotherapy and vice versa in the second year. The Gross Motor Function Measure 66 (GMFM-66) was the outcome measure. Thirteen children in each group completed the study. GMFM-66 improved (p Physiotherapy may be more effective when provided regularly rather than in blocks.

  8. STUDY OF SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Vorobyova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive urban and economic development leads to changes in functional planning of the territory. Comprehensive study of the existing use and ecology of the urban environment is necessary for making decisions on urban space optimization. This study can detect the negative effects of human impact and solve social and economic problems within the city. The socio-ecological assessment of the urban area within the developing zone carried out on the ground of the GIS, developed and compiled by the authors. The database of GIS consists of six blocks, including cartographic and attribute information with characteristics of the environment, functional planning and socio-demographic features of the territory.

  9. THE PROBLEM OF INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN LEARNING PROCESS STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The process of convergence and integration of scientific disciplines involves research in the field of education. Polydisciplinary studies wherein the knowledge is integrated from various scientific disciplines, do not meet the requirements of the solution of complex didactic problems, such as organization of the educational process in the information and educational environment, the construction of education for sustainable development of society, education in modern geopolitical conditions, etc. Thus, the importance of interdisciplinary research with a single subject matter, complementarity of research methods, integrated theoretical grounds and results, will make the contribution to all those scientific fields that are involved in assigned task solution.The aim of the article is to present intermediate results on identification and characteristic features of interdisciplinary studies in the field of education.Methodology and research methods. General scientific theoretical methods of research were used: analysis, comparison, fact-finding, generalization.Results and scientific novelty. An attempt to differentiate the concepts of interdisciplinarity, polydisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity is made. In spite of the fact that these issues are actively discussed in the field of philosophy, there are no precise and unambiguous definitions of these terms; though, there is a research framework, the author of the article makes reference to. The features of an interdisciplinary study are formulated.The functions of didactics as a scientific field are specified. Updating of interdisciplinary studies in education, need of formation of their specific methodologies and expansion of the research field of didactics by means of other interdisciplinary studies and scientific directions are proved. Psycho-didactic and cognitivedidactic studies are considered. Cognitive didactics at the moment does not seem to claim the status of independent

  10. The Problem of World Order in Western IR Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Victorovna Soljanova

    2016-01-01

    The article "Problem of world order in modern Western studies" is the study of one of the most debated issues in the science of international relations - world order. Discussion of the structure of world order is underway in various countries, both at the state level and in the expert community. Some researchers insist on the fact that after the end of the cold war, the collapse of the bipolar model of international relations, the world has become unipolar. Others argue that the increase in t...

  11. Trajectories of mental health problems in children of parents with mental health problems: results of the BELLA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass-Christl, Angela; Otto, Christiane; Klasen, Fionna; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Barkmann, Claus; Hölling, Heike; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2017-11-24

    Children of parents with mental health problems (CPM) have an increased risk for behavioral and psychological problems. This study investigated the age- and gender-specific course as well as predictors of mental health problems in CPM using the longitudinal data (baseline 1- and 2-year follow-ups) of a German general population sample from the BELLA study. Children and adolescents aged 11-17 years (at baseline) who had a parent with mental health problems (n = 325) were analyzed. The mental health problems of the children were assessed by the self-reported version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). We used individual growth modeling to investigate the age- and gender-specific course, and the effects of risk as well as personal, familial and social protective factors on self-reported mental health problems in CPM. Additionally, data were examined differentiating internalizing and externalizing mental health problems in CPM. Results indicated that female compared to male CPM showed increasing mental health problems with increasing age. Mental health problems in CPM were associated with lower self-efficacy, worse family climate and less social competence over time. Internalizing problems were associated with lower self-efficacy, less social competence and more severe parental mental health problems. Externalizing problems were associated with lower self-efficacy, worse family climate and lower social competence. The main limitations of the study are the short time period (2 years) covered and the report of mental health problems by only one parent. Our findings should be considered in the development of treatment and prevention programs for mental health problems in CPM.

  12. Assessing levels of similarity to a "psychodynamic prototype" in psychodynamic psychotherapy with children: a case study approach (preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bento Gastaud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the degree of similarity to a "psychodynamic prototype" during the first year of two children's once-weekly psychodynamic psychotherapy.Methods: This study used a longitudinal, descriptive, repeated-measures design based on the systematic case study method. Two male school children (here referred to as Walter and Peter and their therapists took part in the study. All sessions were video and audio recorded. Ten sessions from each case were selected for analysis in this preliminary study. Trained examiners (randomly selected in pairs independently and blindly evaluated each session using the Child Psychotherapy Q-Set (CPQ. Experts in psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy from several countries rated each of the 100 CPQ items with regard to how well it characterized a hypothetical ideal session of either treatment modality. A series of paired t tests comparing analogous adherence scores within each session were conducted.Results:There were no significant correlations between time elapsed and adherence to the prototypes. Walter's treatment adhered to both prototypes and Peter's treatment did not adhere to either prototype.Conclusion:Child psychotherapy theory and practice are not absolutely coincident. Real psychotherapy sessions do not necessarily resemble the ideal prototypes.

  13. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Kenneth M; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-06-08

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N(2) to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N = 5 to N = 13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers.

  14. Study over problems related to fuel and ash handling systems; Probleminventering braensle- och askhantering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njurell, Rolf; Wikman, Karin [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    There have been a lot of problems related to fuel and ash handling systems since the combustion of different types of biofuels started in the 70s. Many measures have been taken to solve some of the problems, but others have become part of the daily work. The purpose of this study has been to do a compilation of the fuel and ash handling problems that exist at different types of heat and power plants. The study over problems related to fuel and ash handling systems has been carried out through a questionnaire via the Internet. Directors at about 150 energy production plants were contacted by phone or e-mail in the beginning of the project and asked to participate in the study. 72 of these plants accepted to fill in the questionnaire. After several reminders by e-mails and phone calls there were in the end 32 plants that completed the form. Together they reported about 25 problems related to fuel handling and 27 problems related to ash handling. In general each of the plants reported one problem of each kind. Even if the material from the questionnaire is not enough to make statistical analysis a few conclusions can be made about the most common problems, the cause of the problems and where they appear. Fuel handling problems that occur at several plants are stoppage in the conveying equipment, bridging in the boiler silo or the tipping bunker and problems with the sieve for separation. The distribution of the fuel handling problems is almost equal for all equipment parts (receiving, separation, transport etc.). For the ash handling systems problems with transport of dry bottom ash dominate, followed by and the moistening of fly ash and transport of wet bottom ash. Most of the problems related to fuel handling are caused by the fuel quality. For example several plants have reported that bark is a fuel that is hard to handle. Nevertheless the quality for a specific fuel is not always bad when it is delivered to the plant but the fuel quality might change during

  15. Attention problems in very preterm children from childhood to adulthood: the Bavarian Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born individuals from birth to adulthood. Data on attention were collected at 6, 8, and 26 years of age, using parent reports, expert behavior observations, and clinical ADHD diagnoses. At each assessment, VP/VLBW individuals had significantly more attention problems, shorter attention span, and were more frequently diagnosed with ADHD than term-born comparisons. In both VP/VLBW and term-born individuals, overall, attention span increased and attention problems decreased from childhood to adulthood. Attention problems and attention span were more stable over time for VP/VLBW than term-born individuals. Similarly, ADHD diagnoses showed moderate stability from childhood to adulthood in VP/VLBW, but not in term-born individuals. However, when those with severe disabilities were excluded, differences between VP/VLBW and term-born individuals reduced. Despite improvement in attention regulation from childhood to adulthood, children born very preterm remained at increased risk for attention problems in adulthood. In contrast, term-born children with clinical attention problems outgrew these by adulthood. As inattentive behavior of VP/VLBW children may be overlooked by teachers, it may be necessary to raise awareness for school intervention programs that reduce attention problems in VP/VLBW children. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems in Elliptic Variational Inequalities: a local study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, F.; Brauner, C.; Issard-Roch, F.; Nicolaenko, B.

    1985-01-01

    The authors consider a class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems (N.L.E.P.) associated with Elliptic Variational Inequalities (E.V.I.). First the authors introduce the main tools for a local study of branches of solutions; the authors extend the linearization process required in the case of equations. Next the authors prove the existence of arcs of solutions close to regular vs singular points, and determine their local behavior up to the first order. Finally, the authors discuss the connection between their regularity condition and some stability concept. 37 references, 6 figures

  17. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  18. Electroreflectance and the problem of studying plasma-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preppernau, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    A long standing problem in low-temperature plasma discharge physics is to understand in detail the mutual interaction of real exposed surfaces (electrodes) with the reactive plasma environment. In particular, one wishes to discern the influence of these surfaces on the plasma parameters given their contributions from secondary electrons and ions. This paper briefly reviews the known surface interaction processes as well as currently available diagnostics to study the interface between plasmas and surfaces. Next comes a discussion describing the application of plasma-modulated electroreflectance to this research and some potential experimental techniques

  19. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report

  20. Study of Some Technical Problems in Nuclear Emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrega Tornero, M. P.

    1967-01-01

    A methodological study of various technical aspects of photographic emulsions is presented. This study enables the emulsion method to be used in certain physical problems, and can be summarized under the following headings. 1) Variation of different ionization indices with the degree of development. A measure of the degree of development is introduced. This measure called the α -mark, is based on the average width of tracks due to α-particles. Using the α-mack the influence of several factors such as the duration, temperature and concentration of the developing liquid are investigated. A comparative study of the sensitivity of llford C 2 and K 2 emulsions is given. (Author) 9 refs

  1. Similarities of lean manufacturing approaches implementation in SMEs towards the success: Case study in the automotive component industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose A.N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, manufacturing companies are striving for a better system like lean manufacturing (LM. The primary objective of LM is to identify and eliminate wastes. LM can be applied successfully in all industries providing a full understanding of lean ingredients i.e. concept, principles, and practices. There are a lot of practices which are necessary to be implemented in order to gain full benefits of LM. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are lack of knowledge in LM and facing difficulties to adopt all of the LM principles. Therefore, it is necessary to the researchers to come out with a simple guideline for LM implementation. The objective of this paper is to explore the journey of LM implementation including preliminary, in process and post of LM. This research was conducted through multi-case study research. There were four SMEs and two large companies. The gathered information shows that the preliminary stage of LM implementation is similar to each other including large companies. The result shows SMEs still have a potential to success in LM. This finding might give an opportunity to SMEs to prepare the basis for LM implementation effectively. As a result, SMEs able compete in the competitive global marketplace and strive for world class performance through implementation of LM.

  2. Assessing intrinsic and specific vulnerability models ability to indicate groundwater vulnerability to groups of similar pesticides: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Steven; Dixon, Barnali; Griffin, Dale W.

    2018-01-01

    With continued population growth and increasing use of fresh groundwater resources, protection of this valuable resource is critical. A cost effective means to assess risk of groundwater contamination potential will provide a useful tool to protect these resources. Integrating geospatial methods offers a means to quantify the risk of contaminant potential in cost effective and spatially explicit ways. This research was designed to compare the ability of intrinsic (DRASTIC) and specific (Attenuation Factor; AF) vulnerability models to indicate groundwater vulnerability areas by comparing model results to the presence of pesticides from groundwater sample datasets. A logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the environmental variables and the presence or absence of pesticides within regions of varying vulnerability. According to the DRASTIC model, more than 20% of the study area is very highly vulnerable. Approximately 30% is very highly vulnerable according to the AF model. When groundwater concentrations of individual pesticides were compared to model predictions, the results were mixed. Model predictability improved when concentrations of the group of similar pesticides were compared to model results. Compared to the DRASTIC model, the AF model more accurately predicts the distribution of the number of contaminated wells within each vulnerability class.

  3. Study of the temperature dependence of the uniaxial creep property of similar material of new soft rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Wu, Y.; Fan, X. Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Guo, P.; Li, J. G.

    2017-11-01

    Using the experimental method, the experimental research of creep properties were conducted under different temperature ranging from 10°C to 60°C. The similar material of new soft rock consists of paraffin, which can obtain that the deformation contains the instantaneous elastic deformation and creep deformation through the uniaxial creep experimental results. And thus the increase of temperature has great influence on the creep characteristics of similar soft rock according to the creep curve of similar soft rock at 10°C to 60°C. With the increase of temperature, the slope of the stress-strain curve of similar soft rock is increasing, while the average of the creep modulus is decreasing, which means that the capacity of resist deformation is reduced. Therefore, the creeps law of high-temperature and short-time can be shown the creep phenomenon of low-temperature and long-time, and further shorten the creep experimental cycle.

  4. Similarities and differences between continuous sedation until death and euthanasia - professional caregivers' attitudes and experiences: A focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anquinet, L.; Raus, K.; Sterckx, S.; Smets, T.; Deliens, L.; Rietjens, J.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to various guidelines about continuous sedation until death, this practice can and should be clearly distinguished from euthanasia, which is legalized in Belgium. Aim: To explore professional caregivers perceptions of the similarities and differences between continuous sedation

  5. Comparative study of adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in similar microenvironmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guneta, Vipra [Division of Materials Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tan, Nguan Soon [School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science Technology & Research - A*STAR, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, Singapore 138673 (Singapore); Chan, Soon Kiat Jeremy [School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Tanavde, Vivek [Bioinformatics Institute, Agency for Science Technology & Research - A*STAR, 30 Biopolis Street, Matrix, Singapore 138671 (Singapore); Lim, Thiam Chye [Division of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Department of Surgery, National University Hospital (NUH) and National University of Singapore (NUS), Kent Ridge Wing, Singapore 119074 (Singapore); Wong, Thien Chong Marcus [Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Section, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), 11, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore); Choong, Cleo, E-mail: cleochoong@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Materials Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore)

    2016-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were first isolated from the bone marrow, are now being extracted from various other tissues in the body, including the adipose tissue. The current study presents systematic evidence of how the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Bm-MSCs) behave when cultured in specific pro-adipogenic microenvironments. The cells were first characterized and identified as MSCs in terms of their morphology, phenotypic expression, self-renewal capabilities and multi-lineage potential. Subsequently, the proliferation and gene expression profiles of the cell populations cultured on two-dimensional (2D) adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated tissue culture plastic (TCP) and in three-dimensional (3D) AlgiMatrix® microenvironments were analyzed. Overall, it was found that adipogenesis was triggered in both cell populations due to the presence of adipose tissue ECM. However, in 3D microenvironments, ASCs and Bm-MSCs were predisposed to the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages respectively. Overall, findings from this study will contribute to ongoing efforts in adipose tissue engineering as well as provide new insights into the role of the ECM and cues provided by the immediate microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Native adipose tissue ECM coated on 2D TCP triggers adipogenesis in both ASCs and Bm-MSCs. • A 3D microenvironment with similar stiffness to adipose tissue induces adipogenic differentiation of ASCs. • ASCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to adipogenesis. • Bm-MSCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to osteogenesis. • The native microenvironment of the cells affects their differentiation behaviour in vitro.

  6. Comparative study of adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in similar microenvironmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guneta, Vipra; Tan, Nguan Soon; Chan, Soon Kiat Jeremy; Tanavde, Vivek; Lim, Thiam Chye; Wong, Thien Chong Marcus; Choong, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were first isolated from the bone marrow, are now being extracted from various other tissues in the body, including the adipose tissue. The current study presents systematic evidence of how the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Bm-MSCs) behave when cultured in specific pro-adipogenic microenvironments. The cells were first characterized and identified as MSCs in terms of their morphology, phenotypic expression, self-renewal capabilities and multi-lineage potential. Subsequently, the proliferation and gene expression profiles of the cell populations cultured on two-dimensional (2D) adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated tissue culture plastic (TCP) and in three-dimensional (3D) AlgiMatrix® microenvironments were analyzed. Overall, it was found that adipogenesis was triggered in both cell populations due to the presence of adipose tissue ECM. However, in 3D microenvironments, ASCs and Bm-MSCs were predisposed to the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages respectively. Overall, findings from this study will contribute to ongoing efforts in adipose tissue engineering as well as provide new insights into the role of the ECM and cues provided by the immediate microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Native adipose tissue ECM coated on 2D TCP triggers adipogenesis in both ASCs and Bm-MSCs. • A 3D microenvironment with similar stiffness to adipose tissue induces adipogenic differentiation of ASCs. • ASCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to adipogenesis. • Bm-MSCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to osteogenesis. • The native microenvironment of the cells affects their differentiation behaviour in vitro.

  7. Cooling problems of thermal power plants. Physical model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neale, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    The Alden Research Laboratories of Worcester Polytechnic Institute has for many years conducted physical model studies, which are normally classified as river or structural hydraulic studies. Since 1952 one aspect of these studies has involved the heated discharge from steam power plants. The early studies on such problems concentrated on improving the thermal efficiency of the system. This was accomplished by minimizing recirculation and by assuring full use of available cold water supplies. With the growing awareness of the impact of thermal power generation on the environment attention has been redirected to reducing the effect of heated discharges on the biology of the receiving body of water. More specifically the efforts of designers and operators of power plants are aimed at meeting or complying with standards established by various governmental agencies. Thus the studies involve developing means of minimizing surface temperatures at an outfall or establishing a local area of higher temperature with limits specified in terms of areas or distances. The physical models used for these studies have varied widely in scope, size, and operating features. These models have covered large areas with both distorted geometric scales and uniform dimensions. Instrumentations has also varied from simple mercury thermometers to computer control and processing of hundreds of thermocouple indicators

  8. Everyday problem solving in African Americans and European Americans with Alzheimer's disease: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripich, Danielle N; Fritsch, Thomas; Ziol, Elaine

    2002-03-01

    In this exploratory study, we compared the performance of 10 African American and 26 European American persons with early- to mid-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) to 20 nondemented elderly (NE), using a shortened version of the Test of Problem Solving (TOPS). The TOPS measures verbal reasoning to solve everyday problems in five areas: explaining inferences, determining causes, answering negative why questions, determining solutions, and avoiding problems. Six linguistic measures were also examined: total utterances, abandoned utterances, length of utterances, maze words, questions, and total words. NE performed better than AD subjects on all but one measure of verbal reasoning ability. AD subjects also showed a trend to use more total utterances and abandoned utterances than NE. For the AD group, no ethnic differences were found for verbal reasoning or linguistic measures. The findings from this preliminary investigation suggest that, compared to European Americans, African American persons with AD demonstrate similar everyday problem solving and linguistic skills. Thus, assessments such as TOPS that examine everyday problem solving may be a useful nonbiased evaluation tool for persons with AD in these two ethnic groups.

  9. A population-based study of gastroesophageal reflux disease and sleep problems in elderly twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lindam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous studies indicate an association between sleep problems and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Although both these conditions separately have moderate heritabilities, confounding by genetic factors has not previously been taken into account. This study aimed to reveal the association between sleep problems and GERD, while adjusting for heredity and other potential confounding factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional population-based study included all 8,014 same-sexed twins of at least 65 years of age and born in Sweden between 1886 and 1958, who participated in telephone interviews in 1998-2002. Three logistic regression models were used 1 external control analysis, 2 within-pair co-twin analysis with dizygotic (DZ twin pairs discordant for GERD, and 3 within-pair co-twin analysis with monozygotic (MZ twin pairs discordant for GERD. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated and adjusted for established risk factors for GERD, i.e. sex, age, body mass index (BMI, tobacco smoking, and educational level. RESULTS: A dose-response association was identified between increasing levels of sleep problems and GERD in the external control analysis. Individuals who often experienced sleep problems had a two-fold increased occurrence of GERD compared to those who seldom had sleep problems (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.8-2.4. The corresponding association was of similar strength in the co-twin analysis including 356 DZ pairs (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.4, and in the co-twin analysis including 210 MZ pairs (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.7. CONCLUSION: A dose-dependent association between sleep problems and GERD remains after taking heredity and other known risk factors for GERD into account.

  10. A study of the predictive model on the user reaction time using the information amount and similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungjin; Heo, Gyunyoung; Chang, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Human operations through a user interface are divided into two types. The one is the single operation that is performed on a static interface. The other is the sequential operation that achieves a goal by handling several displays through operator's navigation in the crt-based console. Sequential operation has similar meaning with continuous task. Most operations in recently developed computer applications correspond to the sequential operation, and the single operation can be considered as a part of the sequential operation. In the area of HCI (human computer interaction) evaluation, the Hick-Hyman law counts as the most powerful theory. The most important factor in the equation of Hick-Hyman law about choice reaction time is the quantified amount of information conveyed by a statement, stimulus, or event. Generally, we can expect that if there are some similarities between a series of interfaces, human operator is able to use his attention resource effectively. That is the performance of human operator is increased by the similarity. The similarity may be able to affect the allocation of attention resource based on separate STSS (short-term sensory store) and long-term memory. There are theories related with this concept, which are task switching paradigm and the law of practice. However, it is not easy to explain the human operator performance with only the similarity or the information amount. There are few theories to explain the performance with the combination of the similarity and the information amount. The objective of this paper is to purpose and validate the quantitative and predictive model on the user reaction time in CRT-based displays. Another objective is to validate various theories related with human cognition and perception, which are Hick-Hyman law and the law of practice as representative theories. (author)

  11. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  12. Arc Problems in Intercity Buses and Solution Studies of a Real Problem

    OpenAIRE

    ERÇETIN, Reşit; BAĞIRAN, Hamdi Emre

    2015-01-01

    Although modern vehicles are equipped with special electronic controller similar to programmable logic controller (PLC) to reduce wiring harness and relays, switching elements have found more and more place in vehicles with the increase of electronic circuits and safety requirements like every aspect of industry. In spite of its wide use, relays have some disadvantages because of being an electromechanical part. Limited mechanical and electrical lifetime, influence from environmental conditio...

  13. [Postgraduate studies in public health: the problem of efficiency evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkowski, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The satisfaction of customer is the main measure and the most important, generally recognized criterion for evaluating the quality of products and services. In the case of education and training, the quality is frequently understood as effectiveness, i.e., the degree to what educational objectives of a training institution are met; the objectives previously formulated on the basis of analyzed and defined demands and expectations of customers (clients). In the first part of the paper: (1) the problems related to the question who in fact is the customer in the context of an institution providing education in public health are discussed; (2) a proposal for resolving these problems is presented; and (3) the main directions of evaluation activities, which should be undertaken under monitoring and effectiveness assessment of postgraduate training in public health are pointed out. In the years 1998-2002, the students' assessment data on educational programs, curriculum contents and subject teachers in the field of postgraduate studies in the School of Public Health, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, were collected with the help of specially-designed evaluation questionnaires. The data on the students' self-assessment of gained professional competencies were also collected. All students who completed the School of Public Health in these years were subjected to the evaluation inquiries. The data collected were analyzed. Due to the analysis it was possible to define: the quality of the curriculum contents, as well as the professional and didactic skills of the teaching staff as perceived by the students; the degree to what particular curriculum in public health contributed to the increase in professional competence as perceived by the students; the degree to what particular teaching subjects influenced the students' knowledge of and skills in Public Health. The results obtained provided information very useful in the teaching process, designing of

  14. The Problem of World Order in Western IR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victorovna Soljanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Problem of world order in modern Western studies" is the study of one of the most debated issues in the science of international relations - world order. Discussion of the structure of world order is underway in various countries, both at the state level and in the expert community. Some researchers insist on the fact that after the end of the cold war, the collapse of the bipolar model of international relations, the world has become unipolar. Others argue that the increase in the number of centers of power and the need for a multilateral approach to solving global problems (terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, environmental and climate issues talking about the formation of multipolarity. However, it should be recognized that currently no widely accepted theoretical and conceptual apparatus, which complicates not only the study of the world order, but makes it impossible to search for common approaches of the international community in solving the problems associated with global development, new challenges and threats. The author of this article seeks to research and analyze the various theoretical paradigms (neo-realism, neo-liberalism, institutionalism, neo-marxism, etc. and concepts to form a coherent picture of the structure of the world system, its main features and to offer readers the vision of the concept of "world order". Thus, the article notes that the multidimensional structure of the modern system of international relations established after the end of the cold war is so complex that none of the concepts can claim to accurate interpretation of the world order. The modern system differs from systems of the past centuries. Characteristics inherent in it (on the one hand, the increasing global processes in economy, politics, culture, etc., on the other, the attraction to return to the concept of "nation state", the closure of borders, the disintegration, require new approaches to the study of world

  15. Postharvest problems of tomato production in Ghana - Field studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W.O Ellis, N.S. Olympio, E. Mensah, P. Adu-Amankwa, A. Y Tetteh ... To overcome this problem there is the need to develop simple, cost-effective and easily ... postharvest problems, preservation methods and marketing practices of farmers.

  16. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P; Nel, R [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  17. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  18. Personality and problem gambling: a prospective study of a birth cohort of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutske, Wendy S; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Poulton, Richie

    2005-07-01

    Individual differences in dimensions of personality may play an important role in explaining risk for disordered gambling behavior as well as the comorbidity between disordered gambling behavior and other substance-related addictive disorders. To identify the personality correlates of problem gambling in a representative non-treatment-seeking sample, as well as to determine whether these are similar to the personality correlates of other substance-related addictive disorders and whether individual differences in personality might account for the comorbidity between disordered gambling behavior and other substance-related addictive disorders. Longitudinal population-based study. A complete birth cohort of young adults born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1, 1972, and March 31, 1973 (N = 939; 475 men, 464 women). Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire assessments of personality were obtained at age 18 years; structured interview-based diagnoses of past-year problem gambling and alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine dependence were obtained at age 21 years. Problem gambling at age 21 years was associated with higher scores on the higher-order personality dimension of negative emotionality (d = 0.90) and with lower scores on the personality dimension of constraint (d = -0.72) measured at age 18 years compared with control subjects who did not have a past-year addictive disorder at age 21 years. Problem gambling was also associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire indicators of risk-taking (d = 0.50) and impulsivity (d = 0.56). The personality profile associated with problem gambling was similar to the profiles associated with alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine dependence. The relations between problem gambling and the substance-related addictive disorders (odds ratios = 3.32-3.61) were reduced after controlling for individual differences in personality (odds ratios = 1.90-2.32). From the perspective of personality, problem gambling has much in common

  19. Analytical and Numerical Studies of Several Fluid Mechanical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, D. L.

    2014-03-01

    In this thesis, three parts, each with several chapters, are respectively devoted to hydrostatic, viscous, and inertial fluids theories and applications. Involved topics include planetary, biological fluid systems, and high performance computing technology. In the hydrostatics part, the classical Maclaurin spheroids theory is generalized, for the first time, to a more realistic multi-layer model, establishing geometries of both the outer surface and the interfaces. For one of its astrophysical applications, the theory explicitly predicts physical shapes of surface and core-mantle-boundary for layered terrestrial planets, which enables the studies of some gravity problems, and the direct numerical simulations of dynamo flows in rotating planetary cores. As another application of the figure theory, the zonal flow in the deep atmosphere of Jupiter is investigated for a better understanding of the Jovian gravity field. An upper bound of gravity field distortions, especially in higher-order zonal gravitational coefficients, induced by deep zonal winds is estimated firstly. The oblate spheroidal shape of an undistorted Jupiter resulting from its fast solid body rotation is fully taken into account, which marks the most significant improvement from previous approximation based Jovian wind theories. High viscosity flows, for example Stokes flows, occur in a lot of processes involving low-speed motions in fluids. Microorganism swimming is such a typical case. A fully three dimensional analytic solution of incompressible Stokes equation is derived in the exterior domain of an arbitrarily translating and rotating prolate spheroid, which models a large family of microorganisms such as cocci bacteria. The solution is then applied to the magnetotactic bacteria swimming problem, and good consistency has been found between theoretical predictions and laboratory observations of the moving patterns of such bacteria under magnetic fields. In the analysis of dynamics of planetary

  20. [Is the rate of medical publication from Israel similar to other countries? A comparative study of three medical specialties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zer, Matan; Lindner, Arie; Greenstein, Alexander; Leibovici, Dan

    2011-07-01

    Academic careers of individual doctors are commonly evaluated by examining the number and quality of authored publications. Similarly, the extent and quality of medical research may be assessed nationwide by measuring the number of publications originating from the country of interest over time. This in turn, may indicate on the quality of medicine practiced. To evaluate the extent and quality of IsraeLi publications we measured the rate and quality of medical publications originating from Israel for two decades in the fields of urology, cardiology and orthopedics, and compared the data to those of other countries. Leading journals in urology, cardiology, and orthopedics were selected. A Medline search (http://www.ncbi.ntm.nih.gov/sites/entrez] was conducted for all the publications originating in Israel between the years 1990-2009 in the selected journals. Data from Israel was compared to those from Italy, France, Germany, Egypt and Turkey. The change in rate of publications was tested using Linear regression. The quality of publications was calculated by multiplying the number of publications by the relevant impact factor. While the urology publications rate in Israel increased by 32.7% in the second study decade as compared with the first, the urology publication rates during the same time period from Italy, France, Germany, Egypt and Turkey were 199%, 115%, 184%, 180% and 227% respectively. The regression coefficient for the urology publication rate was 0.51 for Israel, and 0.78, 0.95, 0.78, 0.87 and 0.97 for the other countries, respectively. The regression coefficient for the change in the quality of publications from Israel was 0.31 and 0.81, 0.75, 0.92, 0.73, and 0.92 for the other countries, respectively. In cardiology, the Israeli publication rate increased by 26% during the second study decade, whereas in the other countries the increments were 46%, 35%, 76%, 80% and 309% respectively. The regression coefficient for Israeli pubLication rate was 0.45, and

  1. Assessing the similarity of mental models of operating room team members and implications for patient safety: a prospective, replicated study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakarada-Kordic, Ivana; Weller, Jennifer M; Webster, Craig S; Cumin, David; Frampton, Christopher; Boyd, Matt; Merry, Alan F

    2016-08-31

    Patient safety depends on effective teamwork. The similarity of team members' mental models - or their shared understanding-regarding clinical tasks is likely to influence the effectiveness of teamwork. Mental models have not been measured in the complex, high-acuity environment of the operating room (OR), where professionals of different backgrounds must work together to achieve the best surgical outcome for each patient. Therefore, we aimed to explore the similarity of mental models of task sequence and of responsibility for task within multidisciplinary OR teams. We developed a computer-based card sorting tool (Momento) to capture the information on mental models in 20 six-person surgical teams, each comprised of three subteams (anaesthesia, surgery, and nursing) for two simulated laparotomies. Team members sorted 20 cards depicting key tasks according to when in the procedure each task should be performed, and which subteam was primarily responsible for each task. Within each OR team and subteam, we conducted pairwise comparisons of scores to arrive at mean similarity scores for each task. Mean similarity score for task sequence was 87 % (range 57-97 %). Mean score for responsibility for task was 70 % (range = 38-100 %), but for half of the tasks was only 51 % (range = 38-69 %). Participants believed their own subteam was primarily responsible for approximately half the tasks in each procedure. We found differences in the mental models of some OR team members about responsibility for and order of certain tasks in an emergency laparotomy. Momento is a tool that could help elucidate and better align the mental models of OR team members about surgical procedures and thereby improve teamwork and outcomes for patients.

  2. A Study of Wavelet Analysis and Data Extraction from Second-Order Self-Similar Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Estrada Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical analysis and synthesis of self-similar discrete time signals are presented. The analysis equation is formally defined through a special family of basis functions of which the simplest case matches the Haar wavelet. The original discrete time series is synthesized without loss by a linear combination of the basis functions after some scaling, displacement, and phase shift. The decomposition is then used to synthesize a new second-order self-similar signal with a different Hurst index than the original. The components are also used to describe the behavior of the estimated mean and variance of self-similar discrete time series. It is shown that the sample mean, although it is unbiased, provides less information about the process mean as its Hurst index is higher. It is also demonstrated that the classical variance estimator is biased and that the widely accepted aggregated variance-based estimator of the Hurst index results biased not due to its nature (which is being unbiased and has minimal variance but to flaws in its implementation. Using the proposed decomposition, the correct estimation of the Variance Plot is described, as well as its close association with the popular Logscale Diagram.

  3. A study of South Korean casino employees and gambling problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyung; Labrie, Richard A; Rhee, Hak Seung; Shaffer, Howard J

    2008-05-01

    Casino employees are exposed to disproportionately high levels of gambling, drinking and smoking compared to other occupations. Because of their occupation, they have the opportunity to detect and prevent pathological gambling (PG). To identify differences in the mental health status and social attitudes towards PG among casino workers in South Korea depending upon whether they report any gambling problems. Data were collected from 388 full-time casino employees. This data provided information about the prevalence of gambling problems, alcohol and tobacco use and depression. Employees were grouped according to their scores on the Korean version of South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and those employees who gambled without experiencing any gambling problems (Group NP: SOGS = 0) and those who reported any gambling problems (Group P: SOGS > 0) were compared. An exploratory factor analyses identified the domains of casino employee social attitudes towards gambling. Employees who reported gambling problems (Group P) reported a higher prevalence of smoking, alcohol problems and depression (P casino employees with gambling problems.

  4. Validation study of the Questionnaire on School Maladjustment Problems (QSMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Peralta Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Roda, María Dolores; Trianes Torres, María Victoria

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the exploratory and confirmatory structure, as well as other psychometric properties, of the Cuestionario de Problemas de Convivencia Escolar (CPCE; in Spanish, the Questionnaire on School Maladjustment Problems [QSMP]), using a sample of Spanish adolescents. The instrument was administered to 60 secondary education teachers (53.4% females and 46.6% males) between the ages of 28 and 54 years (M= 41.2, SD= 11.5), who evaluated a total of 857 adolescent students. The first-order exploratory factor analysis identified 7 factors, explaining a total variance of 62%. A second-order factor analysis yielded three dimensions that explain 84% of the variance. A confirmatory factor analysis was subsequently performed in order to reduce the number of factors obtained in the exploratory analysis as well as the number of items. Lastly, we present the results of reliability, internal consistency, and validity indices. These results and their implications for future research and for the practice of educational guidance and intervention are discussed in the conclusions.

  5. Genetic and environmental influences on externalizing behavior and alcohol problems in adolescence: A female twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Waldron, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Genetic and environmental contributions to the observed correlations among DSM-IV ADHD problems [inattentive (INATT) and hyperactive/impulsive (HYP/IMP) behaviors], conduct problems (CDP) and alcohol problems (AlcProb) were examined by fitting multivariate structural equation models to data from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study [N=2892 twins (831 monozygotic pairs, 615 dizygotic pairs)]. Based on results of preliminary regression models, we modified the structural model to jointly estimate (i) the regression of each phenotype on significant familial/prenatal predictors, and (ii) genetic and environmental contributions to the residual variance and covariance. Results suggested that (i) parental risk factors, such as parental alcohol dependence and regular smoking, increase risk for externalizing behavior; (ii) prenatal exposures predicted increased symptomatology for HYP/IMP (smoking during pregnancy), INATT and CDP (prenatal alcohol exposure); (iii) after adjusting for measured familial/prenatal risk factors, genetic influences were significant for HYP/IMP, INATT, and CDP; however, similar to earlier reports, genetic effects on alcohol dependence symptoms were negligible; and (iv) in adolescence, correlated liabilities for conduct and alcohol problems are found in environmental factors common to both phenotypes, while covariation among impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems is primarily due to genetic influences common to these three behaviors. Thus, while a variety of adolescent problem behaviors are significantly correlated, the structure of that association may differ as a function of phenotype (e.g., comorbid HYP/IMP and CDP vs. comorbid CDP and AlcProb), a finding that could inform different approaches to treatment and prevention. PMID:19341765

  6. Information filtering based on transferring similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Duo; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2009-07-01

    In this Brief Report, we propose an index of user similarity, namely, the transferring similarity, which involves all high-order similarities between users. Accordingly, we design a modified collaborative filtering algorithm, which provides remarkably higher accurate predictions than the standard collaborative filtering. More interestingly, we find that the algorithmic performance will approach its optimal value when the parameter, contained in the definition of transferring similarity, gets close to its critical value, before which the series expansion of transferring similarity is convergent and after which it is divergent. Our study is complementary to the one reported in [E. A. Leicht, P. Holme, and M. E. J. Newman, Phys. Rev. E 73, 026120 (2006)], and is relevant to the missing link prediction problem.

  7. Study of Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems Among Medical Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    characteristics, psychiatric illness, and some types of physical illness. ... to poor sleep qualities are significant problems among medical students in our institution. Caffeine and .... prepare for post graduation and also get to play a role (albeit a.

  8. A theoretical study on a convergence problem of nodal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohong, Z.; Ziyong, L. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Chao, Y. A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P. O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The effectiveness of modern nodal methods is largely due to its use of the information from the analytical flux solution inside a homogeneous node. As a result, the nodal coupling coefficients depend explicitly or implicitly on the evolving Eigen-value of a problem during its solution iteration process. This poses an inherently non-linear matrix Eigen-value iteration problem. This paper points out analytically that, whenever the half wave length of an evolving node interior analytic solution becomes smaller than the size of that node, this non-linear iteration problem can become inherently unstable and theoretically can always be non-convergent or converge to higher order harmonics. This phenomenon is confirmed, demonstrated and analyzed via the simplest 1-D problem solved by the simplest analytic nodal method, the Analytic Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (ACMFD, [1]) method. (authors)

  9. Compiling Planning into Quantum Optimization Problems: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-07

    to SAT, and then reduces higher order terms to quadratic terms through a series of gadgets . Our mappings allow both positive and negative preconditions...to its being specific to this type of problem) and likely benefits from an homogeneous parameter setting (Venturelli et al. 2014), as it generates a...Guzik, A. 2013. Resource efficient gadgets for compiling adiabatic quan- tum optimization problems. Annalen der Physik 525(10- 11):877–888. Blum, A

  10. Clinical phenotype-based gene prioritization: an initial study using semantic similarity and the human phenotype ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Aaron J; Dechene, Elizabeth T; Dulik, Matthew C; Wilkens, Alisha; Spinner, Nancy B; Krantz, Ian D; Pennington, Jeffrey W; Robinson, Peter N; White, Peter S

    2014-07-21

    Exome sequencing is a promising method for diagnosing patients with a complex phenotype. However, variant interpretation relative to patient phenotype can be challenging in some scenarios, particularly clinical assessment of rare complex phenotypes. Each patient's sequence reveals many possibly damaging variants that must be individually assessed to establish clear association with patient phenotype. To assist interpretation, we implemented an algorithm that ranks a given set of genes relative to patient phenotype. The algorithm orders genes by the semantic similarity computed between phenotypic descriptors associated with each gene and those describing the patient. Phenotypic descriptor terms are taken from the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) and semantic similarity is derived from each term's information content. Model validation was performed via simulation and with clinical data. We simulated 33 Mendelian diseases with 100 patients per disease. We modeled clinical conditions by adding noise and imprecision, i.e. phenotypic terms unrelated to the disease and terms less specific than the actual disease terms. We ranked the causative gene against all 2488 HPO annotated genes. The median causative gene rank was 1 for the optimal and noise cases, 12 for the imprecision case, and 60 for the imprecision with noise case. Additionally, we examined a clinical cohort of subjects with hearing impairment. The disease gene median rank was 22. However, when also considering the patient's exome data and filtering non-exomic and common variants, the median rank improved to 3. Semantic similarity can rank a causative gene highly within a gene list relative to patient phenotype characteristics, provided that imprecision is mitigated. The clinical case results suggest that phenotype rank combined with variant analysis provides significant improvement over the individual approaches. We expect that this combined prioritization approach may increase accuracy and decrease effort for

  11. Antimalarial activity of synthetic 1,2,4-trioxanes and cyclic peroxy ketals, a quantum similarity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés, X.; Gallegos, A.; Carbó-Dorca, R.

    2001-12-01

    In this work, the antimalarial activity of two series of 20 and 7 synthetic 1,2,4-trioxanes and a set of 20 cyclic peroxy ketals are tested for correlation search by means of Molecular Quantum Similarity Measures (MQSM). QSAR models, dealing with different biological responses (IC90, IC50 and ED90) of the parasite Plasmodium Falciparum, are constructed using MQSM as molecular descriptors and are satisfactorily correlated. The statistical results of the 20 1,2,4-trioxanes are deeply analyzed to elucidate the relevant structural features in the biological activity, revealing the importance of phenyl substitutions.

  12. Renormalization-group study of the four-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Richard; Moroz, Sergej

    2010-01-01

    We perform a renormalization-group analysis of the nonrelativistic four-boson problem by means of a simple model with pointlike three- and four-body interactions. We investigate in particular the region where the scattering length is infinite and all energies are close to the atom threshold. We find that the four-body problem behaves truly universally, independent of any four-body parameter. Our findings confirm the recent conjectures of others that the four-body problem is universal, now also from a renormalization-group perspective. We calculate the corresponding relations between the four- and three-body bound states, as well as the full bound-state spectrum and comment on the influence of effective range corrections.

  13. Study on the mechanism and efficiency of simulated annealing using an LP optimization benchmark problem - 113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qianqian, Li; Xiaofeng, Jiang; Shaohong, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA) for solving combinatorial optimization problems is a popular method for loading pattern optimization. The main purpose of this paper is to understand the underlying search mechanism of SAA and to study its efficiency. In this study, a general SAA that employs random pair exchange of fuel assemblies to search for the optimum fuel Loading Pattern (LP) is applied to an exhaustively searched LP optimization benchmark problem. All the possible LPs of the benchmark problem have been enumerated and evaluated via the use of the very fast and accurate Hybrid Harmonics and Linear Perturbation (HHLP) method, such that the mechanism of SA for LP optimization can be explicitly analyzed and its search efficiency evaluated. The generic core geometry itself dictates that only a small number LPs can be generated by performing random single pair exchanges and that the LPs are necessarily mostly similar to the initial LP. This phase space effect turns out to be the basic mechanism in SAA that can explain its efficiency and good local search ability. A measure of search efficiency is introduced which shows that the stochastic nature of SAA greatly influences the variability of its search efficiency. It is also found that using fuel assembly k-infinity distribution as a technique to filter the LPs can significantly enhance the SAA search efficiency. (authors)

  14. On the microeconomic problems studied by portfolio theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonov, Oleg; Medvedeva, Marina

    2012-09-01

    In the paper we consider economically motivated problems, which are treated with the help of methods of portfolio theory that goes back to the papers by H. Markowitz [1] and J. Tobin [2]. We show that the portfolio theory initially developed for risky securities (stocks) could be applied to other objects. In the present paper we consider several situations where such an application is reasonable and seems to be fruitful. Namely, we consider the problems of constructing the efficient portfolio of banking services and the portfolio of counteragents of a firm.

  15. Studies of Visual Attention in Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Adrian M.

    2013-01-01

    The work described here represents an effort to understand and influence visual attention while solving physics problems containing a diagram. Our visual system is guided by two types of processes--top-down and bottom-up. The top-down processes are internal and determined by ones prior knowledge and goals. The bottom-up processes are external and…

  16. Psychiatric Problems among Adolescent Southeast Asian Refugees: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn L.; Westermeyer, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Presenting complaints and problems of 28 Southeast Asian adolescent refugees who were seen by therapists at a U.S. hospital psychiatry department are described. Journal Availability: Subscription Department, The Williams Wilkins Co., 428 East Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202. (SEW)

  17. The Problem is People, Social Studies: 6425.07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratchford, Frank

    Population education is the focus of this quinmester curriculum guide for secondary students. By examining and comparing past population theories of Malthus and Marx with present theories students will better understand the present situation, cultural attitudes toward the problems, and the ecological consequences of overpopulation. Objectives are…

  18. A numerical study for global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); J.G. Verwer (Jan); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1998-01-01

    htmlabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  19. A numerical study for global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); J.G. Verwer (Jan); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  20. A comparative study of behaviour problems between adopted and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We found that adopted children had more behaviour problems on the PSQ. On SAICA, adopted children showed less social competence. The parenting practices as revealed by the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire did not differ between the two groups. The IQ of the children in both groups was within the normal range.

  1. Study of polypharmacy and associated problems among elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polypharmacy is very common among elderly and interventions to improve the optimal use of medication in elderly could lead to reduction in the problems associated with polypharmacy. KEYWORDS: Non-adherence; Polypharmacy; Self medications. Internet Journal of Medical Update 2012 January;7(1):35-39 ...

  2. Adults, Computers and Problem Solving: "What's the Problem?" OECD Skills Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ji Eun; Elliott, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The "OECD Skills Studies" series aims to provide a strategic approach to skills policies. It presents OECD internationally comparable indicators and policy analysis covering issues such as: quality of education and curricula; transitions from school to work; vocational education and training (VET); employment and unemployment; innovative…

  3. [Confidence interval or p-value--similarities and differences between two important methods of statistical inference of quantitative studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Statistic significance, also known as p-value, and CI (Confidence Interval) are common statistics measures and are essential for the statistical analysis of studies in medicine and life sciences. These measures provide complementary information about the statistical probability and conclusions regarding the clinical significance of study findings. This article is intended to describe the methodologies, compare between the methods, assert their suitability for the different needs of study results analysis and to explain situations in which each method should be used.

  4. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2015-04-01

    Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. We included 78,154 men and women aged 20-100 years randomly selected in 1991-2010 from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark, and genotyped 68,486 participants for two genetic variants in two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, ADH-1B (rs1229984) and ADH-1C (rs698). We performed observational and causal analyses using a Mendelian randomization design with antidepressant medication use and hospitalization/death, with depression and alcoholism as outcomes. In prospective analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for participants reporting >6 drinks/day vs participants reporting 0.1-1 drinks/day was 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.65) for prescription antidepressant use, with a corresponding hazard ratio of 0.80 (0.45-1.45) for hospitalization/death with depression and of 11.7 (8.77-15.6) for hospitalization/death with alcoholism. For hospitalization/death with alcoholism, instrumental variable analysis yielded a causal odds ratio of 28.6 (95 % confidence interval 6.47-126) for an increase of 1 drink/day estimated from the combined genotype combination, whereas the corresponding multifactorially adjusted observational odds ratio was 1.28 (1.25-1.31). Corresponding odds ratios were 1.11 (0.67-1.83) causal and 1.04 (1.03-1.06) observational for prescription antidepressant use, and 4.52 (0.99-20.5) causal and 0.98 (0.94-1.03) observational for hospitalization/death with depression. These data indicate that the association between increased alcohol consumption and alcoholism is causal, without similar strong evidence for depression. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  5. Data Mining and Complex Problems: Case Study in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Luis; Marin, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Data mining is defined as the discovery of useful, possibly unexpected, patterns and relationships in data using statistical and non-statistical techniques in order to develop schemes for decision and policy making. Data mining can be used to discover the sources and causes of problems in complex systems. In addition, data mining can support simulation strategies by finding the different constants and parameters to be used in the development of simulation models. This paper introduces a framework for data mining and its application to complex problems. To further explain some of the concepts outlined in this paper, the potential application to the NASA Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon structures and genetic programming is used as an illustration.

  6. Problems in the Study of the Concepts of Underlying Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzel R. Faizova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concepts of underlying categories. The economic good is one of such categories. In this regard, we considered such characteristics of an economic good as utility, value, and cost. The public goods, which are the goods that can benefit society and have two distinctive features, are an important category as well. In this regard, we characterized the characteristics and features of public goods and identified the main problems in this category. At present, the actual problem faced by the state is the production and evaluation of the effectiveness of public goods. The difficulty is that it is impossible to accurately determine the production volume of goods necessary for the society. Assessment of the effectiveness of the state activities requires the development of special tools. The existing legislatively defined methods have a number of shortcomings and do not allow obtaining an objective picture. Financing of most public goods occurs at the expense of the state, so it is very important to ensure and increase the efficiency of their spending at the moment. Public-private partnership is the most promising tool for better satisfying the needs of the population. The main goal of this work is to identify and discuss the main characteristics of the concepts of underlying categories and explain possible problems, issues faced by the state and the society.

  7. Similarities and differences in emotion regulation and psychopathology in Iranian and German school-children: A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Tahmouresi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: A main result of the study showed that children in Iran report more internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Culture and emotional expression may explain differences between Iranian and German children. It seems to be difficult for young children in Iran to express themselves, this may be because they are expected to show respect to maintain harmony in the family.

  8. Similar and/or Different Writing Processes? A Study of Spanish Foreign Language and Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elola, Idoia; Mikulski, Ariana M.

    2016-01-01

    Following a cognitively-oriented framework, this study builds upon the authors' previous work (Elola and Mikulski 2013; Mikulski and Elola 2011), which analyzed writing processes (planning time, execution time, revision time), fluency, and accuracy of Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners when composing in English and in Spanish. By analyzing…

  9. Introducing future engineers to sustainable ecology problems: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and industrial design. The energy, which they consume, is increasing the greenhouse effect and the waste poisons the environment. So far, most courses on ecology are offered to specialists in environmental engineering. These courses are filled with many details. The Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration teaches students in the direction of management and production engineering. Upon completion, the students receive the degree of 'engineer'. Their future work will mainly concern management of different types of industrial enterprises and they will be responsible for organising it in such a way as to avoid a dangerous contribution to environmental pollution and climate change. This is why it was decided to introduce a new course entitled 'Principles of Ecology and Environmental Management'. This course is quite broad, concerning almost all technical, law and organisational aspects of the problem. The presentation is made in a spectacular way, aiming to convince students that their future activity must be environmentally friendly. It contains information about international activities in ecology, legal aspects concerning pollution, technical and information methods of monitoring and, finally, the description of 'green' solutions. Altogether, 27 hours of lectures and 15 hours of discussions and students' presentations complete the course. Details of this course are described in this paper.

  10. Are women who work in bars, guesthouses and similar facilities a suitable study population for vaginal microbicide trials in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Vallely

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility study was conducted to investigate whether an occupational at-risk cohort of women in Mwanza, Tanzania are a suitable study population for future phase III vaginal microbicide trials.1573 women aged 16-54 y working in traditional and modern bars, restaurants, hotels, guesthouses or as local food-handlers were enrolled at community-based reproductive health clinics, provided specimens for HIV/STI and pregnancy testing, and asked to attend three-monthly clinical follow-up visits for 12-months. HIV positive and negative women were eligible to enter the feasibility study and to receive free reproductive health services at any time. HIV prevalence at baseline was 26.5% (417/1573. HIV incidence among 1156 sero-negative women attending at baseline was 2.9/100PYs. Among 1020 HIV sero-negative, non-pregnant women, HIV incidence was 2.0/100PYs, HSV-2 incidence 12.7/100PYs and pregnancy rate 17.8/100PYs. Retention at three-months was 76.3% (778/1020. Among 771 HIV sero-negative, non-pregnant women attending at three-months, subsequent follow-up at 6, 9 and 12-months was 83.7%, 79.6%, and 72.1% respectively. Older women, those who had not moved home or changed their place of work in the last year, and women working in traditional bars or as local food handlers had the highest re-attendance.Women working in food outlets and recreational facilities in Tanzania and other parts of Africa may be a suitable study population for microbicide and other HIV prevention trials. Effective locally-appropriate strategies to address high pregnancy rates and early losses to follow-up are essential to minimise risk to clinical trials in these settings.

  11. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets....... Our results show that the proposed functions work better than other methods proposed in the literature....

  12. Phoneme Similarity and Confusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity between component speech sounds influences language processing in numerous ways. Explanation and detailed prediction of linguistic performance consequently requires an understanding of these basic similarities. The research reported in this paper contrasts two broad classes of approach to the issue of phoneme similarity-theoretically…

  13. Similarities and differences of serotonin and its precursors in their interactions with model membranes studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Irene; Martini, M. Florencia; Pickholz, Mónica

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we report a molecular dynamics (MD) simulations study of relevant biological molecules as serotonin (neutral and protonated) and its precursors, tryptophan and 5-hydroxy-tryptophan, in a fully hydrated bilayer of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-choline (POPC). The simulations were carried out at the fluid lamellar phase of POPC at constant pressure and temperature conditions. Two guest molecules of each type were initially placed at the water phase. We have analyzed, the main localization, preferential orientation and specific interactions of the guest molecules within the bilayer. During the simulation run, the four molecules were preferentially found at the water-lipid interphase. We found that the interactions that stabilized the systems are essentially hydrogen bonds, salt bridges and cation-π. None of the guest molecules have access to the hydrophobic region of the bilayer. Besides, zwitterionic molecules have access to the water phase, while protonated serotonin is anchored in the interphase. Even taking into account that these simulations were done using a model membrane, our results suggest that the studied molecules could not cross the blood brain barrier by diffusion. These results are in good agreement with works that show that serotonin and Trp do not cross the BBB by simple diffusion.

  14. A genetic study on attention problems and academic skills: results of a longitudinal study in twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, T.J.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Several studies reported a negative association between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement. We investigated the etiology of the association between Attention Problems (AP, one of the core symptoms in ADHD) in early childhood and four academic skills across childhood in a genetically

  15. A Study Guide on Holography (Draft). Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Tung H.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. The primary purpose of this guide is to provide a student with sufficient practical and technical information to begin independently practicing holography, with occasional…

  16. Similarities and Differences in Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology in Iranian and German School-children: A Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmouresi, Niloufar; Bender, Caroline; Schmitz, Julian; Baleshzar, Alireza; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing disorders in children and adolescents have been described in many countries. This study was performed to better understand the effect of culture on emotion regulation, and aimed to identify the relationship between emotion regulation and psychopathology in children. Participants were 269 children from Iran and Germany who voluntarily agreed to participate. Groups were defined by cultural background, Participants completed the Children Emotion Management Scale (CEMS), Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ), and the Youth self-report YSF questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) with post-hoc Scheffe tests conducted to identify the exact nature of group differences. There were significant main effect of country (P Culture and emotional expression may explain differences between Iranian and German children. It seems to be difficult for young children in Iran to express themselves, this may be because they are expected to show respect to maintain harmony in the family.

  17. Similarities and differences between internationally adopted and nonadopted children in their toddler years: Outcomes from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Monica; Theie, Steinar

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we compare internationally adopted children's communication, gross motor development, temperament, and challenging behavior with the same characteristics in nonadopted children at age 24 and 36 months. At 24 months, adopted children lag behind in communication and in gross motor development. The adopted children are less active and show less physically challenging behavior. At age 36 months, most of these differences have diminished, but the adopted children still lag behind in communication. This is an important finding because communication skills in the toddler years are a crucial factor in children's attachment, social development, and later language and cognitive development. Looking at the overall outcomes during early toddler years, internationally adopted children are developing very well considering the preadoption adversity to which many of them have been exposed.

  18. Elite level rhythmic gymnasts have significantly more and stronger pain than peers of similar age: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Manuel; Jeremian, Lusine; Graf, Alexandra; Kandelhart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) unites aesthetic, ballet-like motion, and all aspects of gymnastics. To reach elite level, girls begin at early age the intensive training. To date it is unclear if such demanding training influences the incidence and intensity of painful overuse injuries. The purpose of this study is to analyze anatomical painful regions and pain intensity in elite level rhythmic gymnasts (elRG) and compare results with an age-matched control group (CG). This prospective field study was carried out at the European Championship in RG 2013 (218 participating athletes, Vienna, Austria). Volunteering athletes were interviewed according to a preformed questionnaire. As CG secondary school pupils without any competitive sports experience were analyzed accordingly. Overall, 243 young females (144 elRG/66 % of all participants and 99 CG) were observed. ElRGs were significantly (s.) smaller, lighter, and had s. stronger pain (p < 0.001). A total of 72 % of athletes reported to have at least one painful body region compared with 52 % of CG (p < 0.001). ElRG had nearly three times more serious injuries than the CG. In all 23 % off all elRG reported to have had no access to professional medical care. ElRGs were s. more frequently (25 vs 9 %) affected at the lumbar spine and the ankle joint (17.4 vs 7 %). To our knowledge, this trial analyzes the largest cohort of elRG to date. Hence, it is clearly alluded that intensive training in RG is a significant factor causing more and stronger pain than in a CG.

  19. Feeding problems in infancy and early childhood: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding problems in infancy and early childhood: A case study of selected ... of feeding problems among children 6 to 24 months of age in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... from four selected Primary Health Centres in Ibadan North Local Government Area.

  20. Self-similar factor approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties

  1. Comparative study of direct and inverse problems of cracked beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahieddine Chettah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the analysis and evaluation of the cracked structures were hot spots in several engineering fields and has been the subject of great interest with important and comprehensive surveys covering various methodologies and applications, in order to obtain reliable and effective methods to maintain the safety and performance of structures on a proactive basis. The presence of a crack, not only causes a local variation in the structural parameters (e.g., the stiffness of a beam at its location, but it also has a global effect which affects the overall dynamic behavior of the structure (such as the natural frequencies. For this reason, the dynamic characterization of the cracked structures can be used to detect damage from non-destructive testing. The objective of this paper is to compare the accuracy and ability of two methods to correctly predict the results for both direct problem to find natural frequencies and inverse problem to find crack’s locations and depths of a cracked simply supported beam. Several cases of crack depths and crack locations are investigated. The crack is supposed to remain open. The Euler–Bernoulli beam theory is employed to model the cracked beam and the crack is represented as a rotational spring with a sectional flexibility. In the first method, the transfer matrix method is used; the cracked beam is modeled as two uniform sub-segments connected by a rotational spring located at the cracked section. In the second method which is based on the Rayleigh’s method, the mode shape of the cracked beam is constructed by adding a cubic polynomial function to that of the undamaged beam. By applying the compatibility conditions at crack’s location and the corresponding boundary conditions, the general forms of characteristic equations for this cracked system are obtained. The two methods are then utilized to determine the locations and depths by using any two natural frequencies of a cracked simply

  2. Ontogenetic diet shifts and their incidence on ecological processes: a case study using two morphologically similar stoneflies (Plecoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céréghino, Régis

    2006-07-01

    Most ecological studies consider conspecific individuals as ecologically equivalent, assuming that inter-instar variation is weak and has a limited influence on functional processes. To test this assumption, we investigated the life history and trophic basis of production in two predatory stoneflies, Perlodes microcephalus and Isoperla acicularis, in a mountain stream. The variety of prey types increased with predator size. However, larvae started their development with a strictly phytophagous diet (3 months), then ingested both vegetal material and animal prey (2-3 months). Finally, larvae were strictly carnivorous when head width reached 1.1 mm. Young (herbivorous) I. acicularis larvae occurred from June to August. Young P. microcephalus larvae hatched in October, and were herbivorous until December, when I. acicularis larvae were omnivorous. Competition for animal prey was likely to occur in the spring, but P. microcephalus grew faster and emerged earlier. The cohort productions were mostly based on carnivory (78.7-90.7%), because most production occurred in later instars. Ontogenetic diet shifts could play a role in the structuring of species assemblages by adjusting species' requirements to the temporal dynamics of environmental conditions, including food availability and biotic interactions. However, their incidence on global processes is quantitatively limited, large individuals having the greatest impacts on the way energy flows.

  3. Differences and similarities on neuronal activities of people being happily and unhappily in love: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessel, Christina; Stiller, Juliane; Bleich, Stefan; Bönsch, Dominikus; Boensch, Dominikus; Doerfler, Arnd; Garcia, Meritxell; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Forster, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity was studied in grief following frustrated love compared to romantic love, and it was hypothesized that unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers would have decreased brain activity in regions specific to emotional and reward circuits, such as frontal brain areas, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral insula or posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Twelve volunteers intensely in love and 12 volunteers recently separated from their romantic partners were scanned performing 3 runs of functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisition. Subjects viewed partner pictures versus erotic pictures during the first run of the scanning process, autobiographical pictures versus neutral pictures during the second and autobiographical texts versus neutral texts during the third run. The Passionate Love Scale (PLS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were additionally recorded. Decreased brain activity in unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers occurred in frontal areas, ACC and PCC and bilateral insula. Unhappy lovers also revealed clinical depressive symptoms in the BDI. Unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers exhibited clinical depressive symptoms and reduced blood oxygen level dependency changes in a brain network which has been described as being involved in major depression. This might be a cue for the close relationship between grief and depression. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Problem-solving skills training for mothers of children recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cathina T; Fairclough, Diane L; Noll, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Problem-solving skills training is an intervention designed to teach coping skills that has shown to decrease negative affectivity (depressive symptoms, negative mood, and post-traumatic stress symptoms) in mothers of children with cancer. The objective of this study was to see whether mothers of children recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder would be receptive to receiving problem-solving skills training (feasibility trial). Participants were recruited from a local outpatient developmental clinic that is part of a university department of pediatrics. Participants were to receive eight 1-h sessions of problem-solving skills training and were asked to complete assessments prior to beginning problem-solving skills training (T1), immediately after intervention (T2), and 3 months after T2 (T3). Outcome measures assessed problem-solving skills and negative affectivity (i.e. distress). In total, 30 mothers were approached and 24 agreed to participate (80.0%). Of them, 17 mothers completed problem-solving skills training (retention rate: 70.8%). Mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder who completed problem-solving skills training had significant decreases in negative affectivity and increases in problem-solving skills. A comparison to mothers of children with cancer shows that mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder displayed similar levels of depressive symptoms but less negative mood and fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Data suggest that problem-solving skills training may be an effective way to alleviate distress in mothers of children recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Data also suggest that mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder were moderately receptive to receiving problem-solving skills training. Implications are that problem-solving skills training may be beneficial to parents of children with autism spectrum disorder; modifications to improve retention rates are suggested. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. An Internationally Comparative Study of Immigration and Adolescent Emotional and Behavioral Problems:Effects of Generation and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim

    2015-01-01

    psychosomatic symptoms than native adolescents. Effect sizes varied considerable for the different outcomes, and similar effects were found for first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents. Differences in these indicators of emotional and behavioral problems between immigrant and native adolescents did......PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral...... not vary significantly with the receiving country. With two exceptions, effects of immigrant status were similar for boys and girls. Although no differences in psychosomatic symptoms were found between first-generation immigrant and native girls, first-generation immigrant boys reported less psychosomatic...

  6. Longitudinal study of religiosity and mental health of adolescents with psychiatric problems. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Jagt-Jelsma, W; de Vries-Schot, M; Scheepers, P; van Deurzen, P A M; Klip, H; Buitelaar, J K

    2017-09-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the influence of the religiosity of pre-adolescents with psychiatric problems on the course of mental health during adolescence. In the TRAILS clinical cohort of 543 pre-adolescents (10-12 years), mental health problems were assessed using self-report at baseline, T2 (12-14 years), T3 (14-17 years), and T4 (17-21 years). The Youth Self Report (YSR) was used at baseline, T2, and T3, and the Adult Self Report (ASR) was used at T4. Religiosity was assessed at baseline using self-report and information from mothers and fathers, resulting in three categorical religiosity variables and six SOCON (Social Cultural Developments Questionnaire) religiosity scales that assess religiosity in greater detail. Repeated measure ANOVA analyses were performed for each independent religiosity variable with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior as dependent variables, gender as a factor and time (T1, T2, T3 and T4) as within factor. Results were adjusted for marital status of parents and socioeconomic status and corrected for multiple testing. There were main effects of the self-report SOCON scale "Humanistic beliefs" and gender and gender "by Humanistic beliefs" interaction effect on internalizing problems. Follow-up tests revealed that among females "high" scores on "Humanistic beliefs" were associated with increased internalizing problems. There were hardly any associations between religiosity and mental health in a clinical cohort of pre-adolescents up to adolescence. The exception being that among females strong humanistic beliefs were associated with internalizing problems. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. [Stomatological problems related to pregnancy. A statistical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoni, S; Panattoni, E; Rolla, P; Rossi, M; Giuca, M R; Gabriele, M

    1991-12-01

    Pregnancy is related to particular dental issues, such as the increased incidence of diseases( gingivitis, caries, epulis), the fluoride supplementation, and the limits of diagnostics and therapy. Moreover, the mysterious halo surrounding pregnancy often makes the dentist uneasy. In order to objectively evaluate the implications of pregnancy in dentistry, we distributed a form to 100 pregnant women. The results of the form showed that 53 of them had gingival bleeding, 22 had toothache, 19 had caries but that just 12 of them had gone to the dentist because of dental troubles while 54 had not gone at all. Among the pluri-gravidae, all the women with dental diseases in their previous pregnancies had them again in their current pregnancy but nonetheless only some had undergone a dental check-up. The dentists did not show any uneasiness, as they performed tooth extractions in 5 women, endodontics in 2 women and fillings in 11 women. Just 4 out of 100 women had taken a fluoride supplementation. We deem advisable a stronger collaboration between physician, gynecologist and dentist in order to resolve specialist problems and to make pregnant women more aware of the need for dental follow-ups and fluoride supplementations.

  8. Studies on climate change problems and response measures in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruqiu, Y. [China National Environmental Protection Agency, Beijing (China)

    1995-06-01

    Climate has substantial influence on the development of human society. At the same time, the global climate is being affected by human activities. Since industrial revolution large amount of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases have been emitted to the atmosphere, causing significant change in its composition. It is recognized that this change might be sufficient to cause change in global climate. Because of the importance of climate change issues, the Chinese government pays great attention to them. As climate change concerns almost all aspects of the social and economic development, in order to coordinate ministries and agencies of the government in their efforts to deal with climate change problems, the Coordinating Group on Climate Change under the Environmental Protection Committee of the State Council was established in February 1990. There are four working groups under the Coordinating Group, working on scientific assessment, impact assessment and response strategies, economic implication and international convention matters of climate change. A number of research and technological development projects related to climate change issues have been organized, including bilateral cooperation projects and projects supported by GEF, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and other international organizations. (EG) 11 refs.

  9. [Penicillin allergy as a diagnostic problem. Overview and personal studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, T; Jung, E G; Bayerl, C

    2000-11-01

    Penicillin allergy is a common clinical problem. The distinction between penicillin and para-infectious exanthems is difficult. We investigated the reliability of the history, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of skin tests and specific IgE levels. 160 patients with a history of penicillin allergy were retrospectively evaluated in the outpatient department of a dermatological clinic. Nearly 50% were diagnosed as allergic to penicillin by detection of specific IgE or skin test. About 60% of the patients with immediate type reactions, and 72% with maculo-papular erythema showed positive reactions in skin tests. Significantly more patients were diagnosed as allergic to penicillin by intradermal testing than by prick testing (p sensitivity of the specific IgE RAST was 17.9%; the specifity, 89.5%. For the prick test the sensitivity was 8.2%; the specificity 90.8%. For the intradermal test the sensitivity was 26%; the specifity 69.7%. We suggest a step by step procedure to detect penicillin allergy making the diagnostic results as valid as possible.

  10. Studies on climate change problems and response measures in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruqiu, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Climate has substantial influence on the development of human society. At the same time, the global climate is being affected by human activities. Since industrial revolution large amount of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases have been emitted to the atmosphere, causing significant change in its composition. It is recognized that this change might be sufficient to cause change in global climate. Because of the importance of climate change issues, the Chinese government pays great attention to them. As climate change concerns almost all aspects of the social and economic development, in order to coordinate ministries and agencies of the government in their efforts to deal with climate change problems, the Coordinating Group on Climate Change under the Environmental Protection Committee of the State Council was established in February 1990. There are four working groups under the Coordinating Group, working on scientific assessment, impact assessment and response strategies, economic implication and international convention matters of climate change. A number of research and technological development projects related to climate change issues have been organized, including bilateral cooperation projects and projects supported by GEF, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and other international organizations. (EG) 11 refs

  11. Main problems experienced by children with epidermolysis bullosa : A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Scheppingen, Corinne; Lettinga, Ant T.; Duipmans, Jose C.; Maathuis, Care G. B.; Jonkman, Marcel F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and specify the problems of children with epidermolysis bullosa. The questions explored were: (i) What do children with epidermolysis bullosa experience as the most difficult problems; (it) What is the impact of these problems on their daily life; and

  12. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  13. Religion in School: Experience of a Study of the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlik, I. V.

    1992-01-01

    Presents observations concerning religion study in 150 Moscow schools. Reports that, although there are still some extracurricular activities promoting traditional former Soviet atheistic ideology, religion is now taught openly. Indicates that religion and atheism also are being studied on a scientific-philosophical basis. Examines how various…

  14. The Relationships of Problem Solving Styles to Parenting Styles: Two Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyen, Julia; Volpe, Carolyn Ann; Selby, Edwin C.; Houtz, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Two independent studies were conducted to examine the relationship of problem solving styles to parenting styles. Both studies used VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style and the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Study 1 included 173 adults recruited using Mechanical Turk and Study 2 included 131 adults recruited using Qualtrics. Data…

  15. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…

  16. A voxel-based morphometry study comparing problem gamblers, alcohol abusers, and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holst, R.J.; de Ruiter, M.B.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with smaller grey matter volumes in cortical and subcortical brain regions which are related to cognitive impairments often found in these disorders. Similar cognitive impairments have been found in patients suffering from problem gambling

  17. Study on the groundwater sustainable problem by numerical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pengpeng Zhou

    2017-10-07

    Oct 7, 2017 ... system in Zhanjiang, China, this paper presents a numerical modelling study to research groundwater sustainability of ... bility is a feasible method for solving the sus- ...... Singh A 2010 Decision support for on-farm water man-.

  18. occupational health problems studied among the workers of lime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAMGANES

    In present study, an extensive health survey of 573 lime kiln workers of Maihar and Jhukehi region of ... Among the observed health anomalies, ..... Health benefits of air pollution control in ... “Association of Indoor and Outdoor Particulate.

  19. STUDYING FOREST ROOT SYSTEMS - AN OVERVIEW OF METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of tree root systems is central to understanding forest ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycles, nutrient and water uptake, C allocation patterns by trees, soil microbial populations, adaptation of trees to stress, soil organic matter production, etc. Methodological probl...

  20. [Similarity system theory to evaluate similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongsuo; Meng, Qinghua; Jiang, Shumin; Hu, Yuzhu

    2005-03-01

    The similarity evaluation of the fingerprints is one of the most important problems in the quality control of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Similarity measures used to evaluate the similarity of the common peaks in the chromatogram of TCM have been discussed. Comparative studies were carried out among correlation coefficient, cosine of the angle and an improved extent similarity method using simulated data and experimental data. Correlation coefficient and cosine of the angle are not sensitive to the differences of the data set. They are still not sensitive to the differences of the data even after normalization. According to the similarity system theory, an improved extent similarity method was proposed. The improved extent similarity is more sensitive to the differences of the data sets than correlation coefficient and cosine of the angle. And the character of the data sets needs not to be changed compared with log-transformation. The improved extent similarity can be used to evaluate the similarity of the chromatographic fingerprints of TCM.

  1. A Study on Problems of Hijras in West Bengal Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems faced by Hijras in West Bengal in order to find its solutions using neutrosophic cognitive maps. Florentin Smarandache and Vasantha Kandasamy studied neutrosophic cognitive map which is an extension of fuzzy cognitive map by incorporating indeterminacy. Hijras is considered as neither man nor woman in biological point of view. They are in special gender identity (third gender in Indian society. In their daily life, they have to face many of problems in social aspects. Some of the problems namely, absence of social security, education problem, bad habits, health problem, stigma and discrimination, access to information and service problem, violence, Hijra community issues, and sexual behavior problem are considered in this study. Based on the expert’s opinion and the notion of indeterminacy, we formulate neutrosophic cognitive map. Then we studied the effect of two instantaneous state vectors separately on connection matrix E and neutrosophic adjacency matrix N(E.

  2. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  3. Bidirectional influences between maternal parenting and children's peer problems: a longitudinal monozygotic twin difference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Shinji; Takahashi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Koken; Fujisawa, Keiko K; Nonaka, Koichi; Ando, Juko

    2013-03-01

    This twin study examined the bidirectional relationship between maternal parenting behaviors and children's peer problems that were not confounded by genetic and family environmental factors. Mothers of 259 monozygotic twin pairs reported parenting behaviors and peer problems when twins were 42 and 48 months. Path analyses on monozygotic twin difference scores revealed that authoritative parenting (the presence of consistent discipline and lack of harsh parenting) and peer problems simultaneously influenced each other. Authoritative parenting reduced peer problems, and peer problems increased authoritative parenting. Neither consistent discipline nor harsh parenting alone was associated with peer problems. These results suggest that maternal authoritative parenting works protectively in regard to children's peer problems, and peer problems can evoke such effective parenting. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Investigating the Problems and Needs of Infertile Patients Referring to Assisted Reproduction Centers: A Review Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fahimeh Hasanbeigi; Mitra Zandi; Zohreh Vanaki; Anoushirvan Kazemnejad

    2017-01-01

    Background: The provision of optimal care is the most important goal in nursing, the fulfillment of which requires the identification of clients’ problems and needs. However, based on the review of the literature, no review study has investigated the problems and needs of the infertile patients in Iran. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the problems and needs of the infertile patients referring to the assisted reproduction centers. Method: This review study was based on...

  5. The problem with areas: Asia and Area studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor T. King

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Goh Beng Lan (ed., Decentring & diversifying Southeast Asian Studies: Perspectives from the region. Singapore: ISEAS, 2011, xiii + 304 pp. ISBN 9789814311564, price: USD 34.90 (paperback; 9789814311571, USD 45.90 (hardback.Terence Wesley-Smith and Jon Goss (eds, Remaking Area studies: Teaching and learning across Asia and the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2010, xxvii + 243 pp. ISBN 9780824833213. Price: USD 45.00 (hardback.Jacob Edmond, Henry Johnson and Jacqueline Leckie (eds, Recentring Asia: Histories, encounters, identities, xv + 339 pp. Leiden/Boston: Brill, Global Oriental: 2011. ISBN 9781906876258. Price: EUR 80.00 (hardback.

  6. Similar or different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornér, Solveig; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Peltonen, Jouni

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has identified researcher community and supervisory support as key determinants of the doctoral journey contributing to students’ persistence and robustness. However, we still know little about cross-cultural variation in the researcher community and supervisory support experien...... counter partners, whereas the Finnish students perceived lower levels of instrumental support than the Danish students. The findings imply that seemingly similar contexts hold valid differences in experienced social support and educational strategies at the PhD level....... experienced by PhD students within the same discipline. This study explores the support experiences of 381 PhD students within the humanities and social sciences from three research-intensive universities in Denmark (n=145) and Finland (n=236). The mixed methods design was utilized. The data were collected...... counter partners. The results also indicated that the only form of support in which the students expressed more matched support than mismatched support was informational support. Further investigation showed that the Danish students reported a high level of mismatch in emotional support than their Finnish...

  7. Going Critical: The Problem of Problematizing Knowledge in Education Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This paper raises the issue of what it is to be "critical" in education studies and in social theory more generally. It argues that this idea has for a long time been associated with forms of social constructionism and sociological reductionism. These understand the idea that knowledge is social in terms of reducing it to the experiences and…

  8. How can professionals carry out recognition towards children of parents with alcohol problems? A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Anne; Malterud, Kirsti

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore informal adult support experienced by children with parental alcohol problems to understand how professionals can show recognition in a similar way. We conducted a qualitative interview study with retrospective accounts from nine adults growing up with problem-drinking parents. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation. Goffman's concept "frame" offered a lens to study how supportive situations were defined and to understand opportunities and limitations for translation of recognition acts and attitudes to professional contexts. Analysis demonstrated frames of commonplace interaction where children experienced that adults recognised and responded to their needs. However, the silent support from an adult who recognised the problems without responding was an ambiguous frame. The child sometimes felt betrayed. Concentrating on frames of recognition which could be passed over to professional interactions, we noticed that participants called for a safe harbour, providing a sense of normality. Being with friends and their families, escaping difficulties at home without having to tell, was emphasised as important. Recognition was experienced when an adult with respect and dignity offered an open opportunity to address the problems, without pushing towards further communication. Our study indicates some specific lessons to be learnt about recognition for professional service providers from everyday situations. Frames of recognition, communicating availability and normality, and also unconditional confidentiality and safety when sharing problems may also be offered by professionals in public healthcare within their current frames of competency and time.

  9. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  10. The problem of studying the best educational experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach A.V.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the peculiarities of the views of scientists on the issues of determining the essence of good teaching experience, its dissemination and implementation in practice of education. The main stages of studying advanced pedagogical experience. It is shown the features of each stage. It is given the definition of best educational experience. Highlighted key terms that are used in the theory and practice work with the best educational experience.

  11. Preliminary Problem Definition Study on Munitions-Related Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    Thorium-230, Radium-226, Lead- 210 and Polonium - 210 by Plants," Radiat. Bot., 10(3), 293-295. Ernst, W. (1968), "Ecological Studies on Plants Grown on...dechlorane in the environment and its bioconcentration and biomagnifica- tion through the food chain. In mammals, dechlorane has been shown to be tei-atogenic...08 5. Phytotoxicity .o......................208 *6. Environmental Fate ....................... 210 7. Availability of Literature for

  12. The Selected Problems of Studies of Aircraft Landing Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rośkowicz Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article portrays the results of experimental studies conducted in the field of static strength test of main landing gear of lightweight aircraft as well as in the area of establishing the pneumatic tyre characteristics of main landing gear. The studies were carried out in compliance with methodologies of performing studies for the purposes of solutions implemented in aviation structures. It was stated that static strength tests of landing gear should not be done with the use of shock absorbers, due to the fact that this element, distinguished by high viscoelastic properties, by being statically loaded, is subject to displacements that do not occur during normal operation of the aircraft. Excessive displacements of shock absorber result in the load distribution in other landing gear elements being incompatible with project assumptions, which in turn leads to this strength test being interrupted, bearing in mind significantly lower loads than anticipated. It was also concluded that in order to determine pneumatic tyre characteristics it is not necessary to carry out tests on the whole landing gear strut, because the results obtained in the compression test of the wheel itself with pneumatic tyre are identical as the results acquired during tests conducted in accordance with methodology. Test preparation process with the use of the wheel itself and its realization is less time-consuming, less expensive and does not entail the necessity to build complex test stands.

  13. Problem solving ability and repetition of deliberate self-harm: a multicentre study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McAuliffe, C.; Corcoran, P.; Keeley, H.S.; Arensman, E.; Bille Brahe, U.; de Leio, D.; Fekete, S.; Hawton, K.; Hjelmeland, H.; Kelleher, M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Lonnqvist, J.; Michel, K.; Salander Renberg, E.; Schmidtke, A.; van Heeringen, K.; Wasserman, D.

    2006-01-01

    Background. While recent studies have found problem-solving impairments in individuals who engage in deliberate self-harm (DSH), few studies have examined repeaters and non-repeaters separately. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether specific types of problem-solving are associated

  14. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  15. Homophobic Bullying and Cyberbullying: Study of a Silenced Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elipe, Paz; de la Oliva Muñoz, María; Del Rey, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Bullying and cyberbullying have been studied extensively. In lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) students, these phenomena seem to be overrepresented so that, although they share some common elements, homophobic bullying and cyberbullying could be considered as specific phenomena. This study analyzed homophobic bullying and cyberbullying, with the participation of 533 Spanish secondary school students aged from 12 to 20 (M = 14.9, SD = 1.7). The results showed that students identified as non-heterosexual experienced a higher level of being targeted with bullying and cyberbullying, almost one half of them declaring that they had been victimized and more than 20% cybervictimized. Many stated they had suffered both kinds of harassment. In addition, the prevalence of all kinds of bullying was higher among non-heterosexual students. Regression analyses showed that sexual orientation could be considered a risk factor for suffering these aggressions. We discuss results in relation to previous research and look at their practical implications.

  16. The evaluator effect in usability studies: Problem detection and severity judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Ebbe; Hertzum, Morten; John, Bonnie E.

    1998-01-01

    Usability studies are commonly used in industry and applied in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. Though usability studies have been studied extensively, one potential threat to their reliability has been left virtually untouched: the evaluator effect. In this study......, four evaluators individually analyzed four videotaped usability test sessions. Only 20% of the 93 detected problems were detected by all evaluators, and 46% were detected by only a single evaluator. From the total set of 93 problems the evaluators individually selected the ten problems they considered...... most severe. None of the selected severe problems appeared on all four evaluators’ top-10 lists, and 4 of the 11 problems that were considered severe by more than one evaluator were only detected by one or two evaluators. Thus, both detection of usability problems and selection of the most severe...

  17. The seasickness as marine problem-case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rodrigo Perez

    2013-03-01

    Motion sickness is one of the main reasons why travelling by sea becomes a bad memory for a number of people, mainly due to a nauseating symptom. The aim of this paper is to characterize a condition called seasickness that has affected many people from a mathematical and psychological point of view. Based on the mathematical characterization, an existing model will be reviewed and described. In the psychological aspects, a statistical study of two hundred and thirteen people was performed in order to provide a comprehensive view of the different psychological factors affecting the passengers. Motion sickness also impacts onboard safety, as it reduces the effectiveness and the operating capability of the crew when responding to hazardous situations.

  18. Automated problem list generation and physicians perspective from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Murthy V; Mehta, Neil; Tsou, Ching-Huei; Liang, Jennifer J; Nowacki, Amy S; Jelovsek, John Eric

    2017-09-01

    An accurate, comprehensive and up-to-date problem list can help clinicians provide patient-centered care. Unfortunately, problem lists created and maintained in electronic health records by providers tend to be inaccurate, duplicative and out of date. With advances in machine learning and natural language processing, it is possible to automatically generate a problem list from the data in the EHR and keep it current. In this paper, we describe an automated problem list generation method and report on insights from a pilot study of physicians' assessment of the generated problem lists compared to existing providers-curated problem lists in an institution's EHR system. The natural language processing and machine learning-based Watson 1 method models clinical thinking in identifying a patient's problem list using clinical notes and structured data. This pilot study assessed the Watson method and included 15 randomly selected, de-identified patient records from a large healthcare system that were each planned to be reviewed by at least two internal medicine physicians. The physicians created their own problem lists, and then evaluated the overall usefulness of their own problem lists (P), Watson generated problem lists (W), and the existing EHR problem lists (E) on a 10-point scale. The primary outcome was pairwise comparisons of P, W, and E. Six out of the 10 invited physicians completed 27 assessments of P, W, and E, and in process evaluated 732 Watson generated problems and 444 problems in the EHR system. As expected, physicians rated their own lists, P, highest. However, W was rated higher than E. Among 89% of assessments, Watson identified at least one important problem that physicians missed. Cognitive computing systems like this Watson system hold the potential for accurate, problem-list-centered summarization of patient records, potentially leading to increased efficiency, better clinical decision support, and improved quality of patient care. Copyright © 2017

  19. Early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...... experimental research is required to ascertain the extent that: a) the educational achievement of young people with early-onset conduct problems can be improved; and b) the extent to which any such improvements translate into reductions in subsequent antisocial behviour....

  20. Application of studies of miners to radon problem in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.; Clair Renard, K.G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The lung cancer risk from exposure in homes to short-lived daughters of radon-222 can be estimated from results for underground miners, if differences in epidemiologic and exposure variables between mining populations and the general public can be assessed. Our study of Swedish iron miners exposed at low dose rates and with long follow-up time has enabled us to determine smoking-specific risk coefficients, and to rule out other factors in the mine atmosphere as contributing to lung cancer risk. Miners differ from the population at large in the following characteristics: sex, age at exposure, dose rate, dust conditions in mines and homes, smoking, volume breathed per unit time and proportion of the year exposed. The last two factors affect the conversion of air concentrations to cumulative yearly doses, and from present evidence dose rate, sex and age should not alter risk factors to a great extent. For persons aged 60 about 30% of lung cancers in non-smokers may be attributed to radon daughters, and about 6% in smokers. The percentage may be higher at older ages if the relative risk is found to be constant at these ages. (Author)

  1. Study of problems with appendicitis in children undergoing laparoscopic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosumi, Takuya; Yonekura, Takeo; Yamauchi, Katsuji; Kuroda, Seika; Kimura, Takuya; Ihara, Yoshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Seventy-one children who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy over the 8 years previous to the study were investigated. The patients were divided into 2 groups: those who had undergome surgery within 24 hours (EA group) and after conservative treatment (IA group). The condition of appendicitis on CT was classified into appendiceal mass (Group A), perforation (Group B), and non-perforation (Group C). Perioperative complications were mainly investigated in these groups. The EA group included 45 patients, and postoperative complications occurred in 2 of 12 patients in Group A (wound infection and intraperitoneal abscess in 1 each) and 2 of 14 patients in Group B (postoperative ileus and intraperitoneal abscess in 1 each). The IA group included 26 patients, and complications occurred only during conservative treatment in 2 of 7 patients in Group A (recurrence of inflammation and ileus in 1 each) and 2 of 2 patients in Group B (recurrence of inflammation and emergency surgery for the aggravation of symptoms in 1 each). No complication occurred in Group C of either the EA or IA group. Treatment was not switched to laparotomy in any patient in the EA or IA group, and no complication occurred during surgery. The total duration of hospitalization was shorter in the EA than in the IA group in all Groups A, B, and C. The risk of postoperative complications was high in the EA group, whereas complications during conservative treatment were problematic in the IA group. (author)

  2. Problems Faced by Beginning Teachers in Private Elementary Schools: A Comparative Study between Spain and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Yolanda Cantú Tijerina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the problems faced by beginning teachers in private elementary schools in the Spanish city of Madrid and in the Mexican city of Monterrey, questionnaires were applied to private school teachers just starting out in both cities. The results indicate that in both contexts, as beginners, teachers face problems of an academic, organizational, social, and material and technological nature. However, it stresses the fact that Mexican teachers perceive more problems in all the categories than do their Spanish colleagues. Similarity in the results was found in the category of social problems, which was the one mentioned least by the teachers in both cities. This suggests that the cultural nature of these two countries may be a factor to be considered in connection with fostering beginning teachers’ adaptation process.

  3. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  4. Tacit knowledge of public health nurses in identifying community health problems and need for new services: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka-Maeda, Kyoko; Murashima, Sachiyo; Asahara, Kiyomi

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tacit knowledge of public health nurses in identifying community health problems and developing relevant new projects. Previous research only roughly showed those skills for creating new community health services, such as lobbying. Nine Japanese public health nurses who had created new projects in their municipalities were selected by theoretical sampling and interviewed in 2002-2003. Yin's Case Study Method, especially the multiple-case study design, was used. All 9 public health nurses used similar approaches in identifying community health problems and the need for creating new services, even though their experiences differed and the kinds of projects varied. They identified the difficulties of clients, recognized clients who had the same problems, elucidated the limitations of existing services, and forecasted outcomes from the neglect of the clients' problems. Then they succeeded in creating a new project by examining individual health problems in the context of their community's characteristics, societal factors, and using existing policies to support their clients. This is the first study to explore the skills of public health nurses and their intention to use such skills in creating new projects as well as the exact process. They could identify community health problems that will be the basis for developing new services to provide care for individual clients. This is different from the traditional community assessment approach that requires the collection of a huge amount of information to clarify community health problems. The tacit knowledge of public health nurses will help to create needs-oriented new services more smoothly.

  5. Problem-solving ability and repetition of deliberate self-harm: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Carmel; Corcoran, Paul; Keeley, Helen S; Arensman, Ella; Bille-Brahe, Unni; De Leo, Diego; Fekete, Sandor; Hawton, Keith; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Kelleher, Margaret; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Michel, Konrad; Salander-Renberg, Ellinor; Schmidtke, Armin; Van Heeringen, Kees; Wasserman, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    While recent studies have found problem-solving impairments in individuals who engage in deliberate self-harm (DSH), few studies have examined repeaters and non-repeaters separately. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether specific types of problem-solving are associated with repeated DSH. As part of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, 836 medically treated DSH patients (59% repeaters) from 12 European regions were interviewed using the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule (EPSIS II) approximately 1 year after their index episode. The Utrecht Coping List (UCL) assessed habitual responses to problems. Factor analysis identified five dimensions--Active Handling, Passive-Avoidance, Problem Sharing, Palliative Reactions and Negative Expression. Passive-Avoidance--characterized by a pre-occupation with problems, feeling unable to do anything, worrying about the past and taking a gloomy view of the situation, a greater likelihood of giving in so as to avoid difficult situations, the tendency to resign oneself to the situation, and to try to avoid problems--was the problem-solving dimension most strongly associated with repetition, although this association was attenuated by self-esteem. The outcomes of the study indicate that treatments for DSH patients with repeated episodes should include problem-solving interventions. The observed passivity and avoidance of problems (coupled with low self-esteem) associated with repetition suggests that intensive therapeutic input and follow-up are required for those with repeated DSH.

  6. Barriers and Facilitators for Health Behavior Change among Adults from Multi-Problem Households: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, Gera; Hogeling, Lette; Spruijt, Renate; Postma, Nathalie; Vries, de Hein

    2017-01-01

    Multi-problem households are households with problems on more than one of the following core problem areas: socio-economic problems, psycho-social problems, and problems related to child care. The aim of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators for health behavior change among adults from

  7. A case study of analyzing 11th graders’ problem solving ability on heat and temperature topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianawati, D.; Muslim; Hasanah, L.; Samsudin, A.

    2018-05-01

    Problem solving ability must be owned by students after the process of physics learning so that the concept of physics becomes meaningful. Consequently, the research aims to describe their problem solving ability. Metacognition is contributed to physics learning to the success of students in solving problems. This research has already been implemented to 37 science students (30 women and 7 men) of eleventh grade from one of the secondary schools in Bandung. The research methods utilized the single case study with embedded research design. The instrument is Heat and Temperature Problem Solving Ability Test (HT-PSAT) which consists of twelve questions from three context problems. The result shows that the average value of the test is 8.27 out of the maximum total value of 36. In conclusion, eleventh graders’ problem-solving ability is still under expected. The implication of the findings is able to create learning situations which are probably developing students to embrace better problem solving ability.

  8. Masked-Volume-Wise PCA and "reference Logan" illustrate similar regional differences in kinetic behavior in human brain PET study using [11C]-PIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engler Henry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinetic modeling using reference Logan is commonly used to analyze data obtained from dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET studies on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and healthy volunteers (HVs using amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [11C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole, [11C]-PIB. The aim of the present study was to explore whether results obtained using the newly introduced method, Masked Volume Wise Principal Component Analysis, MVW-PCA, were similar to the results obtained using reference Logan. Methods MVW-PCA and reference Logan were performed on dynamic PET images obtained from four Alzheimer's disease (AD patients on two occasions (baseline and follow-up and on four healthy volunteers (HVs. Regions of interest (ROIs of similar sizes were positioned in different parts of the brain in both AD patients and HVs where the difference between AD patients and HVs is largest. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and discrimination power (DP were calculated for images generated by the different methods and the results were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results MVW-PCA generated images that illustrated similar regional binding patterns compared to reference Logan images and with slightly higher quality, enhanced contrast, improved SNR and DP, without being based on modeling assumptions. MVW-PCA also generated additional MVW-PC images by using the whole dataset, which illustrated regions with different and uncorrelated kinetic behaviors of the administered tracer. This additional information might improve the understanding of kinetic behavior of the administered tracer. Conclusion MVW-PCA is a potential multivariate method that without modeling assumptions generates high quality images, which illustrated similar regional changes compared to modeling methods such as reference Logan. In addition, MVW-PCA could be used as a new technique, applicable not only on dynamic human brain studies but also on

  9. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  10. Use of Scaffolding in Problem-Based Learning in an Elementary Classroom: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, Lucinda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to gather data on the scaffolding a facilitator developed and used for learners during a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) setting. The study explored how the learners developed their ability to share their understanding and current knowledge by solving the presented real-world problem through investigation…

  11. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  12. Early determinants of attention and hyperactivity problems in adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M B; Barros, Fernando C; Hallal, Pedro C; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Domingues, Marlos R; Rohde, Luis A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess early determinants of attention and hyperactivity problems in adolescents. In 1993, all hospital births in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were monitored and mothers were interviewed (N = 5,249). At 11 years of age, 4,423 mothers answered the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in order to evaluate attention and hyperactivity problems in the adolescents. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalence of attention and hyperactivity problems was 19.9%. Factors associated with the outcome in the adjusted analysis were: male gender, low family income, smoking during pregnancy, minor psychiatric disorders in the mother, and history of child's behavioral/emotional problems at four years of age. Early life events impacted attention and hyperactivity problems in adolescence. Risk factors for attention and hyperactivity problems found in this study were similar to those reported in other cultures.

  13. A Comparative Study of Behavior Problems among Left-Behind Children, Migrant Children and Local Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the prevalence of behavioral problems among left-behind children, migrant children and local children in China, and to compare the risks of behavioral problems among the three types of children. Data on 4479 children aged 6–16 used in this study were from a survey conducted in China in 2017. The school-age version of the Children Behavior Checklist was used to measure children’s behavioral problems. Descriptive analysis, correlation analysis, and logistic regressions were conducted. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 18.80% and 13.59% for left-behind children and migrant children, respectively, both of which were higher than that of local children. Logistic regression analysis showed that after adjustments for individual and environmental variables, the likelihood of total, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems for left-behind children and migrant children were higher than those for local children; left-behind children had a higher likelihood of internalizing problems than externalizing problems, while migrant children had a higher prevalence of externalizing problems. Left-behind children had a higher prevalence of each specific syndrome than migrant and local children. Both individual and environmental factors were associated with child behavioral problems, and family migration may contribute to the increased risks. Left-behind and migrant children were more vulnerable than local children to behavioral problems.

  14. Pregaming and Emotion Regulation's Relationship to Alcohol Problems in College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Melissa M; Ham, Lindsay S; Olivier, Jake; Zamboanga, Byron L; Melkonian, Alexander; Fugitt, Jessica L

    2016-07-02

    Pregaming is a high-risk drinking behavior associated with increased alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Quantity of alcohol consumed does not fully explain the level of problems associated with pregaming; yet, limited research has examined factors that may interact with pregaming behavior to contribute to the experience of alcohol-related problems. The current study examined whether use of two emotion regulation strategies influence pregaming's contribution to alcohol-related problems. Undergraduates (N = 1857) aged 18-25 years attending 19 different colleges completed an online survey in 2008-2009. Linear mixed models were used to test whether emotion regulation strategies moderate the association between pregaming status (pregamers vs. non/infrequent pregamers) and alcohol-related problems, when controlling for alcohol consumption, demographic covariates, and site as a random effect. Greater use of cognitive reappraisal was associated with decreased alcohol problems. Expressive suppression interacted with pregaming status. There was no relationship between pregaming status and alcohol problems for students who rarely used expression suppression; however, the relationship between pregaming status and alcohol problems was statistically significant for students who occasionally to frequently used expression suppression. Findings suggest that the relationship between pregaming and alcohol-related problems is complex. Accordingly, future studies should utilize event-level methodology to understand how emotion regulation strategies influence alcohol-related problems. Further, clinicians should tailor alcohol treatments to help students increase their use of cognitive reappraisal and decrease their use of suppression.

  15. [Evaluation of Educational Effect of Problem-Posing System in Nursing Processing Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Keiko; Takano, Yasuomi; Yamakawa, Hiroto; Kaneko, Daisuke; Takai, Kiyako; Kodama, Hiromi; Hagiwara, Tomoko; Komatsugawa, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The nursing processing study is generally difficult, because it is important for nursing college students to understand knowledge and utilize it. We have developed an integrated system to understand, utilize, and share knowledge. We added a problem-posing function to this system, and expected that students would deeply understand the nursing processing study through the new system. This system consisted of four steps: create a problem, create an answer input section, create a hint, and verification. Nursing students created problems related to nursing processing by this system. When we gave a lecture on the nursing processing for second year students of A university, we tried to use the creating problem function of this system. We evaluated the effect by the number of problems and the contents of the created problem, that is, whether the contents consisted of a lecture stage or not. We also evaluated the correlation between those and regular examination and report scores. We derived the following: 1. weak correlation between the number of created problems and report score (r=0.27), 2. significant differences between regular examination and report scores of students who created problems corresponding to the learning stage, and those of students who created problems not corresponding to it (P<0.05). From these results, problem-posing is suggested to be effective to fix and utilize knowledge in the lecture of nursing processing theory.

  16. Contentious problems in bioscience and biotechnology: a pilot study of an approach to ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Roberta M; Borenstein, Jason; Butera, Robert J

    2013-06-01

    This manuscript describes a pilot study in ethics education employing a problem-based learning approach to the study of novel, complex, ethically fraught, unavoidably public, and unavoidably divisive policy problems, called "fractious problems," in bioscience and biotechnology. Diverse graduate and professional students from four US institutions and disciplines spanning science, engineering, humanities, social science, law, and medicine analyzed fractious problems employing "navigational skills" tailored to the distinctive features of these problems. The students presented their results to policymakers, stakeholders, experts, and members of the public. This approach may provide a model for educating future bioscientists and bioengineers so that they can meaningfully contribute to the social understanding and resolution of challenging policy problems generated by their work.

  17. Designing, implementing and evaluating an online problem-based learning (PBL) environment--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Manwa L; Bridges, Susan; Law, Sam Po; Whitehill, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been shown to be effective for promoting student competencies in self-directed and collaborative learning, critical thinking, self-reflection and tackling novel situations. However, the need for face-to-face interactions at the same place and time severely limits the potential of traditional PBL. The requirements of space and for meeting at a specific location at the same time create timetabling difficulties. Such limitations need to be tackled before all potentials of PBL learning can be realized. The present study aimed at designing and implementing an online PBL environment for undergraduate speech/language pathology students, and assessing the associated pedagogical effectiveness. A group of eight PBL students were randomly selected to participate in the study. They underwent 4 weeks of online PBL using Adobe Connect. Upon completion of the experiment, they were assessed via a self-reported questionnaire and quantitative comparison with traditional PBL students based on the same written assignment. The questionnaire revealed that all participating students enjoyed online PBL, without any perceived negative effects on learning. Online PBL unanimously saved the students travel time to and from school. Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in assignment grades between the online and traditional PBL groups, indicating that online PBL learning appears to be similarly effective as traditional face-to-face PBL learning.

  18. Study on force mechanism for therapeutic effect of pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation base on similarity analysis of force and waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Fang, Min; Guo, Min-Min

    2016-12-27

    To reveal the force mechanism for therapeutic effect of pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation. A total of 15 participants were recruited in this study and assigned to an expert group, a skilled group and a novice group, with 5 participants in each group. Mechanical signals were collected from a biomechanical testing platform, and these data were further observed via similarity analysis and cluster analysis. Comparing the force waveforms of manipulation revealed that the manipulation forces were similar between the expert group and the skilled group (P>0.05). The mean value of vertical force was 9.8 N, and 95% CI rang from 6.37 to 14.70 N, but there were significant differences compared with the novice group (PPushing manipulation with one-finger meditation is a kind of light stimulation manipulation on the acupoint, and force characteristics of double waveforms continuously alternated during manual operation.

  19. Specific problems of beginners at study of programming and possibilities of their solution

    OpenAIRE

    Procházková, Petra

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with the problems of beginners in the study of programming at University of Economics in Prague, Faculty of Informatics and Statistics. This applies particularly to students who are studying the subject Programming in Java.

  20. Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets with touching structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Huo-Jun; Wang, Yang; Xi, Li-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets is an important area in the study of fractal geometry. It is known that two dust-like self-similar sets with the same contraction ratios are always Lipschitz equivalent. However, when self-similar sets have touching structures the problem of Lipschitz equivalence becomes much more challenging and intriguing at the same time. So far, all the known results only cover self-similar sets in R with no more than three branches. In this study we establish results for the Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets with touching structures in R with arbitrarily many branches. Key to our study is the introduction of a geometric condition for self-similar sets called substitutable. (paper)

  1. Response inhibition during cue reactivity in problem gamblers: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth J van Holst

    Full Text Available Disinhibition over drug use, enhanced salience of drug use and decreased salience of natural reinforcers are thought to play an important role substance dependence. Whether this is also true for pathological gambling is unclear. To understand the effects of affective stimuli on response inhibition in problem gamblers (PRGs, we designed an affective Go/Nogo to examine the interaction between response inhibition and salience attribution in 16 PRGs and 15 healthy controls (HCs.Four affective blocks were presented with Go trials containing neutral, gamble, positive or negative affective pictures. The No-Go trials in these blocks contained neutral pictures. Outcomes of interest included percentage of impulsive errors and mean reaction times in the different blocks. Brain activity related to No-Go trials was assessed to measure response inhibition in the various affective conditions and brain activity related to Go trials was assessed to measure salience attribution.PRGs made fewer errors during gamble and positive trials than HCs, but were slower during all trials types. Compared to HCs, PRGs activated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and ventral striatum to a greater extent while viewing gamble pictures. The dorsal lateral and inferior frontal cortex were more activated in PRGs than in HCs while viewing positive and negative pictures. During neutral inhibition, PRGs were slower but similar in accuracy to HCs, and showed more dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex activity. In contrast, during gamble and positive pictures PRGs performed better than HCs, and showed lower activation of the dorsolateral and anterior cingulate cortex.This study shows that gambling-related stimuli are more salient for PRGs than for HCs. PRGs seem to rely on compensatory brain activity to achieve similar performance during neutral response inhibition. A gambling-related or positive context appears to facilitate response inhibition as

  2. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.e [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed.

  3. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed.

  4. Methods and scales in soil erosion studies in Spain: problems and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem in some areas of Spain. Research groups have studied a variety of aspects of this problem indifferent environments, and at a range of scales using a diversity of methods, from piquettes and rainfall simulation to experimental plots, catchment and large regional areas. This has increased knowledge and identified the main problems: farmland abandonment, badlands erosion, the effects of land use changes, and the role of extreme events and erosion in certain crops (particularly vineyards). However, comparison of results among various research groups has been difficult, posing problems in developing solutions from State and Regional administrators. (Author) 73 refs.

  5. Electronic collection of solved physics problems to encourage students’ active approach (not only to self study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koupilová, Zdeňka; Mandíková, Dana; Snětinová, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Ten years ago we started to develop a Collection of Fully Solved Problems aimed at introductory undergraduate and high school level students. The collection is specially designed to encourage students in an active approach to problem solving, e.g. to solve at least some parts of a problem on their own. Nowadays the Collection contains about 800 fully solved problems in physics in Czech and nearly 180 problems in English. It has several hundreds of unique visitors per school day. Based on user feedback, the collection is used by students mainly for their home study and by teachers as a supplementary material. The creation of the structured solution of the physics problems has proved to be a beneficial activity for prospective physics teachers (students of our department). (paper)

  6. Electronic collection of solved physics problems to encourage students’ active approach (not only to self study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupilová, Zdeňka; Mandíková, Dana; Snětinová, Marie

    2017-09-01

    Ten years ago we started to develop a Collection of Fully Solved Problems aimed at introductory undergraduate and high school level students. The collection is specially designed to encourage students in an active approach to problem solving, e.g. to solve at least some parts of a problem on their own. Nowadays the Collection contains about 800 fully solved problems in physics in Czech and nearly 180 problems in English. It has several hundreds of unique visitors per school day. Based on user feedback, the collection is used by students mainly for their home study and by teachers as a supplementary material. The creation of the structured solution of the physics problems has proved to be a beneficial activity for prospective physics teachers (students of our department).

  7. Television viewing and externalizing problems in preschool children: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Hudziak, James J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Guxens, Mònica; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether the amount, type, and patterns of television viewing predict the onset or the persistence of externalizing problems in preschool children. Longitudinal study of a prospective population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Parents reported time of television exposure and type of programs watched by children. Externalizing problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist at 18 and 36 months. A population-based sample of 3913 children. Television viewing time, content, and patterns of exposure (at 24 and 36 months) in children with and without preexisting problems to assess the incidence and persistence of externalizing problems. Externalizing problems at 36 months. Program content and time of television exposure assessed at 24 months did not predict the incidence of externalizing problems at 36 months (odds ratio, 2.24; 95% CI, 0.97-5.18). However, the patterns of exposure over time reflecting high levels of television viewing were associated with the incidence of externalizing problems (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.07-3.75) and the persistence of the preexisting externalizing problems (2.59; 1.03-6.55). Our study showed that high television exposure increases the risk of the incidence and the persistence of externalizing problems in preschool children.

  8. Benchmark problem suite for reactor physics study of LWR next generation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Ikehara, Tadashi; Ito, Takuya; Saji, Etsuro

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a benchmark problem suite for studying the physics of next-generation fuels of light water reactors. The target discharge burnup of the next-generation fuel was set to 70 GWd/t considering the increasing trend in discharge burnup of light water reactor fuels. The UO 2 and MOX fuels are included in the benchmark specifications. The benchmark problem consists of three different geometries: fuel pin cell, PWR fuel assembly and BWR fuel assembly. In the pin cell problem, detailed nuclear characteristics such as burnup dependence of nuclide-wise reactivity were included in the required calculation results to facilitate the study of reactor physics. In the assembly benchmark problems, important parameters for in-core fuel management such as local peaking factors and reactivity coefficients were included in the required results. The benchmark problems provide comprehensive test problems for next-generation light water reactor fuels with extended high burnup. Furthermore, since the pin cell, the PWR assembly and the BWR assembly problems are independent, analyses of the entire benchmark suite is not necessary: e.g., the set of pin cell and PWR fuel assembly problems will be suitable for those in charge of PWR in-core fuel management, and the set of pin cell and BWR fuel assembly problems for those in charge of BWR in-core fuel management. (author)

  9. Video Game Access, Parental Rules, and Problem Behavior: A Study of Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Mazurek, Micah O.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to…

  10. Bidirectional Influences between Maternal Parenting and Children's Peer Problems: A Longitudinal Monozygotic Twin Difference Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Shinji; Takahashi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Koken; Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Nonaka, Koichi; Ando, Juko

    2013-01-01

    This twin study examined the bidirectional relationship between maternal parenting behaviors and children's peer problems that were not confounded by genetic and family environmental factors. Mothers of 259 monozygotic twin pairs reported parenting behaviors and peer problems when twins were 42 and 48 months. Path analyses on monozygotic twin…

  11. Working Memory, Attention, and Mathematical Problem Solving: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades…

  12. Exploring the Impact of Gambling Advertising: An Interview Study of Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2009-01-01

    This study qualitatively explored the impact of gambling advertising on problem gambling by interviewing twenty-five people with current or past gambling problems. Interviews were relatively long and involved the participants' viewing numerous examples of gambling advertising. A quarter of the participants reported that gambling advertising had no…

  13. An Exploratory Study of Problem Gambling on Casino versus Non-Casino Electronic Gaming Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dave; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max; Hodgins, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have been frequently associated with problem gambling. Little research has compared the relative contribution of casino EGMs versus non-casino EGMs on current problem gambling, after controlling for demographic factors and gambling behaviour. Our exploratory study obtained data from questionnaires administered to…

  14. A Study of Some General Problems of Dieudonné-Rashevski Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Pitea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a method of investigation based on employing adequate variational calculus techniques in the study of some generalized Dieudonné-Rashevski problems. This approach allows us to state and prove optimality conditions for such kind of vector multitime variational problems, with mixed isoperimetric constraints. We state and prove efficiency conditions and develop a duality theory.

  15. Financial problems and delinquency in adolescents and young adults : a 6-year three-wave study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Jak, S.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Meeuws, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the link between financial problems and delinquency in adolescents and young adults (N = 1,258). Using three measurement waves that covered a time span of 6 years, we conducted cross-lagged panel analyses. Overall, we found evidence that financial problems increase the

  16. Dynamics of Undergraduate Student Generic Problem-Solving Skills Captured by a Campus-Wide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegeris, Andis; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Hurren, Heather; Spielman, Lindsay Joy; Stuart, Maegan; Bahniwal, Manpreet

    2017-01-01

    The ability to effectively problem solve is a highly valued competency expected of university graduates, independent of their area of study. Evaluation of problem-solving skill (PSS) development is hindered by a shortage of available tools for monitoring student progress and by lack of defined instructional strategies for development of these…

  17. Does Problem Behavior Elicit Poor Parenting?: A Prospective Study of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, David; Tristan, Jennifer; Wade, Emily; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that perceived parenting would show reciprocal relations with adolescents' problem behavior using longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results provided support for the assertion that female problem behavior has an adverse effect on parenting; elevated externalizing symptoms and substance abuse symptoms…

  18. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…

  19. Financial problems and delinquency in adolescents and young adults : A 6-year three-wave study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Jak, Suzanne; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the link between financial problems and delinquency in adolescents and young adults (N = 1,258). Using three measurement waves that covered a time span of 6 years, we conducted cross-lagged panel analyses. Overall, we found evidence that financial problems increase the

  20. Financial Problems and Delinquency in Adolescents and Young Adults : A 6-Year Three-Wave Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Jak, Suzanne; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Meeus, Wim H J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the link between financial problems and delinquency in adolescents and young adults (N = 1,258). Using three measurement waves that covered a time span of 6 years, we conducted cross-lagged panel analyses. Overall, we found evidence that financial problems increase the

  1. Clinical similarity of biosimilar ABP 501 to adalimumab in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis: A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kim; Bachelez, Herve; Costanzo, Antonio; Foley, Peter; Gooderham, Melinda; Kaur, Primal; Narbutt, Joanna; Philipp, Sandra; Spelman, Lynda; Weglowska, Jolanta; Zhang, Nan; Strober, Bruce

    2017-06-01

    ABP 501 is a biosimilar of adalimumab. We sought to compare the efficacy and safety of ABP 501 with adalimumab. This 52-week, double-blind study randomized patients with moderate to severe psoriasis to ABP 501 or adalimumab. At week 16, those with 50% or more improvement in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score from baseline on ABP 501 continued the same treatment, whereas adalimumab-treated patients were rerandomized to adalimumab or ABP 501. Clinical similarity in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index percent improvement from baseline to week 16 (primary end point) was established if the point estimate of treatment difference and its 2-sided 95% confidence interval between groups was within equivalence margin of ±15. Patients, including those undergoing a single transition at week 16, were evaluated for safety and immunogenicity. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index percent improvement at week 16 was 80.9 for ABP 501 and 83.1 for adalimumab (least-square mean difference -2.18 [95% confidence interval -7.39 to 3.02]). Adverse events (67.2% [117/174] vs 63.6% [110/173]) and antidrug antibody incidence (55.2% [96/174] vs 63.6% [110/173]) for ABP 501 vs adalimumab were similar. Safety, including immunogenicity, was similar among groups after single transition (week 20). The 52-week data are not reported here. ABP 501 was shown to be clinically similar to adalimumab. Safety and immunogenicity were not impacted immediately after single transition (adalimumab to ABP 501). Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A qualitative study of health problems, risk factors, and prevention among Emergency Medical Service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropkin, Jonathan; Moline, Jacqueline; Power, Paul M; Kim, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors among Emergency Medical Service (EMS) workers are difficult to characterize and inconsistencies remain about their main health problems. To identify main work-related health problems among EMS workers in the United States; identify risk factors at the organizational, task, and exposure level; identify prevention strategies; examine these issues between participants (EMS workers and supervisors). Two types of qualitative research methods based on grounded theory were used: in-depth interviews with emergency medical technicians/paramedics (EMS workers) and focus groups (EMS workers and supervisors). Most participants reported similar health problems (musculoskeletal injuries) and the task related to these injuries, patient handling. Participants also reported similar physical exposures (ascending stairs with patients and patient weight). For organization/psychosocial factors, participants agreed that fitness, wages, breaks, and shift scheduling were linked with injuries, but overall, perceptions about these issues differed more than physical exposures. Lack of trust between EMS workers and supervisors were recurrent concerns among workers. However, not all organizational/psychosocial factors differed. EMS workers and supervisors agreed pre-employment screening could reduce injuries. Participants identified micro- and macro-level prevention opportunities. The grounded theory approach identified workers' main health problems, and the organizational factors and exposures linked with them. Perceptions about work organization/psychosocial exposures appeared more diverse than physical exposures. Prevention among all participants focused on mechanized equipment, but EMS workers also wanted more organizational support.

  3. A study and meta-analysis of lay attributions of cures for overcoming specific psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Hayward, R

    1997-09-01

    Lay beliefs about the importance of 24 different contributors to overcoming 4 disorders that constitute primarily cognitive deficits were studied. A meta-analysis of previous programmatic studies in the area was performed so that 22 different psychological problems could be compared. In the present study, 107 participants completed a questionnaire indicating how effective 24 factors were in overcoming 4 specific problems: dyslexia, fear of flying, amnesia, and learning difficulties. Factor analysis revealed almost identical clusters (inner control, social consequences, understanding, receiving help, and fate) for each problem. The perceived relevance of those factors differed significantly between problems. Some individual difference factors (sex and religion) were found to predict certain factor attributions for specific disorders. A meta-analysis of the 5 studies in this series yielded a 6-factor structure comparable to those of the individual studies and provided results indicating the benefits and limitations of this kind of investigation. The clinical relevance of studying attributions for cure is considered.

  4. Investigating a Proposed Problem Solving Theory in the Context of Mathematical Problem Solving: A Multi-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Nadia Monrose

    2015-01-01

    The ability to succeed in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers is contingent on a student's ability to engage in mathematical problem solving. As a result, there has been increased focus on students' ability to think critically by providing them more with problem solving experiences in the classroom. Much research has…

  5. Finding p-Hub Median Locations: An Empirical Study on Problems and Solution Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hub location problems have been studied by many researchers for almost 30 years, and, accordingly, various solution methods have been proposed. In this paper, we implement and evaluate several widely used methods for solving five standard hub location problems. To assess the scalability and solution qualities of these methods, three well-known datasets are used as case studies: Turkish Postal System, Australia Post, and Civil Aeronautics Board. Classical problems in small networks can be solved efficiently using CPLEX because of their low complexity. Genetic algorithms perform well for solving three types of single allocation problems, since the problem formulations can be neatly encoded with chromosomes of reasonable size. Lagrangian relaxation is the only technique that solves reliable multiple allocation problems in large networks. We believe that our work helps other researchers to get an overview on the best solution techniques for the problems investigated in our study and also stipulates further interest on cross-comparing solution techniques for more expressive problem formulations.

  6. Skin problems in ostomy patients: a case-control study of risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybaek, Hanne; Bang Knudsen, Dorte; Nørgaard Laursen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    Skin complications are frequent in ostomy patients and a number of risk factors have been suggested. The data on risk factors have, however, been documented mainly in single-centre studies and the actual importance of the suggested risk factors should therefore be verified in a group of ostomy...... patients broadly selected from the gene-ral population. All patients with permanent ostomies living in Roskilde County, Denmark, were invited to participate in the study. A total of 338 responded and 199 agreed to participate. Forty-five percent of all patients presented a skin problem. Less than half (43......%) of patients with a skin problem were aware of the skin problems, and less than 1 in 5 (16%) had sought treatment for their skin problem. Ileostomies, ostomies with leakage and ostomies in patients with body mass index >30 were associated with skin problems. In conclusion, ileostomy, leakage and obesity...

  7. Mental Health Problems of Iranian Female Adolescents and Its Association with Pubertal Development: A Nationwide Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Sotoudeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8% adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodmans cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%. According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.

  8. Workplace bullying, sleep problems and leisure-time physical activity: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger; Kolstad, Henrik A; Willert, Morten Vejs; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying and Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours per week spent on LTPA estimated the degree of physical activity. Workplace bullying at baseline (T1) was associated with awakening problems and lack of restful sleep at follow-up (T2) but not with overall sleep problems and disturbed sleep. T1-LTPA did not moderate the association between T1-workplace bullying and T2-sleep problems. We found support that workplace bullying is related to development of T2-sleep problems, but this association seems not to be modified by LTPA.

  9. Mortality Associated with Severe Sepsis Among Age-Similar Women with and without Pregnancy-Associated Hospitalization in Texas: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2016-06-10

    BACKGROUND The reported mortality among women with pregnancy-associated severe sepsis (PASS) has been considerably lower than among severely septic patients in the general population, with the difference being attributed to the younger age and lack of chronic illness among the women with PASS. However, no comparative studies were reported to date between patients with PASS and age-similar women with severe sepsis not associated with pregnancy (NPSS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We used the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to compare the crude and adjusted hospital mortality between women with severe sepsis, aged 20-34 years, with and without pregnancy-associated hospitalizations during 2001-2010, following exclusion of those with reported chronic comorbidities, as well as alcohol and drug abuse. RESULTS Crude hospital mortality among PASS vs. NPSS hospitalizations was lower for the whole cohort (6.7% vs. 14.1% [p<0.0001]) and those with ≥3 organ failures (17.6% vs. 33.2% [p=0.0100]). Adjusted PASS mortality (odds ratio [95% CI]) was 0.57 (0.38-0.86) [p=0.0070]. CONCLUSIONS Hospital mortality was unexpectedly markedly and consistently lower among women with severe sepsis associated with pregnancy, as compared with contemporaneous, age-similar women with severe sepsis not associated with pregnancy, without reported chronic comorbidities. Further studies are warranted to examine the sources of the observed differences and to corroborate our findings.

  10. A study of optimization problem for amplify-and-forward relaying over weibull fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ikki, Salama Said; Aissa, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the power allocation and relay positioning problems in amplify-and-forward cooperative networks operating in Weibull fading environments. We study adaptive power allocation (PA) with fixed relay location, optimal relay location

  11. Case study: use of problem-based learning to develop students' technical and professional skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean

    2016-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, 'Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?' The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem solving and self-directed learning. Forty-seven students enrolled in a biomedical materials course participated in the case study. Students worked in teams to complete a series of problems throughout the semester. The results showed that students made significant improvements in their problem-solving skills, written communication and self-directed learning. Students also demonstrated an ability to work in teams and communicate orally. In conclusion, this case study provides empirical evidence of the efficacy of PBL on student learning. We discuss findings from our study and provide observations of student performance and perceptions that could be useful for faculty and researchers interested in PBL for biomedical engineering education.

  12. The link between resource problems and interorganisational relationships : A quantitative study of Western European sport clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pamela Wicker; Jeroen Scheerder; Steven Vos; Christoph Breuer

    2013-01-01

    According to the resource dependence theory, organisations draw upon interorganisational relationships to address the need for additional resources. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether sport clubs with serious resource problems regarding members, human resources (volunteers and

  13. The Ethical Problems of Reserach : An empirical study of ethics in research practice

    OpenAIRE

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2013-01-01

    Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts and problems in research. They were all researchers at the post-doctoral l...

  14. Energy Cost and Gait Efficiency of Below-Knee Amputee and Normal Subject with Similar Physical Parameters & Quality of Life: A Comparative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Biswas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the comparative analysis of energy cost and gait efficiency between a below knee (BK amputee and a reference subject (without amputation. It also attempted to indicate the specific feature responsible for a controlled gait with optimum energy cost for BK amputees. Selection criteria of the subjects were similar physical parameters and quality of life studied with WHOQOL-100 quality of life assessment. A Cosmed® k4 b2 Respiratory Analyzer system was used for the measurement of Oxygen Uptake (VO2, Energy Expenditure per minute (EE and Heart Rate (HR. Gait efficiency (p < 0.0002 was found higher for BK amputee than normal subject. The therapeutic activities and mainly walking rhythm contributed to improve the mobility & balance. This ensures the optimum time & co-ordination of movements and hence improves the gait efficiency for the BK amputee. Comparison with control group was performed to validate the data.

  15. Similarity search of business process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumas, M.; García-Bañuelos, L.; Dijkman, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Similarity search is a general class of problems in which a given object, called a query object, is compared against a collection of objects in order to retrieve those that most closely resemble the query object. This paper reviews recent work on an instance of this class of problems, where the

  16. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Yu, Shuli; Cottrell, Lesley; Lunn, Sonja; Deveaux, Lynette; Brathwaite, Nanika V; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-07-02

    Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1) describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2) examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ). Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54%) reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p values (self-transcendence and conservation) were low or modestly correlated with youth' values (openness to change and self-enhancement). Parental-reported values documented limited association on adolescents' reported values and behaviors. In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed.

  17. On bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad MURAD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the optimum distribution of goods between sources and destinations is one of the important topics in projects economics. This importance comes as a result of minimizing the transportation cost, deterioration, time, etc. The classical transportation problem constitutes one of the major areas of application for linear programming. The aim of this problem is to obtain the optimum distribution of goods from different sources to different destinations which minimizes the total transportation cost. From the practical point of view, the transportation problems may differ from the classical form. It may contain one or more objective function, one or more stage to transport, one or more type of commodity with one or more means of transport. The aim of this paper is to construct an optimization model for transportation problem for one of mill-stones companies. The model is formulated as a bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem with a special structure depending on the capacities of suppliers, warehouses and requirements of the destinations. A solution algorithm is introduced to solve this class of bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem to obtain the set of non-dominated extreme points and the efficient solutions accompanied with each one that enables the decision maker to choose the best one. The solution algorithm mainly based on the fruitful application of the methods for treating transportation problems, theory of duality of linear programming and the methods of solving bi-criteria linear programming problems.

  18. Wounded Healers: A Multistate Study of Licensed Social Workers' Behavioral Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straussner, Shulamith Lala Ashenberg; Senreich, Evan; Steen, Jeffrey T

    2018-04-01

    Studies indicate that helping professionals are disproportionately affected by behavioral health problems. Among social workers, the nature and scope of these problems are understudied. This article reports the findings of a 2015 survey of 6,112 licensed social workers in 13 states regarding their problems with mental health; alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs; and gambling. To ascertain whether these problems preceded or developed during their social work careers, the periods of time when these issues were experienced were identified. Results indicate that 40.2 percent of respondents reported mental health problems before becoming social workers, increasing to 51.8 percent during their social work career, with 28 percent currently experiencing such problems. Nearly 10 percent of the sample experienced substance use problems before becoming social workers, decreasing to 7.7 percent during their career. Analyses by race or ethnicity, sex, and age identified between-group differences in the prevalence of these problems. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for the social work profession.

  19. Consortium study of lunar meteorites Yamato-793169 and Asuka-881757: Geochemical evidence of mutual similarity, and dissimilarity versus other mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1993-01-01

    Compositions of bulk powders and separated minerals from two meteorites derived from the mare lava plains of the Earth's Moon, Yamato-793169 and Asuka-881757, indicate a remarkable degree of similarity to one another, and clearly favor lunar origin. However, these meteorites are unlike any previously studied lunar rock. In both cases, the bulk-rock TiO2 content is slightly greater than the level separating VLT from low-Ti mare basalt, yet the Sc content is much higher than previously observed except among high-Ti mare basalts. Conceivably, the Sc enrichment in A881757 reflects origin of this rock as a cumulate from a mare magma of 'normal' Sc content, but this seems unlikely. Mineral-separate data suggest that most of the Sc is in pyroxene, and a variety of evidence weighs against the cumulus hypothesis as a major cause for the high Sc. The remarkable similarity between Y793169 and A881757 suggests the possibility that they were derived from a single source crater on the Moon.

  20. Cartilage collagen damage in hip osteoarthritis similar to that seen in knee osteoarthritis; a case-control study of relationship between collagen, glycosaminoglycan and cartilage swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseininia, Shahrzad; Lindberg, Lisbeth R; Dahlberg, Leif E

    2013-01-09

    It remains to be shown whether OA shares molecular similarities between different joints in humans. This study provides evidence for similarities in cartilage molecular damage in osteoarthritic (OA) joints. Articular cartilage from osteoarthritic hip joints were analysed and compared to non-OA controls regarding collagen, glycosaminoglycan and water content. Femoral heads from 16 osteoarthritic (OA) and 20 reference patients were obtained from hip replacement surgery due to OA and femoral neck fracture, respectively. Cartilage histological changes were assessed by Mankin grading and denatured collagen type II immunostaining and cartilage was extracted by α-chymotrypsin. Hydroxyproline and Alcian blue binding assays were used to measure collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, respectively. Mankin and immunohistology scores were significantly higher in hip OA samples than in reference samples. Cartilage water content was 6% higher in OA samples than in references. 2.5 times more collagen was extracted from OA than from reference samples. There was a positive association between water content and percentage of extractable collagen pool (ECP) in both groups. The amounts of collagen per wet and dry weights did not differ statistically between OA and reference cartilage. % Extractable collagen was not related to collagen per dry weight in either group. However when collagen was expressed by wet weight there was a negative correlation between % extractable and collagen in OA cartilage. The amount of GAG per wet weight was similar in both groups but the amount of GAG per dry weight was higher in OA samples compared to reference samples, which suggests a capacity for GAG biosynthesis in hip OA cartilage. Neither of the studied parameters was related to age in either group. Increased collagen extractability and water content in human hip cartilage is associated with OA pathology and can be observed at early stages of the degenerative hip OA process. Our results

  1. Cartilage collagen damage in hip osteoarthritis similar to that seen in knee osteoarthritis; a case–control study of relationship between collagen, glycosaminoglycan and cartilage swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseininia Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains to be shown whether OA shares molecular similarities between different joints in humans. This study provides evidence for similarities in cartilage molecular damage in osteoarthritic (OA joints. Methods Articular cartilage from osteoarthritic hip joints were analysed and compared to non-OA controls regarding collagen, glycosaminoglycan and water content. Femoral heads from 16 osteoarthritic (OA and 20 reference patients were obtained from hip replacement surgery due to OA and femoral neck fracture, respectively. Cartilage histological changes were assessed by Mankin grading and denatured collagen type II immunostaining and cartilage was extracted by α-chymotrypsin. Hydroxyproline and Alcian blue binding assays were used to measure collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG content, respectively. Results Mankin and immunohistology scores were significantly higher in hip OA samples than in reference samples. Cartilage water content was 6% higher in OA samples than in references. 2.5 times more collagen was extracted from OA than from reference samples. There was a positive association between water content and percentage of extractable collagen pool (ECP in both groups. The amounts of collagen per wet and dry weights did not differ statistically between OA and reference cartilage. % Extractable collagen was not related to collagen per dry weight in either group. However when collagen was expressed by wet weight there was a negative correlation between % extractable and collagen in OA cartilage. The amount of GAG per wet weight was similar in both groups but the amount of GAG per dry weight was higher in OA samples compared to reference samples, which suggests a capacity for GAG biosynthesis in hip OA cartilage. Neither of the studied parameters was related to age in either group. Conclusions Increased collagen extractability and water content in human hip cartilage is associated with OA pathology and can be observed at

  2. Mathematical problem solving ability of sport students in the statistical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, E. F. P.; Zulkardi; Putri, R. I. I.

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to determine the problem-solving ability of sport students of PGRI Palembang semester V in the statistics course. Subjects in this study were sport students of PGRI Palembang semester V which amounted to 31 people. The research method used is quasi experiment type one case shoot study. Data collection techniques in this study use the test and data analysis used is quantitative descriptive statistics. The conclusion of this study shown that the mathematical problem solving ability of PGRI Palembang sport students of V semester in the statistical course is categorized well with the average of the final test score of 80.3.

  3. How do Rumination and Social Problem Solving Intensify Depression? A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Haruki; Matsuda, Yuko

    2018-01-01

    In order to examine how rumination and social problem solving intensify depression, the present study investigated longitudinal associations among each dimension of rumination and social problem solving and evaluated aspects of these constructs that predicted subsequent depression. A three-wave longitudinal study, with an interval of 4 weeks between waves, was conducted. Japanese university students completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Ruminative Responses Scale, Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version, and Interpersonal Stress Event Scale on three occasions 4 weeks apart ( n  = 284 at Time 1, 198 at Time 2, 165 at Time 3). Linear mixed models were analyzed to test whether each variable predicted subsequent depression, rumination, and each dimension of social problem solving. Rumination and negative problem orientation demonstrated a mutually enhancing relationship. Because these two variables were not associated with interpersonal conflict during the subsequent 4 weeks, rumination and negative problem orientation appear to strengthen each other without environmental change. Rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were associated with subsequent depressive symptoms, after controlling for the effect of initial depression. Because rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were not concurrently and longitudinally associated with each other, rumination and impulsive/careless problem solving style appear to be independent processes that serve to intensify depression.

  4. Study and application of Dot 3.5 computer code in radiation shielding problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, A.C.; Mendonca, A.G.; Maiorino, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of nuclear transportation code S sub(N), Dot 3.5, to radiation shielding problems is revised. Aiming to study the better available option (convergence scheme, calculation mode), of DOT 3.5 computer code to be applied in radiation shielding problems, a standard model from 'Argonne Code Center' was selected and a combination of several calculation options to evaluate the accuracy of the results and the computational time was used, for then to select the more efficient option. To illustrate the versatility and efficacy in the application of the code for tipical shielding problems, the streaming neutrons calculation along a sodium coolant channel is ilustrated. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Data science in R a case studies approach to computational reasoning and problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nolan, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Effectively Access, Transform, Manipulate, Visualize, and Reason about Data and ComputationData Science in R: A Case Studies Approach to Computational Reasoning and Problem Solving illustrates the details involved in solving real computational problems encountered in data analysis. It reveals the dynamic and iterative process by which data analysts approach a problem and reason about different ways of implementing solutions. The book's collection of projects, comprehensive sample solutions, and follow-up exercises encompass practical topics pertaining to data processing, including: Non-standar

  6. LIVED EXPERIENCES OF HEALTH PROBLEMS OF ELDERLY RESIDING IN URBAN AREAS, KATHMANDU: PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Archana, Joshi Sarala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, number of old age population is increasing with advancement of biomedical technology. Old age is the time associated with biological, psychological and social changes which situate elderly to acquire different health related problems. Objectives: To find out lived experiences of elderly regarding their health problems residing in homes of Kathmandu city. Methods: Qualitative hermeneutic phenomenology approach was adopted. Researcher selected purposively four elderly residing in an urban area of Kathmandu Valley as the study participants. In-depth interview was conducted by using in-depth interview guideline, as well as medical records, field notes and observation clues were recorded. Interview was conducted in Nepali Language and was audio taped. The recording was transcribed by the researcher herself, and the data were analyzed thematically. Finally, different sources of data were triangulated. Results: The four main themes identified were physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, psychological and social problems. Experienced physical health problems were joint pain, hearing and vision deficit, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, gastritis and fall injury. Impaired Functional abilities in performing activities of daily living was commonly experienced problems. Loneliness and decreased recent memory power were the psychological problems. Being neglected by family members, financial constraints for treatment and improper care during illness were the discerned social problems. Conclusion: Elderly are suffering from different physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, as well as various psycho-social problems. Thus, health promotional activities need to be promoted for decreasing morbidity of elderly. Family members need to be focused in the care of elderly through national policy.

  7. Similar associations between personality dimensions and anxiety or depressive disorders in a population study of Turkish-Dutch, Moroccan-Dutch, and native Dutch subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrier, Agnes C; de Wit, Matty A S; Krol, Anneke; Fassaert, Thijs J L; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Kupka, Ralph W; Dekker, Jack; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2013-05-01

    It is well established that personality traits are associated with anxiety and depressive disorders in Western populations, but it is not known whether this is true also for people from non-Western cultures. In this study, we examined whether ethnicity moderates the association between personality dimensions and anxiety or depressive disorders or symptoms. In a random urban population sample, stratified by ethnicity, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, we interviewed 309 native Dutch subjects, 203 Turkish-Dutch subjects, and 170 Moroccan-Dutch subjects. Dimensions of personality were measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Anxiety and depressive disorders and symptom levels were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The association between personality factors and disorders or symptoms of anxiety and depression was very similar in the three ethnic groups: all show the typical profile of high neuroticism and low extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

  8. Studies of a general flat space/boson star transition model in a box through a language similar to holographic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan

    2017-07-01

    We study a general flat space/boson star transition model in quasi-local ensemble through approaches familiar from holographic superconductor theories. We manage to find a parameter ψ 2, which is proved to be useful in disclosing properties of phase transitions. In this work, we explore effects of the scalar mass, scalar charge and Stückelberg mechanism on the critical phase transition points and the order of transitions mainly from behaviors of the parameter ψ 2. We mention that properties of transitions in quasi-local gravity are strikingly similar to those in holographic superconductor models. We also obtain an analytical relation ψ 2 ∝ ( μ - μ c )1/2, which also holds for the condensed scalar operator in the holographic insulator/superconductor system in accordance with mean field theories.

  9. Elevation of serum insulin concentration during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies leads to similar activation of insulin receptor kinase in skeletal muscle of subjects with and without NIDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, H H; Vestergaard, H; Kotzke, G

    1995-01-01

    The role of skeletal muscle insulin receptor kinase in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was investigated. Muscle biopsies from 13 patients with NIDDM and 10 control subjects at fasting serum insulin concentrations and approximately 1,000 pmol/l steady-state serum...... insulin during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps were immediately frozen. The biopsies were then solubilized, and the receptors were immobilized to anti-insulin receptor antibody-coated microwells. Receptor kinase and binding activities were consecutively measured in these wells. The increase in serum...... and control groups, respectively). Moreover, by selecting only the receptors that bound to anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, we found similar hyperinsulinemia-induced increases of this receptor fraction and its kinase activity in both study groups. In vitro activation of the immobilized receptors with 2 mmol...

  10. Household Food Insecurity and Children's Behaviour Problems: New Evidence from a Trajectories-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between household food insecurity (insufficient access to adequate and nutritious food) and trajectories of externalising and internalising behaviour problems in children from kindergarten to fifth grade using longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative study in the USA. Household food insecurity was assessed using the eighteen-item standard food security scale, and children's behaviour problems were reported by teachers. Latent growth curve analysis was conducted on 7,348 children in the ECLS-K, separately for boys and girls. Following adjustment for an extensive array of confounding variables, results suggest that food insecurity generally was not associated with developmental change in children's behaviour problems. The impact of food insecurity on behaviour problems may be episodic or interact with certain developmental stages. PMID:27559210

  11. Study and application of ANISN and DOT-II nuclear cores in reactor physics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Artur Flavio

    1980-01-01

    To solve time-independent neutrons and/or gamma rays transport problems in nuclear reactors, two codes available at IPEN were studied and applied to solve benchmark problems. The ANISN code solves the one-dimensional Boltzmann transport equation for neutrons or gamma rays, in plane, spherical, or cylindrical geometries. The DOT-II code solves the same equation in two-dimensional space for plane, cylindrical and circular geometries. General anisotropic scattering allowed in both codes. Moreover, pointwise convergence criteria, and alternate step function difference equations are also used in order to remove the oscillating flux distributions, sometimes found in discrete ordinates solutions. Basic theories and numerical techniques used in these codes are studied and summarized. Benchmark problems have been solved using these codes. Comparisons of the results show that both codes can be used with confidence in the analysis of nuclear problems. (author)

  12. Workplace bullying, sleep problems and leisure-time physical activity: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie

    2015-01-01

    and Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours......OBJECTIVES: Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively...... whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). METHODS: The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying...

  13. A Collection of Studies Conducted in Education about "Global Warming" Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2011-01-01

    The studies global warming problem conducted in education discipline in the world and in Turkey were analysed for this study. The literature was reviewed extensively especially through the articles in the indexed journals of Ebsco Host, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis and Web of Science databases and this study was conducted according to the…

  14. Collaborative Learning in Problem Solving: A Case Study in Metacognitive Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shelly L. Wismath; Doug Orr

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving and collaborative communication are among the key 21st century skills educators want students to develop. This paper presents results from a study of the collaborative work patterns of 133 participants from a university level course designed to develop transferable problem-solving skills. Most of the class time in this course was spent on actually solving puzzles, with minimal direct instruction; students were allowed to work either independently or in small groups...

  15. School nurses’ experiences working with students with mental health problems : A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Julia; Maltestam, Malin; Bengtsson-Tops, Anita; Garmy, Pernilla

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to describe school nurses’ experiences working with students with mental health problems. In this inductive qualitative study, interviews were conducted with 14 school nurses in Sweden. The content analysis revealed three themes:(1) sense of worriedness about working with students with mental health problems, (2) taking care of students with mental health issues was an opportunity for personal and professional development, and (3) the experience of making a difference for young pe...

  16. Comparative study of suicide risk in depressive disorder patients with and without problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Azekawa, Takaharu; Uchikado, Hirotake; Ozaki, Shigeru; Hasegawa, Naomi; Takekawa, Yoshikazu; Matsushita, Sachio

    2011-08-01

    The present study sought to determine whether the co-occurrence of problem drinking heightens suicide risk in individuals with depression in Japan, using a sample of 784 outpatients (287 men and 497 women) with depressive disorder. Female subjects with at least a moderate problem drinking showed significantly more severe depression and suicidality than those without, but no such difference was identified in men. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  17. A Study on the Enhanced Best Performance Algorithm for the Just-in-Time Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivashan Chetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Just-In-Time (JIT scheduling problem is an important subject of study. It essentially constitutes the problem of scheduling critical business resources in an attempt to optimize given business objectives. This problem is NP-Hard in nature, hence requiring efficient solution techniques. To solve the JIT scheduling problem presented in this study, a new local search metaheuristic algorithm, namely, the enhanced Best Performance Algorithm (eBPA, is introduced. This is part of the initial study of the algorithm for scheduling problems. The current problem setting is the allocation of a large number of jobs required to be scheduled on multiple and identical machines which run in parallel. The due date of a job is characterized by a window frame of time, rather than a specific point in time. The performance of the eBPA is compared against Tabu Search (TS and Simulated Annealing (SA. SA and TS are well-known local search metaheuristic algorithms. The results show the potential of the eBPA as a metaheuristic algorithm.

  18. A prospective study of weight development and behavior problems in toddlers: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagtvet Knut A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that overweight children have a higher risk of behavior problems, but the causal direction of this relationship remains unclear. In a large prospective population study, we investigated whether child behavior problems and body mass index are associated in toddlers and whether overweight is a risk for behavior problems or vice versa. Methods The study was part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The sample consisted of 10 860 toddlers, followed up to age 36 months. We used data from maternal questionnaires from gestation week 17 and at child ages 18 and 36 months, and data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Child height and weight were assessed at child health stations and recorded by mothers. Behavior problems were assessed using shortened subscales from the Child Behavior Checklist. Statistical analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling. Results Behavior problems in toddlers were not associated with higher body mass index cross-sectionally at either age 18 or 36 months, and there was no indication that behavior problems caused increasing body mass index over time or vice versa. Conclusions The association between behavior problems and body mass index found in older children did not appear in toddlers up to age 36 months. Future studies should focus on the age span from 3 to 6 years, which includes the period of adiposity rebound.

  19. Concerned significant others of people with gambling problems in Finland: a cross-sectional population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anne H; Castrén, Sari; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli

    2014-04-24

    Problem gambling not only impacts those directly involved, but also the concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers. The aims of this study were to investigate the proportion of male and female CSOs at the population level; to investigate who the CSOs were concerned about; and to investigate sociodemographic factors, gender differences, gambling behaviour, and health and well-being among CSOs and non-CSOs. The data (n = 4484) were based on a cross-sectional population study. Structured telephone interviews were conducted in 2011-2012. The data were weighted based on age, gender and residency. The respondents were defined as CSOs if they reported that at least one of their significant others (father, mother, sister/brother, grandparent, spouse, own child/children, close friend) had had gambling problems. Statistical significance was determined by chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression analysis. Altogether, 19.3% of the respondents were identified as CSOs. Most commonly, the problem gambler was a close friend (12.4%) of the CSO. The percentage of close friends having a gambling problem was larger among male CSOs (14.4%) compared with female CSOs (10.3%; p ≤ 0.001), while the percentage of partners with gambling problem was larger among females (2.6%) than among males (0.8%; p ≤ 0.001). In the best fitting model, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male CSO was 2.03 (1.24-3.31) for past-year gambling problems, 1.46 (1.08-1.97) for loneliness and 1.78 (1.38-2.29) for risky alcohol consumption. The odds ratio (95% CI) of being a female CSO was 1.51 (1.09-2.08) for past-year gambling involvement, 3.05 (1.18-7.90) for past-year gambling problems, 2.21 (1.24-3.93) for mental health problems, 1.39 (1.03-1.89) for loneliness and 1.97 (1.43-2.71) for daily smoking. CSOs of problem gamblers often experience cumulating problems such as their own risky gambling behaviour, health problems and other addictive disorders. The

  20. Cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC offers similar outcomes in patients with rectal peritoneal metastases compared to colon cancer patients: a matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkens, Geert A; van Oudheusden, Thijs R; Braam, Hidde J; Wiezer, Marinus J; Nienhuijs, Simon W; Rutten, Harm J; van Ramshorst, Bert; de Hingh, Ignace H

    2016-04-01

    The effect of cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in patients with rectal peritoneal metastases (PM) is unclear. This case-control study aims to assess the results of cytoreduction and HIPEC in patients with rectal PM compared to colon PM patients. Colorectal PM patients treated with complete macroscopic cytoreduction and HIPEC were included. Two colon cancer patients were case-matched for each rectal cancer patient, based on prognostic factors (T stage, N stage, histology type, and extent of PM). Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between both groups. From 317 patients treated with complete macroscopic cytoreduction and HIPEC, 29 patients (9.1%) had rectal PM. Fifty-eight colon cases were selected as control patients. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Major morbidity was 27.6% and 34.5% in the rectal and colon group, respectively (P = 0.516). Median disease-free survival was 13.5 months in the rectal group and 13.6 months in the colon group (P = 0.621). Two- and five-year overall survival rates were 54%/32% in rectal cancer patients, and 61%/24% in colon cancer patients (P = 0.987). Cytoreduction and HIPEC in selected patients with rectal PM is feasible and provides similar outcomes as in colon cancer patients. Rectal PM should not be regarded a contra-indication for cytoreduction and HIPEC in selected patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:548-553. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Reflective thinking in solving an algebra problem: a case study of field independent-prospective teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustan, S.; Juniati, Dwi; Yuli Eko Siswono, Tatag

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, reflective thinking is one of the important things which become a concern in learning mathematics, especially in solving a mathematical problem. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the student used reflective thinking when solved an algebra problem. The subject of this research is one female student who has field independent cognitive style. This research is a descriptive exploratory study with data analysis using qualitative approach to describe in depth reflective thinking of prospective teacher in solving an algebra problem. Four main categories are used to analyse the reflective thinking in solving an algebra problem: (1) formulation and synthesis of experience, (2) orderliness of experience, (3) evaluating the experience and (4) testing the selected solution based on the experience. The results showed that the subject described the problem by using another word and the subject also found the difficulties in making mathematical modelling. The subject analysed two concepts used in solving problem. For instance, geometry related to point and line while algebra is related to algebra arithmetic operation. The subject stated that solution must have four aspect to get effective solution, specifically the ability to (a) understand the meaning of every words; (b) make mathematical modelling; (c) calculate mathematically; (d) interpret solution obtained logically. To test the internal consistency or error in solution, the subject checked and looked back related procedures and operations used. Moreover, the subject tried to resolve the problem in a different way to compare the answers which had been obtained before. The findings supported the assertion that reflective thinking provides an opportunity for the students in improving their weakness in mathematical problem solving. It can make a grow accuracy and concentration in solving a mathematical problem. Consequently, the students will get the right and logic answer by reflective thinking.

  2. Mental health problems among young doctors: an updated review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Vaglum, Per

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the medical community to exhibit a relatively high level of certain mental health problems, particularly depression, which may lead to drug abuse and suicide. We reviewed prospective studies published over the past 20 years to investigate the prevalence and predictors of mental health problems in doctors during their first postgraduate years. We selected clinically relevant mental health problems as the outcome measure. We found nine cohort studies that met our selection criteria. Each of them had limitations, notably low response rate at follow-up, small sample size, and/or short observation period. Most studies showed that symptoms of mental health problems, particularly of depression, were highest during the first postgraduate year. They found that individual factors, such as family background, personality traits (neuroticism and self-criticism), and coping by wishful thinking, as well as contextual factors including perceived medical-school stress, perceived overwork, emotional pressure, working in an intensive-care setting, and stress outside of work, were often predictive of mental health problems. The studies revealed somewhat discrepant findings with respect to gender. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Self-similar continued root approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.

    2012-01-01

    A novel method of summing asymptotic series is advanced. Such series repeatedly arise when employing perturbation theory in powers of a small parameter for complicated problems of condensed matter physics, statistical physics, and various applied problems. The method is based on the self-similar approximation theory involving self-similar root approximants. The constructed self-similar continued roots extrapolate asymptotic series to finite values of the expansion parameter. The self-similar continued roots contain, as a particular case, continued fractions and Padé approximants. A theorem on the convergence of the self-similar continued roots is proved. The method is illustrated by several examples from condensed-matter physics.

  4. Health problems among detainees in Switzerland: a study using the ICPC-2 classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Dominique

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the health status of prisoners in Switzerland. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by detainees in Switzerland's largest remand prison. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study we reviewed the health records of all detainees leaving Switzerland's largest remand prison in 2007. The health problems were coded using the International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC-2. Analyses were descriptive, stratified by gender. Results A total of 2195 health records were reviewed. Mean age was 29.5 years (SD 9.5; 95% were male; 87.8% were migrants. Mean length of stay was 80 days (SD 160. Illicit drug use (40.2% and mental health problems (32.6% were frequent, but most of these detainees (57.6% had more generic primary care problems, such as skin (27.0%, infectious diseases (23.5%, musculoskeletal (19.2%, injury related (18.3%, digestive (15.0% or respiratory problems (14.0%. Furthermore, 7.9% reported exposure to violence during arrest by the police. Conclusion Morbidity is high in this young, predominantly male population of detainees, in particular in relation to substance abuse. Other health problems more commonly seen in general practice are also frequent. These findings support the further development of coordinated primary care and mental health services within detention centers.

  5. Gambling frequency, gambling problems and concerned significant others of problem gamblers in Finland: cross-sectional population studies in 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anne H; Alho, Hannu; Castrén, Sari

    2015-05-01

    This study compares past-year gambling frequency, gambling problems and concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers in Finland by age, from 2007 and 2011. We used random sample data collected in 2007 (n = 4722) and 2011 (n = 4484). The data were weighted, based on gender, age and region of residence. We measured the past-year gambling frequency using a categorical variable, while gambling severity was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. We identified CSOs by a single question including seven response options. Chi-Squared and Fisher's exact tests were used. Overall, the past-year gambling frequency change was statistically significant between 2007 and 2011. Among 18-64-year-old Finnish people, the proportion of non-gamblers decreased. Yet, among 15-17-year-old respondents, non-gambling increased and gambling problems decreased. Among 18-24 year olds, the proportion of close ones with gambling problems also decreased. On the other hand, the proportion of family members with gambling problems increased among the 50-64 year olds. The increase in adult gambling participation was mainly explained by infrequent gambling. The proportion of gambling problems from the gamblers' and CSOs' perspective remained unchanged, yet significant changes were observed within age groups. The short-term changes in under-age gambling problems were desirable. Future studies should explore the adaptation and access hypotheses alongside gambling problems. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Spanking and subsequent behavioral problems in toddlers: A propensity score-matched, prospective study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuzono, Sakurako; Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Harsh or frequent spanking in early childhood is an established risk factor for later childhood behavioral problems as well as mental disorder in adulthood in Western societies. However, few studies have been conducted in Asian populations, where corporal punishment is relatively accepted. Moreover, the impacts of occasional spanking on subsequent behavioral problems remain uncertain. This study sought to investigate prospectively the association between the frequency of spanking of toddlers and later behavioral problems in Japanese children using national birth cohort data. We used data from the Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st Century, a population-based birth cohort data set collected by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (N=29,182). Frequency of spanking ("never", "sometimes" and "always") and child behavioral problems were assessed via a caregiver questionnaire when the child was 3.5 years old and again at 5.5 years. Propensity score matching was used to examine the association between frequency of spanking and child behavioral problems, adjusting for parental socioeconomic status, child temperament and parenting behaviors. Compared to children who were never spanked, occasional spanking ("sometimes") showed a higher number of behavioral problems (on a 6-point scale) (coefficient: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.07-0.15), and frequent spanking ("always") showed an even larger number of behavioral problems compared with "sometimes" (coefficient: 0.08, 95% CI:0.01-0.16). Spanking of any self-reported frequency was associated with an increased risk for later behavioral problems in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The protective role of religiosity against problem gambling: findings from a five-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti-Packer, Seema; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna

    2017-11-06

    Little research has examined the potential protective influence of religiosity against problem gambling; a common addictive behavior, and one with a host of associated negative health and social outcomes. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the potential longitudinal association between religiosity and problem gambling among adults and (2) the potential moderating role of gender on this association. Data were from five waves of the Quinte Longitudinal Study (QLS), between 2006 and 2010. Participants were Canadian adults from Belleville, Ontario, Canada (n = 4121). A multiple group (based on gender) latent growth curve analysis was conducted to examine the overall trajectory of problem gambling severity. Two models were tested; the first examined the influence of past-year religious service attendance, and the second examined an overall measure of personal religiosity on the trajectory of problem gambling. The Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM) was used as a continuous measure. The Rohrbaugh-Jessor Religiosity Scale (RJRS) was used to assess past-year frequency of religious service attendance and personal religiosity. Religious affiliation (Protestant, Catholic, Atheist/Agnostic, Other, Prefer not to say) was also included in the models. At baseline, higher frequency of past-year religious service attendance (males: β= -0.54, females: β= -0.68, p religious service attendance was greater among females (χ 2 diff (44)  = 336.8, p religious affiliation. No measures of religiosity or religious affiliation were associated with the overall decline in problem gambling severity. These findings suggest that religiosity may act as a static protective factor against problem gambling severity but may play a less significant role in predicting change in problem gambling severity over time.

  8. Requests and usage of epidural analgesia in grand-grand multiparous and similar-aged women with lesser parity: prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioscovich, Alexander; Fadeev, Angelika; Rivilis, Alina; Elstein, Deborah

    2011-11-01

    Epidural analgesia in older and multiparous women has been associated with risks. The aim of this study was to compare epidural analgesia use for labor/delivery in grand-grand multiparous women (GGMP; ≥10 births) relative to that in similar-aged women with lesser parity. This was a prospective observational study of advanced age gravida. All laboring women in a six-month period admitted to a tertiary Israeli center were included if they were advanced age (≥36 years old) with one to two previous births (Low parity; n=128) or four to five previous births (Medium parity; n=181), and all GGMP (any age; n=187). Primary outcome was comparison of requests for and use of epidural analgesia for labor/delivery. There were no significant differences across parity groups in percent of gravida requesting or receiving epidural analgesia (46.5-59.4%). Time from admission to epidural administration (range mean times: 168-187 min) and from advent of epidural to delivery (range mean times: 155-160 min) were comparable across parity groups. Use of other analgesia (5.8-8%) was not significantly different. Requests for and use of epidural analgesia was comparable in older gravida and was not correlated with parity. Mean times from presentation to epidural administration, mean cervical dilatation at epidural initiation, and mean time from performing of epidural to delivery were comparable across groups.

  9. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K.; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-01

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, Cdbnd O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO-2/lipid, COO-/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  10. One-Year Prospective Study on Passion and Gambling Problems in Poker Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvannou, Adèle; Dufour, Magali; Brunelle, Natacha; Berbiche, Djamal; Roy, Élise

    2018-06-01

    The concept of passion is relevant to understanding gambling behaviours and gambling problems. Longitudinal studies are useful to better understand the absence and development of gambling problems; however, only one study has specifically considered poker players. Using a longitudinal design, this study aims to determine the influence, 1 year later, of two forms of passion-harmonious and obsessive-on gambling problems in poker players. A total of 116 poker players was recruited from across Quebec, Canada. The outcome variable of interest was participants' category on the Canadian Pathological Gambling Index, and the predictive variable was the Gambling Passion Scale. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify independent risk factors of at-risk poker players 1 year later. Obsessive passion at baseline doubled the risk of gambling problems 1 year later (p passion, there was no association. Number of gambling activities, drug problems, and impulsivity were also associated with at-risk gambling. This study highlights the links between obsessive passion and at-risk behaviours among poker players. It is therefore important to prevent the development of obsessive passion among poker players.

  11. An Instructors Guide to Water Pollution. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David E.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on water pollution includes the following units: (1) Overview of World Pollution; (2) History, Definition, Criteria; (3) Ecosystem Theory; (4) Biological…

  12. Academic and social integration and study progress in problem based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Severiens (Sabine); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe present study explores the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on social and academic integration and study progress. Three hundred and five first-year students from three different psychology curricula completed a questionnaire on social and academic integration. Effects of a

  13. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.; van den Heuvel, S.; Geuskens, G.; Ybema, J.F.; de Wind, A.; Burdorf, A.; Robroek, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on

  14. Hypermedia-Based Problem Based Learning in the Upper Elementary Grades: A Developmental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Jonathan D.; Glazewski, Krista

    This paper describes the application of problem-based learning (PBL) design principles and the inclusion of teacher and study scaffolds to the design and implementation of a hypermedia-based learning unit for the upper elementary/middle school grades. The study examined the following research questions: (1) Does hypermedia-based PBL represent an…

  15. A Case Study: Problem-Based Learning for Civil Engineering Students in Transportation Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study,…

  16. Students' Problem Solving as Mediated by Their Cognitive Tool Use: A Study of Tool Use Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Horton, L. R.; Corliss, S. B.; Svinicki, M. D.; Bogard, T.; Kim, J.; Chang, M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use multiple data sources, both objective and subjective, to capture students' thinking processes as they were engaged in problem solving, examine the cognitive tool use patterns, and understand what tools were used and why they were used. The findings of this study confirmed previous research and provided clear…

  17. The Effects of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) on the Academic Achievement of Students Studying "Electrochemistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Tugçe; Alpat, Sibel Kilinç

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on students' academic achievements in studying "Electrochemistry" within a course on Analytical Chemistry. The research was of a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design and it was conducted with second year students in the Chemistry Teaching Program at…

  18. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

  19. A Study on Teaching Gases to Prospective Primary Science Teachers through Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senocak, Erdal; Taskesenligil, Yavuz; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the achievement of prospective primary science teachers in a problem-based curriculum with those in a conventional primary science teacher preparation program with regard to success in learning about gases and developing positive attitudes towards chemistry. The subjects of the study were 101 first year…

  20. Obesity and type 2 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africans - Is the burden in today's Africa similar to African migrants in Europe? The RODAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyemang, Charles; Meeks, Karlijn; Beune, Erik; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Addo, Juliet; de Graft Aikins, Ama; Bahendeka, Silver; Danquah, Ina; Schulze, Matthias B; Spranger, Joachim; Burr, Tom; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Amoah, Stephen K; Galbete, Cecilia; Henneman, Peter; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Nicolaou, Mary; Adeyemo, Adebowale; van Straalen, Jan; Smeeth, Liam; Stronks, Karien

    2016-10-21

    Rising rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are impending major threats to the health of African populations, but the extent to which they differ between rural and urban settings in Africa and upon migration to Europe is unknown. We assessed the burden of obesity and T2D among Ghanaians living in rural and urban Ghana and Ghanaian migrants living in different European countries. A multi-centre cross-sectional study was conducted among Ghanaian adults (n = 5659) aged 25-70 years residing in rural and urban Ghana and three European cities (Amsterdam, London and Berlin). Comparisons between groups were made using prevalence ratios (PRs) with adjustments for age and education. In rural Ghana, the prevalence of obesity was 1.3 % in men and 8.3 % in women. The prevalence was considerably higher in urban Ghana (men, 6.9 %; PR: 5.26, 95 % CI, 2.04-13.57; women, 33.9 %; PR: 4.11, 3.13-5.40) and even more so in Europe, especially in London (men, 21.4 %; PR: 15.04, 5.98-37.84; women, 54.2 %; PR: 6.63, 5.04-8.72). The prevalence of T2D was low at 3.6 % and 5.5 % in rural Ghanaian men and women, and increased in urban Ghanaians (men, 10.3 %; PR: 3.06; 1.73-5.40; women, 9.2 %; PR: 1.81, 1.25-2.64) and highest in Berlin (men, 15.3 %; PR: 4.47; 2.50-7.98; women, 10.2 %; PR: 2.21, 1.30-3.75). Impaired fasting glycaemia prevalence was comparatively higher only in Amsterdam, and in London, men compared with rural Ghana. Our study shows high risks of obesity and T2D among sub-Saharan African populations living in Europe. In Ghana, similarly high prevalence rates were seen in an urban environment, whereas in rural areas, the prevalence of obesity among women is already remarkable. Similar processes underlying the high burden of obesity and T2D following migration may also be at play in sub-Saharan Africa as a consequence of urbanisation.

  1. Authoritarian parenting attitudes as a risk for conduct problems Results from a British national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne; Hollis, Chris; Dagger, David Richards

    2003-04-01

    This study examines the associations, and possible causal relationship, between mothers' authoritarian attitudes to discipline and child behaviour using cross-sectional and prospective data from a large population sample surveyed in the 1970 British Cohort Study. Results show a clear linear relationship between the degree of maternal approval of authoritarian child-rearing attitudes and the rates of conduct problems at age 5 and age 10. This association is independent of the confounding effects of socio-economic status and maternal psychological distress. Maternal authoritarian attitudes independently predicted the development of conduct problems 5 years later at age 10. The results of this longitudinal study suggest that authoritarian parenting attitudes expressed by mothers may be of significance in the development of conduct problems.

  2. Study Of Social Problems And Correlates Of Child Labourers In Slums Of Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambadekar Nitin N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the social and work related problems of child labourers? Objectives:1.To study social problems of child labourers. 2. To study some work related problems of child labourers. 3. To study some factors associated with child labourers. Study design: cross sectional study with comparison group. Setting: shivankarnagar & Hasanbagh slums under field practice area of PSM deptt., Govt. Medical College, Nagapur. Participants: 223 child labourers and 223 randomly selected controls from same area aged upto 15 years, sex matched and group matched for age. Results: Prevalence of child labourers in study areas was 21.3%, 43(19.3 females and 180 (80.7% males. Lower socio-economic status, large family size(>6, parental illiteracy and single parenthood were significantly associated with child labour. They were working in varied occupations â€" majority (32.7% being in garage and workshops. Inadequate family income (74.4% and parental compulsion (20.6% were the common reasons cited by child labourers for their jobs â€" school drop â€" outs 173(78.3%, bad habits 56(25.1%, prolonged working hours (mean-8.5+4.5, no holidays and rest hours, inadequate daily wages, verbal (29% & physical abuse (2.7% were the common problems of child labourers, observed in the present study.

  3. Externalizing problems, attention regulation, and household chaos: a longitudinal behavioral genetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A

    2012-08-01

    Previous research documented a robust link between difficulties in self-regulation and development of externalizing problems (i.e., aggression and delinquency). In this study, we examined the longitudinal additive and interactive genetic and environmental covariation underlying this well-established link using a twin design. The sample included 131 pairs of monozygotic twins and 173 pairs of same-sex dizygotic twins who participated in three waves of annual assessment. Mothers and fathers provided reports of externalizing problems. Teacher report and observer rating were used to assess twin's attention regulation. The etiology underlying the link between externalizing problems and attention regulation shifted from a common genetic mechanism to a common environmental mechanism in the transition across middle childhood. Household chaos moderated the genetic variance of and covariance between externalizing problems and attention regulation. The genetic influence on individual differences in both externalizing problems and attention regulation was stronger in more chaotic households. However, higher levels of household chaos attenuated the genetic link between externalizing problems and attention regulation.

  4. Collaborative Learning in Problem Solving: A Case Study in Metacognitive Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly L. Wismath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving and collaborative communication are among the key 21st century skills educators want students to develop. This paper presents results from a study of the collaborative work patterns of 133 participants from a university level course designed to develop transferable problem-solving skills. Most of the class time in this course was spent on actually solving puzzles, with minimal direct instruction; students were allowed to work either independently or in small groups of two or more, as they preferred, and to move back and forth between these two modalities as they wished. A distinctive student-driven pattern blending collaborative and independent endeavour was observed, consistently over four course offerings in four years. We discuss a number of factors which appear to be related to this variable pattern of independent and collaborative enterprise, including the thinking and learning styles of the individuals, the preference of the individuals, the types of problems being worked on, and the stage in a given problem at which students were working. We also consider implications of these factors for the teaching of problem solving, arguing that the development of collaborative problem solving abilities is an important metacognitive skill.

  5. Trajectories of problem video gaming among adult regular gamers: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A three-wave, longitudinal study examined the long-term trajectory of problem gaming symptoms among adult regular video gamers. Potential changes in problem gaming status were assessed at two intervals using an online survey over an 18-month period. Participants (N=117) were recruited by an advertisement posted on the public forums of multiple Australian video game-related websites. Inclusion criteria were being of adult age and having a video gaming history of at least 1 hour of gaming every week over the past 3 months. Two groups of adult video gamers were identified: those players who did (N=37) and those who did not (N=80) identify as having a serious gaming problem at the initial survey intake. The results showed that regular gamers who self-identified as having a video gaming problem at baseline reported more severe problem gaming symptoms than normal gamers, at all time points. However, both groups experienced a significant decline in problem gaming symptoms over an 18-month period, controlling for age, video gaming activity, and psychopathological symptoms.

  6. A Large-Scale Study of Fingerprint Matching Systems for Sensor Interoperability Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helala AlShehri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprint is a commonly used biometric modality that is widely employed for authentication by law enforcement agencies and commercial applications. The designs of existing fingerprint matching methods are based on the hypothesis that the same sensor is used to capture fingerprints during enrollment and verification. Advances in fingerprint sensor technology have raised the question about the usability of current methods when different sensors are employed for enrollment and verification; this is a fingerprint sensor interoperability problem. To provide insight into this problem and assess the status of state-of-the-art matching methods to tackle this problem, we first analyze the characteristics of fingerprints captured with different sensors, which makes cross-sensor matching a challenging problem. We demonstrate the importance of fingerprint enhancement methods for cross-sensor matching. Finally, we conduct a comparative study of state-of-the-art fingerprint recognition methods and provide insight into their abilities to address this problem. We performed experiments using a public database (FingerPass that contains nine datasets captured with different sensors. We analyzed the effects of different sensors and found that cross-sensor matching performance deteriorates when different sensors are used for enrollment and verification. In view of our analysis, we propose future research directions for this problem.

  7. A Large-Scale Study of Fingerprint Matching Systems for Sensor Interoperability Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShehri, Helala; Hussain, Muhammad; AboAlSamh, Hatim; AlZuair, Mansour

    2018-03-28

    The fingerprint is a commonly used biometric modality that is widely employed for authentication by law enforcement agencies and commercial applications. The designs of existing fingerprint matching methods are based on the hypothesis that the same sensor is used to capture fingerprints during enrollment and verification. Advances in fingerprint sensor technology have raised the question about the usability of current methods when different sensors are employed for enrollment and verification; this is a fingerprint sensor interoperability problem. To provide insight into this problem and assess the status of state-of-the-art matching methods to tackle this problem, we first analyze the characteristics of fingerprints captured with different sensors, which makes cross-sensor matching a challenging problem. We demonstrate the importance of fingerprint enhancement methods for cross-sensor matching. Finally, we conduct a comparative study of state-of-the-art fingerprint recognition methods and provide insight into their abilities to address this problem. We performed experiments using a public database (FingerPass) that contains nine datasets captured with different sensors. We analyzed the effects of different sensors and found that cross-sensor matching performance deteriorates when different sensors are used for enrollment and verification. In view of our analysis, we propose future research directions for this problem.

  8. Externalizing problems, attention regulation, and household chaos: A longitudinal behavioral genetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has documented a robust link between difficulties in self-regulation and development of externalizing problems (i.e., aggression and delinquency). In the current study, we examined the longitudinal additive and interactive genetic and environmental covariation underlying this well-established link using a twin design. The sample included 131 pairs of monozygotic twins and 173 pairs of same-sex dizygotic twins who participated in three waves of annual assessment. Mothers and fathers provided reports of externalizing problems. Teacher report and observer rating were used to assess twin’s attention regulation. The etiology underlying the link between externalizing problems and attention regulation shifted from a common genetic mechanism to a common environmental mechanism in the transition across middle childhood. Household chaos moderated the genetic variance of and covariance between externalizing problems and attention regulation. The genetic influence on individual differences in both externalizing problems and attention regulation was stronger in more chaotic household. However, higher levels of household chaos attenuated the genetic link between externalizing problems and attention regulation. PMID:22781853

  9. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY PROBLEM AND STUDY OF APPROACH BASED ON FINITE VOLUME METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. S. Sherina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been aimed to carry out a study of peculiarities that arise in a numerical simulation of the electrical impedance tomography (EIT problem. Static EIT image reconstruction is sensitive to a measurement noise and approximation error. A special consideration has been given to reducing of the approximation error, which originates from numerical implementation drawbacks. This paper presents in detail two numerical approaches for solving EIT forward problem. The finite volume method (FVM on unstructured triangular mesh is introduced. In order to compare this approach, the finite element (FEM based forward solver was implemented, which has gained the most popularity among researchers. The calculated potential distribution with the assumed initial conductivity distribution has been compared to the analytical solution of a test Neumann boundary problem and to the results of problem simulation by means of ANSYS FLUENT commercial software. Two approaches to linearized EIT image reconstruction are discussed. Reconstruction of the conductivity distribution is an ill-posed problem, typically requiring a large amount of computation and resolved by minimization techniques. The objective function to be minimized is constructed of measured voltage and calculated boundary voltage on the electrodes. A classical modified Newton type iterative method and the stochastic differential evolution method are employed. A software package has been developed for the problem under investigation. Numerical tests were conducted on simulated data. The obtained results could be helpful to researches tackling the hardware and software issues for medical applications of EIT.

  10. Cyberbullying, Depression, and Problem Alcohol Use in Female College Students: A Multisite Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population. PMID:25684608

  11. Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkie, Ellen M; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-02-01

    Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population.

  12. A Study of the Correlation between Computer Games and Adolescent Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. This was a descriptive-correlative study on 384 randomly chosen male guidance school students. They were asked to answer the researcher's questionnaire about computer games and Achenbach's Youth Self-Report (YSR). The Results of this study indicated that there was about 95% direct significant correlation between the amount of playing games among adolescents and anxiety/depression, withdrawn/depression, rule-breaking behaviors, aggression, and social problems. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the amount of computer game usage and physical complaints, thinking problems, and attention problems. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the students' place of living and their parents' job, and using computer games. Computer games lead to anxiety, depression, withdrawal, rule-breaking behavior, aggression, and social problems in adolescents.

  13. Do High School Students in India Gamble? A Study of Problem Gambling and Its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; Thennarassu, K; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Benegal, Vivek; George, Sanju

    2017-06-01

    Studies from the West suggest that significant numbers of high school students gamble, despite it being illegal in this age group. To date, there have been no studies on the prevalence of gambling among senior high school and higher secondary school students in India. This study reports point prevalence of gambling and its psychosocial correlates among high school students in the State of Kerala, India. 5043 high school students in the age group 15-19 years, from 73 schools, were selected by cluster random sampling from the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, South India. They completed questionnaires that assessed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Of a total of 4989 completed questionnaires, 1400 (27.9 %) high school students reported to have ever gambled and 353 (7.1 %) were problem gamblers. Of those who had ever gambled, 25.2 % were problem gamblers. Sports betting (betting on cricket and football) was the most popular form of gambling followed by the lottery. Problem gamblers when compared with non-problem gamblers and non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have academic failures, have higher rates of lifetime alcohol and tobacco use, psychological distress, suicidality, history of sexual abuse and higher ADHD symptom scores. Gambling among adolescents in India deserves greater attention, as one in four students who ever gambled was a problem gambler and because of its association with a range of psychosocial variables.

  14. A Study of the Correlation between Computer Games and Adolescent Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. Methods This was a descriptive-correlative study on 384 randomly chosen male guidance school students. They were asked to answer the researcher's questionnaire about computer games and Achenbach’s Youth Self-Report (YSR). Findings The Results of this study indicated that there was about 95% direct significant correlation between the amount of playing games among adolescents and anxiety/depression, withdrawn/depression, rule-breaking behaviors, aggression, and social problems. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the amount of computer game usage and physical complaints, thinking problems, and attention problems. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the students’ place of living and their parents’ job, and using computer games. Conclusion Computer games lead to anxiety, depression, withdrawal, rule-breaking behavior, aggression, and social problems in adolescents. PMID:24494157

  15. Audiologists' preferences for patient-centredness: a cross-sectional questionnaire study of cross-cultural differences and similarities among professionals in Portugal, India and Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Gomersall, Philip A; Tomé, David; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Krishna, Rajalakshmi

    2014-10-14

    Patient-centredness has become an important aspect of health service delivery; however, there are a limited number of studies that focus on this concept in the domain of hearing healthcare. The objective of this study was to examine and compare audiologists' preferences for patient-centredness in Portugal, India and Iran. The study used a cross-sectional survey design with audiologists recruited from three different countries. A total of 191 fully-completed responses were included in the analysis (55 from Portugal, 78 from India and 58 from Iran). The Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS). PPOS mean scores suggest that audiologists have a preference for patient-centredness (ie, mean of 3.6 in a 5-point scale). However, marked differences were observed between specific PPOS items suggesting these preferences vary across clinical situations. A significant level of difference (p<0.001) was found between audiologists' preferences for patient-centredness in three countries. Audiologists in Portugal had a greater preference for patient-centredness when compared to audiologists in India and Iran, although no significant differences were found in terms of age and duration of experience among these sample populations. There are differences and similarities in audiologists' preferences for patient-centredness among countries. These findings may have implications for the training of professionals and also for clinical practice in terms of optimising hearing healthcare across countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Differences and similarities in the trajectories of self-esteem and positive and negative affect in persons with chronic illness: an explorative longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139) or COPD (n=97) participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. Results Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points. Conclusion An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed for persons with morbid obesity, but not for persons with COPD. Initial higher levels of self-esteem in the participants with COPD may indicate that they are less troubled with low self-esteem than people with morbid obesity are. The pattern of reduced negative affect for both groups during follow-up is promising. PMID:27574438

  17. Differences and similarities in the trajectories of self-esteem and positive and negative affect in persons with chronic illness: an explorative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2016-01-01

    Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139) or COPD (n=97) participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points. An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed for persons with morbid obesity, but not for persons with COPD. Initial higher levels of self-esteem in the participants with COPD may indicate that they are less troubled with low self-esteem than people with morbid obesity are. The pattern of reduced negative affect for both groups during follow-up is promising.

  18. Notions of similarity for systems biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Ron; Hoehndorf, Robert; Kacprowski, Tim; Knüpfer, Christian; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Systems biology models are rapidly increasing in complexity, size and numbers. When building large models, researchers rely on software tools for the retrieval, comparison, combination and merging of models, as well as for version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of 'similarity' may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here we survey existing methods for the comparison of models, introduce quantitative measures for model similarity, and discuss potential applications of combined similarity measures. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on a combination of different model aspects. The six aspects that we define as potentially relevant for similarity are underlying encoding, references to biological entities, quantitative behaviour, qualitative behaviour, mathematical equations and parameters and network structure. We argue that future similarity measures will benefit from combining these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways to mimic users' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Wound healing delays in α-Klotho-deficient mice that have skin appearance similar to that in aged humans - Study of delayed wound healing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Makoto; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Ken; Kayama, Musashi; Sato, Noriyuki; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi

    2016-05-13

    Skin atrophy and delayed wound healing are observed in aged humans; however, the molecular mechanism are still elusive. The aim of this study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms of delayed wound healing by aging using α-Klotho-deficient (kl/kl) mice, which have phenotypes similar to those of aged humans. The kl/kl mice showed delayed wound healing and impaired granulation formation compared with those in wild-type (WT) mice. The skin graft experiments revealed that delayed wound healing depends on humoral factors, but not on kl/kl skin tissue. The mRNA expression levels of cytokines related to acute inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were higher in wound lesions of kl/kl mice compared with the levels in WT mice by RT-PCR analysis. LPS-induced TNF-α production model using spleen cells revealed that TNF-α production was significantly increased in the presence of FGF23. Thus, higher levels of FGF23 in kl/kl mouse may have a role to increase TNF-α production in would lesion independently of α-Klotho protein, and impair granulation formation and delay wound healing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxygen levels versus chemical pollutants: do they have similar influence on macrofaunal assemblages? A case study in a harbour with two opposing entrances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra-Garcia, J.M.; Garcia-Gomez, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Generally, harbours are polluted zones characterised by low values of hydrodynamism and oxygen in the water column and high concentrations of pollutants in sediments. The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, has an unusual structure; it is located between two bays connected by a channel, which increases the water movement and exchange in the harbour, maintaining moderate oxygen levels in the water-sediment interface. Nevertheless, high concentration of organic matter, nutrients and heavy metals were measured in sediments from this harbour. Under these unusual conditions (high levels of pollution but total saturation of oxygen in the water column) we studied the responses of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities using uni and multivariate analyses. The number of species was similar inside and outside the harbour but the species composition differed between internal and external stations; oxygen levels seem to control the 'quantity' of species whereas pollutants control the 'quality' of them. - A high diversity of benthic animals was found in a polluted harbour where high oxygen levels occurred

  1. Sleep Problems Before and After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belguzar Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare patients’ sleep problems before and after acute myocardial infarction (AMI and also to determine factors affecting sleep problems in patients undergoing AMI. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Coronary Intensive Care Unit in a training hospital between January 1 and April 30, 2007. The sample of the study was composed of 26 patients with a first-ever AMI. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to determine the patient and illness-related descriptive characteristics and the Post Sleep Inventory Scale (PSIS. The Shapiro-Wilks test, descriptive statistics, paired samples t test, Mann Whitney U test, Wilcoxon test, reliability analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The mean age of the study group was 53.2 ± 12.6 years and approximately 81% were males. The patients’ mean bedtime (t= -3.422, p= 0.001, quality of nocturnal sleep (t= -3.221, p= 0.001, awakening (t =-3.533, p<0.001 and total PSIS scores (t= -5.652, p<0.001 were significantly higher after AMI compared to before AMI. The mean PSIS scores of patients undergoing AMI were statistically significant different by gender (z= -2.164, p= 0.030 and working status (z= -2.171, p= 0.030. There was a negative correlation between the PSIS score and haemoglobin and haematocrit values (r= -0.503, p<0.01; r= -0.473, p<0.05; respectively. CONCLUSION: There were differences in the patients’ reported sleep problems between before and after AMI. The results of this study showed that sleep problems were more common among women, patients not working and those with anemia. Nurses should be aware of the sleep problems and factors that affect to sleep problems. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 687-694

  2. Investigating the Problems and Needs of Infertile Patients Referring to Assisted Reproduction Centers: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Hasanbeigi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The provision of optimal care is the most important goal in nursing, the fulfillment of which requires the identification of clients’ problems and needs. However, based on the review of the literature, no review study has investigated the problems and needs of the infertile patients in Iran. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the problems and needs of the infertile patients referring to the assisted reproduction centers. Method: This review study was based on the traditional review procedure developed by Cronin et al., which entails five steps including: 1 choosing the topic of the review, 2 searching the manuscripts, 3 collecting, reading, and analyzing the texts, 4 writing the review, and 5 providing references. The articles published within 2003-2017 were searched in such valid databases as Google Scholar, Pub Med, Science Direct, Ovid, and Cochran. The inclusion criteria in this study were articles in Persian and English with the keywords referring to problems and needs of clients. Out of the 350 original articles, 31 cases were finally selected for this review study. Results: In general, the infertile patients’ problems were placed under four domains of mental-psychological, social, marital, and financial factors. The needs of the infertile individuals were grouped into six domains of physical, care, informational, financial, mental-psychological, and spiritual factors. Implications for Practice: The identification of the patients’ problems and needs can lead to the conceptualization of strategic points targeted toward the delivery of effective interventions facilitating the provision of patient-centered infertility care. This can enhance the quality of life and lower the levels of stress during the course of treatment.

  3. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  4. Similarity in problems related to zero-gravity hydromechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, P K

    1998-01-01

    On introduction of gravitational acceleration into the calculation of length and velocity scales, a set of dimensionless parameters appears in the mathematical model which enable the behaviour of convection and heat and mass transfer under changing gravitational conditions to be predicted. By directly simulating the equations of motion and heat transfer, the effectiveness of the proposed formulation of conservation laws in treating such phenomena in liquids is demonstrated for both isothermal and non-isothermal cases and under both terrestrial and space conditions. (methodological notes)

  5. Comparative study of the second antibody for radioimmunoassay totally produced in the country to a similar imported one (sheep serum anti-rabbit IgG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.R. da; Borghi, V.C.; Wajchenberg, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    This work compares a second antibody for radioimmunoassay (RIA) produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP with a commercial one of known quality, produced by Radioassay Systems Laboratories, U.S.A.. This antiserum, sheep serum anti-rabbit IgG produced in its totality in the country, presented title and precipitation characteristics similar to those exhibited by the commercial product, being as suitable for the RIA separation as its imported similar. (author)

  6. Low- and High-Volume Water-Based Resistance Training Induces Similar Strength and Functional Capacity Improvements in Older Women: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Thaís; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Prado, Alexandre Konig Garcia; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Simmer, Nicole Monticelli; Meinerz, Andressa Pellegrini; Barroso, Bruna Machado; Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2018-03-27

    Water-based resistance training (WRT) has been indicated to promote strength gains in elderly population. However, no study has compared different training strategies to identify the most efficient one. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 WRT strategies on the strength and functional capacity of older women. In total, 36 women were randomly allocated to training groups: simple set of 30 seconds [1 × 30s; 66.41 (1.36) y; n = 12], multiple sets of 10 seconds [3 × 10s; 66.50 (1.43) y; n = 11], and simple set of 10 seconds [1 × 10s; 65.23 (1.09) y; n = 13]. Training lasted for 12 weeks. The maximal dynamic strength (in kilograms) and muscular endurance (number of repetitions) of knee extension, knee flexion, elbow flexion, and bench press, as well as functional capacity (number of repetitions), were evaluated. All types of training promoted similar gains in maximal dynamic strength of knee extension and flexion as well as elbow flexion. Only the 1 × 30s and 1 × 10s groups presented increments in bench press maximal strength. All 3 groups showed increases in muscular endurance in all exercises and functional capacity. WRT using long- or short-duration simple sets promotes the same gains in strength and functional capacity in older women as does WRT using multiple sets.

  7. Fuzzy Similarity and Fuzzy Inclusion Measures in Polyline Matching: A Case Study of Potential Streams Identification for Archaeological Modelling in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďuračiová, Renata; Rášová, Alexandra; Lieskovský, Tibor

    2017-12-01

    When combining spatial data from various sources, it is often important to determine similarity or identity of spatial objects. Besides the differences in geometry, representations of spatial objects are inevitably more or less uncertain. Fuzzy set theory can be used to address both modelling of the spatial objects uncertainty and determining the identity, similarity, and inclusion of two sets as fuzzy identity, fuzzy similarity, and fuzzy inclusion. In this paper, we propose to use fuzzy measures to determine the similarity or identity of two uncertain spatial object representations in geographic information systems. Labelling the spatial objects by the degree of their similarity or inclusion measure makes the process of their identification more efficient. It reduces the need for a manual control. This leads to a more simple process of spatial datasets update from external data sources. We use this approach to get an accurate and correct representation of historical streams, which is derived from contemporary digital elevation model, i.e. we identify the segments that are similar to the streams depicted on historical maps.

  8. Fuzzy Similarity and Fuzzy Inclusion Measures in Polyline Matching: A Case Study of Potential Streams Identification for Archaeological Modelling in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ďuračiová Renata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When combining spatial data from various sources, it is often important to determine similarity or identity of spatial objects. Besides the differences in geometry, representations of spatial objects are inevitably more or less uncertain. Fuzzy set theory can be used to address both modelling of the spatial objects uncertainty and determining the identity, similarity, and inclusion of two sets as fuzzy identity, fuzzy similarity, and fuzzy inclusion. In this paper, we propose to use fuzzy measures to determine the similarity or identity of two uncertain spatial object representations in geographic information systems. Labelling the spatial objects by the degree of their similarity or inclusion measure makes the process of their identification more efficient. It reduces the need for a manual control. This leads to a more simple process of spatial datasets update from external data sources. We use this approach to get an accurate and correct representation of historical streams, which is derived from contemporary digital elevation model, i.e. we identify the segments that are similar to the streams depicted on historical maps.

  9. Comparative study on attitudes and psychological problems of mothers towards their children with developmental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobana, M; Saravanan, C

    2014-03-01

    Parents' positive attitudes and psychological wellbeing play an important role in the development of the children with developmental disability. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of psychological problems among mothers of children with autism disorder, intellectual disability, and Down syndrome. The second aim was to assess the differences in mothers' attitudes and psychological problems among their children with intellectual disability, autism disorder, and Down syndrome. The third aim was to identify whether negative attitude was a predictor of psychological problems in these mothers. In this study, 112 mothers of children having mild and moderate levels of autism disorder, Down syndrome, and intellectual disability were assessed using the Parental Attitude Scale and General Health Questionnaire-28. Overall, mothers of children with intellectual disability were found to have the most negative attitude towards their child. Mothers of children with autism disorder exhibited higher scores on somatic symptoms, anxiety, and social dysfunction when compared with their counterparts with Down syndrome and intellectual disability. Negative attitude was a significant predictor of psychological problems. Parental attitudes and psychological problems would vary among mothers of children with different types of developmental disability.

  10. Effects of yoga on balance and gait properties in women with musculoskeletal problems: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulger, Ozlem; Yağlı, Naciye Vardar

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of yoga on balance and gait properties in women with musculoskeletal problems. Twenty-seven women (30-45 years old) with musculoskeletal problems, such as osteoarthritis and low-back pain, were included in the present study. The patients participated in 8 sessions (twice weekly for 4 weeks) of a yoga program which included asanas, stretching exercises, and breathing techniques. Patients' static balance measurements and gait parameters were determined before and after the study using a stabilometer and a gait trainer, respectively. Post-study values of patients' gait parameters were found to be statistically higher than their pre-study values (p gait parameters of women with gait and balance disturbances that are caused by musculoskeletal problems. It is feasible to conclude that asanas and stretching exercises included in the yoga program brought about such a positive effect, and therefore it is possible to use yoga programs to solve problems caused by musculoskeletal disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Severity of eczema and mental health problems in Japanese schoolchildren: The ToMMo Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyoshi, Yasutaka; Kikuya, Masahiro; Miyashita, Masako; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Ishikuro, Mami; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Nakaya, Naoki; Nagami, Fuji; Tomita, Hiroaki; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2018-04-13

    The association between eczema and mental health problems in schoolchildren has been underexplored. We aimed to investigate this association with the validated questionnaires. Of 46,648 invited children, we analyzed 9954 (21.3%) in the 2nd to the 8th grades from the ToMMo Child Health Study conducted in 2014 and 2015, a cross-sectional survey in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. We defined eczema status as "normal," "mild/moderate," or "severe," based on the presence of persistent flexural eczema and sleep disturbance, according to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Eczema Symptom Questionnaire. Clinical ranges of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties scores and four SDQ subcategories of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer problems were defined as scores ≥16, ≥5, ≥5, ≥7, and ≥5, respectively. The mean SDQ total difficulties score significantly increased as eczema status worsened (all P ≤ 0.004 for trend). The OR of scores in the clinical range for SDQ total difficulties were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.31-1.74) for mild/moderate eczema and 2.63 (95% CI, 1.91-3.63) for severe eczema (P eczema as a reference. The association between severity of eczema and four SDQ subcategories showed a similar trend (all P ≤ 0.017 for trend). We found a significant association between severity of eczema and mental health problems. The presence of eczema was associated with four SDQ subcategories. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Study on "Distinction of the Problem" as the Scientific Thinking : Development of the Teaching Method in Elementary School Science

    OpenAIRE

    川﨑, 弘作; 松浦, 拓也; 中山, 貴司

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to devise the teaching method to develop the ability to distinguish whether we can investigate the problem. We call it "distinction of the problem". The teaching method has two features: (1) Letting them distinguish whether they can investigate the problem in a problem setting scene, (2) Letting them use the worksheet about the way of thinking to distinguish the problem. This teaching method was administered to the 64 sixth graders to investigate the availability ...

  13. Differences and similarities in the trajectories of self-esteem and positive and negative affect in persons with chronic illness: an explorative longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsaksen T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tore Bonsaksen,1 Anners Lerdal,2,3 Milada Cvancarova Småstuen,4 May Solveig Fagermoen3 1Department of Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway; 2Research Department, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 4Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway Background: Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139 or COPD (n=97 participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures.Results: Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points.Conclusion: An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed

  14. A longitudinal twin study on IQ, executive functioning, and attention problems during childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, Tinca J C; Gosso, M Florencia; Posthuma, Danielle; Van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Heutink, Peter; Verhulst, Frank C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2006-12-01

    Variation in human behavior may be caused by differences in genotype and by non-genetic differences ("environment") between individuals. The relative contributions of genotype (G) and environment (E) to phenotypic variation can be assessed with the classical twin design. We illustrate this approach with longitudinal data collected in 5 and 12-year-old Dutch twins. At age 5 data on cognitive abilities as assessed with a standard intelligence test (IQ), working memory, selective and sustained attention, and attention problems were collected in 237 twin pairs. Seven years later, 172 twin pairs participated again when they were 12 years old and underwent a similar protocol. Results showed that variation in all phenotypes was influenced by genetic factors. For IQ the heritability estimates increased from 30% at age 5, to 80% at age 12. For executive functioning performance genetic factors accounted for around 50% of the variance at both ages. Attention problems showed high heritabilities (above 60%) at both ages, for maternal and teacher ratings. Longitudinal analyses revealed that executive functioning during childhood was weakly correlated with IQ scores at age 12. Attention problems during childhood, as rated by the mother and the teacher were stronger predictors (r = -0.28 and -0.36, respectively). This association could be attributed to a partly overlapping set of genes influencing attention problems at age 5 and IQ at age 12. IQ performance at age 5 was the best predictor of IQ at age 12. IQ at both ages was influenced by the same genes, whose influence was amplified during development.

  15. Who gets help for pre-school communication problems? Data from a prospective community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeat, J; Wake, M; Ukoumunne, O C; Eadie, P; Bretherton, L; Reilly, S

    2014-03-01

    Pre-school communication problems are common, with implications for school readiness and educational achievement. Help is available from a variety of community healthcare providers. This study examined the extent to which help is received, and the predictors of service receipt. Prospective community study, in Melbourne, Victoria. At age 4 years, we assessed the speech, receptive and expressive language and fluency of 1607 children and gave feedback to their parents. At age 5 years, 983 families provided data on service use for communication problems between and 4 and 5 years. We compared service use between participants with and without impairment, and used logistic regression to estimate the strength of association between potential predictors (gender, socio-economic status, maternal education, English-speaking background status, family history of speech and language problems and parent concern) and service use (binary outcome). Data were available for both communication status and service use for 753 children. Only 44.9% of the 196 children with communication impairment received help from a professional. Furthermore, 7% of the 557 that did not meet criteria for communication impairment nevertheless received help from a professional. Parent concern was the strongest predictor of service use (adjusted odds ratio = 9.0; 95% CI: 5.6-14.8). Both over- and under-servicing for communication problems were evident. This study shows that accessing help for communication problems requires more than simply informing parents about the problem and having services available; there is a need for systematic support to get the right children to services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Maternal perinatal and concurrent depressive symptoms and child behavior problems: a sibling comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Line C; Eilertsen, Espen Moen; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; McAdams, Tom A; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Zambrana, Imac Maria; Røysamb, Espen; Kendler, Kenneth S; Ystrom, Eivind

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have found significant associations between maternal prenatal and postpartum depression and child behavior problems (CBP). The present study investigates whether associations remain in a prospective, longitudinal design adjusted for familial confounding. The sample comprised 11,599 families including 17,830 siblings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Mothers reported depressive symptoms at gestational weeks 17 and 30, as well as 6 months, 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum. Fathers' depression was measured at gestational week 17. At the last three time-points, child internalizing and externalizing problems were concurrently assessed. We performed multilevel analyses for internalizing and externalizing problems separately, using parental depression as predictors. Analyses were repeated using a sibling comparison design to adjust for familial confounding. All parental depressive time-points were significantly and positively associated with child internalizing and externalizing problems. After sibling comparison, however, only concurrent maternal depression was significantly associated with internalizing [estimate = 2.82 (1.91-3.73, 95% CI)] and externalizing problems [estimate = 2.40 (1.56-3.23, 95% CI)]. The effect of concurrent maternal depression on internalizing problems increased with child age. Our findings do not support the notion that perinatal maternal depression is particularly detrimental to children's psychological development, as the most robust effects were found for maternal depression occurring during preschool years. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Choosing preclinical study models of diabetic retinopathy: key problems for consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xue-Song; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Ding, Yong; Zhong, Jing-Xiang; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus in the eye. Although the clinical treatment for DR has already developed to a relative high level, there are still many urgent problems that need to be investigated in clinical and basic science. Currently, many in vivo animal models and in vitro culture systems have been applied to solve these problems. Many approaches have also been used to establish different DR models. However, till now, there has not been a single study model that can clearly and exactly mimic the developmental process of the human DR. Choosing the suitable model is important, not only for achieving our research goals smoothly, but also, to better match with different experimental proposals in the study. In this review, key problems for consideration in choosing study models of DR are discussed. These problems relate to clinical relevance, different approaches for establishing models, and choice of different species of animals as well as of the specific in vitro culture systems. Attending to these considerations will deepen the understanding on current study models and optimize the experimental design for the final goal of preventing DR. PMID:25429204

  18. A Pilot Study of Problems and Practices in the Induction of Beginning Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, John B.; Hull, Ronald E.

    A pilot study was designed to test the practicality of gathering data through interviews and to provide tentative information on induction problems and practices encountered by beginning teachers in the Cattaraugus-Chautauqua County area of New York. Fifty-three elementary self-contained classroom teachers and secondary academic subject-matter…

  19. Aggressive Behavior between Siblings and the Development of Externalizing Problems: Evidence from a Genetically Sensitive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective links between sibling aggression and the development of externalizing problems using a multilevel modeling approach with a genetically sensitive design. The sample consisted of 780 adolescents (390 sibling pairs) who participated in 2 waves of the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development project.…

  20. High School Learners' Mental Construction during Solving Optimisation Problems in Calculus: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijlall, Deonarain; Ndlovu, Zanele

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study in a rural school in Umgungundlovu District in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, explored Grade 12 learners' mental constructions of mathematical knowledge during engagement with optimisation problems. Ten Grade 12 learners who do pure Mathemat-ics participated, and data were collected through structured activity sheets and…

  1. Relation between Cyberbullying and Problem Solving: A Study on Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokler, Riza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cyberbullying living frequency, what the cyber environments in which cyberbullying is lived are, and the relation between "being victim of cyberbullying" and "being cyberbullying" status and problem solving skill of university students are analysed. This research is done by attendance of 460 students from five…

  2. Health and social problems of the elderly: A cross-sectional study in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Change in socio-economic status and various health problems adversely affect an individual′s way of life during old age. Objectives: To study the health and social problems of the elderly and their attitude towards life. Materials and Methods : Descriptive study carried out in the Field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine in South India. A total of 213 elderly patients (60 years old and above who attended the outreach clinics were interviewed using a pre-tested schedule. Findings were described in terms of proportions and percentages to study the socio-economic status of the samples and its correlation to social problems. Results: Around 73% of the patients belonged to the age group of 60-69 years old. Nearly half of the respondents were illiterate. Around 48% felt they were not happy in life. A majority of them had health problems such as hypertension followed by arthritis, diabetes, asthma, cataract, and anemia. About 68% of the patients said that the attitude of people towards the elderly was that of neglect. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that there is a need for geriatric counseling centers that can take care of their physical and psychological needs. The stringent rules for eligibility to social security schemes should be made more flexible to cover a larger population.

  3. Externalizing Behavior Problems and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors of Cannabis Use: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Tellervo; van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ages 10-12 [T1]) and at two follow-up assessments…

  4. An Empirical Study of Hospitality Management Student Attitudes toward Group Projects: Instructional Factors and Team Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngsoo; Ro, Heejung

    2012-01-01

    The development of positive attitudes in team-based work is important in management education. This study investigates hospitality students' attitudes toward group projects by examining instructional factors and team problems. Specifically, we examine how the students' perceptions of project appropriateness, instructors' support, and evaluation…

  5. Problem Solving vs. Troubleshooting Tasks: The Case of Sixth-Grade Students Studying Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Rafi'; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2014-01-01

    We compared the materialization of knowledge integration processes in class discussions that followed troubleshooting (TS) and problem-solving (PS) tasks and examined the impact of these tasks on students' conceptual understanding. The study was conducted in two sixth-grade classes taught by the same teacher, in six lessons that constituted a…

  6. Teaching problem-solving competency in Business Studies at secondary school level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloe Meintjes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The high unemployment rate in South Africa compels potential entrepreneurs to start their own businesses in order to survive. Often this is with little or no formal training or education in entrepreneurship. Since problem recognition and problem-solving are amongst the most crucial competencies required for a successful entrepreneurial career, this study aimed to determine whether the application of an extended curriculum with a strong focus on active learning in a business-simulated set-up will enhance this competency. The performance of a specific group of Grade 11 Business Studies learners in this study was measured, both before and after they had been exposed to such an extended curriculum in different experimental settings (intervention. Assessments were done qualitatively through observations and interviews, and quantitatively, by means of question-based scenarios. The findings revealed that the intervention enhanced learners' entrepreneurial competencies concerning problem recognition and problem-solving considerably. This also contributed to these learners' positive approach towards Business Studies. In this article, it is argued that practical exposure in a business-simulated set-up will not only result in enhanced entrepreneurial proficiency in school learners, but also contribute to an accelerated pace of economic growth and job creation in our country.

  7. Case Study: Use of Problem-Based Learning to Develop Students' Technical and Professional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, "Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?" The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem…

  8. Early Findings of Preventive Child Healthcare Professionals Predict Psychosocial Problems in Preadolescence : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, M.; de Winter, A.F.; de Meer, G.; Stewart, R.E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    Objective To develop and validate a prediction model for psychosocial problems in preadolescence using data on early developmental factors from routine Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). Study design The data come from the 1692 participants who take part in the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives

  9. Early Findings of Preventive Child Healthcare Professionals Predict Psychosocial Problems in Preadolescence: The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, M.; De Winter, A.F.; de Meer, G.; Stewart, R.E; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a prediction model for psychosocial problems in preadolescence using data on early developmental factors from routine Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). Study design The data come from the 1692 participants who take part in the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives

  10. Results of Four Studies on Logo Programming, Problem Solving, and Knowledge-Based Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Karen; Black, John B.

    The results of four research studies conducted with subjects ranging in age and ability from elementary to graduate school students demonstrate that Logo programming environments can be instrumental in the development of five particular problem solving strategies: (1) subgoals formation; (2) forward chaining; (3) systematic trial and error; (4)…

  11. Physical and mental health problems in parents of adolescents with burns: a controlled, longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, T.; Yzermans, J.C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Caregiving has been described in the literature as a risk factor for ill health in the carer. This controlled, prospective study examines the course of physical and mental health problems in parents of adolescent survivors of a mass burn incident. METHODS: Health information was extracted

  12. Home From the War: A Study of Psychiatric Problems in Viet Nam Returnees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Robert E.; Brown, Dudley E., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Fifty patients who developed psychiatric problems after return from tours of Viet Nam combat duty were compared with a group of patients who had not had such duty. The Viet Nam returnees reported more conflicts in intimate relationships and had a higher incidence of depression and somatization than did the noncombat group. A study was made of…

  13. A study on discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for elliptic problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janivita Joto Sudirham, J.J.S.; Sudirham, J.J.; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this report we study several approaches of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for elliptic problems. An important aspect in these formulations is the use of a lifting operator, for which we present an efficient numerical approximation technique. Numerical experiments for two

  14. Participation in sports groups for patients with cardiac problems : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaperclaus, G; deGreef, M; Rispens, P; deCalonne, D; Landsman, M; Lie, KI; Oudhof, J

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the influence of participation in Sports Groups for Patients with Cardiac Problems (SPCP) on physical and mental fitness and on risk factor level after myocardial infarction. SPCP members (n = 74; 67 men and 7 women) were compared with Nonsporting

  15. Podiatric care for diabetic patients with foot problems: an observational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Dekker, E.; Bakker, K.; Dooren, J.; Rauwerda, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe podiatric care for diabetic patients with foot problems and to explore the changes in knowledge, self-care behaviour and physical functioning after podiatric care. the treatment characteristics of 26 diabetic patients referred to podiatry were assessed. Prior

  16. Is problem-based learning associated with students’ motivation? A quantitative and qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wijnen (Marit); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); L. Wijnia (Lisette); G. Smeets (Guus); M.J. Kroeze (Maarten); H.T. van der Molen (Henk)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, a mixed-method design was employed to investigate the association between a student-centred, problem-based learning (PBL) method and law students’ motivation. Self-determination theory (SDT) states that autonomous motivation, which is associated with higher academic

  17. Student Debt, Problem-Solving, and Decision-Making of Adult Learners: A Basic Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William J.

    2013-01-01

    A basic qualitative research study was conducted to develop insights into how adult learners employ problem-solving and decision-making (PSDM), when considering college financing, student loans, and student debt. Using the social media Website Facebook, eight qualified participants were recruited. Participants were interviewed via telephone, and…

  18. An Alfven eigenmode similarity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Fredrickson, E; Gorelenkov, N N; Hyatt, A W; Kramer, G; Luo, Y

    2003-01-01

    The major radius dependence of Alfven mode stability is studied by creating plasmas with similar minor radius, shape, magnetic field (0.5 T), density (n e ≅3x10 19 m -3 ), electron temperature (1.0 keV) and beam ion population (near-tangential 80 keV deuterium injection) on both NSTX and DIII-D. The major radius of NSTX is half the major radius of DIII-D. The super-Alfvenic beam ions that drive the modes have overlapping values of v f /v A in the two devices. Observed beam-driven instabilities include toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE). The stability threshold for the TAE is similar in the two devices. As expected theoretically, the most unstable toroidal mode number n is larger in DIII-D

  19. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. A Comparative Study of Differential Evolution, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Evolutionary Algorithms on Numerical Benchmark Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterstrøm, Jacob Svaneborg; Thomsen, Rene

    2004-01-01

    Several extensions to evolutionary algorithms (EAs) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) have been suggested during the last decades offering improved performance on selected benchmark problems. Recently, another search heuristic termed differential evolution (DE) has shown superior performance...... in several real-world applications. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of DE, PSO, and EAs regarding their general applicability as numerical optimization techniques. The comparison is performed on a suite of 34 widely used benchmark problems. The results from our study show that DE generally...... outperforms the other algorithms. However, on two noisy functions, both DE and PSO were outperformed by the EA....

  1. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs

  2. Environmental isotope studies on groundwater problems in the Thar Desert, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, A.R.; Navada, S.V.; Rao, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    One of the groundwater problems encountered in arid areas like the Thar Desert in Rajasthan is to know whether the shallow groundwater is being actively recharged. Environmental isotopes particularly tritium are very useful in providing evidence of recent recharge. In the Barmer area, the shallow groundwaters have tritium levels generally in the range 3-6 TU showing modern recharge. Most of the recharge possibly occurs by direct infiltration of precipitation. Indirect recharge through wadis (river channels) could sometimes be an important mechanism of groundwater recharge. Environmental isotope study in Jalore area showed that the shallow groundwaters near the Sukri river course had δ 2 H and δ 18 O are depleted compared to present day precipitation but not as depleted as the present day Himalayan rivers. Carbon-24 values of some of these groundwaters are in the range of 54-58 pMC showing that they possibly represent old river with headwater connection outside the desert. In the Thar, the deep groundwaters which sometimes form the bulk of water supply are generally paleowaters as sown by environmental δ 2 H, δ 18 O, 3 H and 14 C. For example in the Barmer area, deep groundwaters (depth > 150m) have depleted δ 2 H and δ 18 O compared to the shallow groundwaters and present day precipitation. They have negligible 3 H and 14 C model ages ranging from 4000 to 9500 BP. Hence the isotope data of the deep groundwaters indicate they are paleowaters recharged during humid periods in the Holocene. Over-exploitation of deep groundwaters could lead to mixing of shallow and deep groundwaters or influx of waters from adjoining aquifers. In the Bikaner area similar δ 2 H and δ 18 O of the shallow and deep wells and young waters encountered in some of the deep wells indicated mixing between the two aquifers due to heavy exploitation of groundwaters in the area. In a limestone belt of Jodhpur-Nagaur district heavy exploitation of groundwaters is taking place in the southern

  3. A Comparative Study of Three Different Mathematical Methods for Solving the Unit Commitment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kurban

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The unit commitment (UC problem which is an important subject in power system engineering is solved by using Lagragian relaxation (LR, penalty function (PF, and augmented Lagrangian penalty function (ALPF methods due to their higher solution quality and faster computational time than metaheuristic approaches. This problem is considered to be a nonlinear programming-(NP- hard problem because it is nonlinear, mixed-integer, and nonconvex. These three methods used for solving the problem are based on dual optimization techniques. ALPF method which combines the algorithmic aspects of both LR and PF methods is firstly used for solving the UC problem. These methods are compared to each other based on feasible schedule for each stage, feasible cost, dual cost, duality gap, duration time, and number of iterations. The numerical results show that the ALPF method gives the best duality gap, feasible and dual cost instead of worse duration time and the number of iterations. The four-unit Tuncbilek thermal plant which is located in Kutahya region in Turkey is chosen as a test system in this study. The programs used for all the analyses are coded and implemented using general algebraic modeling system (GAMS.

  4. The role of metacognitive skills in solving object-oriented programming problems: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietjie Havenga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the role of metacognitive skills when solving object-oriented programming problems as part of a case study. The research was constructivist-based within an interpretivist approach to explore how four students constructed their own thinking when solving programming problems. A qualitative methodology was employed. Both concept-driven coding and data-driven coding were applied. Two main issues emerged from the findings. Participating students had fragmented knowledge of the object-oriented approach and shortcomings regarding the implementation thereof, and they experienced problems with metacognitive control during all the steps of program development. Based on the findings the use of metacognitive critical control points (MCCPs is proposed to be used as a mechanism to facilitate students in their programming efforts and to prevent loss of control during program development.

  5. Problems affecting the operational procurement process: A study of the Zimbabwean public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Dzuke

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The public sector occupies a key role in the economy comprising the appropriation of state revenue to purchase goods and to render services productively, while ensuring the optimum utilisation of available funds and resources to benefit the inhabitants of the country. Problems in the Zimbabwean public procurement sector that detract from service delivery are key contemporary issues. This is evident from the numerous complaints of poor service delivery received by the public that can be attributed to public procurement. Objective: The purpose of this article was to report on a study that investigated problems in the different stages of the operational procurement process in the Zimbabwean public sector that detract from service delivery, the extent of these problems and how the public procurement process can be improved to enhance service delivery. Method: This descriptive and exploratory study followed a quantitative approach. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to all public entities in Zimbabwe. Data were analysed using SPSS. Results: The majority of the identified problems in the public procurement sector that detract from service delivery are found in the advertising, bid evaluation and contract stages. Conclusion: As only a few studies on this topic have been conducted in Zimbabwe, the findings of this research add a significant perspective to the existing body of knowledge and can assist stakeholders with regard to how the public procurement process can be improved in order to enhance service delivery through public procurement process reform and restructuring.

  6. Sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-08-01

    Although the literature has documented associations between sleep problems and internet addiction, the temporal direction of these relationships has not been established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the bidirectional relationships between sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents longitudinally. A four-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 1253 children and adolescents in grades 3, 5 and 8 from March 2013 to January 2014. The sleep problems of the student participants were measured by parental reports on the Sleep Habit Questionnaire, which catalogues early insomnia, middle insomnia, disturbed circadian rhythm, periodic leg movements, sleep terrors, sleepwalking, sleep talking, nightmares, bruxism, snoring and sleep apnoea. The severity of internet addiction was measured by students' self-reports on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Based on the results of time-lag models, dyssomnias (odds ratio = 1.31), especially early and middle insomnias (odds ratio = 1.74 and 2.24), sequentially predicted internet addiction, and internet addiction sequentially predicted disturbed circadian rhythm (odds ratio = 2.40), regardless of adjustment for gender and age. This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal relationship of early and middle insomnia predicting internet addiction, which subsequently predicts disturbed circadian rhythm. These findings imply that treatment strategies for sleep problems and internet addiction should vary according to the order of their occurrence. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Differences and similarities in the serotonergic diathesis for suicide attempts and mood disorders: a 22-year longitudinal gene-environment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezo, J; Bureau, A; Mérette, C; Jomphe, V; Barker, E D; Vitaro, F; Hébert, M; Carbonneau, R; Tremblay, R E; Turecki, G

    2010-08-01

    To investigate similarities and differences in the serotonergic diathesis for mood disorders and suicide attempts, we conducted a study in a cohort followed longitudinally for 22 years. A total of 1255 members of this cohort, which is representative of the French-speaking population of Quebec, were investigated. Main outcome measures included (1) mood disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) and suicide attempts by early adulthood; (2) odds ratios and probabilities associated with 143 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 serotonergic genes, acting directly or as moderators in gene-environment interactions with childhood sexual or childhood physical abuse (CPA), and in gene-gene interactions; (3) regression coefficients for putative endophenotypes for mood disorders (childhood anxiousness) and suicide attempts (childhood disruptiveness). Five genes showed significant adjusted effects (HTR2A, TPH1, HTR5A, SLC6A4 and HTR1A). Of these, HTR2A variation influenced both suicide attempts and mood disorders, although through different mechanisms. In suicide attempts, HTR2A variants (rs6561333, rs7997012 and rs1885884) were involved through interactions with histories of sexual and physical abuse whereas in mood disorders through one main effect (rs9316235). In terms of phenotype-specific contributions, TPH1 variation (rs10488683) was relevant only in the diathesis for suicide attempts. Three genes contributed exclusively to mood disorders, one through a main effect (HTR5A (rs1657268)) and two through gene-environment interactions with CPA (HTR1A (rs878567) and SLC6A4 (rs3794808)). Childhood anxiousness did not mediate the effects of HTR2A and HTR5A on mood disorders, nor did childhood disruptiveness mediate the effects of TPH1 on suicide attempts. Of the serotonergic genes implicated in mood disorders and suicidal behaviors, four exhibited phenotype-specific effects, suggesting that despite their high concordance and common genetic determinants, suicide attempts

  8. Effects of circulating member B of the family with sequence similarity 3 on the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and its components: A 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Yu, Fadong; Zhang, Zhuo; Hou, Yuanyuan; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan; Lai, Yaxin

    2017-11-27

    Member B of the family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3B), also known as pancreatic-derived factor, is mainly synthesized and secreted by islet β-cells, and plays a role in abnormal metabolism of glucose and lipids. However, the prospective association of FAM3B with metabolic disorders remains unclear. The present study aimed to reveal the predictive relationship between pancreas-specific cytokine and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 210 adults (88 men and 122 women) without MetS, aged between 40 and 65 years, were recruited and received a comprehensive health examination. Baseline serum FAM3B levels were determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subsequently, all participants underwent a follow-up examination after 5 years. MetS was identified in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. During follow up, 35.7% participants developed MetS. In comparison with the non-MetS group, participants with MetS had an increased serum FAM3B at baseline (21.85 ng/mL [19.38, 24.17 ng/mL] vs 28.56 ng/mL [25.32, 38.10 ng/mL], P < 0.001). Moreover, serum FAM3B was significantly associated with variations in fasting plasma insulin (r = -0.306, P < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (r = -0.328, P < 0.001) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.191, P = 0.006). Furthermore, a positive correlation between baseline FAM3B and the incidence of MetS was observed, even after multivariable adjustment (relative risk 1.23 [1.15, 1.31], P < 0.001). Furthermore, the optimal cut-off values of FAM3B was 23.98 ng/mL for predicting MetS based on the Youden Index. Elevated circulating FAM3B might be considered as a predictor of newly-onset MetS and its progression. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Placebo Problem In Acupuncture Studies and Interventions to Increase Report Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Volkan Acar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies for acupuncture that has been used as a medical therapeutic method for thousands of years in Far East, is being increased in Western world. In parallel to this increase, there raised several methodologic problems. The most important one of these is the choice of control procedure. If a valid and credible control method has not been chosen, these ‘placebo acupuncture’ or ‘sham acupuncture’ controls could make a negative impact on the study results. In this paper, these different sham acupuncture methods are dis-cussed to find an optimal control procedure. The second major problem which was encountered with acupuncture studies is related with the reporting of interventions. Like CONSORT checklist in conventional medicine, STRICTA recommendations list is prepared for the controlled acupuncture trials. In conclusion, to choose a valid and credible control procedure and to follow CONSORT checklist and STRICTA recommendations will improve the quality of acupuncture studies.

  10. Involving parents in cognitive-behavioral therapy for child anxiety problems: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Siddaway, Andy P; Wood, Alex M; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This case study examines how parents can be incorporated into all aspects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for child anxiety problems. This is an important issue, because although there are strong theoretical and empirical reasons for incorporating parents into treatment, evidence from randomized controlled trials has so far been inconclusive about whether outcomes are improved by involving parents. This case study describes the clinical benefits of a balanced focus on parent and child f...

  11. Mental Health Problems during Puberty: Tanner Stage-Related Differences in Specific Symptoms. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 [plus or minus] 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 [plus or minus] 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental…

  12. Cyberbullying, Depression, and Problem Alcohol Use in Female College Students: A Multisite Study

    OpenAIRE

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questio...

  13. Mental health problems among conflict-affected adults in Grozny, Chechnya: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Amanda J.; Feo, Concetta; Idrisov, Kyuri; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Lenglet, Annick; Tsatsaeva, Zalina; Bolton, Paul; Bass, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background A decade of conflict in Chechnya destroyed infrastructure and resulted in widespread exposure to violence. Amidst substantial reconstruction, periodic violence has contributed to an ongoing atmosphere of insecurity. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the mental health and psychosocial problems affecting adult Chechens in this context to inform development of assessment tools for an evaluation study related to individual counseling. Methods Data were collected in July 20...

  14. A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Neurofeedback and Ritalin on Improving Conduct Problems and Hyperactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khoushabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There are varieties of interventions to treatment of ADHD, among which drug therapy, behavior therapy, parental management training and neurofeedback can be cited. The present study designed to investigate and compare the effectiveness of neurofeedback and Ritalin on improving conduct problems and hyperactivity. Materials & Methods: Quasi-experimental research method with pretest-post test design has been applied in the research. Statistical population of the study consisted of ADHD children of Tehran. The study samples of the study were patients referred to children psychiatric clinic. Based on the purpose of the study' 20 children were randomly selected and classified into 2 groups according to random assignment. CPRS-48 (parent form was administered by parents before and after the treatments as research tools. Recruited data was analyzed by SPSS-19 in two sections of descriptive and inferential statistics. ANCOVA revealed some differences in the groups. Results: The findings of the study showed that there was a significant difference between Ritalin and neurofeedback on improving conduct problems; in other words, Ritalin was more effective in alleviating the problems. Also there was no significant difference between the interventions on improving hyperactivity index. Conclusion: With respect to more efficiency of Ritalin than neurofeedback on certain continuum of signs/symptoms of ADHD, as a whole, preferences of interventions should be based on type, magnitude and severity of the syndrome(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:53-59

  15. Genetic Diversity of Brown Trout Populations Using Mitochondrial Markers In Relatively Similar Geographical and Ecological Conditions – a Carpathian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Gina-Oana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analiza diversităţii genetice cu ajutorul markerilor mitocondriali, a unor populaţii de păstrav comun aflate în condiţii geografice şi ecologice relativ similare în Munţii Carpaţi.

  16. Musculoskeletal Problems Associated with University Students Computer Users: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhadani PB

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While several studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of musculoskeletal problems among university students, scanty information exists in South African context. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, causes and consequences of musculoskeletal problems among University of Venda students’ computer users. This cross-sectional study involved 694 university students at the University of Venda. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on the sociodemographic characteristics, problems associated with computer users, and causes of musculoskeletal problems associated with computer users. The majority (84.6% of the participants use computer for internet, wording processing (20.3%, and games (18.7%. The students reported neck pain when using computer (52.3%; shoulder (47.0%, finger (45.0%, lower back (43.1%, general body pain (42.9%, elbow (36.2%, wrist (33.7%, hip and foot (29.1% and knee (26.2%. Reported causes of musculoskeletal pains associated with computer usage were: sitting position, low chair, a lot of time spent on computer, uncomfortable laboratory chairs, and stressfulness. Eye problems (51.9%, muscle cramp (344.0%, headache (45.3%, blurred vision (38.0%, feeling of illness (39.9% and missed lectures (29.1% were consequences of musculoskeletal problems linked to computer use. The majority of students reported having mild pain (43.7%, moderate (24.2%, and severe (8.4% pains. Years of computer use were significantly associated with neck, shoulder and wrist pain. Using computer for internet was significantly associated with neck pain (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.93; games: neck (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.85 and hip/foot (OR=0.60; CI 95% 0.40-0.92, programming for elbow (OR= 1.78; CI 95% 1.10-2.94 and wrist (OR=2.25; CI 95% 1.36-3.73, while word processing was significantly associated with lower back (OR=1.45; CI 95% 1.03-2.04. Undergraduate study had a significant association with elbow pain (OR=2

  17. Experiences of Primiparous Mothers Regarding Natural Childbirth Problems (A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Boryri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Women experience several problems during the childbirth process which always remain with them throughout their lives. These problems affect the health of the mother and the child, the emotional relationship between them, the sexual activity and the desire to have her next child in the future. This qualitative study is designed to explore the experiences of primiparous women about natural childbirth problems. This qualitative study is conducted on primiparous women who referred to the health center of Imam Javad in Zahedan. The sample selection is based on objective; the data are collected using semi-structured interviews with 18 primiparous mothers who had healthy natural childbirth. The data are collected through an interview that is done in the first visit within 72 hours after the childbirth, and the data are analyzed through content analysis. After analysis of the data, four themes associated with the problem of the first natural childbirth are extracted. The first is the fear and stress of the labor pain that most participants expressed as the major problem of natural childbirth. The second theme is lack of awareness and lack of information about the process of labor and the delivery room environment; this means that participants of this study are mostly unfamiliar with the process of labor and the delivery room environment and this leads to their fear and pain. The other two themes are the need for protection and support of the mothers by the midwives, their family and their friends. Based on the results of this study, the problems of human resources are stated as being more serious than the problems regarding the environment and modern equipment. This leads to the increase of attention of the midwives and other medical staff on psychological and spiritual needs of mothers and supporting them during the labor in addition to the physical health of the mother and the fetus. In this regard, childbirth classes are recommended in outlining the

  18. Teaching medical students to discern ethical problems in human clinical research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; Warner, Teddy D; Green Hammond, Katherine A; Brody, Janet L; Kaminsky, Alexis; Roberts, Brian B

    2005-10-01

    Investigators and institutional review boards are entrusted with ensuring the conduct of ethically sound human studies. Assessing ethical aspects of research protocols is a key skill in fulfilling this duty, yet no empirically validated method exists for preparing professionals to attain this skill. The authors performed a randomized controlled educational intervention, comparing a criteria-based learning method, a clinical-research- and experience-based learning method, and a control group. All 300 medical students enrolled at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine in 2001 were invited to participate. After a single half-hour educational session, a written posttest of ability to detect ethical problems in hypothetical protocol vignettes was administered. The authors analyzed responses to ten protocol vignettes that had been evaluated independently by experts. For each vignette, a global assessment of the perceived significance of ethical problems and the identification of specific ethical problems were evaluated. Eighty-three medical students (27%) volunteered: 50 (60%) were women and 55 (66%) were first- and second-year students. On global assessments, the criteria-focused group perceived ethical problems as more significant than did the other two groups (p evaluation skills. This work supports the potential value of empirically derived methods for preparing professionals to discern ethical aspects of human studies.

  19. Higher-order thinking skill problem on data representation in primary school: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, R. I. I.; Zulkardi, Z.

    2018-01-01

    This article aimed at reporting research result on a case study of a lesson using a HOTS problem. The task was about data representation using baby growth context. The study used a design research method consisting of three stages: preparing for an experiment, experiment in the classroom (pilot and teaching), and retrospective analysis. Participants were sixth grade students who were learning data representations in a Primary School in Palembang Indonesia. A set of instructional activities were designed using Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education (PMRI) approach. The result showed that students were able to solve the problem and present their solution in front of the classroom. The conclusion indicated that that HOTS problem using the growth of a child as the context could lead students to use their mathematical thinking. During the learning activities along with teacher orchestra’s guidance, and discussion, students were able to solve the problem using line graph although some of them used a bar graph. In the future, teachers are necessary to focus on the role of real-world figure in mathematics learning.

  20. Pre- and post-bronchodilator airway obstruction are associated with similar clinical characteristics but different prognosis – report from a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawalha S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sami Sawalha,1 Linnea Hedman,2 Eva Rönmark,2 Bo Lundbäck,3 Anne Lindberg1 1Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Medicine, 2Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, The OLIN Unit, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, 3Krefting Research Center, Institution of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Introduction: According to guidelines, the diagnosis of COPD should be confirmed by post-bronchodilator (post-BD airway obstruction on spirometry; however, in clinical practice, this is not always performed. The aim of this population-based study was to compare clinical characteristics and prognosis, assessed as mortality, between subjects with airway obstruction divided into pre- but not post-BD obstruction, post-BD airway obstruction (COPD, and subjects without airway obstruction.Materials and methods: In 2002–2004, four adult population-based cohorts were reexamined with spirometry and structured interview. Subjects with airway obstruction, with a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to (forced vital capacity <0.70 (n=993, were identified together with sex- and age-matched referents (n=993. These subjects were further divided into subjects with pre- but not post-BD airway obstruction (pre- not post-BD obstruction and subjects with post-BD airway obstruction (COPD. Mortality data were collected until December 31, 2014.Results: Out of 993 subjects with airway obstruction, 736 (74% had COPD and 257 (26% pre- not post-BD obstruction. Any respiratory symptoms, allergic rhinitis, asthma, exacerbations, and comorbidities were equally common among subjects with COPD and pre- not post-BD obstruction, but less common among nonobstructive subjects. Mortality was highest among subjects with COPD and higher in men than in women. In both sexes, COPD, but not pre- not post-BD obstruction, was associated with an increased risk for death compared to those without

  1. [Study on the correlation between adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems and life events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue-zhu; Guo, Lan-ting; Tang, Guang-zheng

    2006-03-01

    To study the life events which are correlated with adolescent's emotion and behavior problems, and to provide evidence for clinicians and school staff to develop intervention for those problems. Youth's Self Report (YSR) and Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC) were used to assess adolescent's emotional and behavioral problems and life events by 'spot' study. The referred group consisted of 585 patients from 11 to 18 years old in a Mental Health Centre of West China Hospital of Sichuan University from July in 2002 to March in 2004. Level of IQ was above 5th grade of primary school among the study subjects who were willing to fill in the YSR and ASLEC. The non-referred group was selected in a 1280 students cluster-sample from the schools of Chengdu city, whose sex, age and father's career were matched with the referred group. Variance inflation factor (VIF) was used to verify that there was no collinearity to each other in the 6 factors of ASLEC: interpersonal relationship, learning pressure, being punished, losing good adaptation and other. Linear stepwise regression was adopted. The YSR scores in referred group were higher than those in non-referred group, and the referred group had more emotional and behavioral problems than the non-referred one. Partial correlations ranged from 0.124 to 0.418 in referred group, and from 0.104 to 0.388 in non-referred group. Unsatisfied interpersonal relationship, heavy learning pressure, having been punished and poor adaptation were likely to increase the risk of youth's emotional and behavioral problems. More attention should be paid to help adolescents in the following areas: solving intrapersonal affairs, relieving pressure from learning, avoiding punishment, and improving ability to fit themselves to their surroundings.

  2. A qualitative study: experiences of stigma by people with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Charlotte; Birtel, Michèle D; Awenat, Yvonne F; Fleming, Paul; Wilkes, Sophie; Williams, Shirley; Haddock, Gillian

    2018-01-18

    Prior research has examined various components involved in the impact of public and internalized stigma on people with mental health problems. However, studies have not previously investigated the subjective experiences of mental health stigma by those affected in a non-statutory treatment-seeking population. An in-depth qualitative study was conducted using thematic analysis to investigate the experiences of stigma in people with mental health problems. Eligible participants were recruited through a local mental health charity in the North West of England. The topic of stigma was examined using two focus groups of thirteen people with experience of mental health problems and stigma. Two main themes and five subthemes were identified. Participants believed that (1) the 'hierarchy of labels' has a profound cyclical impact on several levels of society: people who experience mental health problems, their friends and family, and institutional stigma. Furthermore, participants suggested (2) ways in which they have developed psychological resilience towards mental health stigma. It is essential to utilize the views and experiences gained in this study to aid understanding and, therefore, develop ways to reduce the negative impact of public and internal stigma. People referred to their mental health diagnosis as a label and associated that label with stigmatizing views. Promote awareness and develop improved strategies (e.g., training) to tackle the cyclical impact of the 'hierarchy of labels' on people with mental health problems, their friends and family, and institutional stigma. Ensure the implementation of clinical guidelines in providing peer support to help people to combat feeling stigmatized. Talking about mental health in psychological therapy or health care professional training helped people to take control and develop psychological resilience. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Unveiling Research Agendas: a study of the influences on research problem selection among academic researchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, M.; Sutz, J.

    2016-07-01

    Research problem selection is central to the dynamics of scientific knowledge production. Research agendas result from the selection of research problems and the formulation of individual and/or collective academic strategies to address them. But, why researchers study what they study? This paper presents incipient research focused on the way different factors influence the construction of academic research agendas. It takes a researcher-oriented approach relying on opinions and perspectives of a wide range of researchers in all fields of knowledge. The empirical work is carried out in Uruguay, a country in the periphery of mainstream science, whose academic community struggles in search of a balance between the requirements of the world community of scholars and the demands from different national stakeholders. The methodology and research results from this study may be relevant to other countries, at different peripheries. Further, understanding the interplay of influences that shape research agendas is an important tool for policy analysis and planning everywhere. (Author)

  4. Mathematical and numerical study of nonlinear boundary problems related to plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sermange, M.

    1982-06-01

    After the study of some equations based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model, the work presented here is concerned with nonlinear boundary problems in MHD. They are gathered in two subjects: equilibrium equations and stability equations. The axisymmetric MHD equilibrium equations with free boundary have been studied by different authors, particularly the existence, regularity, unicity and non-unicity. Here, bifurcation, convergence of calculation methods existence of solutions in a discontinuous frame are studied. MHD stability can be determined by the principle of Bernstein et al; the mathematical work concerned here bears on the equivalence, in the case of two-dimensional or axisymmetric stability, between this model and a scalar eigenvalue problem which is introduced. At last, modules for computing MHD equilibrium for the simulation of plasma confinement in a tokamak are described [fr

  5. Phishing Detection: Analysis of Visual Similarity Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is one of the major problems faced by cyber-world and leads to financial losses for both industries and individuals. Detection of phishing attack with high accuracy has always been a challenging issue. At present, visual similarities based techniques are very useful for detecting phishing websites efficiently. Phishing website looks very similar in appearance to its corresponding legitimate website to deceive users into believing that they are browsing the correct website. Visual similarity based phishing detection techniques utilise the feature set like text content, text format, HTML tags, Cascading Style Sheet (CSS, image, and so forth, to make the decision. These approaches compare the suspicious website with the corresponding legitimate website by using various features and if the similarity is greater than the predefined threshold value then it is declared phishing. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of phishing attacks, their exploitation, some of the recent visual similarity based approaches for phishing detection, and its comparative study. Our survey provides a better understanding of the problem, current solution space, and scope of future research to deal with phishing attacks efficiently using visual similarity based approaches.

  6. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-03-21

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users\\' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  7. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Henkel, Ron; Hoehndorf, Robert; Kacprowski, Tim; Knuepfer, Christian; Liebermeister, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  8. Self-similarity in applied superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, Lawrence

    1981-09-01

    Self-similarity is a descriptive term applying to a family of curves. It means that the family is invariant to a one-parameter group of affine (stretching) transformations. The property of self-similarity has been exploited in a wide variety of problems in applied superconductivity, namely, (i) transient distribution of the current among the filaments of a superconductor during charge-up, (ii) steady distribution of current among the filaments of a superconductor near the current leads, (iii) transient heat transfer in superfluid helium, (iv) transient diffusion in cylindrical geometry (important in studying the growth rate of the reacted layer in A15 materials), (v) thermal expulsion of helium from quenching cable-in-conduit conductors, (vi) eddy current heating of irregular plates by slow, ramped fields, and (vii) the specific heat of type-II superconductors. Most, but not all, of the applications involve differential equations, both ordinary and partial. The novel methods explained in this report should prove of great value in other fields, just as they already have done in applied superconductivity. (author)

  9. Using the Habit App for Weight Loss Problem Solving: Development and Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Tulu, Bengisu; Agu, Emmanuel; Waring, Molly E; Oleski, Jessica L; Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E

    2018-06-20

    Reviews of weight loss mobile apps have revealed they include very few evidence-based features, relying mostly on self-monitoring. Unfortunately, adherence to self-monitoring is often low, especially among patients with motivational challenges. One behavioral strategy that is leveraged in virtually every visit of behavioral weight loss interventions and is specifically used to deal with adherence and motivational issues is problem solving. Problem solving has been successfully implemented in depression mobile apps, but not yet in weight loss apps. This study describes the development and feasibility testing of the Habit app, which was designed to automate problem-solving therapy for weight loss. Two iterative single-arm pilot studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the Habit app. In each pilot study, adults who were overweight or obese were enrolled in an 8-week intervention that included the Habit app plus support via a private Facebook group. Feasibility outcomes included retention, app usage, usability, and acceptability. Changes in problem-solving skills and weight over 8 weeks are described, as well as app usage and weight change at 16 weeks. Results from both pilots show acceptable use of the Habit app over 8 weeks with on average two to three uses per week, the recommended rate of use. Acceptability ratings were mixed such that 54% (13/24) and 73% (11/15) of participants found the diet solutions helpful and 71% (17/24) and 80% (12/15) found setting reminders for habits helpful in pilots 1 and 2, respectively. In both pilots, participants lost significant weight (P=.005 and P=.03, respectively). In neither pilot was an effect on problem-solving skills observed (P=.62 and P=.27, respectively). Problem-solving therapy for weight loss is feasible to implement in a mobile app environment; however, automated delivery may not impact problem-solving skills as has been observed previously via human delivery. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  10. Variational approach to direct and inverse problems of atmospheric pollution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penenko, Vladimir; Tsvetova, Elena; Penenko, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We present the development of a variational approach for solving interrelated problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry concerning air pollution transport and transformations. The proposed approach allows us to carry out complex studies of different-scale physical and chemical processes using the methods of direct and inverse modeling [1-3]. We formulate the problems of risk/vulnerability and uncertainty assessment, sensitivity studies, variational data assimilation procedures [4], etc. A computational technology of constructing consistent mathematical models and methods of their numerical implementation is based on the variational principle in the weak constraint formulation specifically designed to account for uncertainties in models and observations. Algorithms for direct and inverse modeling are designed with the use of global and local adjoint problems. Implementing the idea of adjoint integrating factors provides unconditionally monotone and stable discrete-analytic approximations for convection-diffusion-reaction problems [5,6]. The general framework is applied to the direct and inverse problems for the models of transport and transformation of pollutants in Siberian and Arctic regions. The work has been partially supported by the RFBR grant 14-01-00125 and RAS Presidium Program I.33P. References: 1. V. Penenko, A.Baklanov, E. Tsvetova and A. Mahura . Direct and inverse problems in a variational concept of environmental modeling //Pure and Applied Geoph.(2012) v.169: 447-465. 2. V. V. Penenko, E. A. Tsvetova, and A. V. Penenko Development of variational approach for direct and inverse problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry, Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2015, Vol. 51, No. 3, p. 311-319, DOI: 10.1134/S0001433815030093. 3. V.V. Penenko, E.A. Tsvetova, A.V. Penenko. Methods based on the joint use of models and observational data in the framework of variational approach to forecasting weather and atmospheric composition

  11. Undergraduate medical student's perceptions on traditional and problem based curricula: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate and compare students' perceptions about teaching and learning, knowledge and skills, outcomes of course materials and their satisfaction in traditional Lecture Based learning versus Problem-Based Learning curricula in two different medical schools. The comparative cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from July 2009 to January 2011. Two different undergraduate medical schools were selected; one followed the traditional curriculum, while the other followed the problem-based learning curriculum. Two equal groups of first year medical students were selected. They were taught in respiratory physiology and lung function lab according to their curriculum for a period of two weeks. At the completion of the study period, a five-point Likert scale was used to assess students' perceptions on satisfaction, academic environment, teaching and learning, knowledge and skills and outcomes of course materials about effectiveness of problem-based learning compared to traditional methods. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Students used to problem-based learning curriculum obtained marginally higher scores in their perceptions (24.10 +/- 3.63) compared to ones following the traditional curriculum (22.67 +/- 3.74). However, the difference in perceptions did not achieve a level of statistical significance. Students following problem-based learning curriculum have more positive perceptions on teaching and learning, knowledge and skills, outcomes of their course materials and satisfaction compared to the students belonging to the traditional style of medical school. However, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant.

  12. Hydrological similarity approach and rainfall satellite utilization for mini hydro power dam basic design (case study on the ungauged catchment at West Borneo, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, W. G.; Murtilaksono, K.; Tarigan, S. D.; Purwanto, Y. J.

    2018-05-01

    An approach on flow duration and flood design estimation on the ungauged catchment with no rainfall and discharge data availability was been being develop with hydrological modelling including rainfall run off model implemented with watershed characteristic dataset. Near real time Rainfall data from multi satellite platform e.g. TRMM can be utilized for regionalization approach on the ungauged catchment. Watershed hydrologically similarity analysis were conducted including all of the major watershed in Borneo which was predicted to be similar with the Nanga Raun Watershed. It was found that a satisfactory hydrological model calibration could be achieved using catchment weighted time series of TRMM daily rainfall data, performed on nearby catchment deemed to be sufficiently similar to Nanga Raun catchment in hydrological terms. Based on this calibration, rainfall runoff parameters were then transferred to a model. Relatively reliable flow duration curve and extreme discharge value estimation were produced with reasonable several limitation. Further approach may be performed in order to deal with the primary limitations inherent in the hydrological and statistical analysis, especially to give prolongation to the availability of the rainfall and climate data with some novel approach like downscaling of global climate model.

  13. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onut, S; Kamber, M R; Altay, G

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time

  14. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onut, S.; Kamber, M. R.; Altay, G.

    2014-03-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time.

  15. Thai nursing students' adaption to problem-based learning: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunklin, Areewan; Subpaiboongid, Pornpun; Keitlertnapha, Pongsri; Viseskul, Nongkran; Turale, Sue

    2011-11-01

    Student-centred forms of learning have gained favour internationally over the last few decades including problem based learning, an approach now incorporated in medicine, nursing and other disciplines' education in many countries. However, it is still new in Thailand and being piloted to try to offset traditional forms of didactic, teacher-centred forms of teaching. In this qualitative study, 25 undergraduate nursing students in northern Thailand were interviewed about their experiences with problem-based learning in a health promotion subject. Content analysis was used to interrogate interview data, which revealed four categories: adapting, seeking assistance, self-development, and thinking process development. Initially participants had mixed emotions of confusion, negativity or boredom in the adaption process, but expressed satisfaction with creativity in learning, group work, and leadership development. They described increased abilities to problem solve and think critically, but struggled to develop questioning behaviours in learning. Socio-culturally in Thai education, students have great respect for teachers, but rarely question or challenge them or their learning. We conclude that problem-based learning has great potential in Thai nursing education, but educators and systems need to systematically prepare appropriate learning environments, their staff and students, to incorporate this within curricula. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Discrete harmony search algorithm for scheduling and rescheduling the reprocessing problems in remanufacturing: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kaizhou; Wang, Ling; Luo, Jianping; Jiang, Hua; Sadollah, Ali; Pan, Quanke

    2018-06-01

    In this article, scheduling and rescheduling problems with increasing processing time and new job insertion are studied for reprocessing problems in the remanufacturing process. To handle the unpredictability of reprocessing time, an experience-based strategy is used. Rescheduling strategies are applied for considering the effect of increasing reprocessing time and the new subassembly insertion. To optimize the scheduling and rescheduling objective, a discrete harmony search (DHS) algorithm is proposed. To speed up the convergence rate, a local search method is designed. The DHS is applied to two real-life cases for minimizing the maximum completion time and the mean of earliness and tardiness (E/T). These two objectives are also considered together as a bi-objective problem. Computational optimization results and comparisons show that the proposed DHS is able to solve the scheduling and rescheduling problems effectively and productively. Using the proposed approach, satisfactory optimization results can be achieved for scheduling and rescheduling on a real-life shop floor.

  17. Behavioral problems and intelligence quotient changes in pediatric epilepsy: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyama Choudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease and has neurological impairment as an important comorbidity. Objective: To find behavioral problems and intelligence quotient (IQ changes associated with epilepsy and to know the association of variables such as frequency, type of seizures, and duration of disease with cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study, consisting of 50 cases (patients of epilepsy and 50 controls (other patients of same socioeconomic status was conducted at S.P. Medical College, Bikaner. The patients were subjected to detailed clinical history, thorough examination, Pediatric Symptom Checklist, and Bhatia's Battery of Performance intelligence Test. Data analysis was carried out with the help of SPSS 22 software. Results: The prevalence of behavioral problems in generalized and partial seizure group was high (42% and 53.8% as compared to control group (9%. Low IQ was present more in the patients (44% of generalized and partial seizure group as compared with the control group, and results were statistically significant. Furthermore, behavioral problems were more in patients who were having more number of seizures (≥3 per year with significant P values (χ2 = 5.067, P = 0.024. Conclusion: We conclusively found that behavioral problems and cognitive factors, apart from control of seizures, must be kept in mind to determine how well a child with epilepsy progresses toward independence.

  18. Money and Mental Illness: A Study of the Relationship Between Poverty and Serious Psychological Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungqvist, Ingemar; Topor, Alain; Forssell, Henrik; Svensson, Idor; Davidson, Larry

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have indicated a co-occurrence between mental problems, a bad economy, and social isolation. Medical treatments focus on reducing the extent of psychiatric problems. Recent research, however, has highlighted the possible effects of social initiatives. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between severe mental illness, economic status, and social relations. a financial contribution per month was granted to 100 individuals with severe mental illnesses for a 9-month period. Assessments of the subjects were made before the start of the intervention and after 7 months' duration. A comparison group including treatment as usual only was followed using the same instruments. Significant improvements were found for depression and anxiety, social networks, and sense of self. No differences in functional level were found. Social initiatives may have treatment and other beneficial effects and should be integrated into working contextually with persons with severe mental illnesses.

  19. Study of neutronic problems related to the xenon instability in the pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathonniere, G.

    1988-03-01

    Xenon instabilities lead to increase initial errors. So it is extremely difficult to get an accurate calculation schema able to deal with these problems which are very important for electrical grid whose electronuclear output is large. The main task was to build a tridimensional calculation schema including nuclear, thermal hydraulic feedback. It was qualified by comparing its results with an actual experiment. Many technical problems were investigated through analytical studies or calculation results: time step, spatial mesh, finite element, convergence criterion, modelization for grids and fast control rod moves. Moreover, a 1D model, for less expensive, was studied. Its comparison with the 3D results allowed to check its accuracy and to validate the modelization of the radial laplacien and the modelization of the control rods [fr

  20. Personality similarity and life satisfaction in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Furler Katrin; Gomez Veronica; Grob Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association between personality similarity and life satisfaction in a large nationally representative sample of 1608 romantic couples. Similarity effects were computed for the Big Five personality traits as well as for personality profiles with global and differentiated indices of similarity. Results showed substantial actor and partner effects indicating that both partners' personality traits were related to both partners' life satisfaction. Personality similar...

  1. A Novel Hybrid Similarity Calculation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems of similarity calculation in the traditional recommendation algorithms of nearest neighbor collaborative filtering, especially the failure in describing dynamic user preference. Proceeding from the perspective of solving the problem of user interest drift, a new hybrid similarity calculation model is proposed in this paper. This model consists of two parts, on the one hand the model uses the function fitting to describe users’ rating behaviors and their rating preferences, and on the other hand it employs the Random Forest algorithm to take user attribute features into account. Furthermore, the paper combines the two parts to build a new hybrid similarity calculation model for user recommendation. Experimental results show that, for data sets of different size, the model’s prediction precision is higher than the traditional recommendation algorithms.

  2. Introduction to Special Issue "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Gmel, Gerhard; Wilsnack, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to a series of articles reporting results from the EU concerted action "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study" which examined differences in drinking among women and men in 13 European and two non-European countries. The gender gap...... analyses the smallest gender differences in drinking behaviour were found in Nordic countries, followed by western and central European countries, with the largest gender differences in countries with developing economies....

  3. Choosing preclinical study models of diabetic retinopathy: key problems for consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi XS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Xue-Song Mi,1,2 Ti-Fei Yuan,3,4 Yong Ding,1 Jing-Xiang Zhong,1 Kwok-Fai So4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 5Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Institute of Central Nervous System, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus in the eye. Although the clinical treatment for DR has already developed to a relative high level, there are still many urgent problems that need to be investigated in clinical and basic science. Currently, many in vivo animal models and in vitro culture systems have been applied to solve these problems. Many approaches have also been used to establish different DR models. However, till now, there has not been a single study model that can clearly and exactly mimic the developmental process of the human DR. Choosing the suitable model is important, not only for achieving our research goals smoothly, but also, to better match with different experimental proposals in the study. In this review, key problems for consideration in choosing study models of DR are discussed. These problems relate to clinical relevance, different approaches for establishing models, and choice of different species of animals as well as of the specific in vitro culture systems. Attending to these considerations will deepen the understanding on current study models and optimize the experimental design for the final goal of preventing DR. Keywords: animal model, in vitro culture, ex vivo culture, neurovascular dysfunction

  4. Low-dose radiation epidemiological studies: an assessment of methodological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modan, B.

    1991-01-01

    The present report attempts to assess the problems inherent in the analysis of low dose radiation studies, with emphasis on possible sources of methodological errors in the published data, and the consequent relevance to risk estimates. The published data examined concerned populations exposed to nuclear sources such as fallout, weapons' test or in the vicinity of nuclear reactors, occupational exposure, intra-uterine diagnostic X-rays, scattered radiation following X-ray therapy and background irradiation. (UK)

  5. A Study of the Correlation between Computer Games and Adolescent Behavioral Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. Methods Th...

  6. A study of the one dimensional total generalised variation regularisation problem

    KAUST Repository

    Papafitsoros, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    © 2015 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences. In this paper we study the one dimensional second order total generalised variation regularisation (TGV) problem with L2 data fitting term. We examine the properties of this model and we calculate exact solutions using simple piecewise affine functions as data terms. We investigate how these solutions behave with respect to the TGV parameters and we verify our results using numerical experiments.

  7. Applying Theory of Inventive Problem Solving to Develop Innovative Solutions: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Y. H. Wang; C. C. Hsieh

    2016-01-01

    Good service design can increase organization revenue and consumer satisfaction while reducing labor and time costs. The problems facing consumers in the original serve model for eyewear and optical industry includes the following issues: 1. Insufficient information on eyewear products 2. Passively dependent on recommendations, insufficient selection 3. Incomplete records on progression of vision conditions 4. Lack of complete customer records. This study investigates the case of Kobayashi Op...

  8. A behavioural approach to financial portfolio selection problem: an empirical study using heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Grishina, Nina

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University The behaviourally based portfolio selection problem with investor's loss aversion and risk aversion biases in portfolio choice under uncertainty are studied. The main results of this work are developed heuristic approaches for the prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory models proposed by Kahneman and Tversky in 1979 and 1992 as well as an empirical comparative analysis of these models ...

  9. A study of behaviour problems and psychiatric disorders among people with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Myrbakk, Even

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis investigates behaviour problems and their relationship to psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability living in the northern part of Norway, as well as the concordances between four of the most commonly used assessment instruments for psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability. A total of one hundred and eighty-one individuals with intellectual disability living in the counties of Nordland, Troms and Finnmark participated in the studies. ...

  10. A Study on Food Security Problems and Business Credit Crisis in Chinese Food Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Yanni Li; Dan Cui; Wenxuan Zhao; Jiayin Li; Fuguang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Food security has become a big issue in China for some big incidents occurred in recent years. happened. This study has a survey on these cases and analyzes the reasons from the aspect of enterprises and government. Some solutions are put forward to solve the problems about food security and business credit crisis in China currently. The purpose is to guide enterprises to set up a sound operation system and gain long-term profits.

  11. A study of the one dimensional total generalised variation regularisation problem

    KAUST Repository

    Papafitsoros, Konstantinos; Bredies, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences. In this paper we study the one dimensional second order total generalised variation regularisation (TGV) problem with L2 data fitting term. We examine the properties of this model and we calculate exact solutions using simple piecewise affine functions as data terms. We investigate how these solutions behave with respect to the TGV parameters and we verify our results using numerical experiments.

  12. Error Analysis for Arithmetic Word Problems--A Case Study of Primary Three Students in One Singapore School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2015-01-01

    In this study, ways in which 9-year old students from one Singapore school solved 1-step and 2-step word problems based on the three semantic structures were examined. The students' work and diagrams provided insights into the range of errors in word problem solving for 1- step and 2-step word problems. In particular, the errors provided some…

  13. Improving Teaching Quality and Problem Solving Ability through Contextual Teaching and Learning in Differential Equations: A Lesson Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotimah, Rita Pramujiyanti; Masduki

    2016-01-01

    Differential equations is a branch of mathematics which is closely related to mathematical modeling that arises in real-world problems. Problem solving ability is an essential component to solve contextual problem of differential equations properly. The purposes of this study are to describe contextual teaching and learning (CTL) model in…

  14. Burden, risk factors, and comorbidities of behavioural and emotional problems in Kenyan children : a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, Symon M.; Abubakar Ali, Amina; Kombe, Martha; Kazungu, Michael; Odhiambo, Rachael; Stein, Alan; Newton, Charles R J C

    BACKGROUND: Three-quarters of the burden of mental health problems occurs in low-and-middle-income countries, but few epidemiological studies of these problems in preschool children from sub-Saharan Africa have been published. Behavioural and emotional problems often start in early childhood, and

  15. A Case Study: The Implementation of a Problem-Solving Model with a Student with Reading Difficulties in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, E. Ruya; Doganay-Bilgi, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to improve the reading accuracy and reading comprehension of a 10-year-old fourth-grade female student with reading difficulties. For that purpose, the problem- solving model was implemented in four stages. These stages included problem identification, problem analysis, intervention, and evaluation. During the…

  16. Chronic Stressors and Adolescents' Externalizing Problems: Genetic Moderation by Dopamine Receptor D4. The TRAILS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Ormel, Johan; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hartman, Catharina A

    2018-01-01

    The existing literature does not provide consistent evidence that carriers of the Dopamine D4 Receptor 7-repeat allele are more sensitive to adverse environmental influences, resulting in enhanced externalizing problems, compared to noncarriers. One explanation is that the adverse influences examined in prior studies were not severe, chronic, or distressing enough to reveal individual differences in sensitivity reflected by DRD4-7R. This study examined whether the 7-repeat allele moderated the association between chronic stressors capturing multiple stressful aspects of individuals' lives and externalizing problems in adolescence. We expected that chronic stressor levels would be associated with externalizing levels only in 7-repeat carriers. Using Linear Mixed Models, we analyzed data from 1621 Dutch adolescents (52.2% boys), obtained in three measurement waves (mean age approximately 11, 13.5, and 16 years) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) population-based birth cohort and the parallel clinic-referred cohort. Across informants, we found that higher levels of chronic stressors were related to higher externalizing levels in 7-repeat carriers but not in noncarriers, as hypothesized. Although previous studies on the 7-repeat allele as a moderator of environmental influences on adolescents' externalizing problems have not convincingly demonstrated individual differences in sensitivity to adverse environmental influences, our findings suggest that adolescent carriers of the Dopamine D4 Receptor 7-repeat allele are more sensitive to chronic, multi-context stressors than noncarriers.

  17. A Study of the U.S. Capacity to Address Tropical Disease Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    associated with a range of symptoms, can lead to jaundice, renal insufficiency, and anemia . Case fatality rates can be as high as 20 percent in high...an important federal center for research on tropical disease pathogens. Army studies of anemia in Puerto Rico led to the discovery of hookworm as the...vaccine development and testing. The university has research links with groups in Chile and Peru . The University of Washington has a similar program, on

  18. Pharmacists' interventions on prescription problems in one French community pharmacy: A prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, A; Gervais, F; Mongaret, C; Slimano, F

    2018-03-16

    While many international studies widely describe pharmacists' interventions (PIs) on drug-related problems (DRP) in community pharmacies, in France, these activities are underreported. The aim of this study is to describe the PI rate, given as the number of interventions in among all prescriptions reviewed during the study period. This study was conducted in one French rural community pharmacy during a 7-month period. Age, sex, type of prescriber, type of problems, intervention and the outcome were prospectively recorded. PIs were prospectively formalized and classified using the validated tool from the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy. In addition, all interventions were reviewed by an independent pharmacist. Among the 20,238 prescriptions, n=211 pharmacists' interventions on 159 prescriptions (0.79%) were performed. Prescriptions were ordered by general practitioners in 78.6%. The most common DRP were the improper prescription (30.8%), a drug or medical device not received by the patient (21.8%, all linked to drug shortages) or a dosage problem (18.9%). Antibiotics were the most common drugs involved in DRP (13.3%). The main PI were the drug switch/establishment of a therapeutic alternative (38.4%), dose adjustment (25.6%) and optimization of the dispensing/administration modalities (25.1%). The overall acceptance rate of PIs was 93.4%. We found a PI rate, as well as acceptance rate by prescribers, in the same range than as reported in studies performed in other countries. A consequent large part percentage of PIs can be classified as "administrative". This first prospective French study needs to be further supported by multi-site studies. Copyright © 2018 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. To what extent do student teachers develop their mathematical problem solving ability by self-study?

    OpenAIRE

    Kool, Marjolein; Keijzer, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    A primary teacher needs mathematical problem solving ability. That is why Dutch student teachers have to show this ability in a nationwide mathematics test that contains many non-routine problems. Most student teachers prepare for this test by working on their own solving test-like problems. To what extent does these individual problem solving activities really contribute to their mathematical problem solving ability? Developing mathematical problem solving ability requires reflective mathema...

  20. A case study of heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem: Touristic distribution application in Alanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Karagül

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem is considered in order to optimize the distribution of the tourists who have traveled between the airport and the hotels in the shortest distance by using the minimum cost. The initial solution space for the related methods are formed as a combination of Savings algorithm, Sweep algorithm and random permutation alignment. Then, two well-known solution methods named as Standard Genetic Algorithms and random search algorithms are used for changing the initial solutions. Computational power of the machine and heuristic algorithms are used instead of human experience and human intuition in order to solve the distribution problem of tourists coming to hotels in Alanya region from Antalya airport. For this case study, daily data of tourist distributions performed by an agency operating in Alanya region are considered. These distributions are then modeled as Vehicle Routing Problem to calculate the solutions for various applications. From the comparisons with the decision of a human expert, it is seen that the proposed methods produce better solutions with respect to human experience and insight. Random search method produces a solution more favorable in terms of time. As a conclusion, it is seen that, owing to the distribution plans offered by the obtained solutions, the agencies may reduce the costs by achieving savings up to 35%.

  1. Language Delay and Externalizing Problems in Preschool Age: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mari Vaage; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Ystrom, Eivind

    2018-01-10

    This study sought to examine the direction of causation between language delay and two externalizing problems; inattention and aggression. Autoregressive fixed effects models were fitted to data from 25,474 children (age 1.5 to 5 years; 50.8% boys) in the population-based longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), to model the direction of causality for language delay and inattention and aggression, respectively. The most parsimonious model for the relationship between language delay and inattention was one where both common factors and reciprocal causation were estimated. Adjusted for common factors, language delay was estimated to have a non-significant effect on inattention by b = 0.12 (p = 0.06), and inattention to have a significant effect on language delay by b = 0.19 (p = 0.03). The most parsimonious model for the direction of causality for language delay and aggression was one where the entire association could be explained by language delay having effect on aggression b = 0.12 (p language delay can best be conceptualized as an epiphenomenon of inattention partly related to both common factors and causal processes, aggression can best be conceptualized as caused by language delay. This illumination of the hypothetical causal links between two common problem domains in preschool-aged children has clear implications on where to implement interventions to prevent co-occurrence of language delay and externalizing problems.

  2. Effects of Information Retrieval Process on Decision Making and Problem Solving: An Emprical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Keten

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who are unaware of a need for information and/or who have not experienced the information retrieval process while meeting such a need cannot be a part of information society. Only those individuals with an awareness that information is essential to the problem-solving and decision-making processes, who are equipped with information retrieval and utilization skills and who can further integrate such skills into their daily lives, can be a part of an information society and attain the capability of performing properly in their societal roles and thus ultimately of shaping their society. Moving from this context, this article defines the elements of the information retrieval process, starting with the concept of information, and studies the influences of the information retrieval process on problem solving and decision making.

  3. Dyadic Configurations of Sexual Problems Among Older U.S. Adults: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2017-07-04

    Using data from the 2010-2011 National Social Life Health and Aging Project (NSHAP)-a nationally representative probability sample of older U.S. adults as well as their partners-this study provides the first comprehensive, population-based analysis of dyadic configurations of sexual problems and their correlates among those aged 60 to 90 years. Results suggest the majority of late-life partnerships (N = 854) may not have a heavy burden of sexual difficulties. However, almost a fifth (18.21%) of partnered older women do not abstain from sex despite low sexual motivation and capacity. This relational "type" seems unlinked to demographic or health attributes, and may be driven more by partnership strains. In addition, an "at risk" group with consistent sexual problems, arguably due to age-related decline, comprises 27.16% of all late-life couples.

  4. Split delivery vehicle routing problem with time windows: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latiffianti, E.; Siswanto, N.; Firmandani, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to implement an extension of VRP so called split delivery vehicle routing problem (SDVRP) with time windows in a case study involving pickups and deliveries of workers from several points of origin and several destinations. Each origin represents a bus stop and the destination represents either site or office location. An integer linear programming of the SDVRP problem is presented. The solution was generated using three stages of defining the starting points, assigning busses, and solving the SDVRP with time windows using an exact method. Although the overall computational time was relatively lengthy, the results indicated that the produced solution was better than the existing routing and scheduling that the firm used. The produced solution was also capable of reducing fuel cost by 9% that was obtained from shorter total distance travelled by the shuttle buses.

  5. Gambling cognition and subjective well-being as mediators between perceived stress and problem gambling: a cross-cultural study on White and Chinese problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Oei, Tian Po

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to delineate various pathways whereby cognitive and emotional vulnerabilities triggered by stress would lead to disruptive gambling. A multiple mediation framework was proposed to specify that gambling cognition and subjective well-being would mediate the influence of perceived stress on problem gambling. The cross-cultural validity of the proposed framework was examined with 132 White gamblers in Australia and 154 Chinese gamblers in China. They completed psychological scales on perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, gambling refusal efficacy, negative affect, life satisfaction, and problem gambling. Compared to Chinese gamblers, White gamblers reported higher levels of perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, and problem gambling as well as more pervasive negative affect and lower levels of life satisfaction. Results showed that the proposed multiple mediation framework fit the data better than two alternative plausible models. Life satisfaction and gambling refusal efficacy were two consistent mediators across White and Chinese gamblers. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Comparative study of heuristics algorithms in solving flexible job shop scheduling problem with condition based maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahong Zheng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper focuses on a classic optimization problem in operations research, the flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSP, to discuss the method to deal with uncertainty in a manufacturing system.Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, condition based maintenance (CBM, a kind of preventive maintenance, is suggested to reduce unavailability of machines. Different to the simultaneous scheduling algorithm (SSA used in the previous article (Neale & Cameron,1979, an inserting algorithm (IA is applied, in which firstly a pre-schedule is obtained through heuristic algorithm and then maintenance tasks are inserted into the pre-schedule scheme.Findings: It is encouraging that a new better solution for an instance in benchmark of FJSP is obtained in this research. Moreover, factually SSA used in literature for solving normal FJSPPM (FJSP with PM is not suitable for the dynamic FJSPPM. Through application in the benchmark of normal FJSPPM, it is found that although IA obtains inferior results compared to SSA used in literature, it performs much better in executing speed.Originality/value: Different to traditional scheduling of FJSP, uncertainty of machines is taken into account, which increases the complexity of the problem. An inserting algorithm (IA is proposed to solve the dynamic scheduling problem. It is stated that the quality of the final result depends much on the quality of the pre-schedule obtained during the procedure of solving a normal FJSP. In order to find the best solution of FJSP, a comparative study of three heuristics is carried out, the integrated GA, ACO and ABC. In the comparative study, we find that GA performs best in the three heuristic algorithms. Meanwhile, a new better solution for an instance in benchmark of FJSP is obtained in this research.

  7. The Transfer Pricing Problem in a Service Firm : A Case Study on a Swedish Multinational Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Shakir; Yilmaz, Emre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to answer the research question of how a service company (ServiceCo) could achieve a transfer price of its services. This is of particular interest, due to the growth of service firms that have rapidly increased and surpassed the manufacturing firms, as well as the dominant logic shifting towards services. However, the problem with this field of study is that transfer pricing with regards to the service industry, is a rather unexplored phenomenon in which the guid...

  8. Absenteeism- a complex problem: A study on absenteeism in Trondheim’s nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Josiane

    2011-01-01

    Absenteeism is a community problem when one looks at the amount of money spent because of it, an amount that could have been used on other more important matters. For this thesis I set out to study absenteeism in nursing homes here in my town, Trondheim. I wanted to study the nursing homes with relatively low absenteeism rate and the nursing homes with relatively high absenteeism rate to see if I could find differences that could explain the differences in their absenteeism rates. Interviews ...

  9. Using Interactive Case Studies to Support Students Understandings of Local Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kostova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents designed and refined an interactive-enhanced curriculum module for 9th grade secondary school students in Bulgaria, based on environmental case studies. In the module activities students from two schools studied the local environments, performed observations and experiments, collected and analyzed data, prepared and presented posters and role plays, made connections between scientific processes and socio-scientific issues and drew conclusions about the global effects of locally created environmental problems. The students’ critical observations of the quality of their surroundings helped them to make a list of local environmental problems, to apply interactive strategies in studying them and to propose rational scientifically based solutions. In the study the attention was directed to the advantages and disadvantages of poster presentations and role playing and to the specific learning difficulties that students had to overcome. Students’ achievements from the two experimental schools were assessed independently in order to give us insights into the details of learning using different interactive strategies and into the acquired performance skills, dependant on students’ interests and personal abilities. The three versions of the module (traditional, dominated by teacher presentation; poster preparation and presentation in which students imitate scientific team research; and role playing in which students not only study the local environmental problems but assume social roles to cope with them demonstrate three levels of students learning independence. Specific assessment tests and check lists were developed for analyzing, evaluating and comparing students’ achievements in each version of the module and in each school. Ecological knowledge assessment tests were based on Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Poster and role playing preparations and presentations were assessed by specific criteria, shown in the

  10. Potential for Assessing Dynamic Problem-Solving at the Beginning of Higher Education Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapó, Benő; Molnár, Gyöngyvér

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing demand for assessment instruments which can be used in higher education, which cover a broader area of competencies than the traditional tests for disciplinary knowledge and domain-specific skills, and which measure students' most important general cognitive capabilities. Around the age of the transition from secondary to tertiary education, such assessments may serve several functions, including selecting the best-prepared candidates for certain fields of study. Dynamic problem-solving (DPS) is a good candidate for such a role, as tasks that assess it involve knowledge acquisition and knowledge utilization as well. The purpose of this study is to validate an online DPS test and to explore its potential for assessing students' DPS skills at the beginning of their higher education studies. Participants in the study were first-year students at a major Hungarian university (n = 1468). They took five tests that measured knowledge from their previous studies: Hungarian language and literature, mathematics, history, science and English as a Foreign Language (EFL). A further, sixth test based on the MicroDYN approach, assessed students' DPS skills. A brief questionnaire explored learning strategies and collected data on students' background. The testing took place at the beginning of the first semester in three 2-h sessions. Problem-solving showed relatively strong correlations with mathematics (r = 0.492) and science (r = 0.401), and moderate correlations with EFL (r = 0.227), history (r = 0.192), and Hungarian (r = 0.125). Weak but still significant correlations were found with certain learning strategies, positive correlations with elaboration strategies, and a negative correlation with memorization strategies. Significant differences were observed between male and female students; men performed significantly better in DPS than women. Results indicated the dominant role of the first phase of solving dynamic problems, as knowledge acquisition

  11. Potential for Assessing Dynamic Problem-Solving at the Beginning of Higher Education Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benő Csapó

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing demand for assessment instruments which can be used in higher education, which cover a broader area of competencies than the traditional tests for disciplinary knowledge and domain-specific skills, and which measure students' most important general cognitive capabilities. Around the age of the transition from secondary to tertiary education, such assessments may serve several functions, including selecting the best-prepared candidates for certain fields of study. Dynamic problem-solving (DPS is a good candidate for such a role, as tasks that assess it involve knowledge acquisition and knowledge utilization as well. The purpose of this study is to validate an online DPS test and to explore its potential for assessing students' DPS skills at the beginning of their higher education studies. Participants in the study were first-year students at a major Hungarian university (n = 1468. They took five tests that measured knowledge from their previous studies: Hungarian language and literature, mathematics, history, science and English as a Foreign Language (EFL. A further, sixth test based on the MicroDYN approach, assessed students' DPS skills. A brief questionnaire explored learning strategies and collected data on students' background. The testing took place at the beginning of the first semester in three 2-h sessions. Problem-solving showed relatively strong correlations with mathematics (r = 0.492 and science (r = 0.401, and moderate correlations with EFL (r = 0.227, history (r = 0.192, and Hungarian (r = 0.125. Weak but still significant correlations were found with certain learning strategies, positive correlations with elaboration strategies, and a negative correlation with memorization strategies. Significant differences were observed between male and female students; men performed significantly better in DPS than women. Results indicated the dominant role of the first phase of solving dynamic problems, as knowledge

  12. Potential for Assessing Dynamic Problem-Solving at the Beginning of Higher Education Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapó, Benő; Molnár, Gyöngyvér

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing demand for assessment instruments which can be used in higher education, which cover a broader area of competencies than the traditional tests for disciplinary knowledge and domain-specific skills, and which measure students' most important general cognitive capabilities. Around the age of the transition from secondary to tertiary education, such assessments may serve several functions, including selecting the best-prepared candidates for certain fields of study. Dynamic problem-solving (DPS) is a good candidate for such a role, as tasks that assess it involve knowledge acquisition and knowledge utilization as well. The purpose of this study is to validate an online DPS test and to explore its potential for assessing students' DPS skills at the beginning of their higher education studies. Participants in the study were first-year students at a major Hungarian university ( n = 1468). They took five tests that measured knowledge from their previous studies: Hungarian language and literature, mathematics, history, science and English as a Foreign Language (EFL). A further, sixth test based on the MicroDYN approach, assessed students' DPS skills. A brief questionnaire explored learning strategies and collected data on students' background. The testing took place at the beginning of the first semester in three 2-h sessions. Problem-solving showed relatively strong correlations with mathematics ( r = 0.492) and science ( r = 0.401), and moderate correlations with EFL ( r = 0.227), history ( r = 0.192), and Hungarian ( r = 0.125). Weak but still significant correlations were found with certain learning strategies, positive correlations with elaboration strategies, and a negative correlation with memorization strategies. Significant differences were observed between male and female students; men performed significantly better in DPS than women. Results indicated the dominant role of the first phase of solving dynamic problems, as knowledge acquisition

  13. Unification and extension of the similarity scaling criteria and mixing transition for studying astrophysics using high energy density laboratory experiments or numerial simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y

    2006-08-21

    The Euler similarity criteria for laboratory experiments and time-dependent mixing transition are important concepts introduced recently for application to prediction and analysis of astrophysical phenomena. However Euler scaling by itself provides no information on the distinctive spectral range of high Reynolds number turbulent flows found in astrophysics situations. On the other hand, time-dependent mixing transition gives no indication on whether a flow that just passed the mixing transition is sufficient to capture all of the significant dynamics of the complete astrophysical spectral range. In this paper, a new approach, based on additional insight gained from review of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory, is developed. It allows for revelations about the distinctive spectral scale dynamics associated with high Reynolds number astrophysical flows. From this perspective, we caution that the energy containing range of the turbulent flow measured in a laboratory setting must not be unintentionally contaminated in such a way that the interactive influences of this spectral scale range in the corresponding astrophysical situation cannot be faithfully represented. In this paper we introduce the concept of a minimum state as the lowest Reynolds number turbulent flow that a time-dependent mixing transition must achieve to fulfill this objective. Later in the paper we show that the Reynolds number of the minimum state may be determined as 1.6 x 10{sup 5}. Our efforts here can be viewed as a unification and extension of the concepts of both similarity scaling and transient mixing transition concepts. At the last the implications of our approach in planning future intensive laser experiments or massively parallel numerical simulations are discussed. A systematic procedure is outlined so that as the capabilities of the laser interaction experiments and supporting results from detailed numerical simulations performed in recently advanced supercomputing facilities increase

  14. Unification and extension of the similarity scaling criteria and mixing transition for studying astrophysics using high energy density laboratory experiments or numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ye

    2007-01-01

    The Euler similarity criteria for laboratory experiments and time-dependent mixing transition are important concepts introduced recently for application to prediction and analysis of astrophysical phenomena. However, Euler scaling by itself provides no information on the distinctive spectral range of high Reynolds number turbulent flows found in astrophysics situations. On the other hand, time-dependent mixing transition gives no indication on whether a flow that just passed the mixing transition is sufficient to capture all of the significant dynamics of the complete astrophysical spectral range. In this paper, a new approach, based on additional insight gained from review of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory, is developed. It allows for revelations about the distinctive spectral scale dynamics associated with high Reynolds number astrophysical flows. From this perspective, the energy-containing range of the turbulent flow measured in a laboratory setting must not be unintentionally contaminated in such a way that the interactive influences of this spectral scale range in the corresponding astrophysical situation cannot be faithfully represented. In this paper, the concept of a minimum state is introduced as the lowest Reynolds number turbulent flow that a time-dependent mixing transition must achieve to fulfill this objective. Later in the paper, the Reynolds number of the minimum state is determined as 1.6x10 5 . The temporal criterion for the minimum state is also obtained. The efforts here can be viewed as a unification and extension of the concepts of both similarity scaling and transient mixing transition concepts. Finally, the implications of our approach in planning future intensive laser experiments or massively parallel numerical simulations are discussed. A systematic procedure is outlined so that as the capabilities of the laser interaction experiments and supporting results from detailed numerical simulations performed in recently advanced

  15. Problems, acceptance and social inequality: a study of the deformed leprosy patients and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopparty, S N

    1995-09-01

    Though the impact of social inequality on health conditions is widely known, its impact on the chronic and stigmatized disease, leprosy, has received little attention. Deformity sometimes leads to disabilities and to handicaps causing problems to the patient and his family. In this paper an attempt has been made to understand the impact of social inequality, prevalent in the form of the caste system in India on the deformed leprosy patients and on their families. This impact was examined in terms of the problems faced by the patients. A sample of 150 deformed patients and their families, drawn from two districts in Tamil Nadu, was selected for the study. About 57% of the deformed patients experienced their deformity as a handicap which caused social and economic problems while the rest did not. Of the three caste groups, the Lower Caste group experienced more severe economic problems while the Upper Caste group faced more social problems. The extent of acceptance of deformed patients in their family varied significantly among those facing and not facing problems due to their deformity. The deformed patients without any handicap were accepted in a large majority of their families (82%) regardless of their caste status. In contrast the deformed but handicapped patients were accepted differentially among the three caste groups with the Upper group accepting them in most of their families (80%) while in the Lower group much less number of families (54%) did. All the families of the deformed but not handicapped patients desired to keep their patients till their death irrespective of their caste status. On the contrary, while all the families in the Upper Caste group expressed their willingness to keep their handicapped patients in the family till their death, 10% in the Middle and 22% in the Lower Caste groups did not want to do so. This suggests the gradual marginalization, rejection and dehabilitation of the affected. Thus, one's caste status can be a broad indicator

  16. New methods for solving a vertex p-center problem with uncertain demand-weighted distance: A real case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Nematian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertex and p-center problems are two well-known types of the center problem. In this paper, a p-center problem with uncertain demand-weighted distance will be introduced in which the demands are considered as fuzzy random variables (FRVs and the objective of the problem is to minimize the maximum distance between a node and its nearest facility. Then, by introducing new methods, the proposed problem is converted to deterministic integer programming (IP problems where these methods will be obtained through the implementation of the possibility theory and fuzzy random chance-constrained programming (FRCCP. Finally, the proposed methods are applied for locating bicycle stations in the city of Tabriz in Iran as a real case study. The computational results of our study show that these methods can be implemented for the center problem with uncertain frameworks.

  17. Introduction to special issue 'Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: a Multi-national Study'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Gmel, Gerhard; Wilsnack, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to a series of articles reporting results from the EU concerted action "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study" which examined differences in drinking among women and men in 13 European and two non-European countries. The gender gap in alcohol drinking is one of the few universal gender differences in human social behavior. However, the size of these differences varies greatly from one society to another. The papers in this issue examine, across countries, (1) men's and women's drinking patterns, (2) the prevalence of men's and women's experience of alcohol-related problems, (3) gender differences in social inequalities in alcohol use and abuse, (4) gender differences in the influence of combinations of social roles on heavy alcohol use, and (5) how societal-level factors predict women's and men's alcohol use and problems on a regional and global level. Country surveys were independently conducted and then centralized at one institution for further data standardization and processing. Several results indicated that the greater the societal gender equality in a country, the smaller the gender differences in drinking behavior. In most analyses the smallest gender differences in drinking behaviour were found in Nordic countries, followed by western and central European countries, with the largest gender differences in countries with developing economies.

  18. Study of cost benefits of identification of non-problems with infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.P.; Wurzbach, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    Justifying the costs of starting and maintaining an in-house infrared thermography program is essential in ensuring continued funding and sponsorship. Cost benefit studies, whether brief and general, or strictly formalized, tend to focus on costs associated with projected equipment failure and production downtime. While these numbers can be quite dramatic, their validity rests on acceptance of the predicted failure which is inevitably the subject of some conjecture. Sometimes overlooked in these cost benefit analyses is the savings from avoided work through the optimization of routine time-directed tasks and the identification of non-problems. This includes condition based maintenance superseding preventive maintenance, and the value of including thermography in the troubleshooting process of known or suspected equipment performance problems. Using thermography inspection results to direct maintenance to the root cause of a performance problem can shorten downtime and eliminate unnecessary work and material expenditure. Cost benefit analysis of this type of inspection can be considered ''hard dollars,'' that is to say, that the money saved can be accurately calculated based on the repair costs which would normally have taken place if the information from the infrared thermography inspection had not been available. This type of savings, when presented to the administrator of the predictive maintenance program or the head of the maintenance department, represents real savings which are uncontestable in contrast to the postulated failure scenario calculations. This cost benefit analysis was done for PECO's nuclear units

  19. Study of different fitness functions with safety restriction for nuclear reactor reload problem using QDPSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Paulo C. de, E-mail: paulocaixeta@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Lima, Alan M.M. de; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: alan@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Reactor Reload Problem (NRRP) is a classical problem in Nuclear Engineering that has been studied for more than 40 years, which focuses on the economics and safety of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). This problem consists in searching for the best loading pattern of fuel assemblies (FA) in the core, aiming to determine the permutation of fuel assemblies that optimizes the uranium utilization, with fitness function evaluated according to specific criteria and methods of nuclear reactor physics, such as the maximum mean power peak and the boron concentration. In this article will be presented different methodologies to obtain a representative fitness function for NRRP, where Quantum particle Swarm optimization (QPSO) was used to determine which one gives the best array of fuel assemblies that will make the maximum EFPD (Effective Full Power Days) with the least computational effort. In this approach, as well as others in literature, was not used Burnable Poison in the simulations and the results will be compared in relation of the maximization of the cycle length considering the boron concentration yield by the reactor physics code, to make sure that the configuration is valid from a safety point of view. This paper was based on Angra 1's seventh reload cycle. (author)

  20. Mother's perceptions of child mental health problems and services: A cross sectional study from Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Ashraf, Sania; Shoukat, Rabia; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz

    2016-01-01

    To assess the perceptions of mothers regarding child mental health problems, its causes, preferred treatment options, and to determine whom they would consult, if their child had a psychiatric illness. Following informed consent, a questionnaire covering perceptions regarding various aspects of child mental illness was used for data collection from mothers. They were asked to identify the symptoms and behaviours they considered psychopathological in children, which treatments they would prefer, where they would turn for help with a mentally ill child, and their understanding of the causes of child psychiatric disorders in addition to ways to increase awareness of child psychiatric issues in the society. Ninety one mothers participated in the study. They equally perceived emotional, behavioural and cognitive symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, economic difficulties, social adversity and possession by evil spirits. A substantial proportion preferred medication, recitation of Holy Quran and psychotherapy as the preferred treatment options. Overall, mothers preferred consulting health professionals than religious scholars and faith healers. They were keen for steps to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite different cultural perspective, mothers exhibit good understanding of symptoms of child mental health issues and appear open to various services and treatment options. Understanding parental perceptions and expectations from child psychiatric services are crucial in increasing families' engagement in treatment.