WorldWideScience

Sample records for similar pl spectra

  1. Similarity of High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry Spectra of Structurally Related Micropollutants and Transformation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollée, Jennifer E.; Schymanski, Emma L.; Stravs, Michael A.; Gulde, Rebekka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Hollender, Juliane

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS2) with electrospray ionization is frequently applied to study polar organic molecules such as micropollutants. Fragmentation provides structural information to confirm structures of known compounds or propose structures of unknown compounds. Similarity of HRMS2 spectra between structurally related compounds has been suggested to facilitate identification of unknown compounds. To test this hypothesis, the similarity of reference standard HRMS2 spectra was calculated for 243 pairs of micropollutants and their structurally related transformation products (TPs); for comparison, spectral similarity was also calculated for 219 pairs of unrelated compounds. Spectra were measured on Orbitrap and QTOF mass spectrometers and similarity was calculated with the dot product. The influence of different factors on spectral similarity [e.g., normalized collision energy (NCE), merging fragments from all NCEs, and shifting fragments by the mass difference of the pair] was considered. Spectral similarity increased at higher NCEs and highest similarity scores for related pairs were obtained with merged spectra including measured fragments and shifted fragments. Removal of the monoisotopic peak was critical to reduce false positives. Using a spectral similarity score threshold of 0.52, 40% of related pairs and 0% of unrelated pairs were above this value. Structural similarity was estimated with the Tanimoto coefficient and pairs with higher structural similarity generally had higher spectral similarity. Pairs where one or both compounds contained heteroatoms such as sulfur often resulted in dissimilar spectra. This work demonstrates that HRMS2 spectral similarity may indicate structural similarity and that spectral similarity can be used in the future to screen complex samples for related compounds such as micropollutants and TPs, assisting in the prioritization of non-target compounds. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Earthquake source scaling and self-similarity estimation from stacking P and S spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, GermáN. A.; Shearer, Peter M.; Vernon, Frank L.; Kilb, Debi

    2004-08-01

    We study the scaling relationships of source parameters and the self-similarity of earthquake spectra by analyzing a cluster of over 400 small earthquakes (ML = 0.5 to 3.4) recorded by the Anza seismic network in southern California. We compute P, S, and preevent noise spectra from each seismogram using a multitaper technique and approximate source and receiver terms by iteratively stacking the spectra. To estimate scaling relationships, we average the spectra in size bins based on their relative moment. We correct for attenuation by using the smallest moment bin as an empirical Green's function (EGF) for the stacked spectra in the larger moment bins. The shapes of the log spectra agree within their estimated uncertainties after shifting along the ω-3 line expected for self-similarity of the source spectra. We also estimate corner frequencies and radiated energy from the relative source spectra using a simple source model. The ratio between radiated seismic energy and seismic moment (proportional to apparent stress) is nearly constant with increasing moment over the magnitude range of our EGF-corrected data (ML = 1.8 to 3.4). Corner frequencies vary inversely as the cube root of moment, as expected from the observed self-similarity in the spectra. The ratio between P and S corner frequencies is observed to be 1.6 ± 0.2. We obtain values for absolute moment and energy by calibrating our results to local magnitudes for these earthquakes. This yields a S to P energy ratio of 9 ± 1.5 and a value of apparent stress of about 1 MPa.

  3. Similarity analysis of spectra obtained via reflectance spectrometry in legal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenki, Liudmila; Sterzik, Vera; Bohnert, Michael

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, a series of reflectance spectra of postmortem lividity, pallor, and putrefaction-affected skin for 195 investigated cases in the course of cooling down the corpse has been collected. The reflectance spectrometric measurements were stored together with their respective metadata in a MySQL database. The latter has been managed via a scientific information repository. We propose similarity measures and a criterion of similarity that capture similar spectra recorded at corpse skin. We systematically clustered reflectance spectra from the database as well as their metadata, such as case number, age, sex, skin temperature, duration of cooling, and postmortem time, with respect to the given criterion of similarity. Altogether, more than 500 reflectance spectra have been pairwisely compared. The measures that have been used to compare a pair of reflectance curve samples include the Euclidean distance between curves and the Euclidean distance between derivatives of the functions represented by the reflectance curves at the same wavelengths in the spectral range of visible light between 380 and 750 nm. For each case, using the recorded reflectance curves and the similarity criterion, the postmortem time interval during which a characteristic change in the shape of reflectance spectrum takes place is estimated. The latter is carried out via a software package composed of Java, Python, and MatLab scripts that query the MySQL database. We show that in legal medicine, matching and clustering of reflectance curves obtained by means of reflectance spectrometry with respect to a given criterion of similarity can be used to estimate the postmortem interval.

  4. MAPPING THE SIMILARITIES OF SPECTRA: GLOBAL AND LOCALLY-BIASED APPROACHES TO SDSS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, David [Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute (United States); Budavári, Tamás [Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, The Johns Hopkins University (United States); Mahoney, Michael W. [International Computer Science Institute (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We present a novel approach to studying the diversity of galaxies. It is based on a novel spectral graph technique, that of locally-biased semi-supervised eigenvectors . Our method introduces new coordinates that summarize an entire spectrum, similar to but going well beyond the widely used Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Unlike PCA, however, this technique does not assume that the Euclidean distance between galaxy spectra is a good global measure of similarity. Instead, we relax that condition to only the most similar spectra, and we show that doing so yields more reliable results for many astronomical questions of interest. The global variant of our approach can identify very finely numerous astronomical phenomena of interest. The locally-biased variants of our basic approach enable us to explore subtle trends around a set of chosen objects. The power of the method is demonstrated in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample, by illustrating that the derived spectral coordinates carry an unprecedented amount of information.

  5. Mapping the Similarities of Spectra: Global and Locally-biased Approaches to SDSS Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, David; Budavári, Tamás; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2016-12-01

    We present a novel approach to studying the diversity of galaxies. It is based on a novel spectral graph technique, that of locally-biased semi-supervised eigenvectors. Our method introduces new coordinates that summarize an entire spectrum, similar to but going well beyond the widely used Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Unlike PCA, however, this technique does not assume that the Euclidean distance between galaxy spectra is a good global measure of similarity. Instead, we relax that condition to only the most similar spectra, and we show that doing so yields more reliable results for many astronomical questions of interest. The global variant of our approach can identify very finely numerous astronomical phenomena of interest. The locally-biased variants of our basic approach enable us to explore subtle trends around a set of chosen objects. The power of the method is demonstrated in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample, by illustrating that the derived spectral coordinates carry an unprecedented amount of information.

  6. MAPPING THE SIMILARITIES OF SPECTRA: GLOBAL AND LOCALLY-BIASED APPROACHES TO SDSS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawlor, David; Budavári, Tamás; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel approach to studying the diversity of galaxies. It is based on a novel spectral graph technique, that of locally-biased semi-supervised eigenvectors . Our method introduces new coordinates that summarize an entire spectrum, similar to but going well beyond the widely used Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Unlike PCA, however, this technique does not assume that the Euclidean distance between galaxy spectra is a good global measure of similarity. Instead, we relax that condition to only the most similar spectra, and we show that doing so yields more reliable results for many astronomical questions of interest. The global variant of our approach can identify very finely numerous astronomical phenomena of interest. The locally-biased variants of our basic approach enable us to explore subtle trends around a set of chosen objects. The power of the method is demonstrated in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample, by illustrating that the derived spectral coordinates carry an unprecedented amount of information.

  7. Correlating the vibrational spectra of structurally related molecules: A spectroscopic measure of similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yunwen; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi

    2018-03-05

    Using catastrophe theory and the concept of a mutation path, an algorithm is developed that leads to the direct correlation of the normal vibrational modes of two structurally related molecules. The mutation path is defined by weighted incremental changes in mass and geometry of the molecules in question, which are successively applied to mutate a molecule into a structurally related molecule and thus continuously converting their normal vibrational spectra from one into the other. Correlation diagrams are generated that accurately relate the normal vibrational modes to each other by utilizing mode-mode overlap criteria and resolving allowed and avoided crossings of vibrational eigenstates. The limitations of normal mode correlation, however, foster the correlation of local vibrational modes, which offer a novel vibrational measure of similarity. It will be shown how this will open new avenues for chemical studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Methodology to unmix spectrally similar minerals using high order derivative spectra

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available pure vanilla extract milk Table: Chocolate cake ingredients Debba (CSIR) Unmixing spectrally similar minerals Rhodes University 2009 8 / 40 Introduction to Unmixing Ingredients Quantity unsweetened chocolate 120 grams unsweetened cocoa powder 28... grams boiling water 240 ml flour 315 grams baking powder 2 teaspoons baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon unsalted butter 226 grams white sugar 400 grams eggs 3 large pure vanilla extract 2 teaspoons milk 240 ml Table: Chocolate cake...

  9. 3PL, 4PL and insourcing logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Vivaldini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Logistics services have evolved and changed over time, especially in the hiring of them according to the concepts of 3PL (third party logistics, 4PL (fourth party logistics or insourcing logistics. 3PL service is a consolidated business, 4PL is an option for outsourcing logistics and has already been adopted by some organizations, and insourcing logistics suggests the return of these activities being internalized by companies, which is still a relatively unexplored subject in logistics literature. Analyzing these themes in the literature, this study updates the view on them and proposes a conceptual framework that classifies the different models of logistics services, showing the different options that can be adopted to help the company decide how to run their logistics services.

  10. Reversible photo-induced trap formation in mixed-halide hybrid perovskites for photovoltaics† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, PL, PDS spectra and XRD patterns. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03141e Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Eric T.; Slotcavage, Daniel J.; Dohner, Emma R.; Bowring, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    We report on reversible, light-induced transformations in (CH3NH3)Pb(BrxI1–x)3. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these perovskites develop a new, red-shifted peak at 1.68 eV that grows in intensity under constant, 1-sun illumination in less than a minute. This is accompanied by an increase in sub-bandgap absorption at ∼1.7 eV, indicating the formation of luminescent trap states. Light soaking causes a splitting of X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks, suggesting segregation into two crystalline phases. Surprisingly, these photo-induced changes are fully reversible; the XRD patterns and the PL and absorption spectra revert to their initial states after the materials are left for a few minutes in the dark. We speculate that photoexcitation may cause halide segregation into iodide-rich minority and bromide-enriched majority domains, the former acting as a recombination center trap. This instability may limit achievable voltages from some mixed-halide perovskite solar cells and could have implications for the photostability of halide perovskites used in optoelectronics. PMID:28706629

  11. Oracle PL/SQL Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This book is the definitive reference on PL/SQL, considered throughout the database community to be the best Oracle programming book available. Like its predecessors, this fifth edition of Oracle PL/SQL Programming covers language fundamentals, advanced coding techniques, and best practices for using Oracle's powerful procedural language. Thoroughly updated for Oracle Database 11g Release 2, this edition reveals new PL/SQL features and provides extensive code samples, ranging from simple examples to complex and complete applications, in the book and on the companion website. This indispensab

  12. Oracle PL/SQL programming

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Considered the best Oracle PL/SQL programming guide by the Oracle community, this definitive guide is precisely what you need to make the most of Oracle’s powerful procedural language. The sixth edition describes the features and capabilities of PL/SQL up through Oracle Database 12c Release 1. Hundreds of thousands of PL/SQL developers have benefited from this book over the last twenty years; this edition continues that tradition. With extensive code examples and a lively sense of humor, this book explains language fundamentals, explores advanced coding techniques, and offers best practices to help you solve real-world problems. * Get PL/SQL programs up and running quickly, with clear instructions for executing, tracing, testing, debugging, and managing code * Understand new 12.1 features, including the ACCESSIBLE_BY clause, WITH FUNCTION and UDF pragma, BEQUEATH CURRENT_USER for views, and new conditional compilation directives * Take advantage of extensive code samples, from easy-to-follow examples to reu...

  13. Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven; Dawes, Chip

    2007-01-01

    The fourth edition of this popular pocket guide provides quick-reference information that will help you use Oracle's PL/SQL language, including the newest Oracle Database 11g features. A companion to Steven Feuerstein and Bill Pribyl's bestselling Oracle PL/SQL Programming, this concise guide boils down the most vital PL/SQL information into an accessible summary

  14. Three-photon excited PL spectroscopy and photo-generated Frenkel defects in wide-bandgap layered CdI2 semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    We performed a three-photon excitation nonlinear photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy in single crystals of wide-bandgap semiconductors (WBSs). The crystal temperature (T L )-dependent PL emission intensity (I PL ) excited with different excitation power density (P) was measured. The PL emissions showed characteristics I PL with their maxima at around 520 nm. The I PL might be due to the presence of the photo-generated Frenkel defects (FDs) in WBSs. A detailed analysis of the PL spectra showed a third-order power law dependence of the maximum I PL on P for all the crystal temperature T L . The I PL was found to increase with decreasing T L . The results demonstrated the existence of the self-trapped excitons resulting from the presence of the FDs in the crystals.

  15. Three-photon excited PL spectroscopy and photo-generated Frenkel defects in wide-bandgap layered CdI{sub 2} semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Qeensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331 (Bangladesh)

    2009-12-14

    We performed a three-photon excitation nonlinear photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy in single crystals of wide-bandgap semiconductors (WBSs). The crystal temperature (T{sub L})-dependent PL emission intensity (I{sub PL}) excited with different excitation power density (P) was measured. The PL emissions showed characteristics I{sub PL} with their maxima at around 520 nm. The I{sub PL} might be due to the presence of the photo-generated Frenkel defects (FDs) in WBSs. A detailed analysis of the PL spectra showed a third-order power law dependence of the maximum I{sub PL} on P for all the crystal temperature T{sub L}. The I{sub PL} was found to increase with decreasing T{sub L}. The results demonstrated the existence of the self-trapped excitons resulting from the presence of the FDs in the crystals.

  16. Similarities in STXM-NEXAFS Spectra of Atmospheric Particles and Secondary Organic Aerosol Generated from Glyoxal, α-Pinene, Isoprene, 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, and d-Limonene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakya, Kabindra M.; Liu, Shang; Takahama, Satoshi; Russell, Lynn M.; Keutsch, Frank N.; Galloway, Melissa M.; Shilling, John E.; Hiranuma, Naruki; Song, Chen; Kim, Hwajin; Paulson, Suazanne E.; Pfaffenberger, Lisa; Barmet, Peter; Slowik, J. G.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2013-02-06

    Functional group composition of particles produced in smog chambers are examined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy in order to identify characteristic spectral signatures for secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Glyoxal uptake studies showed absorption for mainly alkyl, carbon-nitrogen (C-N), and carboxylic carbonyl groups. The SOA formed from the photooxidation of α-pinene (with and without isoprene) showed stronger absorptions for alkyl and carbonyl groups than the glyoxal studies. The mass ratio of carbonyl to acid group was larger in α-pinene-only experiments relative to the mixed α-pinene-isoprene experiments. The chamber particle spectra were compared with the ambient particle spectra from multiple field campaigns to understand the potential SOA sources. One hundred nineteen particles from six field campaigns had spectral features that were considered similar to the chamber-SOA particles: MILAGRO-2006 (9 particles), VOCALS-2008 (42 particles), Whistler-2008 (22 particles), Scripps Pier-2009 (9 particles), Bakersfield-2010 (25 particles), and Whistler-2010 (12 particles). These similarities with SOA formed from glyoxal, α-pinene (with and without isoprene), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and limonene provide spectroscopic evidence of SOA products from these precursors in ambient particles.

  17. The "Case of Two Compounds with Similar Configuration but Nearly Mirror Image CD Spectra" Refuted. Reassignment of the Absolute Configuration of N-Formyl-3',4'-dihydrospiro[indan-1,2'(1'H)-pyridine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Daniele; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Pescitelli, Gennaro

    2016-09-02

    In 1997, Sandström and co-workers reported the case of two chiral spiro compounds with very similar skeletons but showing almost mirror-image electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra for the corresponding absolute configuration. The paper has been often cited as a proof and good educational example of the pronounced sensitivity of ECD toward molecular conformation, and a clear warning against the use of ECD spectral correlations to assign absolute configurations. Although both concepts remain valid, they are not exemplified by the quoted paper. We demonstrate that the original configurational assignment of one compound was wrong and revise it by using TDDFT calculations. The main reason for the observed failure is the use of the matrix method, a popular approach to predict ECD spectra of compounds which can be treated with an independent system approximation (ISA), including proteins. Using a modern version of the matrix method, we demonstrate that the ISA is not valid for the title compound. Even in the absence of apparent conjugation between the component chromophores, the validity of the ISA should never be taken for granted and the effective extent of orbital overlap should always be verified.

  18. Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven; Dawes, Chip

    2004-01-01

    While it's good to have a book with all the answers--like your trusty copy of Oracle PL/SQL Programming-- how often do you need all the answers? More likely, you just need a reminder, a quick answer to a problem you're up against. For these times, nothing's handier than the new edition of the Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference by PL/SQL experts Stephen Feuerstein, Bill Pribyl, and Chip Dawes. Newly updated for Oracle10g, this little book is always at the ready for the quick problem solving you need. The 3rd edition of this popular mini-reference boils down the most vital information fr

  19. Mocking in Oracle PL/SQL

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Testing is not very popular in database development, so there are none common approaches how to test software written in database. Surprisingly one of the oldest DB still lacks of appropriate testing approach for its PL/SQL programs. SQLDeveloper's built-in test "framework" is far from excellence, especially it does not cover mocking which is inherent part of testing for any bigger system being developed. This talk will briefly introduce Edition-Based Redefinition by Oracle to be used for mocking.

  20. Plínio Marcos: uma biografia

    OpenAIRE

    Contiero, Lucinéia [UNESP

    2007-01-01

    Esta é uma biografia de Plínio Marcos, dramaturgo santista nascido em 1935. Tem um pouco de biografia intelectual, um pouco de biografia crítica. Mas é sobretudo a vida de um homem de teatro. O trabalho se abre com uma discussão teórica, em face da qual procuro situar essa abordagem de uma vida. Como toda biografia, prevaleceu aqui o interesse pela disposição cronológica dos fatos, com paradas para tratar de certos aspectos importantes, a vida de jornalista, a peças de maior sucesso. No prime...

  1. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  2. Podnikatelský plán

    OpenAIRE

    Seidlová, Anežka

    2014-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je vytvořit podnikatelský plán na zřízení a provoz dámského fitness centra ve Vsetíně. Práce se zaměřuje na problematiku spojenou s nedostatečným množstvím nabízených služeb pro ženy v daném místě. Při zpracování této práce budou využity SWOT a SLEP analýzy. V závěru práce posoudím, zda je tento podnikatelský plán realizovatelný. The aim of this thesis is to create a business plan for the establishment and operation of women's fitness center in Vsetin. The work ...

  3. de las artes plásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Castro Bonilla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Las innovaciones que se producen día con día en los campos científico, tecnológico, ambiental, social, entre otros, afectan de manera significativa la educación y en consecuencia la labor que desempeñan los docentes. En este marco se le reconoce a la educación su función de orientar e impulsar políticas que respondan a las necesidades e intereses de quienes conforman el contexto social. El presente artículo pretende que quien imparte lecciones en el área de las Artes Plásticas comprenda que, como facilitador de los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, debe fundamentar su práctica docente en referentes teóricos que les permitan a sus estudiantes trascender su análisis teórico y crítico, y llegar a propuestas concretas, realizables y transferibles a otros contextos. No debe nunca considerarse dueño absoluto de la verdad y del conocimiento. Debe eso sí tomar en consideración, de acuerdo con su formación y experiencia en esta área, referentes teóricos como el constructivismo, el holismo, la teoría de las inteligencias múltiples, la aplicación de la pedagogía, la psicología, la epistemología y la didáctica, que entrelazados con los contenidos propios del área de las Artes Plásticas, le permitan organizar un trabajo de aula reflexivo, que ofrezca la posibilidad de generar aprendizajes importantes. Por consiguiente, le corresponde al profesor de Artes Plásticas estudiar e investigar en forma rigurosa los fundamentos mencionados, así como practicar de manera constante técnicas artísticas variadas, pues le facilitan al estudiante el desarrollo de sus habilidades para aprender, para asimilar información eficiente y oportuna, para tomar decisiones, solucionar problemas e incrementar su creatividad

  4. Podnikatelský plán

    OpenAIRE

    Štefančík, Jozef

    2007-01-01

    Práce se zabývá podstatnými skutečnostmi, které mají vliv na založení internetového obchodu se skate doplňky v ČR. Zmiňuje legislativní, technologické, marktetingové, finanční a jiné aspekty. Praktická část používá zjištěné poznatky k navržení podoby hypotetického internetového obchodu se skate doplňky Skate stuff, s.r.o. a je tak podnikatelským plánem pro potřeby případného začínajícího podnikatele.

  5. Soil burial method for plastic degradation performed by Pseudomonas PL-01, Bacillus PL-01, and indigenous bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovitri, Maya; Nafi'ah, Risyatun; Antika, Titi Rindi; Alami, Nur Hidayatul; Kuswytasari, N. D.; Zulaikha, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lately, plastic bag is becoming the most important pollutant for environment since it is difficult to be naturally degraded due to it consists of long hydrocarbon polymer chains. Our previous study indicated that our pure isolate Pseudomonas PL-01 and Bacillus PL-01 could degrade about 10% plastic bag. This present study was aimed to find out whether Pseudomonas PL01 and Bacillus PL01 put a positive effect to indigenous bacteria from marginal area in doing plastic degradation with a soil burial method. Beach sand was used as a representative marginal area, and mangrove sediment was used as a comparison. Plastics were submerged into unsterile beach sand with 10% of Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 containing liquid minimal salt medium (MSM) separately, while other plastics were submerged into unsterile mangrove sediments. After 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks, their biofilm formation on their plastic surfaces and plastic degradation were measured. Results indicated that those 2 isolates put positive influent on biofilm formation and plastic degradation for indigenous beach sand bacteria. Bacillus PL-01 put higher influent than Pseudomonas PL-01. Plastic transparent was preferable degraded than black and white plastic bag `kresek'. But anyhow, indigenous mangrove soil bacteria showed the best performance in biofilm formation and plastic degradation, even without Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 addition. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis complemented the results; there were attenuated peaks with decreasing peaks transmittances. This FTIR peaks indicated chemical functional group changes happened among the plastic compounds after 16 weeks incubation time.

  6. PL-PatchSurfer: a novel molecular local surface-based method for exploring protein-ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bingjie; Zhu, Xiaolei; Monroe, Lyman; Bures, Mark G; Kihara, Daisuke

    2014-08-27

    Structure-based computational methods have been widely used in exploring protein-ligand interactions, including predicting the binding ligands of a given protein based on their structural complementarity. Compared to other protein and ligand representations, the advantages of a surface representation include reduced sensitivity to subtle changes in the pocket and ligand conformation and fast search speed. Here we developed a novel method named PL-PatchSurfer (Protein-Ligand PatchSurfer). PL-PatchSurfer represents the protein binding pocket and the ligand molecular surface as a combination of segmented surface patches. Each patch is characterized by its geometrical shape and the electrostatic potential, which are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD). We first tested PL-PatchSurfer on binding ligand prediction and found it outperformed the pocket-similarity based ligand prediction program. We then optimized the search algorithm of PL-PatchSurfer using the PDBbind dataset. Finally, we explored the utility of applying PL-PatchSurfer to a larger and more diverse dataset and showed that PL-PatchSurfer was able to provide a high early enrichment for most of the targets. To the best of our knowledge, PL-PatchSurfer is the first surface patch-based method that treats ligand complementarity at protein binding sites. We believe that using a surface patch approach to better understand protein-ligand interactions has the potential to significantly enhance the design of new ligands for a wide array of drug-targets.

  7. Design And Ground Testing For The Expert PL4/PL5 'Natural And Roughness Induced Transition'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutti, Davie; Chazot, Olivier; Donelli, Raffaele; de Rosa, Donato

    2011-05-01

    Unpredicted boundary layer transition can impact dramatically the stability of the vehicle, its aerodynamic coefficients and reduce the efficiency of the thermal protection system. In this frame, ESA started the EXPERT (European eXPErimental Reentry Testbed) program to pro- vide and perform in-flight experiments in order to obtain aerothermodynamic data for the validation of numerical models and of ground-to-flight extrapolation methodologies. Considering the boundary layer transition investigation, the EXPERT vehicle is equipped with two specific payloads, PL4 and PL5, concerning respectively the study of the natural and roughness induced transition. The paper is a survey on the design process of these two in-flight experiments and it covers the major analyses and findings encountered during the development of the payloads. A large amount of transition criteria have been investigated and used to estimate either the dangerousness of the height of the distributed roughness, arising due to nose erosion, or the effectiveness of height of the isolated roughness element forcing the boundary layer transition. Supporting the PL4 design, linear stability computations and CFD analyses have been performed by CIRA on the EXPERT flight vehicle to determine the amplification factor of the boundary layer instabilities at different point of the re-entry trajectory. Ground test experiments regarding the PL5 are carried on in the Mach 6 VKI H3 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel with a Reynolds numbers ranging from 18E6/m to 26E6/m. Infrared measurements (Stanton number) and flow visualization are used on a 1/16 scaled model of the EXPERT vehicle and a flat plate to validate the Potter and Whitfield criterion as a suitable methodology for ground-to-flight extrapolation and the payload design.

  8. Plástica mitral Mitral repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo M Braile

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 101 pacientes submetidos a plástica da valva mitral em seis anos, com seguimento de 100%. Entre eles, 36 eram do sexo masculino e 65 do sexo feminino, com idade variando de dois a 62 anos (M = 28 ± 16,4. Desses, 57 (56,4% foram submetidos apenas a abordagem valvar mitral. Os demais foram submetidos a procedimentos associados, como plástica tricúspide (9,9%, revascularização do miocárdio (4,0%, entre outros. Não foi registrado óbito imediato. O índice de mortalidade tardia foi de 2% (AVC hemorrágico após cinco anos e septicemia, no primeiro ano. As complicações não fatais foram representadas pela endocardite evidenciada em dois pacientes (2%, sendo tratados e curados, e um paciente com reestenose mitral pós-plástica por reagudização da doença reumática. O estudo atuarial revelou um índice de 79,0 ± 17,7% de sobrevida, um total de 76,3 ± 17,8% de pacientes livres de complicações, 80,0 ± 17,9% de reoperações, 100,0% livres de tromboembolismo. Os resultados ecodoplercardiográficos registraram que 89% dos pacientes evoluíram com ausência de insuficiência. Dos 11% restantes, 7,4% apresentram insuficiência mitral discreta, 2,4% moderada e 2% importante. De acordo com a classificação da NYHA, os pacientes das classes III (83,8% e IV (16,2% passaram para as classes I (33,3%, II (60,6%, III (4,1% e IV (2%. Os autores concluem que o anel de pericárdio flexível conforma-se perfeitamente com o anel valvar, não produz hemólise e se endoteliza completamente a médio prazo.A hundred-and-one patients were studied in six years, with 100% of follow-up. Among them, 36 were male and 65 female, with an age range of two to 62 years (mean 28 ± 16.4%. Fifty seven of them (56.4% underwent just a mitral surgery, the others and other associated procedures, as tricuspid plastic (9.9%, coronary artery revascularization (4.0%, among others. Hospital mortality was not registered. The late mortality rate was 2% for AVC

  9. de artes plásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Castro Bonilla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto que a continuación presento, surge de una investigación en la que participan docentes que imparten lecciones en instituciones del sistema educativo y se preocupan por renovar sus prácticas pedagógicas con el propósito de que sus estudiantes ¬-niños y adolescentes-apliquen los aprendizajes mediante nuevas formas de expresión artística. En el artículo se menciona la metodología que aplica esa investigación, la cual se organiza mediante “fases” que facilitan espacios reflexivos que permiten valorar el trabajo docente mediante el enfoque cualitativo que promueve la investigación-acción en el aula. También se hace referencia a la fundamentación de una práctica pedagógica que le permite al profesor y a sus estudiantes, la posibilidad de asignar nuevos significados al trabajo que se realiza dentro y fuera del contexto escolar. Finalmente, se ofrecen algunas propuestas metodológicas que se dirigen de manera especial a quienes imparten lecciones de artes plásticas en la educación secundaria, aunque se pueden adecuar a otras poblaciones estudiantiles, mediante la planificación de proyectos que tiendan a mejorar las experiencias artísticas de quienes participan en los procesos de aprendizaje. Se espera que el texto facilite la organización de investigaciones que favorezcan la innovación en el aula.

  10. Comparative PL study of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by APMOCVD and CBD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr, E-mail: volkh@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Yakimova, Rositza; Karlsson, Fredrik; Syed, Abdul S.; Holtz, Per-Olof [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Nigussa Urgessa, Zelalem [Department of Physics, P.O Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Samuel Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag XI 5117 (South Africa); Reinhardt Botha, Johannes [Department of Physics, P.O Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    The photoluminescence properties of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCV) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are investigated by means of temperature dependent micro-PL. It was found that the low temperature PL spectra are driven by neutral donor bound exciton emission D{sup 0}X, peaked at 3.359 and 3.363 eV for APMOCVD and CBD ZnO nanorods, respectively. The temperature increase causes a red energy shift of the peaks and enhancement of the free excitonic emission (FX). The FX was found to dominate after 150 K for both samples. It was observed that while APMOCVD ZnO nanorods possess a constant low signal of visible deep level emission with temperature, the ZnO nanorods grown by CBD revealed the thermal activation of deep level emission (DLE) after 130 K. The resulting room temperature DLE was a wide band located at 420-550 nm. The PL properties of individual ZnO nanorods can be of importance for their forthcoming application in future optoelectronics and photonics.

  11. Comparative PL study of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by APMOCVD and CBD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Yakimova, Rositza; Karlsson, Fredrik; Syed, Abdul S.; Holtz, Per-Olof; Nigussa Urgessa, Zelalem; Samuel Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi; Reinhardt Botha, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The photoluminescence properties of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCV) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are investigated by means of temperature dependent micro-PL. It was found that the low temperature PL spectra are driven by neutral donor bound exciton emission D 0 X, peaked at 3.359 and 3.363 eV for APMOCVD and CBD ZnO nanorods, respectively. The temperature increase causes a red energy shift of the peaks and enhancement of the free excitonic emission (FX). The FX was found to dominate after 150 K for both samples. It was observed that while APMOCVD ZnO nanorods possess a constant low signal of visible deep level emission with temperature, the ZnO nanorods grown by CBD revealed the thermal activation of deep level emission (DLE) after 130 K. The resulting room temperature DLE was a wide band located at 420–550 nm. The PL properties of individual ZnO nanorods can be of importance for their forthcoming application in future optoelectronics and photonics.

  12. PL and EL characterizations of ZnO:Eu3+, Li+ films derived by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Daoqi; Zhang Junying; Yang Chun; Wang Tianmin

    2008-01-01

    ZnO:Eu 3+ , Li + films prepared by the dip-coating method were characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL). When the ZnO:Eu 3+ , Li + films were excited using UV light with energy corresponding to the band-to-band excitation of the host matrix, the PL spectra showed emissions from both ZnO and Eu 3+ ions, while their EL spectra showed emissions only from Eu 3+ ions, and no emission from ZnO could be detected. It is found that the EL emission intensity B is dependent on the applied voltage, B=B o exp(-bV -1/2 ). With increasing frequency, the EL intensity dramatically increases at lower frequencies ( 1000 Hz)

  13. Espacio plástico y significación

    OpenAIRE

    González Ochoa, César

    2010-01-01

    El concepto central de este trabajo es el espacio plástico. La noción familiar es la de artes plásticas, entendidas como aquellas que representan conceptos, emociones o situaciones por medio de formas y volúmenes; es decir, a través de elementos que se perciben por los sentidos. Cada época produce sus propios modos de representar el espacio, que no es una simple reproducción sino una producción; el espacio producido de esta manera es el espacio plástico, resultado de las conductas humanas de ...

  14. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2012-01-31

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF ( approximately 2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage ( approximately 25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these

  15. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF (∼2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage (∼25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these proteins are

  16. PL-PatchSurfer: A Novel Molecular Local Surface-Based Method for Exploring Protein-Ligand Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Structure-based computational methods have been widely used in exploring protein-ligand interactions, including predicting the binding ligands of a given protein based on their structural complementarity. Compared to other protein and ligand representations, the advantages of a surface representation include reduced sensitivity to subtle changes in the pocket and ligand conformation and fast search speed. Here we developed a novel method named PL-PatchSurfer (Protein-Ligand PatchSurfer. PL-PatchSurfer represents the protein binding pocket and the ligand molecular surface as a combination of segmented surface patches. Each patch is characterized by its geometrical shape and the electrostatic potential, which are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD. We first tested PL-PatchSurfer on binding ligand prediction and found it outperformed the pocket-similarity based ligand prediction program. We then optimized the search algorithm of PL-PatchSurfer using the PDBbind dataset. Finally, we explored the utility of applying PL-PatchSurfer to a larger and more diverse dataset and showed that PL-PatchSurfer was able to provide a high early enrichment for most of the targets. To the best of our knowledge, PL-PatchSurfer is the first surface patch-based method that treats ligand complementarity at protein binding sites. We believe that using a surface patch approach to better understand protein-ligand interactions has the potential to significantly enhance the design of new ligands for a wide array of drug-targets.

  17. Síntesis y biodegradación de polihidroxialcanoatos: plásticos de origen microbiano

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ GARCÍA, Yolanda; MEZA CONTRERAS, Juan Carlos; GONZÁLEZ REYNOSO, Orfil; CÓRDOVA LÓPEZ, Jesús Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Los polihidroxialcanoatos (PHA) son biopoliésteres sintetizados intracelularmente por algunos microorganismos como reserva de carbono y energía que, una vez extraídos de la célula, presentan propiedades físicas similares a plásticos derivados del petróleo. A partir de la década de 1980 han sido estudiados intensivamente y actualmente siguen siendo un tema de investigación importante, sobre todo como sustitutos de los plásticos de origen petroquímico, ya que los PHA son completamente biodegrad...

  18. On the origin of excimer emission in electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra of polyfluorenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacha, Martin; Ha, Jaekook; Sato, Hisaya

    2007-01-01

    We report a study on the differences in red-shifted excimer band in photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) spectra of thin films of a copolymer of dibutylfluorene and butylphenylphenoxazine. The relative intensity of the excimer band in PL spectra increases with temperature above the polymer glass transition, and with the intensity of the excitation light. In EL spectra, on the other hand, the relative excimer intensity is seen to decrease with increasing driving voltage. These opposite trends originate from the different nature of excitations in PL and EL spectra: photoexcitation directly creates singlet excitons while electric excitation proceeds via interaction of injected electrons and holes. In case of electric excitation, the observed results might be due to trap-assisted excimer formation

  19. EDITORIAL: Plágio e ineditismo dos artigos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Castro Amoras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available EDITORIAL: Plágio e ineditismo dos artigos A partir deste ano de 2016, a revista Estação Científica (UNIFAP passou a adotar, como instrumento auxiliar da seleção dos artigos que serão publicados, a checagem de plágio nos conteúdos dos trabalhos que recebemos. Consta no site da revista a informação de que todos os trabalhos passarão por verificação de plágio, e desta forma alerta-se que sejam apresentados à Estação Científica (UNIFAP apenas os trabalhos que tenham autenticidade de autoria.

  20. Marketingový plán pro BT SERVIS

    OpenAIRE

    Bilíková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Předmětem diplomové práce je sestavení marketingového plánu pro společnost BT servis, která plánuje otevřít novou pobočku v Jihomoravském kraji. V první části jsou představena teoretická východiska, která se vztahují ke zkoumané problematice. Následuje analýza současného stavu podniku a jeho okolí. Získané informace jsou vyhodnoceny a poté je sestaven marketingový plán na období jednoho roku. The scope of this diploma thesis is the creation of a marketing strategy for the BT servis company...

  1. Education's "Three Mile Island": PL 94-142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay

    1981-01-01

    PL 94-142 is viewed as educationally and psychologically destructive to disabled students. It is also described as financially devastating to local school districts since it mandates that: (1) Cost cannot be considered a factor in developing educational programs for handicapped children; and (2) The most money be spent on children least likely to…

  2. Amenazas toxicológicas del plástico

    Science.gov (United States)

    El plástico representa el 80 de la basura marina que se origina de desperdicios terrestres. La presencia de estos desechos pásticos tiene un impacto negativo en el medioambiente, el turismo, la industria de la pesca y la navegación.

  3. Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions...... and spectra for discrete-time and continuous-time (analog) signals are pretty similar. Consequently, we confine the discussion mainly to real discrete-time signals. The Appendix contains detailed definitions and properties of correlation functions and spectra for analog as well as discrete-time signals....... It is possible to define correlation functions and associated spectra for aperiodic, periodic and random signals although the interpretation is different. Moreover, we will discuss correlation functions when mixing these basic signal types. In addition, the note include several examples for the purpose...

  4. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  5. PL-1 program system for generalized Patterson superpositions. [PL1GEN, SYMPL1, and ALSPL1, in PL/1 for IBM 360/65 computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, C.R.; Babich, M.W.; Jacobson, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    A new system of three programs written in PL/1 can calculate symmetry and Patterson superposition maps for triclinic, monoclinic, and orthorhombic space groups as well as any space group reducible to one of these three. These programs are based on a system of FORTRAN programs developed at Ames Laboratory, but are more general and have expanded utility, especially with regard to large unit cells. The program PLIGEN calculates a direct access data set, SYMPL1 calculates a direct access symmetry map, and ALSPL1 calculates a superposition map using one or multiple superpositions. A detailed description of the use of these programs including symbolic program listings is included. 2 tables.

  6. Fabrication and PL of Al-doped gallium nitride nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shaomin

    2006-01-01

    Mass Al-doped GaN nanowires with an average diameter of about 50 nm and lengths up to several millimeters are fabricated by a CVD approach. The as-fabricated products have a single crystal phase and grow along the direction. The growth of Al-doped GaN nanowires is suggested for quasi-vapor-solid mechanism (QVSM). In particular, for as large-scale GaN nanowires, a novel strong ultraviolet PL spectrum (from 3.3 to 3.7 eV) appears with a doping Al where the Al-doped GaN nanowires are found to be responsible for the different characteristics; the PL mechanism is explained in detail

  7. International P/L Insurance Output, Input, and Productivity Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Mary A. Weiss

    1991-01-01

    This research provides (bilateral) divisia and multilateral divisia indexes of output, input, and productivity for the property-liability (P-L) insurance industry for the following countries: United States, West Germany, Switzerland, France, and Japan. The time period studied is 1975 to 1987. The results indicate that considerable diversity exists among different countries, with Japan showing the weakest productivity growth. The United States and West Germany are associated overall with high ...

  8. Dziennikarze obywatelscy czy sprzedawcy rozrywki? Rzecz o Demotywatorach.pl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Barczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Web site called Demotywatory.pl was established in 2008. It is a response to popular in the USA Motivators. Nowadays thousands of Internet users visit this Web site every day. Currently we have to redefine the basic categories: the text, the sender, the recipient. „Demot” is a specific message (interesting picture and intelligent buzzword Anyone can become a virtual publicist and say about important issues. This article tries to answer on the title question.

  9. Different spectra with the same neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Martinez B, M. R.; Hernandez A, B.; Ortiz H, A. A.; Mercado, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    Using as source term the spectrum of a 239 Pu-Be source several neutron spectra have been calculated using Monte Carlo methods. The source term was located in the centre of spherical moderators made of light water, heavy water and polyethylene of different diameters. Also a 239 Pu-Be source was used to measure its neutron spectrum, bare and moderated by water. The neutron spectra were measured at 100 cm with a Bonner spheres spectrometer. Monte Carlo calculations were used to calculate the neutron spectra of bare and water-moderated spectra that were compared with those measured with the spectrometer. Resulting spectra are similar to those found in power plants with PWR, BWR and Candu nuclear reactors. Beside the spectra the dosimetric features were determined. Using moderators and a single neutron source can be produced neutron spectra alike those found in workplaces, this neutron fields can be utilized to calibrate neutron dosimeters and area monitors. (Author)

  10. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  11. Effects of electrolyte gating on photoluminescence spectra of large-area WSe2monolayer films

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuki, Keiichiro; Pu, Jiang; Kozawa, Daichi; Matsuda, Kazunari; Li, Lain-Jong; Takenobu, Taishi

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated electric double-layer transistors comprising large-area WSe2 monolayers and investigated the effects of electrolyte gating on their photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Using the efficient gating effects of electric double layers, we succeeded in the application of a large electric field (>107Vcm%1) and the accumulation of high carrier density (>1013cm%2). As a result, we observed PL spectra based on both positively and negatively charged excitons and their gate-voltage-dependent redshifts, suggesting the effects of both an electric field and charge accumulation. © 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  12. Effects of electrolyte gating on photoluminescence spectra of large-area WSe2monolayer films

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuki, Keiichiro

    2016-05-24

    We fabricated electric double-layer transistors comprising large-area WSe2 monolayers and investigated the effects of electrolyte gating on their photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Using the efficient gating effects of electric double layers, we succeeded in the application of a large electric field (>107Vcm%1) and the accumulation of high carrier density (>1013cm%2). As a result, we observed PL spectra based on both positively and negatively charged excitons and their gate-voltage-dependent redshifts, suggesting the effects of both an electric field and charge accumulation. © 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  13. Análisis plástico y Ensayos de Losas multidireccionales de HRFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maturana, A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of multidirectional steel fibers reinforced concrete slabs (SFRC. The study is based on a real building application using SFRC flag slabs. For the evaluation of the slabs bearing capacity, plastic calculations are performed both at section and structure levels. The section analysis uses the perfect plastic stress-strain diagram, with reference to the values of the strength characteristics of SFRC based on previous jobs that used similar fibers and dosages. In the structure analysis the plastic yield lines method has been used. This method relates the section last bearing moment and the plastic collapse load. The experimental campaign has consisted of the testing of six 2 m. diameter circular shaped slabs prototypes, and has allowed to verify the reference resistance used in the calculations.En este trabajo se realiza un estudio teórico- experimental de losas multidireccionales de hormigón reforzado con fibras de acero (HRFA. El estudio se enmarca en una aplicación de un edificio real usando HRFA en los forjados. Para la evaluación de la capacidad resistente de las losas, se realizan cálculos plásticos, tanto a nivel de sección como de estructura. A nivel de sección se emplea el diagrama tensión-deformación plástico perfecto, tomando como referencia los valores de las características resistentes del HRFA aportados en trabajos anteriores que emplearon fibras y dosificaciones similares. A nivel de estructura se emplea el método plástico de las líneas de rotura, que relaciona el momento último de la sección la carga de colapso plástico. La campaña experimental, consiste en ensayar seis prototipos en forma de loseta circular de 2 m de diámetro, verificando el valor de la resistencia de referencia empleada en los cálculos.

  14. Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.; Seaton, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Features observed in infrared spectra suggest that certain very low excitation (VLE) nebulae have low C/O abundance ratios (Cohen and Barlow 1980; Aitken and Roche 1982). Fluxes in the multiplets [O II] lambda 2470 and C II] lambda 2326 have been measured for the VLE nebula He He 2-131 = HD 138403 using IUE high-dispersion spectra. An analysis similar to that of Harrington et al. (1980) for IC 418 gives C/O = 0.3 for He 2-131, compared with C/O = 1.3 for IC 418 and 0.6 for the Sun. (author)

  15. Rationale for utilizing 3PL in supply chain management: A shippers' economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Koichiro Tezuka

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we first propose a conceptual framework for evaluating 3PL (third-party logistics) utilization in SCM (supply chain management), in which it is assumed that shippers may enjoy advantages derived from four contributory sources of 3PL specialization: scale, know-how, searching ability, and IT skills. It is also supposed that shippers may particularly benefit from 3PL when facing uncertain business environments. We also apply principal–agent relationships to shippers and 3PL provid...

  16. The cross-pathway control system regulates production of the secondary metabolite toxin, sirodesmin PL, in the ascomycete, Leptosphaeria maculans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Ellen M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirodesmin PL is a secondary metabolite toxin made by the ascomycetous plant pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans. The sirodesmin biosynthetic genes are clustered in the genome. The key genes are a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, sirP, and a pathway-specific transcription factor, sirZ. Little is known about regulation of sirodesmin production. Results Genes involved in regulation of sirodesmin PL in L. maculans have been identified. Two hundred random insertional T-DNA mutants were screened with an antibacterial assay for ones producing low levels of sirodesmin PL. Three such mutants were isolated and each transcribed sirZ at very low levels. One of the affected genes had high sequence similarity to Aspergillus fumigatus cpcA, which regulates the cross-pathway control system in response to amino acid availability. This gene was silenced in L. maculans and the resultant mutant characterised. When amino acid starvation was artificially-induced by addition of 3-aminotriazole for 5 h, transcript levels of sirP and sirZ did not change in the wild type. In contrast, levels of sirP and sirZ transcripts increased in the silenced cpcA mutant. After prolonged amino acid starvation the silenced cpcA mutant produced much higher amounts of sirodesmin PL than the wild type. Conclusions Production of sirodesmin PL in L. maculans is regulated by the cross pathway control gene, cpcA, either directly or indirectly via the pathway-specific transcription factor, sirZ.

  17. Naukaoklimacie.pl: Between Science Blog and Mythbuster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, S. P.; Popkiewicz, M.; Kardaś, A.; Bielewicz, A.

    2015-12-01

    "Naukaoklimacie" is a Polish fellow of a well known portal SkepticalScience.com. The name is a quibble. This cluster of two Polish words can be translated into English as "Climate Science" or "Science about Climate". Naukaoklimacie.pl and the associate Facebook page is an ongoing, over two years old project, aimed at providing Polish-speaking community fundamentals of climate science. Itgives insight into the recent climate science achievements, rebutts climate misinformation and busts climate myths. During two years of activity we published over 250 texts, our Facebook page has over 4k fans and results in 4-12 thousands post reach week-to-week, the mainpage articles are quoted in press and used as reading texts for students. Unlike in many countries, in Poland there is a real problem in finding a trustworthy information on climate change and science behind it. Neither universities, nor governmental agencies present climate science to Polish society. Naukaoklimacie.pl fills this gap in an unique way. Editorial group of the portal consists of two atmospheric scientists, a physicist and the professional journalist and is supported by a scientific council, consisting of 14 active scientists specializing in various aspects of climate, atmosphere, biodiversity, atmospheric chemistry e.t.c.. All the texts published in the webpage are consulted with scientists - specialists in the subject of the text, usually from the scientific council, sometimes by the external specialists. All the texts provide links to the original scientific publications. Naukaoklimacie.pl is not only an internet activity. We meet people on Festivals of Science, Science Open Days. We exist also in the mainstream media the editors and the scientific councils were interviewed by press and TV.

  18. Cálculo de engranajes plásticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Moya Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos tiempos los materiales plásticos han tenido una proliferación en todos los campos de la Industria Mecánica, debido esencialmente a su bajo costo y a las mejoras de las propiedades mecánicas que se han ido logrando. En el caso particular de las transmisiones por engranajes existe una gran cantidad de estos materiales que pueden ser usados y de hecho se utilizan para la fabricación de ruedas dentadas de características muy disímiles. En la literatura científica existe muy poca información disponible sobre las fallas de engranajes plásticos, métodos de cálculo a resistencia y posibles materiales a emplear con sus respectivas propiedades mecánicas. Inclusive este tema no se aborda en los currículos de estudio tradicionales en Ibero-América. Queda mucho por discutir aun acerca del empleo de las correcciones del dentado en estas ruedas dentadas plásticas. En el presente trabajo se hace un análisis de los materiales, características, estudio de las fallas principales, métodos de cálculo y ejemplos de aplicación de los engranajes plásticos.Recently the use of plastic materials has been growing up due to their low cost and the improvements achieved on their mechanical properties. In the particular case of gear transmissions there are great quantities of polymers that can be used for gears. Plastic gears are powerful means of cutting drive cost, weight, noise, and wear. Plastic gears also open new opportunities for smaller and more efficient transmissions. Scientific literature about plastic gears failures, designing methods and materials is insufficient. Most engineering reference books are desicated to steel gears but there are remarkably silent about plastic gears. Design methods for plastic gears and gear trains must be modernized, because much of the information available is derived from research in metal gears. Main failures of plastic gears, calculation methods and the use of modification profiles among other

  19. Enhanced PL and EL properties of Alq3/nano-TiO2 with the modification of 8-vinyl POSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Xie, Bing; Xia, Kai; Zhao, Chunmao; Li, Yingchun; Hu, Shengliang

    2018-04-01

    In this study, tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum/nano-titanium dioxide (Alq3/nano-TiO2) composites were synthesized using a simply in-situ process with 8-vinyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) as a modifier. The as-prepared Alq3/nano-TiO2 composites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra. The effect of modification on luminescence properties for the samples was studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectra, electroluminescence (EL) spectra and time-resolved luminescence decay curves. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the corresponded emitting layer structure were investigated. The results show that the amphiphilicity of the 8-vinyl POSS leads to well-dispersion state of the nano-TiO2 in the Alq3. Adding a proper weight percentage of 8-vinyl POSS is beneficial for the PL and EL properties enhancement of the composites. OLED using the Alq3/nano-TiO2 with 1 wt% 8-vinyl POSS emitting layer has the low turn-on voltage (4.7 V at 1 cd/m2), high maximum luminance (7463 cd/m2 at 8.75 V), and high luminous efficiency (1.13 cd/A at 100 mA/cm2). Adding 1 wt% 8-vinyl POSS in Alq3/nano-TiO2 can increase the EL intensity by a factor of 37.1 at 8 V. These values are better than those for OLEDs using the Alq3 emitting layer. The increase in luminance and current efficiency stability can be attributed to the energy transfer process between the Alq3 and the nano-TiO2, and the suppression of the self-quenching by caged 8-vinyl POSS molecules.

  20. Product Lines for Service Oriented Applications - PL for SOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice H. ter Beek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PL for SOA proposes, formally, a software engineering methodology, development techniques and support tools for the provision of service product lines. We propose rigorous modeling techniques for the specification and verification of formal notations and languages for service computing with inclinations of variability. Through these cutting-edge technologies, increased levels of flexibility and adaptivity can be achieved. This will involve developing semantics of variability over behavioural models of services. Such tools will assist organizations to plan, optimize and control the quality of software service provision, both at design and at run time by making it possible to develop flexible and cost-effective software systems that support high levels of reuse. We tackle this challenge from two levels. We use feature modeling from product line engineering and, from a services point of view, the orchestration language Orc. We introduce the Smart Grid as the service product line to apply the techniques to.

  1. The photoluminescence/excitation (PL/E) spectroscopy of Eu-implanted GaN

    KAUST Repository

    O'Donnell, Kevin Peter

    2011-05-01

    Several distinct luminescent centres form in GaN samples doped with Eu. One centre, Eu2, recently identified as the isolated, substitutional Eu impurity, EuGa, is dominant in ion-implanted samples annealed under very high pressures (1 GPa) of N2. According to structural determinations, such samples exhibit an essentially complete removal of lattice damage caused by the implantation process. A second centre, Eu1, probably comprising EuGa in association with an intrinsic lattice defect, produces a more complex emission spectrum. In addition there are several unidentified features in the 5D0 to 7F2 spectral region near 620 nm. We can readily distinguish Eu1 and Eu2 by their excitation spectra, in particular through their different sensitivities to above-gap and below-gap excitation. The present study extends recent work on photoluminescence/ excitation (PL/E) spectroscopy of Eu1 and Eu2 to arrive at an understanding of these mechanisms in terms of residual optically active defect concentrations. We also report further on the \\'host-independent\\' excitation mechanism that is active in the case of a prominent minority centre. The relevance of this work to the operation of the red GaN:Eu light-emitting diode is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The photoluminescence/excitation (PL/E) spectroscopy of Eu-implanted GaN

    KAUST Repository

    O'Donnell, Kevin Peter; Roqan, Iman S.; Wang, Ke; Lorenz, Katharina; Alves, Eduardo Jorge; Boćkowski, Michał X.

    2011-01-01

    Several distinct luminescent centres form in GaN samples doped with Eu. One centre, Eu2, recently identified as the isolated, substitutional Eu impurity, EuGa, is dominant in ion-implanted samples annealed under very high pressures (1 GPa) of N2. According to structural determinations, such samples exhibit an essentially complete removal of lattice damage caused by the implantation process. A second centre, Eu1, probably comprising EuGa in association with an intrinsic lattice defect, produces a more complex emission spectrum. In addition there are several unidentified features in the 5D0 to 7F2 spectral region near 620 nm. We can readily distinguish Eu1 and Eu2 by their excitation spectra, in particular through their different sensitivities to above-gap and below-gap excitation. The present study extends recent work on photoluminescence/ excitation (PL/E) spectroscopy of Eu1 and Eu2 to arrive at an understanding of these mechanisms in terms of residual optically active defect concentrations. We also report further on the 'host-independent' excitation mechanism that is active in the case of a prominent minority centre. The relevance of this work to the operation of the red GaN:Eu light-emitting diode is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectra of Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This book gives an elementary treatment of the basic material about graph spectra, both for ordinary, and Laplace and Seidel spectra. The text progresses systematically, by covering standard topics before presenting some new material on trees, strongly regular graphs, two-graphs, association

  4. Spectra of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Budi; Arumbinang, Haryono.

    1981-01-01

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  5. Development of Agricultural Product Logistics from the Perspective of the 4PL

    OpenAIRE

    ZHONG, Wuya; YAN, Wei

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Fourth Party Logistics (4PL), this paper elaborates the concept, background and development plight of agricultural products logistics, advises developing 4PL under the background of rapid development of agricultural products and logistics, etc. and explores issues of information, efficiency and supervision of agricultural products logistics, draws the conclusion that only construct an 4PL agricultural products logistics system can alleviate the aporia of cost, and ...

  6. Photoinduced Effects in the ZnO Luminescence Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopyan, I. Kh.; Labzovskaya, M. E.; Novikov, B. V.; Lisachenko, A. A.; Serov, A. Yu.; Filosofov, N. G.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of intense UV irradiation on the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO powders and nanocrystalline films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was investigated. At room temperature, the behavior of the spectra under continuous UV irradiation in multiple vacuum-atmosphere cycles was studied. The changes in the intensities of exciton radiation and radiation in the "green" band region, associated with the phenomena of oxygen photodesorption and photoadsorption, are discussed. In the temperature range of 5-300 K, the effect of strong UV irradiation on the near-edge luminescence spectrum of ZnO films was studied. The nature of a new line arising in the photoluminescence spectra of an irradiated film in the region of emission of bound excitons is discussed.

  7. Rationale for utilizing 3PL in supply chain management: A shippers' economic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Tezuka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we first propose a conceptual framework for evaluating 3PL (third-party logistics utilization in SCM (supply chain management, in which it is assumed that shippers may enjoy advantages derived from four contributory sources of 3PL specialization: scale, know-how, searching ability, and IT skills. It is also supposed that shippers may particularly benefit from 3PL when facing uncertain business environments. We also apply principal–agent relationships to shippers and 3PL providers. Further, we see enhancing “agency efficiency” as important to obtaining the benefits of 3PL utilization. We also look at the role of 3PL provider selection, the “hold-up” problem under incomplete contracts, and asset ownership. After that we briefly discuss the utilization of 3PL and environmental concerns. These are the main points that we consider related to 3PL utilization. The main contribution of this study is to identify discussion points from models and theories, such as contract theory, that relate to the utilization of 3PL in SCM.

  8. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets....... Our results show that the proposed functions work better than other methods proposed in the literature....

  9. Phoneme Similarity and Confusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity between component speech sounds influences language processing in numerous ways. Explanation and detailed prediction of linguistic performance consequently requires an understanding of these basic similarities. The research reported in this paper contrasts two broad classes of approach to the issue of phoneme similarity-theoretically…

  10. Effect of PlA1/A2 glycoprotein IIIa gene polymorphism on the long-term outcome after successful coronary stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddell John

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To prospectively determine the role of platelet glycoprotein IIIa (GP IIIa gene PlA1/PlA2 polymorphism on the long-term clinical outcome in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing coronary stenting. Design and setting Prospective observational study in the University Hospital of Caen (France. Patients and methods 1 111 symptomatic consecutive Caucasian patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention including stent implantation underwent genotyping for GP IIIa PlA1/A2. Main outcome measures Long-term clinical outcome in terms of the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE, ie death from any cause, non-fatal Q wave or non Q wave myocardial infarction, and need for coronary revascularisation was obtained and subsequently stratified according to the GP IIIa PlA1/A2 polymorphism. Results Three groups of patients were determined according to the GP IIIa PlA1/A2 polymorphism (71.6% had the A1/A1, 25.8% had the A1/A2 and 2.6% had the A2/A2 genotype. These three groups were comparable for all clinical characteristics including sex ratio, mean age, vascular risk factors, previous coronary events, baseline angiographic exam, indication for the percutaneous coronary intervention and drug therapy. The incidence of MACE was similar in these 3 groups of patients during a mean follow-up period of 654+/-152 days. Independent risk factors for MACE were a left ventricular ejection fraction Conclusion The GP IIIa PlA1/A2 polymorphism does not influence the clinical long-term outcome in patients with symptomatic coronary disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation.

  11. Photoluminescence emission spectra of Makrofol® DE 1-1 upon irradiation with ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Ghazaly

    Full Text Available Photoluminescence (PL emission spectra of Makrofol® DE 1-1 (bisphenol-A based polycarbonate upon irradiation with ultraviolet radiation of different wavelengths were investigated. The absorption-and attenuation coefficient measurements revealed that the Makrofol® DE 1-1 is characterized by high absorbance in the energy range 6.53–4.43 eV but for a lower energy than 4.43 eV, it is approximately transparent. Makrofol® DE 1-1 samples were irradiated with ultraviolet radiation of wavelength in the range from 250 (4.28 eV to 400 (3.10 eV nm in step of 10 nm and the corresponding photoluminescence (PL emission spectra were measured with a spectrofluorometer. It is found that the integrated counts and the peak height of the photoluminescence emission (PL bands are strongly correlated with the ultraviolet radiation wavelength. They are increased at the ultraviolet radiation wavelength 280 nm and have maximum at 290 nm, thereafter they decrease and diminish at 360 nm of ultraviolet wavelength. The position of the PL emission band peak was red shifted starting from 300 nm, which increased with the increase the ultraviolet radiation wavelength. The PL bandwidth increases linearly with the increase of the ultraviolet radiation wavelength. When Makrofol® DE 1-1 is irradiated with ultraviolet radiation of short wavelength (UVC, the photoluminescence emission spectra peaks also occur in the UVC but of a relatively longer wavelength. The current new findings should be considered carefully when using Makrofol® DE 1-1 in medical applications related to ultraviolet radiation. Keywords: Photoluminescence spectra, Makrofol® DE 1-1, UV–vis spectrophotometry, Attenuation coefficient, Ultraviolet radiation

  12. Role of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (pl. PDC) in chloroplast metabolism of spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Siebert, D.; Homeyer, U.; Schultz, G.

    1986-01-01

    Labeling experiments of chloroplasts in the light ( 14 CO 2 , 2- 14 C-pyruvate etc.) revealed that pl. PDC is predominantly involved in the synthesis of branched chain amino acids and pl. isoprenoids (carotenes, PQ, α-T). In this context, pl. phosphoglycerate mutase as missing link in the C 3 → C 2 metabolism of chloroplasts was identified by latency experiments. This indicates a direct pathway from Calvin cycle to pl. PDC. Using protoplasts, maximal rates in pl. PDC metabolism were obtained. On the other hand, mitochondrial PDC in protoplasts is mainly involved in fatty acid synthesis by known mechanism. Additionally, cytosolic-ER-isoprenoids were formed (e.g. sterols). When 14 CO 2 was simultaneously applied with unlabeled acetate to protoplasts in the light an isotopic dilution of fatty acids were found but not of pl. isoprenoids. This may indicate an partially channeling of pl. PDC and mevalonate pathway for pl. isoprenoid synthesis. Inhibitory studies with DCMU point in the same direction

  13. Inhibition of Stromal PlGF Suppresses the Growth of Prostate Cancer Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth and vascularization of prostate cancer is dependent on interactions between cancer cells and supporting stromal cells. The primary stromal cell type found in prostate tumors is the carcinoma-associated fibroblast, which produces placental growth factor (PlGF. PlGF is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family of angiogenic molecules and PlGF mRNA levels increase after androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer. In this study, we show that PlGF has a direct dose-dependent proliferative effect on human PC-3 prostate cancer cells in vitro and fibroblast-derived PlGF increases PC-3 proliferation in co-culture. In xenograft tumor models, intratumoral administration of murine PlGF siRNA reduced stromal-derived PlGF expression, reduced tumor burden and decreased the number of Ki-67 positive proliferating cells associated with reduced vascular density. These data show that targeting stromal PlGF expression may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  14. An Alternative to the 3PL: Using Asymmetric Item Characteristic Curves to Address Guessing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sora; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2018-01-01

    Both the statistical and interpretational shortcomings of the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model in accommodating guessing effects on multiple-choice items are well documented. We consider the use of a residual heteroscedasticity (RH) model as an alternative, and compare its performance to the 3PL with real test data sets and through simulation…

  15. Improving seismic crustal models in the Corinth Gulf, Greece and estimating source depth using PL-waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vackář, Jiří; Zahradník, Jiří

    2013-04-01

    A recent shallow earthquake in the Corinth Gulf, Greece (Mw 5.3, January 18, 2010; Sokos et al., Tectonophysics 2012) generated unusual long-period waves (periods > 5 seconds), well recorded at several near-regional stations between the P - and S-wave arrival. The 5-second period, being significantly longer than the source duration, indicates a structural effect. The wave is similar to PL-wave or Pnl-wave, but with shorter periods and observed in much closer distances (ranging from 30 to 200 km). For theoretical description of the observed wave, structural model is required. No existing regional crustal model generates that wave, so we need to find another model, better in terms of the PL-wave existence and strength. We find such models by full waveform inversion using the subset of stations with strong PL-wave. The Discrete Wavenumber method (Bouchon, 1981; Coutant 1989) is used for forward problem and the Neighborhood Algorithm (Sambridge, 1999) for stochastic search (more details in poster by V. Plicka and J. Zahradník). We obtain a suite of models well fitting synthetic seismograms and use some of these models to evaluate dependence of the studied waves on receiver distance and azimuth as well as dependence on source depth. We compare real and synthetic dispersion curves (derived from synthetic seismograms) as an independent validation of found model and discuss limitations of using dispersion curves for these cases. We also relocated the event in the new model. Then we calculate the wavefield by two other methods: modal summation and ray theory to better understand the nature of the PL-wave. Finally, we discuss agreement of found models with published crustal models in the region. The full waveform inversion for structural parameters seems to be powerful tool for improving seismic source modeling in cases we do not have accurate structure model of studied area. We also show that the PL-wave strength has a potential to precise the earthquake depth

  16. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  17. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a surrogate marker in preeclamptic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Patrícia Gonçalves; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Reis, Zilma Silveira Nogueira; da Cruz, Lívia Pieroni Barroso; Pereira, Jacqueline Braga; Martins, Breno Oliveira de Barcelos; Rezende, Cezar Alencar de Lima

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate plasma levels of angiogenic factors and their association with preeclampsia. Twenty-three women with preeclampsia and nine normotensive pregnant women from the Maternity of Hospital das Clínicas of Belo Horizonte/MG-Brazil were assessed by National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Creteria (NHBPEPWG). The plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Placental growth factor (PlGF) were determined by ELISA assay. Plasma concentration of PlGF was 12-fold lower in preeclampsia versus non preeclampsia pregnancies. An inverse correlation was observed between PlGF plasma levels and mean arterial pressure (MAP); a decrease in 1pg/mL of PlGF resulted in 6.18 mm Hg increase in MAP. These results indicate that PlGF is related to MAP in pregnant women.

  18. Molecular characterization of the pL40 protein in Leptospira interrogans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Lai, Wei-Qiang; Hu, Bao-Yu; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Qin, Jin-Hong; Guo, Xiao-Kui

    2009-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic leptospires. The identification of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) conserved among pathogenic leptospires, which are exposed on the leptospiral surface and expressed during mammalian infection, has become a major focus of leptospirosis research. pL40, a 40 kDa protein coded by the LA3744 gene in Leptospira interrogans, was found to be unique to Leptospira. Triton X-114 fractionation and flow cytometry analyses indicate that pL40 is a component of the leptospiral outer membrane. The conservation of pL40 among Leptospira strains prevalent in China was confirmed by both Western blotting and PCR screening. Furthermore, the pL40 antigen could be recognized by sera from guinea pigs and mice infected with low-passage L. interrogans. These findings indicate that pL40 may serve as a useful serodiagnostic antigen and vaccine candidate for L. interrogans.

  19. Hidratación oral con una solución a base de harina de plátano precocida con electrolitos estandarizados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernal

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar si una solución de hidratación oral a base de harina de plátano precocida con electrolitos, además de ser efectiva para tratar la deshidratación, tiene propiedades antidiarreicas. Material y métodos. Se incluyeron 101 niños con edades entre 1 y 41 meses con diarrea de menos de una semana y deshidratación leve, y sin complicaciones asociadas. El grupo 1 (54 niños recibió sales de rehidratación oral de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (SRO/OMS; el grupo 2 (47 niños recibió solución con concentraciones de electrolitos similares pero que, en lugar de la glucosa, contiene 50 g de harina de plátano precocida (sales de rehidratación oral/plátano (SRO/plátano. Resultados. Se hidrató con éxito el 94,4% de los niños en el grupo SRO/OMS, y el 91,5% (p=0,70 del grupo SRO/plátano. El tiempo necesario para lograr la hidratación fue de 5,8 horas (DE=±3,0 en el grupo SRO/OMS y de 6,2 horas (DE:±3,7 en el grupo SRO/plátano (p=0,31. El gasto fecal hasta alcanzar la hidratación en el grupo SRO/OMS fue de 7,5 g/kg por hora (DE=±7,6, y en el grupo SRO/plátano de 7,05 g/kg por hora (DE=±9,4 (p=0,78. No hubo diferencia significativa en el sodio plasmático. El período de observación para el grupo SRO/OMS fue de 22,3 horas (DE=±5,3, y de 22,7 horas (DE=±4,7 para el grupo SRO/plátano. El gasto fecal durante el período de observación fue de 5,7 g/kg por hora (DE=±4,7 para el grupo SRO/OMS y de 6,3 g/kg por hora (DE=±7,9 para el grupo SRO/plátano (p=0,67. La proporción de niños que necesitaron líquidos endovenosos durante las primeras veinticuatro horas fue de 11,1% en el grupo SRO/OMS y de 8,5% en el grupo SRO/plátano (RR=1,31; C 95%: 0,39 a 4,35. Conclusiones. La solución a base de harina de plátano es efectiva y segura para corregir la deshidratación. No se pudo demostrar en este estudio el efecto antidiarreico de la solución a base de harina de plátano.

  20. Producción de plántulas de ciclamen (Cyclamen persicum Mill. en sustratos basados en polvo de bonote de coco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Flores-Almaráz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El ciclamen tarda unos 30 días después de la siembra (dds para que emerja la plántula y suele presentar bajo porcentaje de emergencia. Como para muchos cultivos ornamentales, en México se utilizan principalmente tierra de monte y turba como sustratos para su producción, materiales para los que se requiere un sustituto para proteger los suelos forestales y evitar la importación de la turba. Con el objetivo de mejorar el porcentaje y tiempo de emergencia y probar el polvo de bonote de coco (PBC como sustrato, se produjeron plántulas de ciclamen y se evaluaron los factores remojo de semilla (con y sin, sustrato (turba, PBC lavado, PBC sin lavar y PBC+turba y genotipo (seis series, en un experimento factorial en bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. El remojo de la semilla durante 24 horas previas a la siembra no incrementa el porcentaje de emergencia de plántulas de ciclamen, pero disminuye el tiempo de emergencia de las mismas en 1.5 y 2.3 días, en promedio, para los sustratos basados en PBC lavado y sin lavar, respectivamente, y acorta el tiempo a la emergencia de las plántulas de las series Lugano gigante, Pannevis® y Halios® en 3.7, 1.0 y 1.1 días, respectivamente. Las plántulas que logran establecerse emergen antes de los 37 dds. El menor tiempo a la emergencia de las plántulas y el mayor porcentaje de establecimiento de las mismas se obtuvo en sustratos con una capacidad de retención de humedad de 75 y 82 %. El PBC tiene características físicas y químicas que permiten utilizarlo en la formulación de sustratos para producir plántulas de ciclamen con características similares o superiores a las obtenidas utilizando turba o sustratos comerciales que la contengan. Hay diferencias entre los genotipos de ciclamen estudiados en cuanto a la capacidad de emergencia y establecimiento de plántulas, velocidad de crecimiento y producción de biomasa.

  1. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  2. Processes of Similarity Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Levi B.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity underlies fundamental cognitive capabilities such as memory, categorization, decision making, problem solving, and reasoning. Although recent approaches to similarity appreciate the structure of mental representations, they differ in the processes posited to operate over these representations. We present an experiment that…

  3. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  4. Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. M.; Boezio, M.; Bravar, U.; Bruno, A.; Christian, E. R.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Stochaj, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report updated event-integrated spectra from several SEP events measured with PAMELA. The measurements were made from 2006 to 2014 in the energy range starting at 80 MeV and extending well above the neutron monitor threshold. The PAMELA instrument is in a high inclination, low Earth orbit and has access to SEPs when at high latitudes. Spectra have been assembled from these high-latitude measurements. The field of view of PAMELA is small and during the high-latitude passes it scans a wide range of asymptotic directions as the spacecraft orbits. Correcting for data gaps, solid angle effects and improved background corrections, we have compiled event-integrated intensity spectra for twenty-eight SEP events. Where statistics permit, the spectra exhibit power law shapes in energy with a high-energy exponential roll over. The events analyzed include two genuine ground level enhancements (GLE). In those cases the roll-over energy lies above the neutron monitor threshold ( 1 GV) while the others are lower. We see no qualitative difference between the spectra of GLE vs. non-GLE events, i.e., all roll over in an exponential fashion with rapidly decreasing intensity at high energies.

  5. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  6. Contribution to the study of turbulence spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, R.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus suitable for turbulence measurement between ranges of 1 to 5000 cps and from 6 to 16,000 cps was developed and is described. Turbulence spectra downstream of the grills were examined with reference to their general characteristics, their LF qualities, and the effects of periodic turbulence. Medium and HF are discussed. Turbulence spectra in the boundary layers are similarly examined, with reference to their fluctuations at right angles to the wall, and to lateral fluctuations. Turbulence spectra in a boundary layer with suction to the wall is discussed. Induced turbulence, and turbulence spectra at high Reynolds numbers. Calculations are presented relating to the effect of filtering on the value of the correlations in time and space.

  7. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  8. Photoluminescence spectra of n-doped double quantum wells in a parallel magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, D.; Lyo, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    We show that the photoluminescence (PL) line shapes from tunnel-split ground sublevels of n-doped thin double quantum wells (DQW close-quote s) are sensitively modulated by an in-plane magnetic field B parallel at low temperatures (T). The modulation is caused by the B parallel -induced distortion of the electronic structure. The latter arises from the relative shift of the energy-dispersion parabolas of the two quantum wells (QW close-quote s) in rvec k space, both in the conduction and valence bands, and formation of an anticrossing gap in the conduction band. Using a self-consistent density-functional theory, the PL spectra and the band-gap narrowing are calculated as a function of B parallel , T, and the homogeneous linewidths. The PL spectra from symmetric and asymmetric DQW close-quote s are found to show strikingly different behavior. In symmetric DQW close-quote s with a high density of electrons, two PL peaks are obtained at B parallel =0, representing the interband transitions between the pair of the upper (i.e., antisymmetric) levels and that of the lower (i.e., symmetric) levels of the ground doublets. As B parallel increases, the upper PL peak develops an N-type kink, namely a maximum followed by a minimum, and merges with the lower peak, which rises monotonically as a function of B parallel due to the diamagnetic energy. When the electron density is low, however, only a single PL peak, arising from the transitions between the lower levels, is obtained. In asymmetric DQW close-quote s, the PL spectra show mainly one dominant peak at all B parallel close-quote s. In this case, the holes are localized in one of the QW close-quote s at low T and recombine only with the electrons in the same QW. At high electron densities, the upper PL peak shows an N-type kink like in symmetric DQW close-quote s. However, the lower peak is absent at low B parallel close-quote s because it arises from the inter-QW transitions. Reasonable agreement is obtained with recent

  9. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the photothermal, photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra of Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briones Cruz, Almira; Shen Qing; Toyoda, Taro

    2006-01-01

    Research involving Mn doped nanocrystalline ZnS (ZnS:Mn) has grown in recent years, partly due to the high quantum luminescence efficiencies that have been reported. We measured the photoacoustic (PA), the photoluminescence (PL) and the photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra of surface-passivated and unpassivated ZnS:Mn. The effects of UV irradiation on the PL and PLE spectra were also studied. A decrease in the PA intensity after UV exposure was observed for the ZnS:Mn, indicating a decrease in the nonradiative relaxation probability. The observed increase in PL intensity indicates a corresponding increase in the radiative transition probability. For the PLE spectra, possible aggregation of the primary particles could have resulted in the lower measured energy of the PLE peak compared to the value predicted by the effective mass approximation theory

  10. Parameterization of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunmei; Liu Tong

    1992-01-01

    The rotational spectra of the strongly deformed nuclei with low rotational frequencies and weak band mixture are analyzed. The strongly deformed nuclei are commonly encountered in the rare-earth region (e. g., 150 220). A lot of rotational band knowledge are presented

  11. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  12. Historia natural de los plátanos y las bananas

    OpenAIRE

    López Sáez, José Antonio; Pérez Soto, Josué

    2011-01-01

    Los plátanos y las bananas que se cultivan en muchos países de clima tropical proceden de dos especies silvestres del género Musa que habitan en el Sureste Asiático: el plátano malayo y el plátano macho. A partir de ellas se han obtenido más de un millar de híbridos, razas o cultivares de agradable sabor y alto valor nutritivo. Otras plataneras se han utilizado como plantas ornamentales, proporcionan fibra o tintes naturales, materiales de construcción e incluso remedios en medicina tradicion...

  13. Ladrillos elaborados con plástico reciclado (PET), para mampostería no portante

    OpenAIRE

    Angumba Aguilar, Pedro Javier

    2016-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se investigó el uso de plástico reciclado para la fabricación de ladrillos para construcción de mampostería no portante. En primer lugar se realiza la caracterización de los residuos sólidos que se generan en la ciudad de Cuenca, donde el 22,7% del total recolectado es material plástico, que se desechan libremente sin un tratamiento previo. De la misma manera se investigan las características del plástico, Polientilen Tereftalato (PET) para descartar efectos nocivos al...

  14. Photoluminescence emission spectra of Makrofol® DE 1-1 upon irradiation with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghazaly, M.; Aydarous, Abdulkadir

    Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of Makrofol® DE 1-1 (bisphenol-A based polycarbonate) upon irradiation with ultraviolet radiation of different wavelengths were investigated. The absorption-and attenuation coefficient measurements revealed that the Makrofol® DE 1-1 is characterized by high absorbance in the energy range 6.53-4.43 eV but for a lower energy than 4.43 eV, it is approximately transparent. Makrofol® DE 1-1 samples were irradiated with ultraviolet radiation of wavelength in the range from 250 (4.28 eV) to 400 (3.10 eV) nm in step of 10 nm and the corresponding photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra were measured with a spectrofluorometer. It is found that the integrated counts and the peak height of the photoluminescence emission (PL) bands are strongly correlated with the ultraviolet radiation wavelength. They are increased at the ultraviolet radiation wavelength 280 nm and have maximum at 290 nm, thereafter they decrease and diminish at 360 nm of ultraviolet wavelength. The position of the PL emission band peak was red shifted starting from 300 nm, which increased with the increase the ultraviolet radiation wavelength. The PL bandwidth increases linearly with the increase of the ultraviolet radiation wavelength. When Makrofol® DE 1-1 is irradiated with ultraviolet radiation of short wavelength (UVC), the photoluminescence emission spectra peaks also occur in the UVC but of a relatively longer wavelength. The current new findings should be considered carefully when using Makrofol® DE 1-1 in medical applications related to ultraviolet radiation.

  15. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  16. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  17. sativa L. por caracteres bioquímicos en semillas y plántulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Galussi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las semillas de los cultivares de alfalfa son morfológicamente similares, por ello, el análisis de proteínas en semillas y plántulas podría resultar adecuado para diferenciar los cultivares. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar cultivares de alfalfa, provenientes de dos cosechas, a nivel de proteínas de las semillas a través de SDS PAGE y A PAGE, y en estado de protrusión y cotiledonar por el análisis de la isoenzima Alcohol Deshidrogenasa (ADH. El tamaño muestral adecuado para electroforesis fue de 0,5g de semillas en 5,00ml de buffer de extracción y el volumen de siembra apropiado fue de 10μl. En ambos métodos, SDS PAGE y A PAGE, se logró el fraccionamiento proteico, aunque no fue posible la diferenciación entre cultivares; las escasas diferencias halladas no fueron repetibles en muestras de diferentes años de cosecha. El sistema ADH manifestó diferencias entre cultivares, lográndose mayor diferenciación en el estado de protrusión.

  18. Scalar Similarity for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method allows the measurement of trace gas fluxes when no fast sensors are available for eddy covariance measurements. The flux parameterisation used in REA is based on the assumption of scalar similarity, i.e., similarity of the turbulent exchange of two scalar quantities. In this study changes in scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour were assessed using scalar correlation coefficients and spectral analysis. The influence on REA measurements was assessed by simulation. The evaluation is based on observations over grassland, irrigated cotton plantation and spruce forest. Scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour showed a distinct diurnal pattern and change within the day. Poor scalar similarity was found to be linked to dissimilarities in the energy contained in the low frequency part of the turbulent spectra ( definition.

  19. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  20. Investigation of lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in marine PL emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    Marine phospholipids (PL) have received much attention recently due to their numerous advantages. One of these advantages is their better resistance towards oxidation as compared to fish oil. In addition to the antioxidative properties of α-tocopherol and phospholipids, the better oxidative...... stability of marine PL might be attributed to antioxidative properties of pyrroles formed between oxidised lipids with amine groups from phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or residues amino acids that are present in marine PL. The main objective of this study was to investigate if the presence of amine group...... of amino acids (leucine, methionine and lysine) from 2 authentic standards (PC and PE) and 2 purified marine PL (LC and MPL) through sonication method. Emulsions were incubated at 60 ºC for 0, 2, 4 and 6 days. Non-enzymatic browning reactions were investigated through measurement of i) Strecker aldehydes...

  1. X-ray absorption spectra and emission spectra of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yonglun; Yang Li; Wang Minsheng; Li Jiaming

    2002-01-01

    The author reports a theoretical method to calculate the resolved absorption spectra and emission spectra (optically thin) of hot dense plasmas. Due to its fully relativistic treatment incorporated with the quantum defect theory, it calculates the absorption spectra and emission spectra for single element or multi-element plasmas with little computational efforts. The calculated absorption spectra of LTE gold plasmas agree well with the experimental ones. It also calculates the optical thin emission spectra of LTE gold plasmas, which is helpful to diagnose the plasmas of relevant ICF plasmas. It can also provide the relevant parameters such as population density of various ionic stages, precise radiative properties for ICF studies

  2. Nodal collocation approximation for the multidimensional PL equations applied to transport source problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdu, G.; Capilla, M.; Talavera, C. F.; Ginestar, D.

    2012-01-01

    PL equations are classical high order approximations to the transport equations which are based on the expansion of the angular dependence of the angular neutron flux and the nuclear cross sections in terms of spherical harmonics. A nodal collocation method is used to discretize the PL equations associated with a neutron source transport problem. The performance of the method is tested solving two 1D problems with analytical solution for the transport equation and a classical 2D problem. (authors)

  3. Nodal collocation approximation for the multidimensional PL equations applied to transport source problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain); Capilla, M.; Talavera, C. F.; Ginestar, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    PL equations are classical high order approximations to the transport equations which are based on the expansion of the angular dependence of the angular neutron flux and the nuclear cross sections in terms of spherical harmonics. A nodal collocation method is used to discretize the PL equations associated with a neutron source transport problem. The performance of the method is tested solving two 1D problems with analytical solution for the transport equation and a classical 2D problem. (authors)

  4. PlGF gene knockdown in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Hassan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Rezaeikanavi, Mozhgan; Samiei, Shahram; Khalooghi, Keynoush

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the knockdown of placental growth factor (PlGF) gene expression in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and its effect on cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenic potential of RPE cells. Human RPE cells were isolated by dispase I solution and cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). A small interfering RNA (siRNA) corresponding to PlGF mRNA and a scrambled siRNA (scRNA) were introduced into the cells. Cell proliferation and cell death were examined by ELISA. PlGF mRNA and protein were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. The levels of gene expression for human retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65 kDa (RPE65), cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) and tyrosinase were examined by real-time PCR. The angiogenic activity of RPE cell-derived conditioned media was assayed by a tube formation assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). At a final siRNA concentration of 20 pmol/ml, the transfection efficiency was about 80%. The amount of PlGF transcripts was reduced to 10% after 36 h of incubation, and the amount of PlGF protein in culture supernatant was significantly decreased. Suppression of PlGF gene had no effect on RPE cell proliferation and survival, and there were no notable changes in the transcript levels of RPE65, CRALBP or tyrosinase for the cultures treated by siRNA cognate to PlGF. Vascular tube formation was efficiently reduced in HUVECs. Our findings present PlGF as a key modulator of angiogenic potential in RPE cells of the human retina.

  5. Integration of differential equations by the pseudo-linear (PL) approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonalumi, Riccardo A.

    1998-01-01

    A new method of integrating differential equations was originated with the technique of approximately calculating the integrals called the pseudo-linear (PL) procedure: this method is A-stable. This article contains the following examples: 1st order ordinary differential equations (ODEs), 2nd order linear ODEs, stiff system of ODEs (neutron kinetics), one-dimensional parabolic (diffusion) partial differential equations. In this latter case, this PL method coincides with the Crank-Nicholson method

  6. On the origin of fine structure in the photoluminescence spectra of the β-sialon:Eu2+ green phosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohsei Takahashi, Ken-ichi Yoshimura, Masamichi Harada, Yoshitaka Tomomura, Takashi Takeda, Rong-Jun Xie and Naoto Hirosaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photoluminescence (PL and PL excitation (PLE spectra of Si6−zAlzOzN8−z (β-sialon:Eu2+ phosphors with small z values (z=0.025–0.24 were studied at room temperature and 6 K. The PL and PLE spectra exhibit fine structure with the PL lines being as sharp as 45–55 nm even at room temperature; this fine structure was enhanced by decreasing the z value. These results can be used for expanding the color gamut of liquid crystal displays, particularly in the blue–green region. From low-temperature measurements, the fine PLE structure was ascribed to discrete energy levels of 7FJ states. The 4f65d excited states of Eu2+ are considered to be localized near the 4f orbital. This is because the bonding of Eu2+ with surrounding atoms is ionic rather than covalent. Lattice phonon absorptions were also observed in the PLE spectrum, revealing that the optically active Eu2+ ions are located in the β-sialon crystal. The PL spectrum of the sample with the smallest z value (0.025 consists of a sharp zero-phonon line and lattice phonon replicas, which results in a sharp and asymmetric spectral shape.

  7. Lattice vibration spectra. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.D.; Willich, P.

    1977-01-01

    The FIR absorption spectra of pyrite type compounds RuS 2 , RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x), RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , OsSe 2 , and PtP 2 as well as loellingite type phosphides FeP 2 , RuP 2 , and OsP 2 are reported. For RuS 2 , RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , and PtP 2 all of the five infrared allowed modes (k = 0) are observed. As a first result of a numerical normal coordinate treatment vibration forms of pyrite structure are communicated. The spectra show that lattice forces of corresponding sulfides, tellurides, and phosphides are about the same strength, but increase strongly by substitution of iron by ruthenium and especially of ruthenium by osmium. The lattice constants of the RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x) solid solution obey Vegard's rule. (author)

  8. Deconvoluting double Doppler spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.F.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Chan, K.L.; Tang, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    The successful deconvolution of data from double Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (D-DBAR) spectroscopy is a promising area of endeavour aimed at producing momentum distributions of a quality comparable to those of the angular correlation technique. The deconvolution procedure we test in the present study is the constrained generalized least square method. Trials with computer simulated DDBAR spectra are generated and deconvoluted in order to find the best form of regularizer and the regularization parameter. For these trials the Neumann (reflective) boundary condition is used to give a single matrix operation in Fourier space. Experimental D-DBAR spectra are also subject to the same type of deconvolution after having carried out a background subtraction and using a symmetrize resolution function obtained from an 85 Sr source with wide coincidence windows. (orig.)

  9. Spectra, Winter 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    additional copies or more information, please email spectra@nrl.navy.mil. LEADINGEDGE 1 Contents 30 Navy Launches UAV from Submerged Submarine 31... multitasking have become mainstream concerns. For example, the New York Times in 2005 and Time magazine in 2006 both reported stories about...interruptions and multitasking , and how they affect performance by increasing human er- ror. In 2005, the information technol- ogy research firm Basex

  10. Thermoluminescence spectra of amethyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q. [Suzhou Railway Teachers College (China). Dept. of Physics; Yang, B. [Beijing Normal University (China). Dept. of Physics; Wood, R.A.; White, D.R.R.; Townsend, P.D.; Luff, B.J. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences

    1994-04-01

    Thermoluminescence and cathodoluminescence data from natural and synthetic amethyst and synthetic quartz samples are compared. The spectra include features from the quartz host lattice and from impurity-generated recombination sites. Emission features exist throughout the wavelength range studied, 250-800 nm. The near infrared emission at 740-750 nm appears to be characteristic of the amethyst and is proposed to be due to Fe ion impurity. (Author).

  11. Auger spectra of alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, R.R.; Jennison, D.R.; Houston, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The gas-phase Auger line shapes of the linear alkanes C 1 through C 6 and of neopentane are presented and analyzed. The general shape of the spectra are characteristic of carbon in a tetrahedral environment with the major feature in all cases occurring at approx.249 eV. The relatively large spectral changes found between methane and ethane results from the direct interaction of the terminal methyl groups in ethane, and the spectra of the higher alkanes are shown to be a composite of contributions from terminal methyl and interior methylene group carbon atoms. Theoretical analysis based on a one-electron approximation is shown to be capable of making a molecular orbital assignment by comparing calculated vertical transitions to features in the Auger spectra of ethane and propane, and, in the case of ethane, of differentiating between the 2 E/sub g/ and 2 A/sub 1g/ assignment of the ground state of (C 2 H 6 ) + . A one-electron based molecular orbital treatment, however, is shown to partially break down in propane and neopentane. Analysis of neopentane and the observed absence of any noticeable major peak energy shift with increasing molecular size (as predicted by the one-electron treatment) suggests that some Auger final states occur in which both valence holes are localized on the same subunit of the molecule

  12. Pattern recognition in spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebran, M; Paletou, F

    2017-01-01

    We present a new automated procedure that simultaneously derives the effective temperature T eff , surface gravity log g , metallicity [ Fe/H ], and equatorial projected rotational velocity v e sin i for stars. The procedure is inspired by the well-known PCA-based inversion of spectropolarimetric full-Stokes solar data, which was used both for Zeeman and Hanle effects. The efficiency and accuracy of this procedure have been proven for FGK, A, and late type dwarf stars of K and M spectral types. Learning databases are generated from the Elodie stellar spectra library using observed spectra for which fundamental parameters were already evaluated or with synthetic data. The synthetic spectra are calculated using ATLAS9 model atmospheres. This technique helped us to detect many peculiar stars such as Am, Ap, HgMn, SiEuCr and binaries. This fast and efficient technique could be used every time a pattern recognition is needed. One important application is the understanding of the physical properties of planetary surfaces by comparing aboard instrument data to synthetic ones. (paper)

  13. [Use of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in preeclampsia : a monocentric retrospective analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeurgt, L; Chantraine, F; De Marchin, J; Minon, J-M; Nisolle, M

    2017-09-01

    Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) is an anti-angiogenic factor released in higher amounts in preeclampsia and implicated in endothelial dysfunction. sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is used in the prediction of preeclampsia. An sFlt-1/PlGF ratio inferior to 38 predicts the short-term absence of preeclampsia. A ratio ? 85 (early-onset PE) or ? 110 (late-onset of PE) could diagnose preeclampsia. In this study, sFlt-1/PlGF ratio has been measured in 183 patients. Sixty-seven preeclampsia have been diagnosed preeclamptic at delivery. The median sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was 100.3. The median ratio among women with preeclampsia (N=67) versus no preeclampsia (N=116) was 212.7 versus 35.4. In accordance with this analysis, an sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ? 38 has a sensibility of 95,5 % and a specificity of 73.3 %. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 67.4 % and 96.6 %, respectively. These results suggest that sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is helpful in the diagnosis of preeclampsia.

  14. Approximation of Moessbauer spectra of metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglierini, M.; Sitek, J.

    1988-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra of iron-rich metallic glasses are approximated by means of six broadened lines which have line position relations similar to those of α-Fe. It is shown via the results of the DISPA (dispersion mode vs. absorption mode) line shape analysis that each spectral peak is broadened owing to a sum of Lorentzian lines weighted by a Gaussian distribution in the peak position. Moessbauer parameters of amorphous metallic Fe 83 B 17 and Fe 40 Ni 40 B 20 alloys are presented, derived from the fitted spectra. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 21 refs

  15. Spectra of turbulent static pressure fluctuations in jet mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. G.; Adrian, R. J.; Nithianandan, C. K.; Planchon, H. P., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Spectral similarity laws are derived for the power spectra of turbulent static pressure fluctuations by application of dimensional analysis in the limit of large turbulent Reynolds number. The theory predicts that pressure spectra are generated by three distinct types of interaction in the velocity fields: a fourth order interaction between fluctuating velocities, an interaction between the first order mean shear and the third order velocity fluctuations, and an interaction between the second order mean shear rate and the second order fluctuating velocity. Measurements of one-dimensional power spectra of the turbulent static pressure fluctuations in the driven mixing layer of a subsonic, circular jet are presented, and the spectra are examined for evidence of spectral similarity. Spectral similarity is found for the low wavenumber range when the large scale flow on the centerline of the mixing layer is self-preserving. The data are also consistent with the existence of universal inertial subranges for the spectra of each interaction mode.

  16. Aclimatização e crescimento de plântulas de mirtileiro 'climax' micropropagadas em função do substrato e da cobertura plástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Pelizza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a aclimatização e o crescimento de plântulas micropropagadas de mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei cv. Climax, em função do substrato e da cobertura plástica, durante os meses de abril a dezembro de 2008. Foram utilizados três substratos (casca de arroz carbonizada + Húmus Fértil®, Plantmax® + vermiculita e solo + serragem jovem de Pínus e dois sistemas de cobertura (com e sem cobertura plástica sobre as plântulas. As plântulas, acondicionadas em sacos plásticos com os respectivos substratos e sistemas de cobertura, permaneceram em casa de vegetação com temperatura controlada, por 30 dias. Após, permaneceram por 60 dias sem controle ambiental e, em seguida, foram transferidas para telado. A partir de 30 dias, foram avaliados a percentagem de sobrevivência e o incremento de altura das plântulas. Ao término do experimento, foi avaliada a massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e da raiz das plântulas. A percentagem de sobrevivência das plântulas de mirtileiro em substrato Plantmax® + vermiculita é igual quando utilizada ou não a cobertura plástica. O uso da cobertura plástica não foi eficiente para incrementar a altura média das plântulas nos substratos Plantmax® + vermiculita e solo + serragem jovem. A maior massa seca de parte aérea foi obtida com o uso de Plantmax® + vermiculita sem cobertura plástica sobre as plântulas. Plantmax® + vermiculita com e sem cobertura plástica proporcionam maior massa seca radicular que os demais substratos e respectivos sistemas de cobertura, porém Plantmax® + vermiculita sem cobertura plástica é superior a Plantmax® + vermiculita com cobertura plástica. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que o melhor substrato e sistema de cobertura para a aclimatização e o crescimento de plântulas de mirtileiro 'Climax' são Plantmax® + vermiculita sem cobertura plástica.

  17. Study of Ultraviolet Emission Spectra in ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoluminescence (PL of ZnO thin films prepared on c-Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD are investigated. For all samples, roomtemperature (RT spectra show a strong band-edge ultraviolet (UV emission with a pronounced low-energy band tail. The origin of this UV emission is analyzed by the temperature dependence of PL spectra. The result shows that the UV emission at RT contains different recombination processes. At low temperature donor-bound exciton (D0X emission plays a major role in PL spectra, while the free exciton transition (FX gradually dominates the spectrum with increasing temperatures. It notes that at low temperature an emission band (FA appears in low energy side of D0X and FX and can survive up to RT. Further confirmation shows that the origin of the band FA can be attributed to the transitions of conduction band electrons to acceptors (e, A0, in which the acceptor binding energy is estimated to be approximately 121 meV. It is concluded that at room temperature UV emission originates from the corporate contributions of the free exciton and free electrons-to-acceptor transitions.

  18. Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, L.; Ortega Villafuerte, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra

  19. Vibrational spectra of aminoacetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, B.; Hansen, E.L.; Nicolaisen, F.M.; Nielsen, O.F.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of pure, stable aminoacetonitrile(1-amino, 1'-cyanomethane)CH 2 NH 2 CN (1) is described. The Raman spectrum, now complete, and a novel infrared spectrum extending over the 50-3600 cm -1 region are reported. A tentative normal vibration analysis is presented and supported by Raman and infrared data from the spectra of CH 2 NHDCN (2) and CH 2 ND 2 CN (3). The predominance of the trans rotamer may be attributed to intramolecular hydrogen bonding but this is too unimportant to influence the vibrational frequencies of gaseous 1, 2, and 3. However, large gas/liquid frequency shifts occur. (author)

  20. Seismic spectra of events at regional distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.; Denny, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    About 40 underground nuclear explosions detonated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were chosen for analysis of their spectra and any relationships they might have to source parameters such as yield, depth of burial, etc. The sample covered a large yield range (less than 20 kt to greater than 1 Mt). Broadband (0.05 to 20 Hz) data recorded by the four-station seismic network operated by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory were analyzed in a search for unusual explosion signatures in their spectra. Long time windows (total wave train) as well as shorter windows (for instance, P/sub n/) were used as input to calculate the spectra. Much variation in the spectra of the long windows is typical although some gross features are similar, such as a dominant peak in the microseismic window. The variation is such that selection of corner frequencies is impractical and yield scaling could not be determined. Spectra for one NTS earthquake showed more energy in the short periods (less than 1 sec) as well as in the long periods (greater than 8 sec) compared to those for NTS explosions

  1. Similar or different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornér, Solveig; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Peltonen, Jouni

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has identified researcher community and supervisory support as key determinants of the doctoral journey contributing to students’ persistence and robustness. However, we still know little about cross-cultural variation in the researcher community and supervisory support experien...... counter partners, whereas the Finnish students perceived lower levels of instrumental support than the Danish students. The findings imply that seemingly similar contexts hold valid differences in experienced social support and educational strategies at the PhD level....... experienced by PhD students within the same discipline. This study explores the support experiences of 381 PhD students within the humanities and social sciences from three research-intensive universities in Denmark (n=145) and Finland (n=236). The mixed methods design was utilized. The data were collected...... counter partners. The results also indicated that the only form of support in which the students expressed more matched support than mismatched support was informational support. Further investigation showed that the Danish students reported a high level of mismatch in emotional support than their Finnish...

  2. Excitation power dependence of photoluminescence spectra of GaSb type-II quantum dots in GaAs grown by droplet epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawazu, T., E-mail: KAWAZU.Takuya@nims.go.jp; Noda, T.; Sakuma, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Sakaki, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    We investigated the excitation power P dependence of photoluminescence (PL) spectra of GaSb type-II quantum dots (QDs) in GaAs grown by droplet epitaxy. We prepared two QD samples annealed at slightly different temperatures (380 {sup o}C and 400 {sup o}C) and carried out PL measurements. The 20 {sup o}C increase of the annealing temperature leads to (1) about 140 and 60 times stronger wetting layer (WL) luminescence at low and high P, (2) about 45% large energy shift of QD luminescence with P, and (3) the different P dependence of the PL intensity ratio between the QD and the WL. These differences of the PL characteristics are explained by the effects of the WL.

  3. Transformation of photoluminescence and Raman scattering spectra of Si-rich Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films at thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara Hernandez, E. [UPIITA-Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico DF 07320 (Mexico); Torchynska, T.V., E-mail: ttorch@esfm.ipn.mx [ESFM-Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico DF 07320 (Mexico); Jedrzejewski, J.; Balberg, I. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    The effect of thermal annealing on optical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films with the different Si contents was investigated using the photoluminescence and Raman scattering methods. Si-rich Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering of Si and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} targets on long quartz glass substrates. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of as grown Si-rich Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are characterized by four PL bands with the peak positions at 2.90, 2.70, 2.30 and 1.45 eV. The small intensity Raman peaks related to the scattering in the amorphous Si phase has been detected in as grown films as well. Thermal annealing at 1150 °C for 90 min stimulates the formation of Si nanocrystals (NCs) in the film area with the Si content exceeded 50%. The Raman peak related to the scattering on optic phonons in Si NCs has been detected for this area. After thermal annealing the PL intensity of all mentioned PL bands decreases in the film area with smaller Si content (≤50%) and increases in the film area with higher Si content (≥50%). Simultaneously the new PL band with the peak position at 1.65 eV appears in the film area with higher Si content (≥50%). The new PL band (1.65 eV) is attributed to the exciton recombination inside of small size Si NCs (2.5–2.7 nm). In bigger size Si NCs (3.5–5.0 nm) the PL band at 1.65 eV has been not detected due to the impact, apparently, of elastic strain appeared at the Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. Temperature dependences of PL spectra for the Si-rich Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films have been studied in the range of 10–300 K with the aim to reveal the mechanism of recombination transitions for the mentioned above PL bands 2.90, 2.70, 2.30 and 1.45 eV in as grown films. The thermal activation of PL intensity and permanent PL peak positions in the temperature range 10–300 K permit to assign these PL bands to defect related emission in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix.

  4. Trauma Related Guilt Inventory - psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation (TRGI-PL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiel, Agnieszka; Zawadzki, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    AIM : Although various aspects of guilt are frequent problems of patients suffering from PTSD, they have been included into the diagnostic criteria for PTSD just in the present version DSM-5. Kubany proposed a cognitive conceptualization of guilt in PTSD followed by development of the Trauma Related Guilt Inventory (TRGI). The aim of the paper is to present psychometric properties of the Polish version of the inventory - the TRGI-PL. A Polish adaptation of the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory was applied to a sample of 280 motor vehicle (MVA) participants (147 females, 133 males of age from 18 to 80 (M=34,93, SD=13,71) within 1-24 months after a MVA (M=10,18, SD=6,23). Validation of the Polish version was done by analyzing the internal structure of the instrument and comparing the emotional and cognitive aspects of guilt assessed by the TRGI with PTSD symptoms, post-traumatic cognitions and responsibility for MVA and subjective agreement with the judgment. The model with four latent factors: Distress, Hindsight-Bias/Responsibility, Wrongdoing and Insufficient Justification scales showed acceptable fit (Satorra-Bentler chi2=518,62, df=203, pguilt, obtained in the studies on original TRGI version. Reliability coefficients are similar to original version. Correlations with other PTSD measures showed satisfactory convergent and discriminative validity. The Polish adaptation of the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory is a reliable and valid tool for assessing guilt as a multidimensional phenomenon, comprising emotional and several cognitive characteristics, in trauma survivors.

  5. Phage Pl mutants with altered transducing abilities for Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, J.D.; Harriman, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    A search was made for mutants of the coliphage P1 with altered transducing frequencies. A method was developed for the rapid assay of transducing frequencies in single plaques using prophage lambda as the transduced bacterial marker. This procedure selects for mutants altered in their ability to package host DNA. Mutants with 5 to 10 times higher or 10 to 20 times lower frequencies than those of wild-type P1 were found. Not only are the markers used for the detection of the mutants affected, but all other markers are similarly affected (not always to the same extent). One of the high transducing frequency mutants is a suppressible amber, indicating that loss of a function increases P1's ability to package host DNA preferentially. (U.S.)

  6. Catalogue of neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxerolle, M.; Massoutie, M.; Kurdjian, J.

    1987-09-01

    Neutron dosimetry problems have arisen as a result of developments in the applications of nuclear energy. The largest number of possible irradiation situations has been collected: they are presented in the form of a compilation of 44 neutron spectra. Diagrams show the variations of energy fluence and energy fluence weighted by the dose equivalent/fluence conversion factor, with the logarithm of the corresponding energy. The equivalent dose distributions are presented as percentages for the following energy bins: 0.01 eV/0.5 eV/50 keV/1 MeV/5 MeV/15 MeV. The dose equivalent, the mean energy and the effective energy for the dose equivalent for 1 neutron cm -2 are also given [fr

  7. Pemodelan Enterprise Architecture Sistem Informasi Akademik SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang Dengan Framework Zachman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alfonsa Chintia Dea Prananingrum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang belum dapat memanfaatkan teknologi komputer secara optimal karena masih menggunakan cara manual dalam pengelolaan berbagai macam data akademik sehingga memberikan masalah seperti lambatnya dalam pembuatan laporan yang menyulitkan kepala sekolah dalam pengambilan keputusan. Oleh sebab itu, SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang membutuhkan Sistem Informasi Akademik untuk memberikan kemudahan dalam mengelola berbagai macam data akademik secara terintegrasi serta memberikan layanan yang lebih baik kepada siswanya. Sebuah model architecture enterprise Sistem Informasi Akademik dibutuhkan agar meminimalisir kegagalan ketika menerapkan sistem tersebut sekaligus dapat berjalan sesuai kebutuhan di SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang. Metode analisis dalam penelitian ini menggunakan Framework Zachman yang memberikan pondasi dalam membantu menyediakan struktur dasar organisasi sehingga dapat mendukung perancangan dan pengembangan sistem informasi suatu organisasi. Hasil dari penelitian ini berupa blueprint (cetak biru pemodelan Sistem Informasi Akademik. Kata kunci— sistem informasi akademik, architecture enterprise, framework zachman, bluprint

  8. Development and dissection of diagnostic SNP markers for the downy mildew resistance genes Pl Arg and Pl 8 and maker-assisted gene pyramiding in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Talukder, Z I; Hulke, B S; Foley, M E

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic DNA markers are an invaluable resource in breeding programs for successful introgression and pyramiding of disease resistance genes. Resistance to downy mildew (DM) disease in sunflower is mediated by Pl genes which are known to be effective against the causal fungus, Plasmopara halstedii. Two DM resistance genes, Pl Arg and Pl 8 , are highly effective against P. halstedii races in the USA, and have been previously mapped to the sunflower linkage groups (LGs) 1 and 13, respectively, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In this study, we developed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps encompassing the Pl arg and Pl 8 genes and identified diagnostic SNP markers closely linked to these genes. The specificity of the diagnostic markers was validated in a highly diverse panel of 548 sunflower lines. Dissection of a large marker cluster co-segregated with Pl Arg revealed that the closest SNP markers NSA_007595 and NSA_001835 delimited Pl Arg to an interval of 2.83 Mb on the LG1 physical map. The SNP markers SFW01497 and SFW06597 delimited Pl 8 to an interval of 2.85 Mb on the LG13 physical map. We also developed sunflower lines with homozygous, three gene pyramids carrying Pl Arg , Pl 8 , and the sunflower rust resistance gene R 12 using the linked SNP markers from a segregating F 2 population of RHA 340 (carrying Pl 8 )/RHA 464 (carrying Pl Arg and R 12 ). The high-throughput diagnostic SNP markers developed in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding, and the pyramided sunflower lines will provide durable resistance to downy mildew and rust diseases.

  9. External quality control of Pléiades orthoimagery – Part II: Geometric testing and validation of a Pléiades-1B orthoproduct covering Maussane test site

    OpenAIRE

    GRAZZINI Jacopo; AASTRAND Paer

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current report is to provide with a final statement on the geometric capabilities of Pléiades sensors through the Quality Control (QC) of Pléiades-1B orthocorrected imagery following the recent validation of Pléiades-1A. Namely, the validation process aims at measuring the influence of different factors on the geometric accuracy of Pléiades-1B orthoimagery. For that purpose, a light benchmarking is implemented as: • a single far-from-nadir image datasetis evaluated using 2 ...

  10. Serial measurements of serum human placental lactogen (hPL) and serial ultrasound examinations in the evaluation of fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; von Tabouillot, D; Schioler, V

    2000-01-01

    Serial serum hPL measurements and serial ultrasound fetometry were compared in the evaluation of fetal growth by relating these two parameters to size at birth and to clinical factors known to influence size at birth. The data were from a prospective study of 1000 consecutive pregnant women...... considered to be at risk for fetal growth retardation with retrospective analysis. Serum hPL was measured by radioimmunoassay and fetal weight estimated by ultrasound every 3 weeks during the last trimester. hPL values were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM) and linear regression analysis of the h......PL MoM values was carried out for each pregnancy to find the slope of the line (hPL-slope); at least 3 serum hPL values were required. The estimated fetal weight and weight-for-age at birth was expressed in Z-scores. The individual intrauterine growth velocity was calculated by regression analysis...

  11. Nonlinear optical spectra having characteristics of Fano interferences in coherently coupled lowest exciton biexciton states in semiconductor quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Gotoh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical nonlinear effects are examined using a two-color micro-photoluminescence (micro-PL method in a coherently coupled exciton-biexciton system in a single quantum dot (QD. PL and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (PLE are employed to measure the absorption spectra of the exciton and biexciton states. PLE for Stokes and anti-Stokes PL enables us to clarify the nonlinear optical absorption properties in the lowest exciton and biexciton states. The nonlinear absorption spectra for excitons exhibit asymmetric shapes with peak and dip structures, and provide a distinct contrast to the symmetric dip structures of conventional nonlinear spectra. Theoretical analyses with a density matrix method indicate that the nonlinear spectra are caused not by a simple coherent interaction between the exciton and biexciton states but by coupling effects among exciton, biexciton and continuum states. These results indicate that Fano quantum interference effects appear in exciton-biexciton systems at QDs and offer important insights into their physics.

  12. Marketingo strategija plėtojant lauko vaizdo reklamos verslą

    OpenAIRE

    Jucytė, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    Baigiamajame magistro darbe „Marketingo strategija plėtojant lauko vaizdo reklamos verslą“ išskiriama lauko vaizdo reklamos verslo problema, jos plėtojimo aktualijos. Nagrinėjama marketingo strategijos sąvoka. Išanalizavus ir susiteminus literatūrą marketingo strategijos planavimo, formulavimo ir įgyvendinimo klausimu, pateiktas teorinis marketingo strategijos modelis, tinkantis lauko vaizdo reklamos verslui. Išorinės reklamos rinkoje aplinka nuolat kinta, aštrėja įmonių konkurencinė kova, to...

  13. Semiscale power loss experiment S-PL-3 with primary feed and bleed plant recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.R.; Streit, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to verify the accuracy of the RELAP5 model of the S-PL-3 experiment (part of the Semiscale loss-of-offsite-power test series) by comparing the RELAP5 model with actual data obtained during the experiment. Included are a description of the experiment, an analysis of preliminary results, and the comparison of posttest RELAP5 calculations with experiment data. RELAP5 modeling of the S-PL-3 transient produced qualitative agreement with experiment data

  14. Complement activation cascade triggered by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes: The challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Hashemi, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    reactions to certain PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines in both experimental animals and man. These reactions are classified as pseudoallergy and may be associated with cardiopulmonary disturbance and other related symptoms of anaphylaxis. Recent studies suggest that complement activation may be a contributing......, but not a rate limiting factor, in eliciting hypersensitivity reactions to such nanomedicines in sensitive individuals. This is rather surprising since PEGylated structures are generally assumed to suppress protein adsorption and blood opsonization events including complement. Here, we examine the molecular...... basis of complement activation by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes and discuss the challenges ahead....

  15. Religinio turizmo plėtros galimybės Lietuvos turizmo rinkoje

    OpenAIRE

    Macijauskaitė, Indrė

    2010-01-01

    Darbo objektas – Religinis turizmas Lietuvoje. Probleminis (tiriamasis) klausimas: Kokios religinio turizmo plėtros galimybės Lietuvos turizmo rinkoje? Tyrimo tikslas: Ištirti religinio turizmo plėtros galimybes Lietuvos turizmo rinkoje. Rašant darbą buvo išsikelti keturi uždaviniai, kad išanalizuoti religinio turizmo sampratų kaitą ir religinio turizmo vietą Lietuvos turizmo rinkoje buvo atlikta mokslinė ir statistinių duomenų analizė. Išanalizuotos religinio turizmo galimybės Liet...

  16. Design energy spectra for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    López Almansa, Francisco; Yazgan, Ahmet Utku; Benavent Climent, Amadeo

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes design energy spectra in terms of velocity, derived through linear dynamic analyses on Turkish registers and intended for regions with design peak acceleration 0.3 g or higher. In the long and mid period ranges the analyses are linear, taking profit of the rather insensitivity of the spectra to the structural parameters other than the fundamental period; in the short period range, the spectra are more sensitive to the structural parameters and nonlinear analyses would be re...

  17. Spectra of chemical trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining the spectra of trees of NMR and chemical interests. The characteristic polynomials of branched trees can be obtained in terms of the characteristic polynomials of unbranched trees and branches by pruning the tree at the joints. The unbranched trees can also be broken down further until a tree containing just two vertices is obtained. The effectively reduces the order of the secular determinant of the tree used at the beginning to determinants of orders atmost equal to the number of vertices in the branch containing the largest number of vertices. An illustrative example of a NMR graph is given for which the 22 x 22 secular determinant is reduced to determinants of orders atmost 4 x 4 in just the second step of the algorithm. The tree pruning algorithm can be applied even to trees with no symmetry elements and such a factoring can be achieved. Methods developed here can be elegantly used to find if two trees are cospectral and to construct cospectral trees

  18. Sequencing BPS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gukov, Sergei [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik,Vivatsgasse 7, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Nawata, Satoshi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Centre for Quantum Geometry of Moduli Spaces, University of Aarhus,Nordre Ringgade 1, DK-8000 (Denmark); Saberi, Ingmar [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stošić, Marko [CAMGSD, Departamento de Matemática, Instituto Superior Técnico,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Mathematical Institute SANU,Knez Mihajlova 36, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Sułkowski, Piotr [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-03-02

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel “sliding” property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  19. Sequencing BPS spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel “sliding” property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  20. Title VI in '76: Review of Projects Funded Under P.L. 91-230 Title VI-B, Education of the Handicapped Act, as Amended by P.L. 93-380 and P.L. 94-142. Fiscal Year 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    Summarized are 89 projects which served exceptional students in all 67 Florida school districts and were funded during the 1975-76 school year under P.L. 91-230 Title VI B (Education of the Handicapped Act) as ammended by P.L. 93-380 and P.L. 94-142. Projects are divided into the following major areas; Florida Learning Resources System,…

  1. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Comet 2PlEncke: Unusual Organic Composition and Low Rotational Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeva, Yana L.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Bonev, Boncho P.; DiSanti, Michael A.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Dello Russo, Neil

    2013-01-01

    We present high-resolution infrared spectroscopic measurements of the ecliptic comet 2P/Encke, observed on 4-6 Nov. 2003 during its close approach to the Earth, using the Near Infrared Echelle Spectrograph on the Keck II telescope. We present flux-calibrated spectra, production rates, and mixing ratios for H2O, CH3OH, HCN, H2CO, C2H2, C2H6, CH4 and CO. Comet 2P/Encke is a dynamical end-member among comets because of its short period of 3.3 years. Relative to "organics-normal" comets, we determined that 2PlEncke is depleted in HCN, H2CO, C2H2, C2H6, CH4 and CO, but it is enriched in CH3OH. We compared mixing ratios of these organic species measured on separate dates, and we see no evidence of macroscopic chemical heterogeneity in the nucleus of 2P/Encke, however, this conclusion is limited by sparse temporal sampling. The depleted abundances of most measured species suggest that 2P/Encke may have formed closer to the young Sun, before its insertion to the Kuiper belt, compared with "organics-normal" comets - as was previously suggested for other depleted comets (e.g. C/1999 S4 (LINEAR)). We measured very low rotational temperatures of 20 - 30 K for H2O, CH3OH and HCN in the near nucleus region of 2P/Encke, which correlate with one of the lowest cometary gas production rates (approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 27) molecules/s) measured thus far in the infrared. This suggests that we are seeing the effects of more efficient radiative cooling, insufficient collisional excitation, and/or inefficient heating by fast H-atoms (and icy grains) in the observed region of the coma. Its extremely short orbital period, very low gas production rate, and classification as an ecliptic comet, make 2PlEncke an important addition to our growing database, and contribute significantly to the establishment of a chemical taxonomy of comets.

  2. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, D.E.; Goward, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the mid latitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 μm, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future. (author)

  3. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  4. Microdosimetric spectra measurements of JANUS neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, I.R.; Williamson, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiation from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory is being used with increasing frequency for major biological experiments. The fast neutron spectrum has a Kerma-weighted mean energy of 0.8 MeV and low gamma-ray contamination. In 1984 the JANUS fission converter plate of highly enriched uranium was replaced by one made of low-enriched uranium. We recorded microdosimetric spectra at several different positions in the high-flux irradiation room of JANUS before the change of the converter plate. Each set of measurements consisted of spectra taken at three different site diameters (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 ..mu..m) and in both ''attenuator up'' and ''attenuator down'' configurations. At two conventional dosimetry reference positions, two sets of measurements were recorded. At three biological reference positions, measurements simulating several biological irradiation conditions, were taken. The dose rate at each position was estimated and compared with dose rates obtained previously by conventional dosimetry. Comparison of the different measurements showed no major change in spectra as a function of position or irradiation condition. First results from similar sets of measurements recorded after the installment of the new converter plate indicate no major change in the spectra. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Microdosimetric spectra measurements of JANUS neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, I.R.; Williamson, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiation from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory is being used with increasing frequency for major biological experiments. The fast neutron spectrum has a Kerma-weighted mean energy of 0.8 MeV and low gamma-ray contamination. In 1984 the JANUS fission converter plate of highly enriched uranium was replaced by one made of low-enriched uranium. We recorded microdosimetric spectra at several different positions in the high-flux irradiation room of JANUS before the change of the converter plate. Each set of measurements consisted of spectra taken at three different site diameters (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 μm) and in both ''attenuator up'' and ''attenuator down'' configurations. At two conventional dosimetry reference positions, two sets of measurements were recorded. At three biological reference positions, measurements simulating several biological irradiation conditions, were taken. The dose rate at each position was estimated and compared with dose rates obtained previously by conventional dosimetry. Comparison of the different measurements showed no major change in spectra as a function of position or irradiation condition. First results from similar sets of measurements recorded after the installment of the new converter plate indicate no major change in the spectra. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Analysis of photoluminescence spectra of lead-tungstate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Hyung; Lee, Sang Yun; Lee, Myoung Bok

    2003-01-01

    In addition to the intrinsic blue emission band near 430 nm for an ideal PbWO 4 scheelite structure, the presence of three extra emission bands peaking near blue-green and green-red colors was clearly identified for thermally synthesized bulk crystals with the help of a reliable fitting process applicable for microscopic analysis of recorded PL spectra. The origin, nature, and electro-optical behaviors of the extra emission bands are strongly related to the structural change from an ideal scheelite to modified ones, so now we can more closely track down the nature and the relevant behaviors, which are still in dispute, of the apparent colors of the PbWO 4 scintillating medium by constructing structural models and by considering the energy transfer mechanism between the color centers

  7. Antimicrobial potential of triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1

    OpenAIRE

    Kujundžić Žužana; Dimić Gordana R.; Markov Siniša L.; Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.; Mojović Ljiljana V.; Pejin Jelena D.; Marković Milica N.

    2013-01-01

    This study is concerned with the testing of antimicrobial activity of triticale stillage obtained after lactic fermentation by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disc-diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. It was found that fermented triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation exhibited an inhibitory effect towards tested Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis,...

  8. Parent and child acceptability and staff evaluation of K-SADS-PL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Merete Juul; Thomsen, Per Hove; Bilenberg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Standardised diagnostic interviews are used increasingly in child and adolescent psychiatry; yet little is known about the attitudes towards such interviews among parents, children and staff members. In this study, we have aimed to assess (1) the K-SADS-PL's acceptability to parents and children (2...

  9. Establecimiento de plántulas in vitro de clones de ajo peruano (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy López Quintero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el establecimiento in vitro de dos clones de ajo peruano mediante el uso de procesos estandarizados de desinfección e introducción in vitro de meristemos de ajo de clones nacionales. Se validó el uso de hipocloritode calcio (1 g.L-1 e hipoclorito de sodio (0.1% como desinfectantes, permitiendo la eliminación total de los microorganismos presentes en los explantes yuna viabilidad del 66.3 y 64.5% en los clones P-007A y P-007B. El establecimiento in vitro de las plántulas se realizó en medio de cultivo MS con 0,5 mg.L-1 de ácido naftalen acético (ANA y 0,64 mg.L-1 de 2-Isopentil adenina(2ip, donde el clon P-007A desarrollo plántulas de 15mm con 2.52 hojas, mientras en el clon P-007B las plántulas tenían 13.6mm con 2.16 hojas. Las plántulas establecidas de ajo de los clones peruanos lograron los parámetros de desarrollo indicados para la etapa de establecimiento de la especie.

  10. Modification indices for the 2-pl and the nominal response model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that various violations of the 2-PL model and the nominal response model can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or the equivalent efficient score test. The tests presented here focus on violation of local stochastic independence and insufficient capture of the

  11. Los plásticos en la construcción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arredondo, Francisco

    1959-06-01

    Full Text Available Not availableAunque la industria de los plásticos no nació hasta el siglo XIX, puede decirse que los romanos utilizaron dichos materiales, pues hoy noticias del uso de la caseína para fijar pigmentos en los papiros.

  12. Accuracy comparison of Pléiades satellite ortho-images using GPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ivan Henrico

    imagery to achieve a certain level of geometric accuracy are in literature well .... The Pléiades primary product can be described as the processing ..... This article studied the influence of two types of GCP collection methods on the accuracy of.

  13. Considerações Sobre a Reciclagem de Embalagens Plásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forlin Flávio J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda considerações atualizadas sobre a reciclagem de embalagens plásticas com foco no setor de alimentos. No contexto mundial é avaliado o crescente volume de utilização de embalagens plásticas na preservação de alimentos e levantados os componentes sanitários, mercadológicos, sócio-econômicos e ambientais associados. São avaliadas como potenciais vias de reciclagem a transformação mecânica de embalagens plásticas em novos materiais ou produtos, a recuperação de resinas, a transformação térmica, a reutilização de embalagens e a degradação ambiental. O contexto brasileiro mostra potenciais características de viabilidade sócio-econômica e empresarial para a reciclagem de embalagens plásticas, exigindo, todavia, maior conjunção de ações governamentais, empresariais e de pesquisa no setor.

  14. Technical Training: Programmation Unity-Pro pour utilisateurs de Schneider PL7-Pro et Concept

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    Un nouveau cours pratique sur les environnements Premium et Quantum de Schneider est proposé aux automaticiens concepteurs ou installateurs, et aux techniciens de bureau d'études, pour découvrir l'outil de programmation Unity. La prochaine session aura lieu du 24 au 28 janvier 2005. Le cours est ouvert aux personnes capables de développer sous PL7-Pro ou Concept. Objectifs : Maîtriser les différences fonctionnelles d'Unity-Pro par rapport à PL7 et Concept ; programmer en Unity-Pro sur Base Premium et Quantum. Programme : Environnement Quantum et Coupleur Profibus (1 journée) : configuration d'un automate sous Unity Pro et d'un coupleur Profibus DP. Conversion à Unity sur base Quantum et Premium (3,5 jours) : l'offre globale Unity, evolution par rapport à PL7 et Concept ; conversion d'application depuis PL7 Pro ; outils de mise au point ; manipulation des variables structurées ; utilisation des fonctions ; gestion des DF...

  15. ZnO nanorod based low turn-on voltage LEDs with wide electroluminescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Kutsay, O.; Bello, I.; Lee, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on arrays of n-type ZnO Nanorods were fabricated on p-GaN films using a hydrothermal method. The LEDs emit mainly in blue and UV range of the light. Their current–Voltage (I–V) characteristics typically show a low leakage current (7.2 μA) and a high rectification ratio (3 5 5). Devices operate at a low turn-on voltage of ∼4.5 V. Photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) measurements suggest low density of ZnO defects; however, in some aspects density of interfacial defects still might be considerable in the studied devices. The PL emission is deconvoluted to three peaks that are located at wavelengths of 361, 381, and 397 nm, while the wide EL spectra are deconvoluted to five peaks appearing at 368, 385, 427, 474, and 515 nm. Near-band-edge (NBE) emission of p-GaN and n-ZnO was observed in both the PL and EL spectra. Deconvoluted EL spectra consist of a very wide green band with the peak at 515 nm and extending up to 650 nm (red), and a rarely reported EL emission at 474 nm. Origin of these emissions is discussed, herein. The electrical characteristics together with EL characteristics indicate potential to develop and study p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorod LEDs for white emitting applications. - Highlights: ► A low turn-on voltage (4–4.5 V) and low threshold (5 V) electroluminescence from ZnO/GaN heterostructure. ► A wide spectrum EL emission (360–700 nm) suitable for white LED application. ► EL spectra consist of a rarely reported emission band with peak at 474 nm. ► Low-temperature and solution based fabrication, which is scalable and of low cost.

  16. Vibronic spectra of Gd3+ in metaphosphate glasses: Comparison with Raman and infrared spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.W.; Brawer, S.A.; Weber, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Vibronic sidebands associated with the 6 P/sub 7/2/→ 8 S/sub 7/2/ transition of Gd 3+ -doped metaphosphate glasses are observed using line-narrowed fluorescence techniques. Glasses having metal cations of different mass and charge (La,Al,Mg,Ba) are examined. Vibronic spectra, which probe vibrations about the rare-earth element site, are compared with polarized Raman scattering data and the infrared dielectric constant obtained from near-normal reflectance measurements. Results indicate that in metaphosphate glasses vibronic selection rules are similar to HV (vertical height) Raman selection rules. The wavelengths and relative intensities of peaks in the high-frequency portion of the vibronic spectra change with respect to corresponding peaks in the Raman spectra when the mass and/or charge of Gd 3+ differs significantly from that of the metal cation

  17. Analysis of the Alkali Metal Diatomic Spectra; Using molecular beams and ultracold molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Tae

    2014-12-01

    This ebook illustrates the complementarity of molecular beam (MB) spectra and ultracold molecule (UM) spectra in unraveling the complex electronic spectra of diatomic alkali metal molecules, using KRb as a prime example. Researchers interested in molecular spectroscopy, whether physicist, chemist, or engineer, may find this ebook helpful and may be able to apply similar ideas to their molecules of interest.

  18. Periodic assessment of plasma sFlt-1 and PlGF concentrations and its association with placental morphometry in gestational hypertension (GH) - a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevaratnam, Kamalan; Nadarajah, Vishna Devi; Judson, John Paul; Nalliah, Sivalingam; Abdullah, Mohd Farouk

    2010-09-28

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy contributes to about 12% of maternal deaths in Malaysia and similarly worldwide. Early detection and adequate management are preventable strategies. Biochemical markers of abnormal angiogenesis would be more specific in early detection than routine blood pressure and proteinuria measurements. The aim of this study was to estimate maternal plasma PlGF and sFlt-1 levels in pregnant women with gestational hypertension at three intervals of pregnancy and correlate these biomarker levels with placental morphometry. Venous blood samples (antepartum, intrapartum and post partum periods) were drawn to estimate for sFlt-1 and PlGF levels while placental tissue samples were examined for placental morphometry. PlGF levels were lower in gestational hypertension (GH) compared to normotensive during antepartum and intrapartum period, whereas sFlt-1 levels were elevated in GH at antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum intervals during pregnancy. An inverse relationship between these two biomarkers was observed through correlation analysis. PlGF levels were inversely correlated with total villous surface area of the placental periphery (TCsa-C) and villous capillarization (VC-C) of the placental periphery. We established periodic values of for sFlt-1 and PlGF levels for the first time in an ethnically diverse Malaysian setting. We suggest the development of GH in women is related to defective capillarization. In demonstrating periodic changes, this study suggest the possibility of developing GH and other long term health complications as a result of prolonged exposure to sFlt-1. The correlation between PlGF levels and morphometric findings also support possible capillarization defect.

  19. Periodic assessment of plasma sFlt-1 and PlGF concentrations and its association with placental morphometry in gestational hypertension (GH - a prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalliah Sivalingam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy contributes to about 12% of maternal deaths in Malaysia and similarly worldwide. Early detection and adequate management are preventable strategies. Biochemical markers of abnormal angiogenesis would be more specific in early detection than routine blood pressure and proteinuria measurements. The aim of this study was to estimate maternal plasma PlGF and sFlt-1 levels in pregnant women with gestational hypertension at three intervals of pregnancy and correlate these biomarker levels with placental morphometry. Methods Venous blood samples (antepartum, intrapartum and post partum periods were drawn to estimate for sFlt-1 and PlGF levels while placental tissue samples were examined for placental morphometry. Results PlGF levels were lower in gestational hypertension (GH compared to normotensive during antepartum and intrapartum period, whereas sFlt-1 levels were elevated in GH at antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum intervals during pregnancy. An inverse relationship between these two biomarkers was observed through correlation analysis. PlGF levels were inversely correlated with total villous surface area of the placental periphery (TCsa-C and villous capillarization (VC-C of the placental periphery. Conclusion We established periodic values of for sFlt-1 and PlGF levels for the first time in an ethnically diverse Malaysian setting. We suggest the development of GH in women is related to defective capillarization. In demonstrating periodic changes, this study suggest the possibility of developing GH and other long term health complications as a result of prolonged exposure to sFlt-1. The correlation between PlGF levels and morphometric findings also support possible capillarization defect.

  20. sFlt-1 and PlGF kinetics during and after pregnancy in women with suspected or confirmed preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Langeza; van den Meiracker, Anton H; Geensen, Roos; Kaya, Aslihan; van Lennep, Jeanine E Roeters; Duvekot, Johannes J; Verdonk, Koen; Steegers, Eric A P; Russcher, Henk; Danser, Jan A H; Visser, Willy

    2017-06-10

    To assess the evolution of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in women with suspected or with confirmed preeclampsia and to investigate the changes in sFlt-1 and PlGF levels in preeclamptic women after delivery. In this exploratory tertiary referral university centre study, using the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assay, sFlt-1 and PlGF were determined in two groups of patients. In the first group of 46 patients with suspected or confirmed preeclampsia, sFlt-1 and PlGF were measured at least twice during their pregnancy. Women had singleton pregnancies and a median pregnancy duration of 26 weeks (range 18 - 40 weeks). In the second group, sFlt-1 and PlGF of 26 preeclamptic patients were determined before and after delivery. The median gestational age at inclusion was 29 weeks (16 - 37) and the median days between antepartum measurement and delivery was 2 days (1 - 7). In the first group, 90% of patients with a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ≤38 at baseline (n = 30), ruling out PE, the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio remained stable for up to 100 days. In 16 patients with a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio >38 and in 10% of those with a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio <38 at baseline the ratio increased further. In the second group, after delivery, sFlt-1 dropped to <1% of its pre-delivery values with a half-life of 1.4 ± 0.3 days, while PlGF dropped to ≈ 30% of its pre-delivery values with a half-life of 3.7 ± 4.3 days. Based on this small cohort, up to 10% of women admitted with suspected or confirmed PE presenting with a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ≤38 display a rise of this sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in subsequent weeks, implying that repeated determination of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is required to reject this condition definitively. Furthermore, the rapid and pronounced decline of sFlt-1 values after delivery in patients with PE/HELLP suggests that sFlt-1, in contrast with PlGF, is almost entirely placenta-derived. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of search algorithms for a mass spectra library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domokos, L.; Henneberg, D.; Weimann, B.

    1983-01-01

    The SISCOM mass spectra library search is mainly an interpretative system producing a ''hit list'' of similar spectra based on six comparison factors. This paper deals with extension of the system; the aim is exact identification (retrieval) of those reference spectra in the SISCOM hit list that correspond to the unknown compounds or components of the mixture. Thus, instead of a similarity measure, a decision (retrieval) function is needed to establish the identity of reference and unknown compounds by comparison of their spectra. To facilitate estimation of the weightings of the different variables in the retrieval function, pattern recognition algorithms were applied. Numerous statistical evaluations of three different library collections were made to check the quality of data bases and to derive appropriate variables for the retrieval function. (Auth.)

  2. Observational and theoretical spectra of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Swartz, Douglas A.; Harkness, Robert P.

    1993-05-01

    HeI somewhat after maximum. SN Ic events require a considerable depletion, if not absence, of helium. Calculations of the nebular phase after about 200 days show that the optical spectra of SN Ib/c will not reveal HeI even if helium is present. The spectra at that phase are rather insensitive to variations in the mass and composition. The similarity of the optical spectra of SN Ib and Ic events at late times thus does not mean that they are physically very similar. Observations of the HeI λ10 830 line could provide a good diagnostic of the atmospheric composition of Sn Ib and SN Ic.

  3. Bench mark spectra for high-energy neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, R.

    1986-01-01

    To monitor radiation damage experiments, activation detectors are commonly used. The precision of the results obtained by the multiple foil analysis is largely increased by the intercalibration in bench-mark spectra. This technique is already used in dosimetry measurements for fission reactors. To produce neutron spectra similar to fusion reactor and high-energy high-intensity neutron sources (d-Li or spallation), accelerators can be used. Some possible solutions as p-Be and d-D 2 O neutron sources, useful as bench-mark spectra are described. (author)

  4. Flare stars of the Orion Nebula - spectra of an outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.D.; O'Mara, B.J.; Ross, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    For the first time, detailed, time-resolved spectra of a flare event of an Orion cluster flare star are presented. These spectra, covering ∼ λλ3600-4600, were obtained by using the Anglo-Australian Telescope with a fibre coupler to simultaneously monitor 23 flare stars in the region of the Orion Nebula. The flare spectra reveal continuous emission which filled in the photospheric Ca I 4226 A absorption, and hydrogen Balmer, Ca II H and K, He I 4026 A and He I 4471 A line emission. Overall, the spectral behaviour indicates similarities to strong outbursts of the classical dMe flare stars. (author)

  5. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  6. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  7. FSFE: Fake Spectra Flux Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Simeon

    2017-10-01

    The fake spectra flux extractor generates simulated quasar absorption spectra from a particle or adaptive mesh-based hydrodynamic simulation. It is implemented as a python module. It can produce both hydrogen and metal line spectra, if the simulation includes metals. The cloudy table for metal ionization fractions is included. Unlike earlier spectral generation codes, it produces absorption from each particle close to the sight-line individually, rather than first producing an average density in each spectral pixel, thus substantially preserving more of the small-scale velocity structure of the gas. The code supports both Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO.

  8. PL/SQL and Bind Variable: the two ways to increase the efficiency of Network Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh KUMAR SHARMA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern data analysis applications are driven by the Network databases. They are pushing traditional database and data warehousing technologies beyond their limits due to their massively increasing data volumes and demands for low latency. There are three major challenges in working with network databases: interoperability due to heterogeneous data repositories, proactively due to autonomy of data sources and high efficiency to meet the application demand. This paper provides the two ways to meet the third challenge of network databases. This goal can be achieved by network database administrator with the usage of PL/SQL blocks and bind variable. The paper will explain the effect of PL/SQL block and bind variable on Network database efficiency to meet the modern data analysis application demand.

  9. PL-MOD: a computer code for modular fault tree analysis and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, J.; Wolf, L.

    1978-01-01

    The computer code PL-MOD has been developed to implement the modular methodology to fault tree analysis. In the modular approach, fault tree structures are characterized by recursively relating the top tree event to all basic event inputs through a set of equations, each defining an independent modular event for the tree. The advantages of tree modularization lie in that it is a more compact representation than the minimal cut-set description and in that it is well suited for fault tree quantification because of its recursive form. In its present version, PL-MOD modularizes fault trees and evaluates top and intermediate event failure probabilities, as well as basic component and modular event importance measures, in a very efficient way. Thus, its execution time for the modularization and quantification of a PWR High Pressure Injection System reduced fault tree was 25 times faster than that necessary to generate its equivalent minimal cut-set description using the computer code MOCUS

  10. Comparison of two methods for extraction of volatiles from marine PL emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic headspace (DHS) thermal desorption principle using Tenax GR tube, as well as the solid phase micro‐extraction (SPME) tool with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 50/30 µm CAR/PDMS SPME fiber, both coupled to GC/MS were implemented for the isolation and identification of both lipid...... and Strecker derived volatiles in marine phospholipids (PL) emulsions. Comparison of volatile extraction efficiency was made between the methods. For marine PL emulsions with a highly complex composition of volatiles headspace, a fiber saturation problem was encountered when using CAR/PDMS‐SPME for volatiles...... analysis. However, the CAR/PDMS‐SPME technique was efficient for lipid oxidation analysis in emulsions of less complex headspace. The SPME method extracted volatiles of lower molecular weights more efficient than the DHS method. On the other hand, DHS Tenax GR appeared to be more efficient in extracting...

  11. El valor patriotismo, a\ttravés de obras plásticas cubanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilé Montero Leyva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available La\tinvestigación aborda una temática de gran vigencia y actualidad para la finalidad de la educación cubana: el fortalecimiento del valor patriotismo a través de obras plásticas cubanas en los estudiantes de la Secundaria Básica. Se proponen actividades de apreciación artística estructuradas teniendo en cuenta cada unas de las variantes a trabajar, donde aborda la vida y obra de los artistas de la plástica cubanos, así como un cuestionario para la realización de la apreciación. Se brindan orientaciones metodológicas, y además se puede establecer la relación intermateria con las demás asignaturas del grado: Español. Historia de Cuba, Historia Antigua y Medieval.

  12. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V

    2014-01-01

    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  13. Las Artes Plásticas como medio articulador del currículo escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Fernández-Zamora

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 2 de noviembre de 2006 • Aprobado 30 de noviembre de 2006   Este ensayo se basa en la experiencia realizada por una maestra, en la cual integra el currículum, correlacionando las disciplinas de la matemática, ciencias, estudios sociales y español a través de los elementos del lenguaje plástico. La experiencia se desarrolló en una escuela rural costarricense.

  14. Multifractal spectra in shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, L. R.; Deane, Anil E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of three-dimensional homogeneous shear flow and fully developed channel flow, are used to calculate the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation field. Only weak parameterization of the results with the nondimensional shear is found, and this only if the flow has reached its asymptotic development state. Multifractal spectra of these flows coincide with those from experiments only at the range alpha less than 1.

  15. Sequential Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayez-Hassan, M.; Hella, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    This work shows how easy one can deal with a huge number of gamma spectra. The method can be used for radiation monitoring. It is based on the macro feature of the windows XP connected to QBASIC software. The routine was used usefully in generating accurate results free from human errors. One hundred measured gamma spectra were fully analyzed in 10 minutes using our fast and automated method controlling the Genie 2000 gamma acquisition analysis software.

  16. A Study on the Pricing Model for 3PL of Inventory Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilan Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a new research area, logistics finance solves the contradiction between banks and SMEs (small and medium enterprises about financing; it is beneficial to financial market and logistics market development too. As a service innovation, it unites the interests of bank, 3PL (third-party logistics providers, and SMEs and integrates material, finance, and information. Logistics finance has been developed in recent years in China, but the research is not enough on 3PL enterprises. On the background of that, the paper makes a research in the field of logistics finance with different pricing methods, based on the perspective of third-party logistics enterprises. This paper proposes a pricing model of inventory financing that can maximize the cash flow of 3PL enterprise, when the default rate of the small- and medium-sized enterprise is affected by the pledge price. And then this paper studies the model of inventory financing that can maximize the cash flow of enterprise under the condition of the existence of cash discount rate. The core factors affecting the loan-to-value ratio were established through analysis of mathematical model. We also consider the loan-to-value ratio of cash discount rate in the model. Results show that in the pledge of the known function and cash discount the price change can be calculated to meet enterprise cash flow lending rates and get biggest loan-to-value ratio.

  17. Response spectra in alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, A.R.; Paul, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    For aseismic design of structures, the ground motion data is assumed either in the form of ground acceleration as a function of time or indirectly in the form of response spectra. Though the response spectra approach has limitations like not being applicable for nonlinear problems, it is usually used for structures like nuclear power plants. Fifty accelerograms recorded at alluvial sites have been processed. Since different empirical formulas relating acceleration with magnitude and distance give a wide scatter of values, peak ground acceleration alone cannot be the parameter as is assumed by a number of authors. The spectra corresponding to 5% damping have been normalised with respect to three parameters, namely, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and a nondimensional quantity ad/v 2 . Envelopee of maxima and minima as well as average response spectra has been obtained. A comparison with the USAEC spectra has been made. A relation between ground acceleration, ground velocity and ad/v 2 has been obtained which would nearly give the same magnification of the response. A design response spectra for alluvial soils has been recommended. (author)

  18. 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM)-doping density dependence of luminescence spectra and white emission in polymer light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Akinori; Hosokawa, Takeshi; Haishi, Motoki; Ohtani, Naoki [Department of Electronics, Doshisha University, Tatara-Miyakodani, Kyotanabe-shi, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    We fabricated white polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs), in which the active region is doped with a low-weight molecule. The host polymer material is Poly(9,9-didodecyl-fluorenyl-2,7-yleneethylnylene) (PFO), while the guest luminescent low-weight-molecule is 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM). The photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) spectra strongly depend on DCM-doping-density. However, the most suitable DCM-doping-densities for white emissions in PL and EL are slightly different. This discrepancy is caused by the difference in excitation efficiencies. The photo-excitation system for PL measurement is better than the current injection for generating carriers efficiently. Thus, the realization of the white EL signal requires the larger DCM-doping-density than that of the white PL signal. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. EFFECTS OF FORSTERITE GRAIN SHAPE ON INFRARED SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, C.; Imai, Y.; Chihara, H.; Murata, K.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Suto, H.; Tachibana, S.; Ohara, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) detected several sharp infrared features around young stars, comets, and evolved stars. These sharp features were identified as Mg-rich crystalline silicates of forsterite and enstatite by comparison with spectra from laboratory data. However, certain infrared emission bands in the observed spectra cannot be identified because they appear at slightly shorter wavelengths than the peaks in forsterite laboratory spectra, where the shapes of forsterite particles are irregular. To solve this problem, we measured infrared spectra of forsterite grains of various shapes (irregular, plate-like with no sharp edges, elliptical, cauliflower, and spherical) in the infrared spectral region between 5 and 100 μm. The spectra depend on particle shape. The spectra of the 11, 19, 23, and 33 μm bands, in particular, are extremely sensitive to particle shape, whereas some peaks such as the 11.9, 49, and 69 μm bands remained almost unchanged despite different particle shapes. This becomes most evident from the spectra of near-spherical particles produced by annealing an originally amorphous silicate sample at temperature from 600 to 1150 deg. C. The spectra of these samples differ strongly from those of other ones, showing peaks at much shorter wavelengths. At a higher annealing temperature of 1200 deg. C, the particle shapes changed drastically from spherical to irregular and the spectra became similar to those of forsterite particles with irregular shapes. Based on ISO data and other observational data, the spectra of outflow sources and disk sources may correspond to differences in forsterite shape, and further some unidentified peaks, such as those at 32.8 or 32.5 μm, may be due to spherical or spherical-like forsterite.

  20. Remix, Pastiche, Plágio: autorias da nova geração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Demo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A querela em torno do plágio parece estar se acalmando um pouco, ainda que o problema permaneça sumamente grave. Não significa que vamos engolir o plágio, mas que precisamos entender razões de sua proliferação e visões diferenciadas de autoria (BLUM, 2009. Dentro da visão puritana (moderna, plágio é nada mais que fraude criminosa, porque se apropria de direitos alheios. Dentro, porém, da visão mais não linear (pós-moderna, além de ser difícil delimitar o que seria plágio iniludivelmente, pode-se perceber que originalidade, em certo sentido, não existe: as ideias são sempre dinâmicas compartilhadas cultural e linguisticamente (WEINBERGER, 2007. O jeito pessoal de reconstruir as ideias talvez seja único, mas não todas as ideias. Se formos excessivamente rigorosos, toda conversa é plágio, inclusive obras científicas. Na célebre alusão de Newton, sua produção matemática representou avanço decisivo no mundo científico, mas a partir de outros autores (usava a expressão: apoiado nos ombros de antecessores. É problema certamente que muitos estudantes, usando a internet, copiem friamente trechos inteiros como se fossem seus ou mesmo "comprem" uma dissertação. Ocorre também que a nova geração apresenta traços de identidade bastante diferentes, em especial com respeito à vida acadêmica e seus códigos de conduta: estudar é importante, mas é apenas um pedaço na vida e, sob pressões extremas, plagiar também é "opção". Neste texto busco analisar preliminarmente metamorfoses da autoria na nova geração.

  1. An Introduction to the DA-T Gibbs Sampler for the Two-Parameter Logistic (2PL Model and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Maris

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The DA-T Gibbs sampler is proposed by Maris and Maris (2002 as a Bayesian estimation method for a wide variety of Item Response Theory (IRT models. The present paper provides an expository account of the DAT Gibbs sampler for the 2PL model. However, the scope is not limited to the 2PL model. It is demonstrated how the DA-T Gibbs sampler for the 2PL may be used to build, quite easily, Gibbs samplers for other IRT models. Furthermore, the paper contains a novel, intuitive derivation of the Gibbs sampler and could be read for a graduate course on sampling.

  2. Experience in the design, implementation and use of PL-11, a programming language for the PDP-11

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, R D

    1976-01-01

    PL-11 is a programming language for the PDP-11 family of computers designed and implemented as part of the OMEGA Project at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research). Its purpose is to provide an effective tool for both physicists and systems programmers to use in building real time data acquisition systems that are online to high-energy physics experiments. It is a fairly typical member of the PL-class of programming languages which are based on the initial design of PL360. (44 refs).

  3. Caracterización de plásmidos de Acinetobacter spp. de origen hospitalario y ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Salto, Ileana Paula

    2017-01-01

    Los plásmidos pueden ser considerados como un ensamble de distintos módulos funcionales característicos que le confieren su identidad (Thomas, 2000). Los plásmidos pueden contener en su secuencia genes de proteínas con funciones plenamente plasmídicas (replicación, movilización y mantenimiento), como así también módulos accesorios que le confieren al microorganismo huésped alguna función beneficiosa para competir por un nicho ecológico. Estos plásmidos, cumplen una función particular y necesa...

  4. Análisis de Perfil de Textura en Plátanos Pelipita, Hartón y Topocho

    OpenAIRE

    Granados, Clemente; Acevedo, Diofanor; Cabeza, Adis; Lozano, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la textura del plátano Pelipita (Musa ABB) crudo y cocido en comparación con plátanos crudos y cocidos Hartón verde (Musa AAB) y Topocho (Musa ABB del subgrupo Silver Bluggoe) mediante un análisis de perfil de textura. El estudio de la textura como propiedad física del alimento es de suma importancia para determinar la aceptabilidad del mismo. A muestras de plátanos Pelipita de la variedad Musa ABB se les aplicó un análisis del perfil de textura a tiemp...

  5. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  6. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  7. Temperature dependent analysis of three classes of fluorescence spectra from p-6P nanofiber films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Pogantsch, Alexander; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2009-01-01

    devices, given that the spectra are reproducible for varying surface temperatures. A detailed investigation as a function of surface temperature variation from 300 to 30 K reveals three classes of spectra: (a) spectra with well resolved excitonic peaks, which shift 35meV to the blue with decreasing...... temperature, (b) similar spectra with an additional intermediate broadening around 150 K, and (c) excitonic spectra similar to (b), but with a green defect emission band. Quantitative fitting of type (a) spectra results in an  exciton–phonon coupling factor of 80 ± 10meV and an average phonon temperature of Θ...... = 670 ± 70 K. The Huang–Rhys factor decreases linearly from 1.2 at 300 K to 1.0 at 30 K. Fitting of type (b) spectra reveals that the apparent intermediate temperature broadening is due to additional fluorescence peaks, the relative importance of which increasing with decreasing temperature....

  8. Asymmetric distribution of pl10 and bruno2, new members of a conserved core of early germline determinants in cephalochordates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eDailey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular fingerprinting of conserved germline and somatic ¨stemness¨ markers in different taxa have been key in defining the mechanism of germline specification (preformation or epigenesis, as well as expression domains of somatic progenitors. The distribution of molecular markers for primordial germ cells (PGCs, including vasa, nanos and piwil1, as well as Vasa antibody staining, support a determinative mechanism of germline specification in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum, similarly to other amphioxus species. pl10 and bruno2, but not bruno4/6, are also expressed in a pattern consistent with these other germline genes, adding to our repertoire of PGC markers in lancelets. Expression of nanos, vasa and the remaining markers (musashi, pufA, pufB, pumilio and piwil2 may define populations of putative somatic progenitors in the tailbud, the amphioxus posterior growth zone, or zones of proliferative activity. Finally, we also identify a novel expression domain for musashi, a classic neural stem cell marker, during notochord development in amphioxus. These results are discussed in the context of germline determination in other taxa, stem cell regulation and regenerative capacity in adult amphioxus.

  9. The Leu33/Pro polymorphism (PlA1/PlA2) of the glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) receptor is not related to myocardial infarction in the ECTIM Study. Etude Cas-Temoins de l'Infarctus du Myocarde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S M; Poirier, O; Marques-Vidal, P; Evans, A; Arveiler, D; Luc, G; Emmerich, J; Cambien, F

    1997-06-01

    The GPIIb/IIIa receptor complex may contribute to acute coronary syndromes by mediating platelet aggregation. The Leu33/Pro polymorphism (PlA1/PlA2) of the GPIIIa has recently been shown to be associated with CHD in a small case-control study. We have investigated this polymorphism in a large multicenter study of patients with myocardial infarction and controls and found no difference in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies between cases and controls.

  10. Development of site specific response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Savy, J.B.

    1987-03-01

    For a number of years the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has employed site specific spectra (SSSP) in their evaluation of the adequacy of the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). These spectra were developed only from the spectra of the horizontal components of the ground motion and from a very limited data set. As the data set has considerably increased for Eastern North America (ENA) and as more relevant data has become available from earthquakes occurring in other parts of the world (e.g., Italy), together with the fact that recent data indicated the importance of the vertical component, it became clear that an update of the SSSP's for ENA was desirable. The methodology used in this study is similar to the previous ones in that it used actual earthquake ground motion data with magnitudes within a certain range and recorded at distances and at sites similar to those that would be chosen for the definition of an SSE. An extensive analysis of the origin and size of the uncertainty is an important part of this study. The results of this analysis of the uncertainties is used to develop criteria for selecting the earthquake records to be used in the derivation of the SSSP's. We concluded that the SSSPs were not very sensitive to the distribution of the source to site distance of the earthquake records used in the analysis. That is, the variability (uncertainty) introduced by the range of distances was relatively small compared to the variability introduced by other factors. We also concluded that the SSSP are somewhat sensitive to the distribution of the magnitudes of these earthquakes, particularly at rock sites and, by inference, at shallow soil sites. We found that one important criterion in selecting records to generate SSSP is the depth of soil at the site

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Z.M.; Carlson, J.B.; Wang, Tzu-Fang; Ruhter, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were investigated as a means of simulating the gamma-ray spectra of Pu. These simulated spectra will be used to develop and evaluate gamma-ray analysis techniques for various nondestructive measurements. Simulated spectra of calculational standards can be used for code intercomparisons, to understand systematic biases and to estimate minimum detection levels of existing and proposed nondestructive analysis instruments. The capability to simulate gamma-ray spectra from HPGe detectors could significantly reduce the costs of preparing large numbers of real reference materials. MCNP was used for the Monte Carlo transport of the photons. Results from the MCNP calculations were folded in with a detector response function for a realistic spectrum. Plutonium spectrum peaks were produced with Lorentzian shapes, for the x-rays, and Gaussian distributions. The MGA code determined the Pu isotopes and specific power of this calculated spectrum and compared it to a similar analysis on a measured spectrum

  12. Self-similar cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, W Z [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1981-07-01

    The kinematics and dynamics of self-similar cosmological models are discussed. The degrees of freedom of the solutions of Einstein's equations for different types of models are listed. The relation between kinematic quantities and the classifications of the self-similarity group is examined. All dust local rotational symmetry models have been found.

  13. Self-similar factor approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties

  14. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  15. Personalized recommendation with corrected similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommendation has attracted a surge of interdisciplinary research. Especially, similarity-based methods in applications of real recommendation systems have achieved great success. However, the computations of similarities are overestimated or underestimated, in particular because of the defective strategy of unidirectional similarity estimation. In this paper, we solve this drawback by leveraging mutual correction of forward and backward similarity estimations, and propose a new personalized recommendation index, i.e., corrected similarity based inference (CSI). Through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, the results show a greater improvement of CSI in comparison with these mainstream baselines. And a detailed analysis is presented to unveil and understand the origin of such difference between CSI and mainstream indices. (paper)

  16. Biological Action Spectra (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruijl, F.R. de

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a wide variety of biological responses: ranging in humans from well-known short-term effects like sunburn to long-term effects like skin cancer. The wavelength dependencies ('action spectra') of the responses can differ significantly, depending on the UV-targeted molecules (their absorption spectra), their localisation (transmission to the target depth) and the photochemical reactions involved (e.g. quantum yields, competing reaction). An action spectrum (e.g. of sunburn) is usually determined in a wavelength by wavelength analysis of the response. This is not always possible (e.g. in case of skin cancer), and an action spectrum may then be extracted mathematically from differences in responses to broadband UV sources of various spectral compositions (yielding 'biological spectral weights'). However, relative spectral weights may shift with exposure levels and contributions from different wavelengths may not always add up. Under these circumstances conventional analyses will yield different action spectra for different experimental conditions. (author)

  17. Double photoionisation spectra of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Eland, John

    2017-01-01

    This book contains spectra of the doubly charged positive ions (dications) of some 75 molecules, including the major constituents of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and prototypes of major chemical groups. It is intended to be a new resource for research in all areas of molecular spectroscopy involving high energy environments, both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial. All the spectra have been produced by photoionisation using laboratory lamps or synchrotron radiation and have been measured using the magnetic bottle time-of-flight technique by coincidence detection of correlated electron pairs. Full references to published work on the same species are given, though for several molecules these are the first published spectra. Double ionisation energies are listed and discussed in relation to the molecular electronic structure of the molecules. A full introduction to the field of molecular double ionisation is included and the mechanisms by which double photoionisation can occur are examined in detail. A p...

  18. Towards Personalized Medicine: Leveraging Patient Similarity and Drug Similarity Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  19. Registration of Aerial Image with Airborne LiDAR Data Based on Plücker Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Qinghong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Registration of aerial image with airborne LiDAR data is a key to feature extraction. A registration model based on Plücker line is proposed. The relative position and attitude relationship between the conjugate lines in LiDAR and image is determined based on Plücker linear equation, which describes line transformation in space, then coplanarity condition equation is established. Finally, coordinate transformation between image point and corresponding LiDAR point is achieved by the spiral movement of Plücker lines in the image. The registration model of Plücker linear coplanarity condition equation is simple, and jointly describes the rotation and translation to avoid coupling error between them, so the accuracy is approved. This research provides technical support for high-quality earth spatial information acquisition.

  20. Offer a novel method for size appraise of NiO nanoparticles by PL analysis: Synthesis by sonochemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyid Javad Musevi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we will discuss the optical properties of NiO nanoparticles that we have investigated recently by photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. In particular, we will show the blue-shifts of PL, originating from the electron–hole recombination of the self-trapped exciton (STE, observed in smaller-sized NiO nanoparticles. To explain the size effect in relating to the STE PL shift, a question has been raised on whether it is appropriate to apply him quantum confinement (QC theory usually used for the Mott-Winner type excitons in semiconductors to wide band-gap material, such as silica. Variations in several parameters and their effects on the structural (crystal size and morphology properties of nanoparticles were investigated. Characterizations were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermal stability (TGA and DTA, solid state UV and solid state florescent (PL.

  1. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  2. Optical emission line spectra of Seyfert galaxies and radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Many radio galaxies have strong emission lines in their optical spectra, similar to the emission lines in the spectra of Seyfert galaxies. The range of ionization extends from [O I] and [N I] through [Ne V] and [Fe VII] to [Fe X]. The emission-line spectra of radio galaxies divide into two types, narrow-line radio galaxies whose spectra are indistinguishable from Seyfert 2 galaxies, and broad-line radio galaxies whose spectra are similar to Seyfert 1 galaxies. However on the average the broad-line radio galaxies have steeper Balmer decrements, stronger [O III] and weaker Fe II emission than the Seyfert 1 galaxies, though at least one Seyfert 1 galaxy not known to be a radio source has a spectrum very similar to typical broad-line radio galaxies. Intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies exist that show various mixtures of the Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 properties, and the narrow-line or Seyfert 2 property seems to be strongly correlated with radio emission. (Auth.)

  3. The structure of BPS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Pietro

    In this thesis we develop and apply novel techniques for analyzing BPS spectra of supersymmetric quantum field theories of class S. By a combination of wall-crossing, spectral networks and quiver methods we explore the BPS spectra of higher rank four-dimensional N = 2 super Yang-Mills, uncovering surprising new phenomena. Focusing on the SU(3) case, we prove the existence of wild BPS spectra in field theory, featuring BPS states of higher spin whose degeneracies grow exponentially with the energy. The occurrence of wild BPS states is surprising because it appears to be in tension with physical expectations on the behavior of the entropy as a function of the energy scale. The solution to this puzzle comes from realizing that the size of wild BPS states grows rapidly with their mass, and carefully analyzing the volume-dependence of the entropy of BPS states. We also find some interesting structures underlying wild BPS spectra, such as a Regge-like relation between the maximal spin of a BPS multiplet and the square of its mass, and the existence of a universal asymptotic distribution of spin-j irreps within a multiplet of given charge. We also extend the spectral networks construction by introducing a refinement in the topological classification of 2d-4d BPS states, and identifying their spin with a topological invariant known as the "writhe of soliton paths". A careful analysis of the 2d-4d wall-crossing behavior of this refined data reveals that it is described by motivic Kontsevich-Soibelman transformations, controlled by the Protected Spin Character, a protected deformation of the BPS index encoding the spin of BPS states. Our construction opens the way for the systematic study of refined BPS spectra in class S theories. We apply it to several examples, including ones featuring wild BPS spectra, where we find an interesting relation between spectral networks and certain functional equations. For class S theories of A 1 type, we derive an alternative technique for

  4. Automatic identification of mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabloes, F.

    1992-01-01

    Several approaches to preprocessing and comparison of low resolution mass spectra have been evaluated by various test methods related to library search. It is shown that there is a clear correlation between the nature of any contamination of a spectrum, the basic principle of the transformation or distance measure, and the performance of the identification system. The identification of functionality from low resolution spectra has also been evaluated using several classification methods. It is shown that there is an upper limit to the success of this approach, but also that this can be improved significantly by using a very limited amount of additional information. 10 refs

  5. Investigation of gamma spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huailong; Liu Suping; Hao Fanhua; Gong Jian; Liu Xiaoya

    2006-01-01

    In the investigation of radiation fingerprint comparison, it is found out that some of the popular gamma spectra analysis software have shortcomings, which decrease the radiation fingerprint comparison precision. So a new analysis software is developed for solving the problems. In order to display the advantage of developed program, some typical simulative warhead gamma spectra are analyzed respectively by present software and GAMMAVISION and GENNIE2000. Present software can be applied not only in nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification, but also in any radiation measurement field. (authors)

  6. Investigation of gamma spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huailong; Liu Suping; Hao Fanhua

    2006-12-01

    During the investigation of radiation fingerprint comparison, it is found out that the popular gamma spectra analysis softwares are faultful, which decrease the precision of radiation fingerprint comparison. So a new analysis software is development for solving the problems. In order to display the advantage of new program, some typical simulative gamma spectra of radiation source are analyzed respectively by our software and GAMMAVISION and GENNIE2000. The software can be applied not only in nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification, but also in any radiation measurement field. (authors)

  7. Raman spectra studies of dipeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Simone.

    1977-10-01

    This work deals with the homogenous and heterogeneous dipeptides derived from alanine and glycine, in the solid state or in aqueous solutions, in the zwitterions or chlorhydrates form. The Raman spectra comparative study of these various forms of hydrogenated or deuterated compounds allows to specify some of the attributions which are necessary in the conformational study of the like tripeptides. These compounds contain only one peptidic group; therefore there is no possibility of intramolecular hydrogen bond which caracterise vibrations of non bonded peptidic groups and end groups. Infrared spectra of solid dipeptides will be presented and discussed in the near future [fr

  8. Transformation of photoluminescence spectra at the bioconjugation of core-shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macotela, L.G.V.; Douda, J. [UPIITA - Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico (Mexico); Torchynska, T.V. [ESFM- Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico (Mexico); Sierra, R.P. [CINVESTAV del IPN, Mexico (Mexico); Shcherbyna, L. [V. Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics at NASU, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2010-04-15

    The photoluminescence (PL) of nonconjugated and bioconjugated core-shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) has been discussed in this paper. Commercial CdSe/ZnS QDs with the size of 3.6-4.0 nm covered by polymer with emission at 560-565 nm (2.19-2.22 eV) have been used. The QD bioconjugation is performed with the mouse anti PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen) antibody (mab). PL spectra of nonconjugated QDs are characterized by a superposition of PL bands related to exciton emission in the CdSe core (2.19-2.22 eV) and to hot electron-hole emission via surface states (2.37, 2.73 and 3.06 eV) at the CdSe/ZnS or ZnS/polymer interfaces. The PL spectrum of bioconjugated QDs has changed dramatically, with essential decreasing of the hot electron-hole recombination flow via interface states. This effect is explained on the base of re-charging of QD interface states at the bioconjugation. It is shown that the CdSe/ZnS QDs with interface states are very promising for the study of bioconjugation effects to antibodies (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Pl(17) is a novel gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Long, Y M; Jan, C C; Ma, G J; Gulya, T J

    2015-04-01

    Pl 17, a novel downy mildew resistance gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in sunflowers, was genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.). Berl. et de Toni, is one of the serious sunflower diseases in the world due to its high virulence and the variability of the pathogen. DM resistance in the USDA inbred line, HA 458, has been shown to be effective against all virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in the USA. To determine the chromosomal location of this resistance, 186 F 2:3 families derived from a cross of HA 458 with HA 234 were phenotyped for their resistance to race 734 of P. halstedii. The segregation ratio of the population supported that the resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene, Pl 17. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primers were used to identify molecular markers linked to Pl 17. Bulked segregant analysis using 849 SSR markers located Pl 17 to linkage group (LG) 4, which is the first DM gene discovered in this linkage group. An F2 population of 186 individuals was screened with polymorphic SSR and SNP primers from LG4. Two flanking markers, SNP SFW04052 and SSR ORS963, delineated Pl 17 in an interval of 3.0 cM. The markers linked to Pl 17 were validated in a BC3 population. A search for the physical location of flanking markers in sunflower genome sequences revealed that the Pl 17 region had a recombination frequency of 0.59 Mb/cM, which was a fourfold higher recombination rate relative to the genomic average. This region can be considered amenable to molecular manipulation for further map-based cloning of Pl 17.

  10. Caracteres das sementes, plântulas e plantas jovens de Ormosia arborea (Vell. Harms E Ormosia fastigiata Tul. (Leg-papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gurski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ormosia arborea (Vell. Harms e Ormosia fastigiata Tul. são espécies similares em muitos caracteres morfológicos, o que resulta em dificuldade na sua identificação, tanto em campo quanto em material herborizado. Neste estudo foram descritas as características morfológicas das sementes e morfoanatômicas das plântulas e plantas jovens de O. arborea e O. fastigiata, coletadas em restinga e em mata ciliar, respectivamente. Sementes e plântulas foram processadas segundo técnicas usuais. As sementes de O. arborea são mais pesadas e têm germinação hipógea criptocotiledonar. O caule contém tricomas tectores esparsos e grande quantidade de lenticelas e, na raiz, nodulações. A folha apresenta parênquima paliçádico de células mais curtas, com base mais larga e presença de pigmentos vacuolares, espaços intercelulares conspícuos no parênquima esponjoso, tricomas tectores restritos à nervura principal e células epidérmicas da face adaxial maiores que as da face abaxial. A germinação de O. fastigiata é fanerocotiledonar, e a plântula possui muitos tricomas ao longo do caule e lenticelas restritas à região basal deste. As folhas apresentam tricomas tectores em todas as nervuras, com parênquima paliçádico de células tipicamente alongadas e parênquima esponjoso com espaços intercelulares reduzidos. Tais características são consistentes para separar as plântulas e sementes dessas espécies, que têm a mesma denominação popular e contribuem com informações úteis para o meio produtivo.

  11. PlA polymorphism and platelet reactivity following clopidogrel loading dose in patients undergoing coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Dominick J; Fernandez-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernardo, Esther; Alfonso, Fernando; Sabaté, Manel; Fernández, Cristina; Stranieri, Chiara; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Pignatti, Pier Franco; Macaya, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The PlA polymorphism (Leu33Pro) of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIIa gene has been suggested to play an important role in coronary thrombosis. In vitro studies have shown differences for this polymorphism in platelet sensitivity towards antiplatelet drugs (aspirin and abciximab), suggesting a pharmacogenetic modulation. The aim of the study was to assess the modulatory effect of the PlA polymorphism on clopidogrel-induced antiplatelet effects in 38 patients undergoing coronary stent implantation receiving a 300 mg clopidogrel loading-dose. Platelet reactivity was assessed as GPIIb/IIIa activation and P-selectin expression in platelets stimulated with 2 micromol/l adenosine diphosphate using whole blood flow cytometry. The distribution of the homozygous PlA1/A1 and heterozygous PlA1/A2 genotypes were 74 and 26%, respectively. PlA2 carriers had a higher degree of GPIIb/IIIa activation (P = 0.05) and P-selectin expression (P = 0.02) during the overall study time course and a lower antiplatelet effect to a 300 mg clopidogrel loading-dose up to 24 h following intervention (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the Pl polymorphism of the GPIIIa gene modulates platelet reactivity towards clopidogrel front loading in patients undergoing coronary stenting. This suggests the need for individualized antithrombotic regimens to optimally inhibit platelet reactivity. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

  12. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus Pl(ARG) introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckhorst, S; Bachlava, E; Dussle, C M; Tang, S; Gao, W; Saski, C; Knapp, S J; Schön, C-C; Hahn, V; Bauer, E

    2010-11-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus Pl(ARG) originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped Pl(ARG) on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F(2) individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with Pl(ARG) as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOS(sel) × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F(2) individuals that does not segregate for Pl(ARG). A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with Pl(ARG). Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the Pl(ARG) region on LG 1.

  13. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus PlARG introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckhorst, S.; Bachlava, E.; Dußle, C. M.; Tang, S.; Gao, W.; Saski, C.; Knapp, S. J.; Schön, C.-C.; Hahn, V.

    2010-01-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus PlARG originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped PlARG on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F2 individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with PlARG as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOSsel × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F2 individuals that does not segregate for PlARG. A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with PlARG. Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the PlARG region on LG 1. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1416-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700574

  14. Estimativa do vigor das sementes e das plântulas de Bixa orellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Leopoldo Ferreira

    Full Text Available RESUMO A multiplicação de espécies como as da planta de urucum tem limitações em função do conhecimento limitado das características morfológicas e fisiológicas das sementes e das plântulas e da restrição de métodos para determinar a qualidade dessas sementes. Nessa pesquisa, o objetivo foi estudar a adequação do teste de envelhecimento acelerado para estimar o vigor das sementes de urucum (Bixa orellana L., relacionando os resultados desse teste com a formação das plântulas e as diferenças de genótipo dos acessos genéticos. As sementes de urucum, representadas por quatro acessos genéticos, e por três lotes, foram avaliadas pelos testes de germinação, primeira contagem da germinação, classificação do vigor das plântulas e emergência das plântulas (total e índice de velocidade. No teste de envelhecimento acelerado foram avaliados a temperatura, de 41 ºC, e os períodos, de 48; 72 e 96 horas, de exposição das sementes às umidades relativas de 100% (água e de 76% (solução saturada de NaCl. A solução saturada reduz a quantidade de água absorvida pelas sementes de urucum, expostas às condições do teste de envelhecimento acelerado, reduzindo a deterioração das sementes, favorecendo a uniformidade dos resultados e a redução da proliferação de fungos, comuns na germinação das sementes de urucum. O teste de envelhecimento acelerado, com água ou solução salina, por 72 horas ou 96 horas, é eficiente para classificar as sementes de urucum quanto à qualidade. Assim, as variações dos teores de água das sementes de urucum devem ser entre 23;6 e 28;9% (72 horas e 29;7 e 32;9% (96 horas para a utilização da água e entre 7,3 e 9,5% para a utilização da solução salina de NaCl.

  15. Estudio de la fractura de materiales compuestos por una matriz de plástico

    OpenAIRE

    Maspoch, M. Ll. (Maria Lluïsa)

    1992-01-01

    Se estudia el comportamiento a fractura de materiales, compuestos por una matriz de plástico en la que se ha dispersado una segunda fase en forma de partículas elastoméricas. Como matriz se han utilizado dos materiales diferentes: una resina de poliéster insaturada y poliestireno. Se estudia la morfología de los materiales compuestos preparados, se determinan los parámetros de fractura y otras propiedades mecánicas, se realiza el estudio fractográfico y finalmente se analizan los resultados e...

  16. El Datamart en una empresa industrial del sector plástico

    OpenAIRE

    Mellado Flores, Rubén Roberto; Mellado Flores, Rubén Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Pensamos que una empresa que quiera ser competitiva en los actuales momentos debe adoptar los conceptos de la administración digital y en lo relacionado al Front-offíce establecer sistemas del tipo CRM, Administración de las Relaciones con los Clientes. Parte central de éstos sistemas son los Datamart. En el presente trabajo queremos demostrar que con el uso de la Tecnología de la Información podemos obtener ventaja competitiva, para lo cuál planteamos el uso del Datamart. Primero pl...

  17. Astronomia.pl: Ideas for the International Year of Astronomy 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czart, K.; Pomierny, J.

    2008-06-01

    Astronomia.pl is an internet portal for Polish-speaking people. As a website, most of our activities in IYA2009 will focus on the internet and other electronic media. We will prepare a content-rich website, in cooperation with the Polish committee for IYA2009. We present some extended suggestions for ideas proposed by the IAU, like postage stamps or mobile phone wallpapers, ring tones and themes and some original propositions like naming a small Solar System body for each country, a computer game, a stadium as a solar clock, a media event with thousands of amateur astronomers in one place and a network of cities.

  18. Cirugía plástica periodontal, una realidad asistencial: reporte de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia,Godoy; Guerrero,Virginia; Lozano,Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    En la actualidad, la periodoncia no solo se encarga de resolver los procesos infecciosos que afectan al periodonto, sino que también es responsable de la preservación de la función, del confort y de la estética de los tejidos periodontales. Es por eso que hoy en día las técnicas de cirugía plástica periodontal son una herramienta esencial para la resolución de defectos mucogingivales en donde el tejido conectivo subepitelial, debido a su biología, se ha convertido en la mejor alternativa para...

  19. Arte de recreo: La experiencia plástica como medio educativo

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Romero, María

    2016-01-01

    Este proyecto propone defender un arte colectivo que funcione en su plenitud con la colaboración del público. Hace uso del factor procesual y relacional para acercarlo a las personas que no tienen noción del arte contemporáneo. Propone hacer partícipe al espectador de la creación plástica y otorgar más importancia a la experiencia que adquieran que a su resultado final. Tenemos la intención de reencantar el arte a través de la atracción, la estética y el juego. Buscamos influir...

  20. Imagen, artista y enfermedad en la creación plástica

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez García, Nieves

    2013-01-01

    NOTA 520 8 La Tesis Doctoral, titulada “Imagen, artista y enfermedad en la creación plástica“, tiene como objetivo investigar y establecer la relación entre el arte, - como proceso creativo- y la enfermedad, entendida esta como un factor importante e, incluso, decisivo en la propia configuración de la imagen y de la personalidad del artista. Como punto de partida, se procede a analizar diacrónicamente y con profundidad el concepto de “la leyenda del artista” y la consideración social de la...

  1. VEGFR1-mediated pericyte ablation links VEGF and PlGF to cancer-associated retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Renhai; Xue, Yuan; Hedlund, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    . Moreover, blockade of VEGFR1 but not VEGFR2 significantly restores pericyte saturation in mature retinal vessels. Our findings link VEGF and PlGF to cancer-associated retinopathy, reveal the molecular mechanisms of VEGFR1 ligand-mediated retinopathy, and define VEGFR1 as an important target......, and adenoviral vectors ablates pericytes from the mature retinal vasculature through the VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-mediated signaling pathway, leading to increased vascular leakage. In contrast, we demonstrate VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is primarily expressed in nonvascular photoreceptors and ganglion cells...

  2. Técnicas experimentais para tomateiro tipo salada sob estufas plásticas

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes,Sidinei José; Storck,Lindolfo; Heldwein,Arno Bernardo; Feijó,Sandra; Ros,César Augusto da

    1998-01-01

    Realizou-se um ensaio em branco com a cultura do tomateiro, cv. Monte Carlo, sob ambiente modificado por estufa plástica de 24 x 12m. Foram realizadas 11 colheitas dos frutos, sendo determinado o peso total. A unidade básica de colheita foi composta pelo agrupamento de três plantas na fila. O espaçamento entre as plantas na fila foi de 0,3m e 1,0m entre filas, resultando em 10 filas com 24 unidades básicas cada uma. Concluiu-se que o delineamento experimental mais adequado é o inteiramente ca...

  3. Path spectra derived from inversion of source and site spectra for earthquakes in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimasewski, A.; Sahakian, V. J.; Baltay, A.; Boatwright, J.; Fletcher, J. B.; Baker, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    A large source of epistemic uncertainty in Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) is derived from the path term, currently represented as a simple geometric spreading and intrinsic attenuation term. Including additional physical relationships between the path properties and predicted ground motions would produce more accurate and precise, region-specific GMPEs by reclassifying some of the random, aleatory uncertainty as epistemic. This study focuses on regions of Southern California, using data from the Anza network and Southern California Seismic network to create a catalog of events magnitude 2.5 and larger from 1998 to 2016. The catalog encompasses regions of varying geology and therefore varying path and site attenuation. Within this catalog of events, we investigate several collections of event region-to-station pairs, each of which share similar origin locations and stations so that all events have similar paths. Compared with a simple regional GMPE, these paths consistently have high or low residuals. By working with events that have the same path, we can isolate source and site effects, and focus on the remaining residual as path effects. We decompose the recordings into source and site spectra for each unique event and site in our greater Southern California regional database using the inversion method of Andrews (1986). This model represents each natural log record spectra as the sum of its natural log event and site spectra, while constraining each record to a reference site or Brune source spectrum. We estimate a regional, path-specific anelastic attenuation (Q) and site attenuation (t*) from the inversion site spectra and corner frequency from the inversion event spectra. We then compute the residuals between the observed record data, and the inversion model prediction (event*site spectra). This residual is representative of path effects, likely anelastic attenuation along the path that varies from the regional median attenuation. We examine the

  4. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  5. Vibrational spectra of ordered perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsmit, A.F.; Hoefdraad, H.E.; Blasse, G.

    1972-01-01

    The vibrational spectra of the molecular M6+O6 (M = Mo, Te, W) group in ordered perovskites of the type Ba2M2+M6+O6 are reported. These groups have symmetry Oh, whereas their site symmetry is also Oh. An assignment of the internal vibrations is presented.

  6. Raman spectra of graphene ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, R; Furukawa, M; Dresselhaus, G; Dresselhaus, M S

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectra of graphene nanoribbons with zigzag and armchair edges are calculated within non-resonant Raman theory. Depending on the edge structure and polarization direction of the incident and scattered photon beam relative to the edge direction, a symmetry selection rule for the phonon type appears. These Raman selection rules will be useful for the identification of the edge structure of graphene nanoribbons.

  7. Explanation of earthquake response spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, John

    2017-01-01

    This is a set of five slides explaining how earthquake response spectra are derived from strong-motion records and simple models of structures and their purpose within seismic design and assessment. It dates from about 2002 and I have used it in various introductory lectures on engineering seismology.

  8. Emission spectra from AlN and GaN doped with rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Woo; Emura, Shuichi; Kimura, Shigeya; Kim, Moo Seong; Zhou Yikai; Teraguchi, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Akira; Yanase, Akira; Asahi, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Luminescent properties of GaN and AlN based semiconductors containing rare earth metals of Gd and Dy are studied. Cathodoluminescent spectra from AlGdN show a clear and sharp peak at 318 nm following LO phonon satellites. Photoluminescence spectra from GaDyN by the above-gap excitation also show several peaks in addition to the broad luminescence band emission. For GaGdN, the sharp PL peaks are also observed at 650 and 670 nm, and they are assigned to the intra-f orbital transitions by their time decay measurements. The broad band at around 365 nm for AlGdN, 505 nm for GaGdN and GaDyN are commonly observed. The origin of these broad bands is discussed

  9. Skyshine spectra of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarup, Janardan

    1980-01-01

    A study of the spectra of gamma photons back-scattered in vertical direction by infinite air above ground (skyshine) is presented. The source for these measurements is a 650 Ci Cobalt-60 point-source and the skyshine spectra are reported for distances from 150 m to 325 m from the source, measured with a 5 cm x 5 cm NaI(Tl) detector collimated with collimators of 12 mm and 20 mm diameter and 5 cm length. These continuous spectra are unfolded with Gold's iterative technique. The photon-spectra so obtained have a distinct line at 72 keV due to multiply-scattered photons. This is an energy where photoelectric and Compton cross-sections for multiply-scattered photons balance each other. The intensity of the line(I) decreases exponentially with distance (d) from the source obeying a relation of the type I = Isub(o)esup(-μd) where μ is called as ''Multiply-Scatter Coefficient'', a constant of the medium which is air in these measurements. This relationship is explained in terms of a halo around the source comprising of multiply-scattered gamma photons, Isub(0) being the intensity of these scattered photons at the location of cobalt-source. A fraction called as ''Back-scattered Fraction'', the ratio of Isub(0) to the number of original photons from the cobalt-source entering the infinite air, is also calculated. It is shown that with a properly calibrated detector system, this fraction can be used to determine the strength of a large gamma source, viz. a nuclear explosion in air, and for mineral prospecting. These conclusions are general and can be applied to any other infinite medium. Some forward-scatter (transmission) spectra of cobalt-60 source through 10 cm of Pb and 2.5 cm of Al are also reported. (auth.)

  10. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  11. Using Stellar Spectra to Illustrate Thermal Radiation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltcheva, N. T.; Pritzl, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    Stars are point-source emitters that are the closest to the definition of a blackbody in comparison to all other similar sources of radiation found in nature. Existing libraries on stellar spectra are thus a valuable resource that can be used to introduce the laws of thermal radiation in a classroom setting. In this article we briefly describe…

  12. Emergent self-similarity of cluster coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkin, Dmtiri O.

    A wide variety of nonequilibrium processes, such as coagulation of colloidal particles, aggregation of bacteria into colonies, coalescence of rain drops, bond formation between polymerization sites, and formation of planetesimals, fall under the rubric of cluster coagulation. We predict emergence of self-similar behavior in such systems when they are 'forced' by an external source of the smallest particles. The corresponding self-similar coagulation spectra prove to be power laws. Starting from the classical Smoluchowski coagulation equation, we identify the conditions required for emergence of self-similarity and show that the power-law exponent value for a particular coagulation mechanism depends on the homogeneity index of the corresponding coagulation kernel only. Next, we consider the current wave of mergers of large American banks as an 'unorthodox' application of coagulation theory. We predict that the bank size distribution has propensity to become a power law, and verify our prediction in a statistical study of the available economical data. We conclude this chapter by discussing economically significant phenomenon of capital condensation and predicting emergence of power-law distributions in other economical and social data. Finally, we turn to apparent semblance between cluster coagulation and turbulence and conclude that it is not accidental: both of these processes are instances of nonlinear cascades. This class of processes also includes river network formation models, certain force-chain models in granular mechanics, fragmentation due to collisional cascades, percolation, and growing random networks. We characterize a particular cascade by three indicies and show that the resulting power-law spectrum exponent depends on the indicies values only. The ensuing algebraic formula is remarkable for its simplicity.

  13. Estudo do crescimento inicial de plântulas de Cereus jamacaru DC em diferentes substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlucia Silva Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de Cereus jamacaru DC, em substratos a base de fibra de coco e casca de arroz carbonizada. Os tratamentos utilizados foram dispostos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado constituídos por cinco substratos a base de fibra de coco (FC e casca de arroz carbonizado (CAC, misturados com diferentes proporções volumétricas. Os tratamentos constituíram-se dos substratos 100% FC (T1, 100% CAC (T2, 75%FC+25%CAC (T3, 50%FC+50%CAC (T4, e 25%FC+75%CAC (T5. Cada tratamento foi composto por 14 repetições com 2 plantas por tratamento. Caixas de plástico transparente foram utilizados como recipientes. Aos 125 dias após o transplantio, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis das plântulas: comprimento, número, massa fresco e massa seco de raiz; massa fresco e massa seco da parte aérea; comprimento da parte aérea. Nas condições do experimento, conclui-se que o substrato composto somente por fibra de coco apresentou melhores resultados em todas as variáveis analisadas.

  14. Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI en mipymes - Agrocadena del plátano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Darío Arango Serna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo surge como resultado de una investigación en el tema de Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI en la cadena productiva de deshidratados de plátano, compuesta por una planta deshidratadora (proveedor y una granja porcina (cliente, incorporando el costo de transporte del producto como parámetro integral de los costos de inventarios, con el fin de examinar las prácticas de gestión de inventarios antes y después de la implementación de VMI. Se muestra inicialmente la contextualización de la cadena en el ámbito del sector y la agroindustria del plátano en Colombia. Posteriormente, se desarrolla el modelo de coordinación de inventarios, tomando como referencia el modelo propuesto por Yao, et al. [1], el cual se fundamenta en el modelo de lote económico de pedido (EOQ. Se realiza la modelación matemática en los escenarios sin VMI y con VMI, incorporando el costo de transporte del producto al costo total del manejo de inventarios. Los resultados muestran que la adopción de VMI genera ahorros para la cadena integrada y como el costo de transporte resulta ser un elemento individual relevante en la estructura de costos logísticos de la cadena estudiada.

  15. Popular sayings that address time and PLE/PL2 teaching/learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúsia Torres-dos-Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of fixed expressions contributes to a significant demand of L2/SL teaching, the lexicon acquisition. The binomial language/culture gained a clear shape in the context of L2/SL teaching, so as to require the teacher to reflect constantly on the topics that outline the linguistic and cultural identity of the target language. Based on the assumption that time and culture are inseparable, the PFL/PL2 (Portuguese as a Foreign/ Second Language teacher has to be prepared to address the Brazilian concept of time. Relying on the notion of time language (HALL, 1996, this study seeks to identify aspects of the Brazilian temporal language. As fixed expressions have different types, it is often difficult to maintain theoretical boundaries among them. Considering Silva's definition of proverb (1999:14-15, some Brazilian popular sayings concerning time were selected. It was found that popular wisdom has at least two types of expressions that refer to time: those related to the concepts of clock time and the ones linked to the concepts of event time (LEVINE, 1997. It is intended therefore that this study may assist the PFL/PL2 teacher in addressing this issue.

  16. Technical Training: Programmation Unity-Pro pour utilisateurs de Schneider PL7-Pro

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Annonce de nouveau cours pour l'environnement d'automatisme Schneider Un nouveau cours sur les environnements d'automatisme Premium et Quantum de Schneider est maintenant offert dans le cadre de l'Enseignement technique du CERN, afin de découvrir le nouvel outil de programmation Unity. Cette formation, mise en place par le GUAPI (Groupe des utilisateurs d'automates programmables industriels du CERN), sera essentiellement technique et pratique, destinée aux automaticiens concepteurs, metteurs en oeuvre, installateurs, intégrateurs et techniciens de bureau d'études. Ce cours est ouvert aux personnes étant déjà capables de développer une application PL7-Pro sur TSX Premium, ou ayant suivi le stage AP571. Objectifs : Maîtriser rapidement les différences fonctionnelles d'Unity-Pro par rapport à PL7-Pro; programmer en PLC TSX Premium sous Unity, et notamment connaître l'ensemble des l...

  17. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  18. Spectra of conformal sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlapak, Vaclav

    2015-04-01

    In this thesis the spectra of conformal sigma models defined on (generalized) symmetric spaces are analysed. The spaces where sigma models are conformal without the addition of a Wess-Zumino term are supermanifolds, in other words spaces that include fermionic directions. After a brief review of the general construction of vertex operators and the background field expansion, we compute the diagonal terms of the one-loop anomalous dimensions of sigma models on semi-symmetric spaces. We find that the results are formally identical to the symmetric case. However, unlike for sigma models on symmetric spaces, off diagonal terms that lead to operator mixing are also present. These are not computed here. We then present a detailed analysis of the one-loop spectrum of the supersphere S 3 vertical stroke 2 sigma model as one of the simplest examples. The analysis illustrates the power and simplicity of the construction. We use this data to revisit a duality with the OSP(4 vertical stroke 2) Gross-Neveu model that was proposed by Candu and Saleur. With the help of a recent all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of (1)/(2)BPS operators of Gross-Neveu models, we are able to recover the entire zero-mode spectrum of the supersphere model. We also argue that the sigma model constraints and its equations of motion are implemented correctly in the Gross-Neveu model, including the one-loop data. The duality is further supported by a new all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of the ground states of the sigma model. However, higher-gradient operators cannot be completely recovered. It is possible that this discrepancy is related to a known instability of the sigma model. The instability of sigma models is due to symmetry preserving high-gradient operators that become relevant at arbitrarily small values of the coupling. This feature has been observed long ago in one-loop calculations of the O(N)-vector model and soon been realized to be a generic property of sigma models

  19. Conductance spectra of asymmetric ferromagnet/ferromagnet/ferromagnet junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasanai, K., E-mail: krisakronmsu@gmail.com

    2017-01-15

    A theory of tunneling spectroscopy of ferromagnet/ferromagnet/ferromagnet junctions was studied. We applied a delta-functional approximation for the interface scattering properties under a one-dimensional system of a free electron approach. The reflection and transmission probabilities were calculated in the ballistic regime, and the conductance spectra were then calculated using the Landauer formulation. The magnetization directions were set to be either parallel (P) or anti-parallel (AP) alignments, for comparison. We found that the conductance spectra was suppressed when increasing the interfacial scattering at the interfaces. Moreover, the electron could exhibit direct transmission when the thickness was rather thin. Thus, there was no oscillation in this case. However, in the case of a thick layer the conductance spectra oscillated, and this oscillation was most prominent when the middle layer thickness increased. In the case of direct transmission, the conductance spectra of P and AP systems were definitely suppressed with increased exchange energy of the middle ferromagnet. This also refers to an increase in the magnetoresistance of the junction. In the case of oscillatory behavior, the positions of the resonance peaks were changed as the exchange energy was changed. - Highlights: • The conductance spectra of a FM/FM/FM junction were calculated. • The conductance spectra were suppressed by the exchange energy. • The exchange energy and the potential strength play similar roles in the junctions.

  20. Conductance spectra of asymmetric ferromagnet/ferromagnet/ferromagnet junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasanai, K.

    2017-01-01

    A theory of tunneling spectroscopy of ferromagnet/ferromagnet/ferromagnet junctions was studied. We applied a delta-functional approximation for the interface scattering properties under a one-dimensional system of a free electron approach. The reflection and transmission probabilities were calculated in the ballistic regime, and the conductance spectra were then calculated using the Landauer formulation. The magnetization directions were set to be either parallel (P) or anti-parallel (AP) alignments, for comparison. We found that the conductance spectra was suppressed when increasing the interfacial scattering at the interfaces. Moreover, the electron could exhibit direct transmission when the thickness was rather thin. Thus, there was no oscillation in this case. However, in the case of a thick layer the conductance spectra oscillated, and this oscillation was most prominent when the middle layer thickness increased. In the case of direct transmission, the conductance spectra of P and AP systems were definitely suppressed with increased exchange energy of the middle ferromagnet. This also refers to an increase in the magnetoresistance of the junction. In the case of oscillatory behavior, the positions of the resonance peaks were changed as the exchange energy was changed. - Highlights: • The conductance spectra of a FM/FM/FM junction were calculated. • The conductance spectra were suppressed by the exchange energy. • The exchange energy and the potential strength play similar roles in the junctions.

  1. Continuous particle spectra and their angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, Ch.V.; Jain, R.K.; Rama Rao, J.; Ernst, J.; Machner, H.

    1996-01-01

    The angular distribution of continuous particle spectra in pre-equilibrium reactions is still an unsolved problem, particularly so at forward angles. In the present work, the angular distributions of alpha particles emitted in (α, α',x) reactions in the target elements gold and rhodium have been studied in detail. Alpha particle beams of energy 60 MeV from the Variable Energy Cyclotron of Calcutta were used in these experiments. The theoretical calculations were done using an extended exciton model of Kalbach incorporated into the Computer Code PRECO-D2. The formalism used in the exciton model was modified to include division of pre equilibrium cross section into multi-step direct (MSD) and multi-step compound (MSC) components. These MSD and MSC cross sections were used to calculate the angular distributions in terms of Legendre polynomials whose coefficients are given by simple phenomenological relations. Even with a reasonable set of parameters, the agreement between theory and experiment was far from satisfactory at forward angles. Similar conclusion was also drawn in the case of continuous particle spectra of deuterons in (d, d'x) reactions at 25 MeV in various targets. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs

  2. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...... not perform well, even for data that satisfies all its assumptions....

  3. Fast business process similarity search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common for organizations to maintain collections of hundreds or even thousands of business processes. Techniques exist to search through such a collection, for business process models that are similar to a given query model. However, those techniques compare the query model to each

  4. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  5. Network similarity and statistical analysis of earthquake seismic data

    OpenAIRE

    Deyasi, Krishanu; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Banerjee, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    We study the structural similarity of earthquake networks constructed from seismic catalogs of different geographical regions. A hierarchical clustering of underlying undirected earthquake networks is shown using Jensen-Shannon divergence in graph spectra. The directed nature of links indicates that each earthquake network is strongly connected, which motivates us to study the directed version statistically. Our statistical analysis of each earthquake region identifies the hub regions. We cal...

  6. ACCELERATED FITTING OF STELLAR SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-20

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15–30 labels simultaneously.

  7. Reconstruction of neutron spectra through neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Manzanares A, E.

    2003-01-01

    A neural network has been used to reconstruct the neutron spectra starting from the counting rates of the detectors of the Bonner sphere spectrophotometric system. A group of 56 neutron spectra was selected to calculate the counting rates that would produce in a Bonner sphere system, with these data and the spectra it was trained the neural network. To prove the performance of the net, 12 spectra were used, 6 were taken of the group used for the training, 3 were obtained of mathematical functions and those other 3 correspond to real spectra. When comparing the original spectra of those reconstructed by the net we find that our net has a poor performance when reconstructing monoenergetic spectra, this attributes it to those characteristic of the spectra used for the training of the neural network, however for the other groups of spectra the results of the net are appropriate with the prospective ones. (Author)

  8. Biological Action Spectra (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruijl, F.R. de

    2000-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a wide variety of biological responses: ranging in humans from well-known short-term effects like sunburn to long-term effects like skin cancer. The wavelength dependencies ('action spectra') of the responses can differ significantly, depending on the UV-targeted molecules (their absorption spectra), their localisation (transmission to the target depth) and the photochemical reactions involved (e.g. quantum yields, competing reaction). An action spectrum (e.g. of sunburn) is usually determined in a wavelength by wavelength analysis of the response. This is not always possible (e.g. in case of skin cancer), and an action spectrum may then be extracted mathematically from differences in responses to broadband UV sources of various spectral compositions (yielding 'biological spectral weights'). However, relative spectral weights may shift with exposure levels and contributions from different wavelengths may not always add up. Under these circumstances conventional analyses will yield different action spectra for different experimental conditions. (author)

  9. Spin-exciton interaction and related micro-photoluminescence spectra of ZnSe:Mn DMS nanoribbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lipeng; Zhou, Weichang; Zou, Bingsuo; Zhang, Yu; Han, Junbo; Yang, Xinxin; Gong, Zhihong; Li, Jingbo; Xie, Sishen; Shi, Li-Jie

    2017-03-10

    For their spintronic applications the magnetic and optical properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have been studied widely. However, the exact relationships between the magnetic interactions and optical emission behaviors in DMS are not well understood yet due to their complicated microstructural and compositional characters from different growth and preparation techniques. Manganese (Mn) doped ZnSe nanoribbons with high quality were obtained by using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Successful Mn ion doping in a single ZnSe nanoribbon was identified by elemental energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy mapping and micro-photoluminescence (PL) mapping of intrinsic d-d optical transition at 580 nm, i.e. the transition of 4 T 1 ( 4 G) →  6 A 1 ( 6 s),. Besides the d-d transition PL peak at 580 nm, two other PL peaks related to Mn ion aggregates in the ZnSe lattice were detected at 664 nm and 530 nm, which were assigned to the d-d transitions from the Mn 2+ -Mn 2+ pairs with ferromagnetic (FM) coupling and antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling, respectively. Moreover, AFM pair formation goes along with strong coupling with acoustic phonon or structural defects. These arguments were supported by temperature-dependent PL spectra, power-dependent PL lifetimes, and first-principle calculations. Due to the ferromagnetic pair existence, an exciton magnetic polaron (EMP) is formed and emits at 460 nm. Defect existence favors the AFM pair, which also can account for its giant enhancement of spin-orbital coupling and the spin Hall effect observed in PRL 97, 126603(2006) and PRL 96, 196404(2006). These emission results of DMS reflect their relation to local sp-d hybridization, spin-spin magnetic coupling, exciton-spin or phonon interactions covering structural relaxations. This kind of material can be used to study the exciton-spin interaction and may find applications in spin-related photonic devices besides spintronics.

  10. Biometria e morfologia da semente e plântula de oiticica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Oliveira Diniz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A carência de trabalhos sobre plantas nativas da Caatinga nordestina é perceptível, sobretudo, no que se refere aos estudos de suas sementes. Dentre as referidas espécies, destaca-se por seus múltiplos usos, a oiticica (Licania rigida Benth. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar e descrever a biometria e morfologia da semente e plântula de oiticica. O trabalho foi conduzido no Laboratório de Análises de Sementes do Departamento de Fitotecnia/UFC. Foram realizadas, nas sementes, medições individuais de comprimento, largura e espessura e a determinação morfológica de suas partes internas e externas, além da caracterização da plântula com suas respectivas estruturas. A semente de oiticica é eurispérmica, apresenta comprimento de 3,1 a 5,0 cm, largura de 1,3 a 1,7 cm e espessura de 1,2 a 1,7 cm. O embrião é grande de formato linear, com cotilédones carnosos de cor branca amarelada, dobrados e apresentam nervuras e o eixo hipocótilo-radícula curto. Germinação inicia-se aos 15 dias, sendo hipógea criptocotiledonar. A plântula possui nas faces dos primórdios foliares, uma camada esbranquiçada com aspecto cotonoso.Biometry and morphology of seed and seedling of oiticicaAbstract: Lack of works in native plants of caatinga northeastern is obvious, especially, relating to study of seeds. Among these species, stands out for its multiple uses, the oiticica (Licania rigida Benth. The objective of present experiment was to determinate the biometry and morphology the seed and seedling of Licania rigida. The essay was conducted at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Phytotechny Department/UFC. Used were what measurement referent this length, width end thickness as well as detailed description internal end external of seed. Results showed that the seeds are euryspermycs, has length 3.1 to 5.0 cm, width 1.3 to 1.7 cm and thickness 1.2 to 1.7 cm. The embryo is large linear format, with fleshy cotyledons yellowed, folded

  11. Photoluminescent (PL) or electroluminescent (EL) quantum dots for display, lighting, and photomedicine (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yajie

    2017-02-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have gone through a long journey before finding their ways into the display field. This talk will briefly touch on the history before trying to answer several key questions related to QDs applications in display: What are QDs? How are they made? What properties do they have and Why? How can these properties be used to improve color and efficiency of display, in either photoluminescence (PL) or electroluminescence (EL) mode? And what are the remaining challenges for QDs wide adoption in display industry? Lastly, some most recent progresses in our UCF lab at both PL and EL fronts will be highlighted. For PL, a cadmium-free perovskite-polymer composite films with exceptionally narrow emission green peaks (FWHM 20 nm) and good water and thermal stability will be reported. Together with red quantum dots or PFS/KSF phosphors as down-converters for blue LEDs, a white-light source with 95% Rec. 2020 color gamut was demonstrated [1]. For EL, red quantum dot light emitting devices (QLEDs) with record luminance of 165,000 Cd/m2 has been obtained at a current density of 1000 mA/cm2 with a low driving voltage of 5.8 V and CIE coordinates of (0.69, 0.31). [2] The potential of using these QLEDs for light sources for integrated sensing platform [3] or high efficiency, high color quality hybrid white OLED [4] will be discussed. [1] Y. N. Wang, J. He, H. Chen, J. S. Chen, R. D. Zhu, P. Ma, A. Towers, Y. Lin, A. J. Gesquiere, S. T. Wu, Y. J. Dong. Ultrastable, Highly Luminescent Organic-Inorganic Perovskite - Polymer Composite Films, Advanced Materials, accepted, (2016). [2] Y. J. Dong, J.M. Caruge, Z. Q. Zhou, C. Hamilton, Z. Popovic, J. Ho, M. Stevenson, G. Liu, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, and J. Steckel Ultra-bright, Highly Efficient, Low Roll-off Inverted Quantum-Dot Light Emitting Devices (QLEDs). SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 46, 270-273 (2015). [3] J. He, H. Chen, S. T. Wu, and Y. J. Dong, Integrated Sensing Platform Based on Quantum

  12. The brown algae Pl.LSU/2 group II intron-encoded protein has functional reverse transcriptase and maturase activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Zerbato

    Full Text Available Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner.

  13. PlGF repairs myocardial ischemia through mechanisms of angiogenesis, cardioprotection and recruitment of myo-angiogenic competent marrow progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Despite preclinical success in regenerating and revascularizing the infarcted heart using angiogenic growth factors or bone marrow (BM cells, recent clinical trials have revealed less benefit from these therapies than expected.We explored the therapeutic potential of myocardial gene therapy of placental growth factor (PlGF, a VEGF-related angiogenic growth factor, with progenitor-mobilizing activity.Myocardial PlGF gene therapy improves cardiac performance after myocardial infarction, by inducing cardiac repair and reparative myoangiogenesis, via upregulation of paracrine anti-apoptotic and angiogenic factors. In addition, PlGF therapy stimulated Sca-1(+/Lin(- (SL BM progenitor proliferation, enhanced their mobilization into peripheral blood, and promoted their recruitment into the peri-infarct borders. Moreover, PlGF enhanced endothelial progenitor colony formation of BM-derived SL cells, and induced a phenotypic switch of BM-SL cells, recruited in the infarct, to the endothelial, smooth muscle and cardiomyocyte lineage.Such pleiotropic effects of PlGF on cardiac repair and regeneration offer novel opportunities in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  14. Logic based feature detection on incore neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bende-Farkas, S.; Kiss, S.; Racz, A.

    1992-09-01

    A methodology is proposed to investigate neutron spectra in such a way which is similar to human thinking. The goal was to save experts from tedious, mechanical tasks of browsing a large amount of signals in order to recognize changes in the underlying mechanisms. The general framework for detecting features of incore neutron spectra with a rulebased methodology is presented. As an example, the meaningful peaks in the APSDs are determined. This method is a part of a wider project to develop a noise diagnostic expert system. (R.P.) 6 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Using stellar spectra to illustrate thermal radiation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltcheva, N. T.; Pritzl, B. J.

    2018-05-01

    Stars are point-source emitters that are the closest to the definition of a blackbody in comparison to all other similar sources of radiation found in nature. Existing libraries on stellar spectra are thus a valuable resource that can be used to introduce the laws of thermal radiation in a classroom setting. In this article we briefly describe some of the opportunities that available databases on stellar spectra provide for students to gain a deeper understanding on thermal radiation and spectral line characteristics.

  16. An Alfven eigenmode similarity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Fredrickson, E; Gorelenkov, N N; Hyatt, A W; Kramer, G; Luo, Y

    2003-01-01

    The major radius dependence of Alfven mode stability is studied by creating plasmas with similar minor radius, shape, magnetic field (0.5 T), density (n e ≅3x10 19 m -3 ), electron temperature (1.0 keV) and beam ion population (near-tangential 80 keV deuterium injection) on both NSTX and DIII-D. The major radius of NSTX is half the major radius of DIII-D. The super-Alfvenic beam ions that drive the modes have overlapping values of v f /v A in the two devices. Observed beam-driven instabilities include toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE). The stability threshold for the TAE is similar in the two devices. As expected theoretically, the most unstable toroidal mode number n is larger in DIII-D

  17. Compressional Alfven Eigenmode Similarity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2004-11-01

    NSTX and DIII-D are nearly ideal for Alfven eigenmode (AE) similarity experiments, having similar neutral beams, fast-ion to Alfven speed v_f/v_A, fast-ion pressure, and shape of the plasma, but with a factor of 2 difference in the major radius. Toroidicity-induced AE with ˜100 kHz frequencies were compared in an earlier study [1]; this paper focuses on higher frequency AE with f ˜ 1 MHz. Compressional AE (CAE) on NSTX have a polarization, dependence on the fast-ion distribution function, frequency scaling, and low-frequency limit that are qualitatively consistent with CAE theory [2]. Global AE (GAE) are also observed. On DIII-D, coherent modes in this frequency range are observed during low-field (0.6 T) similarity experiments. Experiments will compare the CAE stability limits on DIII-D with the NSTX stability limits, with the aim of determining if CAE will be excited by alphas in a reactor. Predicted differences in the frequency splitting Δ f between excited modes will also be used. \\vspace0.25em [1] W.W. Heidbrink, et al., Plasmas Phys. Control. Fusion 45, 983 (2003). [2] E.D. Fredrickson, et al., Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report PPPL-3955 (2004).

  18. Antimicrobial potential of triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujundžić Žužana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the testing of antimicrobial activity of triticale stillage obtained after lactic fermentation by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disc-diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. It was found that fermented triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation exhibited an inhibitory effect towards tested Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. The triticale stillage without addition of CaCO3 before fermentation showed a stronger antimicrobial effect in comparison with the triticale stillage with added CaCO3. Triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation did not show any antifungal effect on the growth of tested moulds (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium brevicompactum, and Fusarium subglutinans. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31017

  19. Cirugía plástica básica para el no especialista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernández

    2015-10-01

    • Quemaduras. Primeros auxilios. Por calor. Por electricidad. Por ácidos o álcalis., etc.          Las técnicas están descritas en un lenguaje accesible al no especialista y están profusamente ilustradas en colores.         La edición fue realizada por impresión médica.         El Prof. Coiffman es también el director del tratado “Coiffman. Cirugía Plástica, Reconstructiva y Estética”, que, en su tercera edición, consta de ocho tomos. Esta obra es el texto de estudio de la especialidad en iberolatinoamérica y tiene 170 coautores internacionales. Fue editada por la Editorial Amolca.

  20. Effects of austenitization temperature on the microstructure of 15BCr30 and PL22 boron steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Suski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies boron precipitation and segregation at austenitic grain boundaries for low carbon boron steels types: PL22 and 15BCr30. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of martensite/bainite, size and nucleation sites of austenitic grains and precipitates sizes. Three austenitization temperatures were studied (870, 1050 and 1200 °C. The highest martensite percentage occurred for 1050 °C. Iron-borocarbides were detected at grain boundaries for all tested temperatures. At 870 °C the coarse iron-borocarbides are due to non-solubility and coalescence. The highest martensite percentage at 1050 °C is caused by the discrete precipitation of iron-borocarbides at austenitic grains boundaries. The discrete precipitation was due to the low non-equilibrium segregation of boron at grain boundaries. The low non-equilibrium segregation and the small grain size at 1050 °C reduce the total boron concentration at grain boundaries.

  1. Bolsas de plástico y lazos sociales. Notas de campo sobre reciclaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Montero Mórtola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La protección del medio ambiente no sólo consiste en grandes campañas mediáticas y políticas. Existe una ciudadanía silenciosa que ha empezado a modificar actitudes, rescatar viejas costumbres y adaptarlas a distintos espacios de este mundo globalizado (domésticos, informales.... Un cambio cultural donde la reutilización de objetos desechados, a través de actividades artesanales y educativas, sirve para poner en marcha una serie de vínculos y lazos sociales. Estudiando el reciclaje de bolsas de plástico, la antropología puede restituir esos curiosos procesos organizativos, prácticas sociales sólo visibles a partir de un trabajo de campo continuado.

  2. Estrategias para el desarrollo empresarial: Asociatividad en el sector plástico venezolano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Cervilla de Olivieri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base de una iniciativa de colaboración puesta en marcha por un conjunto de empresas del sector plástico venezolano, este trabajo pretende ilustrar los beneficios que otorga la participación en redes empresariales e identificar los retos para su consolidación, a fin de proponer recomendaciones para el diseño de estrategias de desarrollo empresarial. La investigación se realizó siguiendo una metodología cualitativa, con base en el enfoque del estudio de caso. Se discuten los marcos conceptuales pertinentes y se presenta el caso de la Corporación de Plásticos Mirandino (CORPLAMI, consorcio de empresas fabricantes de empaques flexibles que inició actividades en 1999, describiéndose su evolución y analizando las barreras superadas para la conformación del grupo así como las amenazas a su sostenibilidad. El caso presentado está basado en la conformación de una red horizontal, donde las empresas cooperan en algunas actividades pero compiten entre sí en un mismo mercado, esperando obtener beneficios individuales de la acción conjunta. Esta experiencia muestra que el camino a seguir para la conformación de redes de empresas pasa por la definición y la ejecución de una estrategia empresaria instrumentada a través de acciones que persiguen los objetivos de mejora en la productividad y en la competitividad.

  3. Meio século de artes plásticas em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida de Juan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante as recentes décadas, as artes plásticas em Cuba desenvolveram diversas tendências como a abstração, o fotorrealismo, o neoexpressionismo, o conceitualismo etc., enquanto algumas temáticas e alguns caracteres cuja base remete às culturas afro-cubanas são mantidos. Às manifestações com antecedentes nacionais se agregará, como manifestação orgânica, o design gráfico, que vem se constituindo numa escola de particularidades próprias. Na atualidade proliferam as instalações e as performances, muitas vezes com caráter interdisciplinar, como no caso da video art.Durante las recientes décadas, las artes plásticas en Cuba han desarrollado diversas tendencias como la abstracción, el fotorrealismo, el neoexpresionismo, el conceptualismo, etc., mientras mantienen algunas temáticas y caracteres cuya base se remite a las culturas afrocubanas. A las manifestaciones con antecedentes nacionales se añadirá, como manifestación orgánica, el diseño gráfico que se ha constituido en una escuela de caracteres propios. En la actualidad proliferan las instalaciones y los performances, a menudo con carácter interdisciplinario, así como el video art.During recent decades, several trends have emerged in the Cuban visual arts, e.g., abstraction, photorealism, neoexpressionism and conceptualism, among others, without losing sight of certain themes and characters based on Afro-Cuban cultures. To the manifestations of a national heritage should be added, as an organic expression, graphic design, which is becoming a school with unique features. Today, we have a proliferation of performances and installations, often of interdisciplinary nature, as is the case of video art.

  4. Efectos del control del picudo negro (Cosmopolites sordidus en el plátano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Armendáriz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprobar el efecto en el plátano de las capturas masivas de adultos con feromonas y de la aplicación de hongos entomopatógenos sobre Cosmopolites sordidus. La investigación se realizó en el Carmen, Manabí, Ecuador, de diciembre 2013 a octubre 2014 en una parcela de nueva plantación de plátano Barraganete y se valoró el efecto de la eliminación de restos vegetales de las parcelas. El diseño experimental fue al azar con tres repeticiones. En laboratorio se comprobó la infectividad de la cepa de Beauveria bassiana sobre adultos del picudo negro y del picudo café (Metamasius hemipterus (92,80 y 100% en M. hemipterus frente a 46,70 y 16,20% en C. sordidus. Las capturas de adultos fueron continuas a lo largo del ensayo, con una media de 0,37 adultos/trampa/día. Los datos agronómicos indicaron una diferencia positiva y significativa (análisis de la varianza de los tratamientos frente al control en el perímetro del pseudotallo (F de 4,982 y en el peso de los racimos entre las parcelas limpias con feromonas y con hongos limpias frente al control (F= 3,994. Al comparar los tratamientos el peso del racimo y la longitud de los dedos fueron significativamente mayores en las parcelas de feromonas frente a las de hongos (F = 4,508. Las capturas de adultos con feromonas no estuvieron condicionadas por la limpieza de las parcelas, aunque esta sí incidió en la altura de las plantas (F= 4,245.

  5. Plágio e publicação científica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Gemal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a palavra ética tem estado em evidência no país, usualmente referida a sua ausência. Neste cenário, no qual sobram palavras e faltam atitudes, refletir, debater e concretizar ações sobre este tema na publicação científica tornam-se imprescindíveis. O acesso aberto e a democratização do conhecimento e, principalmente, da informa-ção, têm permitido atualmente uma possibilidade fabulosa de avanços na formação de pesquisadores e cidadãos.Neste contexto, a cultura do plágio tem maiores condições de se disseminar e de se tornar socialmente aceita. Isto faz com que instituições e editores de revistas científicas sejam colocados em situações que exigem atitudes imediatas e coerentes com os princípios éti-cos do campo da ciência. Em uma rápida busca no Google do termo “plágio em publicação científica”, encontramos cerca de 400 mil resultados, o que evidencia os danos e riscos que dizem respeito a todos nós: editores, pesquisadores, alunos, gestores de instituições de pesquisa — corresponsáveis pela acuidade da informação — e leitores.

  6. Variación genética en plántulas de Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Martínez Hernández

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y acumulación de biomasa en plántulas de 7 meses de edad pertenecientes a 42 familias de polinización libre de tres especies de Eucalyptus (E. globulus, E. resinifera, y E. rudis. El ensayo se estableció en condiciones de vivero con germoplasma colectado en plantaciones establecidas en la cuenca del Valle de México. Los resultados indicaron la existencia de variación significativa (P≤0.05 entre especies y entre familias dentro de especies para las variables altura, diámetro, número de hojas y número de ramas, aunque no en el área foliar. A nivel de especies se encontraron diferencias significativas en todas las variables relacionadas con la acumulación y distribución de biomasa, excepto en el peso seco de las hojas. También se encontró una variación significativa (P≤0.01 a nivel de familias dentro de especies en el peso seco del tallo, el peso seco de hojas y la biomasa aérea mientras que el peso seco de las ramas y la biomasa de raíz no presentaron una variación significativa entre las familias. El componente de variación de familias dentro de especies aportó del 2 al 12 % de la variación fenotípica total, mientras que las especies contribuyeron sólo del 0.5 a 7.5 de esta variación. El mayor porcentaje de variación se presentó dentro de parcelas, con valores de 80 a 90 % del total en todas las variables de crecimiento y acumulación de biomasa de las plántulas.

  7. TkPl_SU: An Open-source Perl Script Builder for Seismic Unix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    TkPl_SU (beta) is a graphical user interface (GUI) to select parameters for Seismic Unix (SU) modules. Seismic Unix (Stockwell, 1999) is a widely distributed free software package for processing seismic reflection and signal processing. Perl/Tk is a mature, well-documented and free object-oriented graphical user interface for Perl. In a classroom environment, shell scripting of SU modules engages students and helps focus on the theoretical limitations and strengths of signal processing. However, complex interactive processing stages, e.g., selection of optimal stacking velocities, killing bad data traces, or spectral analysis requires advanced flows beyond the scope of introductory classes. In a research setting, special functionality from other free seismic processing software such as SioSeis (UCSD-NSF) can be incorporated readily via an object-oriented style to programming. An object oriented approach is a first step toward efficient extensible programming of multi-step processes, and a simple GUI simplifies parameter selection and decision making. Currently, in TkPl_SU, Perl 5 packages wrap 19 of the most common SU modules that are used in teaching undergraduate and first-year graduate student classes (e.g., filtering, display, velocity analysis and stacking). Perl packages (classes) can advantageously add new functionality around each module and clarify parameter names for easier usage. For example, through the use of methods, packages can isolate the user from repetitive control structures, as well as replace the names of abbreviated parameters with self-describing names. Moose, an extension of the Perl 5 object system, greatly facilitates an object-oriented style. Perl wrappers are self-documenting via Perl programming document markup language.

  8. Industria del plástico en el noreste de México y Texas, 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Corrales C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se compara el peso específico de la industria del plástico entreTexas y el noreste de México; ambas regiones son fabricantes de plástico, e interactúan a través de un comercio intenso, que las hace dependientes. También se comparan las tendencias de su producción, capacidades tecnológicas y localización geográfica para abastecer el mercado, entre otros aspectos. El crecimiento de esta industria le permitirá a México agregar valor a su petróleo. Las importaciones crecientes de resinas, junto con su participación escasa como proveedor de la industriamaquiladora de exportación generan la expectativa de un amplio mercado para el plástico; para lograrlo, necesita impulsar la petroquímica.

  9. Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kędzia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet The paper offers a critical evaluation of the power and usefulness of an automatic prompt system based on the extended Relaxation Labelling algorithm in the process of (manual mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet. To this end the results of manual mapping – that is inter-lingual relations between plWN and PWN synsets – are juxtaposed with the automatic prompts that were generated for the source language synsets to be mapped. We check the number and type of inter-lingual relations introduced on the basis of automatic prompts and the distance of the respective prompt synsets from the actual target language synsets.

  10. Similarity analysis between quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Liu, XingAo; Zhu, Changming; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Xiafen; Ian, Hou

    2018-06-01

    Similarity analyses between quantum images are so essential in quantum image processing that it provides fundamental research for the other fields, such as quantum image matching, quantum pattern recognition. In this paper, a quantum scheme based on a novel quantum image representation and quantum amplitude amplification algorithm is proposed. At the end of the paper, three examples and simulation experiments show that the measurement result must be 0 when two images are same, and the measurement result has high probability of being 1 when two images are different.

  11. Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations

  12. NMRNet: A deep learning approach to automated peak picking of protein NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowski, Piotr; Augoff, Michal; Zieba, Maciej; Drwal, Maciej; Gonczarek, Adam; Walczak, Michal J

    2018-03-14

    Automated selection of signals in protein NMR spectra, known as peak picking, has been studied for over 20 years, nevertheless existing peak picking methods are still largely deficient. Accurate and precise automated peak picking would accelerate the structure calculation, and analysis of dynamics and interactions of macromolecules. Recent advancement in handling big data, together with an outburst of machine learning techniques, offer an opportunity to tackle the peak picking problem substantially faster than manual picking and on par with human accuracy. In particular, deep learning has proven to systematically achieve human-level performance in various recognition tasks, and thus emerges as an ideal tool to address automated identification of NMR signals. We have applied a convolutional neural network for visual analysis of multidimensional NMR spectra. A comprehensive test on 31 manually-annotated spectra has demonstrated top-tier average precision (AP) of 0.9596, 0.9058 and 0.8271 for backbone, side-chain and NOESY spectra, respectively. Furthermore, a combination of extracted peak lists with automated assignment routine, FLYA, outperformed other methods, including the manual one, and led to correct resonance assignment at the levels of 90.40%, 89.90% and 90.20% for three benchmark proteins. The proposed model is a part of a Dumpling software (platform for protein NMR data analysis), and is available at https://dumpling.bio/. michaljerzywalczak@gmail.compiotr.klukowski@pwr.edu.pl. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    The need for generation of seismic acceleration histories to prescribed response spectra arises several ways in structural dynamics. For example, one way of obtaining floor spectra is to generate a history from a foundation spectra and then solve for the floor motion from which a floor spectrum can be obtained. Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE

  14. Electron impact spectra of methane, ethane, and neopentane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.E.; Kim, K.; Johnston, D.B.; Lipsky, S.

    1979-01-01

    Electron impact spectra of methane, ethane, and neopentane have been obtained at scattering angles of 0 0 and 90 0 and at impact energies from approx. =30 to 250 eV. The data are consistent with the lowest excitation in all of these systems to involve promotion of an electron to a 3s Rydberg-like orbital. Differences between 0 0 and 90 0 onsets are attributed to large-angle intensity enhancements of transitions to the 3s Rydberg triplets. At 90 0 all of the spectra exhibit very similar intensity redistributions with strong enhancement of transitions in the 12 and 15 eV region as compared to lower-lying transitions. Assignments of the spectra and possible origins of the angular dependence are discussed

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) absorption spectra of chromatin and its components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonova, N.Y.; Kiseleva, M.N.; Petrov, M.Y.; Tsyganenko, N.M.; Bubyakina, V.V.; Chikhirzhina, G.I.

    1984-01-01

    The electron absorption spectra of thin films of chromatin and chromatin components in the ultraviolet region (140-280 nm) were investigated. The absorption coefficients μ(lambda) of chromatin, nucleosomes with and without histone H1, total histones (TH), and DNA were compared. The spectra of nucleosomes differ from the sum-spectrum of DNA plus TH. The chromatin and nucleosome spectra are not similar in the spectral region of 190-160 nm. The lack of additivity of absorption coefficients at different wavelengths may be explained by different conformational changes of DNA, TH in nucleosomes and chromatin during the process of drying aqueous solutions for the preparation of thin films. The μ(lambda) values are useful for an estimate of the DNA and TH absorption in chromatin and nucleosomes in discussing UV and VUV irradiation damages. (Auth.)

  16. Evaluation of intra-articular injection of autologous platelet lysate (PL) in horses with osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrnenopoulou, Panagiota; Diakakis, Nikolaos; Karayannopoulou, Maria; Savvas, Ioannis; Koliakos, Georgios

    2016-06-01

    Regenerative medicine has become one of the most promising therapies of equine osteoarthritis. Platelet lysate (PL) is rich in bioactive proteins and growth factors that play a crucial role in tissue healing. To evaluate the efficacy of intra-articularly injected autologous PL in equine athletes with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Fifteen warmblood geldings aged 8-19 years with osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint were included in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups; 10 horses received intra-articular injections of PL and 5 of normal saline (controls). Before treatment, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) levels in basal plasma and prepared PL were estimated. Each joint was injected twice within a three-week period. Lameness was evaluated using the American Association of Equine Practitioners grading system, before treatment and 10 days after each intra-articular injection. Horses were examined fortnightly for one year. Radiographic examination was performed six months post-treatment. The generalized estimating equation test was used for statistical analysis. Acceptable levels of PDGF were detected in PLs (mean ± SD: 258.0 ± 52.3 pg/ml). The majority of horses (9/10) responded positively to PL treatment presenting lower lameness grades (p < 0.0005) compared to controls 10 days after the second injection, and returned to normal athletic activity. Radiographs revealed no changes in osteoarthritis lesions six months after treatment. One year post-injections, however, all horses relapsed to their initial degree of lameness. Intra-articularly injected autologous PL is an efficient method for temporarily managing osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in athletic horses.

  17. Self-similar gravitational clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Fall, S.M.; Hogan, C.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of gravitational clustering is considered and several new scaling relations are derived for the multiplicity function. These include generalizations of the Press-Schechter theory to different densities and cosmological parameters. The theory is then tested against multiplicity function and correlation function estimates for a series of 1000-body experiments. The results are consistent with the theory and show some dependence on initial conditions and cosmological density parameter. The statistical significance of the results, however, is fairly low because of several small number effects in the experiments. There is no evidence for a non-linear bootstrap effect or a dependence of the multiplicity function on the internal dynamics of condensed groups. Empirical estimates of the multiplicity function by Gott and Turner have a feature near the characteristic luminosity predicted by the theory. The scaling relations allow the inference from estimates of the galaxy luminosity function that galaxies must have suffered considerable dissipation if they originally formed from a self-similar hierarchy. A method is also developed for relating the multiplicity function to similar measures of clustering, such as those of Bhavsar, for the distribution of galaxies on the sky. These are shown to depend on the luminosity function in a complicated way. (author)

  18. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events

  19. Wavelet spectra of JACEE events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Naomichi; Biyajima, Minoru; Ohsawa, Akinori.

    1995-01-01

    Pseudo-rapidity distributions of two high multiplicity events Ca-C and Si-AgBr observed by the JACEE are analyzed by a wavelet transform. Wavelet spectra of those events are calculated and compared with the simulation calculations. The wavelet spectrum of the Ca-C event somewhat resembles that simulated with the uniform random numbers. That of Si-AgBr event, however, is not reproduced by simulation calculations with Poisson random numbers, uniform random numbers, or a p-model. (author)

  20. Uranium spectra in the ICP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, A.A.; Qamar, S.; Atta, M.A. (Khan (A.Q.) Research Labs., Rawalpindi (Pakistan))

    1994-05-01

    Uranium spectra have been studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In total, 8361 uranium lines were observed in the wavelength range of 235-500 nm. This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hard copy text is accompanied by a disk with data files and test files for an IBM-compatible computer. The main article discusses the scientific aspects of the subject and explains the purpose of the data files. (Author).

  1. Identified hadron spectra from PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Gábor I.; the PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons and protons, as well as antiparticle to particle ratios near mid-rapidity from d+Au collisions at \\sqrt{sNN} = 200 GeV have been measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The transverse momentum range of particle identification was extended to beyond 3 GeV/c using the TOF detector and a new trigger system. The pseudorapidity dependence of the nuclear modification factor for charged hadrons in d+Au collisions is presented.

  2. Uranium spectra in the ICP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, A.A.; Qamar, S.; Atta, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium spectra have been studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In total, 8361 uranium lines were observed in the wavelength range of 235-500 nm. This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hard copy text is accompanied by a disk with data files and test files for an IBM-compatible computer. The main article discusses the scientific aspects of the subject and explains the purpose of the data files. (Author)

  3. Operator functions and localization of spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gil’, Michael I

    2003-01-01

    "Operator Functions and Localization of Spectra" is the first book that presents a systematic exposition of bounds for the spectra of various linear nonself-adjoint operators in a Hilbert space, having discrete and continuous spectra. In particular bounds for the spectra of integral, differential and integro-differential operators, as well as finite and infinite matrices are established. The volume also presents a systematic exposition of estimates for norms of operator-valued functions and their applications.

  4. Seniority bosons from similarity transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, H.B.

    1986-01-01

    The requirement of associating in the boson space seniority with twice the number of non-s bosons defines a similarity transformation which re-expresses the Dyson pair boson images in terms of seniority bosons. In particular the fermion S-pair creation operator is mapped onto an operator which, unlike the pair boson image, does not change the number of non-s bosons. The original results of Otsuka, Arima and Iachello are recovered by this procedure while at the same time they are generalized to include g-bosons or even bosons with J>4 as well as any higher order boson terms. Furthermore the seniority boson images are valid for an arbitrary number of d- or g-bosons - a result which is not readily obtainable within the framework of the usual Marumori- or OAI-method

  5. Comparative Modelling of the Spectra of Cool Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebzelter, T.; Heiter, U.; Abia, C.; Eriksson, K.; Ireland, M.; Neilson, H.; Nowotny, W; Maldonado, J; Merle, T.; Peterson, R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to extract information from the spectra of stars depends on reliable models of stellar atmospheres and appropriate techniques for spectral synthesis. Various model codes and strategies for the analysis of stellar spectra are available today. Aims. We aim to compare the results of deriving stellar parameters using different atmosphere models and different analysis strategies. The focus is set on high-resolution spectroscopy of cool giant stars. Methods. Spectra representing four cool giant stars were made available to various groups and individuals working in the area of spectral synthesis, asking them to derive stellar parameters from the data provided. The results were discussed at a workshop in Vienna in 2010. Most of the major codes currently used in the astronomical community for analyses of stellar spectra were included in this experiment. Results. We present the results from the different groups, as well as an additional experiment comparing the synthetic spectra produced by various codes for a given set of stellar parameters. Similarities and differences of the results are discussed. Conclusions. Several valid approaches to analyze a given spectrum of a star result in quite a wide range of solutions. The main causes for the differences in parameters derived by different groups seem to lie in the physical input data and in the details of the analysis method. This clearly shows how far from a definitive abundance analysis we still are.

  6. Raman spectra of SDW superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, G.C. [Condensed Matter Physics Group, Department of Physics, Government Science College, Chatrapur, Orissa 761 020 (India)]. E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in; Bishoyi, K.C. [P.G. Department of Physics, F.M. College (Autonomous), Balasore, Orissa 756 001 (India); Behera, S.N. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India)

    2005-03-15

    We report the calculation of the phonon response of the coexistent spin density wave (SDW) and superconducting (SC) state and predict the observation of SC gap in the Raman spectra of rare-earth nickel borocarbide superconductors. The SDW state normally does not couple to the lattice and hence, the phonons in the system are not expected to be affected by the SDW state. But there is a possibility of observing SC gap mode in the Raman spectra of a SDW superconductor due to the coupling of the SC gap excitation to the Raman active phonons in the system via the electron-phonon (e-p) interaction. A theoretical model is used for the coexistent phase and electron-phonon interaction. Phonon Green's function is calculated by Zubarev's technique and the phonon self-energy due to e-p interaction which is given by electron density response function in the coexistent state corresponding to the SDW wave vector q = Q is evaluated. The results so obtained exhibit agreement with the experimental observations.

  7. Raman spectra of SDW superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G.C.; Bishoyi, K.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report the calculation of the phonon response of the coexistent spin density wave (SDW) and superconducting (SC) state and predict the observation of SC gap in the Raman spectra of rare-earth nickel borocarbide superconductors. The SDW state normally does not couple to the lattice and hence, the phonons in the system are not expected to be affected by the SDW state. But there is a possibility of observing SC gap mode in the Raman spectra of a SDW superconductor due to the coupling of the SC gap excitation to the Raman active phonons in the system via the electron-phonon (e-p) interaction. A theoretical model is used for the coexistent phase and electron-phonon interaction. Phonon Green's function is calculated by Zubarev's technique and the phonon self-energy due to e-p interaction which is given by electron density response function in the coexistent state corresponding to the SDW wave vector q = Q is evaluated. The results so obtained exhibit agreement with the experimental observations

  8. Stellar parametrization from Gaia RVS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Allende Prieto, C.; Fustes, D.; Manteiga, M.; Arcay, B.; Bijaoui, A.; Dafonte, C.; Ordenovic, C.; Ordoñez Blanco, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Among the myriad of data collected by the ESA Gaia satellite, about 150 million spectra will be delivered by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) for stars as faint as GRVS~ 16. A specific stellar parametrization will be performed on most of these RVS spectra, I.e. those with enough high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), which should correspond to single stars that have a magnitude in the RVS band brighter than ~14.5. Some individual chemical abundances will also be estimated for the brightest targets. Aims: We describe the different parametrization codes that have been specifically developed or adapted for RVS spectra within the GSP-Spec working group of the analysis consortium. The tested codes are based on optimisation (FERRE and GAUGUIN), projection (MATISSE), or pattern-recognition methods (Artificial Neural Networks). We present and discuss each of their expected performances in the recovered stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity) for B- to K-type stars. The performances for determining of [α/Fe] ratios are also presented for cool stars. Methods: Each code has been homogeneously tested with a large grid of RVS simulated synthetic spectra of BAFGK-spectral types (dwarfs and giants), with metallicities varying from 10-2.5 to 10+ 0.5 the solar metallicity, and taking variations of ±0.4 dex in the composition of the α-elements into consideration. The tests were performed for S/N ranging from ten to 350. Results: For all the stellar types we considered, stars brighter than GRVS~ 12.5 are very efficiently parametrized by the GSP-Spec pipeline, including reliable estimations of [α/Fe]. Typical internal errors for FGK metal-rich and metal-intermediate stars are around 40 K in Teff, 0.10 dex in log(g), 0.04 dex in [M/H], and 0.03 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS = 10.3. They degrade to 155 K in Teff, 0.15 dex in log(g), 0.10 dex in [M/H], and 0.1 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS~ 12. Similar accuracies in Teff and [M/H] are

  9. Multiscale climate emulator of multimodal wave spectra: MUSCLE-spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Ana; Hegermiller, Christie A.; Antolinez, Jose A. A.; Camus, Paula; Vitousek, Sean; Ruggiero, Peter; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Tomás, Antonio; Mendez, Fernando J.

    2017-02-01

    Characterization of multimodal directional wave spectra is important for many offshore and coastal applications, such as marine forecasting, coastal hazard assessment, and design of offshore wave energy farms and coastal structures. However, the multivariate and multiscale nature of wave climate variability makes this complex problem tractable using computationally expensive numerical models. So far, the skill of statistical-downscaling model-based parametric (unimodal) wave conditions is limited in large ocean basins such as the Pacific. The recent availability of long-term directional spectral data from buoys and wave hindcast models allows for development of stochastic models that include multimodal sea-state parameters. This work introduces a statistical downscaling framework based on weather types to predict multimodal wave spectra (e.g., significant wave height, mean wave period, and mean wave direction from different storm systems, including sea and swells) from large-scale atmospheric pressure fields. For each weather type, variables of interest are modeled using the categorical distribution for the sea-state type, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution for wave height and wave period, a multivariate Gaussian copula for the interdependence between variables, and a Markov chain model for the chronology of daily weather types. We apply the model to the southern California coast, where local seas and swells from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres contribute to the multimodal wave spectrum. This work allows attribution of particular extreme multimodal wave events to specific atmospheric conditions, expanding knowledge of time-dependent, climate-driven offshore and coastal sea-state conditions that have a significant influence on local nearshore processes, coastal morphology, and flood hazards.

  10. Scikit-spectra: Explorative Spectroscopy in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hughes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scikit-spectra is an intuitive framework for explorative spectroscopy in Python. Scikit-spectra leverages the Pandas library for powerful data processing to provide datastructures and an API designed for spectroscopy. Utilizing the new IPython Notebook widget system, scikit-spectra is headed towards a GUI when you want it, API when you need it approach to spectral analysis. As an application, analysis is presented of the surface-plasmon resonance shift in a solution of gold nanoparticles induced by proteins binding to the gold’s surface. Please refer to the scikit-spectra website for full documentation and support: http://hugadams.github.io/scikit-spectra/

  11. An RGB approach to extraordinary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusche, Sascha; Theilmann, Florian

    2015-09-01

    After Newton had explained a series of ordinary spectra and Goethe had pointed out its complementary counterpart, Nussbaumer discovered a series of extraordinary spectra which are geometrically identical and colourwise analogous to Newton’s and Goethe’s spectra. To understand the geometry and colours of extraordinary spectra, the wavelength composition is explored with filters and spectroscopic setups. Visualized in a dispersion diagram, the wavelength composition is interpreted in terms of additive colour mixing. Finally, all spectra are simulated as the superposition of red, green, and blue images that are shifted apart. This RGB approach makes it easy to understand the complex relationship between wavelengths and colours.

  12. Strong ground motion spectra for layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askar, A.; Cakmak, A.S.; Engin, H.

    1977-01-01

    This article presents an analytic method and calculations of strong motion spectra for the energy, displacement, velocity and acceleration based on the physical and geometric ground properties at a site. Although earthquakes occur with large deformations and high stress intensities which necessarily lead to nonlinear phenomena, most analytical efforts to date have been based on linear analyses in engineering seismology and soil dynamics. There are, however, a wealth of problems such as the shifts in frequency, dispersion due to the amplitude, the generation of harmonics, removal of resonance infinities, which cannot be accounted for by a linear theory. In the study, the stress-strain law for soil is taken as tau=G 0 γ+G 1 γ 3 +etaγ where tau is the stress, γ is the strain, G 0 and G 1 are the elasticity coefficients and eta is the damping and are different in each layer. The above stress-strain law describes soils with hysterisis where the hysterisis loops for various amplitudes of the strain are no longer concentric ellipses as for linear relations but are oval shapes rotated with respect to each other similar to the materials with the Osgood-Ramberg law. It is observed that even slight nonlinearities may drastically alter the various response spectra from that given by linear analysis. In fact, primary waves cause resonance conditions such that secondary waves are generated. As a result, a weak energy transfer from the primary to the secondary waves takes place, thus altering the wave spectrum. The mathematical technique that is utilized for the solution of the nonlinear equation is a special perturbation method as an extension of Poincare's procedure. The method considers shifts in the frequencies which are determined by the boundedness of the energy

  13. Spectra and physical properties of Taurid meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlovič, Pavol; Tóth, Juraj; Rudawska, Regina; Kornoš, Leonard

    2017-09-01

    Taurids are an extensive stream of particles produced by comet 2P/Encke, which can be observed mainly in October and November as a series of meteor showers rich in bright fireballs. Several near-Earth asteroids have also been linked with the meteoroid complex, and recently the orbits of two carbonaceous meteorites were proposed to be related to the stream, raising interesting questions about the origin of the complex and the composition of 2P/Encke. Our aim is to investigate the nature and diversity of Taurid meteoroids by studying their spectral, orbital, and physical properties determined from video meteor observations. Here we analyze 33 Taurid meteor spectra captured during the predicted outburst in November 2015 by stations in Slovakia and Chile, including 14 multi-station observations for which the orbital elements, material strength parameters, dynamic pressures, and mineralogical densities were determined. It was found that while orbits of the 2015 Taurids show similarities with several associated asteroids, the obtained spectral and physical characteristics point towards cometary origin with highly heterogeneous content. Observed spectra exhibited large dispersion of iron content and significant Na intensity in all cases. The determined material strengths are typically cometary in the KB classification, while PE criterion is on average close to values characteristic for carbonaceous bodies. The studied meteoroids were found to break up under low dynamic pressures of 0.02-0.10 MPa, and were characterized by low mineralogical densities of 1.3-2.5 g cm-3. The widest spectral classification of Taurid meteors to date is presented.

  14. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  15. Kinetic energy dependence of carrier diffusion in a GaAs epilayer studied by wavelength selective PL imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Providence High School, Charlotte, NC 28270 (United States); Su, L.Q.; Kon, J. [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Gfroerer, T. [Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035 (United States); Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Zhang, Y., E-mail: yong.zhang@uncc.edu [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) imaging has been shown to be an efficient technique for investigating carrier diffusion in semiconductors. In the past, the measurement was typically carried out by measuring at one wavelength (e.g., at the band gap) or simply the whole emission band. At room temperature in a semiconductor like GaAs, the band-to-band PL emission may occur in a spectral range over 200 meV, vastly exceeding the average thermal energy of about 26 meV. To investigate the potential dependence of the carrier diffusion on the carrier kinetic energy, we performed wavelength selective PL imaging on a GaAs double hetero-structure in a spectral range from about 70 meV above to 50 meV below the bandgap, extracting the carrier diffusion lengths at different PL wavelengths by fitting the imaging data to a theoretical model. The results clearly show that the locally generated carriers of different kinetic energies mostly diffuse together, maintaining the same thermal distribution throughout the diffusion process. Potential effects related to carrier density, self-absorption, lateral wave-guiding, and local heating are also discussed.

  16. SIA "Baltegle" naudas plūsmas analīze un vadīšana

    OpenAIRE

    Jegorova, Valērija

    2011-01-01

    Vairākiem Latvijas uzņēmumiem ir aktuālas stabilizēšanas problēmas, kuras ietekmēja naudas plūsmas neefektīva vadīšana. Diplomdarba mērķis ir novērtēt SIA „Baltegle” naudas plūsmu un izstrādāt priekšlikumus tās optimizācijai. Pirmajā diplomdarba nodaļā apskatīta naudas plūsmas būtība, otrajā nodaļā - naudas plūsmas pārskata sagatavošanas īpatnības, trešajā nodaļā - analīzes un vadīšanas aspekti. Ceturtajā nodaļā pētīta SIA „Baltegle” saimnieciskā darbība. Piektajā nodaļā veikta uzņēmuma...

  17. Modification of ChPL (chitosan protein–lipid nanoparticles for in vitro release of rifampicin (RIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poopak Farnia

    2015-01-01

    Results and conclusions: The average size of RIF ChPL-NPs was about 50–250nm. The release of RIF from the dialysis bag started after 30 min which was 2400ng/ml; after 16 h the release of RIF was 15,000ng/ml; and at 40 h the concentration reached to 19,600ng/ml. Therefore, these results showed a slow release of RIF from ChPL-NPs. Basically, the intensity of the surface charges in nanoparticle is important as it determines their interaction with bioactive compound. In RIF ChPL-NPs, lipid had negative charges, whereas chitosan and gelatin had positive charges. The electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged ions would ultimately cause an effective system drug delivery. RIF ChPL-NPs is not only suitable for intravenous administration, but it can be used as an inhalation aerosol, because this nanoparticle has a capacity to adhere to mucosal surfaces and transiently open the tight junction.

  18. Schottky spectra and crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestrikov, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we revise the current dependence of the Schottky noise power of a cooled proton beam previously measured at NAP-M. More careful study of experimental data indicates a linear decrease in the inverse Schottky noise power with an increase in the beam intensity (N). The root of this function determines a threshold current which occurs at N = N th ≅1.2 x 10 8 particles. The inspection of measured Schottky spectra shows that this threshold does not correspond to some collective instability of the measured harmonic of the linear beam density. The found value of N th does not depend on the longitudinal beam temperature. For the case of NAP-M lattice, the study of the spectral properties of the Schottky noise in the crystalline string predicts the current dependence of the equilibrium momentum spread of the beam, which qualitatively agrees with that, recalculated from the NAP-M data. (orig.)

  19. Fractal analysis of power spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, S.

    1982-01-01

    A general argument is presented concerning the Hausdorff dimension D of the power spectrum curve for a system of N weakly-coupled oscillators. Explicit upper and lower bounds for D are derived in terms of the number N of interacting modes. The mathematical reasoning relies upon the celebrated KAM theorem concerning the perturbation of Hamiltonian systems and the finite measure of the set of destroyed tori in phase space; this set can be related to Hausdorff dimension by certain mathematical theorems. An important consequence of these results is a simple empirical test for the applicability of Hamiltonian perturbation theory in the analysis of an experimentally observed spectrum. As an illustration, the theory is applied to the interpretation of a recent numerical analysis of both the power spectrum of the Sun and certain laboratory spectra of hydrodynamic turbulence. (Auth.)

  20. Spectra processing with computer graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, H.

    1979-01-01

    A program of processng gamma-ray spectra in rock analysis is described. The peak search was performed by applying a cross-correlation function. The experimental data were approximated by an analytical function represented by the sum of a polynomial and a multiple peak function. The latter is Gaussian, joined with the low-energy side by an exponential. A modified Gauss-Newton algorithm is applied for the purpose of fitting the data to the function. The processing of the values derived from a lunar sample demonstrates the effect of different choices of polynomial orders for approximating the background for various fitting intervals. Observations on applications of interactive graphics are presented. 3 figures, 1 table

  1. Síntese e hidrólise de azalactonas de Erlenmeyer-Plöchl mediadas por radiação micro-ondas em aparelhos doméstico e dedicado: experimentos de química orgânica para a graduação Synthesis and hydrolysis of Erlenmeyer-Plöchl azalactones mediated by microwave radiation in domestic and dedicated ovens: undergraduate organic chemistry experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a green chemistry experiment for the synthesis of Erlenmeyer-Plöchl azalactones mediated by microwave irradiation, employing both dedicated and domestic equipment. Hippuric acid was reacted with equimolar amounts of benzaldehyde, p-chloro-benzaldehyde or p-N,N-dimethyl-benzaldehyde in acetic anhydride as the solvent. Acid hydrolysis of obtained 4-benzylidene-2-phenyloxazol-5(4H-one under microwave and convectional heating afforded Z-α-(benzoylaminocinnamic acid at a 51-61.5% yield. The UV-Vis molecular spectra of 4-benzylidene-2-phenyloxazol-5(4H-one and 4-(4'-N,N-dimethylbenzylidene-2-phenyloxazol-5(4H-one were obtained in ethanol, CH2Cl2 and DMSO and bathochromic shift was observed for the latter azalactone.

  2. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Foley, M E; Cai, X W; Gulya, T J

    2016-04-01

    A novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), was introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower and genetically mapped to linkage group 2 of the sunflower genome. The new germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. Sunflower downy mildew (DM) is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl 18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflower was mapped to linkage group (LG) 2 of the sunflower genome using bulked segregant analysis with 869 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Phenotyping 142 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross of HA 89 and H. argophyllus confirmed the single gene inheritance of resistance. Since no other Pl gene has been mapped to LG2, this gene was novel and designated as Pl (18). SSR markers CRT214 and ORS203 flanked Pl(18) at a genetic distance of 1.1 and 0.4 cM, respectively. Forty-six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that cover the Pl(18) region were surveyed for saturation mapping of the region. Six co-segregating SNP markers were 1.2 cM distal to Pl(18), and another four co-segregating SNP markers were 0.9 cM proximal to Pl(18). The new BC2F4-derived germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. This new line is highly resistant to all Plasmopara halstedii races identified in the USA providing breeders with an effective new source of resistance against downy mildew in sunflower. The molecular markers that were developed will be especially useful in marker-assisted selection and pyramiding of Pl resistance genes because of their close proximity to the gene and the availability of high-throughput SNP detection assays.

  3. MediPlEx - a tool to combine in silico & experimental gene expression profiles of the model legume Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stutz Leonhard J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs are in general used to gain a first insight into gene activities from a species of interest. Subsequently, and typically based on a combination of EST and genome sequences, microarray-based expression analyses are performed for a variety of conditions. In some cases, a multitude of EST and microarray experiments are conducted for one species, covering different tissues, cell states, and cell types. Under these circumstances, the challenge arises to combine results derived from the different expression profiling strategies, with the goal to uncover novel information on the basis of the integrated datasets. Findings Using our new analysis tool, MediPlEx (MEDIcago truncatula multiPLe EXpression analysis, expression data from EST experiments, oligonucleotide microarrays and Affymetrix GeneChips® can be combined and analyzed, leading to a novel approach to integrated transcriptome analysis. We have validated our tool via the identification of a set of well-characterized AM-specific and AM-induced marker genes, identified by MediPlEx on the basis of in silico and experimental gene expression profiles from roots colonized with AM fungi. Conclusions MediPlEx offers an integrated analysis pipeline for different sets of expression data generated for the model legume Medicago truncatula. As expected, in silico and experimental gene expression data that cover the same biological condition correlate well. The collection of differentially expressed genes identified via MediPlEx provides a starting point for functional studies in plant mutants. MediPlEx can freely be used at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/mediplex.

  4. Quantum algebraic description of vibrational and transitional nuclear spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychev, P.P.; Roussev, R.P.; Inrne, D.

    1995-01-01

    A physically motivated extension of the SU q (2) model of rotational nuclear spectra is introduced, which is applicable in the vibrational and transitional regions as well. The deformation parameter is related to the centrifugal stretching effect, while the new parameter c allows the spectrum to be an expansion in terms of J(J+c) instead of J(J+1), thus describing nuclear anharmonicities in a way similar to the Interacting Boson Model and the Generalized Variable Moment of Inertia model

  5. Study of aluminum emission spectra in astrophysical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhan; Zhang Jie

    2001-01-01

    High temperature, high density and strong magnetic fields in plasmas produced by ultra-high intensity and ultrashort laser pulses are similar to the main characteristics of astrophysical plasmas. This makes it possible to simulate come astrophysical processes at laboratories. The author presents the theoretic simulation of aluminum emission spectra in astrophysical plasmas. It can be concluded that using laser produced plasmas, the authors can obtain rich information on astrophysical spectroscopy, which is unobservable for astronomer

  6. Plástica da valva mitral em portadores de febre reumática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. A. Pomerantzeff

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar os resultados tardios da plástica da valva mitral em pacientes reumáticos. Casuística e Métodos: Durante o período de março de 1980 a dezembro de 1997, 201 pacientes portadores de insuficiência mitral secundária a febre reumática foram submetidos à plástica da valva mitral, no Instituto do Coração do HCFMUSP. A idade média foi de 26,9 ± 15,4 anos e 59,7% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino. Outros diagnósticos estavam presentes em 67,7% dos pacientes, sendo o mais freqüente a insuficiência tricúspide (31,3%. As técnicas de plástica da valva mitral foram: anel de Carpentier em 75 (37,3%, anuloplastia com tira posterior de pericárdio bovino em 68 (33,8%, anuloplastia posterior segmentar em 16 (7,9%, ressecção quadrangular da cúspide posterior com plicatura do anel correspondente em 11 (5,5%, ressecção de segmento da cúspide anterior em 6 (3%, anuloplastia tipo De Vega em 6 (3%, Kay em 5 (2,5%, Reed em 4 (2% e outras em 10 pacientes. Técnicas associadas de plástica foram empregadas em 94 (46,8% pacientes, sendo a mais freqüente o encurtamento de cordas (48 pacientes - 23,9%. Cirurgias associadas foram realizadas em 113 pacientes (56,2%. As curvas actuariais de Kaplan-Meier foram comparadas através de análise de regressão linear. Resultados: A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 4 (2,0% pacientes, e as causas de mortalidade foram a falência de múltiplos órgãos em 2 (50% pacientes e o baixo débito cardíaco em 2 (50%. No pós-operatório tardio, 83,9% dos pacientes se encontravam em classe funcional I (NYHA. A sobrevida actuarial foi de 93,9 ± 1,9% em 125 meses. Vinte e três pacientes foram reoperados no pós-operatório tardio, com um intervalo médio de 35,7 meses. A sobrevida livre de reoperação foi 43,3 ± 13,7% em 125 meses. Analisando-se separadamente os pacientes segundo a faixa etária, no grupo menor de 16 anos (Grupo 1 a sobrevida actuarial foi de 91,3 ± 3,8%, contra uma sobrevida de

  7. User's guide for GSMP, a General System Modeling Program. [In PL/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J. M.

    1979-10-01

    GSMP is designed for use by systems analysis teams. Given compiled subroutines that model the behavior of components plus instructions as to how they are to be interconnected, this program links them together to model a complete system. GSMP offers a fast response to management requests for reconfigurations of old systems and even initial configurations of new systems. Standard system-analytic services are provided: parameter sweeps, graphics, free-form input and formatted output, file storage and recovery, user-tested error diagnostics, component model and integration checkout and debugging facilities, sensitivity analysis, and a multimethod optimizer with nonlinear constraint handling capability. Steady-state or cyclic time-dependence is simulated directly, initial-value problems only indirectly. The code is written in PL/I, but interfaces well with FORTRAN component models. Over the last five years GSMP has been used to model theta-pinch, tokamak, and heavy-ion fusion power plants, open- and closed-cycle magneto-hydrodynamic power plants, and total community energy systems.

  8. II José Plínio Baptista School of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Piattella, Oliver; Rodrigues, Davi; Velten, Hermano; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    The series of texts composing this book is based on the lectures presented during the II José Plínio Baptista School of Cosmology, held in Pedra Azul (Espírito Santo, Brazil) between 9 and 14 March 2014. This II JBPCosmo has been entirely devoted to the problem of understanding theoretical and observational aspects of Cosmic Background Radiation (CMB). The CMB is one of the most important phenomena in Physics and a fundamental probe of our Universe when it was only 400,000 years old. It is an extraordinary laboratory where we can learn from particle physics to cosmology; its discovery in 1965 has been a landmark event in the history of physics. The observations of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation through the satellites COBE, WMAP and Planck provided a huge amount of data which are being analyzed in order to discover important information regarding the composition of our universe and the process of structure formation.

  9. ROTULAGEM DE TRANSGÊNICOS NO BRASIL: O RETROCESSO DO PL N° 4.181/08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brunetti Suzuki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tramita no Senado Federal o Projeto de Lei n° 4.148/08, do Deputado Luiz Carlos Heinz, que pretende alterar o sistema de rotulagem de transgênicos no Brasil. Atualmente, a Lei de Biossegurança, que abriga questões alimentares e ambientais junto com o princípio da informação que rege o Direito do Consumidor, determina que qualquer produto com mais de 1% (um por cento de transgênico em sua composição apresente as respectivas informações em seu rótulo. Se aprovado o Projeto, a rotulagem demandará, antes, estudo que detecte a incidência e a proporção de organismos geneticamente modificados, bem como retirará das embalagens o símbolo característico dos transgênicos. Este artigo apresenta as questões que envolvem os alimentos transgênicos no Brasil, bem como o tratamento legal referente à rotulagem, segurança alimentar e meio ambiente, para, ao final, demonstrar o retrocesso jurídico e funcional que reside no PL n° 4.148/08.

  10. El plátano verde en la matriz productiva de la zona 8 de Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén D. Paz Morales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador con la Constitución de 2008 sentó las bases para la matriz productiva como nuevo modelo de desarrollo en el Ecuador, y con ello se creó todo un andamiaje de instituciones, reglamentos y créditos de largo plazo que apunten a desarrollar armónicamente las empresas ya existentes y a crear nuevos emprendimientos con el fin de aprovechar la materia prima existente en el país. La creación de las zonas de desarrollo por la SENPLADES fue fundamental para organizar por número de habitantes cada una de ellas. La zona 8 conformada por Guayaquil, Durán y Samborondón, es una de las de mayor dinamismo comercial. El Proyecto IC-ULVR 13-19 presenta una investigación exploratoria sobre los derivados del plátano verde en la matriz productiva, para cuyo fin se aplicó una observación guiada a autoservicios de la zona y una encuesta online para conocer los gustos y preferencias de los consumidores.

  11. Diseño de espacios pedagógicos en el área de artes visuales para la Escuela de Artes Plásticas

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rodríguez, Álvaro; Vega Aguilar, María Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    Diseñar espacios adecuados para la enseñanza y desarrollo de las artes visuales para el edificio de la Escuela de Artes Plásticas. Universidad de Costa Rica UCR::Docencia::Artes y Letras::Facultad de Bellas Artes::Escuela de Artes Plásticas

  12. Determination of the optical absorption spectra of thin layers from their photoacoustic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychto, Leszek; Maliński, Mirosław; Patryn, Aleksy; Tivanov, Mikhail; Gremenok, Valery

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computations of the optical absorption coefficient spectra from the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra of thin semiconductor samples deposited on the optically transparent and thermally thick substrates. This method was tested on CuIn(Te0.7Se0.3)2 thin films. From the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed with the new formula as also with the numerical iterative method. From these spectra, the value of the energy gap of the thin film material and the type of the optical transitions were determined. From the experimental optical transmission spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed too, and compared with the optical absorption coefficient spectra obtained from photoacoustic spectra.

  13. The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio as a predictor for poor pregnancy and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1 (sFlt-1/placental growth factor (PlGF ratio has been studied extensively as a predictive marker for pre-eclampsia. However, its usefulness for predicting neonatal outcomes remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the association of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio with pregnancy outcomes, neonatal morbidities and short-term postnatal growth patterns in pregnant women and their babies. Methods: sFlt-1 and PlGF were measured in women with fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR or pre-eclampsia during gestational age (GA of 16–36 weeks. These women were classified into high- and low-ratio groups with a sFlt-1/PlGF cut-off ratio of 85. The maternal and neonatal outcomes were retrospectively reviewed and compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 25 pregnant women were recruited. Thirteen of them had a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio over 85 and twelve had a ratio of less than 85. The median duration from elevation of sFlt-1/PlGF to delivery was 4.5 weeks. Women in the high SFlt-1/PlGF ratio group had higher rates of intrauterine fetal demise (2/13 vs. 0/12 and early termination (1/13 vs. 0/12. The surviving offspring in this group had a higher incidence of preterm birth (GA: 31.4 ± 2.9 weeks vs. 37.3 ± 1.3 weeks, p < 0.001, lower birth weight (1142 ± 472 g vs. 2311 ± 236 g, p < 0.001, higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (6/10 vs. 0/12, p = 0.002 and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (4/10 vs. 0/12, p = 0.01. However, the percentile of body weight, height and head circumference at 28 days of age, 56 days of age and the corrected age of 6 months were comparable between groups. Conclusions: High sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in pregnant women is associated with poor pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Therefore, the monitoring of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in pregnant women with fetal IUGR and timely management for placenta-associated diseases are

  14. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  15. Energy spectra of quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, A; Lüscher, S; Ihn, T; Heinzel, T; Ensslin, K; Wegscheider, W; Bichler, M

    2001-10-25

    Quantum mechanical experiments in ring geometries have long fascinated physicists. Open rings connected to leads, for example, allow the observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, one of the best examples of quantum mechanical phase coherence. The phase coherence of electrons travelling through a quantum dot embedded in one arm of an open ring has also been demonstrated. The energy spectra of closed rings have only recently been studied by optical spectroscopy. The prediction that they allow persistent current has been explored in various experiments. Here we report magnetotransport experiments on closed rings in the Coulomb blockade regime. Our experiments show that a microscopic understanding of energy levels, so far limited to few-electron quantum dots, can be extended to a many-electron system. A semiclassical interpretation of our results indicates that electron motion in the rings is governed by regular rather than chaotic motion, an unexplored regime in many-electron quantum dots. This opens a way to experiments where even more complex structures can be investigated at a quantum mechanical level.

  16. Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, J.P.; Seaton, M.J.; Adams, S.; Lutz, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of NGC 7662 is based on UV results obtained from 15 IUE spectra and on observations of other workers at optical, IR and radio wavelengths. Improved techniques are used to extract IUE data for an extended source. Relative fluxes in the different apertures which have been used are obtained using the brightness contours of Coleman, Reay and Worswick. There is close agreement between the reddening deduced from the ratios He II (lambda 1640)/(lambda 4686) and (radio)/(Hβ) and the nebular continuum emission observed with the IUE large slots agrees closely with that predicted using absolute radio and Hβ fluxes. The fluxes in nebular emission lines observed with the small slots are smaller than expected from brightness distributions; it is concluded that, for an extended source, the small slots have aperture transmission factors of 0.85 for SWP and 0.46 for LWR. The central star is fainter than has been previously supposed (by more than two magnitudes). The blackbody He II Zanstra temperature of 113 000 K is consistent with the UV colour temperature. Previous work on colour temperatures of central stars is discussed critically. Two models are discussed. (author)

  17. Methodology for analyzing weak spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; Swainson, I.P.

    2000-02-01

    There is considerable interest in quantifying radionuclide transfer between environmental compartments. However, in many cases, it can be a challenge to detect concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides due to their low levels in environmental samples. As a result, it is valuable to develop analytical protocols to ensure consistent analysis of the areas under weak peaks. The current study has focused on testing how reproducibly peak areas and baselines can be determined using two analytical approaches. The first approach, which can be carried out using Maestro software, involves extracting net counts under a curve without fitting a functional form to the peak, whereas the second approach, which is used by most other peak fitting programs, determines net counts from spectra by fitting a Gaussian form to the data. It was found that the second approach produces more consistent peak area and baseline measurements, with the ability to de-convolute multiple, overlapping peaks. In addition, programs, such as Peak Fit, which can be used to fit a form to spectral data, often provide goodness of fit analyses, since the Gaussian form can be described using a characteristic equation against which peak data can be tested for their statistical significance. (author)

  18. Neutron and photon spectra in LINACs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Martínez-Ovalle, S.A.; Lallena, A.M.; Mercado, G.A.; Benites-Rengifo, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10 –6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and the Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. - Highlights: ► With MCNPX code realistic models of two LINACs were built. ► Photon and neutron spectra below the flattening filter and at the isocenter were calculated. ► Neutron spectrum at the flattening filter was compared against the Tosi et al. source-term model. ► Tosi et al. model underestimates the neutron contribution below 1 MeV. ► Photon spectra look alike to those published in literature.

  19. Optical absorption spectra of Ag-11 isomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground-stale confi......The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground...

  20. Optical properties of ion-implanted InP and GaAs: Selectivity-excited photoluminescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makita, Yunosuke; Yamada, Akimasa; Kimura, Shinji; Niki, Shigeru; Yoshinaga, Hiroshi; Matsumori, Tokue; Iida, Tsutomu; Uekusa, Ichiro

    1993-01-01

    Implantation of Mg+ ions was carried out into high purity InP grown by liquid encapsulated Czochralski method. Mg+ ion-implanted InP presented the formation of plural novel emissions with increasing Mg concentration, [Mg] in the low temperature photoluminescence spectra. Selectively-excited photoluminescence (SPL) measurements were made to examine the features of two-hole replicas pertinent to the emissions of excitons bound to neutral Mg and residual Zn acceptors. Systematic variation of the emission intensities from the two types of two-hole replicas was found to be utilized for the evaluation of ion-implanted materials. The significant discrepancy of emission spectra between PL and SPL was attributed to the difference of the depth examined by using the excitation light with high and low absorption coefficient. The results revealed that the diffusion of ion-implanted Mg is extremely enhanced when [Mg] exceeds 1x10 17 cm -3

  1. Mass spectra of alicylic compounds Pt. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remane, H.; Haufe, G.

    1980-01-01

    Mass spectrometric fragmentation of C 5 -C 8 as well as C 12 ring systems of tBHC and tBMC is discussed and compared to the fragmentation of Br-, hydroxy- and methoxy cycloalkanes of similar ring sizes. The dominant processes are the splitting of the functional groups yielding M-H 2 O 1+ , M-HOCH 3 1+ and M-Br 1+ fragments, and the disintegration of the rings producing C 3 H 4 X 1+ fragments (X=Br, OH, OCH 3 ). Intensities of the more important fragments correspond to the size of the ring. The isomers can be distinguished by their mass spectra due to the inequality of the intensities of the trans- and cis-forms of BHC and BMC. Functional groups influence mass spectrometric fragmentation as it is indicated by the correlation of the fragments of the bis-functional tBHC and tBMC and the fragments of monofractional compounds. (Sz.J.)

  2. On temperature spectra in grid turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayesh; Tong, C.; Warhaft, Z.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports wind tunnel measurements of passive temperature spectra in decaying grid generated turbulence both with and without a mean transverse temperature gradient. The measurements cover a turbulence Reynolds number range 60 l 3/4 l . The remarkably low Reynolds number onset (Re l ∼70) of Kolmogorov--Obukhov--Corrsin scaling in isotropic grid turbulence is contrasted to the case of scalars in (anisotropic) shear flows where KOC scaling only appears at very high-Reynolds numbers (Re l ∼10 5 ). It is also shown that when the temperature fluctuations are inserted very close to the grid in the absence of a gradient (by means of a mandoline), the temperature spectrum behaves in a similar way to the linear gradient case, i.e., a spectrum with a scaling exponent close to -5/3 is observed, a result noted earlier in heated grid experiments. However, when the scalar is inserted farther downstream of the grid (in the fully developed turbulence), the spectrum has a scaling region of -1.3 and its dilation with Re is less well defined than for the other cases. The velocity spectrum is also shown to have a scaling region, of slope -1.3, and its onset occurs at higher Reynolds number than for the case of the scalar experiments that exhibit the KOC scaling

  3. La Transfiguración de Rafael : un mito plástico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Viñuales

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La carga mitológica de una obra de arte plástico (pintura especialmente se limita a la reproducción de un mito o leyenda mítica fijada anteriormente en lenguaje oral o como muciio escrito o literario. El artista reproduce el mito conocido según los cánones de la época y con el estilo personal que le caracterice, pero no «inventa», ni descubre ni «cuenta» un mito nuevo. Rafael en su obra «La transfiguración» creemos que es una excepción a esta regla presentándonos una mítica que no existía antes en las dos leyendas milagrosas bíblicas que narra el cuadro.The mythological charge in a work of plastic art, is límited to the reproduction of a myth or a mythical legend which has been previously fixed on oral language or bay far written or literary. The artist reproduces the known myth according  to the canon of the time and with the personal style which is characterísed by, but he doesn't invent, neither discovers  nor tells anew myth. In Rafael's work "The transfiguration»  we think that is an exception to this rule, it presents a myth which didn't exist before in the two Biblical miraculous legends that the painting tells.

  4. http://www.afe.polsl.pl/index.php/pl/733/homogeneity-of-particle-size-in-the-space-of-composite-suspension-casting.pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fraś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of microstructural examinations of the Ni-Al-C alloy forming a natural Ni3Al/C composite, in which the precipitates of graphite are acting as a lubricating, slip phase. Different forms of graphite were described, starting with the fibrous shapes and ending in spheroidal forms, identical with the spheroidal graphite present in cast iron. The morphologies of graphite precipitates in the Ni3Al phase were compared to similar precipitates observed in ferrous alloys with high carbon content.

  5. Teorizações dos docentes sobre a avaliação em Artes Plásticas Teorizaciones de los docentes sobre la evaluación en artes plásticas Teachers theories on art evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Maria Ortiz dos Santos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste texto é apresentar em síntese a tese "Teorizações dos docentes sobre a avaliação em Artes Plásticas", que busca indagar e compreender o pensamento do professor de Artes Plásticas na avaliação dos alunos da 5ª série do Ensino Fundamental no Brasil. Este estudo enquadra-se em um enfoque qualitativo não experimental de tipo exploratório. Através das entrevistas com os professores, a declaração do docente considerada "uma ação mediada pela palavra", buscou-se as teorias implícitas a fim de tornarem-se explícitos os marcos de referência do professor de Artes Plásticas e compreender como ele percebe, pensa, teoriza e compreende sobre a avaliação nas Artes Plásticas. O interesse do investigador foi desafiar um campo pouco revisto, que é o campo da Psicologia, da Arte e da Didática, buscando um ponto onde se encontram o psicológico, o didático e o artístico. As escolas públicas municipais do Rio de Janeiro foram o lugar de trabalho. Das declarações obtidas nesta investigação, chega-se a determinados resultados: os dados trazem evidências de que na escola a atividade de avaliar nas Artes Plásticas consiste na atribuição de um juízo de valor a uma realidade observada; no processo de avaliação nas Artes Plásticas busca-se uma ação reflexiva, "o avaliar" dentro da proposta da avaliação diagnóstica e formativa; o conhecimento do professor pode ser considerado um conhecimento leigo e também como teorias pedagógicas pessoais (teorias implícitas, estas nem sempre percebidas pelos professores, porém fazem parte de um papel importante na organização do conhecimento do professor.El propósito de este texto es el de presentar en síntesis la investigación "Teorizaciones de los docentes sobre la evaluación en Artes Plásticas", que busca indagar y comprender el pensamiento del docente de Artes Plásticas en la evaluación de los alumnos del segundo ciclo de la enseñanza básica (5ª s

  6. Fluctuation analysis of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doessing, T.; Bracco, A.; Broglia, R.A.; Matsuo, M.

    1996-01-01

    The compound state rotational degree of freedom is ''damped'' in the sense that the electric quadrupole decay of a single quantum state with angular momentum I exhibits a spectrum of final states all having spin I-2. In actual experiments, the cascade of γ-rays associated with each of the members of the ensemble of compound nuclei uses each of the ''discrete'' transitions many more times than the ''continuum'' transitions. Relatively large and small fluctuations in the recorded coincidence spectrum ensue, respectively. The analysis of the fluctuations will be shown to be instrumental to gain insight into the phenomenon of rotational damping. For this purpose, two- and higher-fold coincidence spectra emitted from rotating nuclei are analyzed with respect to the count fluctuations. The coincidences from consecutive γ-rays emitted from discrete rotational bands generate ridges in the E γ1 .E γ2 spectrum, and the fluctuation analysis of the ridges is based upon the ansatz of a random selection of transition energies from band to band. This ansatz is supported by a cranked mean-field calculation for the nucleus 168 Yb, as well as by analyzing resolved bands in 168 Yb and its neighbors. The fluctuation analysis of the central valley (E γ1 =E γ2 ) is based upon the ansatz of fluctuations in the intensity of the transitions of Porter-Thomas type superposed on a smooth spectrum of transition energies. This ansatz is again supported by a mixed-band calculation. The mathematical treatment of count fluctuations is formulated in general (orig.)

  7. Development of similarity theory for control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Evtushenko, V. F.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, G. V.

    2018-05-01

    The area of effective application of the traditional similarity theory and the need necessity of its development for systems are discussed. The main statements underlying the similarity theory of control systems are given. The conditions for the similarity of control systems and the need for similarity control control are formulated. Methods and algorithms for estimating and similarity control of control systems and the results of research of control systems based on their similarity are presented. The similarity control of systems includes the current evaluation of the degree of similarity of control systems and the development of actions controlling similarity, and the corresponding targeted change in the state of any element of control systems.

  8. Blind deconvolution using the similarity of multiscales regularization for infrared spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tao; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Zhaoli; Liu, Sanyan; Liu, Tingting; Shen, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Tianxu

    2015-01-01

    Band overlap and random noise exist widely when the spectra are captured using an infrared spectrometer, especially since the aging of instruments has become a serious problem. In this paper, via introducing the similarity of multiscales, a blind spectral deconvolution method is proposed. Considering that there is a similarity between latent spectra at different scales, it is used as prior knowledge to constrain the estimated latent spectrum similar to pre-scale to reduce artifacts which are produced from deconvolution. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is able to obtain a better performance than state-of-the-art methods, and to obtain satisfying deconvolution results with fewer artifacts. The recovered infrared spectra can easily extract the spectral features and recognize unknown objects. (paper)

  9. Design de joias a partir de aspectos plásticos da dança conteporânea

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Paula Calegari; Carlos Gustavo Hoelzel

    2011-01-01

    Este estudo consiste em mostrar de maneira objetiva e clara as etapas de desenvolvimento do projeto de uma coleção de joias a partir de aspectos plásticos da dança contemporânea. Para alcançar esse objetivo, foram realizadas pesquisas em torno do design de joias e a dança contemporânea, sendo utilizada como referência no processo criativo durante a projetação das peças. Desenvolveram-se alternativas de solução através de desenhos e traços de composição de referenciais plásticos da dança onde ...

  10. Definition, translation and application of user-oriented languages as extensions of PL/1 in the CAD-systems REGENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderle, G.

    1975-09-01

    The integrated CAD-system REGENT serves for modular development of programs for different application areas, for management of data storage and data transfer and easy and safe application of programs by means of user-oriented languages. Programs, data and language for an application area form a REGENT-subsystem. The problem language system of REGENT, PLS (Problem Language System), provides facilities for the development of a problem oriented language for every subsystem as extensions of the base language PL/1. In this paper the translation of problem oriented languages by a precompiler into PL/1 and the definition of language extensions and datastructures for subsystems are described. Development and application of the language for a fluiddynamic-subsystem is shown. (orig.) [de

  11. Embalagens plásticas e de vidro para produtos farmacêuticos: avaliação das propriedades de barreira à luz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M.V. Alves

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A estabilidade de produtos farmacêuticos fotossensíveis é afetada pela luz, que catalisa reações de degradação. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes resinas, coloração, espessura e presença de absorvedores de radiação ultravioleta (UV como promotores de barreira à luz em embalagens plásticas e de vidro para produtos farmacêuticos. A Farmacopéia Americana estabelece limites entre 10 e 25% de transmissão de luz entre 290 e 450 nm para embalagens de medicamentos. Nenhum dos frascos sem coloração mostrou-se adequado, sendo aqueles que apresentaram menor transmissão foram o de vidro e o de politereftalato de etileno (PET, até 350 nm, e o de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD no restante do espectro. A amostra de polipropileno (PP apresentou a maior taxa de transmissão até 300 nm, ficando próxima das demais amostras a partir daí. No frasco de PET cristal com absorvedor de radiação UV, observou-se redução significativa nas transmitâncias até 350 nm, chegando à mesma percentagem que o PET sem absorvedor acima deste comprimento de onda. As amostras de PET âmbar, verde e branco apresentaram a melhor barreira à luz dentre os frascos de PET coloridos. As chapas de policloreto de vinila (PVC apresentaramse similares às de PET (tanto cristal quanto coloridas, sendo que as chapas de policloreto de vinila / policloreto de vinilideno (PVC/PVdC e policloreto de vinila / policlorotrifluoretileno (PVC/Aclar apresentaram transmissão similar à do PVC com absorvedor de UV. A embalagem de PP azul apresentou maior barreira que o PP natural, mas não é adequada segundo a Farmacopéia. A espessura se mostrou diretamente proporcional à barreira, tanto nas embalagens de PET quanto nas de vidro. Palavras-chave: embalagens plásticas e de vidro; produtos farmacêuticos; barreira à luz.

  12. Area spectra of near extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Deyou; Yang, Haitang; Zu, Xiaotao

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by Maggiore's new interpretation of quasinormal modes, we investigate area spectra of a near extremal Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole and a higher-dimensional near extremal Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole. The result shows that the area spectra are equally spaced and irrelevant to the parameters of the black holes. (orig.)

  13. Composite Spectra Paper 1: HR 6902

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    spectra; in many cases we have used the maximum width permitted by the optics of ... 10 mЕ, corresponding to 1 µm the plate, are the norm. ..... an inequality ..... on the spectra of HR 6902, we have thought it appropriate to weight the four ...

  14. Thermoluminescence spectra measured with a Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschberger, P.

    1991-01-01

    A Michelson interferometer was redesigned to prove its capabilities in the measurement of short-lived, low-intensity thermoluminescence spectra. Interferograms are collected during heating up the thermoluminescent probe in a heater plate. A personal computer controls the data acquisition and processes the Fourier transform. As the results show, even a comparatively simple and limited setup leads to relevant and reproducible spectra. (author)

  15. Near IR spectra of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrillat, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The author reports on recent observations from the near IR spectra of symbiotic stars. The helium and oxygen lines useful for the construction of theoretical models are identified. Observations for cool stars and novae (nebular phase) are outlined and the spectra of specific symbiotic stars between lambdalambda 8000-11000 are presented and discussed. (Auth./C.F.)

  16. Aircraft Measurements of Atmospheric Kinetic Energy Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Lilly, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    Wind velocity data obtained from a jet airliner are used to construct kinetic energy spectra over the range of wavelengths from 2.5 to 2500 km. The spectra exhibit an approximate -5/3 slope for wavelengths of less than about 150 km, steepening to about -2.2 at larger scales. These results support...

  17. Caracterização de frutos, sementes, plântulas e germinação de Jeniparana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Maria da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gustavia augusta L., conhecida popularmente como jeniparana, é uma espécie arbórea neotropical, que ocorre nas florestas Atlântica e Amazônica. Considerando-se a abundância dessa espécie na floresta Atlântica e a fragilidade e fragmentação desse ecossistema, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, caracterizar seus frutos, sementes, germinação e plântulas, acrescentando informações para subsidiar estudos sobre sua conservação e utilização. Os frutos maduros foram coletados em fragmentos de floresta Atlântica, no município de Paulista, PE. Em seguida, foram realizadas análises morfológicas e biométricas dos frutos, sementes e plântulas da espécie. O fruto de G. augusta é um pixídio globoso, anfissarcídio, pentalocular, indeiscente. A semente é exalbuminosa, estenospérmica, trisseriada, bitegumentada e a massa de cem sementes desse lote foi de 47,95 g. A germinação da espécie é do tipo hipógea, com o tegumento aderido aos cotilédones na fase inicial do crescimento da plântula, que tem início a partir do quinto dia após a semeadura, em condições de laboratório. O tempo médio e o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG foram de 14 dias e 0,87, respectivamente. A plântula com 40 dias apresenta todas as estruturas, sendo classificada no tipo morfofuncional fanerohipógeo-armazenador (PHR.

  18. Especies de dryophthorinae (coleoptera: curculionidae) asociadas a plátano y banano (musa spp.) en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    RUBIO-GOMEZ, JOSE; SEPULVEDA-CANO, PAULA

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN

    Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824), Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758), Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838), Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum...

  19. PCA: Principal Component Analysis for spectra modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Peter D.; Oliver, Seb; Farrah, Duncan; Wang, Lingyu; Efstathiou, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The mid-infrared spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) contain a variety of spectral features that can be used as diagnostics to characterize the spectra. However, such diagnostics are biased by our prior prejudices on the origin of the features. Moreover, by using only part of the spectrum they do not utilize the full information content of the spectra. Blind statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) consider the whole spectrum, find correlated features and separate them out into distinct components. This code, written in IDL, classifies principal components of IRS spectra to define a new classification scheme using 5D Gaussian mixtures modelling. The five PCs and average spectra for the four classifications to classify objects are made available with the code.

  20. General Notes on Processes and Their Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Cepciansky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency spectrum performs one of the main characteristics of a process. The aim of the paper is to show the coherence between the process and its own spectrum and how the behaviour and properties of a process itself can be deduced from its spectrum. Processes are categorized and general principles of their spectra calculation and recognition are given. The main stress is put on power spectra of electric and optic signals, as they also perform a kind of processes. These spectra can be directly measured, observed and examined by means of spectral analyzers and they are very important characteristics which can not be omitted at transmission techniques in telecommunication technologies. Further, the paper also deals with non electric processes, mainly with processes and spectra at mass servicing and how these spectra can be utilised in praxis.

  1. Desenvolvimento de plântulas de limoeiro 'cravo' relacionado a posição de semeadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Robles Walter Geremias

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um ensaio em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de relacionar a posição da semente e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de limoeiro `Cravo'. Foram semeadas nas três prováveis posições que a semente tomaria ao ser lançada ao solo ou substrato: 1 deitada; 2 ápice para cima e 3 ápice para baixo. Este experimento foi realizado em bandejas de poliestireno expandido com 128 células, utilizando-se como substrato a mistura de vermiculita expandida e material orgânico vegetal. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com 4 repetições e 40 sementes por parcela (1 semente/célula. Aos 75 dias após à semeadura, observou-se maior quantidade de plântulas com raízes normais quando colocadas as sementes nas posições deitada e ápice para baixo. A posição ápice para cima apresentou maior quantidade de plântulas com raízes tortas e enoveladas. O comprimento do sistema radicular foi aproximadamente o dobro da parte aérea, independente da posição da semente, ocorrendo o inverso em relação à massa da matéria seca.

  2. Virtual Ligand Screening Using PL-PatchSurfer2, a Molecular Surface-Based Protein-Ligand Docking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woong-Hee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2018-01-01

    Virtual screening is a computational technique for predicting a potent binding compound for a receptor protein from a ligand library. It has been a widely used in the drug discovery field to reduce the efforts of medicinal chemists to find hit compounds by experiments.Here, we introduce our novel structure-based virtual screening program, PL-PatchSurfer, which uses molecular surface representation with the three-dimensional Zernike descriptors, which is an effective mathematical representation for identifying physicochemical complementarities between local surfaces of a target protein and a ligand. The advantage of the surface-patch description is its tolerance on a receptor and compound structure variation. PL-PatchSurfer2 achieves higher accuracy on apo form and computationally modeled receptor structures than conventional structure-based virtual screening programs. Thus, PL-PatchSurfer2 opens up an opportunity for targets that do not have their crystal structures. The program is provided as a stand-alone program at http://kiharalab.org/plps2 . We also provide files for two ligand libraries, ChEMBL and ZINC Drug-like.

  3. Marriage Matters: Spousal Similarity in Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schimmack; Richard Lucas

    2006-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-lagged spousal similarity in life satisfaction over a 21-year period. Analyses were based on married couples (N = 847) in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Concurrent spousal similarity was considerably higher than one-year retest similarity, revealing spousal similarity in the variable component of life satisfac-tion. Spousal similarity systematically decreased with length of retest interval, revealing simi-larity in the changing component of life sati...

  4. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE. MODQKE was written to modify or provide new histories with special attention paid to short seismic records. A technique from the open literature was borrowed to generate an initial history that approximates a given response spectrum. Further refinement is done with smoothing cycles in which several correction signals are added to the history in a way that produces a least squares fit between actual and prescribed spectra. Provision is made for history shaping, a baseline correction, and final scaling. MODQKE performance has been demonstrated with seven examples having zero to ten percent damping ratios, and 2.5 seconds to 20 seconds durations and a variety of target spectra. The examples show the program is inexpensive to use. MDOF is a simple modal superposition program. It has no eigensolver, and the user supplies mode shapes, frequencies, and participation factors as input. Floor spectra can be generated from design spectra by using a history from MODQKE that conforms to the design spectrum as input to MDOF. Floor motions from MDOF can be fed back to MODQKE without modification to obtain the floor spectra. A simple example is given to show how equipment mass effects can be incorporated into the MDOF solution. Any transient solution capability can be used to replace MDOF. For example, a direct transient approach may be desirable if both the equipment and floor structures are to be included in the model with different damping fractions. (orig./HP)

  5. DETERMINING REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF SURFACES AND CLOUDS ON EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Strait, Talia E., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Dr., IL 60208 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Planned missions will spatially resolve temperate terrestrial planets from their host star. Although reflected light from such a planet encodes information about its surface, it has not been shown how to establish surface characteristics of a planet without assuming known surfaces to begin with. We present a reanalysis of disk-integrated, time-resolved, multiband photometry of Earth obtained by the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI Mission of Opportunity. We extract reflectance spectra of clouds, ocean, and land without a priori knowledge of the numbers or colors of these surfaces. We show that the inverse problem of extracting surface spectra from such data is a novel and extreme instance of spectral unmixing, a well-studied problem in remote sensing. Principal component analysis is used to determine an appropriate number of model surfaces with which to interpret the data. Shrink-wrapping a simplex to the color excursions of the planet yields a conservative estimate of the planet's endmember spectra. The resulting surface maps are unphysical, however, requiring negative or larger-than-unity surface coverage at certain locations. Our ''rotational unmixing'' supersedes the endmember analysis by simultaneously solving for the surface spectra and their geographical distributions on the planet, under the assumption of diffuse reflection and known viewing geometry. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo to determine best-fit parameters and their uncertainties. The resulting albedo spectra are similar to clouds, ocean, and land seen through a Rayleigh-scattering atmosphere. This study suggests that future direct-imaging efforts could identify and map unknown surfaces and clouds on exoplanets.

  6. Nonlinear optical and electroabsorption spectra of polydiacetylene crystals and films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, D.; Soos, Z. G.

    1996-01-01

    Vibronic structure of nonlinear optical (NLO) coefficients is developed within the Condon approximation, displaced harmonic oscillators, and crude adiabatic states. The displacements of backbone modes of conjugated polymers are taken from vibrational data on the ground and 1B excited state. NLO resonances are modeled by three excitations and transition moments taken from Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) theory and optimized to polydiacetylene (PDA) spectra in crystals and films, with blue-shifted 1B exciton. The joint analysis of third-harmonic-generation, two-photon absorption, and nondegenerate four-wave-mixing spectra of PDA crystals and films shows weak two-photon absorption to 2A below 1B, leading to overlapping resonances in the THG spectrum, strong two-photon absorption to an nA state some 35% above 1B, and weak Raman resonances in nondegenerate FWM spectra. The full π-π* spectrum contributes to Stark shifts and field-induced transitions, as shown by PPP results for PDA oligomers. The Stark shift dominates high-resolution electroabsorption (EA) spectra of PDA crystals below 10 K. The close correspondence between EA and the first-derivative I'(ω) of the linear absorption above the 1B exciton in PDA crystals provides an experimental separation of vibrational and electronic contributions that limits any even-parity state in this 0.5 eV interval. An oscillator-strength sum rule is applied to the convergence of PDA oligomers with increasing length, N, and the crystal oscillator strengths are obtained without adjustable parameters. The sum rule for the 1B exciton implies large transition moments to higher-energy Ag states, whose locations in recent models are contrasted to PPP results. Joint analysis of NLO and EA spectra clarifies when a few electronic excitations are sufficient, distinguishes between vibrational and electronic contributions, and supports similar π-electron interactions in conjugated molecules and polymers.

  7. Variable valence ion spectra in a crystal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiordanescu, V.

    1979-01-01

    Using the Cadmium chloride as a host lattice, the optical spectra and RES of Mnsup(2+) were studied and the following results were obtained: a) By controlled dopings, the absorbtion and excitation spectra of ion Mnsup(2+) in CdCl 2 within the concentration range between 0.01 M and 25 M were plotted. Thus, the band structure for small concentrations was pointed out to differ from the structure observed for high concentrations. In the literature, this effect has not been observed on similar compounds, due to the small intensity values of the absorbtion spectra. b) Considering that for CdCl 2 :Mnsup(2+) 0.1 M, the optical spectra correspond to the isolated ion in the lattice, the energy levels were evaluated using electrostatic and spin-orbit terms in a perturbation calculation of the crystal field approximation. c) The calculation of parameter a which represents the effect of the cubic field in the spjn Hamiltonian of Mnsup(2+), is closer to the experjmental value -0.5.10 -4 cm -1 of the crystal field Dq and zeta parameters are used, respectively, parameters of the spin-orbit interaction obtained under b). d) The coupling effects of spins into more concentrated crystals with Mn 2+ are a function of temperature. The emjssion yield was given a quasi-cantitative evaluation in thjs paper as a function of temperature and concentratjon on the basis of which the isolated centers of Mn 2+ were found to display ectra whose intensity vary with temperature according to the Laporte forbidden transitions and spin rule theory, and the clusters including Mn 2+ - Mn 2+ pairs provide spectra whose intensity vary with the strength of the spin-spin coupling. (author)

  8. BET, thermal degradation, and FTIR spectras of triazine polyamine polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    Here we show effect of the polyamine polymer chain length to BET isotherms. According to IUPAC classification [1], all three polymers are fitting type 1 physical adsorption isotherm with H3 hysteresis (except for EDA having H2 hysteresis). Moreover, TG and TGA analysis of polymers triazine-ethylenediamine (EDA) and triazine-triethylenetetramine (TETA) are provided. Due to the similarities of the structure, main decomposition temperatures are close to each other (between 593 K and 873 K). In order to understand change of FTIR spectra with adsorption and stripping Au(III), fresh, Au(III) adsorbed and recycled spectras of polymers measured. For further discussions about the effect of chain length to adsorption of Au(III) onto triazine polyamine polymer particles "Au (III) Uptake by Triazine Polyamine Polymers: Mechanism, Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies" Can et al. [2] (article in press).

  9. Photonic band gap spectra in Octonacci metamaterial quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, E. R.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Fulco, U. L.

    2017-02-01

    In this work we study theoretically the photonic band gap spectra for a one-dimensional quasicrystal made up of SiO2 (layer A) and a metamaterial (layer B) organized following the Octonacci sequence, where its nth-stage Sn is given by the inflation rule Sn =Sn - 1Sn - 2Sn - 1 for n ≥ 3 , with initial conditions S1 = A and S2 = B . The metamaterial is characterized by a frequency dependent electric permittivity ε(ω) and magnetic permeability μ(ω) . The polariton dispersion relation is obtained analytically by employing a theoretical calculation based on a transfer-matrix approach. A quantitative analysis of the spectra is then discussed, stressing the distribution of the allowed photonic band widths for high generations of the Octonacci structure, which depict a self-similar scaling property behavior, with a power law depending on the common in-plane wavevector kx .

  10. Raman scattering spectra of superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, D.; Bozovic, I.; Geballe, T.H.; Kapitulnik, A.; Mitzi, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Raman spectra of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 single crystals with superconducting phase-transition temperature of 90 K have been studied. The spectra contained phonon lines and electronic continuum. Phonon energies and polarization selection rules were measured. A gap in the electronic continuum spectrum was observed in a superconducting state. Noticeable similarity between Raman spectra of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 was found

  11. Raman scattering spectra of superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, D.; Bozovic, I.; Geballe, T. H.; Kapitulnik, A.; Mitzi, D. B.

    1988-12-01

    Raman spectra of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals with superconducting phase-transition temperature of 90 K have been studied. The spectra contained phonon lines and electronic continuum. Phonon energies and polarization selection rules were measured. A gap in the electronic continuum spectrum was observed in a superconducting state. Noticeable similarity between Raman spectra of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 and YBa2Cu3O7 was found.

  12. Deformación plástica de compuestos mullita/óxido de itrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez de Arellano López, A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2 based composites have excellent mechanical and thermal properties. The same characteristics that give mullite good resistance to plastic deformation also make its sintering difficult. Yttria is one of the most commonly used additives to reduce sintering temperatures in mullite. Additionally vitreous silicates (Y2Si2O7 could improve ductility. In this work we have used mullite samples with various amounts of Y2O3 (0, 5 and 9 wt.%. Details of processing and characterization of these composites have been the subject of a previous publication. We have compared the ductility of these composites by means of compressive deformation tests at elevated temperatures. Creep tests were performed at temperatures between 1300 and 1400ºC, in air, in a stress range of 0.69 to 34.5 MPa.

    Los compuestos a partir de mullita (3Al2O3.2SiO2 presentan unas magníficas propiedades mecánicas y térmicas. Las mismas características que hacen de la mullita resistente a la deformación plástica, dificultan su densificación. El óxido de itrio es uno de los aditivos más utilizados para reducir la temperatura de sinterización de la mullita. Adicionalmente la presencia de silicatos vítreos (en este caso Y2Si2O7 incrementan la ductilidad. En esta investigación se han usado muestras de mullita con diversas cantidades de Y2O3 (0%, 5% y 9% en peso. Los detalles sobre el procesado y caracterización de los compuestos han sido objeto de una publicación previa. Se ha estudiado comparativamente la ductilidad de estos materiales mediante experimentos de deformación en compresión a alta temperatura. Los ensayos se han desarrollado entre 1300 y 1400ºC, en atmósfera de aire, cubriendo un rango de tensiones de compresión entre 0.69 y 34.4 MPa.

  13. Paenibacillus larvae chitin-degrading protein PlCBP49 is a key virulence factor in American Foulbrood of honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Garcia-Gonzalez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of the globally occurring epizootic American Foulbrood (AFB of honey bees, causes intestinal infections in honey bee larvae which develop into systemic infections inevitably leading to larval death. Massive brood mortality might eventually lead to collapse of the entire colony. Molecular mechanisms of host-microbe interactions in this system and of differences in virulence between P. larvae genotypes are poorly understood. Recently, it was demonstrated that the degradation of the peritrophic matrix lining the midgut epithelium is a key step in pathogenesis of P. larvae infections. Here, we present the isolation and identification of PlCBP49, a modular, chitin-degrading protein of P. larvae and demonstrate that this enzyme is crucial for the degradation of the larval peritrophic matrix during infection. PlCBP49 contains a module belonging to the auxiliary activity 10 (AA10, formerly CBM33 family of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs which are able to degrade recalcitrant polysaccharides. Using chitin-affinity purified PlCBP49, we provide evidence that PlCBP49 degrades chitin via a metal ion-dependent, oxidative mechanism, as already described for members of the AA10 family. Using P. larvae mutants lacking PlCBP49 expression, we analyzed in vivo biological functions of PlCBP49. In the absence of PlCBP49 expression, peritrophic matrix degradation was markedly reduced and P. larvae virulence was nearly abolished. This indicated that PlCBP49 is a key virulence factor for the species P. larvae. The identification of the functional role of PlCBP49 in AFB pathogenesis broadens our understanding of this important family of chitin-binding and -degrading proteins, especially in those bacteria that can also act as entomopathogens.

  14. Anisotropic Behaviour of Magnetic Power Spectra in Solar Wind Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Saur, J.; Gerick, F.; von Papen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Introduction:High altitude fast solar wind turbulence (SWT) shows different spectral properties as a function of the angle between the flow direction and the scale dependent mean magnetic field (Horbury et al., PRL, 2008). The average magnetic power contained in the near perpendicular direction (80º-90º) was found to be approximately 5 times larger than the average power in the parallel direction (0º- 10º). In addition, the parallel power spectra was found to give a steeper (-2) power law than the perpendicular power spectral density (PSD) which followed a near Kolmogorov slope (-5/3). Similar anisotropic behaviour has also been observed (Chen et al., MNRAS, 2011) for slow solar wind (SSW), but using a different method exploiting multi-spacecraft data of Cluster. Purpose:In the current study, using Ulysses data, we investigate (i) the anisotropic behaviour of near ecliptic slow solar wind using the same methodology (described below) as that of Horbury et al. (2008) and (ii) the dependence of the anisotropic behaviour of SWT as a function of the heliospheric latitude.Method:We apply the wavelet method to calculate the turbulent power spectra of the magnetic field fluctuations parallel and perpendicular to the local mean magnetic field (LMF). According to Horbury et al., LMF for a given scale (or size) is obtained using an envelope of the envelope of that size. Results:(i) SSW intervals always show near -5/3 perpendicular spectra. Unlike the fast solar wind (FSW) intervals, for SSW, we often find intervals where power parallel to the mean field is not observed. For a few intervals with sufficient power in parallel direction, slow wind turbulence also exhibit -2 parallel spectra similar to FSW.(ii) The behaviours of parallel and perpendicular power spectra are found to be independent of the heliospheric latitude. Conclusion:In the current study we do not find significant influence of the heliospheric latitude on the spectral slopes of parallel and perpendicular

  15. Particularidades del cálculo de engranajes plásticos. // Particularities of plastic gear calculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Moya Rodríguez

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos tiempos los materiales plásticos han tenido una proliferación en todos los campos de la Industria Mecánica,debido esencialmente a su bajo costo y a las mejoras de las propiedades mecánicas que se han ido logrando. En el casoparticular de las transmisiones por engranajes existe una gran cantidad de estos materiales que pueden ser usados y dehecho se utilizan para la fabricación de ruedas dentadas de características muy disímiles. En la literatura científica existemuy poca información disponible sobre las fallas de engranajes plásticos, métodos de calculo a resistencia y posiblesmateriales a emplear con sus respectivas propiedades mecánicas. Inclusive este tema no se aborda en los currículos deestudio tradicionales en Ibero-América. Queda mucho por discutir aun acerca del empleo de las correcciones del dentado enestas ruedas dentadas plásticas. En el presente trabajo se hace un análisis de los materiales, características, estudio de lasfallas principales, métodos de calculo y ejemplos de aplicación de los engranajes plásticos.Palabras claves: Plásticos, engranes, perfil dentado.__________________________________________________________________________Abstract.Recently the use of plastic materials has been growing up due to their low cost and the improvements achieved on theirmechanical properties. In the particular case of gear transmissions there are great quantities of polymers that can be usedfor gears. Plastic gears are powerful means of cutting drive cost, weight, noise, and wear. Plastic gears also open newopportunities for smaller and more efficient transmissions. There is few information in Scientific literature about plasticgears failures, designing methods and materials. Most engineering reference books are desicated to steel gears but there areremarkably silent about plastic gears. Design methods for plastic gears and gear trains must be modernized, because muchof the information available is derived

  16. Constrained energy minimization applied to apparent reflectance and single-scattering albedo spectra: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmini, Ronald G.; Graver, William R.; Kappus, Mary E.; Anderson, Mark E.

    1996-11-01

    Constrained energy minimization (CEM) has been applied to the mapping of the quantitative areal distribution of the mineral alunite in an approximately 1.8 km2 area of the Cuprite mining district, Nevada. CEM is a powerful technique for rapid quantitative mineral mapping which requires only the spectrum of the mineral to be mapped. A priori knowledge of background spectral signatures is not required. Our investigation applies CEM to calibrated radiance data converted to apparent reflectance (AR) and to single scattering albedo (SSA) spectra. The radiance data were acquired by the 210 channel, 0.4 micrometers to 2.5 micrometers airborne Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment sensor. CEM applied to AR spectra assumes linear mixing of the spectra of the materials exposed at the surface. This assumption is likely invalid as surface materials, which are often mixtures of particulates of different substances, are more properly modeled as intimate mixtures and thus spectral mixing analyses must take account of nonlinear effects. One technique for approximating nonlinear mixing requires the conversion of AR spectra to SSA spectra. The results of CEM applied to SSA spectra are compared to those of CEM applied to AR spectra. The occurrence of alunite is similar though not identical to mineral maps produced with both the SSA and AR spectra. Alunite is slightly more widespread based on processing with the SSA spectra. Further, fractional abundances derived from the SSA spectra are, in general, higher than those derived from AR spectra. Implications for the interpretation of quantitative mineral mapping with hyperspectral remote sensing data are discussed.

  17. Laser- and gamma-induced transformations of optical spectra of indium-doped sodium borate glass

    CERN Document Server

    Kopyshinsky, O V; Zelensky, S E; Danilchenko, B A; Shakhov, O P

    2003-01-01

    The optical absorption and luminescence properties of indium-doped sodium borate glass irradiated by gamma-rays and by powerful UV lasers within the impurity-related absorption band are investigated experimentally. It is demonstrated that both the laser- and gamma-irradiation cause similar transformations of optical spectra in the UV and visible regions. The changes of the spectra observed are described with the use of a model which includes three types of impurity centres formed by differently charged indium ions.

  18. Statistical properties of Fermi GBM GRBs' spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, István I.; Balázs, Lajos G.; Horvath, Istvan; Tóth, L. Viktor; Bagoly, Zsolt

    2018-03-01

    Statistical studies of gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra may result in important information on the physics of GRBs. The Fermi GBM catalogue contains GRB parameters (peak energy, spectral indices, and intensity) estimated fitting the gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of the total emission (fluence, flnc), and during the time of the peak flux (pflx). Using contingency tables, we studied the relationship of the models best-fitting pflx and flnc time intervals. Our analysis revealed an ordering of the spectra into a power law - Comptonized - smoothly broken power law - Band series. This result was further supported by a correspondence analysis of the pflx and flnc spectra categorical variables. We performed a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to find a relationship between categorical (spectral) and model independent physical data. LDA resulted in highly significant physical differences among the spectral types, that is more pronounced in the case of the pflx spectra, than for the flnc spectra. We interpreted this difference as caused by the temporal variation of the spectrum during the outburst. This spectral variability is confirmed by the differences in the low-energy spectral index and peak energy, between the pflx and flnc spectra. We found that the synchrotron radiation is significant in GBM spectra. The mean low-energy spectral index is close to the canonical value of α = -2/3 during the peak flux. However, α is ˜ -0.9 for the spectra of the fluences. We interpret this difference as showing that the effect of cooling is important only for the fluence spectra.

  19. Solarização do solo com filmes plásticos com e sem aditivo estabilizador de luz ultravioleta Soil solarization with plastic films with and without UV light stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito C. Barros

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando auxiliar na escolha de filmes plásticos adequados para a solarização, dois experimentos foram instalados em Mogi das Cruzes e Piracicaba (SP, em janeiro e fevereiro de 2000. Três tipos de filmes plásticos transparentes de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD, com 100 mm de espessura, produzidos pela empresa Nortène Plásticos Ltda., foram testados: a FES, filme estufa super tricarpa super aditivado, com aditivo estabilizador de luz ultravioleta (baseado em aminas estericamente impedidas; b FSOL, filme para solarização produzido com metade da quantidade do mesmo aditivo e c LT, lona plástica transparente, sem aditivo, além de uma testemunha sem cobertura plástica, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Após a retirada dos plásticos foi conduzida uma safra de alface em ambos os locais. Foi realizada análise química dos solos e das plantas colhidas, além de avaliada a infestação por plantas daninhas e a massa fresca das plantas colhidas. Em Piracicaba também foram realizadas análises microbiológicas dos solos e determinada a viabilidade de Pythium aphanidermattum. Em Mogi das Cruzes foi avaliada a incidência de podridão de esclerotínia, causada por Sclerotinia minor. As temperaturas médias registradas, a 10 cm de profundidade, nos solos sob os diferentes filmes plásticos foram semelhantes, de 44-41ºC nos solos solarizados e de 33,9-30,2ºC nos solos não solarizados de Piracicaba e Mogi das Cruzes, respectivamente. Detectou-se aumento na massa fresca das plantas colhidas nas parcelas solarizadas, de 49% em Piracicaba e 24% em Mogi das Cruzes, independente do plástico testado. Nos dois locais também houve drástica redução na infestação por plantas daninhas nas áreas solarizadas. Nas análises microbianas não foram verificadas alterações na liberação de CO2, no carbono da biomassa microbiana, no quociente metabólico e no número total de bactérias. O número de fungos foi

  20. Flow angle dependent photoacoustic Doppler power spectra under intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic Doppler (PAD power spectra showing an evident Doppler shift represent the major characteristics of the continuous wave-excited or burst wave-excited versions of PAD flow measurements. In this paper, the flow angle dependences of the PAD power spectra are investigated using an experiment setup that was established based on intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation. The setup has an overall configuration that is similar to a previously reported configuration, but is more sophisticated in that it accurately aligns the laser illumination with the ultrasound detection process, and in that it picks up the correct sample position. In the analysis of the power spectra data, we find that the background power spectra can be extracted by combining the output signals from the two channels of the lock-in amplifier, which is very useful for identification of the PAD power spectra. The power spectra are presented and analyzed in opposite flow directions, at different flow speeds, and at different flow angles. The power spectra at a 90° flow angle show the unique properties of symmetrical shapes due to PAD broadening. For the other flow angles, the smoothed power spectra clearly show a flow angle cosine relationship.

  1. Extending the McDonald Observatory Serendipitous Survey of UV/Blue Asteroid Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Faith; Cochran, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    Moderate resolution asteroid spectra in the 350 - 650 nm spectral range acquired randomly over many years (Cochran and Vilas, Icarus v 127, 121, 1997) identified absorption features in spectra of some of the asteroids. A feature centered at 430 nm was identified in the spectra of some low-albedo asteroids (C class and subclass), similar to the feature identified by Vilas et al. (Icarus, v. 102, 225,1993) in other low-albedo asteroid spectra and attributed to a ferric iron spin-forbidden transition in iron alteration minerals such as jarosite. Features at 505 nm and 430 nm were identified in the spectrum of 4 Vesta. The 505-nm feature is highly diagnostic of the amount and form of calcium in pyroxenes. This suggested further research on the sharpness and spectral placement of this feature in the spectra of Vesta and Vestoids (e.g., Cochran and Vilas, Icarus v. 134, 207, 1998). In 1997 and 1998, additional UV/blue spectra were obtained at the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith telescope with a facility cassegrain spectrograph. These included spectra of low-albedo asteroids, the R-class asteroid 349 Dembowska, and the M-class asteroid 135 Hertha. These spectra will be presented and identified features will be discussed.

  2. Scaling properties of the transverse mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffner-Bielich, J.

    2002-01-01

    Motivated from the formation of an initial state of gluon-saturated matter, we discuss scaling relations for the transverse mass spectra at BNL's relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We show on linear plots, that the transverse mass spectra for various hadrons can be described by an universal function in m t . The transverse mass spectra for different centralities can be rescaled into each other. Finally, we demonstrate that m t -scaling is also present in proton-antiproton collider data and compare it to m t -scaling at RHIC. (orig.)

  3. IRAS low-resolution spectra of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Volk, K.

    1989-01-01

    The spectra of external galaxies are selected and extracted from the IRAS LRS database. Twenty-one objects present viable spectra. One is a peculiar star-forming E-S0 galaxy. The remainder are all starburst or H II region galaxies. Their average spectrum demonstrates the importance of the PAH emission bands in the 8-23-micron region and reinforces the conclusion reached from ground-based spectra, that there is a strong correlation between the PAH bands and the starburst or H II region character of a galaxy. 32 refs

  4. Parametrization relating the fermionic mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppe, A.

    1993-01-01

    When parametrizing the fermionic mass spectra in terms of the unit matrix and a recursive matrix scrR 0 , which corresponds to an underlying scaling pattern in the mass spectra, each fermionic sector is characterized by three parameters: k, α, and R. Using the set of relations displayed by the parameters of the different sectors, it is possible to formulate a ''family Lagrangian'' which for each sector encompasses all the families. Relations between quark masses are furthermore deduced from these ''family Lagrangians.'' Using the relations between the parameters of the different charge sectors, it is also possible to ''derive'' the quark mass spectra from the (charged) leptonic mass spectrum

  5. On different forms of self similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswathy, R.K.; Mathew, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Fractal geometry is mainly based on the idea of self-similar forms. To be self-similar, a shape must able to be divided into parts that are smaller copies, which are more or less similar to the whole. There are different forms of self similarity in nature and mathematics. In this paper, some of the topological properties of super self similar sets are discussed. It is proved that in a complete metric space with two or more elements, the set of all non super self similar sets are dense in the set of all non-empty compact sub sets. It is also proved that the product of self similar sets are super self similar in product metric spaces and that the super self similarity is preserved under isometry. A characterization of super self similar sets using contracting sub self similarity is also presented. Some relevant counterexamples are provided. The concepts of exact super and sub self similarity are introduced and a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be exact super self similar in terms of condensation iterated function systems (Condensation IFS’s) is obtained. A method to generate exact sub self similar sets using condensation IFS’s and the denseness of exact super self similar sets are also discussed.

  6. Power spectra of currents off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Current measurements were carried out using a recording current meter across the continental shelf off Bombay, Maharashtra, India at 4 stations from an anchored ship. Power spectra were computed for selected lengths of records. Spectral energy...

  7. Experimental phase diagram for random laser spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dardiry, Ramy G S; Mooiweer, Ronald; Lagendijk, Ad

    2012-01-01

    We systematically study the presence of narrow spectral features in a wide variety of random laser samples. Less gain or stronger scattering are shown to lead to a crossover from spiky to smooth spectra. A decomposition of random laser spectra into a set of Lorentzians provides unprecedented detail in the analysis of random laser spectra. We suggest an interpretation in terms of mode competition that enables an understanding of the observed experimental trends. In this interpretation, smooth random laser spectra are a consequence of competing modes for which the loss and gain are proportional. Spectral spikes are associated with modes that are uncoupled from the mode competition in the bulk of the sample. (paper)

  8. On two-spectra inverse problems

    OpenAIRE

    Guliyev, Namig J.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a two-spectra inverse problem for the one-dimensional Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with boundary conditions containing rational Herglotz--Nevanlinna functions of the eigenvalue parameter and provide a complete solution of this problem.

  9. Spectra of atoms and molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Bernath, Peter F

    2005-01-01

    1. Introduction. 1.1. Waves, Particles, and Units. 1.2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum. 1.3. Interaction of Radiation with Matter. 1.3a. Blackbody Radiation. 1.3b. Einstein A and B Coefficients. 1.3c. Absorption and Emission of Radiation. 1.3d. Beer''s Law. 1.3e. Lineshape Functions. 1.3f. Natural Lifetime Broadening. 1.3g. Pressure Broadening. 1.3h. Doppler Broadening. 1.3i. Transit-Time Broadening. 1.3j. Power Broadening. 2. Molecular Symmetry. 2.1. Symmetry Operations. 2.1a. Operator Algebra. 2.1b. Symmetry Operator Algebra. 2.2. Groups. 2.2a. Point Groups. 2.2b. Classes. 2.2c. Subgroups. 2.3. Notation for Point Groups. 3. Matrix Representation of Groups. 3.1. Vectors and Matrices. 3.1a. Matrix Eigenvalue Problem. 3.1b. Similarity Transformations. 3.2. Symmetry Operations and Position Vectors. 3.2a. Reflection. 3.2b. Rotation. 3.2c. Rotation-Reflection. 3.2d. Inversion. 3.2e. Identity. 3.3. Symmetry Operators and Basic Vectors. 3.4. Symmetry Operators and Basic Functions. 3.4a. Function Spaces. 3.4b. Gram-Sc...

  10. Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad en la empresa de maduración y venta de Plátanos, Plátanos Mochilo, S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes-Cantó, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo de fin de máster consiste en aplicar todos los conocimientos obtenidos a lo largo de este máster en la implantación de un sistema de calidad, según las directrices de la Norma ISO 9001. Para ello, y con ayuda de la empresa donde he realizado las prácticas de empresa, se ha planteado una empresa dedicada al sector hortofrutícola, concretamente a la maduración y comercialización de plátanos. Gracias a todos los compañeros de esta empresa, he podido conocer de pri...

  11. Analysis of the structure and operation of the level F PL/1 compiler: problems raised by the coupling of programmes written in different languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambou Sek, Jiri

    1974-01-01

    As the PL/1 programming language allows the treatment of a large range of commercial and scientific problems, it also raises specific problems for the development of a compiler on the one hand, and for the implementation of a management system within an installation comprising software written in different programming languages. The author reports the analysis of the level F PL/1 compiler developed by IBM, discusses issues related to the management of a PL/1 software within the framework of the OS/360 operating system. He reports the study of the linking conditions between PL/1 and the main existing programming languages under OS/360. He presents an interface system which allows a common exploitation of software written in different programming languages. He describes the syntax of the DECLARE statement, and its analysis by the interface system. The last part reports the generation of different data description vectors which are necessary for argument transmission [fr

  12. Angular Spectra of Polarized Galactic Foregrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jung; Lazarian, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that magnetic field lines are twisted and bend by turbulent motions in the Galaxy. Therefore, both Galactic synchrotron emission and thermal emission from dust reflects statistics of Galactic turbulence. Our simple model of Galactic turbulence, motivated by results of our simulations, predicts that Galactic disk and halo exhibit different angular power spectra. We show that observed angular spectra of synchrotron emission are compatible with our model. We also show that our mod...

  13. Generation of synthetic gamma spectra with MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmerio, Julian J.; Coppo, Anibal D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this work is the simulation of gamma spectra using the MATLAB program to generate the calibration curves in efficiency, which will be used to measure radioactive waste in drums. They are necessary for the proper characterization of these drums. A Monte Carlo simulation was basically developed with the random number generator Mersenne Twister and nuclear data obtained from NIST. This paper shows the results obtained and difficulties encountered until today. The physical correction of the simulated spectra has been the only aspect we have been working, up to this moment. Procedures: A simplified representation of the 'Laboratorio de Verificacion y Control de la Calidad' was chosen. Drums with cemented liquid waste are routinely measured in this laboratory. The commercial program MCNP was also used to get a valid reference in the field of simulation of spectra. We analyzed the spectra obtained by MATLAB in the light of classical literature photon detection and the spectrum obtained by MCNP. Conclusions: Currently the program developed seems adequate to simulate a measurement in the 'Laboratorio de Verificacion y Control de la Calidad'. The spectra obtained by MATLAB seem to physically represent what is observed in real spectra. However, it is a slow program. The current development efforts are directed to improve the speed of simulation. An alternative is to use the CUDA language for NVIDIA video cards to parallelized the simulation. An adequate simulation of the electronic measuring chain is also needed to obtain better representations of the shapes of the peaks. (author)

  14. Identifying Broadband Rotational Spectra with Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Prozument, Kirill

    2017-06-01

    A typical broadband rotational spectrum may contain several thousand observable transitions, spanning many species. Identifying the individual spectra, particularly when the dynamic range reaches 1,000:1 or even 10,000:1, can be challenging. One approach is to apply automated fitting routines. In this approach, combinations of 3 transitions can be created to form a "triple", which allows fitting of the A, B, and C rotational constants in a Watson-type Hamiltonian. On a standard desktop computer, with a target molecule of interest, a typical AUTOFIT routine takes 2-12 hours depending on the spectral density. A new approach is to utilize machine learning to train a computer to recognize the patterns (frequency spacing and relative intensities) inherit in rotational spectra and to identify the individual spectra in a raw broadband rotational spectrum. Here, recurrent neural networks have been trained to identify different types of rotational spectra and classify them accordingly. Furthermore, early results in applying convolutional neural networks for spectral object recognition in broadband rotational spectra appear promising. Perez et al. "Broadband Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy for structure determination: The water heptamer." Chem. Phys. Lett., 2013, 571, 1-15. Seifert et al. "AUTOFIT, an Automated Fitting Tool for Broadband Rotational Spectra, and Applications to 1-Hexanal." J. Mol. Spectrosc., 2015, 312, 13-21. Bishop. "Neural networks for pattern recognition." Oxford university press, 1995.

  15. Adiabatic regularization of power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinea, Allan L., E-mail: alinea@het.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effect of adiabatic regularization on both the tensor- and scalar-perturbation power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation. Similar to that of the minimally coupled general single-field inflation, we find that the subtraction term is suppressed by an exponentially decaying factor involving the number of e -folds. By following the subtraction term long enough beyond horizon crossing, the regularized power spectrum tends to the ''bare'' power spectrum. This study justifies the use of the unregularized (''bare'') power spectrum in standard calculations.

  16. Interatomic scattering in energy dependent photoelectron spectra of Ar clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patanen, M.; Benkoula, S.; Nicolas, C.; Goel, A. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Antonsson, E. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Fachbereich Biologie, Chemie, Pharmazie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustrasse 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Neville, J. J. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Department of Chemistry, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 6E2 (Canada); Miron, C., E-mail: Catalin.Miron@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), ‘Horia Hulubei’ National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 30 Reactorului Street, RO-077125 Măgurele, Jud. Ilfov (Romania)

    2015-09-28

    Soft X-ray photoelectron spectra of Ar 2p levels of atomic argon and argon clusters are recorded over an extended range of photon energies. The Ar 2p intensity ratios between atomic argon and clusters’ surface and bulk components reveal oscillations similar to photoelectron extended X-ray absorption fine structure signal (PEXAFS). We demonstrate here that this technique allows us to analyze separately the PEXAFS signals from surface and bulk sites of free-standing, neutral clusters, revealing a bond contraction at the surface.

  17. Altered hemodynamics and hyperuricemia accompany an elevated sFlt-1/PlGF ratio before the onset of early severe preeclampsia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doherty, Anne

    2014-08-01

    Early identification of women at risk of developing early-onset severe preeclampsia (sPE) is a key objective in obstetrics. An elevated ratio of serum soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) to placenta-like growth factor (PlGF) (sFlt-1\\/PlGF ratio) precedes overt hypertension. The longitudinal relationship between this biomarker, maternal hemodynamics, and maternal serum uric acid during the pre-clinical phase is unknown.

  18. Placental Growth Factor (PlGF in Women with Suspected Pre-Eclampsia Prior to 35 Weeks' Gestation: A Budget Impact Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Duckworth

    Full Text Available To model the resource implications of placental growth factor (PlGF testing in women with suspected pre-eclampsia prior to 35 weeks' gestation as part of a management algorithm, compared with current practice.Data on resource use from 132 women with suspected pre-eclampsia prior to 35 weeks' gestation, enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study evaluating PlGF measurement within antenatal assessment units within two UK consultant-led maternity units was extracted by case note review. A decision analytic model was developed using these data to establish the budget impact of managing women with suspected pre-eclampsia for two weeks from the date of PlGF testing, using a clinical management algorithm and reference cost tariffs. The main outcome measures of resource use (numbers of outpatient appointments, ultrasound investigations and hospital admissions were correlated to final diagnosis and used to calculate comparative management regimes.The mean cost saving associated with the PlGF test (in the PlGF plus management arm was £35,087 (95% CI -£33,181 to -£36,992 per 1,000 women. This equated to a saving of £582 (95% CI -552 to -£613 per woman tested. In 94% of iterations, PlGF testing was associated with cost saving compared to current practice.This analysis suggests PlGF used as part of a clinical management algorithm in women presenting with suspected pre-eclampsia prior to 35 weeks' gestation could provide cost savings by reducing unnecessary resource use. Introduction of PlGF testing could be used to direct appropriate resource allocation and overall would be cost saving.

  19. A brief description and comparison of programming languages FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 from a critical standpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    Several common higher level program languages are described. FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 are summarized and compared. FORTRAN is the most widely used scientific programming language. ALGOL is a more powerful language for scientific programming. COBOL is used for most commercial programming applications. LISP 1.5 is primarily a list-processing language. PL/1 attempts to combine the desirable features of FORTRAN, ALGOL, and COBOL into a single language.

  20. Mid-IR Spectra of Refractory Minerals Relevant to Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Shekeab

    2008-09-01

    On 4 July 2005 the Spitzer Space Telescope obtained mid-IR ( 5-40 µm) spectra of the ejecta from the hypervelocity impact of the Deep Impact projectile with comet 9P/Tempel 1. Spectral modeling demonstrates that there are abundant minerals present in the ejecta including Ca/Fe/Mg-rich silicates, carbonates, phyllosilicates, water ice, amorphous carbon, and sulfides [1]. However, precise mineralogical identifications are hampered by the lack of comprehensive 5 - 40 µm spectral measurements of the emissivity for a broad compositional range of these materials. Here, we present our initial results for 2 - 50 µm transmission spectra and absorption constants for materials relevant to comets, including pyrrhotite, pyrite, and several phyllosilicate (clay) minerals. Measuring the transmission of materials over the full spectral range sensitive by Spitzer requires grinding the minerals into submicron powders and then mixing them with KBr (for the 1-25 um region) and polyethylene (16-50 um region) to form pellets. Transmission measurements of sub-micron sulfides are particularly difficult to obtain because the minerals oxidize rapidly upon grinding and subsequent handling unless special care is taken. A detailed description of our sample preparation and measurement technique will be provided to assist other researchers in their attempts to acquire similar spectra. References: [1] Lisse, C.M. et al., Science 313, 635 - 640 (2006)

  1. Modeling of XANES-spectra with the FEFF-program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosman, E; Thieme, J, E-mail: e.bosman@gmx.d, E-mail: jthieme@gwdg.d [Institute for X-Ray Physics, Georg-August-University Gottingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Gottingen (Germany)

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this project is the calculation of the absorption coefficient {mu} of x-ray absorption spectra as a function of energy and a comparison with experimental data. A characteristic fine structure can be found in x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) consisting of the XANES (X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) and the EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) region. XANES is characterized by multiple scattering and provides information about coordination chemistry and bonding angles of the irradiated sample. The program FEFF 8.4 was used for the calculations of the absorption K-edge spectra. FEFF was generated for ab initio multiple scattering calculations of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) of atom-clusters. The code yields scattering amplitudes, phases and other quantities. We computed {mu} at the K-edge of several elements like Ti, S and Fe. For this purpose, clusters of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Ba{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}, FeS{sub 2}, CaSO{sub 2} 2(H {sub 2}O) were used, working with several space groups. Some of the calculations are consistent with the results of the experiments, but others show energy shifts in the range of some eV. In summary, the FEFF calculations and the experimental data exhibit similarities as well as deviations. By using trimming parameters, deviations could be eliminated to a certain extent, which will be presented.

  2. Fluorescence spectra of benign and malignant prostate tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSalhi, M S; Masilamani, V; Atif, M; Farhat, K; Rabah, D; Al Turki, M R

    2012-01-01

    In this study, fluorescence emission spectrum (FES), Stokes' shift spectrum (SSS), and reflectance spectrum (RS) of benign (N = 12) and malignant prostate tissues (N = 8) were investigated to discriminate the two types of tissues. The FES was done with the excitation at 325 nm only; SSS with Δλ = 70 and Δλ = 0, the latter being equivalent to reflectance spectra. Of the three modes of spectra, SSS with Δλ = 70 nm showed the best discrimination. There were four important bands, one at 280 nm (due to tryptophan); 320 nm (due to elastin and tryptophan); 355 and 385 (due to NADH) and 440 nm (due to flavin). From the relative intensities of these bands, three ratios were evaluated. Similarly another two ratios were obtained from reflectance spectra and one more from FES. Thus, there are 6 ratio parameters which represent the relative concentration of tryptophan, elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and flavin. A statistical analysis showed that benign and malignant tissues could be classified with accuracy greater than 90%. This report is only for in vitro analysis; but employing optical fiber, this can be extended to in vivo analysis too, so that benign tumor could be distinguished without surgery

  3. Aspirated capacitor measurements of air conductivity and ion mobility spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aplin, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of ions in atmospheric air are used to investigate atmospheric electricity and particulate pollution. Commonly studied ion parameters are (1) air conductivity, related to the total ion number concentration, and (2) the ion mobility spectrum, which varies with atmospheric composition. The physical principles of air ion instrumentation are long established. A recent development is the computerized aspirated capacitor, which measures ions from (a) the current of charged particles at a sensing electrode, and (b) the rate of charge exchange with an electrode at a known initial potential, relaxing to a lower potential. As the voltage decays, only ions of higher and higher mobility are collected by the central electrode and contribute to the further decay of the voltage. This enables extension of the classical theory to calculate ion mobility spectra by inverting voltage decay time series. In indoor air, ion mobility spectra determined from both the voltage decay inversion, and an established voltage switching technique, were compared and shown to be of similar shape. Air conductivities calculated by integration were: 5.3±2.5 and 2.7±1.1 fSm -1 , respectively, with conductivity determined to be 3 fSm -1 by direct measurement at a constant voltage. Applications of the relaxation potential inversion method include air ion mobility spectrum retrieval from historical data, and computation of ion mobility spectra in planetary atmospheres

  4. Characteristics of Jerk Response Spectra for Elastic and Inelastic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerk is the time rate of acceleration and mainly represents the nonstationary component in high frequency band of the earthquake wave. The study on jerk and its response spectra can enhance the recognition of the nonstationary ground motion. The mechanical meaning and research value of jerk are described. Jerk is recommended to be solved by establishing state-space equations and Runge-Kutta method. The solution method of elastic and inelastic jerk response spectra under ground motion is established, and the accurate jerk spectrum should be calculated directly according to numerical computing instead of pseudo-acceleration spectrum. The characteristics of jerk response spectra are studied according to the influencing factors, such as site condition, amplification factor, ductility factor, and reduction factor. The concept of impact reduction factor is presented. The statistical results show that the jerk spectrum has similar rules as the acceleration spectrum, and the amplitude is relative to the predominant period, especially for structures with short or medium period. If the ductility is improved, the effective jerk will reduce obviously, and the impact reduction factor will be enhanced. Different from the strength reduction factor, the impact reduction factor is nearly not relevant to the period.

  5. Large margin classification with indefinite similarities

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim; Cisse, Moustapha; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    Classification with indefinite similarities has attracted attention in the machine learning community. This is partly due to the fact that many similarity functions that arise in practice are not symmetric positive semidefinite, i.e. the Mercer

  6. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji; Genton, Marc G.; Jun, Mikyoung

    2016-01-01

    extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi

  7. The First Paenibacillus larvae Bacteriophage Endolysin (PlyPl23) with High Potential to Control American Foulbrood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Leite, Marta; Kluskens, Leon D; Santos, Sílvio B; Melo, Luís D R; Azeredo, Joana

    2015-01-01

    Endolysins, which are peptidoglycan-degrading enzymes expressed during the terminal stage of the reproduction cycle of bacteriophages, have great potential to control Gram-positive pathogens. This work describes the characterization of a novel endolysin (PlyPl23) encoded on the genome of Paenibacillus larvae phage phiIBB_Pl23 with high potential to control American foulbrood. This bacterial disease, caused by P. larvae, is widespread in North America and Europe and causes important economic losses in apiculture. The restriction to antibiotic residues in honey imposed by the EU legislation hinders its therapeutic use to combat American foulbrood and enforces the development of alternative antimicrobial methods. The new endolysin described herein has an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase catalytic domain and exhibits a broad-spectrum activity against common P. larvae genotypes. Moreover, the enzyme displays high antimicrobial activity in a range of pH that matches environmental conditions (pH between 5.0 and 7.0), showing its feasible application in the field. At pH 7.0, a concentration of 0.2 μM of enzyme was enough to lyse 104 CFU.mL-1 of P. larvae in no more than 2 h. The presence of sucrose and of the substances present in the larvae gut content did not affect the enzyme activity. Interestingly, an increase of activity was observed when PlyPl23 was previously incubated in royal jelly. Furthermore, in vivo safety evaluation assays demonstrated that this enzyme is not toxic to the bee larvae. The present work describes for the first time an endolysin encoded in a P. larvae phage that presents high potential to integrate a commercial product to control the problematic American foulbrood.

  8. Original article Familial risk of dyslexia in Polish first grade pupils based on the ARHQ-PL Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Krasowicz-Kupis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background From the perspective of dyslexia, familial risk is the issue most researched worldwide. The familial risk has never been studied in Poland. Results of many studies conducted in Europe, the U.S. and Australia show that children who have a close family member with dyslexia are at greater risk of this disorder than children in the control groups. This conclusion is backed up by the results of research on the genetic aetiology of learning disorders. In the presented study on Polish 1st grade students, the Adult Reading History Questionnaire by Lefly and Pennington (2000 in the Polish adaptation (ARHQ-PL was used. The connections between the familial risk and the level of reading, spelling, phonological abilities and other cognitive functions were analysed. Participants and procedure The study covered 513 children, including their parents, from randomly selected primary schools in the Mazowieckie province. According to the ARHQ-PL assumptions, the children’s parents were divided into groups taking into account the familial risk level. Children were individually assessed for reading, spelling, phonological abilities, naming speed, phonological memory, vocabulary level and selective attention. Inter-group comparisons were performed based on the analysed variables for the groups of children whose parents had critical results in the ARHQ. The comparisons identified high risk (or lack of risk, as per sex, age, education level and SES (socio-economical status. Results The results show that there is a significant connection between risk group membership and the level of reading and of the majority of assessed phonological abilities. More significant relationships were determined for the familial risk of dyslexia observed for mothers. Conclusions The study confirms the diagnostic accuracy of the familial dyslexia risk ratio determined using the ARHQ-PL questionnaire for reading and for the majority of the phonological abilities closely

  9. The First Paenibacillus larvae Bacteriophage Endolysin (PlyPl23 with High Potential to Control American Foulbrood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Oliveira

    Full Text Available Endolysins, which are peptidoglycan-degrading enzymes expressed during the terminal stage of the reproduction cycle of bacteriophages, have great potential to control Gram-positive pathogens. This work describes the characterization of a novel endolysin (PlyPl23 encoded on the genome of Paenibacillus larvae phage phiIBB_Pl23 with high potential to control American foulbrood. This bacterial disease, caused by P. larvae, is widespread in North America and Europe and causes important economic losses in apiculture. The restriction to antibiotic residues in honey imposed by the EU legislation hinders its therapeutic use to combat American foulbrood and enforces the development of alternative antimicrobial methods. The new endolysin described herein has an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase catalytic domain and exhibits a broad-spectrum activity against common P. larvae genotypes. Moreover, the enzyme displays high antimicrobial activity in a range of pH that matches environmental conditions (pH between 5.0 and 7.0, showing its feasible application in the field. At pH 7.0, a concentration of 0.2 μM of enzyme was enough to lyse 104 CFU.mL-1 of P. larvae in no more than 2 h. The presence of sucrose and of the substances present in the larvae gut content did not affect the enzyme activity. Interestingly, an increase of activity was observed when PlyPl23 was previously incubated in royal jelly. Furthermore, in vivo safety evaluation assays demonstrated that this enzyme is not toxic to the bee larvae. The present work describes for the first time an endolysin encoded in a P. larvae phage that presents high potential to integrate a commercial product to control the problematic American foulbrood.

  10. Personality similarity and life satisfaction in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Furler Katrin; Gomez Veronica; Grob Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association between personality similarity and life satisfaction in a large nationally representative sample of 1608 romantic couples. Similarity effects were computed for the Big Five personality traits as well as for personality profiles with global and differentiated indices of similarity. Results showed substantial actor and partner effects indicating that both partners' personality traits were related to both partners' life satisfaction. Personality similar...

  11. [Intra-uterine growth restriction impact on maternal serum concentration of PlGF (placental growth factor): A case control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, A; Boisson-Gaudin, C; Subtil, F; Rudigoz, R-C; Dubernard, G; Allias, F; Huissoud, C

    2016-01-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a pro-angiogenic factor mainly assessed in preeclampsia in which its blood concentration is decreased. The aim of this study was to dose the blood concentration of PlGF in women with fetal intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) without associated preeclampsia at the time of diagnosis. Case/control study: IUGR was defined by a fetal biometry with abnormal uterine and/or umbilical doppler (n=23). This group was compared to a control group of fetuses (n=25) matched for gestational age at blood sampling for the dosage of maternal seric PlGF. Women with preeclampsia were not included. The plasma PlGF concentration was 11pg/mL (IQR [11-42,8]) in the IUGR group vs 287pg/mL [135-439] in the control group (P<0.001) and this difference was available after adjustment for gestational age at the time of blood sampling (P<0.001). PlGF sensitivity and specificity for discrimination were respectively 87% (CI 95% [66-97]) and 88% (CI 95% [69-97]). Maternal serum PlGF concentrations were very low in IUGR group compared with those of the control group. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. Comparative Analysis of EPA/DHA-PL Forage and Liposomes in Orotic Acid-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Rats and Their Related Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mengru; Zhang, Tiantian; Han, Xiuqing; Tang, Qingjuan; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2018-02-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one predictive factor of death from various illnesses. The present study was to comparatively investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids forage (EPA-PL and DHA-PL) and liposomes (lipo-EPA and lipo-DHA) on NAFLD and demonstrate the possible protective mechanisms involved. The additive doses of EPA-PL and DHA-PL in all treatment groups were 1% of total diets, respectively. The results showed that Lipo-EPA could significantly improve hepatic function by down-regulating orotic acid-induced serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 55.6% and 34.2%, respectively (p DHA could also significantly suppress hepatic lipid accumulation mainly by enhancement of hepatic lipolysis and cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, DHA-PL played a certain role in inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and accelerating cholesterol efflux. The results obtained in this work might contribute to the understanding of the biological activities of EPA/DHA-PL and liposomes and further investigation on its potential application values for food supplements.

  13. Respuesta del chile mirasol a la labranza reducida, enmiendas al suelo y acolchado plástico

    OpenAIRE

    Amador-Ramírez, Mario Domingo; Velásquez-Valle, Rodolfo; Sánchez-Toledano, Blanca Isabel; Acosta-Díaz, Efraín

    2013-01-01

    El interés por la sostenibilidad de algunos sistemas de chile seco (Capsicum annuum L.) proviene de la producción intensiva a la que es sometida este cultivo, lo cual es causada por el uso excesivo de actividades agrícolas. El objetivo de este estudio fue: 1) evaluar los efectos de la labranza reducida, incorporación de abono verde, incorporación de abono seco y la asociación riego por goteo + acolchado plástico en el crecimiento y rendimiento de chile seco, al comparar estos efectos con aque...

  14. Efecto de diferentes sustratos en la calidad de plántulas de berenjena (Solanum melongena L.)

    OpenAIRE

    ARAMÉNDIZ-TATIS, HERMES; CARDONA-AYALA, CARLOS; CORREA-ÁLVAREZ, ENDER

    2013-01-01

    La berenjena es una hortaliza con alta demanda en el departamento de Córdoba (Colombia), donde tiene importancia social y económica. El sistema actual de producción presenta algunos limitantes tecnológicos, uno de ellos es la producción de plántulas, y la de calidad de los sustratos. Con el fin de evaluar los sustratos disponibles de la región, se realizó un diseño completamente al azar con siete tratamientos, correspondientes a mezclas de sustratos (T1 = 50% aluvión + 50% casacarilla de arro...

  15. Plataforma productiva como fuerza del desarrollo endógeno del sector de manufacturas plásticas

    OpenAIRE

    Maryana Sandrea; Mariby Boscán

    2014-01-01

    La plataforma productiva de una localidad constituye un soporte a la actividad empresarial, en términos de infraestructura física y servicios conexos, que dependiendo de sus condiciones estimula o frena el desarrollo endógeno. En este contexto, el objetivo general de la investigación consiste en analizar las condiciones de la plataforma productiva como fomento al desarrollo endógeno, en el sector de manufacturas plásticas, utilizando básicamente los aportes de Vázquez (2005 y 2007). El estudi...

  16. La cirugía plástica y su labor humanitaria en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vallarta-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría del gasto público en salud en México se enfoca hacia las patologías causantes de la mayor mortalidad: enfermedades circulatorias, metabólicas y neoplasias. Así pues, las malformaciones congénitas, secuelas de quemaduras o secuelas de cáncer, no se encuentran al alcance de la población que vive en pobreza. Es por ello que desde hace más de 50 años se iniciaron en nuestro país las Cirugías Extramuros y en el 2012 se creó la Fundación para Asistencia e Investigación en Cirugía Plástica Reconstructiva (FUNCIPLAS, con el objetivo de ayudar a los más necesitados mediante la aplicación de nuestra especialidad. En coordinación con diferentes organizaciones se planeó realizar Campañas de Cirugía Extramuros en diferentes estados de la República Mexicana con la participación de cirujanos plásticos y reconstructivos, residentes en formación, anestesiólogos y personal de enfermería. De 2013 a 2015 se realizaron 10 campañas altruistas en diversas ciudades mexicanas. Se valoraron 784 pacientes, de los que fueron candidatos a cirugía 439 en los que se realizaron 774 procedimientos. El 52,5% de las cirugías correspondió a patología congénita; el 16,4% a secuelas de quemaduras; el 15,76% a secuelas de cáncer y el 15,5% a secuelas de trauma en cara o extremidades. La atención de padecimientos relacionados con la Cirugía Plástica Reconstructiva es insuficiente en una población de casi 120 millones de habitantes. Si a ello agregamos el atraso educativo y la pobreza, nos encontramos ante personas que son condenadas a vivir con una alteración estético-funcional y un estigma social. La FUNCIPLAS, como asociación sin fines de lucro, surge como alternativa para ayudar a los sectores más vulnerables de la población mexicana. Desde hace varias décadas se ha fomentado un mayor altruismo en el área quirúrgica. Hoy la contribución humanitaria de la Cirugía Plástica en México es una realidad.

  17. Riesgos ergonómicos en empresa de fabricación de productos plásticos

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro-Rodríguez, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    El presente “Trabajo Final de Máster” tiene por objeto el análisis de los riesgos laborales en una empresa ficticia de fabricación de productos plásticos. El informe se centrará en los riesgos ergonómicos, ocupándose de analizar los distintos riesgos que surjan durante el desarrollo de las actividades por parte de los trabajadores, la consiguiente evaluación de dichos riesgos, y por último, y cuando sea necesario, la adopción de medidas correctoras para eliminar o minimizar los riesgos identi...

  18. Prevención de las patologías respiratorias en las artes plásticas

    OpenAIRE

    Acera Rojo, María

    2016-01-01

    [ES]La formación sobre los riesgos laborales para el sistema respiratorio es uno de los pilares fundamentales de la medicina preventiva. En las artes plásticas la formación se hace imprescindible para evitar los riesgos potenciales que tienen los artistas o los artesanos cuando trabajan en espacios inadecuados, como garajes, sótanos, habitaciones de la vivienda habitual, etc., que no reúnen las condiciones de ventilación exigidas para el uso de ciertos materiales. Además, la formación es cruc...

  19. A qualidade como diferencial competitivo: uma proposta para a industria de embalagens plásticas de alimentos do Recife

    OpenAIRE

    SARREA JUNIOR, Euler

    2007-01-01

    Esse trabalho mostra a evolução e o crescimento de uma empresa de embalagens plásticas para alimentos de Pernambuco e os problemas para atingir suas metas de qualidade e de produtividade nesse período de vida (10 anos). Fazendo a retrospectiva da empresa verificou-se que, se por um lado a organização investiu em instalações e equipamentos modernos, a mesma preocupação não foi observada com a mão-de-obra. Na análise dos indicadores, foram utilizadas ferramentas da qualidade como Brainstorming ...

  20. Nano-spatial parameters from 3D to 2D lattice dimensionality by organic variant in [ZnCl4]- [R]+ hybrid materials: Structure, architecture-lattice dimensionality, microscopy, optical Eg and PL correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Verma, Sanjay K.; Alvi, P. A.; Jasrotia, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    The nanospatial morphological features of [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ hybrid derivative depicts 28 nm granular size and 3D spreader shape packing pattern as analyzed by FESEM and single crystal XRD structural studies. The organic moiety connect the inorganic components through N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bond to form a hybrid composite, the replacement of organic derivatives from 2-methylpyridine to 2-Amino-5-choloropyridine results the increase in granular size from 28nm to 60nm and unit cell packing pattern from 3D-2D lattice dimensionality along ac plane. The change in optical energy direct band gap value from 3.01eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ (HM1) to 3.42eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H5ClN2]+ (HM2) indicates the role of organic moiety in optical properties of hybrid materials. The photoluminescence emission spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 370 to 600 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.66a.u. at 438 nm for (HM1) and 370 to 600 nm with max peak intensity of 9.91 a.u. at 442 nm for (HM2), indicating that the emission spectra lies in visible range. PL excitation spectra depicts the maximum excitation intensity [9.8] at 245.5 nm for (HM1) and its value of 9.9 a.u. at 294 nm, specify the excitation spectra lies in UV range. Photoluminescence excitation spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 280 to 350 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.4 a.u. at 285.5 nm and 9.9 a.u. at 294 and 297 nm, indicating excitation in the UV spectrum. Single crystal growth process and detailed physiochemical characterization such as XRD, FESEM image analysis photoluminescence property reveals the structure stability with non-covalent interactions, lattice dimensionality (3D-2D) correlations interweaving into the design of inorganic-organic hybrid materials.

  1. Spatial structure of directional wave spectra in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Trava, Bernardo; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Osuna, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The spatial structure of the wave field during hurricane conditions is studied using the National Data Buoy Center directional wave buoy data set from the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The buoy information, comprising the directional wave spectra during the passage of several hurricanes, was referenced to the center of the hurricane using the path of the hurricane, the propagation velocity, and the radius of the maximum winds. The directional wave spectra were partitioned into their main components to quantify the energy corresponding to the observed wave systems and to distinguish between wind-sea and swell. The findings are consistent with those found using remote sensing data (e.g., Scanning Radar Altimeter data). Based on the previous work, the highest waves are found in the right forward quadrant of the hurricane, where the spectral shape tends to become uni-modal, in the vicinity of the region of maximum winds. More complex spectral shapes are observed in distant regions at the front of and in the rear quadrants of the hurricane, where there is a tendency of the spectra to become bi- and tri-modal. The dominant waves generally propagate at significant angles to the wind direction, except in the regions next to the maximum winds of the right quadrants. Evidence of waves generated by concentric eyewalls associated with secondary maximum winds was also found. The frequency spectra display some of the characteristics of the JONSWAP spectrum adjusted by Young (J Geophys Res 111:8020, 2006); however, at the spectral peak, the similarity with the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum is clear. These results establish the basis for the use in assessing the ability of numerical models to simulate the wave field in hurricanes.

  2. Good abundances from bad spectra - I. Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. Bryn; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1996-01-01

    Stellar spectra derived from multiple-object fibre-fed spectroscopic radial-velocity surveys, of the type feasible with, among other examples, AUTOFIB, 2dF, HYDRA, NESSIE, and the Sloan survey, differ significantly from those traditionally used for determination of stellar abundances. The spectra tend to be of moderate resolution (around 1A) and signal-to-noise ratio (around 10-20 per resolution element), and cannot usually have reliable continuum shapes determined over wavelength ranges in excess of a few tens of Angstroms. None the less, with care and a calibration of stellar effective temperature from photometry, independent of the spectroscopy, reliable iron abundances can be derived. We have developed techniques to extract true iron abundances and surface gravities from low-signal-to-noise ratio, intermediate-resolution spectra of G-type stars in the 4000-5000A wavelength region. Spectroscopic indices sensitive to iron abundance and gravity are defined from a set of narrow (few-several A wide) wavelength intervals. The indices are calibrated theoretically using synthetic spectra. Given adequate data and a photometrically determined effective temperature, one can derive estimates of the stellar iron abundance and surface gravity. We have also defined a single abundance indicator for the analysis of very low-signal-to-noise ratio spectra; with the further assumption of a value for the stellar surface gravity, this is able to provide useful iron abundance information from spectra having signal-to-noise ratios as low as 10 (1-A elements). The theoretical basis and calibration using synthetic spectra are described in this paper. The empirical calibration of these techniques by application to observational data is described in a separate paper (Jones, Wyse & Gilmore). The technique provides precise iron abundances, with zero-point correct to ~0.1 dex, and is reliable, with typical uncertainties being <~0.2 dex. A derivation of the in situ thick disc metallicity

  3. Classifying galaxy spectra at 0.5 < z < 1 with self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, S.; Teimoorinia, H.; Barmby, P.

    2018-05-01

    The spectrum of a galaxy contains information about its physical properties. Classifying spectra using templates helps elucidate the nature of a galaxy's energy sources. In this paper, we investigate the use of self-organizing maps in classifying galaxy spectra against templates. We trained semi-supervised self-organizing map networks using a set of templates covering the wavelength range from far ultraviolet to near infrared. The trained networks were used to classify the spectra of a sample of 142 galaxies with 0.5 K-means clustering, a supervised neural network, and chi-squared minimization. Spectra corresponding to quiescent galaxies were more likely to be classified similarly by all methods while starburst spectra showed more variability. Compared to classification using chi-squared minimization or the supervised neural network, the galaxies classed together by the self-organizing map had more similar spectra. The class ordering provided by the one-dimensional self-organizing maps corresponds to an ordering in physical properties, a potentially important feature for the exploration of large datasets.

  4. Clustering and Filtering Tandem Mass Spectra Acquired in Data-Independent Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Huisong; Nikitin, Frederic; Gluck, Florent; Lisacek, Frederique; Scherl, Alexander; Muller, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Data-independent mass spectrometry activates all ion species isolated within a given mass-to-charge window ( m/z) regardless of their abundance. This acquisition strategy overcomes the traditional data-dependent ion selection boosting data reproducibility and sensitivity. However, several tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra of the same precursor ion are acquired during chromatographic elution resulting in large data redundancy. Also, the significant number of chimeric spectra and the absence of accurate precursor ion masses hamper peptide identification. Here, we describe an algorithm to preprocess data-independent MS/MS spectra by filtering out noise peaks and clustering the spectra according to both the chromatographic elution profiles and the spectral similarity. In addition, we developed an approach to estimate the m/z value of precursor ions from clustered MS/MS spectra in order to improve database search performance. Data acquired using a small 3 m/z units precursor mass window and multiple injections to cover a m/z range of 400-1400 was processed with our algorithm. It showed an improvement in the number of both peptide and protein identifications by 8 % while reducing the number of submitted spectra by 18 % and the number of peaks by 55 %. We conclude that our clustering method is a valid approach for data analysis of these data-independent fragmentation spectra. The software including the source code is available for the scientific community.

  5. Differential dpa calculations with SPECTRA-PKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    2018-06-01

    The processing code SPECTRA-PKA produces energy spectra of primary atomic recoil events (or primary knock-on atoms, PKAs) for any material composition exposed to an irradiation spectrum. Such evaluations are vital inputs for simulations aimed at understanding the evolution of damage in irradiated material, which is generated in cascade displacement events initiated by PKAs. These PKA spectra present the full complexity of the input (to SPECTRA-PKA) nuclear data-library evaluations of recoil events. However, the commonly used displacements per atom (dpa) measure, which is an integral measure over all possible recoil events of the displacement damage dose, is still widely used and has many useful applications - as both a comparative and correlative quantity. This paper describes the methodology employed that allows the SPECTRA-PKA code to evaluate dpa rates using the energy-dependent recoil (PKA) cross section data used for the PKA distributions. This avoids the need for integral displacement kerma cross sections and also provides new insight into the relative importance of different reaction channels (and associated different daughter residual and emitted particles) to the total integrated dpa damage dose. Results are presented for Fe, Ni, W, and SS316. Fusion dpa rates are compared to those in fission, highlighting the increased contribution to damage creation in the former from high-energy threshold reactions.

  6. Artificial intelligence analysis of paraspinal power spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, C W; Atsma, W J

    1996-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: As an aid to discrimination of sufferers with back pain an artificial intelligence neural network was constructed to differentiate paraspinal power spectra. DESIGN: Clinical investigation using surface electromyography. METHOD: The surface electromyogram power spectra from 60 subjects, 33 non-back-pain sufferers and 27 chronic back pain sufferers were used to construct a back propagation neural network that was then tested. Subjects were placed on a test frame in 30 degrees of lumbar forward flexion. An isometric load of two-thirds maximum voluntary contraction was held constant for 30 s whilst surface electromyograms were recorded at the level of the L(4-5). Paraspinal power spectra were calculated and loaded into the input layer of a three-layer back propagation network. The neural network classified the spectra into normal or back pain type. RESULTS: The back propagation neural was shown to have satisfactory convergence with a specificity of 79% and a sensitivity of 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Artificial intelligence neural networks appear to be a useful method of differentiating paraspinal power spectra in back-pain sufferers.

  7. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  8. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji

    2016-07-14

    Self-similar processes have been widely used in modeling real-world phenomena occurring in environmetrics, network traffic, image processing, and stock pricing, to name but a few. The estimation of the degree of self-similarity has been studied extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi-self-similarity for a random field indexed in higher dimensions. If self-similarity is not rejected, our test provides a set of estimated self-similarity indexes. The key is to test stationarity of the inverse Lamperti transformations of the process. The inverse Lamperti transformation of a self-similar process is a strongly stationary process, revealing a theoretical connection between the two processes. To demonstrate the capability of our test, we test self-similarity of fractional Brownian motions and sheets, their time deformations and mixtures with Gaussian white noise, and the generalized Cauchy family. We also apply the self-similarity test to real data: annual minimum water levels of the Nile River, network traffic records, and surface heights of food wrappings. © 2016, International Biometric Society.

  9. Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Ockenfels, Axel

    2013-11-26

    Humans are attracted to similar others. As a consequence, social networks are homogeneous in sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and other characteristics--a principle called homophily. Despite abundant evidence showing the importance of interpersonal similarity and homophily for human relationships, their behavioral correlates and cognitive foundations are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceived similarity substantially increases altruistic punishment, a key mechanism underlying human cooperation. We induced (dis)similarity perception by manipulating basic cognitive mechanisms in an economic cooperation game that included a punishment phase. We found that similarity-focused participants were more willing to punish others' uncooperative behavior. This influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. Our findings demonstrate that pure similarity promotes reciprocity in ways known to encourage cooperation. At the same time, the increased willingness to punish norm violations among similarity-focused participants provides a rationale for why similar people are more likely to build stable social relationships. Finally, our findings show that altruistic punishment is differentially involved in encouraging cooperation under pure similarity vs. in-group conditions.

  10. Precise Wavelengths and Energy Levels for the Spectra of Cr I, Mn I, and Mn III, and Branching Fractions for the Spectra of Fe II and Cr II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Gillian

    I propose to measure wavelengths and energy levels for the spectra of Cr I, Mn I, and Mn III covering the wavelength range 80 nm to 5500 nm, and oscillator strengths for Fe II and Cr II in the region 120 nm to 2500 nm. I shall also produce intensity calibrated atlases and linelists of the iron-neon and chromium-neon hollow cathode lamps that can be compared with astrophysical spectra. The spectra will be obtained from archival data from spectrometers at NIST and Kitt Peak National Observatory and additional experimental observations as necessary from Fourier transform (FT) and grating spectrometers at NIST. The wavelength uncertainty of the strong lines will be better than 1 part in 10^7. The radiometric calibration of the spectra will be improved in order to reduce the uncertainty of measured oscillator strengths in the near UV region and extend the wavelength range of these measurements down to 120 nm. These will complement and support the measurements of lifetimes and branching fractions by J. E. Lawler in the near UV region. An intensive effort by NIST and Imperial College London that was partly funded by previous NASA awards has resulted in comprehensive analyses of the spectra of Fe II, Cr II and Cu II, with similar analyses of Mn II, Ni II, and Sc II underway. The species included in this proposal will complete the analysis of the first two ionization stages of the elements titanium through nickel using the same techniques, and add the spectrum of Mn III - one of the most important doubly-ionized elements. The elements Cr I and Mn I give large numbers of spectral lines in spectra of cool stars and important absorption lines in the interstellar medium. The spectrum of Mn III is important in chemically peculiar stars and can often only be studied in the UV region. Analyses of many stellar spectra depend on comprehensive analyses of iron-group elements and are hampered by incomplete spectroscopic data. As a result of many decades of work by the group at the

  11. Lineamientos metodológicos para incorporar la expresión plástica en el planeamiento escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Castro Bonilla

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se dirige especialmente a aquellos docentes que, sin poseer una formación idónea en el campo de la expresión plástica, desean incorporarla como parte de su metodología de trabajo. Conviene recordar que esta área no sólo se ofrece en algunas escuelas como una materia más dentro del curriculum escolar, sino también como un recurso didáctico que el docente puede utilizar como parte de su planeamiento cotidiano, por ello es fundamental su conocimiento y apreciación. Se espera que los lineamientos propuestos en el artículo ayuden al “maestro de grado” a desarrollar su propia sensibilidad, de manera que sus estudiantes puedan entrar en contacto con los contenidos presentes en las diversas áreas del curriculum escolar de manera lúdica, asimismo, le permita organizar y planificar lecciones agradables, de modo que los participantes en el proceso didáctico puedan disfrutar al máximo de la expresión plástica

  12. Ladrillos y placas prefabricadas con plásticos reciclados aptos para la autoconstrucción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gaggino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta publicación trata sobre una investigación llevada a cabo en el CEVE relativa a la fabricación de elementos constructivos utilizando materiales plásticos reciclados. La investigación ha logrado los siguientes objetivos: Tecnológico: desarrollar componentes de construcción livianos, de buena aislación térmica, y resistencia mecánica suficiente para cumplir la función de cerramiento lateral de viviendas. Ecológico: colaborar en la descontaminación del medio ambiente. Económico: abaratar costos en la producción de elementos constructivos para la vivienda de interés social. Social: poner en manos de auto-constructores la elaboración de los componentes constructivos. De género: desarrollar una tecnología constructiva apta para mujeres, por la liviandad de los componentes. Se utilizan como materia prima materiales reciclados plásticos, promoviendo el uso racional de recursos disponibles en lugar de enterrarlos, quemarlos o acumularlos en basureros al aire libre; aplicando procedimientos de elaboración que no son contaminantes del medio ambiente, por lo cual es una tecnología sustentable.

  13. Design de joias a partir de aspectos plásticos da dança conteporânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Paula Calegari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo consiste em mostrar de maneira objetiva e clara as etapas de desenvolvimento do projeto de uma coleção de joias a partir de aspectos plásticos da dança contemporânea. Para alcançar esse objetivo, foram realizadas pesquisas em torno do design de joias e a dança contemporânea, sendo utilizada como referência no processo criativo durante a projetação das peças. Desenvolveram-se alternativas de solução através de desenhos e traços de composição de referenciais plásticos da dança onde se procurou seguir uma linguagem visual uniforme nos esboços, a fim de materializá-los em modelos artesanais, com as características dos valores estéticos simbólicos da dança contemporânea.

  14. Podnikatelský plán pro založení franchisové prodejny

    OpenAIRE

    Musilová, Pavla

    2013-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá založením nové prodejny Fornetti Café fungující na bázi franchisingu. Úvodní část je zaměřena na teoretická východiska práce, základní pojmy a metody tvorby podnikatelského plánu. Analytická část hodnotí současný stav sítě a budoucího franchisanta. Závěrečná, praktická část práce obsahuje samotný návrh podnikatelského plánu pro založení franchisové provozovny. This master’s thesis deals with the establishment of a new Fornetti Café shop which is operating as ...

  15. Morfologia de Plântulas e Controle de Patógenos em Sementes de Cordia trichotoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Luis Pasquetti Berghetti

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo descrever morfologicamente o desenvolvimento das plântulas de Cordia trichotoma, determinar a influência dos tratamentos de semente e do substrato na redução da incidência de patógenos, assim como avaliar o potencial germinativo das sementes. O teste de sanidade foi realizado em esquema bifatorial 2 × 4 (dois tipos de beneficiamento e quatro tratamentos de sementes. O teste de germinação representou um esquema trifatorial 2 × 4 × 3 (dois beneficiamentos, quatro tratamentos de sementes e três substratos. O início da germinação ocorreu no 18° dia após a instalação do teste. A germinação das sementes é do tipo epígea, com plântula fanerocotiledonar. O percentual germinativo das sementes é superior quando é retirado todo o perianto, independentemente do substrato utilizado e do tratamento. O tratamento com Captan® reduziu a incidência de fungos dos gêneros Alternaria spp., Trichoderma spp., Rhizopus spp.

  16. Caracterización de micrositios para el establecimiento de plántulas de Espeletia uribei (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica María Gallego Maya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar si los micrositios de establecimiento están limitando el reclutamiento de las plántulas y la regeneración de Espeletia uribei, un frailejón endémico y valor objeto de conservación del Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, se evaluaron diez variables bióticas y abióticas dentro de micrositios con plántulas y micrositios vacíos. Las variables que más se relacionaron con el establecimiento fueron: la distancia al adulto reproductivo más cercano, el tipo de zona de luz “abierta” y la estructura de vegetación “herbácea” asociada. La distancia al adulto reproductivo más cercano dificulta que las semillas alcancen micrositios más alejados debido al tipo de dispersión primaria barócora de la especie. Zonas de luz “abiertas” y vegetación asociada herbácea condicionaron la capacidad de germinación y establecimiento de la especie. Los resultados mostraron que el reclutamiento de E. uribei está limitado por la disponibilidad de micrositios que reúnan estas condiciones, un factor que es importante considerar para el planteamiento de futuros proyectos de manejo para la conservación y restauración de las poblaciones de la especie.

  17. La apropiación de conocimientos a partir de la expresión plástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Castro Bonilla

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se reflexiona y se expone parte de los resultados de un trabajo investigativo referido a la apropiación de conocimientos mediante la expresión plástica, actividad en la que participaron docentes y estudiantes escolares pertenecientes a la modalidad educativa denominada “Aula Abierta”. Concluida la investigación, queda manifiesto que el estudio, la indagación, la reflexión y la búsqueda sistemática de conocimientos y formas de aprender y enseñar de parte del docente, son elementos fundamentales que propician cambios cualitativos en la formación académica de éste, lo que le permite llevar al aula formas innovadoras para lograr aprendizajes significativos en sus estudiantes. El diseño de situaciones de aprendizaje desde una perspectiva constructivista, holista y lúdica, así como el aprovechamiento de contextos, permitieron el logro de aprendizajes cognitivos, afectivos y psicomotores mediante la expresión de actividades plásticas, lo que le posibilita al joven el desarrollo de una personalidad integral

  18. Plágio acadêmico: a responsabilidade das associações científicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Cardoso Dalla Costa

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo faz uma análise da responsabilidade civil das associações científicas em relação ao plágio cometido por terceiros. Investiga de que forma essas associações podem ou não ser responsabilizadas por textos plagiados que lhe são apresentados e, consequentemente, publicados em seus websites. Propõe uma análise que relaciona o fenômeno das transformações sociais introduzidas pelas Tecnologias da Informação e da Comunicação – TICs, em especial a internet, com a legislação vigente de proteção aos direitos do autor. A partir daí, fundamenta a análise conceitual da responsabilidade civil e das teorias da culpa e do risco. Finalmente, analisa as mudanças nesta relação introduzidas pelas NTICs e as interpretações a ela dadas pelo Marco Civil da Internet, em vigor desde 2014. Como conclusão, aponta que tais associações – equiparadas a portais de conteúdo da internet – podem ser responsabilizadas objetivamente em caso de plágio, se quando notificadas judicialmente não retirarem de seus websites os textos plagiados.

  19. A fuzzy application on MICE hosting: An Iranian case study for locating suitable areas based on P.L Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Tabrizi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, countries compete to gain political, economic, social and cultural advantages. In addition, cities are trying to demonstrate their predominance on local and regional levels and achieve development by using managerial science. Meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibitions tourism (MICE hosting as a significant element of urban tourism is one of the effective methods to obtain urban development around the world. However, no specialized planning and independent investments in regard to these activities have been organized in Iran. Aiming to identify suitable areas in the northern part of Iran, the present research intends to recognize the necessary physical and location related (P.L indexes to perform the specialized activities of MICE tourism in this region. So at first, indispensable indicators to accept special role of MICE tourism are identified and then using GIS and fuzzy method, adapted areas are assigned. The result map shows that a ribbon-like area near the Caspian Sea with two wide lands at central and western parts is a proper choice to host MICE activities in the region from the viewpoint of P.L indexes.

  20. A multi-objective location-inventory model for 3PL providers with sustainable considerations under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Daghigh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, logistics development is considered as an important aspect of any country’s development. Outsourcing logistics activities to third party logistics (3PL providers is a common way to achieve logistics development. On the other hand, globalization and increasing customers’ concern about the environmental impact of activities as well as the appearance of the issue of social responsibility have led companies employ sustainable supply chain management, which considers economic, environmental and social benefits, simultaneously. This paper proposes a multi-objective model to design logistics network for 3PL providers by considering sustainable objectives under uncertainty. Objective functions include minimizing the total cost, minimizing greenhouse gas emission and maximizing social responsibility subject to fair access to products, number of created job opportunities and local community development. It is worth mentioning that in the present paper the perishability of products is also considered. A numerical example is provided to solve and validate model using augmented Epsilon-Constraint method. The results show that three sustainable objectives were in conflict and as the one receives more desirable values, the others fall into more undesirable values. In addition, by increasing maximum perishable time periods and by considering lateral transshipment among facilities of a level one can improve sustainability indices of the problem, which indicates the necessity of such policy in improving network sustainability.

  1. Cobertura plástica e densidade de plantio na qualidade das frutas de Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Abreu Moura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Physalis peruviana L. é uma espécie pertencente à família Solanaceae, que vem sendo incorporada em plantios de pequenas frutas, com alto potencial produtivo para regiões subtropicais. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a qualidade das frutas de P. peruviana L., produzidas com ou sem cobertura plástica sobre o dossel das plantas e em duas densidades de plantio (0,5 e 1,0 m entre plantas, sendo de 3,0 m o espaçamento entre linhas. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2, com seis blocos e dez plantas por parcela. Foram avaliadas as características qualitativas das frutas, como coloração, quantidade de antocianinas totais, vitamina C, cinzas, sólidos solúveis totais, sacarose, glicose, açúcares totais, acidez titulável, firmeza e umidade. A maior densidade de plantio e o plantio sem cobertura plástica sobre o dossel das plantas resultaram em melhor qualidade das frutas de P. peruviana L.

  2. Database-Driven Analyses of Astronomical Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cami, Jan

    2012-03-01

    species to the fullerene species C60 and C70 [4]. Given the large number and variety of molecules detected in space, molecular infrared spectroscopy can be used to study pretty much any astrophysical environment that is not too energetic to dissociate the molecules. At the lowest energies, it is interesting to note that molecules such as CN have been used to measure the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background (see e.g., Ref. 15). The great diagnostic potential of infrared molecular spectroscopy comes at a price though. Extracting the physical parameters from the observations requires expertise in knowing how various physical processes and instrumental characteristics play together in producing the observed spectra. In addition to the astronomical aspects, this often includes interpreting and understanding the limitations of laboratory data and quantum-chemical calculations; the study of the interaction of matter with radiation at microscopic scales (called radiative transfer, akin to ray tracing) and the effects of observing (e.g., smoothing and resampling) on the resulting spectra and possible instrumental effects (e.g., fringes). All this is not trivial. To make matters worse, observational spectra often contain many components, and might include spectral contributions stemming from very different physical conditions. Fully analyzing such observations is thus a time-consuming task that requires mastery of several techniques. And with ever-increasing rates of observational data acquisition, it seems clear that in the near future, some form of automation is required to handle the data stream. It is thus appealing to consider what part of such analyses could be done without too much human intervention. Two different aspects can be separated: the first step involves simply identifying the molecular species present in the observations. Once the molecular inventory is known, we can try to extract the physical parameters from the observed spectral properties. For both

  3. Effects of Space Weathering on Reflectance Spectra of Ureilites: First Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Gillis-Davis, J.; Cloutis, E.; Applin, D.; Takir, D.; Hibbitts, C.; Christoffersen, R.; Fries, M.; Klima, R.; Decker, S.

    2018-01-01

    Ureilites are differentiated meteorites (ultramafic rocks interpreted to be mantle residues) that contain as much carbon as the most carbon-rich carbonaceous chondrites (CCs). Reflectance spectra of ureilites are similar to those of some CCs. Hence, ureilitic asteroids may accidentally be categorized as primitive because their spectra could resemble those of C-complex asteroids, which are thought to be CC-like. We began spectral studies of progressively laser-weathered ureilites with the goals of predicting UV-VIS-IR spectra of ureilitic asteroids, and identifying features that could distinguish differentiated from primitive dark asteroids. Space weathering has not previously been studied for ureilites, and, based on space weathering studies of CCs and other C-rich materials, it could significantly alter their reflectance spectra.

  4. FAST INVERSION OF SOLAR Ca II SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively

  5. Tunneling spectra of graphene on copper unraveled

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xin; Stradi, Daniele; Liu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    mechanisms, etc. The interpretation of the spectra can be complicated, however. Specifically for graphene grown on copper, there have been conflicting reports of tunneling spectra. A clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the variability is desired. In this work, we have revealed that the root cause...... of the variability in tunneling spectra is the variation in graphene-substrate coupling under various experimental conditions, providing a salutary perspective on the important role of 2D material-substrate interactions. The conclusions are drawn from measured data and theoretical calculations for monolayer, AB......-stacked bilayer, and twisted bilayer graphene coexisting on the same substrates in areas with and without intercalated oxygen, demonstrating a high degree of consistency. The Van Hove singularities of the twisted graphene unambiguously indicate the Dirac energy between them, lending strong evidence to our...

  6. Rotational structure in molecular infrared spectra

    CERN Document Server

    di Lauro, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in infrared molecular spectroscopy have resulted in sophisticated theoretical and laboratory methods that are difficult to grasp without a solid understanding of the basic principles and underlying theory of vibration-rotation absorption spectroscopy. Rotational Structure in Molecular Infrared Spectra fills the gap between these recent, complex topics and the most elementary methods in the field of rotational structure in the infrared spectra of gaseous molecules. There is an increasing need for people with the skills and knowledge to interpret vibration-rotation spectra in many scientific disciplines, including applications in atmospheric and planetary research. Consequently, the basic principles of vibration-rotation absorption spectroscopy are addressed for contemporary applications. In addition to covering operational quantum mechanical methods, spherical tensor algebra, and group theoretical methods applied to molecular symmetry, attention is also given to phase conventions and their effe...

  7. Notions of similarity for systems biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Ron; Hoehndorf, Robert; Kacprowski, Tim; Knüpfer, Christian; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Systems biology models are rapidly increasing in complexity, size and numbers. When building large models, researchers rely on software tools for the retrieval, comparison, combination and merging of models, as well as for version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of 'similarity' may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here we survey existing methods for the comparison of models, introduce quantitative measures for model similarity, and discuss potential applications of combined similarity measures. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on a combination of different model aspects. The six aspects that we define as potentially relevant for similarity are underlying encoding, references to biological entities, quantitative behaviour, qualitative behaviour, mathematical equations and parameters and network structure. We argue that future similarity measures will benefit from combining these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways to mimic users' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Similar speaker recognition using nonlinear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J.P.; Kim, M.S.; Baek, I.C.; Kwon, Y.H.; Lee, K.S.; Chang, S.W.; Yang, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Speech features of the conventional speaker identification system, are usually obtained by linear methods in spectral space. However, these methods have the drawback that speakers with similar voices cannot be distinguished, because the characteristics of their voices are also similar in spectral space. To overcome the difficulty in linear methods, we propose to use the correlation exponent in the nonlinear space as a new feature vector for speaker identification among persons with similar voices. We show that our proposed method surprisingly reduces the error rate of speaker identification system to speakers with similar voices

  9. Discovery and introgression of the wild sunflower-derived novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl 19 in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z W; Ma, G J; Zhao, J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2017-01-01

    A new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 19 , was identified from wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414, introduced to confection sunflower, and genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414 exhibited resistance to downy mildew, which is one of the most destructive diseases to sunflower production globally. Evaluation of the 140 BC 1 F 2:3 families derived from the cross of CMS CONFSCLB1 and PI 435414 against Plasmopara halstedii race 734 revealed that a single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population. Bulked segregant analysis conducted in the BC 1 F 2 population with 860 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers indicated that the resistance derived from wild H. annuus was associated with SSR markers located on linkage group (LG) 4 of the sunflower genome. To map and tag this resistance locus, designated Pl 19 , 140 BC 1 F 2 individuals were used to construct a linkage map of the gene region. Two SSR markers, ORS963 and HT298, were linked to Pl 19 within a distance of 4.7 cM. After screening 27 additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers previously mapped to this region, two flanking SNP markers, NSA_003564 and NSA_006089, were identified as surrounding the Pl 19 gene at a distance of 0.6 cM from each side. Genetic analysis indicated that Pl 19 is different from Pl 17 , which had previously been mapped to LG4, but is closely linked to Pl 17 . This new gene is highly effective against the most predominant and virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in North America and is the first downy mildew resistance gene that has been transferred to confection sunflower. The selected resistant germplasm derived from homozygous BC 2 F 3 progeny provides a novel gene for use in confection sunflower breeding programs.

  10. FGF-2b and h-PL Transform Duct and Non-Endocrine Human Pancreatic Cells into Endocrine Insulin Secreting Cells by Modulating Differentiating Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Donadel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a multifactorial disease orphan of a cure. Regenerative medicine has been proposed as novel strategy for DM therapy. Human fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2b controls β-cell clusters via autocrine action, and human placental lactogen (hPL-A increases functional β-cells. We hypothesized whether FGF-2b/hPL-A treatment induces β-cell differentiation from ductal/non-endocrine precursor(s by modulating specific genes expression. Methods: Human pancreatic ductal-cells (PANC-1 and non-endocrine pancreatic cells were treated with FGF-2b plus hPL-A at 500 ng/mL. Cytofluorimetry and Immunofluorescence have been performed to detect expression of endocrine, ductal and acinar markers. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and annexin-V quantified cells proliferation and apoptosis. Insulin secretion was assessed by RIA kit, and electron microscopy analyzed islet-like clusters. Results: Increase in PANC-1 duct cells de-differentiation into islet-like aggregates was observed after FGF-2b/hPL-A treatment showing ultrastructure typical of islets-aggregates. These clusters, after stimulation with FGF-2b/hPL-A, had significant (p < 0.05 increase in insulin, C-peptide, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, somatostatin, glucagon, and glucose transporter 2 (Glut-2, compared with control cells. Markers of PANC-1 (Cytokeratin-19, MUC-1, CA19-9 were decreased (p < 0.05. These aggregates after treatment with FGF-2b/hPL-A significantly reduced levels of apoptosis. Conclusions: FGF-2b and hPL-A are promising candidates for regenerative therapy in DM by inducing de-differentiation of stem cells modulating pivotal endocrine genes.

  11. Observed and theoretical spectra in the 10-100 A interval. [of solar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. A.; Bruner, M. E.; Acton, L. W.

    1988-01-01

    The soft X-ray spectra recorded in two sounding-rocket flights in 1982 and 1985 are compared with predicted spectra. The processed densitometer trace of the full spectrum is presented, together with the new spectrum from the 1985 experiment. The intensities of the lines are then compared with predictions.

  12. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra; ESPECTROS BETA. I. Espectros simples de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A; Garcia-Torano, E

    1978-07-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  13. Algorithms for classification of astronomical object spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiewicz, P.; Szuppe, J.; Hryniewicz, K.

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining interesting celestial objects from tens of thousands or even millions of recorded optical-ultraviolet spectra depends not only on the data quality but also on the accuracy of spectra decomposition. Additionally rapidly growing data volumes demands higher computing power and/or more efficient algorithms implementations. In this paper we speed up the process of substracting iron transitions and fitting Gaussian functions to emission peaks utilising C++ and OpenCL methods together with the NOSQL database. In this paper we implemented typical astronomical methods of detecting peaks in comparison to our previous hybrid methods implemented with CUDA.

  14. Nonlinear FMR spectra in yttrium iron garnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Bunkov, P.M. Vetoshko, I.G. Motygullin, T.R. Safin, M.S. Tagirov, N.A. Tukmakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of demagnetizing effect studies in yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 thin films are reported. Experiments were performed on X-Band of electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer at room temperature. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR spectra were obtained for one-layer single crystal YIG films for different values of the applied microwave power. Nonlinear FMR spectra transformation by the microwave power increasing in various directions of magnetic field sweep was observed. It is explained by the influence of the demagnetization action of nonequilibrium magnons.

  15. Virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolynec, E.; Martins, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental results of an isochromat of the virtual photon spectrum, obtained by measuring the number of ground-state protons emitted by the 16.28 MeV isobaric analogue state in 90 Zr as a function of electron incident energy in the range 17-105 MeV, are compared with the values predicted by a calculation of the E1 DWBA virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei. It is found that the calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The DWBA virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei for E2 and M1 multipoles are also assessed. (author) [pt

  16. IUE Archival Spectra of 31 Cygni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woon Kang

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available UV light curve of 31 Cygni has been made from the IUE high dispersion spectra. The depth of primary minimum of the light curve is 5.2 magnitudes because the B4 star's steep spectral gradient. The light curve has been analyzed by the method of Wilson and Devinney Differential Correction (WD. The radial velocities have been measured using the Mg II h lines. The spectroscopic elements have been determined by the method of WD. The change of the Mg II resonance doublet has been investigated based on the eight representative spectra taken at well distributed orbital phases.

  17. What can we learn from inclusive spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, S.

    1981-05-01

    The present experimental status on single particle inclusive measurements is described. Then, the geometrical aspect of the collision is discussed from the data of total integrated cross sections of nuclear charge or mass. The dynamical aspect of the collision, especially that for the participating region is discussed in connection with proton spectra, composite fragment spectra, pion production, ratios of π - /π + , n/p and t/ 3 He, and production of strange particles. The spectator physics is described from the data on projectile fragments

  18. Photoacoustic spectra of rare earth pentaphosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strek, W.; Lukowiak, E.; Marchewka, M.; Ratajczak, H.

    1987-01-01

    The photoacoustic (PA) spectra of raee earth pentaphosphates of the general formula REP 5 O 14 , where RE = Pr,Nd,Ho,Er,Tm, are reported. The photoacoustic bands were identified and compared with the absorption spectra. For quantitative analysis of PA bands of lanthanide (III) ions, the intensity ratio vector is introduced characterizing the intensity distribution of f-f transitions. It was found that the relative intensities of photoacoustic bands are comparable with the intensities of absorption bands. It is concluded that the nonradiative relaxation mechanism leading to the PA signal is independent of the manifold-to-manifold J-J' radiationless transitions

  19. Self-similar transmission properties of aperiodic Cantor potentials in gapped graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Rogelio; Rodríguez-Vargas, Isaac; Díaz-Guerrero, Dan Sidney; Gaggero-Sager, Luis Manuel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the transmission properties of quasiperiodic or aperiodic structures based on graphene arranged according to the Cantor sequence. In particular, we have found self-similar behaviour in the transmission spectra, and most importantly, we have calculated the scalability of the spectra. To do this, we implement and propose scaling rules for each one of the fundamental parameters: generation number, height of the barriers and length of the system. With this in mind we have been able to reproduce the reference transmission spectrum, applying the appropriate scaling rule, by means of the scaled transmission spectrum. These scaling rules are valid for both normal and oblique incidence, and as far as we can see the basic ingredients to obtain self-similar characteristics are: relativistic Dirac electrons, a self-similar structure and the non-conservation of the pseudo-spin.

  20. Automated generation and ensemble-learned matching of X-ray absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chen; Mathew, Kiran; Chen, Chi; Chen, Yiming; Tang, Hanmei; Dozier, Alan; Kas, Joshua J.; Vila, Fernando D.; Rehr, John J.; Piper, Louis F. J.; Persson, Kristin A.; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2018-03-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a widely used materials characterization technique to determine oxidation states, coordination environment, and other local atomic structure information. Analysis of XAS relies on comparison of measured spectra to reliable reference spectra. However, existing databases of XAS spectra are highly limited both in terms of the number of reference spectra available as well as the breadth of chemistry coverage. In this work, we report the development of XASdb, a large database of computed reference XAS, and an Ensemble-Learned Spectra IdEntification (ELSIE) algorithm for the matching of spectra. XASdb currently hosts more than 800,000 K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) for over 40,000 materials from the open-science Materials Project database. We discuss a high-throughput automation framework for FEFF calculations, built on robust, rigorously benchmarked parameters. FEFF is a computer program uses a real-space Green's function approach to calculate X-ray absorption spectra. We will demonstrate that the ELSIE algorithm, which combines 33 weak "learners" comprising a set of preprocessing steps and a similarity metric, can achieve up to 84.2% accuracy in identifying the correct oxidation state and coordination environment of a test set of 19 K-edge XANES spectra encompassing a diverse range of chemistries and crystal structures. The XASdb with the ELSIE algorithm has been integrated into a web application in the Materials Project, providing an important new public resource for the analysis of XAS to all materials researchers. Finally, the ELSIE algorithm itself has been made available as part of veidt, an open source machine-learning library for materials science.

  1. Measuring neutron spectra in radiotherapy using the nested neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglieri, Robert, E-mail: robert.maglieri@mail.mcgill.ca; Evans, Michael; Seuntjens, Jan; Kildea, John [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H4A 3J1 (Canada); Licea, Angel [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5S9 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Out-of-field neutron doses resulting from photonuclear interactions in the head of a linear accelerator pose an iatrogenic risk to patients and an occupational risk to personnel during radiotherapy. To quantify neutron production, in-room measurements have traditionally been carried out using Bonner sphere systems (BSS) with activation foils and TLDs. In this work, a recently developed active detector, the nested neutron spectrometer (NNS), was tested in radiotherapy bunkers. Methods: The NNS is designed for easy handling and is more practical than the traditional BSS. Operated in current-mode, the problem of pulse pileup due to high dose-rates is overcome by measuring current, similar to an ionization chamber. In a bunker housing a Varian Clinac 21EX, the performance of the NNS was evaluated in terms of reproducibility, linearity, and dose-rate effects. Using a custom maximum-likelihood expectation–maximization algorithm, measured neutron spectra at various locations inside the bunker were then compared to Monte Carlo simulations of an identical setup. In terms of dose, neutron ambient dose equivalents were calculated from the measured spectra and compared to bubble detector neutron dose equivalent measurements. Results: The NNS-measured spectra for neutrons at various locations in a treatment room were found to be consistent with expectations for both relative shape and absolute magnitude. Neutron fluence-rate decreased with distance from the source and the shape of the spectrum changed from a dominant fast neutron peak near the Linac head to a dominant thermal neutron peak in the moderating conditions of the maze. Monte Carlo data and NNS-measured spectra agreed within 30% at all locations except in the maze where the deviation was a maximum of 40%. Neutron ambient dose equivalents calculated from the authors’ measured spectra were consistent (one standard deviation) with bubble detector measurements in the treatment room. Conclusions: The NNS may

  2. On self-similar Tolman models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The self-similar spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equation for the case of dust are identified. These form a subclass of the Tolman models. These self-similar models contain the solution recently presented by Chi [J. Math. Phys. 28, 1539 (1987)], thereby refuting the claim of having found a new solution to the Einstein field equations

  3. Mining Diagnostic Assessment Data for Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara; Hunt, Earl

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for mining multiple-choice assessment data for similarity of the concepts represented by the multiple choice responses. The resulting similarity matrix can be used to visualize the distance between concepts in a lower-dimensional space. This gives an instructor a visualization of the relative difficulty of concepts…

  4. Similarity indices I: what do they measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities

  5. Measuring transferring similarity via local information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Likang; Deng, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Recommender systems have developed along with the web science, and how to measure the similarity between users is crucial for processing collaborative filtering recommendation. Many efficient models have been proposed (i.g., the Pearson coefficient) to measure the direct correlation. However, the direct correlation measures are greatly affected by the sparsity of dataset. In other words, the direct correlation measures would present an inauthentic similarity if two users have a very few commonly selected objects. Transferring similarity overcomes this drawback by considering their common neighbors (i.e., the intermediates). Yet, the transferring similarity also has its drawback since it can only provide the interval of similarity. To break the limitations, we propose the Belief Transferring Similarity (BTS) model. The contributions of BTS model are: (1) BTS model addresses the issue of the sparsity of dataset by considering the high-order similarity. (2) BTS model transforms uncertain interval to a certain state based on fuzzy systems theory. (3) BTS model is able to combine the transferring similarity of different intermediates using information fusion method. Finally, we compare BTS models with nine different link prediction methods in nine different networks, and we also illustrate the convergence property and efficiency of the BTS model.

  6. On distributional assumptions and whitened cosine similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an interpretation of the whitened cosine similarity measure as a Bayes decision rule was proposed (C. Liu, "The Bayes Decision Rule Induced Similarity Measures,'' IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1086-1090, June 2007. This communication makes th...

  7. Self-Similar Traffic In Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jerjomins, R.; Petersons, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have shown that traffic in Ethernet and other wired networks is self-similar. This paper reveals that wireless network traffic is also self-similar and long-range dependant by analyzing big amount of data captured from the wireless router.

  8. Similarity Structure of Wave-Collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Similarity transformations of the cubic Schrödinger equation (CSE) are investigated. The transformations are used to remove the explicit time variation in the CSE and reduce it to differential equations in the spatial variables only. Two different methods for similarity reduction are employed and...

  9. Similarity indices I: what do they measure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities.

  10. Information filtering based on transferring similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Duo; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2009-07-01

    In this Brief Report, we propose an index of user similarity, namely, the transferring similarity, which involves all high-order similarities between users. Accordingly, we design a modified collaborative filtering algorithm, which provides remarkably higher accurate predictions than the standard collaborative filtering. More interestingly, we find that the algorithmic performance will approach its optimal value when the parameter, contained in the definition of transferring similarity, gets close to its critical value, before which the series expansion of transferring similarity is convergent and after which it is divergent. Our study is complementary to the one reported in [E. A. Leicht, P. Holme, and M. E. J. Newman, Phys. Rev. E 73, 026120 (2006)], and is relevant to the missing link prediction problem.

  11. Self-similar continued root approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.

    2012-01-01

    A novel method of summing asymptotic series is advanced. Such series repeatedly arise when employing perturbation theory in powers of a small parameter for complicated problems of condensed matter physics, statistical physics, and various applied problems. The method is based on the self-similar approximation theory involving self-similar root approximants. The constructed self-similar continued roots extrapolate asymptotic series to finite values of the expansion parameter. The self-similar continued roots contain, as a particular case, continued fractions and Padé approximants. A theorem on the convergence of the self-similar continued roots is proved. The method is illustrated by several examples from condensed-matter physics.

  12. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  13. Surf similarity and solitary wave runup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative to a previ...... functional dependence on their respective surf similarity parameters. Important equivalencies in the runup of sinusoidal and solitary waves are thus revealed.......The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative...... to a previous parameterization, which was not given in an explicit form. Good coherency with experimental (breaking) runup data is preserved with this simpler parameter. A recasting of analytical (nonbreaking) runup expressions for sinusoidal and solitary waves additionally shows that they contain identical...

  14. Similarity in Bilateral Isolated Internal Orbital Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Chang; Cox, Jacob T; Sanyal, Abanti; Mahoney, Nicholas R

    2018-04-13

    In evaluating patients sustaining bilateral isolated internal orbital fractures, the authors have observed both similar fracture locations and also similar expansion of orbital volumes. In this study, we aim to investigate if there is a propensity for the 2 orbits to fracture in symmetrically similar patterns when sustaining similar trauma. A retrospective chart review was performed studying all cases at our institution of bilateral isolated internal orbital fractures involving the medial wall and/or the floor at the time of presentation. The similarity of the bilateral fracture locations was evaluated using the Fisher's exact test. The bilateral expanded orbital volumes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to assess for orbital volume similarity. Twenty-four patients with bilateral internal orbital fractures were analyzed for fracture location similarity. Seventeen patients (70.8%) had 100% concordance in the orbital subregion fractured, and the association between the right and the left orbital fracture subregion locations was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Fifteen patients were analyzed for orbital volume similarity. The average orbital cavity volume was 31.2 ± 3.8 cm on the right and 32.0 ± 3.7 cm on the left. There was a statistically significant difference between right and left orbital cavity volumes (P = 0.0026). The data from this study suggest that an individual who suffers isolated bilateral internal orbital fractures has a statistically significant similarity in the location of their orbital fractures. However, there does not appear to be statistically significant similarity in the expansion of the orbital volumes in these patients.

  15. [Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2010-02-01

    A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and

  16. Propriedade de barreira à umidade de embalagens plásticas para produtos oftálmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Balan Mendoza Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades de barreira à umidade de embalagens plásticas para produtos oftálmicos de capacidade nominal de 20 mL e terminação 15 mm nos formatos cilíndrico e oval, de diferentes composições (100% Polietileno de Baixa Densidade (PEBD, 100% Polipropileno (PP e blendas com percentuais 10% e 40% de Polietileno de Alta Densidade (PEAD em PEBD, foram estudadas neste trabalho. Foi verificada também a influência do batoque gotejador (de maior ou menor orifício de dosagem e a influência do fechamento na taxa de transmissão de vapor d’água. O trabalho foi conduzido sob duas condições de estocagem a 25 ºC/40% UR e a 40 ºC/75% UR. Verificou-se que o diâmetro do orifício gotejador não interferiu significativamente na perda de peso da embalagem avaliada a 25 ºC/40% UR. Sob a condição de estocagem a 40 ºC/75% UR verificouse um aumento da taxa de transmissão de vapor d’água das embalagens comparativamente as mesmas embalagens avaliadas a 25 ºC/40% UR. O sistema de fechamento não favoreceu um acréscimo significativo da taxa de transmissão de vapor d’água, o que indica que a permeação ocorreu principalmente através do corpo da embalagem plástica. A propriedade de barreira foi influenciada pela composição da embalagem plástica chegando a uma redução média de 47% na taxa de transmissão de vapor d’água para a embalagem de PEBD com 40% PEAD em relação à embalagem com 100% PEBD de formato cilíndrico. Verificou-se ainda que o formato oval, por apresentar uma maior área superficial exposta comparativamente à embalagem de formato cilíndrico, com regiões de menor espessura de parede, pode favorecer um ligeiro aumento da taxa de transmissão de vapor d’água da embalagem.

  17. Efecto del NaCl en plántulas de curarí (Tabebuia serratifolia en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Ramírez

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del cloruro de sodio (NaCl durante la germinación y el desarrollo inicial de las plántulas de curarí (Tabebuia serratifolia, en condiciones de laboratorio. Las semillas se colocaron en cinco concentraciones de NaCl: 2, 4, 6, 8 y 10 dS m-1, y en agua destilada (testigo, con una conductividad eléctrica entre 0,02 y 0,04 dS m-1. Se empleó un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con cinco repeticiones, y se aplicó un análisis de varianza. Se determinó el porcentaje de germinación (PG y la tasa de germinación (TG; y se midió la longitud del tallo (LT, la longitud de la raíz (LR, el área cotiledonal (AC, la biomasa fresca (BF y la biomasa seca (BS. La concentración de NaCl mostró efectos significativos para las variables PG, TG, BS, LT, LR y AC. Se obtuvo un 79,6 % de germinación y una TG de 1,66 días, cuando las semillas se sometieron a 6 dS m-1 de NaCl. Las concentraciones de 8 y 10 dS m-1 disminuyeron significativamente el PG, la LT y el AC de las plántulas, y retardaron la TG. Se concluye que las plántulas de curarí mostraron tolerancia a la condición salina del NaCl hasta 6 dS m-1, por lo que esta especie se puede utilizar con fines agroforestales en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria, así como en la recuperación de áreas que presenten problemas moderados de salinidad.

  18. Importancia de la cachaza como sustrato en la producción de plántulas de hortalizas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengifo Juán C.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The present work intented to find the optime relation in mixture of filter press cake of sugar cane-botton fly ash. These mixtures provide a better conditions for the production of seedling of tomato and pepper. With the actual situation and conditions of the horticultural sector, there is the need to look for a new a cheap sustrate that fulfill the needs as good physicochemical conditions and with not bad effects on the environment. From the 26 treatments evaluated the T 10: filter press cake 75% y botton fly ash 25% it the one which showed the best conditions given the best results from all. The mixture with soil only showed positive result when the filter press cake was mix with ashes and soil where the filter press cake was over the 50% of the mixture. It is recomended the use of the relations cachaza 75%, botton fly ash 25%, as an alternative for the production of seedling of tomatoes and pepper.

    Entre 1991-II y 1992-I se investigó el comportamiento de la cachaza mezclada con ceniza de carbón coke y tres tipos de suelos como sustratos para la producción de plántulas de tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum Mili, y Pimentón, Capsicum annuum L., como alternativa a los sistemas de trasplante de raíz desnuda actualmente utilizados. De los 26 tratamientos evaluados el T10 (cachaza 75%-Ceniza 25% presentó las mejores condiciones, dada su respuesta significativamente alta en todos los parámetros evaluados para calidad de las plántulas de las dos especies. Las mejores respuestas con suelo, se registraron cuando se mezclaron dos componentes (cachaza ceniza y cuando el nivel de cachaza estuvo por encima del 50% Se recomienda la utilización 75% de cachaza y 25% ceniza como alternativa para producción de plántulas de tomate y pimentón, en regiones de alta disponibilidad de estos materiales.

  19. MICROSTRUCTURE FEATURES OF CHROME-NICKEL COATING WELDED WITH FILLER WIRE PL AN-111 WITH A 50% OVERLAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Belik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper involves investigation of microstructure features of the coating welded with filler wire PL AN-111 with a 50% beads overlap. Methodology. Wear-resistant layer was formed by means of electric arc deposit welding using filler wire PL AN-111 on the plate from steel 09G2S. Deposit welding was conducted under the following parameters: welding current is of 650-750 A; arc voltage is of 30-34 V; welding speed is of 32 m/h. Microstructure was researched with application of optical microscopies “Neophot-21”, “Nikon Eclipse M200” and electron scanning microscopy JEOL JSM-6510 LV. Microhardness of structural constituentswas measuredwithtesterFM-300 (Future-Tech under loading of 10-50 g. Findings. It is shown that the overlap of the beads leads to the formation of inhomogeneous microstructure in the cross section that varies by zones from free-carbide austenite to hypereutectic microstructure with primary chromium carbides. The analysis of the microhardness of the structural constituents in various coating areas was carried out. It was found that hardness of austenite, carbide eutectic and carbides M7C3 varies in coatings in the range of 3 100-3 850 МPа, 4 100-6 800 МPа and 12 100-15 100 МPа, accordingly. Originality. Authors determined that Cr-Ni coating comprises substantially austenitic-carbide eutectic with different density and thickness of carbide fibers within eutectic colonies. Along the border “base/coating” a single-phase austenitic layer lies which turns into a layer with a hypoeutectic structure. In the heat affected zone from beads fusion austenite disintegration with the granular carbides formation was recorded. This leads to decreasing of matrix corrosion resistance due to chromium depletion. Above the zone of beads fusion, the coating has a hypereutectic structure with the presence of large primary chromium carbides. Practical value. It is shown that deposit welding with filler wire PL AN-111 with a 50

  20. Potencial produtivo de videiras cultivadas sob cobertura de plástico Yield potential of grapevine cultivated under plastic cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do uso de cobertura de plástico sobre os componentes do rendimento da videira (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. O experimento foi realizado nas safras 2005/2006 e 2006/2007, em Flores da Cunha, RS, em duas áreas de vinhedo, uma com cobertura de plástico impermeável e outra sem cobertura (controle. O microclima foi avaliado quanto à temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e velocidade do vento próximo ao dossel vegetativo e a os cachos. A avaliação dos componentes de rendimento ocorreu em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, e foram identificadas dez plantas marcadas aleatoriamente em cada área. Avaliaram-se a produção por planta e por hectare, o número de cachos por planta e por metro quadrado, o número de sarmentos por metro quadrado, a massa e comprimento de cacho, a massa de engaço, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro transversal de bagas e a relação entre massa de película e massa de polpa. Acobertura de plástico possibilita aumento na produtividade, não afeta a relação entre massa de casca e massa de polpa das bagas e favorece a estabilidade de produção, independentemente das condições meteorológicas no ciclo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of plastic cover on the yield components of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. The experiment was carried out in 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 crop seasons, in Flores da Cunha, RS, Brazil, in two vineyard areas, one covered with an impermeable plastic film and other without covering (control. The microclimate was evaluated in terms of air temperature, air relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation and wind speed above canopy and close to clusters. The yield components were evaluated in a completely randomized design, in ten plants randomly selected in each area. Measures were made for production per plant, yield per

  1. Comparison of the Incorporation of DHA in Circulatory and Neural Tissue When Provided as Triacylglycerol (TAG), Monoacylglycerol (MAG) or Phospholipids (PL) Provides New Insight into Fatty Acid Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destaillats, Frédéric; Oliveira, Manuel; Bastic Schmid, Viktoria; Masserey-Elmelegy, Isabelle; Giuffrida, Francesca; Thakkar, Sagar K; Dupuis, Lénaïck; Gosoniu, Maria Laura; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina

    2018-05-15

    Phospholipids (PL) or partial acylglycerols such as sn -1(3)-monoacylglycerol (MAG) are potent dietary carriers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and have been reported to provide superior bioavailability when compared to conventional triacylglycerol (TAG). The main objective of the present study was to compare the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma, erythrocytes, retina and brain tissues in adult rats when provided as PL (PL-DHA) and MAG (MAG-DHA). Conventional dietary DHA oil containing TAG (TAG-DHA) as well as control chow diet were used to evaluate the potency of the two alternative DHA carriers over a 60-day feeding period. Fatty acid profiles were determined in erythrocytes and plasma lipids at time 0, 7, 14, 28, 35 and 49 days of the experimental period and in retina, cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus at 60 days. The assessment of the longitudinal evolution of DHA in erythrocyte and plasma lipids suggest that PL-DHA and MAG-DHA are efficient carriers of dietary DHA when compared to conventional DHA oil (TAG-DHA). Under these experimental conditions, both PL-DHA and MAG-DHA led to higher incorporations of DHA erythrocytes lipids compared to TAG-DHA group. After 60 days of supplementation, statistically significant increase in DHA level incorporated in neural tissues analyzed were observed in the DHA groups compared with the control. The mechanism explaining hypothetically the difference observed in circulatory lipids is discussed.

  2. Analysis of COSIMA spectra: Bayesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Lehto

    2015-06-01

    secondary ion mass spectrometer (TOF-SIMS spectra. The method is applied to the COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA TOF-SIMS mass spectra where the analysis can be broken into subgroups of lines close to integer mass values. The effects of the instrumental dead time are discussed in a new way. The method finds the joint probability density functions of measured line parameters (number of lines, and their widths, peak amplitudes, integrated amplitudes and positions. In the case of two or more lines, these distributions can take complex forms. The derived line parameters can be used to further calibrate the mass scaling of TOF-SIMS and to feed the results into other analysis methods such as multivariate analyses of spectra. We intend to use the method, first as a comprehensive tool to perform quantitative analysis of spectra, and second as a fast tool for studying interesting targets for obtaining additional TOF-SIMS measurements of the sample, a property unique to COSIMA. Finally, we point out that the Bayesian method can be thought of as a means to solve inverse problems but with forward calculations, only with no iterative corrections or other manipulation of the observed data.

  3. Vibrational spectra for hydrogenated amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitakahara, W.A.; Bouchard, A.M.; Biswas, R.; Gompf, F.; Suck, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogen vibration spectra have been measured by neutron scattering for several amorphous semiconductor materials, including a-Ge:H and a-SiC:H samples containing about 10 at. % H. The data for a-Ge:H are compared in detail with the results of realistic computer simulations

  4. RAMAN-SPECTRA OF HUMAN DENTAL CALCULUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TSUDA, H; ARENDS, J

    1993-01-01

    Raman spectra of human dental calculus have been observed for the first time by use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The spectral features of calculus were influenced easily by heating caused by laser irradiation. Therefore, the measurements were carried out at relatively low power (5 mW, 1-mu m spot

  5. Automatic analysis of charged particle spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seres, Z.; Kiss, A.

    1975-11-01

    A computer program system is developed for off-line automatic analysis of a series of charged particle spectra measured by solid-state detectors and collected on magnetic tapes. The procedure results in complete angular distributions for the excited levels of the final nucleus up to about 15 MeV. (orig.) [de

  6. An adaptive method for γ spectra smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Gang; Zhou Chunlin; Li Tiantuo; Han Feng; Di Yuming

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive wavelet method and multinomial fitting gliding method are used for smoothing γ spectra, respectively, and then FWHM of 1332 keV peak of 60 Co and activities of 238 U standard specimen are calculated. Calculated results show that adaptive wavelet method is better than the other

  7. INTRAMOLECULAR ISOTOPE EFFECTS IN HYDROCARBON MASS SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, D. P.; Schachtschneider, J. H.

    1963-07-15

    Approximate calculations based on the quasi-equilibrium rate theory of the origin of mass spectra are shown to lead to an approximately correct magnitude for the intramolecular ( pi /sup -/) isotope effect on C--H bond dissociation probabilities of various deuterohydrocarbons. (auth)

  8. Library search with regular reflectance IR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staat, H.; Korte, E.H.; Lampen, P.

    1989-01-01

    Characterisation in situ for coatings and other surface layers is generally favourable, but a prerequisite for precious items such as art objects. In infrared spectroscopy only reflection techniques are applicable here. However for attenuated total reflection (ATR) it is difficult to obtain the necessary optical contact of the crystal with the sample, when the latter is not perfectly plane or flexible. The measurement of diffuse reflectance demands a scattering sample and usually the reflectance is very poor. Therefore in most cases one is left with regular reflectance. Such spectra consist of dispersion-like feature instead of bands impeding their interpretation in the way the analyst is used to. Furthermore for computer search in common spectral libraries compiled from transmittance or absorbance spectra a transformation of the reflectance spectra is needed. The correct conversion is based on the Kramers-Kronig transformation. This somewhat time - consuming procedure can be speeded up by using appropriate approximations. A coarser conversion may be obtained from the first derivative of the reflectance spectrum which resembles the second derivative of a transmittance spectrum. The resulting distorted spectra can still be used successfully for the search in peak table libraries. Experiences with both transformations are presented. (author)

  9. Chaotic spectra: How to extract dynamic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.S.; Gomez Llorente, J.M.; Zakrzewski, J.; Kulander, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    Nonlinear dynamics is applied to chaotic unassignable atomic and molecular spectra with the aim of extracting detailed information about regular dynamic motions that exist over short intervals of time. It is shown how this motion can be extracted from high resolution spectra by doing low resolution studies or by Fourier transforming limited regions of the spectrum. These motions mimic those of periodic orbits (PO) and are inserts into the dominant chaotic motion. Considering these inserts and the PO as a dynamically decoupled region of space, resonant scattering theory and stabilization methods enable us to compute ladders of resonant states which interact with the chaotic quasi-continuum computed in principle from basis sets placed off the PO. The interaction of the resonances with the quasicontinuum explains the low resolution spectra seen in such experiments. It also allows one to associate low resolution features with a particular PO. The motion on the PO thereby supplies the molecular movements whose quantization causes the low resolution spectra. Characteristic properties of the periodic orbit based resonances are discussed. The method is illustrated on the photoabsorption spectrum of the hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field and on the photodissociation spectrum of H 3 + . Other molecular systems which are currently under investigation using this formalism are also mentioned. 53 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Polarization Spectra of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present simulated spectra of the flux and degree of polarization of starlight that is reflected by extrasolar giant planets (EGPs). In particular the polarization depends strongly on the structure of the planetary atmosphere, and appears to be a valuable tool for the characterization of EGPs.

  11. Temperatures of fragment kinetic energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.

    1995-01-01

    Multifragmentation reactions without large compression in the initial state (proton-induced reactions, reverse kinematics, projectile fragmentation) are examined, and it is verified quantitatively that the high temperatures obtained from fragment kinetic energy spectra and lower temperatures obtained from observables such as level population or isotope ratios can be understood in a common framework

  12. A comparison of floor response spectra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, M.J.; Galford, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Floor response spectra (FRS) conventionally have been generated using a time-history method. Babcock and Wilcox has developed a new technique, the Fast Floor Response Spectra (FFRS) method, in which dynamic analyses are done entirely in the frequency domain. This paper compares the two techniques and demonstrates that the FFRS method complies with the 'equivalency' and 'conservatism' requirements of the US NRC's Standard Review Plan. The upper end of a once-through steam generator in the B and W 205 nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) was used to demonstrate that the FFRS method is equivalent to the time-history technique. The two techniques were compared with respect to frequency content and magnitude of response for a given point on the structure. First, the specified forcing function was described in terms of an acceleration time history and an acceleration spectra enveloping that time history. The time-history forcing function was then used in a direct transient analysis to determine the response at the specified point on the NSSS. The resultant response was subsequently converted to a floor response spectra for that point. To show that the FFRS method gave equivalent and conservative results, the FFRS technique was used to determine the modal response directly from the spectral description of the forcing function. The FFRS- and time-history-generated data agreed to within 13 (worst case on conservative side) of each other with the former cutting analytical costs by 99%. (orig./HP)

  13. Mass Spectra of Tetraselenafulvalenes, Diselenadithiafulvalenes and Tetrathiafulvalenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1978-01-01

    fragmentation of the molecular ion, as the selenium fulvalenes lose an alkyne molecule, whereas the sulphur fulvalenes first lose an (SĊR) radical. An important feature of the spectra of the simple heterofulvalenes is the formation of a rearrangement ion by migration of a heteroatom. The mechanism...

  14. Analysis of low-intensity scintillation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muravsky, V.; Tolstov, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    The maximum likelihood algorithms for nuclides activities estimation from low intensity scintillation γ-ray spectra have been created. The algorithms treat full energy peaks and Compton parts of spectra, and they are more effective than least squares estimators. The factors that could lead to the bias of activity estimates are taken into account. Theoretical analysis of the problem of choosing the optimal set of initial spectra for the spectrum model to minimize errors of the activities estimation has been carried out for the general case of the N-components with Gaussian or Poisson statistics. The obtained criterion allows to exclude superfluous initial spectra of nuclides from the model. A special calibration procedure for scintillation γ-spectrometers has been developed. This procedure is required for application of the maximum likelihood activity estimators processing all the channels of the scintillation γ-spectrum, including the Compton part. It allows one to take into account the influence of the sample mass density variation. The algorithm for testing the spectrum model adequacy to the processed scintillation spectrum has been developed. The algorithms are realized in Borland Pascal 7 as a library of procedures and functions. The developed library is compatible with Delphi 1.0 and higher versions. It can be used as the algorithmic basis for analysis of highly sensitive scintillation γ- and β-spectrometric devices. (author)

  15. Ultraviolet spectra of Mg in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Y.; Morita, N.

    1999-01-01

    Emission and absorption spectra of Mg atoms implanted in liquid helium have been observed in the ultraviolet region. We have presented a model of exciplex formation of Mg-He 10 and found that this model is more suitable for understanding the dynamics in the 3s3p 1 P→3s 21 S transition than the bubble model. (orig.)

  16. Raman spectra of lignin model compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Ashok K. Pandey; Sally A. Ralph; Kolby C. Hirth; Rajai H. Atalla

    2005-01-01

    To fully exploit the value of Raman spectroscopy for analyzing lignins and lignin containing materials, a detailed understanding of lignins’ Raman spectra needs to be achieved. Although advances made thus far have led to significant growth in application of Raman techniques, further developments are needed to improve upon the existing knowledge. Considering that lignin...

  17. Nuclear Neutrino Spectra in Late Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, G. Wendell; Sun, Yang; Fuller, George

    2018-05-01

    Neutrinos are the principle carriers of energy in massive stars, beginning from core carbon burning and continuing through core collapse and after the core bounce. In fact, it may be possible to detect neutrinos from nearby pre-supernova stars. Therefore, it is of great interest to understand the neutrino energy spectra from these stars. Leading up to core collapse, beginning around core silicon burning, nuclei become dominant producers of neutrinos, particularly at high neutrino energy, so a systematic study of nuclear neutrino spectra is desirable. We have done such a study, and we present our sd-shell model calculations of nuclear neutrino energy spectra for nuclei in the mass number range A = 21 - 35. Our study includes neutrinos produced by charged lepton capture, charged lepton emission, and neutral current nuclear deexcitation. Previous authors have tabulated the rates of charged current nuclear weak interactions in astrophysical conditions, but the present work expands on this not only by providing neutrino energy spectra, but also by including the heretofore untabulated neutral current de-excitation neutrino pairs.

  18. Variations on supersymmetry breaking and neutrino spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzumati, F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Nomura, Y.; Yanagida, T.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of generating light neutrinos within supersymmetric models is discussed. It is shown that the hierarchy of scales induced by supersymmetry breaking can give rise to suppression factors of the correct order of magnitude to produce experimentally allowed neutrino spectra

  19. Autonomous System Design for Moessbauer Spectra Acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, A. L.; Zuluaga, J.; Cely, A.; Tobon, J.

    2001-01-01

    An autonomous system for Moessbauer spectroscopy based in a microcontroller has been designed. A timer of the microcontroller was used to generate the control signal for the Moessbauer linear motor, and a counter for the spectra acquisition. Additionally, the system has its own memory for data storage and a serial port to transmit the data to a computer for its later processing and display

  20. Fitting PAC spectra with a hybrid algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M. A., E-mail: mauro@sepn.org [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (Brazil); Carbonari, A. W., E-mail: carbonar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    A hybrid algorithm (HA) that blends features of genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) was implemented for simultaneous fits of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectra. The main characteristic of the HA is the incorporation of a selection criterion based on SA into the basic structure of GA. The results obtained with the HA compare favorably with fits performed with conventional methods.

  1. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  2. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-03-21

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users\\' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  3. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-09-07

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider the case of trajectory similarity join (TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Thus, given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. This join targets applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm\\'s per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  4. The baryonic self similarity of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alard, C.

    2014-01-01

    The cosmological simulations indicates that dark matter halos have specific self-similar properties. However, the halo similarity is affected by the baryonic feedback. By using momentum-driven winds as a model to represent the baryon feedback, an equilibrium condition is derived which directly implies the emergence of a new type of similarity. The new self-similar solution has constant acceleration at a reference radius for both dark matter and baryons. This model receives strong support from the observations of galaxies. The new self-similar properties imply that the total acceleration at larger distances is scale-free, the transition between the dark matter and baryons dominated regime occurs at a constant acceleration, and the maximum amplitude of the velocity curve at larger distances is proportional to M 1/4 . These results demonstrate that this self-similar model is consistent with the basics of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) phenomenology. In agreement with the observations, the coincidence between the self-similar model and MOND breaks at the scale of clusters of galaxies. Some numerical experiments show that the behavior of the density near the origin is closely approximated by a Einasto profile.

  5. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Henkel, Ron; Hoehndorf, Robert; Kacprowski, Tim; Knuepfer, Christian; Liebermeister, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  6. Cloud4Psi: cloud computing for 3D protein structure similarity searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek, Dariusz; Małysiak-Mrozek, Bożena; Kłapciński, Artur

    2014-10-01

    Popular methods for 3D protein structure similarity searching, especially those that generate high-quality alignments such as Combinatorial Extension (CE) and Flexible structure Alignment by Chaining Aligned fragment pairs allowing Twists (FATCAT) are still time consuming. As a consequence, performing similarity searching against large repositories of structural data requires increased computational resources that are not always available. Cloud computing provides huge amounts of computational power that can be provisioned on a pay-as-you-go basis. We have developed the cloud-based system that allows scaling of the similarity searching process vertically and horizontally. Cloud4Psi (Cloud for Protein Similarity) was tested in the Microsoft Azure cloud environment and provided good, almost linearly proportional acceleration when scaled out onto many computational units. Cloud4Psi is available as Software as a Service for testing purposes at: http://cloud4psi.cloudapp.net/. For source code and software availability, please visit the Cloud4Psi project home page at http://zti.polsl.pl/dmrozek/science/cloud4psi.htm. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure.

  8. Similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Pelillo, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This accessible text/reference presents a coherent overview of the emerging field of non-Euclidean similarity learning. The book presents a broad range of perspectives on similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition methods, from purely theoretical challenges to practical, real-world applications. The coverage includes both supervised and unsupervised learning paradigms, as well as generative and discriminative models. Topics and features: explores the origination and causes of non-Euclidean (dis)similarity measures, and how they influence the performance of traditional classification alg

  9. Savannah River Site disaggregated seismic spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, D.E.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this technical note is to characterize seismic ground motion at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by postulated earthquakes that may impact facilities at the site. This task is accomplished by reviewing the deterministic and probabilistic assessments of the seismic hazard to establish the earthquakes that control the hazard to establish the earthquakes that control the hazard at the site and then evaluate the associated seismic ground motions in terms of response spectra. For engineering design criteria of earthquake-resistant structures, response spectra serve the function of characterizing ground motions as a function of period or frequency. These motions then provide the input parameters that are used in the analysis of structural response. Because they use the maximum response, the response spectra are an inherently conservative design tool. Response spectra are described in terms of amplitude, duration, and frequency content, and these are related to source parameters, travel path, and site conditions. Studies by a number of investigators have shown by statistical analysis that for different magnitudes the response spectrum values are different for differing periods. These facts support Jennings' position that using different shapes of design spectra for earthquakes of different magnitudes and travel paths is a better practice than employing a single, general-purpose shape. All seismic ground motion characterization results indicate that the PGA is controlled by a local event with M w < 6 and R < 30km. The results also show that lower frequencies are controlled by a larger, more distant event, typically the Charleston source. The PGA of 0.2 g, based originally on the Blume study, is consistent with LLNL report UCRL-15910 (1990) and with the DOE position on LLNL/EPRI

  10. Improving interpretation of infrared spectra for OM characterization by subtraction of spectra from incinerated samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Gerke, Horst H.; Leue, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Non-destructive methods such as diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) have been applied to characterize organic matter (OM) at intact structural surfaces among others. However, it is often difficult to distinguish effects of organic components on DRIFT signal intensities from those of mineral components. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate DRIFT spectra from intact earthworm burrow walls and coated cracks to improve the interpretation of C-H and C=O bands. We compared DRIFT and transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of entire samples that were from the same pedogenetic soil horizon, but different in mineral composition and texture (i.e., glacial till versus loess). Spectra of incinerated samples were subtracted from the original spectra. Transmission FTIR and DRIFT spectra were almost identical for entire soil samples. However, the DRIFT spectra were affected by the bulk mode bands (i.e., wavenumbers 2000 to 1700 cm-1) that affected spectral resolution and reproducibility. The ratios between C-H and C=O band intensities as indicator for OM quality obtained with DRIFT were smaller than those obtained from transmission FTIR. A spectral subtraction procedure was found to reduce effects of mineral absorption bands on DRIFT spectra allowing an improved interpretation. DRIFT spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for analyzing OM composition at intact surfaces in structured soils could be calibrated with information obtained with the more detailed transmission FTIR and complementary methods.

  11. COMPOSITIONAL SIMILARITIES AND DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN TITAN’S EVAPORITIC TERRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, S. M.; Barnes, Jason W., E-mail: mack3108@vandals.uidaho.edu [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-0903 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    We document the similarities in composition between the equatorial basins Tui Regio, Hotei Regio, and other 5-μm-bright materials, notably the north polar evaporites, by investigating the presence and extent of an absorption feature at 4.92 μm. In most observations, Woytchugga Lacuna, Ontario Lacus, MacKay Lacus, deposits near Fensal, some of the lakes and dry lake beds south of Ligeia, and the southern shores of Kraken Mare share the absorption feature at 4.92 μm observed in the spectra of Tui and Hotei. Besides Woytchugga and at Fensal, these 5-μm-bright deposits are geomorphologically substantiated evaporites. Thus, the similarity in composition strengthens the hypothesis that Tui and Hotei once contained liquid. Other evaporite deposits, however, do not show the 4.92 μm absorption, notably Muggel Lacus and the shores of Ligeia Mare at the north pole. This difference in composition suggests that there is more than one kind of soluble material in Titan’s lakes that can create evaporite and/or that the surface properties at the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer wavelength scale are not uniform between the different deposits (crystal size, abundance, etc.). Our results indicate that the surface structure, composition, and formation history of Titan’s evaporites may be at least as dynamic and complex as their Earth counterparts.

  12. Study of the photoexcited carrier dynamics in InP:Fe using time-resolved reflection and photoluminescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shihua; Li Xi; Lu Fang

    2004-01-01

    The photoexcited carrier dynamics and photoluminescence of the undoped InP and Fe implanted InP was studied by time-resolved reflection and photoluminescence spectra. The decay times of reflection recovery and the radiative recombination for Fe implanted InP are shorter than those of undoped InP. Considering the surface recombination, a model was developed to simulate the reflection recovery dynamics, it agrees with the experimental results very well. Moreover, we obtained the ambipolar diffusion coefficient and the surface recombination velocity by using the model. For Fe-doped InP, the surface recombination velocity is much larger than that for the undoped InP, which is probably due to Fe 2+/3+ trapping centers and the large surface band bending. The PL decay time for Fe implanted InP is shorter than that for undoped InP, which is ascribed to the capture centers introduced by metallic precipitates

  13. La cirugía plástica y su labor humanitaria en México

    OpenAIRE

    A. Vallarta-Rodríguez; J.M. Morales-Olivera; A. Duarte y Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    La mayoría del gasto público en salud en México se enfoca hacia las patologías causantes de la mayor mortalidad: enfermedades circulatorias, metabólicas y neoplasias. Así pues, las malformaciones congénitas, secuelas de quemaduras o secuelas de cáncer, no se encuentran al alcance de la población que vive en pobreza. Es por ello que desde hace más de 50 años se iniciaron en nuestro país las Cirugías Extramuros y en el 2012 se creó la Fundación para Asistencia e Investigación en Cirugía Plástic...

  14. Insulina e glicose como moduladores do desenvolvimento de plântulas de milho doce (Su1)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Júnior, Luiz Fernando Ganassali; Bressan-Smith, Ricardo; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio de; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Silva, Luciana Belarmindo; Viana, Leandro Hespanhol; Vieira, Henrique Duarte

    2009-01-01

    Durante a germinação e o desenvolvimento pós-germinativo de milho, o fluxo metabólico é intenso, ocorrendo síntese e degradação de açúcares (glicose, frutose e sacarose) e hidrólise de amido, além da redução da concentração do ácido abscísico (ABA). Acredita-se que altas concentrações de glicose exógena, promovam acúmulo de ABA, proporcionando atraso na germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas. Concentrações menores, por outro lado, podem ocasionar estímulo na germinação e desenvolvimento. N...

  15. La « Bibliothèque de la Pléiade » : un bon objet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Durand

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Avec aujourd’hui plus de cinq cents titres à son catalogue, la « Bibliothèque de la Pléiade » a été créée en 1931 par Jacques Schiffrin avant d’être reprise trois ans plus tard à l’enseigne des éditions Gallimard. L’idée était dans l’air, et il n’est pas inutile de rapporter ici le témoignage de José Corti qui, dans ses Souvenirs désordonnés, se rappelait, avec la magnanime amertume dont est seul capable en pareil cas un grand seigneur de l’édition artiste, qu’il avait eu dès 1928 cette « bon...

  16. Cirugía Plástica Periodontal: reporte de un caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alexandro Bueno Rossy

    Full Text Available El abordaje terapéutico de las recesiones gingivales requiere un plan de tratamiento que involucre terapia básica, la cual tendrá como objetivo la resolución de la/las etiologías de la/las mismas y una terapia de cirugía plástica periodontal adecuada al caso específico. Los procedimientos quirúrgicos con injertos de tejido conjuntivo tomados principalmente del paladar son el gold standard en el tratamiento de las recesiones gingivales. El objetivo de este trabajo es exponer paso a paso el tratamiento de una recesión gingival post- terapia de ortodoncia y su evaluación a largo plazo

  17. HYPOTHESIS TESTING WITH THE SIMILARITY INDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulltilocus DNA fingerprinting methods have been used extensively to address genetic issues in wildlife populations. Hypotheses concerning population subdivision and differing levels of diversity can be addressed through the use of the similarity index (S), a band-sharing coeffic...

  18. On self-similarity of crack layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, J.; Kunin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The crack layer (CL) theory of Chudnovsky (1986), based on principles of thermodynamics of irreversible processes, employs a crucial hypothesis of self-similarity. The self-similarity hypothesis states that the value of the damage density at a point x of the active zone at a time t coincides with that at the corresponding point in the initial (t = 0) configuration of the active zone, the correspondence being given by a time-dependent affine transformation of the space variables. In this paper, the implications of the self-similarity hypothesis for qusi-static CL propagation is investigated using polystyrene as a model material and examining the evolution of damage distribution along the trailing edge which is approximated by a straight segment perpendicular to the crack path. The results support the self-similarity hypothesis adopted by the CL theory.

  19. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  20. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation.......Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...... semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...