WorldWideScience

Sample records for similar annual cycle

  1. Annual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well-understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity, using six axioms based on physiological and physical knowledge, and yield straightforward and simple mathematical equations. The light and carbon reactions in photosynthesis are based on the coherent operation of the photosynthetic machinery, which is formed of a complicated chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments. A powerful biochemical regulation system has emerged through evolution to match photosynthesis with the annual cycle of solar light and temperature. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates the annual cycle of photosynthesis and emergent properties, the state of the photosynthetic machinery and the efficiency of photosynthesis. The state and the efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery is dynamically changing due to biosynthesis and decomposition of the molecules. The mathematical analysis of the system, defined by the very fundamental concepts and axioms, resulted in exact predictions of the behaviour of daily and annual patterns in photosynthesis. We tested the predictions with extensive field measurements of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. photosynthesis on a branch scale in northern Finland. Our theory gained strong support through rigorous testing.

  2. Annual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Pertti; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Noe, Steffen; Petäjä, Tuukka; Vanhatalo, Anni; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well-understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity), using six axioms based on physiological and physical knowledge, and yield straightforward and simple mathematical equations. The light and carbon reactions in photosynthesis are based on the coherent operation of the photosynthetic machinery, which is formed of a complicated chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments. A powerful biochemical regulation system has emerged through evolution to match photosynthesis with the annual cycle of solar light and temperature. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates the annual cycle of photosynthesis and emergent properties, the state of the photosynthetic machinery and the efficiency of photosynthesis. The state and the efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery is dynamically changing due to biosynthesis and decomposition of the molecules. The mathematical analysis of the system, defined by the very fundamental concepts and axioms, resulted in exact predictions of the behaviour of daily and annual patterns in photosynthesis. We tested the predictions with extensive field measurements of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) photosynthesis on a branch scale in northern Finland. Our theory gained strong support through rigorous testing.

  3. Trends and annual cycles in soundings of Arctic tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Bo; Jepsen, Nis; Kivi, Rigel; Hansen, Georg; Larsen, Niels; Smith Korsholm, Ulrik

    2017-08-01

    Ozone soundings from nine Nordic stations have been homogenized and interpolated to standard pressure levels. The different stations have very different data coverage; the longest period with data is from the end of the 1980s to 2014. At each pressure level the homogenized ozone time series have been analysed with a model that includes both low-frequency variability in the form of a polynomial, an annual cycle with harmonics, the possibility for low-frequency variability in the annual amplitude and phasing, and either white noise or noise given by a first-order autoregressive process. The fitting of the parameters is performed with a Bayesian approach not only giving the mean values but also confidence intervals. The results show that all stations agree on a well-defined annual cycle in the free troposphere with a relatively confined maximum in the early summer. Regarding the low-frequency variability, it is found that Scoresbysund, Ny Ålesund, Sodankylä, Eureka, and Ørland show similar, significant signals with a maximum near 2005 followed by a decrease. This change is characteristic for all pressure levels in the free troposphere. A significant change in the annual cycle was found for Ny Ålesund, Scoresbysund, and Sodankylä. The changes at these stations are in agreement with the interpretation that the early summer maximum is appearing earlier in the year. The results are shown to be robust to the different settings of the model parameters such as the order of the polynomial, number of harmonics in the annual cycle, and the type of noise.

  4. Trends and annual cycles in soundings of Arctic tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Christiansen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone soundings from nine Nordic stations have been homogenized and interpolated to standard pressure levels. The different stations have very different data coverage; the longest period with data is from the end of the 1980s to 2014. At each pressure level the homogenized ozone time series have been analysed with a model that includes both low-frequency variability in the form of a polynomial, an annual cycle with harmonics, the possibility for low-frequency variability in the annual amplitude and phasing, and either white noise or noise given by a first-order autoregressive process. The fitting of the parameters is performed with a Bayesian approach not only giving the mean values but also confidence intervals. The results show that all stations agree on a well-defined annual cycle in the free troposphere with a relatively confined maximum in the early summer. Regarding the low-frequency variability, it is found that Scoresbysund, Ny Ålesund, Sodankylä, Eureka, and Ørland show similar, significant signals with a maximum near 2005 followed by a decrease. This change is characteristic for all pressure levels in the free troposphere. A significant change in the annual cycle was found for Ny Ålesund, Scoresbysund, and Sodankylä. The changes at these stations are in agreement with the interpretation that the early summer maximum is appearing earlier in the year. The results are shown to be robust to the different settings of the model parameters such as the order of the polynomial, number of harmonics in the annual cycle, and the type of noise.

  5. Satellite Global and Hemispheric Lower Tropospheric Temperature Annual Temperature Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Brunke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of the Earth’s annual cycle and its trends have utilized surface temperature data sets. Here we introduce a new analysis of the global and hemispheric annual cycle using a satellite remote sensing derived data set during the period 1979–2009, as determined from the lower tropospheric (LT channel of the MSU satellite. While the surface annual cycle is tied directly to the heating and cooling of the land areas, the tropospheric annual cycle involves additionally the gain or loss of heat between the surface and atmosphere. The peak in the global tropospheric temperature in the 30 year period occurs on 10 July and the minimum on 9 February in response to the larger land mass in the Northern Hemisphere. The actual dates of the hemispheric maxima and minima are a complex function of many variables which can change from year to year thereby altering these dates.Here we examine the time of occurrence of the global and hemispheric maxima and minima lower tropospheric temperatures, the values of the annual maxima and minima, and the slopes and significance of the changes in these metrics.  The statistically significant trends are all relatively small. The values of the global annual maximum and minimum showed a small, but significant trend. Northern and Southern Hemisphere maxima and minima show a slight trend toward occurring later in the year. Most recent analyses of trends in the global annual cycle using observed surface data have indicated a trend toward earlier maxima and minima.

  6. Satellite observations of an annual cycle in the Agulhas Current

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Krug, Marjolaine, J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available years of along-track altimetry and merged altimetry and close to 7 years of high frequency Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations. While the position and width of the Agulhas Current’s dynamical core do not display an annual cycle, the geostrophic...

  7. Predicting the start and maximum amplitude of solar cycle 24 using similar phases and a cycle grouping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jialong; Zong Weiguo; Le Guiming; Zhao Haijuan; Tang Yunqiu; Zhang Yang

    2009-01-01

    We find that the solar cycles 9, 11, and 20 are similar to cycle 23 in their respective descending phases. Using this similarity and the observed data of smoothed monthly mean sunspot numbers (SMSNs) available for the descending phase of cycle 23, we make a date calibration for the average time sequence made of the three descending phases of the three cycles, and predict the start of March or April 2008 for cycle 24. For the three cycles, we also find a linear correlation of the length of the descending phase of a cycle with the difference between the maximum epoch of this cycle and that of its next cycle. Using this relationship along with the known relationship between the rise-time and the maximum amplitude of a slowly rising solar cycle, we predict the maximum SMSN of cycle 24 of 100.2 ± 7.5 to appear during the period from May to October 2012. (letters)

  8. Ocean Color and the Equatorial Annual Cycle in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, A. C.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of chlorophyll, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and other scatterers in ocean surface waters affect the flux divergence of solar radiation and thus the vertical distribution of radiant heating of the ocean. While this may directly alter the local mixed-layer depth and temperature (Martin 1985; Strutton & Chavez 2004), non-local changes are propagated through advection (Manizza et al. 2005; Murtugudde et al. 2002; Nakamoto et al. 2001; Sweeny et al. 2005). In and coupled feedbacks (Lengaigne et al. 2007; Marzeion & Timmermann 2005). Anderson et al. (2007), Anderson et al. (2009) and Gnanadesikan & Anderson (2009) have performed a series of experiments with a fully coupled climate model which parameterizes the e-folding depth of solar irradiance in terms of surface chlorophyll-a concentration. The results have so far been discussed with respect to the climatic mean state and ENSO variability in the tropical Pacific. We extend the discussion here to the Pacific equatorial annual cycle. The focus of the coupled experiments has been the sensitivity of the coupled system to regional differences in chlorophyll concentration. While runs have been completed with realistic SeaWiFS-derived monthly composite chlorophyll ('green') and with a globally chlorophyll-free ocean ('blue'), the concentrations in two additional runs have been selectively set to zero in specific regions: the oligotrophic subtropical gyres ('gyre') in one case and the mesotrophic gyre margins ('margin') in the other. The annual cycle of ocean temperatures exhibits distinctly reduced amplitudes in the 'blue' and 'margin' experiments, and a slight reduction in 'gyre' (while ENSO variability almost vanishes in 'blue' and 'gyre', but amplifies in 'margin' - thus the frequently quoted inverse correlation between ENSO and annual amplitudes holds only for the 'green' / 'margin' comparison). It is well-known that on annual time scales, the anomalous divergence of surface currents and vertical

  9. ENHANCED MODELING OF REMOTELY SENSED ANNUAL LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite thermal remote sensing provides access to acquire large-scale Land surface temperature (LST data, but also generates missing and abnormal values resulting from non-clear-sky conditions. Given this limitation, Annual Temperature Cycle (ATC model was employed to reconstruct the continuous daily LST data over a year. The original model ATCO used harmonic functions, but the dramatic changes of the real LST caused by the weather changes remained unclear due to the smooth sine curve. Using Aqua/MODIS LST products, NDVI and meteorological data, we proposed enhanced model ATCE based on ATCO to describe the fluctuation and compared their performances for the Yangtze River Delta region of China. The results demonstrated that, the overall root mean square errors (RMSEs of the ATCE was lower than ATCO, and the improved accuracy of daytime was better than that of night, with the errors decreased by 0.64 K and 0.36 K, respectively. The improvements of accuracies varied with different land cover types: the forest, grassland and built-up areas improved larger than water. And the spatial heterogeneity was observed for performance of ATC model: the RMSEs of built-up area, forest and grassland were around 3.0 K in the daytime, while the water attained 2.27 K; at night, the accuracies of all types significantly increased to similar RMSEs level about 2 K. By comparing the differences between LSTs simulated by two models in different seasons, it was found that the differences were smaller in the spring and autumn, while larger in the summer and winter.

  10. Semi-annual Sq-variation in solar activity cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnoy, V.; Malosiev, T.

    The peculiarities of semi-annual variation in solar activity cycle have been studied. The data from observatories having long observational series and located in different latitude zones were used. The following observatories were selected: Huancayo (magnetic equator), from 1922 to 1959; Apia (low latitudes), from 1912 to 1961; Moscow (middle latitudes), from 1947 to 1965. Based on the hourly values of H-components, the average monthly diurnal amplitudes (a difference between midday and midnight values), according to five international quiet days, were computed. Obtained results were compared with R (relative sunspot numbers) in the ranges of 0-30R, 40-100R, and 140-190R. It was shown, that the amplitude of semi-annual variation increases with R, from minimum to maximum values, on average by 45%. At equatorial Huancayo observatory, the semi-annual Sq(H)-variation appears especially clearly: its maximums take place at periods of equinoxes (March-April, September-October), and minimums -- at periods of solstices (June-July, December-January). At low (Apia observatory) and middle (Moscow observatory) latitudes, the character of semi-annual variation is somewhat different: it appears during the periods of equinoxes, but considerably less than at equator. Besides, with the growth of R, semi-annual variation appears against a background of annual variation, in the form of second peaks (maximum in June). At observatories located in low and middle latitudes, second peaks become more appreciable with an increase of R (March-April and September-October). During the periods of low solar activity, they are insignificant. This work has been carried out with the support from International Scientific and Technology Center (Project #KR-214).

  11. Annual energy and environment analysis of solarized steam injection gas turbine (STIG) cycle for Indian regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwynraj, A. Immanuel; Iniyan, S.; Suganthi, L.; Livshits, Maya; Polonsky, Guy; Kribus, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Study on the influence of local climatic conditions on solar STIG cycle is presented. • The annual solar to electricity efficiency ranges between 11.2 and 17.1% and the solar fraction ranges 9.3–41.7%. • The range of annual specific CO_2 emission is 312–408 kg/MWh and incremental CO_2 avoidance is 4.2–104 kg/MWh. • The levelized tariff (LT) is 0.2–0.23 $/kWh, and the solar levelized tariff (SLT) ranges from 0.11 to 0.27 $/kWh. - Abstract: The solarized steam injection gas turbine (STIG) cycle uses both the fuel and solar heat simultaneously for power generation. The annual thermodynamic performances of the cycle for sites in India with local climatic conditions such as ambient temperature, relative humidity and availability of direct normal irradiance (DNI) to the solar concentrators under two modes of constant and variable power are presented in this paper. The results reveal that the solar to electricity efficiency of solar hybrid STIG plant with a simple parabolic trough collector (PTC) is similar to existing solar thermal technologies, and also higher solar share is obtained. The study also reveals that the annual CO_2 emission is similar to combined cycle plants and lower than gas turbine technologies. The incremental CO_2 avoidance is also computed due to solar participation. The annual values of exergetic solar fraction and exergetic efficiency at Indore are higher than Jaipur. Results of an improved economic assessment show that the levelized tariff (LT) of solar hybrid STIG plant is 0.2–0.23 $/kWh and the levelized tariff (solar only) or solar levelized tariff (SLT) of solar STIG plant ranges from 0.11 to 0.27 $/kWh for both constant and variable power scenarios.

  12. Comparison of methods for extracting annual cycle with changing amplitude in climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Q.; Fu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Changes of annual cycle gains a growing concern recently. The basic hypothesis regards annual cycle as constant. Climatology mean within a time period is usually used to depict the annual cycle. Obviously this hypothesis contradicts with the fact that annual cycle is changing every year. For the lack of a unified definition about annual cycle, the approaches adopted in extracting annual cycle are various and may lead to different results. The precision and validity of these methods need to be examined. In this work we numerical experiments with known monofrequent annual cycle are set to evaluate five popular extracting methods: fitting sinusoids, complex demodulation, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), Nonlinear Mode Decomposition (NMD) and Seasonal trend decomposition procedure based on loess (STL). Three different types of changing amplitude will be generated: steady, linear increasing and nonlinearly varying. Comparing the annual cycle extracted by these methods with the generated annual cycle, we find that (1) NMD performs best in depicting annual cycle itself and its amplitude change, (2) fitting sinusoids, complex demodulation and EEMD methods are more sensitive to long-term memory(LTM) of generated time series thus lead to overfitting annual cycle and too noisy amplitude, oppositely the result of STL underestimate the amplitude variation (3)all of them can present the amplitude trend correctly in long-time scale but the errors on account of noise and LTM are common in some methods over short time scales.

  13. Solar cycle signatures in the NCEP equatorial annual oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Huang, F. T.; Nash, E. R.

    2009-08-01

    Our analysis of temperature and zonal wind data (1958 to 2006) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis (Re-1), supplied by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), shows that the hemispherically symmetric 12-month equatorial annual oscillation (EAO) contains spectral signatures with periods around 11 years. Moving windows of 44 years show that, below 20 km, the 11-year modulation of the EAO is phase locked to the solar cycle (SC). The spectral features from the 48-year data record reveal modulation signatures of 9.6 and 12 years, which produce EAO variations that mimic in limited altitude regimes the varying maxima and minima of the 10.7 cm flux solar index. Above 20 km, the spectra also contain modulation signatures with periods around 11 years, but the filtered variations are too irregular to suggest that systematic SC forcing is the principal agent.

  14. Solar cycle signatures in the NCEP equatorial annual oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Mayr

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Our analysis of temperature and zonal wind data (1958 to 2006 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR reanalysis (Re-1, supplied by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP, shows that the hemispherically symmetric 12-month equatorial annual oscillation (EAO contains spectral signatures with periods around 11 years. Moving windows of 44 years show that, below 20 km, the 11-year modulation of the EAO is phase locked to the solar cycle (SC. The spectral features from the 48-year data record reveal modulation signatures of 9.6 and 12 years, which produce EAO variations that mimic in limited altitude regimes the varying maxima and minima of the 10.7 cm flux solar index. Above 20 km, the spectra also contain modulation signatures with periods around 11 years, but the filtered variations are too irregular to suggest that systematic SC forcing is the principal agent.

  15. An algorithm for finding a similar subgraph of all Hamiltonian cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafdan, R.; Ihsan, M.; Suhaimi, D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses an algorithm to find a similar subgraph called findSimSubG algorithm. A similar subgraph is a subgraph with a maximum number of edges, contains no isolated vertex and is contained in every Hamiltonian cycle of a Hamiltonian Graph. The algorithm runs only on Hamiltonian graphs with at least two Hamiltonian cycles. The algorithm works by examining whether the initial subgraph of the first Hamiltonian cycle is a subgraph of comparison graphs. If the initial subgraph is not in comparison graphs, the algorithm will remove edges and vertices of the initial subgraph that are not in comparison graphs. There are two main processes in the algorithm, changing Hamiltonian cycle into a cycle graph and removing edges and vertices of the initial subgraph that are not in comparison graphs. The findSimSubG algorithm can find the similar subgraph without using backtracking method. The similar subgraph cannot be found on certain graphs, such as an n-antiprism graph, complete bipartite graph, complete graph, 2n-crossed prism graph, n-crown graph, n-möbius ladder, prism graph, and wheel graph. The complexity of this algorithm is O(m|V|), where m is the number of Hamiltonian cycles and |V| is the number of vertices of a Hamiltonian graph.

  16. Similarities and life cycle distributions of floras of 22 national parks in the midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James P.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-two midwestern U.S. national parks were studied to examine the similarities of their floras and analyses of the floras in each national park were used to construct groupings of these smaller sample areas at various similarity levels in order to classify larger floristic areas. The parks were not on average very similar based on Jaccard's similarity index. The maximum average park similarity was 21% (St. Croix National Scenic Riverway), and the maximum park pair similarity was just over 55% for Isle Royale National Park and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. The average similarity of parks increased with park area and numbers of native species, and weakly decreased with the percentage of non-native species. Weak trends were observed with latitude and negative trends with longitude. Four park groups were partitioned by cluster analysis of species relative abundance data: 7 prairie parks, 6 northern parks, 4 intermediate parks and 5 southern parks. The average percentage of non-native species was ~33% in the prairie and southern park clusters, while percentage of evergreen perennials was 2 to 4 times greater in the northern parks (8%) compared with other clusters. Deciduous perennials approached 80% in the northern and intermediate park clusters, compared with about 70% for the prairie and southern clusters. Percentage of annuals was almost double in the prairie and southern clusters (average 24%) compared with the northern and intermediate clusters (average 13%).

  17. Dynamical diagnostics of the SST annual cycle in the eastern equatorial Pacific: part I a linear coupled framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2018-03-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific has a pronounced westward propagating SST annual cycle resulting from ocean-atmosphere interactions with equatorial semiannual solar forcing and off-equatorial annual solar forcing conveyed to the equator. In this two-part paper, a simple linear coupled framework is proposed to quantify the internal dynamics and external forcing for a better understanding of the linear part of the dynamics annual cycle. It is shown that an essential internal dynamical factor is the SST damping rate which measures the coupled stability in a similar way as the Bjerknes instability index for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. It comprises three major negative terms (dynamic damping due to the Ekman pumping feedback, mean circulation advection, and thermodynamic feedback) and two positive terms (thermocline feedback and zonal advection). Another dynamical factor is the westward-propagation speed that is mainly determined by the thermodynamic feedback, the Ekman pumping feedback, and the mean circulation. The external forcing is measured by the annual and semiannual forcing factors. These linear internal and external factors, which can be estimated from data, determine the amplitude of the annual cycle.

  18. Similar acute physiological responses from effort and duration matched leg press and recumbent cycling tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Steele

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of exercise utilising traditional resistance training (leg press or ‘cardio’ exercise (recumbent cycle ergometry modalities upon acute physiological responses. Nine healthy males underwent a within session randomised crossover design where they completed both the leg press and recumbent cycle ergometer conditions. Conditions were approximately matched for effort and duration (leg press: 4 × 12RM using a 2 s concentric and 3 s eccentric repetition duration controlled with a metronome, thus each set lasted  60 s; recumbent cycle ergometer: 4 × 60 s bouts using a resistance level permitting 80–100 rpm but culminating with being unable to sustain the minimum cadence for the final 5–10 s. Measurements included VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, blood lactate, energy expenditure, muscle swelling, and electromyography. Perceived effort was similar between conditions and thus both were well matched with respect to effort. There were no significant effects by ‘condition’ in any of the physiological responses examined (all p > 0.05. The present study shows that, when both effort and duration are matched, resistance training (leg press and ‘cardio’ exercise (recumbent cycle ergometry may produce largely similar responses in VO2, RER, blood lactate, energy expenditure, muscle swelling, and electromyography. It therefore seems reasonable to suggest that both may offer a similar stimulus to produce chronic physiological adaptations in outcomes such as cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and hypertrophy. Future work should look to both replicate the study conducted here with respect to the same, and additional physiological measures, and rigorously test the comparative efficacy of effort and duration matched exercise of differing modalities with respect to chronic improvements in physiological fitness.

  19. Optimizing conservation of migratory species over their full annual cycle in the Western Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Joseph; Auer, Tom; Fink, Daniel; Arcese, Peter; Rodewald, Amanda; Wilson, Scott; Schuster, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Strategic plans to conserve migratory species require detailed knowledge on species distribution, abundance, and habitat use over the annual cycle, but such data are lacking for most species. We developed a hemispheric approach to planning using spatiotemporally explicit species abundance models to prioritize land needed to conserve ≥17% of the global populations of 109 species of Neotropical migratory birds. The efficiency of annual cycle plans was evaluated in comparisons to single-season p...

  20. The annual cycle of African climate and its variability | Jury | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    low) annual cycle correspond with La Nina (El Nino) and increased (decreased) inter-annual fluctuations of the African climate. A composite analysis shows that the South Atlantic Hadley cell and standing waves in the subtropical jet may connect ...

  1. Annual reconstruction of the solar cycle from atmospheric 14C variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    Initially, the rise and fall components of the 11-year solar sunspot cycle are approximated by separate least-squares polynomials for four cycle classifications, which are determined by the magnitude of the average of the annual sunspot numbers per cycle. Following a method is formulated to generate detailed reconstruction of the annual variation of a solar cycle based on this cycle average, and the results obtained for cycles -4 through to 21 are compared with the annual Zurich values. This procedure is then employed to establish annual sunspot numbers using published average cycle values obtained from atmospheric carbon 14 variations, which have been derived from the chemical analysis of tree ring sections. The reconstructed sequences are correlated with the observed cycle values and with tree ring width index chronologies which exhibit a significant 11-year periodicity. It is anticipated that the long carbon 14 records and parallel dendrochronological data could be employed to obtain a more detailed portrayal of previous periods of strong solar activity than that given by current estimates based on historical records. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  2. The impact of inter-annual variability of annual cycle on long-term persistence of surface air temperature in long historical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qimin; Nian, Da; Fu, Zuntao

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies in the literature show that the annual cycle of surface air temperature (SAT) is changing in both amplitude and phase, and the SAT departures from the annual cycle are long-term correlated. However, the classical definition of temperature anomalies is based on the assumption that the annual cycle is constant, which contradicts the fact of changing annual cycle. How to quantify the impact of the changing annual cycle on the long-term correlation of temperature anomaly variability still remains open. In this paper, a recently developed data adaptive analysis tool, the nonlinear mode decomposition (NMD), is used to extract and remove time-varying annual cycle to reach the new defined temperature anomalies in which time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been considered. By means of detrended fluctuation analysis, the impact induced by inter-annual variability from the time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been quantified on the estimation of long-term correlation of long historical temperature anomalies in Europe. The results show that the classical climatology annual cycle is supposed to lack inter-annual fluctuation which will lead to a maximum artificial deviation centering around 600 days. This maximum artificial deviation is crucial to defining the scaling range and estimating the long-term persistence exponent accurately. Selecting different scaling range could lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the long-term persistence exponent. By using NMD method to extract the inter-annual fluctuations of annual cycle, this artificial crossover can be weakened to extend a wider scaling range with fewer uncertainties.

  3. Reproductive status of opisthoteuthis sp . Over an annual cycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of deepwater cephalopods has received relatively little attention. The cirrate octopus Opisthoteuthis sp. is a regular bycatch in deep benthic trawls from 800 to 1 200 m deep west of Scotland. Specimens were sampled throughout the seasonal cycle. Mature females occurred over a broad size range ...

  4. Sympatric breeding auks shift between dietary and spatial resource partitioning across the annual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie Fries Linnebjerg

    Full Text Available When species competing for the same resources coexist, some segregation in the way they utilize those resources is expected. However, little is known about how closely related sympatric breeding species segregate outside the breeding season. We investigated the annual segregation of three closely related seabirds (razorbill Alcatorda, common guillemot Uriaaalge and Brünnich's guillemot U. lomvia breeding at the same colony in Southwest Greenland. By combining GPS and geolocation (GLS tracking with dive depth and stable isotope analyses, we compared spatial and dietary resource partitioning. During the breeding season, we found the three species to segregate in diet and/or dive depth, but less in foraging area. During both the post-breeding and pre-breeding periods, the three species had an increased overlap in diet, but were dispersed over a larger spatial scale. Dive depths were similar across the annual cycle, suggesting morphological adaptations fixed by evolution. Prey choice, on the other hand, seemed much more flexible and therefore more likely to be affected by the immediate presence of potential competitors.

  5. Annual cycle of solar radiation in a deciduous forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Matt, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Periodic solar radiation measurements within and above an east Tennessee Liriodendron forest and continuous records of insolation from a nearby NOAA weather station were used to derive an approximation of the animal radiation regime within and above the deciduous forest. The interaction of changing solar elevations, insolation, and forest phenology are shown to control the radiation climate within the forest. Maximum radiation penetrates the forest in early spring as solar paths rise higher in the sky each day just prior to leaf expansion. After leaf expansion begins, average radiation received within the forest decreases rapidly despite continued increases in solar elevations and daily insolation. This forest attains full leaf in early June and from then until the advent of leaf abscission near the autumnal equinox, forest structure remains relatively static. Solar elevations and daily insolation decline following the summer solstice, however, and as a result, average radiation penetrating the forest slowly declines throughout the summer reaching an annual minimum in early autumn. With leaf fall, slightly increased amounts of radiation penetrate the forest but as within-forest solar paths continue to lengthen, radiation within the forest again declines. Minimum amounts of solar radiation penetrate the leafless forest around the winter solstice

  6. Theory and design of an Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) for residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.; Abbatiello, L.A.; Ballou, M.L.

    1980-05-01

    The basic concept of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) - an integrated system for supplying space heating, hot water, and air conditioning to a building - and the theory underlying its design and operation are described. Practical procedures for designing an ACES for a single-family residence, together with recommended guidelines for the construction and installation of system components, are presented. Methods are discussed for estimating the life-cycle cost, component sizes, and annual energy consumption of the system for residential applications in different climatic regions of the US.

  7. Annual cycles of metabolic rate are genetically determined but can be shifted by phenotypic flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, M. A.; Helm, B.; Gwinner, E.; Tieleman, B. I.

    2012-01-01

    Birds have adjusted their life history and physiological traits to the characteristics of the seasonally changing environments they inhabit. Annual cycles in physiology can result from phenotypic flexibility or from variation in its genetic basis. A key physiological trait that shows seasonal

  8. Activity and migratory flights of individual free-flying songbirds throughout the annual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Johan; Andersson, Arne; Alerstam, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    the sampling events. Activity levels were stored on an hourly basis throughout the annual cycle, allowing periods of resting/sleep, continuous flight and intermediate activity (foraging, breeding) to be distinguished. Measurements from a light sensor were stored from preprogrammed key stationary periods during...... the year to provide control information about geographic location. Successful results, including annual actogram, were obtained for a red-backed shrike Lanius collurio carrying out its annual loop migration between northern Europe and southern Africa. The shrike completed its annual migration by performing...... > 66 (max. 73) nocturnal migratory flights (29 flights in autumn and > 37, max. 44, in spring) adding up to a total of > 434 (max. 495) flight hours. Migratory flights lasted on average 6.6 h with maximum 15.9 h. These flights were aggregated into eight travel episodes (periods of 4-11 nights when...

  9. KWIKPLAN: a computer program for projecting the annual requirements of nuclear fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, R.; Kee, C.W.

    1977-06-01

    The computer code KWIKPLAN was written to facilitate the calculation of projected nuclear fuel cycle activities. Using given projections of power generation, the code calculates annual requirements for fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, uranium mining, and plutonium use and production. The code uses installed capacity projections and mass flow data for six types of reactors to calculate projected fuel cycle activities and inventories. It calculates fissile uranium and plutonium flows and inventories after allowing for an economy with limited reprocessing capacity and a backlog of unreprocessed fuel. All calculations are made on a quarterly basis; printed and punched output of the projected fuel cycle activities are made on an annual basis. Since the punched information is used in another code to determine waste inventories, the code punches a table from which the effective average burnup can be calculated for the fuel being reprocessed

  10. Seasonal Redistribution of Immune Function in a Migrant Shorebird : Annual-Cycle Effects Override Adjustments to Thermal Regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, Deborah M.; Piersma, Theunis; Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Demas, Greg (associate); Geber, Monica A.

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the annual cycle, demands on competing physiological systems change, and animals must allocate resources to maximize fitness. Immune function is one such system and is important for survival. Yet detailed empirical data tracking immune function over the entire annual cycle are lacking for

  11. Similar below-ground carbon cycling dynamics but contrasting modes of nitrogen cycling between arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guigang; McCormack, M Luke; Ma, Chengen; Guo, Dali

    2017-02-01

    Compared with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) forests, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) forests are hypothesized to have higher carbon (C) cycling rates and a more open nitrogen (N) cycle. To test this hypothesis, we synthesized 645 observations, including 22 variables related to below-ground C and N dynamics from 100 sites, where AM and ECM forests co-occurred at the same site. Leaf litter quality was lower in ECM than in AM trees, leading to greater forest floor C stocks in ECM forests. By contrast, AM forests had significantly higher mineral soil C concentrations, and this result was strongly mediated by plant traits and climate. No significant differences were found between AM and ECM forests in C fluxes and labile C concentrations. Furthermore, inorganic N concentrations, net N mineralization and nitrification rates were all higher in AM than in ECM forests, indicating 'mineral' N economy in AM but 'organic' N economy in ECM trees. AM and ECM forests show systematic differences in mineral vs organic N cycling, and thus mycorrhizal type may be useful in predicting how different tree species respond to multiple environmental change factors. By contrast, mycorrhizal type alone cannot reliably predict below-ground C dynamics without considering plant traits and climate. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Influence of Sea Surface Temperature, Tropospheric Humidity and Lapse Rate on the Annual Cycle of the Clear-Sky Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Liu, W.

    2000-01-01

    The implication of this work will provide modeling study a surrogate of annual cycle of the greenhouse effect. For example, the model should be able to simulate the annual cycle before it can be used for global change study.

  13. Absolute consistency: individual versus population variation in annual-cycle schedules of a long-distance migrant bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse R Conklin

    Full Text Available Flexibility in scheduling varies throughout an organism's annual cycle, reflecting relative temporal constraints and fitness consequences among life-history stages. Time-selection can act at different scales, either by limiting the range of alternative strategies in the population, or by increasing the precision of individual performance. We tracked individual bar-tailed godwits Limosa lapponica baueri for two full years (including direct observation during non-breeding seasons in New Zealand and geolocator tracking of round-trip migrations to Alaska to present a full annual-cycle view of molt, breeding, and migration schedules. At both population and individual scales, temporal variation was greater in post-breeding than pre-breeding stages, and greater in molts than in movements, but schedules did not tighten across successive stages of migration toward the breeding grounds. In general, individual godwits were quite consistent in timing of events throughout the year, and repeatability of pre-breeding movements was particularly high (r = 0.82-0.92. However, we demonstrate that r values misrepresent absolute consistency by confounding inter- and intra-individual variation; the biological significance of r values can only be understood when these are considered separately. By doing so, we show that some stages have considerable tolerance for alternative strategies within the population, whereas scheduling of northbound migratory movements was similar for all individuals. How time-selection simultaneously shapes both individual and population variation is central to understanding and predicting adaptive phenological responses to environmental change.

  14. The Plight of Migrant Birds Wintering in the Caribbean: Rainfall Effects in the Annual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Wunderle, Jr.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we summarize results of migrant bird research in the Caribbean as part of a 75th Anniversary Symposium on research of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry (IITF. The fate of migratory birds has been a concern stimulating research over the past 40 years in response to population declines documented in long-term studies including those of the IITF and collaborators in Puerto Rico’s Guánica dry forest. Various studies indicate that in addition to forest loss or fragmentation, some migrant declines may be due to rainfall variation, the consequences of which may carry over from one stage of a migrant’s annual cycle to another. For example, the Guánica studies indicate that rainfall extremes on either the temperate breeding or tropical wintering grounds affect migrant abundance and survival differently depending on the species. In contrast, IITF’s collaborative studies of the migrant Kirtland’s Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii in the Bahamas found that late winter droughts affect its annual survival and breeding success in Michigan. We review these IITF migrant studies and relate them to other studies, which have improved our understanding of migrant ecology of relevance to conservation. Particularly important is the advent of the full annual cycle (FAC approach. The FAC will facilitate future identification and mitigation of limiting factors contributing to migrant population declines, which for some species, may be exacerbated by global climate change.

  15. Annual cycle of methane emission from a boreal fen measured by the eddy covariance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, Janne.; Pihlatie, Mari; Haapanala, Sami; Vesala, Timo; Riutta, Terhi; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Aurela, Mika; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka

    2007-01-01

    The northern wetlands are one of the major sources of methane into the atmosphere. We measured annual methane emission from a boreal minerotrophic fen, Siikaneva, by the eddy covariance method. The average wintertime emissions were below 1 mg/m 2 /h, and the summertime emissions about 3.5 mg/m 2 /h. The water table depth did have any clear effect on methane emissions. During most of the year the emission depended on the temperature of peat below the water table. However, during the high and late summer the emission was independent on peat temperature as well. No diurnal cycle of methane flux was found. The total annual emission from the Siikaneva site was 12.6 g/m 2 . The emissions of the snow free period contributed 91% to the annual emission. The emission pulse during the snow melting period was clearly detectable but of minor importance adding only less than 3% to the annual emission. Over 20% of the carbon assimilated during the year as carbon dioxide was emitted as methane. Thus methane emission is an important component of the carbon balance of the Siikaneva fen. This indicates need of taking methane into account when studying carbon balances of northern fen ecosystems

  16. The Annual Reproductive Cycle of Silurus microdorsalis, a Korean Endemic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Se-Un; Lee, Won-Kyo

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The annual reproductive cycle of the Korean endemic slender catfish, Silurus microdorsalis, was examined histologically regarding water temperature and day length of habitat, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and development characteristics of female and male gonads. The maximum GSI value was found in May, 1.23±0.33 and 11.77±3.23 for male and female respectively (habitat water temperature 21.5°C/13.59hr day length). On the other hand, the minimal level was 0.63±0.10 in July (26.5°C/14.17) for male and 1.36±0.08 in October (20°C/11.2hr) for female. We compared and calculated the stages of testis and ovary development process in order to determine the germ cell development characteristics and the reproductive cycle. According to results, we classified the annual reproductive cycle of the slender catfish into five stages: Growing phase (December-February), Mature phase (March-April), Ripe and spawning phase / Releasing phase in male (May-June), Degenerative phase (July-August), and Resting phase (September-November).

  17. Load training athletes specializing in race to 100 meter hurdles in its annual training cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Muszkieta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to provide an annual macrocycle preparation of athletes specializing in the 100 meters hurdles. A detailed discussion of the structure and analyze loads in individual periods of the annual training cycle. And the analysis and discussion of the variables of training athletes Marlene Morton, who allowed her to win the bronze medal Polish Youth Championships in Bialystok. The study was conducted based on a detailed analysis of the training diary kept by the athlete, the coach and the daily interview with the coach conducting Arthur Kohutek. They were presented various training periods and analyzed periods and sub-periods. In the summary they presented the conclusions that can be helpful when planning the burden for athletes who specialize in racing gossip.

  18. Replication of Annual Cycles in Mn in Hudson River Cores: Mn Peaks During High Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D. H.; Hutson, D.; Marrero, A. M.; Block, K. A.; Chang, C.; Cai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Using the results from an ITRAX, XRF scanner, we previously reported apparent annual cycles in Mn in a single, high sedimentation rate Hudson River core, LWB1-8, taken off Yonkers, NY (Carlson et al., 2016). We replicated these results in three more high sedimentation rate cores and found stratigraphic markers that verify our inferences about the annual nature of the Mn cycles. The three new cores are LWB4-5 taken off Peekskill, NY, and LWB3-44 and LWB3-25, both taken in Haverstraw Bay. The cores are from water depths of 7-9 meters and all have high magnetic susceptibilities (typically > 30 cgs units) in their upper 1 to 2 meters. The high susceptibilities are primarily produced by magnetite from modern industrial combustion. One core, LWB1-8, has reconnaissance Cs dates that verify the annual nature of the cycles. More Cs dates are expected before the meeting. We developed several new methods of verifying the annual nature of our layer counts. The first is looking at the grain size distribution and age of layers with unusually high Mn peaks. Peaks in Si, Ni and Ti and peaks in percentage of coarse material typically accompany the peaks in Mn. Some are visible as yellow sandy layers. The five highest peaks in Mn in LWB1-8 have layer counted ages that correspond (within 1 year in the top meter and within 2 years in the bottom meter) to 1996, 1948, 1913, 1857 and 1790. The latter three events are the three largest historical spring freshets on the Hudson. 1996 is a year of unusually high flow rate during the spring freshet. Based on our work and previous work on Mn cycling in rivers, we infer that the peaks in Mn are produced by extreme erosional events that erode sediment and release pore water Mn into the water column. The other methods of testing our chronology involve marine storms that increase Ca and Sr and a search for fragments of the Peekskill meteorite that fell in October 1992. More information on the latter will be available by the meeting.

  19. Planning the annual cycle in groups of cadet combat sports perfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananchenko Konstantin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within a large training cycle in conditions of high general level of stress the authors recommend optimal implementation of planning undulating dynamics of cadets’ combat exercise stress. The article proves the efficiency of one-cycle construction of training highly- qualified single-combat cadets at the stage of maximal realization of sporting possibilities, which includes both features of traditional cycles (preparatory, competitional, transitional and module-sectional composition of training. It scientifically substantiates, that the choice of those or other types of microcycles which present the structure of mesocycles is determined by a few basic factors which must be necessarily taken into account while planning the training process of sportsmen of different qualification. It is suggested to use certain varieties of microcycles in the practice of preparation of single combat cadets. It is substantiated that accounting in planning the annual cycle in groups of sporting perfection of students of the educed types of microcycles for every type of single combats is an actual task of further scientific research.

  20. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. I. Complete wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achache, Yonathan; Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef

    2017-08-01

    The diverse hummingbird family (Trochilidae) has unique adaptations for nectarivory, among which is the ability to sustain hover-feeding. As hummingbirds mainly feed while hovering, it is crucial to maintain this ability throughout the annual cycle-especially during flight-feather moult, in which wing area is reduced. To quantify the aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms of a hummingbird wing throughout the annual cycle, time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements were correlated over a dynamically scaled wing model of Anna's hummingbird ( Calypte anna ). We present measurements recorded over a model of a complete wing to evaluate the baseline aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms. We found that the vorticity concentration that had developed from the wing's leading-edge differs from the attached vorticity structure that was typically found over insects' wings; firstly, it is more elongated along the wing chord, and secondly, it encounters high levels of fluctuations rather than a steady vortex. Lift characteristics resemble those of insects; however, a 20% increase in the lift-to-torque ratio was obtained for the hummingbird wing model. Time-accurate aerodynamic loads were also used to evaluate the time-evolution of the specific power required from the flight muscles, and the overall wingbeat power requirements nicely matched previous studies.

  1. Wrist activity in a woman: daily, weekly, menstrual, lunar, annual cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, S

    1992-09-01

    Wrist activity was monitored continuously for one year in a woman who went about her normal life. The year of data were analyzed for changes and rhythms--daily, weekly, menstrual, lunar, annual. For each day, average motions/5 minutes, activity onset, activity offset, alpha (duration of activity), and acrophase were measured. Periodograms and average daily wave forms were calculated. Well-defined, entrained, daily rest-activity cycles were observed throughout the year with periods close to 24 hours. There was weekend delay (0.7 hours) in onset, weekend decrease in alpha (1.0 hours), and weekend advance of acrophase (0.4 hours). Motions/5 minutes decreased 9%, onsets were 0.3 hours later, and alphas were 0.4 hours shorter on menstrual cycle days 8 through 18 which should have encompassed the time of ovulation. Lunar phase had no effect. Annual changes in onset (1.1 hours), offset (1.2 hours), and acrophase (1.1 hours) were attributed to the 1-hour change between standard and daylight savings time.

  2. Diagnostic of annual cycle and effects of the ENSO about the maximum intensity of duration rains between 1 and 24 hours at the Andes of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, German; Mesa, Oscar; Toro, Vladimir; Agudelo, Paula; Alvarez, Juan F; Arias, Paola; Moreno, Hernan; Salazar, Luis; Vieira, Sara

    2002-01-01

    We study the distribution of maximum rainfall events during the annual cycle, for storms ranging from 1 to 24-hour in duration; by using information over 51 rain gauges locate at the Colombian Andes. Also, the effects of both phases of ENSO (El Nino and La Nina) are quantified. We found that maximum rainfall intensity events occur during the rainy periods of march-may and September-November. There is a strong similarity between the annual cycle of mean total rainfall and that of the maximum intensities of rainfall over the tropical Andes. This result is quite consistent throughout the three ranges of the Colombian Andes. At inter annual timescales, we found that both phases of ENSO are associated with disturbances of maximum rainfall events; since during La Nina there are more intense precipitation events than during El Nino, overall, for durations longer than 3 hours, rainfall intensity gets reduced by one order of magnitude with respect to shorter durations (1-3 hours). The most extreme recorded rainfall events are apparently not associated with the annual and inter annual large scales forcing and appear to be randomly generated by the important role of the land surface atmosphere in the genesis and dynamics of intense storm over central Colombia

  3. The annual cycle of plutonium in the water column of a warm, monomictic reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; Bowling, J.W.; Nelson, D.M.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    An annual cycle occurs in the 239,240 Pu inventories of the water column of Pond B, an 87-ha warm monomictic reservoir on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Barnwell Co., South Carolina. The pond has elevated concentrations of 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu in sediments due to releases from former reactor operations and continues to receive additional Pu input from atmospheric deposition. For surface waters, the 239,240 Pu inventory increases following turnover in November to a maximum in March followed by a decline until later summer when minimum inventories occur. For deeper waters, the 239,240 Pu inventories increase rapidly following turnover and reach maximum values in March. The inventories in deeper waters remain large from March until turnover. Maximum inventories for the entire water column occur in March with minimum inventories at turnover in October and November. Turnover results in a redistribution of Pu across water depth but no measurable Pu loss from the water column. Ratios of 238 Pu: 239,240 Pu indicate that the cycle involves primarily Pu from sediment sources with little influence from atmospheric sources. Thus, the cycle represents net remobilization of 239,240 Pu from the sediments to the water column during the oxic, holomictic portion of the year followed by a net loss of Pu from the water column once stratification occurs. (author)

  4. A process-level attribution of the annual cycle of surface temperature over the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yana; Yang, Song; Deng, Yi; Hu, Xiaoming; Cai, Ming

    2017-12-01

    The annual cycle of the surface temperature over the Maritime Continent (MC) is characterized by two periods of rapid warming in March-April and September-October, respectively, and a period of rapid cooling in June-July. Based upon an analysis of energy balance within individual atmosphere-surface columns, the seasonal variations of surface temperature in the MC are partitioned into partial temperature changes associated with various radiative and non-radiative (dynamical) processes. The seasonal variations in direct solar forcing and surface latent heat flux show the largest positive contributions to the annual cycle of MC surface temperature while the changes in oceanic dynamics (including ocean heat content change) work against the temperature changes related to the annual cycle. The rapid warming in March-April is mainly a result of the changes in atmospheric quick processes and ocean-atmosphere coupling such as water vapor, surface latent heat flux, clouds, and atmospheric dynamics while the contributions from direct solar forcing and oceanic dynamics are negative. This feature is in contrast to that associated with the warming in September-October, which is driven mainly by the changes in solar forcing with a certain amount of contributions from water vapor and latent heat flux change. More contribution from atmospheric quick processes and ocean-atmosphere coupling in March-April coincides with the sudden northward movement of deep convection belt, while less contribution from these quick processes and coupling is accompanied with the convection belt slowly moving southward. The main contributors to the rapid cooling in June-July are the same as those to the rapid warming in March-April, and the cooling is also negatively contributed by direct solar forcing and oceanic dynamics. The changes in water vapor in all three periods contribute positively to the change in total temperature and they are associated with the change in the location of the center of

  5. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 8. Study on periodic steady state of the annual cycle energy system at a practical operation; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H; Okumiya, M [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A study was made of the periodic steady state of the annual cycle solar energy system with seasonal heat storage at a practical operation. Cold heat in winter and warm heat in summer are stored in the seasonal storage tank, and these are each used in shift until when demand for cold/warm heat appears. Moreover, gap in quantity of cold/warm heat going in/out of the heat storage tank during a year is filled by natural energy such as solar energy, so that the system can be operated in annual cycles. Studies were conducted of the periodic unsteady term and the problem on lowering of performance during the term such as the periodic unsteady term of water temperature inside the seasonal heat storage tank and temperature of the soil around the storage tank, and the level of lowering of performance during the term, necessity of additional operation/control at the start of operation and aged deterioration of the system. Within the assumption, even if starting operation in any time of the year, the system could show the performance almost expected from the first operation year with no additional system operation and control required only at the start of operation. It is thought that the heat source selection control of heat pump largely contributes to this. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Transmission of influenza reflects seasonality of wild birds across the annual cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nichola J.; Ma, Eric J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Boyce, Walter M.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in nature must overcome shifting transmission barriers caused by the mobility of their primary host, migratory wild birds, that change throughout the annual cycle. Using a phylogenetic network of viral sequences from North American wild birds (2008–2011) we demonstrate a shift from intraspecific to interspecific transmission that along with reassortment, allows IAV to achieve viral flow across successive seasons from summer to winter. Our study supports amplification of IAV during summer breeding seeded by overwintering virus persisting locally and virus introduced from a wide range of latitudes. As birds migrate from breeding sites to lower latitudes, they become involved in transmission networks with greater connectivity to other bird species, with interspecies transmission of reassortant viruses peaking during the winter. We propose that switching transmission dynamics may be a critical strategy for pathogens that infect mobile hosts inhabiting regions with strong seasonality.

  7. Scavengers on the move: behavioural changes in foraging search patterns during the annual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual López-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal foraging theory predicts that animals will tend to maximize foraging success by optimizing search strategies. However, how organisms detect sparsely distributed food resources remains an open question. When targets are sparse and unpredictably distributed, a Lévy strategy should maximize foraging success. By contrast, when resources are abundant and regularly distributed, simple brownian random movement should be sufficient. Although very different groups of organisms exhibit Lévy motion, the shift from a Lévy to a brownian search strategy has been suggested to depend on internal and external factors such as sex, prey density, or environmental context. However, animal response at the individual level has received little attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used GPS satellite-telemetry data of Egyptian vultures Neophron percnopterus to examine movement patterns at the individual level during consecutive years, with particular interest in the variations in foraging search patterns during the different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. breeding vs. non-breeding. Our results show that vultures followed a brownian search strategy in their wintering sojourn in Africa, whereas they exhibited a more complex foraging search pattern at breeding grounds in Europe, including Lévy motion. Interestingly, our results showed that individuals shifted between search strategies within the same period of the annual cycle in successive years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results could be primarily explained by the different environmental conditions in which foraging activities occur. However, the high degree of behavioural flexibility exhibited during the breeding period in contrast to the non-breeding period is challenging, suggesting that not only environmental conditions explain individuals' behaviour but also individuals' cognitive abilities (e.g., memory effects could play an important role. Our results support the growing

  8. Changes in Muscle Strength in U19 Soccer Players During an Annual Training Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert Michal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the seasonal variation in isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors, and conventional (H/QCONV and functional (H/QFUNC hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios in highly trained adolescent soccer players. The players (n=11; age 17.8±0.3 were measured at the end of the competitive season (autumn, at the beginning and the end of pre-season (winter and during the sixth week of a new competitive season. Isokinetic peak torque (concentric and eccentric was measured at 60°•s-1 in a sitting position with the hip flexed at 100°. The testing range of motion was set from 10 - 90° of knee flexion. The players performed a set of five maximum repetitions for both the dominant and non-dominant leg. Statistically significant differences (p<0.001 between the four seasonal measurements were noted for peak torque of the dominant leg knee flexors in concentric muscle action only. A post hoc analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in peak torque from the 1st to the 4th measurement (p<0.001; d=0.692 and from the 2nd to the 4th (p<0.01; d=0.564. The differences in the changes of peak torque of the knee flexors and extensors depending on type of muscle action and tendencies found in the H/Q ratios throughout the annual training cycle indicate that strength assessment of the knee flexors and extensors and their balance throughout the annual training cycle could be beneficial for elite male adolescent soccer players both in terms of performance and risk of injury.

  9. Changes in the Amplitude and Phase of the Annual Cycle: quantifying from surface wind series in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is not only reflected in the changes in annual means of climate variables but also in the changes in their annual cycles (seasonality), especially in the regions outside the tropics. Changes in the timing of seasons, especially the wind season, have gained much attention worldwide in recent decade or so. We introduce long-range correlated surrogate data to Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition method, which represent the statistic characteristics of data better than white noise. The new method we named Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Long-range Correlated noise (EEMD-LRC) and applied to 600 station wind speed records. This new method is applied to investigate the trend in the amplitude of the annual cycle of China's daily mean surface wind speed for the period 1971-2005. The amplitude of seasonal variation decrease significantly in the past half century over China, which can be well explained by Annual Cycle component from EEMD-LRC. Furthermore, the phase change of annual cycle lead to strongly shorten of wind season in spring, and corresponding with strong windy day frequency change over Northern China.

  10. CHANGES IN THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN AN ANNUAL CYCLE OF SPORT TRAINING OF YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Śliwowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess changes in the anaerobic threshold of young soccer players in an annual training cycle. A group of highly trained 15-18 year old players of KKS Lech Poznań were tested. The tests included an annual training macrocycle, and its individual stages resulted from the time structure of the sports training. In order to assess the level of exercise capacities of the players, a field exercise test of increasing intensity was carried out on a soccer pitch. The test made it possible to determine the 4 millimolar lactate threshold (T LA 4 mmol · l-1 on the basis of the lactate concentration in blood [LA], to establish the threshold running speed and the threshold heart rate [HR]. The threshold running speed at the level of the 4 millimolar lactate threshold was established using the two-point form of the equation of a straight line. The obtained indicators of the threshold running speed allowed for precise establishment of effort intensity used in individual training in developing aerobic endurance. In order to test the significance of differences in mean values between four dates of tests, a non-parametric Friedman ANOVA test was used. The significance of differences between consecutive dates of tests was determined using a post-hoc Friedman ANOVA test. The tests showed significant differences in values of selected indicators determined at the anaerobic threshold in various stages of an annual training cycle of young soccer players. The most beneficial changes in terms of the threshold running speed were noted on the fourth date of tests, when the participants had the highest values of 4.01 m · s-1 for older juniors, and 3.80 m · s-1 for younger juniors. This may be indicative of effective application of an individualized programme of training loads and of good preparation of teams for competition in terms of players’ aerobic endurance.

  11. Annual reproductive cycle in two free living populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.: patterns of ovarian and testicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sokołowska

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The annual reproductive cycle in two wild populations of three-spinedstickleback was studied. Sticklebacks from the Dead Vistula River(Martwa Wisła (brackish water and the Oliva Stream (Potok Oliwski(freshwater were exposed to annual environmental changes in their naturalhabitats. Ovaries and livers (females, and testes and kidneys (males werecollected during 1-2 years. The gonadosomatic IG, hepatosomaticIH, nephrosomatic IN indices, kidney epithelium height(KEH and size of oocytes were calculated.The number of mature oocytes andpercentage of ovulating females were determined during the spawning season.Histological changes in the ovaries and testes were described throughouta year. Annual reproductive cycles were similar in both populations ofsticklebacks. This is the first histological and morphological study carriedout throughout a year, simultaneously in two wild populations of three-spinedsticklebacks inhabiting different environments. An improved scale of gonadaldevelopment in conjunction with the determined indices and fecundity givea comprehensive description of the reproductive cycle. These new observations,in combination with previously reported features, provide a universal scalethat can be successfully used to distinguish all phases of gametogenesis insticklebacks in different habitats.

  12. The annual cycle of satellite derived sea surface temperature on the western South Atlantic shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. D. Lentini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, thirteen years of weekly sea surface temperature (SST fields derived from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer global area coverage infrared satellite data, from January 1982 to December 1994, are used to investigate spatial and temporal variabilities of SST seasonal cycle in the Southwest Atlantic Oceano This work addresses large scale variations over the eastem South American continental shelf and slope regions limited offshore by the 1000-m isobath, between 42° and 22°S. SST time series are fit with annual and semi-annual harmonics to describe the annual variation of sea surface temperatures. The annual harmonic explains a large proportion of the SST variability. The coefficient of determination is highest (> 90% on the continental shelf, decreasing offshore. The estimated amplitude of the seasonal cycle ranges between 4° and 13°e throughout the study area, with minima in August­September and maxima in February-March. After the identification and removal of the dominant annual components ofSST variability, models such as the one presented here are an attractive tool to study interannual SST variability.Neste artigo, treze anos de imagens semanais da temperatura da superfície do mar (TSM obtidas através do sensor infravermelho Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer a bordo dos satélites NOAA, de janeiro de 1982 a dezembro de 1994, são utlilizadas para investigar as variabilidades espacial e temporal do cicIo sazonal de TSM no Oceano Atlântico Sudoeste. Este trabalho objetiva as variações de larga escala sobre a plataforma continental e o talude leste da América do Sul limitados ao largo pela isóbata de 1000 metros, entre 42°5 e 22°S. As séries temporais de TSM são ajustadas aos .harmônicos anual e sem i-anual para descrever a variação anual das temperaturas da superfície do mar. O harmônico anual explica a maior parte da variabilidade da TSM. O coeficiente de determinação é alto (> 90

  13. Transcription Through The Eye Of A Needle: Daily And Annual Cycles Of Gene Expression Variation In Douglas-Fir Needles

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Peter; Cronn, Richard; Denver, Dee; Clair, J.; Neale, David; Wegrzyn, Jill; Jogdeo, Sanjuro

    2017-01-01

    Background: Perennial growth in plants is the product of interdependent cycles of daily and annual stimuli that induce cycles of growth and dormancy. In conifers, needles are the key perennial organ that integrates daily and seasonal signals from light, temperature, and water availability. To understand the relationship between seasonal rhythms and seasonal gene expression responses in conifers, we examined diurnal and circannual needle mRNA accumulation in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)...

  14. The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars as Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spectra taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have been used to monitor the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor for over one full Martian year (March 1999-March 2001). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of approximately 100 pr-micrometer in the north and approximately 50 pr-micrometer in the south. Low water vapor abundance (water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure. Comparison of TES results with those retrieved from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) experiments shows some similar features, but also many significant differences. The southern hemisphere maximum observed by TES was not observed by MAWD and the large latitudinal gradient in annually-averaged water vapor observed by MAWD does not appear in the TES results.

  15. Annual cycle energy system (ACES). Performance report, November 1977-September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, A.S.; Abbatiello, L.A.

    1980-05-01

    A single-family residence near Knoxville, Tennessee, is being used to demonstrate the energy-conserving features of the annual cycle energy system (ACES), an integrated heating and cooling system that utilizes a unidirectional heat pump and low-temperature thermal storage. A second house, the control house, is being used to compare the performance of the ACES with that of an electric-resistance heating and hot-water system combined with a central air conditioning system. The results of one year's operation, from November 1977 through mid-September 1978, showed that the ACES consumed 9012 kWhr of electricity and delivered 40.8 x 10/sup 6/ Btu (43.03 x 10/sup 9/J) of heating, 19.8 x 10/sup 6/ Btu (20.89 x 10/sup 9/J) of hot water, and 24.8 x 10/sup 6/ Btu (26.17 x 10/sup 9/J) of cooling; the annual coefficient of performance (COP) was 2.78. The control house consumed 20,523 kWhr of electricity and delivered 41.3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu (43.57 x 10/sup 9/J) of heating, 14.8 x 10/sup 6/ Btu (15.61 x 10/sup 9/J) of hot water, and 23.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu (24.41 x 10/sup 9/J) of cooling; the annual COP was 1.13. These loads were delivered in a test year in which the heating season was one of the most severe in the past 20 years and the cooling season was normal. In addition, the ACES reduced peak utility system demands significantly: a reduction from 11.7 to 3.1 kW was achieved in the winter and from 4.1 to 0.7 kW in the summer. The only problems encountered were a heat leak into the storage bin that was twice the calculated value and control logic errors that produced excessive hot water in the winter, requiring extensive use of the night heat-rejection mode in the summer. These problems are currently being corrected.

  16. Eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature annual cycle in the Kiel climate model: simulation benefits from enhancing atmospheric resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengel, C.; Latif, M.; Park, W.; Harlaß, J.; Bayr, T.

    2018-05-01

    A long-standing difficulty of climate models is to capture the annual cycle (AC) of eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) sea surface temperature (SST). In this study, we first examine the EEP SST AC in a set of integrations of the coupled Kiel Climate Model, in which only atmosphere model resolution differs. When employing coarse horizontal and vertical atmospheric resolution, significant biases in the EEP SST AC are observed. These are reflected in an erroneous timing of the cold tongue's onset and termination as well as in an underestimation of the boreal spring warming amplitude. A large portion of these biases are linked to a wrong simulation of zonal surface winds, which can be traced back to precipitation biases on both sides of the equator and an erroneous low-level atmospheric circulation over land. Part of the SST biases also is related to shortwave radiation biases related to cloud cover biases. Both wind and cloud cover biases are inherent to the atmospheric component, as shown by companion uncoupled atmosphere model integrations forced by observed SSTs. Enhancing atmosphere model resolution, horizontal and vertical, markedly reduces zonal wind and cloud cover biases in coupled as well as uncoupled mode and generally improves simulation of the EEP SST AC. Enhanced atmospheric resolution reduces convection biases and improves simulation of surface winds over land. Analysis of a subset of models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) reveals that in these models, very similar mechanisms are at work in driving EEP SST AC biases.

  17. The distribution of the annual and semiannual cycles in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumathipala, W.L.

    1992-06-01

    The distributions of annual and semiannual cycles in the tropics are studied using outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR), and FGGE level III b wind data. Amplitudes and variances of first and second harmonics (in the time domain) of low level zonal wind (U) are largest over monsoon regions of the eastern hemisphere and account for more than 80% of the variance. The first harmonic of OLR shows largest amplitudes over the continental regions between 10-15 degrees from the equator. The first harmonics of both low-level wind and OLR show standing character. The second and third harmonics of U are characterized by cross equatorial and clockwise phase propagation. All three harmonics are ''phase locked'' in the monsoon region of the eastern hemisphere during summer. Amplitude of the first harmonic of low level meridonal wind (V) is prominent at the Somalia coast and Malaysia. Amplitude variations of first and second harmonics of upper level zonal wind exhibit the response of subtropical jet streams to monsoon and inter-monsoon convective activity. Fairly strong amplitudes of OLR are found over the equatorial land areas where rainfall is maximum during the transition periods. (author). 15 refs, 7 figs

  18. The annual cycle of stratospheric water vapor in a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, Philip W.

    1995-01-01

    The application of general circulation models (GCM's) to stratospheric chemistry and transport both permits and requires a thorough investigation of stratospheric water vapor. The National Center for Atmospheric Research has redesigned its GCM, the Community Climate Model (CCM2), to enable studies of the chemistry and transport of tracers including water vapor; the importance of water vapor to the climate and chemistry of the stratosphere requires that it be better understood in the atmosphere and well represented in the model. In this study, methane is carried as a tracer and converted to water; this simple chemistry provides an adequate representation of the upper stratospheric water vapor source. The cold temperature bias in the winter polar stratosphere, which the CCM2 shares with other GCM's, produces excessive dehydration in the southern hemisphere, but this dry bias can be ameliorated by setting a minimum vapor pressure. The CCM2's water vapor distribution and seasonality compare favorably with observations in many respects, though seasonal variations including the upper stratospheric semiannual oscillation are generally too small. Southern polar dehydration affects midlatitude water vapor mixing ratios by a few tenths of a part per million, mostly after the demise of the vortex. The annual cycle of water vapor in the tropical and northern midlatitude lower stratosphere is dominated by drying at the tropical tropopause. Water vapor has a longer adjustment time than methane and had not reached equilibrium at the end of the 9 years simulated here.

  19. Changes in CO2 during Ocean Anoxic Event 1d indicate similarities to other carbon cycle perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Jon D.; Upchurch, Garland R.; Montañez, Isabel P.; Lomax, Barry H.; Suarez, Marina B.; Crout, Neil M. J.; Joeckel, R. M.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Smith, Jon J.

    2018-06-01

    Past greenhouse intervals of the Mesozoic were repeatedly punctuated by Ocean Anoxic Events (OAEs), major perturbations to the global carbon cycle and abrupt climate changes that may serve as relevant analogs for Earth's greenhouse gas-forced climate future. The key to better understanding these transient climate disruptions and possible CO2-forced tipping-points resides in high-resolution, precise, and accurate estimates of atmospheric CO2 for individual OAEs. Here we present a high-temporal resolution, multi-proxy pCO2 reconstruction for the onset of mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian Boundary) OAE1d. Coupling of pCO2 estimates with carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of charcoal, vitrain, and cuticle from the Rose Creek Pit (RCP), Nebraska, reveals complex phasing, including a lag between the well-documented negative δ13C excursion defining the onset of OAE1d and the CO2 increase. This lag indicates that increased CO2 or other C-based greenhouse gases may not have been the primary cause of the negative excursion. Our study reveals a pCO2 increase within the interval of the negative δ13C excursion, reaching a maximum of up to ∼840 ppm (95% confidence interval -307 ppm/+167 ppm) toward its end. The reconstructed magnitude of CO2 increase (∼357 ppm) is similar to that of Late Cretaceous OAE2 but of smaller magnitude than that of other major carbon cycle perturbations of the Mesozoic assessed via stomatal methods (e.g., the Toarcian OAE [TOAE], Triassic-Jurassic boundary event, Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary event). Furthermore, our results indicate a possible shared causal or developmental mechanism with OAE1a and the TOAE.

  20. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  1. ANNUAL AND DIURNAL CYCLES OF THE INVERSE RELATION BETWEEN PLANT TRANSPIRATION AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alonso Moreno

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding biogeochemical cycles and especially carbon budgets is clue to validate global change models in the present and near future. As a consequence, sinks and sources of carbon in the world are being studied. One of those sinks is the non-well known behavior of the planet vegetation which involves the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon sequestration rates are highly related to the transpiration through a molecular diffusion process occurring at the stomatal level which can be recorded by an eddy covariance micrometeorological station. This paper explores annual and diurnal cycles of latent heat (LE and CO2 net (FC fluxes over 6 different ecosystems. Based on the physics of the transpiration process, different time-scale analysis are performed, finding a near-linear relation between LE and CO2 net fluxes, which is stronger at the more vegetated areas. The North American monsoon season increases carbon up taking and LE-CO2 flux relation preserves at different time scales analysis (hours to days to months.El conocimiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos y, en especial, de los balances de carbono es clave para la validación de los modelos de cambio global para el presente y el futuro cercano. Como consecuencia, en el mundo se estudian las fuentes y los sumideros de carbono. Uno de esos sumideros es la vegetación del planeta, que involucra los procesos de respiración y fotosíntesis y cuyo comportamiento se empieza a estudiar. Las tasas de captura del carbono están muy ligadas a la transpiración mediante un proceso de difusión molecular en los estomas, que puede registrarse por un sistema micrometeorológico de eddy covarianza. Este artículo explora los ciclos anuales y diurnos de los flujos netos de CO2 y calor latente de seis ecosistemas diferentes. Se desarrollan diversos análisis de escala temporal, basados en la física de la transpiración, y se halla una relación cuasilineal entre los flujos netos de calor

  2. Annual and solar cycle dependencies of SuperDARN scatter occurrence and ionospheric convection measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, M.; Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) provides a long term data series which enables investigations of the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system. The network has been in existence essentially since 1995 when 6 radars were operational in the northern hemisphere and 4 in the southern hemisphere. We have been involved in an analysis of the data over the lifetime of the project and present results here from two key studies. In the first study we calculated the amount of ionospheric scatter which is observed by the radars and see clear annual and solar cycle variations in both hemispheres. The recent extended solar minimum also produces a significant effect in the scatter occurrence. In the second study, we have determined the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection for the interval 1996 - 2011. We find that the average latitude of the HMB at midnight is 61° magnetic latitude during solar the maximum of 2003, but it moves significantly poleward during solar minimum, averaging 64° latitude during 1996, and 68° during 2010. This poleward motion is observed despite the increasing number of low latitude radars built in recent years as part of the StormDARN network, and so is not an artefact of data coverage. We believe that the recent extreme solar minimum led to an average HMB location that was further poleward than the previous solar cycle. We have also calculated the Open-Closed field line Boundary (OCB) from auroral images during a subset of the interval (2000 - 2002) and find that on average the HMB is located equatorward of the OCB by ~7o. We suggest that the HMB may be a useful proxy for the OCB when global images are not available. The work presented in this paper has been undertaken as part of the European Cluster Assimilation Technology (ECLAT) project which is funded through the EU FP7 programme and involves groups at

  3. Drivers and environmental responses to the changing annual snow cycle of northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher J.; Stone, Robert S.; Douglas, David C.; Stanitski, Diane; Divoky, George J.; Dutton, Geoff S.; Sweeney, Colm; George, J. Craig; Longenecker, David U.

    2017-01-01

    On the North Slope of Alaska, earlier spring snowmelt and later onset of autumn snow accumulation are tied to atmospheric dynamics and sea ice conditions, and result in environmental responses.Linkages between atmospheric, ecological and biogeochemical variables in the changing Arctic are analyzed using long-term measurements near Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska. Two key variables are the date when snow disappears in spring, as determined primarily by atmospheric dynamics, precipitation, air temperature, winter snow accumulation and cloud cover, as well as the date of onset of snowpack in autumn that is additionally influenced by ocean temperature and sea ice extent. In 2015 and 2016 the snow melted early at Utqiaġvik due mainly to anomalous warmth during May of both years attributed to atmospheric circulation patterns, with 2016 having the record earliest snowmelt. These years are discussed in the context of a 115-year snowmelt record at Utqiaġvik with a trend toward earlier melting since the mid- 1970s (-2.86 days/decade, 1975-2016). At nearby Cooper Island, where a colony of seabirds, Black Guillemots, have been monitored since 1975, timing of egg laying is correlated with Utqiaġvik snowmelt with 2015 and 2016 being the earliest years in the 42-year record. Ice-out at a nearby freshwater lagoon is also correlated with Utqiaġvik snowmelt. The date when snow begins to accumulate in autumn at Utqiaġvik shows a trend towards later dates (+4.6 days/decade, 1975-2016), with 2016 the latest on record. The relationships between the lengthening snow-free season and regional phenology, soil temperatures, fluxes of gases from the tundra, and to regional sea ice conditions are discussed. Better understanding of these interactions is needed to predict the annual snow cycles in the region at seasonal to decadal scales, and to anticipate coupled environmental responses.

  4. Projected Changes in the Annual Cycle of Precipitation over Central Asia by CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Future changes in the annual cycle of the precipitation in central Asia (CA) were estimated based on the historical and Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) experiments from 25 models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Compared with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) observations, the historical (1979-1999) experiments showed that most models can capture the migration of rainfall centers, but remarkable discrepancies exist in the location and intensity of rainfall centers between simulations and observations. Considering the skill scores of precipitation and pattern correlations of circulations, which are closely related to the precipitation for each month, for the 25 models, the four best models (e.g., CanESM2, CMCC-CMS, MIROC5 and MPI-ESM-LR) with relatively good performance were selected. The four models' ensemble mean indicated that the migration and location of the precipitation centers were better reproduced, except the intensity of the centers was overestimated, compared with the result that only considered precipitation. Based on the four best models' ensemble mean under RCP8.5 scenarios, precipitation was projected to increase dramatically over most of the CA region in the boreal cold seasons (November, December, January, February, March, April and May) with the maximum in December in the end of twenty-first century (2079-2099), and several positive centers were located in the Pamirs Plateau and the Tianshan Mountains. By contrast, the precipitation changes were weak in the boreal warm seasons (June, July, August, September and October), with a wet center located in the northern Himalayas. Furthermore, there remain some uncertainties in the projected precipitation regions and periods obtained by comparing models' ensemble results of this paper and the results of previous studies. These uncertainties should be investigated in future work.

  5. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioglio, G.; McCorkle, K.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Rode, J.S.

    1980-03-01

    A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and process engineering design studies. A bench-scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been designed to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The designs of subunit I, which models the main solution reaction and product separation, and subunit II, which models the concentration and decomposition of sulfuric acid, were presented in an earlier annual report. The design of subunit III, which models the purification and decomposition of hydrogen iodide, is given in this report. Progress on the installation and operation of subunits I and II is described. A closed-loop cycle demonstrator was installed and operated based on a DOE request. Operation of the GA sulfur-iodine cycle was demonstrated in this system under recycle conditions. The process engineering addresses the flowsheet design of a large-scale production process consisting of four chemical sections (I through IV) and one helium heat supply section (V). The completed designs for sections I through V are presented. The thermal efficiency of the process calculated from the present flowsheet is 47%.

  6. Transpiration efficiency over an annual cycle, leaf gas exchange and wood carbon isotope ratio of three tropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Virgo, Aurelio; Garcia, Milton

    2009-09-01

    Variation in transpiration efficiency (TE) and its relationship with the stable carbon isotope ratio of wood was investigated in the saplings of three tropical tree species. Five individuals each of Platymiscium pinnatum (Jacq.) Dugand, Swietenia macrophylla King and Tectona grandis Linn. f. were grown individually in large (760 l) pots over 16 months in the Republic of Panama. Cumulative transpiration was determined by repeatedly weighing the pots with a pallet truck scale. Dry matter production was determined by destructive harvest. The TE, expressed as experiment-long dry matter production divided by cumulative water use, averaged 4.1, 4.3 and 2.9 g dry matter kg(-1) water for P. pinnatum, S. macrophylla and T. grandis, respectively. The TE of T. grandis was significantly lower than that of the other two species. Instantaneous measurements of the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) partial pressures (c(i)/c(a)), taken near the end of the experiment, explained 66% of variation in TE. Stomatal conductance was lower in S. macrophylla than in T. grandis, whereas P. pinnatum had similar stomatal conductance to T. grandis, but with a higher photosynthetic rate. Thus, c(i)/c(a) and TE appeared to vary in response to both stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity. Stem-wood delta(13)C varied over a relatively narrow range of just 2.2 per thousand, but still explained 28% of variation in TE. The results suggest that leaf-level processes largely determined variation among the three tropical tree species in whole-plant water-use efficiency integrated over a full annual cycle.

  7. Dynamical diagnostics of the SST annual cycle in the eastern equatorial Pacific: Part II analysis of CMIP5 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a simple coupled framework established in Part I is utilized to investigate inter-model diversity in simulating the equatorial Pacific SST annual cycle (SSTAC). It demonstrates that the simulated amplitude and phase characteristics of SSTAC in models are controlled by two internal dynamical factors (the damping rate and phase speed) and two external forcing factors (the strength of the annual and semi-annual harmonic forcing). These four diagnostic factors are further condensed into a dynamical response factor and a forcing factor to derive theoretical solutions of amplitude and phase of SSTAC. The theoretical solutions are in remarkable agreement with observations and CMIP5 simulations. The great diversity in the simulated SSTACs is related to the spreads in these dynamic and forcing factors. Most models tend to simulate a weak SSTAC, due to their weak damping rate and annual harmonic forcing. The latter is due to bias in the meridional asymmetry of the annual mean state of the tropical Pacific, represented by the weak cross-equatorial winds in the cold tongue region.

  8. Annual cycle of the microzooplankton communities in the waters surrounding the Palm Island Nature Reserve (north Lebanon, with special attention to tintinnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ABBOUD-ABI SAAB

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution, abundance and annual cycle of microzooplankton communities have been studied monthly at five sampling stations in the north Lebanon, covering both neritic and oceanic waters in the vicinity of small islands situated 5 km offshore.In general, the density of microprotozoans, except for ciliates, increased from the coastal towards the offshore area, with stations situated near the islands being similar to the offshore rather than to the coastal ones. The microprotozoan species showed their highest numbers in late autumn and early winter. Foraminifera abundance ranged from 20 to 3390 inds.m -3 (mean= 549 whereas Acantharia abundance was highest in spring and ranged from 0 to 2608 inds.m -3 (mean 259. The Polycistina had their highest numbers in late winter, which ranged from 0 to 6024 inds.m -3 (mean= 740. The Heliozoa were abundant in late autumn with numbers ranging from 0 to 5165 inds.m -3 (mean= 555. The annual cycle of Tintinnids at all the stations was bimodal with a principal peak in October-November and another one in May, while minimum numbers were recorded in August-September. A succession of populations was observed all year round with a density ranging between 344 and 38986 inds.m -3 (mean = 10878. Ninety different species of Tintinnids were recorded. The diversity index varied between 0.19 and 4.15. It was concluded that there was a large-scale gradient in seasonal diversity which could be related to the annual average sea surface temperature and to the development of the vertical thermic structure.

  9. Benthic studies in Goa estuaries. Part 3. Annual cycle of macrofaunal distribution, production and trophic relations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    and bivalves together contribute 70% of the macrofauna, by number and weight. Biomass production, inspite of large temporal and spatial variations, is high (54.17 g m-2) with proportionately high organic matter production of 4.08 g C m-2 y-1. Estimated annual...

  10. DNA Methylation and Somatic Mutations Converge on the Cell Cycle and Define Similar Evolutionary Histories in Brain Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Mazor (Tali); A. Pankov (Aleksandr); B.E. Johnson (Brett E.); C. Hong (Chibo); E.G. Hamilton (Emily G.); R.J.A. Bell (Robert J.A.); I.V. Smirnov (Ivan V.); G.F. Reis (Gerald F.); J.J. Phillips (Joanna J.); M.J. Barnes (Michael); A. Idbaih (Ahmed); A. Alentorn (Agusti); J.J. Kloezeman (Jenneke); M.L.M. Lamfers (Martine); A.W. Bollen (Andrew W.); B.S. Taylor (Barry S.); A.M. Molinaro (Annette M.); A. Olshen (Adam); S.M. Chang (Susan); J.S. Song (Jun S.); J.F. Costello (Joseph F.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe evolutionary history of tumor cell populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic alterations. In contrast to stable genetic events, epigenetic states are reversible and sensitive to the microenvironment, prompting the question whether epigenetic information can similarly

  11. Similar Transition States Mediate the Q-cycle and Superoxide Production by the Cytochrome bc1 Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forquer, Isaac P.; Covian, Raul; Bowman, Michael K.; Trumpower, Bernard; Kramer, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The cytochrome bc complexes found in mitochondria, chloroplasts and many bacteria catalyze a critical reaction in their respective electron transport chains. The quinol oxidase (Qo) site in this complex oxidizes a hydroquinone (quinol), reducing two one-electron carriers, a low-potential cytochrome b heme and a ''Rieske'' iron-sulfur cluster. The overall electron transfer reactions are coupled to transmembrane translocation of protons via a ''Q-cycle'' mechanism, which generates proton motive force for ATP synthesis. Since semiquinone intermediates of quinol oxidation are generally highly reactive, one of the key questions in this field is: how does the Qo site oxidize quinol without the production of deleterious side reactions including superoxide production? We attempt to test three possible general models to account for this behavior: (1) The Qo site semiquinone (or quinol:imidazolate complex) is unstable and thus occurs at a very low steady-state concentration, limiting O2 reduction; (2) the Qo site semiquinone is highly stabilized making it unreactive towards oxygen; and (3) the Qo site catalyzes a quantum mechanically-coupled two-electron/two proton transfer without a semiquinone intermediate. Enthalpies of activation were found to be almost identical between the uninhibited Q-cycle and superoxide production in the presence of Antimycin A in wild type. This behavior was also preserved in a series of mutants with altered driving forces for quinol oxidation. Overall, the data supports models where the rate-limiting step for both Q-cycle and superoxide production are essentially identical, consistent with model 1 but requiring modifications to models 2 and 3

  12. Annual Cycles of Two Cyanobacterial Mat Communities in Hydro-Terrestrial Habitats of the High Arctic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tashyreva, D.; Elster, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 4 (2016), s. 887-900 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 934; GA MŠk LA341 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Phormidium * Life cycle * Polar Regions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2016

  13. Yearly variation and annual cycle of total column ozone over New ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wave-like propagation of disturbances of rotational temperature of OH(8, 3). .... such as gravity waves, planetary waves, tides and ..... But, in case of Halley Bay, the most identical sea- ...... spheric water vapour; J. Geophys. Res. ... Greet P A, French W J R, Burns G B, Williams P F B, Lowe ... cycle; Indian J. Radio Space Phys.

  14. Growth patterns and annual growth cycle of Acacia karroo Hayne in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... karroo; alice; botany; compensatory growth; condition; development; eastern cape; emergence; environmental conditions; field study; growth cycle; growth initiation; growth patterns; growth strategy; leaf growth; plant growth; savanna; shoot growth; soil depth; soil moisture; south africa; university of fort hare; water stress ...

  15. Ammonia oxidizer populations vary with nitrogen cycling across a tropical montane mean annual temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Pierre; I. Hewson; J. P. Sparks; C. M. Litton; C. Giardina; P. M. Groffman; T. J. Fahey

    2017-01-01

    Functional gene approaches have been used to better understand the roles of microbes in driving forest soil nitrogen (N) cycling rates and bioavailability. Ammonia oxidation is a rate limiting step in nitrification, and is a key area for understanding environmental constraints on N availability in forests. We studied how increasing temperature affects the role of...

  16. RNA synthesis during meiosis and spermiogenesis in Tylototriton verrucosus anderson - an annual testicular cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, R.R.; Ray, D.; Ghosal, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    RNA synthetic activity during various stages of meiosis and spermiogenesis in Tylotatriton verrucosus has been studied throughout the testicular cycle by autoradiographic technique. Meiocytes are 'hot' during breeding months while spermatids as well as spermatozoa has shown RNA synthetic activity during breeding and non breeding months. Continuation of RNA synthetic activity in spermatozoa suggests continued transcription necessary for sperm preservation of this seasonal breeder. (author). 8 refs., 1 tab

  17. Roosting, social organization and the annual cycle in a Kenya population of the bat Pipistrellus nanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    The tiny (3.1–3.8 g) vespcrtilionid bat Pipistrellus nanus was studied in Kenya palm-thatched roofs from May 1973 to July 1974. Roosting social organization and related activities and behavior are described. ♂♂ held diurnal roosting territories where ♀♀ gathered in small and compositionally labile groups, attracted to the most vocal ♂♂. Annual variation in population-wide aspects of social organization follows predictable seasonal changes in climate and predator abundance. Variability between individuals follows a common mammalian pattern: high male competition for ♀, variance in presumed male reproductive success, and a mating system resembling one based on resource defense polygyny. Social organization in this population contrasts with that known from studies of other P. nanus populations.

  18. Simulations of the global carbon cycle and anthropogenic CO{sub 2} transient. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    This research focuses on improving the understanding of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide transient using observations and models of the past and present. In addition, an attempt is made to develop an ability to predict the future of the carbon cycle in response to continued anthropogenic perturbations and climate change. Three aspects of the anthropogenic carbon budget were investigated: (1) the globally integrated budget at the present time; (2) the time history of the carbon budget; and (3) the spatial distribution of carbon fluxes. One of the major activities of this study was the participation in the model comparison study of Enting, et al. [1994] carried out in preparation for the IPCC 1994 report.

  19. Drying/rewetting cycles mobilize old C from deep soils from a California annual grassland

    OpenAIRE

    Schimel, JP; Wetterstedt, JAM; Holden, PA; Trumbore, SE

    2011-01-01

    We measured the 14 C and 13 C signatures of CO 2 respired from surface and deep soils released through multiple dry/rewetting cycles in laboratory incubations. The C respired from surface soils included components fixed before and after the 1960s. However, that respired from deep soils was derived from organic matter with a mean turnover time estimated in the range of 650-850 years. This reinforces previous research suggesting that a substantial amount of deep soil C is chemically labile b...

  20. MUREX: a land-surface field experiment to study the annual cycle of the energy and water budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The MUREX (monitoring the usable soil reservoir experimentally experiment was designed to provide continuous time series of field data over a long period, in order to improve and validate the Soil-vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT parameterisations employed in meteorological models. Intensive measurements were performed for more than three years over fallow farmland in southwestern France. To capture the main processes controlling land-atmosphere exchanges, the local climate was fully characterised, and surface water and energy fluxes, vegetation biomass, soil moisture profiles, surface soil moisture and surface and soil temperature were monitored. Additional physiological measurements were carried out during selected periods to describe the biological control of the fluxes. The MUREX data of 1995, 1996, and 1997 are presented. Four SVAT models are applied to the annual cycle of 1995. In general, they succeed in simulating the main features of the fallow functioning, although some shortcomings are revealed.Key words. Hydrology (evapotranspiration; soil moisture; water-energy interactions.

  1. On the annual cycle of the sea surface temperature and the mixed layer depth in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, V.M.; Villanueva, E.E.; Adem, J. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-04-01

    Using an integrated mixed layer model, we carry out a simulation of the annual cycle of the sea surface temperature (SST) and of the mixed layer depth (MLD) in the Gulf of Mexico. We also compute the annual cycle of the entrainment velocity in the deepest region of the Gulf of Mexico. The model is based on the thermal energy equation and on an equation of mechanical and thermal energy balance based on the Kraus-Turner theory; both equation are coupled and are vertically integrated in the mixed layer. The model equations are solved in a uniform grid of 25 km in the Gulf of Mexico, the northwestern region of the Caribbean Sea and the eastern coast of Florida. The surface ocean current velocity and the atmospheric variables are prescribed in the model using observed values. We show the importance of the Ekman pumping in the entrainment velocity. We found that the upwelling plays an important role in increasing the entrainment velocity, producing an important reduction in the SST and diminishing the depth of the mixed layer in the Campeche Bay. In the rest of the Gulf of Mexico the downwelling tends to reduce the entrainment velocity, increasing the SST and the MLD. Comparison of the computed annual cycle of the SST and the MLD with the corresponding observations reported by Robinson (1973) shows a good agreement. In the deepest region of the Gulf of Mexico, the photosynthetic pigment concentration data obtained from the Mexican Pacific Cd-Rom of environmental analysis shows significant correlation with the computed annual cycle of the computed entrainment velocity only in January, April, May, June and September. [Spanish] Usando un modelo integrado en la capa de mezcla hemos obtenido una simulacion del ciclo anual de la temperatura de la superficie del mar (SST), de la profundidad de la capa de mezcla (MLD) en el Golfo de Mexico, asi como el ciclo anual de la velocidad de penetracion vertical turbulenta a traves de la termoclina en la region mas profunda del golfo de

  2. Vapor cycle energy system for implantable circulatory assist devices. Annual progress report Jul 1974--Jun 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, K.G.

    1975-06-01

    The report describes the development status of a heart assist system driven by a nuclear fueled, electronically controlled vapor cycle engine termed the tidal regenerator engine (TRE). The TRE pressurization (typically from 5-160 psia) is controlled by a torque motor coupled to a displacer. The electrical power for the sensor, electronic logic and actuator is provided by a thermoelectric module interposed between the engine superheater and boiler. The TRE is direct coupled to an assist blood pump which also acts as a blood-cooled heat exchanger, pressure-volume transformer and sensor for the electronic logic. Engine efficiencies in excess of 14% have been demonstrated. Efficiency values as high as 13% have been achieved to date

  3. Annual Properties of Transverse Waves in the Corona over most of Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberg, M. J.; Morton, R. J.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Waves are an omnipresent feature in heliophysical plasmas. In particular, transverse (or "Alfvénic") waves have been observed at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales within the corona and solar wind. These waves play a key role in transporting energy through the solar atmosphere and are also thought to contribute to the heating and acceleration of the solar wind. Previous studies of low-frequency (automated detection and measurement of low-frequency transverse waves with over 7 years of SDO / AIA data to provide a detailed picture of coronal transverse waves in polar plumes and, for the first time, begin to examine their long-term behaviour. We measure waves at three different heights in each of eight, four-hour periods spanning May 2010 - May 2017. We find that the bulk wave parameters within these 24 regions are largely consistent over most of a solar cycle. However, there is some evidence for smaller-scale variations both with height and over time periods of a few years. We also discuss total energy flux estimations based on the full wave power spectra, which yields a more nuanced picture than previous values based on summary statistics. Overall, this work expands our view of wave processes in the corona and is relevant to both theoretical and modelling considerations of energy transport within the solar atmosphere. Crucially, these initial results suggest that the energy flux provided by the low-frequency transverse waves varies little over the solar cycle, potentially indicating that the waves provide a consistent source of energy to the corona and beyond.

  4. Variation of crack intensity factor in three compacted clay liners exposed to annual cycle of atmospheric conditions with and without geotextile cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Jalili Ghazizade, M; Abduli, M A; Gatmiri, B

    2014-08-01

    Performance of compacted clay liners commonly used as landfill barrier systems can be subject to decline in terms of hydraulic conductivity if left exposed to atmospheric conditions for an extended period of time prior to placement of overlaying layers. The resulting desiccation cracking can lead to increased hydraulic conductivity. Desiccation crack intensity was studied for three clayey soils commonly used for construction of landfill barrier system in a relatively large scale test setup exposed to real time atmospheric conditions over a complete annual cycle. A white separator geotextile cover was presumed to be capable of reducing the intensity of desiccation cracking through absorbing and maintaining higher amounts of moisture and reducing the temperature of the soil surface in comparison to a directly exposed soil surface. Desiccation cracking was monitored using a digital imaging technique for three compacted clay liners in two sets, one open to air and the second covered with the white geotextile. Crack intensity factor approached a relatively stable phase after certain cycles corresponding to atmospheric dry wet cycles. The results indicated that the white separator geotextile was capable of reducing the crack intensity factor by 37.4-45.9% throughout the experiment including the cyclic phase of desiccation cracking. During the stable phase, the maximum reduction in crack intensity factor of 90.4% as a result of applying geotextile cover was observed for the soil with the lowest plastic index and clay content and therefore the lowest magnitude of crack intensity factor. The other two soils with similar clay content but different plastic index showed 23.6% and 52.2% reductions in crack intensity factor after cyclic phase when covered with geotextile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coccolithophore populations and their contribution to carbonate export during an annual cycle in the Australian sector of the Antarctic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigual Hernández, Andrés S.; Flores, José A.; Sierro, Francisco J.; Fuertes, Miguel A.; Cros, Lluïsa; Trull, Thomas W.

    2018-03-01

    The Southern Ocean is experiencing rapid and relentless change in its physical and biogeochemical properties. The rate of warming of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current exceeds that of the global ocean, and the enhanced uptake of carbon dioxide is causing basin-wide ocean acidification. Observational data suggest that these changes are influencing the distribution and composition of pelagic plankton communities. Long-term and annual field observations on key environmental variables and organisms are a critical basis for predicting changes in Southern Ocean ecosystems. These observations are particularly needed, since high-latitude systems have been projected to experience the most severe impacts of ocean acidification and invasions of allochthonous species. Coccolithophores are the most prolific calcium-carbonate-producing phytoplankton group playing an important role in Southern Ocean biogeochemical cycles. Satellite imagery has revealed elevated particulate inorganic carbon concentrations near the major circumpolar fronts of the Southern Ocean that can be attributed to the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Recent studies have suggested changes during the last decades in the distribution and abundance of Southern Ocean coccolithophores. However, due to limited field observations, the distribution, diversity and state of coccolithophore populations in the Southern Ocean remain poorly characterised. We report here on seasonal variations in the abundance and composition of coccolithophore assemblages collected by two moored sediment traps deployed at the Antarctic zone south of Australia (2000 and 3700 m of depth) for 1 year in 2001-2002. Additionally, seasonal changes in coccolith weights of E. huxleyi populations were estimated using circularly polarised micrographs analysed with C-Calcita software. Our findings indicate that (1) coccolithophore sinking assemblages were nearly monospecific for E. huxleyi morphotype B/C in the Antarctic zone waters in 2001-2002; (2

  6. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. II. Implications of wing feather moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef

    2018-01-01

    Birds usually moult their feathers in a particular sequence which may incur aerodynamic, physiological and behavioural implications. Among birds, hummingbirds are unique species in their sustained hovering flight. Because hummingbirds frequently hover-feed, they must maintain sufficiently high flight capacities even when moulting their flight feathers. A hummingbird wing consists of 10 primary flight feathers whose absence during moult may strongly affect wing performance. Using dynamic similarity rules, we compared time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements over several wing geometries that follow the natural feather moult sequence of Calypte anna, a common hummingbird species in western North America. Our results suggest a drop of more than 20% in lift production during the early stages of the moult sequence in which mid-wing flight feathers are moulted. We also found that the wing's ability to generate lift strongly depended on the morphological integrity of the outer primaries and leading-edge. These findings may explain the evolution of wing morphology and moult attributes. Specifically, the high overlap between adjacent wing feathers, especially at the wing tip, and the slow sequential replacement of the wing feathers result in a relatively small reduction in wing surface area during moult with limited aerodynamic implications. We present power and efficiency analyses for hover flight during moult under several plausible scenarios, suggesting that body mass reduction could be a compensatory mechanism that preserves the energetic costs of hover flight. PMID:29515884

  7. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  8. Carry-over effects on the annual cycle of a migratory seabird: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, Annette L; Freeman, Robin; Shoji, Akiko; Kirk, Holly L; Padget, Oliver; Perrins, Chris M; Guilford, Tim

    2016-11-01

    Long-lived migratory animals must balance the cost of current reproduction with their own condition ahead of a challenging migration and future reproduction. In these species, carry-over effects, which occur when events in one season affect the outcome of the subsequent season, may be particularly exacerbated. However, how carry-over effects influence future breeding outcomes and whether (and how) they also affect behaviour during migration and wintering is unclear. Here we investigate carry-over effects induced by a controlled, bidirectional manipulation of the duration of reproductive effort on the migratory, wintering and subsequent breeding behaviour of a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus. By cross-fostering chicks of different age between nests, we successfully prolonged or shortened by ∼25% the chick-rearing period of 42 breeding pairs. We tracked the adults with geolocators over the subsequent year and combined migration route data with at-sea activity budgets obtained from high-resolution saltwater-immersion data. Migratory behaviour was also recorded during non-experimental years (the year before and/or two years after manipulation) for a subset of birds, allowing comparison between experimental and non-experimental years within treatment groups. All birds cared for chicks until normal fledging age, resulting in birds with a longer breeding period delaying their departure on migration; however, birds that finished breeding earlier did not start migrating earlier. Increased reproductive effort resulted in less time spent at the wintering grounds, a reduction in time spent resting daily and a delayed start of breeding with lighter eggs and chicks and lower breeding success the following breeding season. Conversely, reduced reproductive effort resulted in more time resting and less time foraging during the winter, but a similar breeding phenology and success compared with control birds the following year, suggesting that

  9. From drought to flooding: understanding the abrupt 2010-11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Espinoza, Jhan; Ronchail, Josyane; Loup Guyot, Jean; Junquas, Clementine; Drapeau, Guillaume; Martinez, Jean Michel; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, Waldo; Ordoñez, Julio; Espinoza, Raúl

    2012-06-01

    In this work we document and analyze the hydrological annual cycles characterized by a rapid transition between low and high flows in the Amazonas River (Peruvian Amazon) and we show how these events, which may impact vulnerable riverside residents, are related to regional climate variability. Our analysis is based on comprehensive discharge, rainfall and average suspended sediment data sets. Particular attention is paid to the 2010-11 hydrological year, when an unprecedented abrupt transition from the extreme September 2010 drought (8300 m3 s-1) to one of the four highest discharges in April 2011 (49 500 m3 s-1) was recorded at Tamshiyacu (Amazonas River). This unusual transition is also observed in average suspended sediments. Years with a rapid increase in discharge are characterized by negative sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer, corresponding to a La Niña-like mode. It originates a geopotential height wave train over the subtropical South Pacific and southeastern South America, with a negative anomaly along the southern Amazon and the southeastern South Atlantic convergence zone region. As a consequence, the monsoon flux is retained over the Amazon and a strong convergence of humidity occurs in the Peruvian Amazon basin, favoring high rainfall and discharge. These features are also reported during the 2010-11 austral summer, when an intense La Niña event characterized the equatorial Pacific.

  10. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the annual cycle: Linking policy alternatives, landowner decisions, and biological population outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Grant, Edward C.; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, D.C.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  11. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Drum

    Full Text Available Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  12. Cardiac hypertrophy and structural and metabolic remodeling related to seasonal dormancy in the first annual cycle in tegu lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Lilian Cristina; do Nascimento, Lucas Francisco R; Colquhoun, Alison; Abe, Augusto S; de Souza, Silvia Cristina R

    2013-07-01

    Morpho-functional adjustments in the heart of juvenile tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae) were analyzed at distinct seasonal periods to investigate how the demands of growth and of energy saving are reconciled during the first annual cycle. The relative ventricular mass (Mv) was 31% and 69% larger in late autumn and winter dormancy, respectively, compared to early autumn. This effect did not persist during unfed arousal, suggesting that protein accumulates in the heart during hypometabolism and is degraded on arousal. Both the hypertrophy and the atrophy were disproportionate in the largest individuals. In contrast, Mv was smaller in lizards that were starved during spring activity compared to fed lizards, this effect being larger in smaller individuals. In late autumn and winter dormancy the spongy myocardium had 8% of the section area covered by lacunary spaces, which expanded after food intake during arousal and reached 29% in spring activity together with higher density of cardiomyocytes. Total and soluble proteins per mass unity were unchanged, and maximum activities of selected enzymes suggest sustained glycolytic and aerobic capacities during hypometabolism. Results indicate that important structural adjustments occur in the heart in anticipation of dormancy, and that the protein balance in the tissue is maintained at winter temperatures ~17°C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. From drought to flooding: understanding the abrupt 2010–11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Ronchail, Josyane; Drapeau, Guillaume; Guyot, Jean Loup; Martinez, Jean Michel; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe; Espinoza, Raúl; Junquas, Clementine; Lavado, Waldo; Ordoñez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    In this work we document and analyze the hydrological annual cycles characterized by a rapid transition between low and high flows in the Amazonas River (Peruvian Amazon) and we show how these events, which may impact vulnerable riverside residents, are related to regional climate variability. Our analysis is based on comprehensive discharge, rainfall and average suspended sediment data sets. Particular attention is paid to the 2010–11 hydrological year, when an unprecedented abrupt transition from the extreme September 2010 drought (8300 m 3 s −1 ) to one of the four highest discharges in April 2011 (49 500 m 3 s −1 ) was recorded at Tamshiyacu (Amazonas River). This unusual transition is also observed in average suspended sediments. Years with a rapid increase in discharge are characterized by negative sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer, corresponding to a La Niña-like mode. It originates a geopotential height wave train over the subtropical South Pacific and southeastern South America, with a negative anomaly along the southern Amazon and the southeastern South Atlantic convergence zone region. As a consequence, the monsoon flux is retained over the Amazon and a strong convergence of humidity occurs in the Peruvian Amazon basin, favoring high rainfall and discharge. These features are also reported during the 2010–11 austral summer, when an intense La Niña event characterized the equatorial Pacific. (letter)

  14. The Annual Glaciohydrology Cycle in the Ablation Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Part 1. Hydrology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, William; Rajaram, Harihar; Anderson, Robert; Steffen. Konrad; Phillips, Thomas; Zwally, H. Jay; Abdalati, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    We apply a novel one-dimensional glacier hydrology model that calculates hydraulic head to the tidewater-terminating Sermeq Avannarleq flowline of the Greenland ice sheet. Within a plausible parameter space, the model achieves a quasi-steady-state annual cycle in which hydraulic head oscillates close to flotation throughout the ablation zone. Flotation is briefly achieved during the summer melt season along a approx.17 km stretch of the approx.50 km of flowline within the ablation zone. Beneath the majority of the flowline, subglacial conduit storage closes (i.e. obtains minimum radius) during the winter and opens (i.e. obtains maximum radius) during the summer. Along certain stretches of the flowline, the model predicts that subglacial conduit storage remains open throughout the year. A calculated mean glacier water residence time of approx.2.2 years implies that significant amounts of water are stored in the glacier throughout the year. We interpret this residence time as being indicative of the timescale over which the glacier hydrologic system is capable of adjusting to external surface meltwater forcings. Based on in situ ice velocity observations, we suggest that the summer speed-up event generally corresponds to conditions of increasing hydraulic head during inefficient subglacial drainage. Conversely, the slowdown during fall generally corresponds to conditions of decreasing hydraulic head during efficient subglacial drainage.

  15. Cycling Time Trial Performance 4 Hours After Glycogen-Lowering Exercise Is Similarly Enhanced by Recovery Nondairy Chocolate Beverages Versus Chocolate Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, Adam U; Wong, Tiffany S; Bandegan, Arash; Lemon, Peter W

    2016-02-01

    Postexercise chocolate milk ingestion has been shown to enhance both glycogen resynthesis and subsequent exercise performance. To assess whether nondairy chocolate beverage ingestion post-glycogen-lowering exercise can enhance 20-km cycling time trial performance 4 hr later, eight healthy trained male cyclists (21.8 ± 2.3y, VO2max = 61.2 ± 1.4 ml·kg-1·min-1; M ± SD) completed a series of intense cycling intervals designed to lower muscle glycogen (Jentjens & Jeukendrup, 2003) followed by 4 hr of recovery and a subsequent 20-km cycling time trial. During the first 2 hr of recovery, participants ingested chocolate dairy milk (DAIRYCHOC), chocolate soy beverage (SOYCHOC), chocolate hemp beverage (HEMPCHOC), low-fat dairy milk (MILK), or a low-energy artificially sweetened, flavored beverage (PLACEBO) at 30-min intervals in a double-blind, counterbalanced repeated-measures design. All drinks, except the PLACEBO (247 kJ) were isoenergetic (2,107 kJ), and all chocolate-flavored drinks provided 1-g CHO·kg body mass-1·h-1. Fluid intake across treatments was equalized (2,262 ± 148 ml) by ingesting appropriate quantities of water based on drink intake. The CHO:PRO ratio was 4:1, 1.5:1, 4:1, and 6:1 for DAIRYCHOC, MILK, SOYCHOC, and HEMPCHOC, respectively. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed time trial performance (DAIRYCHOC = 34.58 ± 2.5 min, SOYCHOC = 34.83 ± 2.2 min, HEMPCHOC = 34.88 ± 1.1 min, MILK = 34.47 ± 1.7 min) was enhanced similarly vs PLACEBO (37.85 ± 2.1) for all treatments (p = .019) These data suggest that postexercise macronutrient and total energy intake are more important for same-day 20-km cycling time trial performance after glycogen-lowering exercise than protein type or protein-to-carbohydrate ratio.

  16. Similarity Theory Based Radial Turbine Performance and Loss Mechanism Comparison between R245fa and Air for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycles using radial turbines as expanders are considered as one of the most efficient technologies to convert heavy-duty diesel engine waste heat into useful work. Turbine similarity design based on the existing air turbine profiles is time saving. Due to totally different thermodynamic properties between organic fluids and air, its influence on turbine performance and loss mechanisms need to be analyzed. This paper numerically simulated a radial turbine under similar conditions between R245fa and air, and compared the differences of the turbine performance and loss mechanisms. Larger specific heat ratio of air leads to air turbine operating at higher pressure ratios. As R245fa gas constant is only about one-fifth of air gas constant, reduced rotating speeds of R245fa turbine are only 0.4-fold of those of air turbine, and reduced mass flow rates are about twice of those of air turbine. When using R245fa as working fluid, the nozzle shock wave losses decrease but rotor suction surface separation vortex losses increase, and eventually leads that isentropic efficiencies of R245fa turbine in the commonly used velocity ratio range from 0.5 to 0.9 are 3%–4% lower than those of air turbine.

  17. The annual cycle of nitrate and net community production in surface waters of the Southern Ocean observed with SOCCOM profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. S.; Plant, J. N.; Sakamoto, C.; Coletti, L. J.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Riser, S.; Talley, L. D.

    2016-12-01

    Sixty profiling floats with ISUS and SUNA nitrate sensors have been deployed in the Southern Ocean (south of 30 degrees S) as part of the SOCCOM (Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling) program and earlier efforts. These floats have produced detailed records of the annual cycle of nitrate concentration throughout the region from the surface to depths near 2000 m. In surface waters, there are clear cycles in nitrate concentration that result from uptake of nitrate during austral spring and summer. These changes in nitrate concentration were used to compute the annual net community production over this region. NCP was computed using a simplified version of the approach detailed by Plant et al. (2016, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30, 859-879, DOI: 10.1002/2015GB005349). At the time the abstract was written 41 complete annual cycles were available from floats deployed before the austral summer of 2015/2016. After filtering the data to remove floats that crossed distinct frontal boundaries, floats with other anomalies, and floats in sub-tropical waters, 23 cycles were available. A preliminary assessment of the data yields an NCP of 2.8 +/- 0.95 (1 SD) mol C/m2/y after integrating to 100 m depth and converting nitrate uptake to carbon using the Redfield ratio. This preliminary assessment ignores vertical transport across the nitracline and is, therefore, a minimum estimate. The number of cycles available for analysis will increase rapidly, as 32 of the floats were deployed in the austral summer of 2015/2016 and have not yet been analyzed.

  18. Castration and testosterone induced changes in the pinealocytes of roseringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri, during different phases of the annual testicular cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, S K; Dey, M

    1994-08-01

    The pinealocytes in male roseringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) were studied following bilateral castration and/or therapeutic administration of testosterone during the preparatory (June-July), progressive (Nov.-Dec.), pre-breeding (Jan.-Feb.) and breeding (March-April) phases of the annual testicular cycle. The responses of the pineal to either treatment were found to be almost identical throughout the investigation. In each reproductive phase, the pineal appeared to be hypertrophied following castration and the effect was reversed by therapeutic administration of testosterone, while hormonal treatment to the intact parakeets induced regressive changes in the pinealocytes. Collectively, the results of the current study support the hypothesis that the testis through its hormone testosterone exerts inhibitory influences on the activity of pineal, and may thus be considered as being involved in the determination of an inverse relationship between the pineal and the testis during the annual cycle of free-living parakeets.

  19. Variability of the western Galician upwelling system (NW Spain) during an intensively sampled annual cycle. An EOF analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J. L.; Rosón, G.; Varela, R. A.; Piedracoba, S.

    2008-07-01

    The key features of the western Galician shelf hydrography and dynamics are analyzed on a solid statistical and experimental basis. The results allowed us to gather together information dispersed in previous oceanographic works of the region. Empirical orthogonal functions analysis and a canonical correlation analysis were applied to a high-resolution dataset collected from 47 surveys done on a weekly frequency from May 2001 to May 2002. The main results of these analyses are summarized bellow. Salinity, temperature and the meridional component of the residual current are correlated with the relevant local forcings (the meridional coastal wind component and the continental run-off) and with a remote forcing (the meridional temperature gradient at latitude 37°N). About 80% of the salinity and temperature total variability over the shelf, and 37% of the residual meridional current total variability are explained by two EOFs for each variable. Up to 22% of the temperature total variability and 14% of the residual meridional current total variability is devoted to the set up of cross-shore gradients of the thermohaline properties caused by the wind-induced Ekman transport. Up to 11% and 10%, respectively, is related to the variability of the meridional temperature gradient at the Western Iberian Winter Front. About 30% of the temperature total variability can be explained by the development and erosion of the seasonal thermocline and by the seasonal variability of the thermohaline properties of the central waters. This thermocline presented unexpected low salinity values due to the trapping during spring and summer of the high continental inputs from the River Miño recorded in 2001. The low salinity plumes can be traced on the Galician shelf during almost all the annual cycle; they tend to be extended throughout the entire water column under downwelling conditions and concentrate in the surface layer when upwelling favourable winds blow. Our evidences point to the

  20. The pineal gland, but not melatonin, is associated with the termination of seasonal testicular activity in an annual reproductive cycle in roseringed parakeet Psittacula krameri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anamika; Kumar Maitra, Saumen

    2006-01-01

    The role of the pineal gland and its hormone melatonin in the regulation of annual testicular events was investigated for the first time in a psittacine bird, the roseringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Accordingly, the testicular responsiveness of the birds was evaluated following surgical pinealectomy with or without the exogenous administration of melatonin and the experimental manipulations of the endogenous levels of melatonin through exposing the birds to continuous illumination. An identical schedule was followed during the four reproductive phases, each characterizing a distinct testicular status in the annual cycle, namely, the phases of gametogenic quiescence (preparatory phase), seasonal recovery of gametogenesis (progressive phase), seasonal initiation of sperm formation (pre-breeding phase), and peak gametogenic activity (breeding phase). In each reproductive phase, the birds were subjected to various experimental conditions, and the effects were studied comparing the testicular conditions in the respective control birds. The study included germ cell profiles of the seminiferous tubules, the activities of steroidogenic enzymes 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), and Delta(5)3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Delta(5)3beta- HSD) in the testis, and the serum levels of testosterone and melatonin. An analysis of the data reveals that the pineal gland and its hormone melatonin may play an inhibitory role in the development of the testis until the attainment of the seasonal peak in the annual reproductive cycle. However, in all probability, the termination of the seasonal activity of the testis or the initiation of testicular regression in the annual reproductive cycle appears to be the function of the pineal gland, but not of melatonin.

  1. Research of the cost-benefit analysis for FR cycle research and development. The annual report of the FY 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Hiroki; Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Hirao, Kazunori

    2002-07-01

    This report is intended to explain the outline of the research and development (R and D) in the FY 2001 on cost-benefit analysis of FR (Fast Reactor) cycle system concepts. The work was conducted as a part of the JNC's Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (the F/S)'. In the FY 2001, the work conducted in the JNC was summed up as the followings: Conceptual study on cost-benefit analysis for FR cycle R and D. Refinement on the evaluation procedure and improvement over operation efficiency. Cost-benefit analysis of the reference FR cycle and sensitivity analysis with the revised system. Cost-benefit analyses of R and Ds for various FR cycle candidate concepts including FR cycle concepts studied in the F/S phase 1. The work made it possible to evaluate the cost effectiveness of various FR cycle systems efficiently. The cost-benefit analysis, which is often used for the policy evaluation, is considered to be applicable to FR cycle system concepts in the F/S. (author)

  2. A twelve-month field study of the West African Thrush Turdus pelios (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae: Part 2: annual cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinsola I Akinpelu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, birds inhabiting forested regions are less seasonal in their activities than those from open areas. In order to study annual cycles in forest regions of South western Nigeria, West African Thrushes (Turdus pelios were mist-netted and banded during the last two weeks of each month. The nest is a cup-shaped structure built out of grasses, herbs, weeds, roots and earth laid out in a clockwise manner. Only the nesting tree and feeding sites were defended during the breeding period. The clutch size was 2.69 ±0.20 eggs with a mean incubation period of 14.11 ±0.26 days. The mean nestling period was 15 ±1.00 days. The nestlings were fed on a variety of plant and animal matter, of which grass seeds and insects were predominant. Moult was found to be protracted with a population moult period of 194 days and a much shorter individual moult period. Moult and breeding periods were spread out: moult period dovetailed into the breeding period. The birds were found to gain weight during the period but they attained their maximum weight in August after the moult period. The lowest weight was recorded in February, during the peak of the dry season, when food availability was lower. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2:239-247. Epub 2005 Jun 24El nido del tordo africano occidental es una estructura en forma de copa construida con pastos, hierbas, malezas, raíces y tierra, proyectado en el sentido de las manecillas del reloj. Solamente el árbol con el nido y los sitios de alimentación son defendidos durante la crianza. El tamaño de la nidada fue 2.69 ± 0.20 huevos con un periodo de incubación de 14.11 ± 0.26 días. El periodo promedio de cría fue de 15 ± 1.00 días. Los polluelos fueron alimentados con una variedad de material animal y vegetal, predominando las semillas de pasto y los insectos. La muda del plumaje alar es prolongada, con un período poblacional de muda de 194 días y un periodo individual mucho menor. La muda y crianza son tan prolongados

  3. Shorter Harvest Cycles Counteract Increasing Annual Productivity in Industrial Plantation Forests: Trends from Three Decades of Remote Sensing in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Plantation forestry can produce woody biomass many times faster than native vegetation, particularly in the tropical regions where plantations have expanded rapidly in the past three decades. However, activists and practitioners have raised concerns over the sustainability of intensive plantations, suggesting that changes to soil properties may inhibit vegetation growth after multiple harvest cycles. We use a 32-year time series of remotely sensed vegetation indices derived from Landsat data, coupled with recent geospatial and wood volume data from plantation companies, to identify trends in management and vegetation productivity in thousands of individual eucalyptus plantation stands. We find that peak vegetation index values at canopy closure, which are correlated with annual wood volume increment, increase over successive harvest cycles, while the length of each cycle decreases. These opposing trends suggest that the number of harvests required to produce a given wood volume peaks around the second harvest cycle and then declines, likely due to refinement of management practices. Across the region, vegetation index data do not support the hypothesized decrease in productivity over multiple harvest cycles. Additional field data and ongoing soil analyses will complement the remote sensing approach to quantifying plantations' long-term effects on the land they occupy.

  4. Environmental drivers of heterogeneity in the trophic-functional structure of protozoan communities during an annual cycle in a coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangjian; Yang, Eun Jin; Xu, Henglong

    2017-08-15

    Trophic-functional groupings are an important biological trait to summarize community structure in functional space. The heterogeneity of the tropic-functional pattern of protozoan communities and its environmental drivers were studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea during a 1-year cycle. Samples were collected using the glass slide method at four stations within a water pollution gradient. A second-stage matrix-based analysis was used to summarize spatial variation in the annual pattern of the functional structure. A clustering analysis revealed significant variability in the trophic-functional pattern among the four stations during the 1-year cycle. The heterogeneity in the trophic-functional pattern of the communities was significantly related to changes in environmental variables, particularly ammonium-nitrogen and nitrates, alone or in combination with dissolved oxygen. These results suggest that the heterogeneity in annual patterns of protozoan trophic-functional structure may reflect water quality status in coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Annual progress report, February 1, 1983-January 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This annual report describes progress in research on the influence of soil fauna on the general process of terrestrial decomposition. The major goal is to investigate the regulation of decomposition by soil arthropods. Methods have included radioactive tracer measurements of food chain dynamics, rates of nutrient or mineral element flow during decomposition, and simulation modeling. This year's report describes significant progress in defining the influence of soil arthropods in stimulating microbial immobilization of nutrients. Preliminary efforts to define the importance of the soil-litter macroarthropods are also reported

  6. Analysis of monthly, winter, and annual temperatures in Zagreb, Croatia, from 1864 to 2010: the 7.7-year cycle and the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Asok K.; Ogrin, Darko

    2016-02-01

    Long instrumental records of meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation are very useful for studying regional climate in the past, present, and future. They can also be useful for understanding the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation processes on the regional climate. This paper investigates the monthly, winter, and annual temperature time series obtained from the instrumental records in Zagreb, Croatia, for the period 1864-2010. Using wavelet analysis, the dominant modes of variability in these temperature series are identified, and the time intervals over which these modes may persist are delineated. The results reveal that all three temperature records exhibit low-frequency variability with a dominant periodicity at around 7.7 years. The 7.7-year cycle has also been observed in the temperature data recorded at several other stations in Europe, especially in Northern and Western Europe, and may be linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and/or solar/geomagnetic activity.

  7. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Annual progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1994-12-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The nuclei of these cells may be targets for damage by {alpha} particles. Then it is important to determine the locations and other parameters of these nuclei in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human bronchial epithelium of defined airway generations. The second part of this proposal describes the continuation of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheo-bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections. The proliferative potential of the airway mucosa of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women, as well as individuals of different ages are being compared. Normal human bronchial linings are also being compared with normal adult dog bronchi and metaplastic and repairing human airways. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, the quantitative data from this project will allow the development of more accurate radon risk analysis.

  8. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Annual progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1994-12-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The nuclei of these cells may be targets for damage by α particles. Then it is important to determine the locations and other parameters of these nuclei in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human bronchial epithelium of defined airway generations. The second part of this proposal describes the continuation of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheo-bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections. The proliferative potential of the airway mucosa of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women, as well as individuals of different ages are being compared. Normal human bronchial linings are also being compared with normal adult dog bronchi and metaplastic and repairing human airways. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, the quantitative data from this project will allow the development of more accurate radon risk analysis

  9. Influence of macroclimatic phenomena on the annual cycle of the Colombian hydrology: lineal quantification, not lineal and probabilistic percentiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, German; Velez, Jaime I; Mesa, Oscar; Hoyos, Carlos D; Mejia, J Freddy; Barco, Olga J; Correa, Paula L

    2002-01-01

    We study the influence of macroclimatic phenomena on the Colombian hydrology monthly, annual and interannual variability. The degree of linear dependency that exists between several indices of el Nino south oscillation (ENSO) phenomena, other phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation NAO), the pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), etc., is quantified. We estimate quarterly cross-correlations between climatic variables and continuous series (over 30 years) of precipitation and run off, distributed all over Colombia. For nonlinear analysis we used the wavelets methodology. In general, we estimated positive and statistically significant simultaneous correlations of around 0.6 and 0.65 between the sol, and also for lags of one and two quarters. Correlations with the pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) indicate negative significant correlations (although smaller than - 0,5). We observed positive correlations around 0,5 between the south Atlantic temperature and trimesters JJA and SON precipitation. We estimate frequencies histograms of discharge series to quantify the impact of ENSO on the mean floods in Colombia

  10. Mean Annual Temperature Drives Microbial Nitrogen Cycling and Fine Root Nutrient Foraging Across a Tropical Montane Wet Forest Elevation Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, S.; Litton, C. L. M.; Giardina, C. P.; Sparks, J. P.; Groffman, P. M.; Hewson, I.; Fahey, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mean annual temperature (MAT) is positively correlated with rates of primary production and carbon (C) turnover in forests globally, but the underlying biotic drivers of these relationships remain poorly resolved. We hypothesized that (1) MAT increases nitrifier abundance and thereby nitrate (NO-) bioavailability in soils and (2) increased NO- bioavailability reduces fine root nitrogen (N) demand. We used an ecologically well-constrained natural elevation gradient (13˚C -18˚C) in a tropical wet motane forest on the Island of Hawaii to study to role of MAT in situ. Our previous work showed that MAT drives increased soil NO- bioavailability in situ (r²=0.79, P=0.003), and indicated that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea is strongly and positively correlated with MAT in situ (r²=0.34, Preduce fine root foraging effort. Further, higher MAT and greater N fertility in soils may reduce the C limitation of AM fungal colonization. We conclude that MAT drives N-rich conditions, which allow for lower N foraging effort, but greater C investment in P acquisition through AM fine root colonization.

  11. Characterizing the annual cycle of African dust transport to the Caribbean Basin and South America and its impact on the environment and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Collard, François-Xavier; Molinié, Jack; Jeannot, Alexis

    2014-07-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados have yielded a detailed picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin that shows a strong seasonal cycle with a maximum in boreal summer and a minimum in winter. Satellite aerosol products suggest that in spring, there is a comparable transport to northeastern South America. Here we characterize the complete annual cycle of dust transport to the western Atlantic by linking the Barbados record to multiyear records of airborne particulate matter less than 10 µm diameter (PM10) measured in air quality programs at Cayenne (French Guiana) and Guadeloupe. Comparisons of PM10 at these sites with concurrent dust measurements at Barbados demonstrate that high PM10 levels are almost entirely due to dust. Cayenne PM10 peaks in spring in a cycle which is consistent with satellite aerosol optical depth and suggests that the Sahel is the dominant source. The persistent transport of dust during much of the year could impact a wide range of environmental processes over a broad region that extends from the southern United States to the Amazon Basin. Finally, the average 24 h PM10 concentrations at Cayenne and Guadeloupe frequently exceed the World Health Organization air quality guideline. Thus soil dust PM10 could be a significant, but generally unrecognized, health factor at western Atlantic sites and also in other relatively remote regions affected by long-range dust from Africa. Because dust emissions and transport are highly sensitive to climate variability, climate change in coming decades could greatly affect a wide range of biogeochemical processes and human health in this region.

  12. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    repatriated populations are cycling naturally.

  13. Approach to criticality in cold core of the Unit 1 of the cycle 10 of the Laguna Verde power plant with control rods similar in design to the original ones and the advanced ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perusquia, R.; Ramirez, J.R.; Ortiz, J.J.; Hernandez, J.L.; Montes, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the Laguna Verde power plant (CLV) worn out control bars have been replacing for control rods of advanced design. At the moment of the 109 rods of similar design to the original of the Unit 1 of the CLV, 14 of them have been substituted with two types of different advanced control rods. The same as the original rods the advanced rods use boron carbide as control element for neutrons, but additionally they use hafnium, to achieve a longer useful half life. The rods of similar design to the original are homogeneous axially on the other hand the advanced presenting several zones. In principle the advanced rods were designed to be neutronically compatible to the original rods. However the differences in the design and of constituents assumed to consider a different performance during the operation. Since the one numbers of advanced bars is growing with the number of cycles of the CLV reactor has requested to the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) to evaluate in detailed form the performance of the control rods. Previously the calculations and analysis of cycle design that that were carried out assumed that control rods should be of similar design as the original. Using the HELIOS/CM-LENDS system, the effect of the inclusion of advanced rods was analyzed in the approximation of the criticality in cold (20 C) in the cycle 10 of the Unit 1. Four scenarios were poposed, where the type of the rod of substitution control is varied. The value of reactivity was calculated for the rods similar in design to the original and for the advanced one. By comparison of these values, it was found that the value of reactivity of the control rods of the advanced design was superior to the value for rods similar to the original ones by 7.6% for one of the advanced designs and of 13.6% for the other one. (Author)

  14. Approach to criticality in cold core of the Unit 1 of the cycle 10 of the Laguna Verde power plant with control rods similar in design to the original ones and the advanced ones; Aproximacion a criticidad en frio de la Unidad 1 del ciclo 10 de la CLV con barras de control de diseno similar al original y avanzadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia, R.; Ramirez, J.R.; Ortiz, J.J.; Hernandez, J.L.; Montes, J.L. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: rpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    In the Laguna Verde power plant (CLV) worn out control bars have been replacing for control rods of advanced design. At the moment of the 109 rods of similar design to the original of the Unit 1 of the CLV, 14 of them have been substituted with two types of different advanced control rods. The same as the original rods the advanced rods use boron carbide as control element for neutrons, but additionally they use hafnium, to achieve a longer useful half life. The rods of similar design to the original are homogeneous axially on the other hand the advanced presenting several zones. In principle the advanced rods were designed to be neutronically compatible to the original rods. However the differences in the design and of constituents assumed to consider a different performance during the operation. Since the one numbers of advanced bars is growing with the number of cycles of the CLV reactor has requested to the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) to evaluate in detailed form the performance of the control rods. Previously the calculations and analysis of cycle design that that were carried out assumed that control rods should be of similar design as the original. Using the HELIOS/CM-LENDS system, the effect of the inclusion of advanced rods was analyzed in the approximation of the criticality in cold (20 C) in the cycle 10 of the Unit 1. Four scenarios were poposed, where the type of the rod of substitution control is varied. The value of reactivity was calculated for the rods similar in design to the original and for the advanced one. By comparison of these values, it was found that the value of reactivity of the control rods of the advanced design was superior to the value for rods similar to the original ones by 7.6% for one of the advanced designs and of 13.6% for the other one. (Author)

  15. Effects of solar activity and galactic cosmic ray cycles on the modulation of the annual average temperature at two sites in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigo, Everton; Antonelli, Francesco; da Silva, Djeniffer S. S.; Lima, Pedro C. M.; Pacca, Igor I. G.; Bageston, José V.

    2018-04-01

    Quasi-periodic variations in solar activity and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) on decadal and bidecadal timescales have been suggested as a climate forcing mechanism for many regions on Earth. One of these regions is southern Brazil, where the lowest values during the last century were observed for the total geomagnetic field intensity at the Earth's surface. These low values are due to the passage of the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA), which crosses the Brazilian territory from east to west following a latitude of ˜ 26°. In areas with low geomagnetic intensity, such as the SAMA, the incidence of GCRs is increased. Consequently, possible climatic effects related to the GCRs tend to be maximized in this region. In this work, we investigate the relationship between the ˜ 11-year and ˜ 22-year cycles that are related to solar activity and GCRs and the annual average temperature recorded between 1936 and 2014 at two weather stations, both located near a latitude of 26° S but at different longitudes. The first of these stations (Torres - TOR) is located in the coastal region, and the other (Iraí - IRA) is located in the interior, around 450 km from the Atlantic Ocean. Sunspot data and the solar modulation potential for cosmic rays were used as proxies for the solar activity and the GCRs, respectively. Our investigation of the influence of decadal and bidecadal cycles in temperature data was carried out using the wavelet transform coherence (WTC) spectrum. The results indicate that periodicities of 11 years may have continuously modulated the climate at TOR via a nonlinear mechanism, while at IRA, the effects of this 11-year modulation period were intermittent. Four temperature maxima, separated by around 20 years, were detected in the same years at both weather stations. These temperature maxima are almost coincident with the maxima of the odd solar cycles. Furthermore, these maxima occur after transitions from even to odd solar cycles, that is

  16. Physical and Biogeochemical Controls of the Phytoplankton Blooms in North Western Mediterranean Sea: A Multiplatform Approach Over a Complete Annual Cycle (2012-2013 DEWEX Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayot, Nicolas; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Prieur, Louis; de Fommervault, Orens Pasqueron; Claustre, Hervé; Bosse, Anthony; Testor, Pierre; Conan, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    The North Western Mediterranean Sea exhibits recurrent and significant autumnal and spring phytoplankton blooms. The existence of these two blooms coincides with typical temperate dynamics. To determine the potential control of physical and biogeochemical factors on these phytoplankton blooms, data from a multiplatform approach (combining ships, Argo and BGC-Argo floats, and bio-optical gliders) were analyzed in association with satellite observations in 2012-2013. The satellite framework allowed a simultaneous analysis over the whole annual cycle of in situ observations of mixed layer depth, photosynthetical available radiation, particle backscattering, nutrients (nitrate and silicate), and chlorophyll-a concentrations. During the year 2012-2013, satellite ocean color observations, confirmed by in situ data, have revealed the existence of two areas (or bioregions) with comparable autumnal blooms but contrasting spring blooms. In both bioregions, the ratio of the euphotic zone (defined as the isolume 0.415 mol photons m-2 d-1, Z0.415) and the MLD identified the initiation of the autumnal bloom, as well as the maximal annual increase in [Chl-a] in spring. In fact, the autumnal phytoplankton bloom might be initiated by mixing of the summer shallowing deep chlorophyll maximum, while the spring restratification (when Z0.415/MLD ratio became >1) might induce surface phytoplankton production that largely overcomes the losses. Finally, winter deep convection events that took place in one of the bioregions induced higher net accumulation rate of phytoplankton in spring associated with a diatom-dominated phytoplankton community principally. We suggest that very deep winter MLD lead to an increase in surface silicates availability, which favored the development of diatoms.

  17. Single-cell vs. bulk activity properties of coastal bacterioplankton over an annual cycle in a temperate ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Xosé Anxelu G; Calvo-Díaz, Alejandra

    2009-01-01

    The connections between single-cell activity properties of heterotrophic planktonic bacteria and whole community metabolism are still poorly understood. Here, we show flow cytometry single-cell analysis of membrane-intact (live), high nucleic acid (HNA) content and actively respiring (CTC+) bacteria with samples collected monthly during 2006 in northern Spain coastal waters. Bulk activity was assessed by measuring 3H-Leucine incorporation and specific growth rates. Consistently, different single-cell relative abundances were found, with 60-100% for live, 30-84% for HNA and 0.2-12% for CTC+ cells. Leucine incorporation rates (2-153 pmol L(-1) h(-1)), specific growth rates (0.01-0.29 day(-1)) and the total and relative abundances of the three single-cell groups showed marked seasonal patterns. Distinct depth distributions during summer stratification and different relations with temperature, chlorophyll and bacterial biovolume suggest the existence of different controlling factors on each single-cell property. Pooled leucine incorporation rates were similarly correlated with the abundance of all physiological groups, while specific growth rates were only substantially explained by the percentage of CTC+ cells. However, the ability to reduce CTC proved notably better than the other two single-cell properties at predicting bacterial bulk rates within seasons, suggesting a tight linkage between bacterial individual respiration and biomass production at the community level.

  18. Comparing sex steroid levels during the annual cycles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diploid female (XX) and triploid female (XXX) genotypic sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, E; Josa, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Mitjana, O

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the annual cycle of the gonadal steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was determined using radioimmunoassay and then compared for two populations of rainbow trout, XX diploid females (n = 40) and XXX triploid females (n = 15). In females, E2 and DHP levels were found to be significantly related to body weight (r = 0.22513; p 0.001, respectively). In this group, E2 concentrations peaked in November (25.05 ng/ml), while maximum DHP levels, only measurable from October to April, were attained in February (64.14 ng/ml). No significant differences in hormone ranges related to egg output ability were observed. Finally, sex steroid concentrations were low in the triploid female XXX fish compared to the female XX population. Nevertheless, maximum T (33.85 ng/ml) and 11-KT (32.35 ng/ml) levels were recorded in January, for XXX. The levels for these two hormones are relatively high and are also significantly associated (r = 0.8430; p < 0.0001). Diploid females showed significantly higher levels of E2 than triploids over the 12-month study period. The female triploid fish produced the lowest steroid hormone levels, such that these would be the most suitable for human consumption. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Incidence of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios in a coastal lagoon and seawater influenced by lake discharges along an annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, E; Arnau, A; Amaro, C

    1985-08-01

    Most probable numbers of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios were determined in Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain, and in coastal waters under the influence of the lake discharges over the course of an annual cycle. The influence of temperature, kind of water, and characteristics of the different sampling sites on the numbers of vibrios recovered was evaluated. Maximum recovery of vibrios reached 10(3)/ml in both types of waters analyzed. V. cholerae numbers reached 10(3)/ml in the lake and 10(2) in one of the coastal sites. Frequently during the warm season, all vibrios isolated were identified as V. cholerae. Occasionally, no V. cholerae was recovered. The recovery of vibrios was significantly influenced by the temperature of the water and the type of water analyzed. Most of the V. cholerae isolates were included in Heiberg groups I and II, and nearly 50% of the strains used chitin as sole carbon source. Indole was not produced by 100% of the strains. All strains tested were non-O1 serovars.

  20. Contrasting seasonal and aseasonal environments across stages of the annual cycle in the Rufous-collared Sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis: differences in endocrine function, proteome, and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Paulina L; Echeverria, Valentina; Estades, Cristian F; Perez, Jonathan H; Krause, Jesse S; Sabat, Pablo; Li, Jonathon; Kültz, Dietmar; Wingfield, John C

    2018-05-09

    1.The timing and duration of life history stages (LHS) within the annual cycle can be affected by local environmental cues which are integrated through endocrine signaling mechanisms and changes in protein function. Most animals express a single LHS within a given period of the year because synchronous expression of LHSs is thought to be too costly energetically. However, in very rare and extremely stable conditions, breeding and molt have been observed to overlap extensively in Rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) living in valleys of the Atacama Desert - one of the most stable and aseasonal environments on Earth. 2.To examine how LHS traits at different levels of organization are affected by environmental variability we compared the temporal organization and duration of LHSs in populations in the Atacama Desert with those in the semiarid Fray Jorge National Park in the north of Chile - an extremely seasonal climate but with unpredictable droughts and heavy rainy seasons. 3.We studied the effects of environmental variability on morphological variables related to body condition, endocrine traits, and proteome. Birds living in the seasonal environment had a strict temporal division LHSs while birds living in the aseasonal environment failed to maintain a temporal division of LHSs resulting in direct overlap of breeding and molt. Further, higher circulating glucocorticoids and androgen concentrations were found in birds from seasonal compared to aseasonal populations. Despite these differences, body condition variables and protein expression were not related to the degree of seasonality but rather showed a strong relationship with hormone levels. 4.These results suggest that animals adjust to their environment through changes in behavioral and endocrine traits and may be limited by less labile traits such as morphological variables or expression of specific proteins under certain circumstances. These data on free-living birds shed light on how different

  1. CHANGES IN MOTOR SKILLS OF CHILDREN WHO TRAIN SPORTS SWIMMING AT THE INITIAL STAGE OF SCHOOL EDUCATION (IN ANNUAL TRAINING CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Eider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This is an empirical article aiming at defining the changes of motor fitness in children practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Proper selection of candidates to practice certain sports is a very complex process. One needs to select from the very large population of children, girls and boys, characterized by certain features, including somatic and motor features, which developed in a longstanding process of training, will lead them to become champions. The purpose of the research: The purpose of the research was to define the changes of motor fitness in girls’ practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Material and Methods: The subjects to the research were 85 girls aged 7 (1st year of primary school, including 36 girls in swimming group and 49 girls in control group. 36 of them belonged to swimmers’ group- all girls were members of the Municipal Swimming Club in Szczecin. Control group consisted of 49 girls, who attended the same elementary schools. The examinations were carried out twice in the 2009-2010 academic year. The most reliable and accurate indirect test- EUROFIT Test Battery-was used. Results : The research revealed changes in both groups (Sw, C in terms of all eight tests. Examination II proved statistically significant improvement of results in both groups (Sw, C in comparison to Examination I. The dynamics of changes in general balance, flexibility, static force, functional force, running agility, was bigger in the girls who practiced swimming. As the speed of movement of upper limb, explosive force and thorax force are concerned; the differences of results in both examinations were similar in both groups (swimming group and control group. Progressive changes in motor fitness of the examined groups are a positive phenomenon in the development of child’s young organism. Conclusions: Swimming training significantly affected the dynamics of

  2. Atmospheric mercury cycles in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, C. J.; Morrison, K. A.; Rubsam, J. L.; Rodger, B.

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the lower atmosphere of northern Wisconsin exhibits strong annual and diurnal cycles similar to those previously reported for other rural monitoring sites across mid-latitude North America. Annually, TGM was highest in late winter and then gradually declined until late summer. During 2002-04, the average TGM concentration was 1.4 ± 0.2 (SD) ng m -3, and the amplitude of the annual cycle was 0.4 ng m -3 (˜30% of the long-term mean). The diurnal cycle was characterized by increasing TGM concentrations during the morning followed by decreases during the afternoon and night. The diurnal amplitude was variable but it was largest in spring and summer, when daily TGM oscillations of 20-40% were not uncommon. Notably, we also observed a diurnal cycle for TGM indoors in a room ventilated through an open window. Even though TGM concentrations were an order of magnitude higher indoors, (presumably due to historical practices within the building: e.g. latex paint, fluorescent lamps, thermometers), the diurnal cycle was remarkably similar to that observed outdoors. The indoor cycle was not directly attributable to human activity, the metabolic activity of vegetation or diurnal atmospheric dynamics; but it was related to changes in temperature and oxidants in outdoor air that infiltrated the room. Although there was an obvious difference in the proximal source of indoor and outdoor TGM, similarities in behavior suggest that common TGM cycles may be driven largely by adsorption/desorption reactions involving solid surfaces, such as leaves, snow, dust and walls. Such behavior would imply a short residence time for Hg in the lower atmosphere and intense recycling - consistent with the "ping-pong ball" or "multi-hop" conceptual models proposed by others.

  3. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  4. Stress Models of the Annual Hydrospheric, Atmospheric, Thermal, and Tidal Loading Cycles on California Faults: Perturbation of Background Stress and Changes in Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Fu, Yuning; Bürgmann, Roland

    2017-12-01

    Stresses in the lithosphere arise from multiple natural loading sources that include both surface and body forces. The largest surface loads include near-surface water storage, snow and ice, atmosphere pressure, ocean loading, and temperature changes. The solid Earth also deforms from celestial body interactions and variations in Earth's rotation. We model the seasonal stress changes in California from 2006 through 2014 for seven different loading sources with annual periods to produce an aggregate stressing history for faults in the study area. Our modeling shows that the annual water loading, atmosphere, temperature, and Earth pole tides are the largest loading sources and should each be evaluated to fully describe seasonal stress changes. In California we find that the hydrological loads are the largest source of seasonal stresses. We explore the seasonal stresses with respect to the background principal stress orientation constrained with regional focal mechanisms and analyze the modulation of seismicity. Our results do not suggest a resolvable seasonal variation for the ambient stress orientation in the shallow crust. When projecting the seasonal stresses into the background stress orientation we find that the timing of microseismicity modestly increases from an 8 kPa seasonal mean-normal-stress perturbation. The results suggest that faults in California are optimally oriented with the background stress field and respond to subsurface pressure changes, possibly due to processes we have not considered in this study. At any time a population of faults are near failure as evident from earthquakes triggered by these slight seasonal stress perturbations.

  5. Inter annual variability of the global carbon cycle (1992-2005) inferred by inversion of atmospheric CO2 and δ13CO2 measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, P.J.; Pickett-Heaps, C.; Law, R.M.; Allison, C.E.; Francey, R.J.; Trudinger, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    We present estimates of the surface sources and sinks of CO 2 for 1992 - 2005 deduced from atmospheric inversions. We use atmospheric CO 2 records from 67 sites and 10 δ 13 CO 2 records. We use two atmospheric models to increase the robustness of the results. The results suggest that inter annual variability is dominated by the tropical land. Statistically significant variability in the tropical Pacific supports recent ocean modeling studies in that region. The northern land also shows significant variability. In particular, there is a large positive anomaly in 2003 in north Asia, which we associate with anomalous biomass burning. Results using δ 13 CO 2 and CO 2 are statistically consistent with those using only CO 2 , suggesting that it is valid to use both types of data together. An objective analysis of residuals suggests that our treatment of uncertainties in CO 2 is conservative, while those for δ 13 CO 2 are optimistic, highlighting problems in our simple isotope model. Finally, δ 13 CO 2 measurements offer a good constraint to nearby land regions, suggesting an ongoing value in these measurements for studies of inter annual variability. (authors)

  6. Development of the ultrasonic fatigue testing machine due to study on giga-cycle fatigue at elevated temperature. 2001 annual report. Document on collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shuji; Itoh, Takamoto

    2002-03-01

    An ultrasonic fatigue testing machine was developed to obtain the giga-cycle fatigue life at elevated temperature for safety and reliability of structural components in the faster breeder reactor (FBR). This testing machine consists of an amplifier, booster, horn and the equipments such as a system controller and data acquisition. The test specimen is attached at the end of the horn. The electric power generated in the amplifier is transformed into the mechanical vibration in the converter and is magnified in the booster and horn. The vibration was enough to fatigue the specimen. Since the test frequency is set at a resonant frequency, the shape and dimensions of specimen were designed so as to vibrate itself resonantly. However, the maximum amplitudes of stress and strain in the specimen can be calculated easily by measuring the amplitude of displacement at the end of the specimen. The developed ultrasonic fatigue testing machine enables to carry out the fatigue tests at 20 kHz so that it can perform the giga-cycle fatigue test within a very short time as compared with the regular fatigue testing machines such as a hydraulic fatigue testing machine. By clarifying the material strength characteristics in giga-cycle region, the life evaluation, design and examination of components will be more suitable than ever. This study will contribute to improve the safety and reliability of components in FBR. In this technical report, the specification and characteristics of the testing machine were described along with the several experimental results. (author)

  7. Demographic and spatiotemporal patterns of avian influenza infection at the continental scale, and in relation to annual life cycle of a migratory host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallar, Rodolfo; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Epp, Tasha; Leighton, Frederick A.; Swafford, Seth R.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Berhane, Yohannes; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Soos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Since the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in the eastern hemisphere, numerous surveillance programs and studies have been undertaken to detect the occurrence, distribution, or spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wild bird populations worldwide. To identify demographic determinants and spatiotemporal patterns of AIV infection in long distance migratory waterfowl in North America, we fitted generalized linear models with binominal distribution to analyze results from 13,574 blue-winged teal (Anas discors, BWTE) sampled in 2007 to 2010 year round during AIV surveillance programs in Canada and the United States. Our analyses revealed that during late summer staging (July-August) and fall migration (September-October), hatch year (HY) birds were more likely to be infected than after hatch year (AHY) birds, however there was no difference between age categories for the remainder of the year (winter, spring migration, and breeding period), likely due to maturing immune systems and newly acquired immunity of HY birds. Probability of infection increased non-linearly with latitude, and was highest in late summer prior to fall migration when densities of birds and the proportion of susceptible HY birds in the population are highest. Birds in the Central and Mississippi flyways were more likely to be infected compared to those in the Atlantic flyway. Seasonal cycles and spatial variation of AIV infection were largely driven by the dynamics of AIV infection in HY birds, which had more prominent cycles and spatial variation in infection compared to AHY birds. Our results demonstrate demographic as well as seasonal, latitudinal and flyway trends across Canada and the US, while illustrating the importance of migratory host life cycle and age in driving cyclical patterns of prevalence.

  8. FY 1998 annual summary report on shared product life-cycle total information system. 3; 1998 nendo joho kyoyugata product lifecycle system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Recycling resources is gaining importance increasingly to correspond to global environmental problems. In urban areas, in particular, it is important to efficiently recover and recycle used large-size consumer products, e.g., home electric appliances and automobiles, which are discharged in large quantities. This study proposes a shared product life-cycle total information system, based on recognition that material recycling systems, encompassing stock materials, product production, consumption, and disposal and recycling of wastes, are essential. This system corresponds a material to information, in an attempt to realize more efficient recycling of products. The study for this fiscal year was focused on use of information modules attached to products and their members, product recycling systems using these modules, necessity for and problems involved in thermal recycle systems, problems involved in recycling home electric appliances and extraction of the data for their recycling, and material recycling process systems for home electric appliances and automobiles. (NEDO)

  9. 210Po/210Pb dynamics in relation to zooplankton biomass and trophic conditions during an annual cycle in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber Lorda, Jaime; Fowler, Scott W; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia; Jeffree, Ross A

    2013-01-01

    Monthly sampling in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters was undertaken to better understand the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the cycling of the natural radionuclide (210)Po/(210)Pb pair during a one-year period (October 1995-November 1996). In conjunction with mesozooplankton collections and (210)Po/(210)Pb measurements in seawater, zooplankton and their fecal pellets, the biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) was also examined at three depths (0, 20 and 50 m) as an indicator of trophic conditions. During May 1996, a strong zooplankton "bloom" was observed which was preceded by a prolonged increase in POM (protein + carbohydrates + lipids) starting at the end of March, and further demonstrated by a concomitant increase in the concentration of smaller particles, two features that are typical of mesotrophic waters. Simultaneous measurements of (210)Po in sea water and zooplankton showed an inverse trend between these two parameters during the sampling period, with the two lowest (210)Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater coincident with the highest radionuclide concentrations in the zooplankton; however, this apparent relationship was not statistically significant over the entire year. Freshly excreted mesozooplankton and salp fecal pellets, which have been strongly implicated in the removal and downward transport of these radionuclides from the upper water column, contained (210)Po and (210)Pb levels ranging from 175 to 878 and 7.5-486 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Salp pellets contained 5 and 10 times more (210)Po and (210)Pb than in fecal pellets produced by mixed zooplankton, a finding most likely related to their different feeding strategies. During the zooplankton biomass peak observed in May, the (210)Po concentration in zooplankton was at a minimum; however, in contrast to what has been reported to occur in some open sea oligotrophic waters, over the year no statistically significant inverse

  10. An integrated multicriteria decision-making approach for evaluating nuclear fuel cycle systems for long-term sustainability on the basis of an equilibrium model: Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory combined with analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sae Rom [Dept of Quantum Energy Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (KUST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung Yeol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Wonil [Nonproliferation System Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-making method analyses via the analytic hierarchy process technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory methods. This comparative study is aimed at screening and ranking the three selected NFC options against five aspects: sustainability, environmental friendliness, economics, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility. The selected fuel cycle options include pressurized water reactor (PWR) once-through cycle, PWR mixed oxide cycle, or pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle. A sensitivity analysis was performed to prove the robustness of the results and explore the influence of criteria on the obtained ranking. As a result of the comparative analysis, the pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle is determined to be the most competitive option among the NFC scenarios.

  11. An integrated multicriteria decision-making approach for evaluating nuclear fuel cycle systems for long-term sustainability on the basis of an equilibrium model: Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory combined with analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sae Rom; Choi, Sung Yeol; Ko, Wonil

    2017-01-01

    The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-making method analyses via the analytic hierarchy process technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory methods. This comparative study is aimed at screening and ranking the three selected NFC options against five aspects: sustainability, environmental friendliness, economics, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility. The selected fuel cycle options include pressurized water reactor (PWR) once-through cycle, PWR mixed oxide cycle, or pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle. A sensitivity analysis was performed to prove the robustness of the results and explore the influence of criteria on the obtained ranking. As a result of the comparative analysis, the pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle is determined to be the most competitive option among the NFC scenarios

  12. An Integrated Multicriteria Decision-Making Approach for Evaluating Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems for Long-term Sustainability on the Basis of an Equilibrium Model: Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation, and Multiattribute Utility Theory Combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Yoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-making method analyses via the analytic hierarchy process technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory methods. This comparative study is aimed at screening and ranking the three selected NFC options against five aspects: sustainability, environmental friendliness, economics, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility. The selected fuel cycle options include pressurized water reactor (PWR once-through cycle, PWR mixed oxide cycle, or pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle. A sensitivity analysis was performed to prove the robustness of the results and explore the influence of criteria on the obtained ranking. As a result of the comparative analysis, the pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle is determined to be the most competitive option among the NFC scenarios.

  13. 210Po/210Pb dynamics in relation to zooplankton biomass and trophic conditions during an annual cycle in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Färber Lorda, Jaime; Fowler, Scott W.; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia; Jeffree, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Monthly sampling in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters was undertaken to better understand the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the cycling of the natural radionuclide 210 Po/ 210 Pb pair during a one-year period (October 1995–November 1996). In conjunction with mesozooplankton collections and 210 Po/ 210 Pb measurements in seawater, zooplankton and their fecal pellets, the biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) was also examined at three depths (0, 20 and 50 m) as an indicator of trophic conditions. During May 1996, a strong zooplankton “bloom” was observed which was preceded by a prolonged increase in POM (protein + carbohydrates + lipids) starting at the end of March, and further demonstrated by a concomitant increase in the concentration of smaller particles, two features that are typical of mesotrophic waters. Simultaneous measurements of 210 Po in sea water and zooplankton showed an inverse trend between these two parameters during the sampling period, with the two lowest 210 Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater coincident with the highest radionuclide concentrations in the zooplankton; however, this apparent relationship was not statistically significant over the entire year. Freshly excreted mesozooplankton and salp fecal pellets, which have been strongly implicated in the removal and downward transport of these radionuclides from the upper water column, contained 210 Po and 210 Pb levels ranging from 175 to 878 and 7.5–486 Bq kg −1 dry weight, respectively. Salp pellets contained 5 and 10 times more 210 Po and 210 Pb than in fecal pellets produced by mixed zooplankton, a finding most likely related to their different feeding strategies. During the zooplankton biomass peak observed in May, the 210 Po concentration in zooplankton was at a minimum; however, in contrast to what has been reported to occur in some open sea oligotrophic waters, over the year no statistically significant inverse

  14. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets....... Our results show that the proposed functions work better than other methods proposed in the literature....

  15. Phoneme Similarity and Confusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity between component speech sounds influences language processing in numerous ways. Explanation and detailed prediction of linguistic performance consequently requires an understanding of these basic similarities. The research reported in this paper contrasts two broad classes of approach to the issue of phoneme similarity-theoretically…

  16. Social approach behaviors are similar on conventional versus reverse lighting cycles, and in replications across cohorts, in BTBR T+ tf/J, C57BL/6J, and vasopressin receptor 1B mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Mice are a nocturnal species, whose social behaviors occur primarily during the dark phase of the circadian cycle. However, laboratory rodents are frequently tested during their light phase, for practical reasons. We investigated the question of whether light phase testing presents a methodological pitfall for investigating mouse social approach behaviors. Three lines of mice were systematically compared. One cohort of each line was raised in a conventional lighting schedule and tested during the light phase, under white light illumination; another cohort was raised in a reverse lighting schedule and tested during their dark phase, under dim red light. Male C57BL/6J (B6 displayed high levels of sociability in our three-chambered automated social approach task when tested in either phase. BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR displayed low levels of sociability in either phase. Five cohorts of vasopressin receptor subtype 1b (Avpr1b null mutants, heterozygotes, and wildtype littermate controls were tested in the same social approach paradigm: three in the dark phase and two in the light phase. All three genotypes displayed normal sociability in four out of the five replications. In the juvenile play test, testing phase had no effect on play soliciting behaviors in Avpr1b mice, but had modest effects on nose sniff and huddling. Taken together, these findings indicate that testing phase is not a crucial factor for studying some forms of social approach in juvenile and adult mice.

  17. 2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2002 provides information on financial highlights, corporate governance, organization of the Group, share, sustainable development policy (integration into the management practices, financial and environmental responsibility, responsibility to the employees and to the society), nuclear power (front end division, reactors and services division, back end division), connectors division, equity interests and financial report. (A.L.B.)

  18. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  19. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  20. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  1. Processes of Similarity Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Levi B.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity underlies fundamental cognitive capabilities such as memory, categorization, decision making, problem solving, and reasoning. Although recent approaches to similarity appreciate the structure of mental representations, they differ in the processes posited to operate over these representations. We present an experiment that…

  2. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  3. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  4. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  5. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  6. Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

    2005-01-01

    To help meet our nation's energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy

  7. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  8. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Kim, H.C.; Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004–2006, this study presents the life-cycle

  9. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  10. NIRE annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of `ecotechnology` that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 32 recent research efforts on such topics as: emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from advanced coal combustors; catalysts for diesel NO{sub x} removal; measuring dust from stationary sources; software for life cycle assessment; marine disposal of CO{sub 2}; emissions of greenhouse gases from coal mines in Japan; structural changes in coal particles during gasification; solubilization and desulfurization of high sulfur coal with trifluoromethane sulfuroic acid; and oxidation mechanisms of H{sub 2}S.

  11. 1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This 1996 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and external communication with some budgetary informations. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the condensed matter and life sciences, the advanced technologies, the protection and transfer of knowledge and technologies, the environmental activities, the management and processing of nuclear wastes, the nuclear protection and safety, the technical and scientific information, the teaching and training, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (J.S.)

  12. 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This 1997 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and communication with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the nuclear protection and safety, the advanced technologies, the quasi-particles, the effects of ionizing radiations on humans, the medical imagery, the transfer of technology, the protection and valorization of knowledge, the radioactive wastes and spent fuels management, the training and teaching, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (O.M.)

  13. Annual progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a brief description of the progress made in each section of the Institut. Research activities of the Protection department include, radiation effects on man, radioecology and environment radioprotection techniques. Research activities of the Nuclear Safety department include, reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities safety analysis, safety research programs. The third section deals with nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport and monitoring of nuclear material management [fr

  14. 1985. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a description of the progress made in each sections of the Institut Research activities of the different departments include: reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities analysis; and associated safety research programs (criticality, sites, transport ...), radioecology and environmental radioprotection techniques; data acquisition on radioactive waste storage sites; radiation effects on man, studies on radioprotection techniques; nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport, and monitoring of nuclear material management; nuclear facility decommissioning; and finally the public information [fr

  15. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji

    2016-07-14

    Self-similar processes have been widely used in modeling real-world phenomena occurring in environmetrics, network traffic, image processing, and stock pricing, to name but a few. The estimation of the degree of self-similarity has been studied extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi-self-similarity for a random field indexed in higher dimensions. If self-similarity is not rejected, our test provides a set of estimated self-similarity indexes. The key is to test stationarity of the inverse Lamperti transformations of the process. The inverse Lamperti transformation of a self-similar process is a strongly stationary process, revealing a theoretical connection between the two processes. To demonstrate the capability of our test, we test self-similarity of fractional Brownian motions and sheets, their time deformations and mixtures with Gaussian white noise, and the generalized Cauchy family. We also apply the self-similarity test to real data: annual minimum water levels of the Nile River, network traffic records, and surface heights of food wrappings. © 2016, International Biometric Society.

  16. Similar or different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornér, Solveig; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Peltonen, Jouni

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has identified researcher community and supervisory support as key determinants of the doctoral journey contributing to students’ persistence and robustness. However, we still know little about cross-cultural variation in the researcher community and supervisory support experien...... counter partners, whereas the Finnish students perceived lower levels of instrumental support than the Danish students. The findings imply that seemingly similar contexts hold valid differences in experienced social support and educational strategies at the PhD level....... experienced by PhD students within the same discipline. This study explores the support experiences of 381 PhD students within the humanities and social sciences from three research-intensive universities in Denmark (n=145) and Finland (n=236). The mixed methods design was utilized. The data were collected...... counter partners. The results also indicated that the only form of support in which the students expressed more matched support than mismatched support was informational support. Further investigation showed that the Danish students reported a high level of mismatch in emotional support than their Finnish...

  17. Carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, J; Halbritter, G; Neumann-Hauf, G

    1982-05-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the subjects of the carbon cycle, the increase of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration and the possible impacts of an increased CO/sub 2/ concentration on the climate. In addition to this survey, the report discusses the questions that are still open and the resulting research needs. During the last twenty years a continual increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by about 1-2 ppm per years has been observed. In 1958 the concentration was 315 ppm and this increased to 336 ppm in 1978. A rough estimate shows that the increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is about half of the amount of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuels. Two possible sinks for the CO/sub 2/ released into the atmosphere are known: the ocean and the biota. The role of the biota is, however, unclear, since it can act both as a sink and as a source. Most models of the carbon cycle are one-dimensional and cannot be used for accurate predictions. Calculations with climate models have shown that an increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration leads to a warming of the earth's surface and lower atmosphere. Calculations show that a doubling of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/-concentration would lead to a net heating of the lower atmosphere and earth's surface by a global average of about 4 W m/sup -2/. Greater uncertainties arise in estimating the change in surface temperature resulting from this change in heating rate. It is estimated that the global average annual surface temperature would change between 1.5 and 4.5 K. There are, however, latitudinal and seasonal variations of the impact of increased CO/sub 2/ concentration. Other meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation, wind speed etc.) would also be changed. It appears that the impacts of the other products of fossil fuel combustion are unlikely to counteract the impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the climate.

  18. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  19. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvet Marcelle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.

  20. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains selectively suppress annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a cool-season annual grass that is a major weed species in turf, turfgrass-seed production, sod production, and golf courses of the western United States. There are few selective herbicides available for the management of annual bluegrass. While the life cycles o...

  1. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  2. Sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  3. NIRE annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of 'ecotechnology' that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 38 recent research efforts topics including: life cycle assessment; ocean circulation inverse method for the evaluation of fate of sequestered CO{sub 2} in Western-North Pacific; studies on hydrogasification of coal; computational studies on the reactions of N{sub 2}O with O{sup 3}P and CO; and motion control of bucket of wheel loader based on resistance force at scooping; personal exposure to air pollutants; and development of a quantitative type dust generator. NIRE has coal mine safety research centers at Hokkaido and Kyusyn and an experimental coal mine at Usui. Brief details are given of budget and staff for FY 2000.

  4. Annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2001. The report outlines the IAEA activities in the following fields: nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management technology, comparative assessment for sustainable energy development; food and agriculture, human health, marine environment and water resources, applications of physical and chemical sciences, nuclear safety, radiation safety, radioactive waste safety, co-ordination of safety activities, safeguards, security of material, verification in Iraq pursuant to UNSC resolutions, management of technical co-operation for development, policy-making, management and support

  5. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Associated to the CEA, the CEA-Industry subsidiaries and the whole Group submit a very satisfying financial, economic and technological accounting which able to play a major role in international cooperations and to satisfy the shareholders. To illustrate these results, this annual report presents the activities of the CEA-Industry group during the year 1998. It is divided in eight chapters. The first six chapters gives general information and main financial data on respectively the CEA-Industry Group profile, economics, the fuel cycle, the nuclear power plants, the nuclear medicine and the semiconductors. The chapter 7 deals with the financial results of the fiscal year 1998 and the last chapter is devoted to the management report of the administration council. (A.L.B.)

  6. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The resources of international co-operation, notably through the Nuclear Energy Agency, can substantially help 'keep the nuclear option open' in a sustainable development perspective, for example by helping preserve and develop scientific and technical know-how, maintaining adequate human resources both in quantity and quality, contributing to greater cost-effectiveness of nuclear operations, and improving stakeholder confidence in radioactive waste management solutions. The 1999 Annual Report of the Nuclear Energy Agency illustrates various facets of the international co-operation made available to Member governments which assists them in rising to these challenges: Nuclear Development and the Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Safety and Regulation, Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste Management, Nuclear Science, Data Banks, Legal Affairs, Joint Projects and Other Co-operative Projects. (author)

  7. Annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The resources of international co-operation, notably through the Nuclear Energy Agency, can substantially help 'keep the nuclear option open' in a sustainable development perspective, for example by helping preserve and develop scientific and technical know-how, maintaining adequate human resources both in quantity and quality, contributing to greater cost-effectiveness of nuclear operations, and improving stakeholder confidence in radioactive waste management solutions. The 1999 Annual Report of the Nuclear Energy Agency illustrates various facets of the international co-operation made available to Member governments which assists them in rising to these challenges: Nuclear Development and the Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Safety and Regulation, Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste Management, Nuclear Science, Data Banks, Legal Affairs, Joint Projects and Other Co-operative Projects. (author)

  8. 2012 NEA Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After a message from the Director-General of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA, a semi-autonomous body within the OECD) and an overview of the Fukushima accident and NEA follow-up, this annual report presents the various technical programmes in which the NEA is committed. These programmes deal with nuclear development and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, nuclear science, data bank, legal affairs, joint projects and other cooperative projects. The report then presents activities of the technical secretariat (Generation IV International Forum or GIF, Multinational Design Evaluation Programme or MDEP), and some general information about the NEA (organisational structure, publications in 2012) and about its activities of information and communication activities, and regarding the relationship between nuclear energy and civil society

  9. NEA annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this 2000 annual report, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), notes that in the medium and long term, the evolution of the nuclear energy programs in OECD countries is likely to be influenced by the implementation of sustainable development policies integrating economic, environmental and socials goals. This report is divided in four chapters. The first one gives general information on nuclear industry. The chapter 2 deals with trends in nuclear power. The chapter 3 gathers technical programs in nuclear development and fuel cycle, nuclear safety and regulation, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, nuclear science and data bank, legal affairs, joint projects and other co-operative projects. The last chapter gathers general information on information program, NEA publications, main workshops and seminar and organisation charts of the NEA. (A.L.B.)

  10. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 1999 annual report of the Authorities of Nuclear Safety presents the main technical topics of the year: time evolution of nuclear installations, crisis and particular plan of intervention, impacts of the nuclear activities on the human and the environment, the criticality risk, EdF, the EPR project, the ANDRA, transportation events and the nuclear safety at the East. It provides also information on nuclear safety, organization of nuclear safety supervision, BIN regulatory provisions, plant supervision, information of the public, international relations, emergency response, radiation protection, radioactive material transportation, radioactive waste, PWR reactors, research reactors and other installations, nuclear fuel cycle installations and final shutdown and dismantling of nuclear installations. (A.L.B.)

  11. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  12. Annual report 2003; Rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  13. Ciclo anual de la clorofila-α satelital en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández (33°S, Chile Annual cycle of the satellite chlorophyll-a in the Juan Fernandez archipelago (33°S, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La variabilidad espacial y temporal del ciclo anual de la clorofila-α en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández se analiza usando ocho anos de datos satelitales de clorofila-α, viento, corrientes y nivel del mar. Este archipiélago está conformado por tres islas: Robinson Crusoe-Santa Clara (RC-SC y Alejandro Selkirk (AS. Las islas RC-SC se encuentran en una región de alta energía cinética y mayores concentraciones de clorofila-α definida como Zona de Transición Costera, en cambio la isla AS se encuentra en una región de baja energía cinética y menores concentraciones de clorofila-α denominada Zona Oceánica. RC-SC posee un incremento de las concentraciones de clorofila-a en el lado suroeste, mientras que AS posee sus mayores concentraciones en el lado oeste, indicando la presencia de procesos forzantes diferentes. En ambas islas el ciclo anual de la clorofila es significativo y comienza a incrementar en abril, alcanzando valores relativamente altos entre junio y noviembre, disminuyendo hacia diciembre, hasta alcanzar un mínimo hacia fines de marzo. Este ciclo anual aparece desacoplado con el viento y acoplado con la energía cinética. Incrementos invernales de clorofila-a aparecen vinculados con remolinos de mesoescala provenientes de la zona continental, mientras que incrementos primaverales se podrían asociar a procesos locales vinculados al "efecto masa de isla". En ambas islas existen incrementos significativos de la clorofila-a en la banda anual y cuasi-bianual, pero sólo en AS se encontró una fluctuación significativa en la banda interanual vinculada con el Nino y la Oscilación del Sur.The spatial and temporal variability of the annual cycle of chlorophyll-a in the Juan Fernandez archipelago is analyzed through eight years of satellite data of chlorophyll-a, wind, currents and sea level. This archipelago consists of three islands: Robinson Crusoe-Santa Clara (RC-SC and Alexander Selkirk (AS. The RC-SC islands are in a

  14. Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rissel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates. This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28.9%. Two other national surveys which asked participants to recall (unprompted any physical activity done for exercise, recreation or sport in the previous 12 months, estimated cycling in the past year as 11.1% and 6.5%. While unprompted recall of cycling as a type of physical activity generates lower estimates of cycling participation than specific recall questions, both assessment approaches produced similar patterns of cycling by age and sex with both approaches indicating fewer women and older adults cycling. The different question styles most likely explain the substantial discrepancies between the estimates of cycling participation. Some differences are to be expected due to sampling variability, question differences, and regional variation in cycling.

  15. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the different fuel cycle stages with which the CEA is associated, the annual flow of materials and wastes produced at these different stages, and the destiny of these produced materials and wastes. These information are given for the different CEA R and D activities: experimentation hot laboratories (activities, fuel cycle stages, list of laboratories, tables giving annual flows for each of them), research reactors (types of reactors, fuel usage modes, annual flows of nuclear materials for each reactor), spent fuel management (different types of used materials), spent fuels and radioactive wastes with a foreign origin (quantities, processes)

  16. Recurrent epidemic cycles driven by intervention in a population of two susceptibility types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanico, Drandreb Earl O

    2014-01-01

    Epidemics have been known to persist in the form of recurrence cycles. Despite intervention efforts through vaccination and targeted social distancing, infectious diseases like influenza continue to appear intermittently over time. I have undertaken an analysis of a stochastic epidemic model to explore the hypothesis that intervention efforts actually drive epidemic cycles. Time series from simulations of the model reveal oscillations exhibiting a similar temporal signature as influenza epidemics. The power-spectral density indicates a resonant frequency, which approximately corresponds to the apparent annual seasonality of influenza in temperate zones. Asymptotic solution to the backward Kolmogorov equation of the dynamics corresponds to an exponentially-decaying mean-exit time as a function of the intervention rate. Intervention must be implemented at a sufficiently high rate to extinguish the infection. The results demonstrate that intervention efforts can induce epidemic cycles, and that the temporal signature of cycles can provide early warning of imminent outbreaks

  17. Annual, semi-annual and ter-annual variations of gravity wave momentum flux in 13 years of SABER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Preusse, Peter; Ern, Manfred; Strube, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the variations at different time scales such as the annual cycle, the semiannual oscillation (SAO), the ter-annual cycle (about four monthly) and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in zonal mean GW amplitudes and GW momentum flux (GWMF) have been investigated using satellite observations from 2002-2014 and combining ECMWF high resolution data with the GORGRAT model. The global distribution (patterns) of spectral amplitudes of GW momentum flux in stratosphere and mesosphere (from 30 km to 90 km) show that the annual cycle is the most predominant variation, and then are SAO, ter-annual cycle and QBO. For annual components, two relatively isolated amplitude maxima appear in each hemisphere: a subtropical maximum is associated with convective sources in summer, a mid and high latitude maximum is associated with the polar vortex in winter. In the subtropics, GWs propagate upward obliquely to the higher latitudes. The winter maximum in the southern hemisphere has larger momentum flux than that one in the northern hemisphere. While on the SH the phase (i.e. time corresponding to the maximum GWMF) continuously descends with the maximum in July in the upper mesosphere and in September in the lower stratosphere, on the northern hemisphere, the phase has no visible altitude dependence with a maximum in December. For semiannual variations, in the MLT (70-80 km) region, there is an obvious enhancement of spectral amplitude at equatorial latitudes which relate to the dissipation of convectively forced GWs. The SAO in absolute momentum flux and the annual cycle in zonal momentum flux indicated that the variations at mid-latitudes (about from 30°-40°) are not a SAO signals but rather an annual cycle when the direction of GWMF is considered. The ter-annual cycle may be related to the duration of active convection in subtropical latitudes (from June to Sep. in north hemisphere) Indications for QBO are found latitude extension to mid-latitudes in stratosphere of

  18. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  19. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  20. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...... and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...... to simulate glacial cycles accurately. Also, results suggest that non-linear 10 dynamics, threshold effects, and/or free oscillations may not play an overriding role in glacial cycles....

  1. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  2. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  3. Life cycle emissions from renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.; Watkiss, P.; Thorpe, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used in the ETSU review, together with the detailed results for three of the technologies studied: wind turbines, photovoltaic systems and small, stand-alone solar thermal systems. These emissions are then compared with those calculated for both other renewables and fossil fuel technology on a similar life cycle basis. The life cycle emissions associated with renewable energy technology vary considerably. They are lowest for those technologies where the renewable resource has been concentrated in some way (e.g. over distance in the case of wind and hydro, or over time in the case of energy crops). Wind turbines have amongst the lowest emissions of all renewables and are lower than those for fossil fuel generation, often by over an order of magnitude. Photovoltaics and solar thermal systems have the highest life cycle emissions of all the renewable energy technologies under review. However, their emissions of most pollutants are also much lower than those associated with fossil fuel technologies. In addition, the emissions associated with PV are likely to fall further in the future as the conversion efficiency of PV cells increases and manufacturing technology switches to thin film technologies, which are less energy intensive. Combining the assessments of life cycle emissions of renewables with predictions made by the World Energy Council (WEC) of their future deployment has allowed estimates to be made of amount by which renewables could reduce the future global emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. It estimated that under the WEC's 'Ecologically Driven' scenario, renewables might lead to significant reductions of between 3650 and 8375 Mt in annual CO 2 emissions depending on the fossil fuel technology they are assumed to displace. (author)

  4. Self-similar cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, W Z [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1981-07-01

    The kinematics and dynamics of self-similar cosmological models are discussed. The degrees of freedom of the solutions of Einstein's equations for different types of models are listed. The relation between kinematic quantities and the classifications of the self-similarity group is examined. All dust local rotational symmetry models have been found.

  5. Self-similar factor approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties

  6. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  7. Global Changes of the Water Cycle Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Walker, Gregory K.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate numerical simulations of the twentieth century climate, focusing on the changes in the intensity of the global water cycle. A new diagnostic of atmospheric water vapor cycling rate is developed and employed, that relies on constituent tracers predicted at the model time step. This diagnostic is compared to a simplified traditional calculation of cycling rate, based on monthly averages of precipitation and total water content. The mean sensitivity of both diagnostics to variations in climate forcing is comparable. However, the new diagnostic produces systematically larger values and more variability than the traditional average approach. Climate simulations were performed using SSTs of the early (1902-1921) and late (1979- 1998) twentieth century along with the appropriate C02 forcing. In general, the increase of global precipitation with the increases in SST that occurred between the early and late twentieth century is small. However, an increase of atmospheric temperature leads to a systematic increase in total precipitable water. As a result, the residence time of water in the atmosphere increased, indicating a reduction of the global cycling rate. This result was explored further using a number of 50-year climate simulations from different models forced with observed SST. The anomalies and trends in the cycling rate and hydrologic variables of different GCMs are remarkably similar. The global annual anomalies of precipitation show a significant upward trend related to the upward trend of surface temperature, during the latter half of the twentieth century. While this implies an increase in the hydrologic cycle intensity, a concomitant increase of total precipitable water again leads to a decrease in the calculated global cycling rate. An analysis of the land/sea differences shows that the simulated precipitation over land has a decreasing trend while the oceanic precipitation has an upward trend consistent with previous studies and the

  8. Personalized recommendation with corrected similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommendation has attracted a surge of interdisciplinary research. Especially, similarity-based methods in applications of real recommendation systems have achieved great success. However, the computations of similarities are overestimated or underestimated, in particular because of the defective strategy of unidirectional similarity estimation. In this paper, we solve this drawback by leveraging mutual correction of forward and backward similarity estimations, and propose a new personalized recommendation index, i.e., corrected similarity based inference (CSI). Through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, the results show a greater improvement of CSI in comparison with these mainstream baselines. And a detailed analysis is presented to unveil and understand the origin of such difference between CSI and mainstream indices. (paper)

  9. Towards Personalized Medicine: Leveraging Patient Similarity and Drug Similarity Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  10. Annual nitrate drawdown observed by SOCCOM profiling floats and the relationship to annual net community production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Joshua N.; Dunne, John P.; Talley, Lynne D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-08-01

    Annual nitrate cycles have been measured throughout the pelagic waters of the Southern Ocean, including regions with seasonal ice cover and southern hemisphere subtropical zones. Vertically resolved nitrate measurements were made using in situ ultraviolet spectrophotometer (ISUS) and submersible ultraviolet nitrate analyzer (SUNA) optical nitrate sensors deployed on profiling floats. Thirty-one floats returned 40 complete annual cycles. The mean nitrate profile from the month with the highest winter nitrate minus the mean profile from the month with the lowest nitrate yields the annual nitrate drawdown. This quantity was integrated to 200 m depth and converted to carbon using the Redfield ratio to estimate annual net community production (ANCP) throughout the Southern Ocean south of 30°S. A well-defined, zonal mean distribution is found with highest values (3-4 mol C m-2 yr-1) from 40 to 50°S. Lowest values are found in the subtropics and in the seasonal ice zone. The area weighted mean was 2.9 mol C m-2 yr-1 for all regions south of 40°S. Cumulative ANCP south of 50°S is 1.3 Pg C yr-1. This represents about 13% of global ANCP in about 14% of the global ocean area.Plain Language SummaryThis manuscript reports on 40 annual cycles of nitrate observed by chemical sensors on SOCCOM profiling floats. The annual drawdown in nitrate concentration by phytoplankton is used to assess the spatial variability of annual net community production in the Southern Ocean. This ANCP is a key component of the global carbon cycle and it exerts an important control on atmospheric carbon dioxide. We show that the results are consistent with our prior understanding of Southern Ocean ANCP, which has required decades of observations to accumulate. The profiling floats now enable annual resolution of this key process. The results also highlight spatial variability in ANCP in the Southern Ocean.

  11. The annual report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The most significant achievements of the International Atomic Energy Agency during 1992 are summarized in the Introduction. The following topics are considered in detail: (i) nuclear power; (ii) nuclear fuel cycle; (iii) radioactive waste management; (iv) comparative assessment of nuclear power and other energy sources; (v) food and agriculture; (vi) human health; (vii) industry and earth science; (viii) physical and chemical sciences; (ix) radiation protection; (x) safety of nuclear installations; and (xi) safeguards. The annual report ends with a description of the direction and support, statistical appendices, a list of abbreviations, and an organization chart

  12. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle; Transparence associee au cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document presents the different fuel cycle stages with which the CEA is associated, the annual flow of materials and wastes produced at these different stages, and the destiny of these produced materials and wastes. These information are given for the different CEA R and D activities: experimentation hot laboratories (activities, fuel cycle stages, list of laboratories, tables giving annual flows for each of them), research reactors (types of reactors, fuel usage modes, annual flows of nuclear materials for each reactor), spent fuel management (different types of used materials), spent fuels and radioactive wastes with a foreign origin (quantities, processes)

  13. 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The 2003 issue of the annual report of the French nuclear safety authority (ASR) presents the activities of the ASR in the following domains: 2003 highlights (the project of law relative to the nuclear transparency and safety, the EPR reactor project, the radioprotection priorities, the inspection of radioprotection, the action plan for the monitoring of patients' exposure to ionizing radiations, the 2003 heat wave and the operation of nuclear power plants, the national plan of radioactive wastes management, the behaviour of long living and high level radioactive wastes, and the European 'nuclear package'), nuclear activities, ionizing radiations and health hazards, organisation of nuclear safety control and radioprotection, radioprotection and nuclear facilities regulation, control of nuclear activities, public information and transparency, international relations, radiological emergency situations, radiological and biomedical activities, industrial and research activities, transport of radioactive materials, safety and radioprotection of nuclear power plants, research and other nuclear facilities, fuel cycle centers, safety of the definitive shut-down and dismantling of nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management and cleansing of polluted sites. (J.S.)

  14. Fuel cycle based safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Montmollin, J.M.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Gupta, D.

    1985-07-01

    In NPT safeguards the same model approach and absolute-quantity inspection goals are applied at present to all similar facilities, irrespective of the State's fuel cycle. There is a continuing interest and activity on the part of the IAEA in new NPT safeguards approaches that more directly address a State's nuclear activities as a whole. This fuel cycle based safeguards system is expected to a) provide a statement of findings for the entire State rather than only for individual facilities; b) allocate inspection efforts so as to reflect more realistically the different categories of nuclear materials in the different parts of the fuel cycle and c) provide more timely and better coordinated information on the inputs, outputs and inventories of nuclear materials in a State. (orig./RF) [de

  15. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  16. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    -, č. 274 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp274.pdf

  17. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  18. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  19. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  20. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  1. Benefits of cycle stretchout in pressurized water reactor extended-burnup fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Leung, D.C.; Liu, Y.; Beekmann, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are inherently capable of operating for a substantial period beyond their nominal end of cycle (EOC) as a result of negative moderator and fuel temperature coefficients and the decrease in xenon poisoning with lower core power levels. This inherent capability can be used to advantage to reduce annual uranium makeup requirements and cycle energy costs by the use of planned EOC stretchout. This paper discusses the fuel utilization efficiency and economics of both the five-batch, extended-burnup cycle and the three-batch, standard-burnup cycle, which can be improved by employing planned EOC (end of cycle) stretchout. 11 refs

  2. Multiparameter Cell Cycle Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobberger, James W; Sramkoski, R Michael; Stefan, Tammy; Woost, Philip G

    2018-01-01

    Cell cycle cytometry and analysis are essential tools for studying cells of model organisms and natural populations (e.g., bone marrow). Methods have not changed much for many years. The simplest and most common protocol is DNA content analysis, which is extensively published and reviewed. The next most common protocol, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine S phase labeling detected by specific antibodies, is also well published and reviewed. More recently, S phase labeling using 5'-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and a chemical reaction to label substituted DNA has been established as a basic, reliable protocol. Multiple antibody labeling to detect epitopes on cell cycle regulated proteins, which is what this chapter is about, is the most complex of these cytometric cell cycle assays, requiring knowledge of the chemistry of fixation, the biochemistry of antibody-antigen reactions, and spectral compensation. However, because this knowledge is relatively well presented methodologically in many papers and reviews, this chapter will present a minimal Methods section for one mammalian cell type and an extended Notes section, focusing on aspects that are problematic or not well described in the literature. Most of the presented work involves how to segment the data to produce a complete, progressive, and compartmentalized cell cycle analysis from early G1 to late mitosis (telophase). A more recent development, using fluorescent proteins fused with proteins or peptides that are degraded by ubiquitination during specific periods of the cell cycle, termed "Fucci" (fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicators) provide an analysis similar in concept to multiple antibody labeling, except in this case cells can be analyzed while living and transgenic organisms can be created to perform cell cycle analysis ex or in vivo (Sakaue-Sawano et al., Cell 132:487-498, 2007). This technology will not be discussed.

  3. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...... not perform well, even for data that satisfies all its assumptions....

  4. Fast business process similarity search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common for organizations to maintain collections of hundreds or even thousands of business processes. Techniques exist to search through such a collection, for business process models that are similar to a given query model. However, those techniques compare the query model to each

  5. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  6. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  7. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  8. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA

  9. Petroleum supply annual 1992: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them

  10. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The ''Petroleum Supply Annual'' (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs

  11. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs

  12. Reproductive cycles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in a cooling reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.H.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Annual reproductive cycles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected in the heated area of a 1120-hectare reservoir receiving thermal effluent from the Savannah River Plant were similar to cycles from bass collected in unheated waters during 1969 and 1970. Average maximum monthly temperatures at the heated area exceeded those in unheated waters by greater than 10 0 C for the 2 years. Few monthly differences in gonosomatic indices were found between heated and unheated areas. Earlier attainment of maximum gonadal size and the presence of significantly larger juvenile bass at the heated area suggested that reproduction might be accelerated by thermal discharge. However, gonadal condition indicated that the reproductive period started in March and continued through April in both areas. Reproduction may have been advanced in some heated-area bass, although this was not obvious from overall changes in the reproductive cycles of bass from unheated areas. (auth)

  13. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  14. An Alfven eigenmode similarity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Fredrickson, E; Gorelenkov, N N; Hyatt, A W; Kramer, G; Luo, Y

    2003-01-01

    The major radius dependence of Alfven mode stability is studied by creating plasmas with similar minor radius, shape, magnetic field (0.5 T), density (n e ≅3x10 19 m -3 ), electron temperature (1.0 keV) and beam ion population (near-tangential 80 keV deuterium injection) on both NSTX and DIII-D. The major radius of NSTX is half the major radius of DIII-D. The super-Alfvenic beam ions that drive the modes have overlapping values of v f /v A in the two devices. Observed beam-driven instabilities include toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE). The stability threshold for the TAE is similar in the two devices. As expected theoretically, the most unstable toroidal mode number n is larger in DIII-D

  15. Compressional Alfven Eigenmode Similarity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2004-11-01

    NSTX and DIII-D are nearly ideal for Alfven eigenmode (AE) similarity experiments, having similar neutral beams, fast-ion to Alfven speed v_f/v_A, fast-ion pressure, and shape of the plasma, but with a factor of 2 difference in the major radius. Toroidicity-induced AE with ˜100 kHz frequencies were compared in an earlier study [1]; this paper focuses on higher frequency AE with f ˜ 1 MHz. Compressional AE (CAE) on NSTX have a polarization, dependence on the fast-ion distribution function, frequency scaling, and low-frequency limit that are qualitatively consistent with CAE theory [2]. Global AE (GAE) are also observed. On DIII-D, coherent modes in this frequency range are observed during low-field (0.6 T) similarity experiments. Experiments will compare the CAE stability limits on DIII-D with the NSTX stability limits, with the aim of determining if CAE will be excited by alphas in a reactor. Predicted differences in the frequency splitting Δ f between excited modes will also be used. \\vspace0.25em [1] W.W. Heidbrink, et al., Plasmas Phys. Control. Fusion 45, 983 (2003). [2] E.D. Fredrickson, et al., Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report PPPL-3955 (2004).

  16. Annual Report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This annual report presents research programmes and basic investigations of the Institute for Transuranium Elements. In Basic Safety Research on Nuclear Fuels, studies of the fracture and evaporation behaviour of UO 2 , simulating different degrees of burn-up, were continued. The Study of Safety Aspects of Fuel Operation and Handling dealt with an investigation of the operational limits of advanced fuels and with the transport and dispersion of radioactive aerosol particles in nuclear facilities. Actinide Determination and Recycling activities were mainly concerned with an evaluation of the technical possibilities to transmute long-lived nuclear waste constituents into shorter-lived fission products. The results of an earlier irradiation test were evaluated, and minor-actinide containing oxide fuel pins which had been irradiated in the PHENIX reactor were analysed. Progress was made in the Characterization of Waste Forms and of High Burn-Up Fuel. In the context of efforts to model the consequences of water intrusion into an underground fuel deposit (Project COCAIN), existing models (FUTURE, MITRA, CHEMIF) were adapted and used to characterize the initial state of an LWR fuel which had been subject to several irradiation cycles. In Actinide Research the accent was on the preparation and on structural and physical studies of actinide compounds with heavy fermion properties and with a particular magnetic behaviour. Experimental investigations on the attenuation of sound waves by aerosols and theoretical studies concerning the optimization of acoustic cavities for aerosol conditioning were carried out during the reporting period under the heading Exploratory Research. Support to the Directorate General XVII (Energy) on safeguarding fissile materials concentrated on the preparation of work in on-site analytical laboratories in Sellafield and La Hague. In this context, a portable compact K-edge absorption spectrometer was constructed and an expert system for the

  17. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 9, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2003. The introductory chapter, seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Additional information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Co-operation Report. This material is also available on the Agency's WorldAtom web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2003/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Material Technologies; Analysis for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to safety discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Security of Material. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate chapter is devoted to Management of Technical Cooperation for Development

  18. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 13, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2005. The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Cooperation Report. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is also provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency?s iaea.org web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2005/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Technologies; Capacity Building and Nuclear Knowledge Maintenance for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environment; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to Safety and Security discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation and Transport Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Nuclear Security. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate

  19. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 9, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2003. The introductory chapter, seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Additional information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Co-operation Report. This material is also available on the Agency's WorldAtom web site http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2003/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Material Technologies; Analysis for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to safety discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Security of Material. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate chapter is devoted to Management of Technical Cooperation for Development

  20. Intercomparison of the seasonal cycle of tropical surface stress in 17 AMIP atmospheric general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, N.H.; Goswami, B.N. [Indian Inst. of Sci., Bangalore (India). Centre for Atmos. and Oceanic Sci.

    1997-08-01

    The mean state of the tropical atmosphere is important as the nature of the coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere depends nonlinearly on the basic state of the coupled system. The simulation of the annual cycle of the tropical surface wind stress by 17 atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) is examined and intercompared. The models considered were part of the atmospheric model intercomparison project (AMIP) and were integrated with observed sea surface temperature (SST) for the decade 1979-1988. Several measures have been devised to intercompare the performance of the 17 models on global tropical as well as regional scales. Within the limits of observational uncertainties, the models under examination simulate realistic tropical area-averaged zonal and meridional annual mean stresses. This is a noteworthy improvement over older generation low resolution models which were noted for their simulation of surface stresses considerably weaker than the observations. The models also simulate realistic magnitudes of the spatial distribution of the annual mean surface stress field and are seen to reproduce realistically its observed spatial pattern. Similar features are observed in the simulations of the annual variance field. The models perform well over almost all the tropical regions apart from a few. Of these, the simulations over Somali are interesting. Over this region, the models are seen to underestimate the annual mean zonal and meridional stresses. There is also wide variance between the different models in simulating these quantities. 44 refs.

  1. Modeling the element cycle of aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaeda, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic plants play an important role in element cycles in wetlands and the efficiency of the process is extremely related to their proportional biomass allocation to above- and belowground organs. Therefore, the framework of most macrophyte productivity models is usually similar with a mass-balance approach consisting of gross production, respiration and mortality losses and the translocation between organs. These growth models are incorporated with decomposition models to evaluate the annual cycle of elements. Perennial emergent macrophytes with a relatively large biomass have a particularly important role in element cycles. Their phenological stages, such as the beginning of hibernation of belowground rhizome systems, emergence of new shoots in spring with resources stocked in the rhizomes, flowering, downward translocation of photosynthetic products later on and then the mortality of the aboveground system in late autumn, depend on the environmental conditions, basically the nutrients, water depth, climatic variations, etc. Although some species retain standing dead shoots for a long time, dead shoots easily fall into water, starting to decompose in the immediate aftermath. However, their decomposition rates in the water are relatively low, causing to accumulate large amounts of organic sediments on the bottom. Together with the deposition of allochthonous suspended matters in the stand, this process decreases the water depth, transforming wetlands gradually into land. The depth of penetration of roots into the sediments to uptake nutrients and water is extremely site specific, however, in water-logged areas, the maximum penetrable depth may be approximately estimated by considering the ability of oxygen transport into the rhizome system. The growth of perennial submerged plants is also estimated by a process similar to that of emergent macrophytes. However, compared with emergent macrophytes, the root system of submerged macrophytes is weaker, and the nutrient

  2. Similarity analysis between quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Liu, XingAo; Zhu, Changming; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Xiafen; Ian, Hou

    2018-06-01

    Similarity analyses between quantum images are so essential in quantum image processing that it provides fundamental research for the other fields, such as quantum image matching, quantum pattern recognition. In this paper, a quantum scheme based on a novel quantum image representation and quantum amplitude amplification algorithm is proposed. At the end of the paper, three examples and simulation experiments show that the measurement result must be 0 when two images are same, and the measurement result has high probability of being 1 when two images are different.

  3. Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations

  4. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  5. An Integrated Multicriteria Decision-Making Approach for Evaluating Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems for Long-term Sustainability on the Basis of an Equilibrium Model: Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation, and Multiattribute Utility Theory Combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Saerom Yoon; Sungyeol Choi; Wonil Ko

    2017-01-01

    The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-makin...

  6. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  7. Cycle 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappernman, J.G.; Albertson, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that for many electric utility systems, Solar Cycle 22 has been the first introduction to the phenomena of Geomagnetic Disturbances and the disrupting and damaging effects that they can have upon modern power systems. For all intents and purposes, Power Industry awareness of Cycle 22 started with a bang during the Great Geomagnetic Storm of March 13, 1989. This storm caused a blackout to the entire Province of Quebec, permanently damaged a large nuclear plant GSU transformer in New Jersey, and created enough havoc across the entire North American power grid to create the plausible threat of a massive power system blackout. The flurry of activity and investigation that followed has led many engineers to realize that their power systems are indeed vulnerable to this phenomena and if anything are becoming ever more vulnerable as the system grows to meet future requirements. As a result some organizations such as Hydro Quebec, PSE and G, and the PJM Pool now implement strategic measures as a remedial response to detection of geomagnetic storm conditions. Many more companies pay particularly close attention to storm forecasts and alerts, and the industry in general has accelerated research and monitoring activities through their own means of in concert with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

  8. NUKEM annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of this important undertaking in the German nuclear industry informs about its structure, holdings and activities in 1981. The report of the management is followed by remarks on the annual statement of accounts (annual balance, profit-loss accounting) and the report of the Supervisory Board. In the annex the annual balance of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH as per December 31, 1981, and the profit-loss accounting of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH for the business year 1981 are presented. (UA) [de

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  6. Self-similar gravitational clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Fall, S.M.; Hogan, C.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of gravitational clustering is considered and several new scaling relations are derived for the multiplicity function. These include generalizations of the Press-Schechter theory to different densities and cosmological parameters. The theory is then tested against multiplicity function and correlation function estimates for a series of 1000-body experiments. The results are consistent with the theory and show some dependence on initial conditions and cosmological density parameter. The statistical significance of the results, however, is fairly low because of several small number effects in the experiments. There is no evidence for a non-linear bootstrap effect or a dependence of the multiplicity function on the internal dynamics of condensed groups. Empirical estimates of the multiplicity function by Gott and Turner have a feature near the characteristic luminosity predicted by the theory. The scaling relations allow the inference from estimates of the galaxy luminosity function that galaxies must have suffered considerable dissipation if they originally formed from a self-similar hierarchy. A method is also developed for relating the multiplicity function to similar measures of clustering, such as those of Bhavsar, for the distribution of galaxies on the sky. These are shown to depend on the luminosity function in a complicated way. (author)

  7. Audit of Major Defense Acquisition Programs Cycle Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ugone, Mary

    2001-01-01

    ... (GPRA) as indicated in the FY 2000 Annual Report of the Secretary of Defense. Specifically, we assessed whether the process and factors, used to establish the metric goal of MDAP cycle time, were valid...

  8. Understanding Solar Cycle Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M., E-mail: cameron@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-10

    The level of solar magnetic activity, as exemplified by the number of sunspots and by energetic events in the corona, varies on a wide range of timescales. Most prominent is the 11-year solar cycle, which is significantly modulated on longer timescales. Drawing from dynamo theory, together with the empirical results of past solar activity and similar phenomena for solar-like stars, we show that the variability of the solar cycle can be essentially understood in terms of a weakly nonlinear limit cycle affected by random noise. In contrast to ad hoc “toy models” for the solar cycle, this leads to a generic normal-form model, whose parameters are all constrained by observations. The model reproduces the characteristics of the variable solar activity on timescales between decades and millennia, including the occurrence and statistics of extended periods of very low activity (grand minima). Comparison with results obtained with a Babcock–Leighton-type dynamo model confirm the validity of the normal-mode approach.

  9. Seniority bosons from similarity transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, H.B.

    1986-01-01

    The requirement of associating in the boson space seniority with twice the number of non-s bosons defines a similarity transformation which re-expresses the Dyson pair boson images in terms of seniority bosons. In particular the fermion S-pair creation operator is mapped onto an operator which, unlike the pair boson image, does not change the number of non-s bosons. The original results of Otsuka, Arima and Iachello are recovered by this procedure while at the same time they are generalized to include g-bosons or even bosons with J>4 as well as any higher order boson terms. Furthermore the seniority boson images are valid for an arbitrary number of d- or g-bosons - a result which is not readily obtainable within the framework of the usual Marumori- or OAI-method

  10. Mole sieve cycle optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, P. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Maturing gas basins and declining reservoirs have prompted the search for energy and cost reduction initiatives to maintain operation sustainability. This paper discusses the development of an algorithm to improve the efficiency of the Brazeau mole sieve dehydration system. Details of the operating unit and an outline of the system were provided, as well as an operator interface. The main objectives of the research were to reduce the number of corresponding regeneration cycles; reduce annual energy requirements; and extend the life of the dessicant. Reductions were anticipated at 35 per cent, leading towards fuel savings of $45,000 a year, and carbon dioxide reductions of 670 tonnes a year. However, significant barriers were also noted, including operations, maintenance and equipment replacement issues. Equations of state were used to estimate vapor pressure or water content in gases. Approximate water content was measured with gas flow rate. The resulting algorithm was implemented using a basic best fit curve generated for one variable with a correction factor applied as a second variable. Data books were provided to present water content of hydrocarbon gas, with implementation procedures. Benefits of the new system included longer service life and reduced chemical and outside service costs, and reduced lost production during sieve changes. Additional benefits included enhanced distributed computing system (DCS) interfaces within plant operations; extension of the adsorption cycle via the functionality of the algorithm; and the fact that during a plant upset, the algorithm froze cycle sequencing and eliminated the possibility of switching the beds and repeating regeneration. The improved system resulted in savings of $87,000. tabs, figs.

  11. Hybrid nuclear cycles for nuclear fission sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piera, M.; Martinez-Val, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fission can play and must play an important role in paving the road to Energy Sustainability. Nuclear Fission does not produce CO 2 emissions, and it is already exploited at commercial level with the current NPP (Nuclear Power Plants). Most of them are based on LWR reactors, which have a very good safety record. It must be noted, however, that all LWR (including the advanced or evolutionary ones) have some drawbacks, particularly their very poor efficiency in exploiting the natural resources of nuclear fuels. In this paper, an analysis is presented on how to maximize the energy actually generated from the potential contents of fission natural resources. The role of fertile-to-fissile breeding is highlighted, as well as the need of attaining a very high safety performance in the reactors and other installations of the fuel cycle. The proposal presented in this paper is to use advanced and evolutionary LWR as energy producing reactors, and to use subcritical fast assemblies as breeders. The main result would be to increase by two orders of magnitude the percentage of energy effectively exploited from fission natural resources, while keeping a very high level of safety standards in the full fuel cycle. Breeders would not be intended for energy production, so that safety standards could rely on very low values of the thermal magnitudes, so allowing for very large safety margins for emergency cooling. Similarly, subcriticality would offer a very large margin for not to reach prompt criticality in any event. The main drawback of this proposal is that a sizeable fraction of the energy generated in the cycle (about 1/3, maybe a little more) would not be useful for the thermodynamic cycle to produce electricity. Besides that, a fraction of the generated electricity, between 5 and 10 %, would have to be recirculated to feed the accelerator activating the neutron source. Even so, the overall result would be very positive, because more than 50 % of the natural

  12. The evolving nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.D.; Hanson, G.E.; Coleman, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    Various economics and political pressures have shaped the evolution of nuclear fuel cycles over the past 10 to 15 yr. Future trends will no doubt be similarly driven. This paper discusses the influences that long cycles, high discharge burnups, fuel reliability, and costs will have on the future nuclear cycle. Maintaining the economic viability of nuclear generation is a key issue facing many utilities. Nuclear fuel has been a tremendous bargain for utilities, helping to offset major increases in operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) expenses. An important factor in reducing O ampersand M costs is increasing capacity factor by eliminating outages

  13. CSIR Annual report 1965

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 48 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  14. CSIR Annual report 1992

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. CSIR Annual report 1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 86 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. CSIR Annual report 1976

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 75 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. CSIR Annual report 1978

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 78 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  18. CSIR Annual report 1991

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 40 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  19. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  20. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  1. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  2. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  3. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  4. Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy. It covers the activities of all elements of the Department except the independent Federal Regulatory Commission, which issues its own annual report. 88 refs., 43 tabs

  5. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  6. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N; Mika, J R; Wieteska, K [eds.

    1999-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  7. SEASONALITY OF ANNUAL PLANT ESTABLISHMENT INFLUENCES THE INTERACTIONBETWEEN THE NON-NATIVE ANNUAL GRASS BROMUS MADRITENSIS SSP. RUBENS AND MOJAVE DESERT PERENNIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts the timing of non-native plant establishment can modulate their impacts to native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native perennials--Larrea iridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida--in either winter or spring. Additional plots were prepared for the Same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species. Relative growth rates of perennial shoots (RGRs) declined with increasing Bromus biomass when Bromus that was established in winter had 2-3 mo of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, this high water use did not significantly reduce water potentials for the perennials, suggesting Bromus that established earlier depleted other soil resources, such as N, otherwise used by perennial plants. Spring-established Bromus had low biomass even at higher densities and did not effectively reduce RGRs, resulting in an overall lower impact to perennials than when Bromus was established in winter. Similarly, growth and reproduction of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but densities of these annuals did not support the high biomass necessary to reduce perennial growth. Thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert annuals to perennials are expected to be lower than those of Bromus because seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus. In comparing the effects of Bromus among perennial species, the impact of increased Bromus biomass on RGR was lower for Larrea than for the two perennial grasses, probably because Lurrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This contrasts

  8. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  9. Interconnectedness during high water maintains similarity in fish assemblages of island floodplain lakes in the Amazonian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Edwar de C. Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to test the hypothesis that interconnectedness among island floodplain lakes and the adjacent Solimões River during the flood stage of the hydrologic cycle is enough to maintain similarity in fish species assemblages. Gill net samples were collected during high and low water periods for three consecutive years (July 2004 to July 2006 in four lakes on Paciência Island. Two lakes, Piranha and Ressaca, are connected to the river all year, and the other two, Preto and Cacau, which are in the center of the island, are isolated during low water periods. The abundance, species richness and evenness of the fish assemblages in these lakes did not differ according to their relative positions or the season of the hydrological cycle, which confirmed our hypothesis. However, fish abundance during the dry season was greater than in the flood season. Apparently, the short period of full connection between the lakes is enough to allow the colonization of all fish species, but not to cause similar abundances. Our study indicates that persistence of the species composition of island floodplain lakes is primarily due to the annual replenishment of fish to the lakes during the flood season.

  10. Annual report 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This is the Annual Report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 1999 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1998-1999. The Activities covered in this Report include the CANDU Reactor Business, with excellent progress reported on the construction of two 700 MWe-class CANDU reactors in Qinshan, China. In the Republic of Korea, Wolsong Unit entered into commercial operation and Wolsong Unit 4 achieved sustained nuclear reaction. The Report also covers AECL's R and D and Waste Management programs. In the R and D section, the report outlines the development of the CANFLEX fuel bundle, Fuel Channels, Reactor Safety, Code Validation, Fuels and Fuel Cycles as well as Heavy Water production. Progress in the Waste Management program is also discussed

  11. Annual report 1998-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This is the Annual Report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 1999 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1998-1999. The Activities covered in this Report include the CANDU Reactor Business, with excellent progress reported on the construction of two 700 MWe-class CANDU reactors in Qinshan, China. In the Republic of Korea, Wolsong Unit entered into commercial operation and Wolsong Unit 4 achieved sustained nuclear reaction. The Report also covers AECL's R and D and Waste Management programs. In the R and D section, the report outlines the development of the CANFLEX fuel bundle, Fuel Channels, Reactor Safety, Code Validation, Fuels and Fuel Cycles as well as Heavy Water production. Progress in the Waste Management program is also discussed.

  12. Annual report and balance 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report presents the CNEA's (National Atomic Energy Commission) activities during the year 2003. The first part is devoted to the general objectives and accomplishments of the Organization. The second part describes the programs and projects in different fields such as reactors and nuclear power plants, fuel cycle, radioactive waste management, radioisotopes and radiation, research and development in basic sciences and engineering, decommissioning of nuclear installations, etc. The evolution of the human resources and the training activities are outlined in the third part of the report. The CNEA's nuclear centers are described in part 4 and the technical assistance services and production activities in part 5. Nuclear safety and safeguards are covered in the 6th section. Parts 7 and 8 present the information on inter institutional affairs and on the CNEA related enterprises respectively. The last part is the financial accounting

  13. Your Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your menstrual cycle What happens during your menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle includes not just your period, but the rise ... that take place over the weeks in your cycle. Want to know what happens on each day ...

  14. NEA 2015 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magwood, William D. IV; Ha, Jaejoo; Nieh, Ho; Hah, Yeonhee; Siemann, Michael; Gulliford, Jim; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Vasquez-Maignan, Ximena; Gannon-Picot, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The year 2015 continued to be one of significant change, both in relation to the Agency and the global context within which it operates. As countries around the world plan aggressive nuclear power plant construction programmes, prepare to phase out and decommission plants, or to both build and retire plants simultaneously, issues of economics, waste management, public communication and nuclear safety continue to dominate the global discussion regarding nuclear power. As many countries work to absorb the outcome of the COP21 negotiations at the end of 2015, it is becoming increasingly likely that the future of nuclear power will be determined in great respect by non-traditional suppliers and new entrant countries. As reflected in this year's Annual Report, the NEA completed a significant revision of its management structure, which, it is hoped, will enable it to be more flexible, more efficient and more focused on the issues of greatest concern to its member countries. Our members provided input via the process of developing the new Strategic Plan of the Nuclear Energy Agency: 2017-2022, reaffirming their desire to maintain a sharp focus on nuclear safety as our most important mission area, while also reaffirming the vital importance of the NEA as a leading forum for technology cooperation, economic analysis and scientific investigation. In that respect, the NEA's new role as the institutional home of the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC) continues the Agency's coverage of complex issues associated with the deployment of new nuclear power plants. The NEA also launched the Nuclear Innovation 2050 initiative in 2015, through which NEA hopes to develop a coordinated international agenda for priority nuclear technology research and development on issues ranging from advanced fuel cycles to improved technology and methods for decommissioning retired plants. In all, 2015 was a year of both continued success for the NEA and a

  15. IRSN annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    IRSN, a public authority with industrial and commercial activities, was set up under Article 5 of French Act No. 2001-398 of May 9, 2001, enacted through Order No. 2002-254 of February 22, 2002. This Order was amended on April 7, 2007. The Institute is placed under the joint authority of the Ministries of Defense, the Environment, Industry, Research, and Health. It is the nation's public service expert in nuclear and radiation risks, and its activities cover all the related scientific and technical issues. Its areas of specialization include the environment and radiological emergency response, human radiation protection in both a medical and professional capacity, and in both normal and post-accident situations, the prevention of major accidents, nuclear reactor safety, as well as safety in plants and laboratories, transport and waste treatment, and nuclear defense expertise. IRSN interacts with all parties concerned by these risks (public authorities, in particular nuclear safety and security authorities, local authorities, companies, research organizations, stakeholders' associations, etc.) to contribute to public policy issues relating to nuclear safety, human and environmental protection against ionizing radiation, and the protection of nuclear materials, facilities, and transport against the risk of malicious acts. This document is the 2011 annual report of IRSN. It presents the Organization, Progress and main activities in 2011, Transparency and communications policy, safety and radiation protection culture of IRSN. The main activities in 2011 are presented in details: 1 - Safety: Safety of existing facilities: Monitoring reactors, Monitoring fuel cycle facilities and experimental reactors, Containment and fire, Natural hazards, Fuels, Accidents, About defense; Conducting assessments of future facilities: Future waste repositories, Reactors of the future; 2 - Security and non-proliferation: Protection against malicious act; Activities of the advisory

  16. Annual energy review 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a historical data report that tells many stories. It describes, in numbers, the changes that have occurred in US energy markets since the midpoint of the 20th century. In many cases, those markets differ vastly from those of a half-century ago. By studying the graphs and data tables presented in this report, readers can learn about past energy supply and usage in the United States and gain an understanding of the issues in energy and the environment now before use. While most of this year`s report content is similar to last year`s, there are some noteworthy developments. Table 1.1 has been restructured into more summarized groupings -- fossil fuels, nuclear electric power, and renewable energy -- to aid analysts in their examination of the basic trends in those broad categories. Readers` attention is also directed to the electricity section, where considerable reformatting of the tables and graphs has been carried out to help clarify past and recent trends in the electric power industry as it enters a period of radical restructuring. Table 9.1, which summarizes US nuclear generating units, has been redeveloped to cover the entire history of the industry in this country and to provide categories relevant in assessing the future of the industry, such as the numbers of ordered generating units that have been canceled and those that were built and later shut down. In general, the AER emphasizes domestic energy statistics. Sections 1 through 10 and Section 12 are devoted mostly to US data; Section 11 reports on international statistics and world totals. 140 figs., 141 tabs.

  17. Increased resiliency and activity of microbial mediated carbon cycling enzymes in diversified bioenergy cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, R.; Bach, E.; Hofmockel, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    Microbes are mediators of soil carbon (C) and are influenced in membership and activity by nitrogen (N) fertilization and inter-annual abiotic factors. Microbial communities and their extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) are important parameters that influence ecosystem C cycling properties and are often included in microbial explicit C cycling models. In an effort to generate model relevant, empirical findings, we investigated how both microbial community structure and C degrading enzyme activity are influenced by inter-annual variability and N inputs in bioenergy crops. Our study was performed at the Comparison of Biofuel Systems field-site from 2011 to 2014, in three bioenergy cropping systems, continuous corn (CC) and two restored prairies, both fertilized (FP) and unfertilized (P). We hypothesized microbial community structure would diverge during the prairie restoration, leading to changes in C cycling enzymes over time. Using a sequencing approach (16S and ITS) we determined the bacterial and fungal community structure response to the cropping system, fertilization, and inter-annual variability. Additionally, we used EEA of β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and β-xylosidase to determine inter-annual and ecosystem impacts on microbial activity. Our results show cropping system was a main effect for microbial community structure, with corn diverging from both prairies to be less diverse. Inter-annual changes showed that a drought occurring in 2012 significantly impacted microbial community structure in both the P and CC, decreasing microbial richness. However, FP increased in microbial richness, suggesting the application of N increased resiliency to drought. Similarly, the only year in which C cycling enzymes were impacted by ecosystem was 2012, with FP supporting higher potential enzymatic activity then CC and P. The highest EEA across all ecosystems occurred in 2014, suggesting the continued root biomass and litter build-up in this no till system

  18. International Synchronisation of the Pork Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOLST

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of pork prices has been analysed since the 1920s. Well known economic concepts such as Hanaus pork cycle or Ezekiels cobweb theorem are based on the empirical analysis of pork markets. We analyze whether pork price developments in different countries have become more synchronised over time. In a first stage of our analysis, annual pork price data collected by the FAO reveals much heterogeneity of pork price developments across countries. However, for some groups of countries the observed price patterns are very similar or even identical. This is especially the case for neighbouring countries with integrated pork markets, such as the members of the European Union (EU. We then compare pork price developments in Germany and the USA based on 36 years of monthly producer prices for slaughter pigs. Since the middle of the 1990s cyclical pork price movements in the USA and Germany have become increasingly synchronous. We attribute this to two developments: the fact that the USA has become a large net exporter of pork over this period, and policy reform in the EU that has strengthened the link between international and EU feed prices.

  19. NIRE annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of 'ecotechnology' that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 32 recent research efforts.

  20. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

  1. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  2. IKO Annual Report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The IKO Annual Report of 1976 relates their progress in different projects and project fields. The fields covered include electron scattering, pion and muon physics, theory, radio- and nuclear chemistry, technical department, MEA, nuclear reactions and nuclear spectroscopy

  3. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  4. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  5. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI) [de

  6. Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This annual report supersedes the work done in the nuclear physics institute at Lyon. The studied matters are the following: nuclear theory, nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear chemistry [fr

  7. 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  8. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.

    1991-04-01

    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

  9. Scientific annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a collection of the abstracts of the publications concerning research and development in the named institute together with a bibliography about further publications, contributions to conferences and speeches. (HSI) [de

  10. Annual report - LNLS - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the 1990 Annual Report of the LNLS, the upcoming Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source. It discusses its projects, organization as well as the proposed experimental stations. It presents also a list of publications. (A.C.A.S.)

  11. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  12. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2003-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2002 is reported. Structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  13. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2005-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2004 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  14. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2004-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2003 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  15. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2006 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  16. Annual Report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The annual report gives the specific scientific results in the fields of nuclear and radiation physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and data processing with a list of publications. (orig.) [de

  17. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  18. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  19. Is That Fiscal Convergence Provides Business Cycles Synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    Alimi, Nabil; Garbaa, Radhouan

    2014-01-01

    Using a panel of annual data for 29 ODCE countries over the period 1996 2010, we empirically examine if fiscal convergence make business cycles more closely linked. The results suggest that a reduction in fiscal divergence tend to raise the business cycle correlation between a pair of ODCE countries.

  20. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  1. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  2. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  3. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  4. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  5. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  6. Long term variability of the annual hydrological regime and sensitivity to temperature phase shifts in Saxony/Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, M.; Bernhofer, C.

    2011-01-01

    The timing of the seasons strongly effects ecosystems and human activities. Recently, there is increasing evidence of changes in the timing of the seasons, such as earlier spring seasons detected in phenological records, advanced seasonal timing of surface temperature, earlier snow melt or streamflow timing. For water resources management there is a need to quantitatively describe the variability in the timing of hydrological regimes and to understand how climatic changes control the seasonal water budget of river basins on the regional scale. In this study, changes of the annual cycle of hydrological variables are analysed for 27 river basins in Saxony/Germany. Thereby monthly series of basin runoff ratios, the ratio of runoff and basin precipitation are investigated for changes and variability of their annual periodicity over the period 1930-2009. Approximating the annual cycle by the means of harmonic functions gave acceptable results, while only two parameters, phase and amplitude, are required. It has been found that the annual phase of runoff ratio, representing the timing of the hydrological regime, is subject to considerable year-to-year variability, being concurrent with basins in similar hydro-climatic conditions. Two distinct basin classes have been identified, whereby basin elevation has been found to be the delimiting factor. An increasing importance of snow on the basin water balance with elevation is apparent and mainly governs the temporal variability of the annual timing of hydrological regimes. Further there is evidence of coincident changes in trend direction (change points in 1971 and 1988) in snow melt influenced basins. In these basins the timing of the runoff ratio is significantly correlated with the timing of temperature, and effects on runoff by temperature phase changes are even amplified. Interestingly, temperature effects may explain the low frequent variability of the second change point until today. However, the first change point can

  7. The Contemporary Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    The global carbon cycle refers to the exchanges of carbon within and between four major reservoirs: the atmosphere, the oceans, land, and fossil fuels. Carbon may be transferred from one reservoir to another in seconds (e.g., the fixation of atmospheric CO2 into sugar through photosynthesis) or over millennia (e.g., the accumulation of fossil carbon (coal, oil, gas) through deposition and diagenesis of organic matter). This chapter emphasizes the exchanges that are important over years to decades and includes those occurring over the scale of months to a few centuries. The focus will be on the years 1980-2000 but our considerations will broadly include the years ˜1850-2100. Chapter 8.09, deals with longer-term processes that involve rates of carbon exchange that are small on an annual timescale (weathering, vulcanism, sedimentation, and diagenesis).The carbon cycle is important for at least three reasons. First, carbon forms the structure of all life on the planet, making up ˜50% of the dry weight of living things. Second, the cycling of carbon approximates the flows of energy around the Earth, the metabolism of natural, human, and industrial systems. Plants transform radiant energy into chemical energy in the form of sugars, starches, and other forms of organic matter; this energy, whether in living organisms or dead organic matter, supports food chains in natural ecosystems as well as human ecosystems, not the least of which are industrial societies habituated (addicted?) to fossil forms of energy for heating, transportation, and generation of electricity. The increased use of fossil fuels has led to a third reason for interest in the carbon cycle. Carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), forms two of the most important greenhouse gases. These gases contribute to a natural greenhouse effect that has kept the planet warm enough to evolve and support life (without the greenhouse effect the Earth's average temperature would be -33

  8. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Alsema, Erik

    2008-03-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004-2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride. Life-cycle emissions were determined by employing average electricity mixtures in Europe and the United States during the materials and module production for each PV system. Among the current vintage of PV technologies, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV emits the least amount of harmful air emissions as it requires the least amount of energy during the module production. However, the differences in the emissions between different PV technologies are very small in comparison to the emissions from conventional energy technologies that PV could displace. As a part of prospective analysis, the effect of PV breeder was investigated. Overall, all PV technologies generate far less life-cycle air emissions per GWh than conventional fossil-fuel-based electricity generation technologies. At least 89% of air emissions associated with electricity generation could be prevented if electricity from photovoltaics displaces electricity from the grid.

  9. Reproductive cycles of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W

    2011-04-01

    The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

  11. Development of similarity theory for control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Evtushenko, V. F.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, G. V.

    2018-05-01

    The area of effective application of the traditional similarity theory and the need necessity of its development for systems are discussed. The main statements underlying the similarity theory of control systems are given. The conditions for the similarity of control systems and the need for similarity control control are formulated. Methods and algorithms for estimating and similarity control of control systems and the results of research of control systems based on their similarity are presented. The similarity control of systems includes the current evaluation of the degree of similarity of control systems and the development of actions controlling similarity, and the corresponding targeted change in the state of any element of control systems.

  12. NEA Annual Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    recovery. Furthermore, third party liability aspects of the accident are being examined by the Nuclear Law Committee, and the accident's impact on the future of nuclear power is being investigated by the Nuclear Development Committee. In parallel, the NEA has devoted significant efforts to directly support the technical needs of the Japanese government, with this assistance primarily focusing on 1) the recovery of land and decontamination, 2) the development and implementation of national reviews and stress tests, and 3) enhancements to the regulatory infrastructure. Several NEA missions of experts from member countries have already been sent to Japan, and the Agency has actively participated in the organisation of, and discussions which took place at, various meetings and symposia. This annual report comments the activities of the Agency for the year 2011: 1 - Message from the Director-General; 2 - The Fukushima Daiichi Accident and NEA Follow-up; 3 - Nuclear Power in 2011; 4 - Technical Programmes: Nuclear Development and the Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Safety and Regulation, Radioactive Waste Management, Radiological Protection, Nuclear Science, Data Bank, Legal Affairs, Joint Projects and Other Co-operative Projects; 5 - Technical Secretariat: Generation IV International Forum (GIF), Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP); 6 - General Information: Information and Communications, Nuclear Energy and Civil Society, Organisational Structure of the NEA, NEA Publications and Brochures Produced in 2011

  13. Marriage Matters: Spousal Similarity in Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schimmack; Richard Lucas

    2006-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-lagged spousal similarity in life satisfaction over a 21-year period. Analyses were based on married couples (N = 847) in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Concurrent spousal similarity was considerably higher than one-year retest similarity, revealing spousal similarity in the variable component of life satisfac-tion. Spousal similarity systematically decreased with length of retest interval, revealing simi-larity in the changing component of life sati...

  14. Petroleum supply annual 1994, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  15. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This annual report is the fifth issued in English from the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory in Uppsala since research was started in November 1970. It covers work performed during the calendar year 1976 and updates information given in earlier annual reports with regard to laboratory facilities such as computer configuration and layout of the experimental area. The descriptions of the research projects are also in general more detailed than usual and may sometime contain results obtained before 1976 in order to avoid too many references to earlier annual reports. It has, for instance, been thought of interest to make the sections on the study of beam foil excitation of atoms and on the measurements of nuclear deformations by the REPREC method quite extensive. (Auth.)

  16. Bipolar mood cycles and lunar tidal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, T A

    2018-04-01

    In 17 patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder, time-series analyses detected synchronies between mood cycles and three lunar cycles that modulate the amplitude of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides: the 14.8-day spring-neap cycle, the 13.7-day declination cycle and the 206-day cycle of perigee-syzygies ('supermoons'). The analyses also revealed shifts among 1:2, 1:3, 2:3 and other modes of coupling of mood cycles to the two bi-weekly lunar cycles. These shifts appear to be responses to the conflicting demands of the mood cycles' being entrained simultaneously to two different bi-weekly lunar cycles with slightly different periods. Measurements of circadian rhythms in body temperature suggest a biological mechanism through which transits of one of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides might have driven the patients' bipolar cycles, by periodically entraining the circadian pacemaker to its 24.84-h rhythm and altering the pacemaker's phase-relationship to sleep in a manner that is known to cause switches from depression to mania.

  17. 2013 NEA Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    concerned with nuclear and radiation safety issues: the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). However, the follow-up to Fukushima continues to involve all areas of the Agency's work, as member countries look to implement practical measures and improvements based on lessons learnt. The NEA will continue to offer its direct assistance to the Japanese authorities in addressing remaining significant challenges, including environmental remediation and recovery, the management of radioactive waste and the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors. This Annual Report provides an overview of NEA activities for 2013, ranging from specific follow-up to the Fukushima Daiichi accident to further work in the areas of nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, nuclear science, nuclear law and nuclear energy development and the fuel cycle. While it is clear that Fukushima has had a profound effect on the nuclear energy sector, its development is set to continue in the coming years. Reflecting the need for secure supplies of low-carbon electricity, the use of nuclear power is projected to increase in a number of countries, notably in those that are seeking to diversify their energy mixes and to respond to global climate change objectives. The decision to introduce or to further develop the use of nuclear energy is an important one, which requires robust legal and regulatory frameworks and, first and foremost, an absolute commitment to safety. Table of contents: I. Message from the Director-General; II. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident and NEA Follow-up; III. Nuclear Power in 2013; IV. Technical Programmes: Nuclear Development and the Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Safety and Regulation, Radioactive Waste Management, Radiological Protection, Nuclear Science, Data Bank, Legal Affairs, Joint Projects and Other Co

  18. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  19. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  20. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  1. The sunspot cycle revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomb, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The set of sunspot numbers observed since the invention of the telescope is one of the most studied time series in astronomy and yet it is also one of the most complex. Fourteen frequencies are found in the yearly mean sunspot numbers from 1700 to 2011using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and prewhitening. All of the frequencies corresponding to shorter term periods can be matched with simple algebraic combinations of the frequency of the main 11-year period and the frequencies of the longer term periods in the periodogram. This is exactly what can be expected from amplitude and phase modulation of an 11.12-year periodicity by longer term variations. Similar, though not identical, results are obtained after correcting the sunspot number series as proposed by Svalgaard. On looking separately at the amplitude and phase modulation a clear relationship is found between the two modulations although this relationship has broken down for the last four solar cycles. The phase modulation implies that there is a definite underlying period for the solar cycle. Such a clock mechanism does seem to be a possibility in models of the solar dynamo incorporating a conveyor-belt-like meridional circulation between high polar latitudes and the equator.

  2. Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Juchau, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    A review of existing nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis codes was performed to determine if any existing codes meet technical and functional requirements defined for a U.S. national program supporting the global and domestic assessment, development and deployment of nuclear energy systems. The program would be implemented using an interconnected architecture of different codes ranging from the fuel cycle analysis code, which is the subject of the review, to fundamental physical and mechanistic codes. Four main functions are defined for the code: (1) the ability to characterize and deploy individual fuel cycle facilities and reactors in a simulation, while discretely tracking material movements, (2) the capability to perform an uncertainty analysis for each element of the fuel cycle and an aggregate uncertainty analysis, (3) the inclusion of an optimization engine able to optimize simultaneously across multiple objective functions, and (4) open and accessible code software and documentation to aid in collaboration between multiple entities and facilitate software updates. Existing codes, categorized as annualized or discrete fuel tracking codes, were assessed according to the four functions and associated requirements. These codes were developed by various government, education and industrial entities to fulfill particular needs. In some cases, decisions were made during code development to limit the level of detail included in a code to ease its use or to focus on certain aspects of a fuel cycle to address specific questions. The review revealed that while no two of the codes are identical, they all perform many of the same basic functions. No code was able to perform defined function 2 or several requirements of functions 1 and 3. Based on this review, it was concluded that the functions and requirements will be met only with development of a new code, referred to as GENIUS.

  3. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2000

  4. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 299 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  5. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This annual report contains short descriptions of the work done at the named institute. These concern the study of hyperfine interactions, experiments with synchroton radiation, experiments at storage rings, and experiments at CERN. Furthermore, a list of publications, contributions to conferences and these is presented. (HSI) [de

  6. CSIR Annual report 1966

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty second annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1966, to the 31st December 1966. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  7. Annual Report - ESCELSA - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual report of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; market overview; market expansion; customers; technological stream; measuring quality; electric system; investments; protecting the environment; and resource allocation

  8. Annual Conference Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  9. HASYLAB annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at HASYLAB together with a list of publications, speeches, and theses. The work concerns technical developments, the study of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, solids, surfaces, and liquids, X-ray structure studies of solids and interfaces, molecular biology, further applications of synchrotron radiation, and experimental developments. (HSI)

  10. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  11. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  12. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  13. CSIR Annual report 1968

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fourth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1968, to the 31st December 1968. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  14. CSIR Annual report 1971

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty seventh annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1971, to the 31st December 1971. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  15. CSIR Annual report 1970

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty sixth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1970, to the 31st December 1970. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  16. CSIR Annual report 1969

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fifth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1969, to the 31st December 1969. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  17. International energy annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  18. Uranium industry annual 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  19. KTA annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report gives an overview of the rulemaking work in the individual fields as well as other activities, such as meetings, international codes of rules, and publications. KTA organization, including its administration and funds is listed. (orig./HP) [de

  20. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 145 refs.; 20 figs.; 4 fotos; 2 tabs

  1. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In this annual report the work done at the named Institute is described. This concerns particle and fields in the solar system, infrared astronomy, X-ray astronomy, γ-astronomy, and molecule spectroscopy. A list of publications is added. (HSI)

  2. ANCLI annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2003. (A.L.B.)

  3. ANCLI annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2004. (A.L.B.)

  4. Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, N; Skalski, J [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    The ''Annual Report 2008'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2008. Report consists of two parts. First one consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given.

  5. TIARA annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Arakawa, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shigeru; Narumi, Kazumasa; Yoshida, Masaru; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Yoshikawa, Masato; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Otsubo, Michiro; Yokota, Watalu; Nakamura, Yoshiteru

    2006-01-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2005. The 126 of the presented papers are indexed individually. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  6. Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  7. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  8. ANCLI annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2002. (A.L.B.)

  9. Annual General Meetings

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We have produced this information booklet to explain why companies must – by law – hold an Annual General Meeting (AGM). The laws which cover AGMs are known as the Companies Acts. This guide gives only a summary of the rules for AGMs. If you have a concern about the AGM of a particular company, you should get independent legal advice.

  10. Annual report 1981, annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume entitled ''Annex to the annual report'' deals in more detail with the scientific works of the I.L.L.: the scientific activity of theoricians; experimental reports on inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry

  11. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains.

  12. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawlikowicz, W.; Pienkowski, L.

    2007-03-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2006. The document consist of four parts: 'Laboratory Overview', 'Experiments and Experimental Set-ups', 'Experiments Using the Outside Facilities' and 'General Information on HIL Activities'. An 'Introduction' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  13. Annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The annual report from IKU (Continental Shelf Institute) in Norway deals with the market adjustment of research activities at the institute as a result of offshore cost-cutting policy in the petroleum industry. The market is about to shift focus from volume to competence. In practice, that means buying competence instead of project ideas or proposals

  14. BAM - Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The annual report contains progress and activity reports of the presidential department, the departments metals and metal construction, civil engineering and building activities, organic matter, chemical safety engineering, special fields of materials testing, techniques independent of the type of material, an index, as well as general and statistic statements. (HK) [de

  15. Annual report - ENERSUL - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of ENERSUL - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: Outlook for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sold; capacity increases; customers; customers; energy balance; performance and quality; electric system; investments; people; human resources; synergies; awards; workplace safety; social balance; and patrimonial balance

  16. 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French union of the petroleum industry (UFIP). It summarizes the highlights of the petroleum industry activity in France in 2001 and gives some additional information about the production, refining and distribution of petroleum products in the rest of the world. (J.S.)

  17. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.

    2008-03-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2007. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments and Experimental Set-ups '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' General Information on HIL Activities ''. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  18. International Energy Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  19. 2010 AAUW Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights some of the outstanding accomplishments of AAUW (American Association of University Women) for fiscal year 2010. This year's annual report also features stories of remarkable women who are leading the charge to break through barriers and ensure that all women have a fair chance. Sharon is working to reduce the pay gap…

  20. Annual report - ESCELSA - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of 1999 of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power company - introduces the next main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; customers; quality; electric system; investments; people; resources; synergies; awards; outlook; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  1. IKF annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The annual report of 1988 gives a survey of the following category of themes: nuclear physics, atom physics, nuclear methods, nuclear solid-state physics and developments of machines. Apart from the use of its own Van de Graaff accelerators the institute takes part in joint ventures in research, for example with the GSI (Association for Heavy-Ion Research) in Darmstadt. (DG) [de

  2. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Pienkowski, L.

    2006-05-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2005. The document consist of four parts: Laboratory Overview, Experiments and Experimental Set-ups, Experiments Using the Outside Facilities and General Information on HIL Activities. An Introduction written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  3. KVI Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This annual report offers 93 informative descriptions of the current research projects at the KVI cyclotron during 1982. The projects are classed under the following heads: elastic and inelastic scattering; giant resonances; transfer and charge exchange reactions; breakup reactions; heavy ion reactions; electromagnetic and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; atomic physics; nuclear solid state physics; cyclotron, computers and instrumentation; nuclear medicine; environmental studies. (Auth.)

  4. NERSC Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Yarris, Lynn; McCullough, Julie; Preuss, Paul; Bethel, Wes

    2005-04-15

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  5. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    In this annual report the work done at the named institute is described. This concerns experiments with synchrotron radiations, high energy physics experiments at the PETRA and DORIS storage rings, studies of MFS interactions, and some neutrino experiments at CERN. A list of publications is included. (HSI)

  6. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  7. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  8. NERSC Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John

    2003-01-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2002 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects), and information about NERSC's current and planned systems and service

  9. Annual results 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  10. Annual report SNET 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the SNET (National Society of Electricity and thermic) presents the society activities and the financial report for the year 2003. The society position in the market, the environmental policy, the performance, the workers and financial data are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  11. NUFFIC Annual Report, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Co-operation, The Hague.

    The 1977 annual report of the Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation (NUFFIC) considers the following topics: major developments in work and policy; relationships NUFFIC has with other organizations; University Development Cooperation; developments in international education; the functioning of the Consultative Structure…

  12. CSIR Annual report 1967

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty third annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1967, to the 31st December 1967. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  13. Annual report 1982. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the scientific annual report 1982 of the ILL on R and D activities of the different colleges: fundamental and nuclear physics, inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry, theory. Abstracts of the publications published during the year are presented

  14. CSIR Annual report 1980

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty-sixth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1980 to 31 December 1980. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1980, certified...

  15. NRCC annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    This annual report of the National Research for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC) Division describes the program of research workshops, software development, and scientific research of the Division in 1979. This year marked the first full calendar year of activity of the Division. Initial staffing in the core scientific areas was completed by the addition of a crystallographer

  16. GKSS annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This annual report reviews the structure and activities of the GKSS in 1983. R and D work was done on reactor safety engineering, environmental research/environmental engineering and underwater technology. It also reports on cooperation with outside partners, the organization, financing, and developments in the staff structure as well as on publications, lectures, applications for patents, etc. (UA) [de

  17. NERSC Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules (Ed.), John

    2006-07-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  18. ELETRONUCLEAR - Annual report - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual activities report of 1997 of ELETRONUCLEAR - Brazilian company responsible by the electric power generation from the nuclear technology - introduces the next main topics: company vision and mission; energy production and commercialization; investments in the electric power generation; economic and financial situation; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  19. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.  

  20. PTB annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The annual report presents general information on the institution's activities and the various departments, and reports on scientific work in the field of metrology and safety engineering. Brief scientific accounts refer to work in the domains of mechanics and acoustics, electricity, heat, optics, industrial metrology, atomic physics, technical and scientific services, collection and disposal of radioactive waste. (DG) [de

  1. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2004. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and monitoring of environment; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers is presented

  2. NIKHEF Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this annual report 1982, the NIKHEF research programs of high-energy physics, nuclear physics and radiochemistry is described in a wide context. Next, the reports of the individual projects of section-H and section-K are described in detail. Finally, the report gives some statistical information of publications, colloquia and co-workers. (Auth.)

  3. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary and detailed reports are presented of current research during 1987 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics. (H.W.). 61 refs.; 13 figs.; 14 tabs

  4. NIKHEF Annual Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF) during its first year. Following a general introduction to the research areas in which NIKHEF is involved, 29 brief reports from the project groups are presented. Details concerning personnel, participation in councils and committees, finances, publications, colloquia and participation in congresses and schools are included. (Auth.)

  5. Annual Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacz, M.; Zielinska, M.

    2011-06-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw describes the activities of Laboratory in 2010. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments at HIL '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' Appendices '' where general information on HIL activities are described. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Heavy Ion Laboratory prof. K. Rusek is also given.

  6. CSIR Annual report 1962

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the eighteenth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1962 to 31 December 1962. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1962, certified...

  7. CSIR Annual report 1983

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty ninth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1983 to 31 December 1983. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1983, certified...

  8. CSIR Annual report 1981

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty seventh annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1981 to 31 December 1981. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1981, certified...

  9. CSIR Annual report 1982

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty eighth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1982 to 31 December 1982. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1982, certified...

  10. CSIR Annual report 1963

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the nineteenth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1963, to the 31st December 1963. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  11. Sustainability Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  12. Sustainability Annual Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  13. Sustainability Annual Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  14. Sustainability Annual Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  15. Sustainability Annual Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  16. Sustainability Annual Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  17. Sustainability Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  18. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeley, N.; Skalski, J.

    2009-01-01

    The ''Annual Report 2008'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2008. Report consists of two parts. First one consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  19. On different forms of self similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswathy, R.K.; Mathew, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Fractal geometry is mainly based on the idea of self-similar forms. To be self-similar, a shape must able to be divided into parts that are smaller copies, which are more or less similar to the whole. There are different forms of self similarity in nature and mathematics. In this paper, some of the topological properties of super self similar sets are discussed. It is proved that in a complete metric space with two or more elements, the set of all non super self similar sets are dense in the set of all non-empty compact sub sets. It is also proved that the product of self similar sets are super self similar in product metric spaces and that the super self similarity is preserved under isometry. A characterization of super self similar sets using contracting sub self similarity is also presented. Some relevant counterexamples are provided. The concepts of exact super and sub self similarity are introduced and a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be exact super self similar in terms of condensation iterated function systems (Condensation IFS’s) is obtained. A method to generate exact sub self similar sets using condensation IFS’s and the denseness of exact super self similar sets are also discussed.

  20. Deutsche Umwelthilfe. Annual report 2012; Deutsche Umwelthilfe. Jahresbericht 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finus, Oliver; Fischer, Thomas; Fokken, Ulrike [and others

    2012-12-01

    Within the annual report 2012 under consideration, the German Environmental Relief (Radolfzell, Federal Republic of Germany) describes its currents activities in the following areas: Energy and climate protection; traffic and air purification; nature protection; municipal environmental protection; ecologic consumer protection; cycle waste management; environment and development.

  1. Annual report 2000. Department of wastes disposal and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report presents the missions, the organization, the researches progress, the events, the publications and the personnel formation of the Department of wastes disposal and storage in the year 2000, one of the CEA fuel cycle Direction. (A.L.B.)

  2. Annual report - Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S A - 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The annual report of 1998 of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S A - Brazilian company responsible for the industrial activities of the nuclear fuel cycle - introduces the next main topics: mineral resource directory main actions; industrial directory main actions; finance and administration directory main actions; transparency; environment, safety and quality; the company; and financial statements

  3. Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap-filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. While many gap-filling methodologies have been employed, there is ...

  4. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project annual report 93/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project exists to develop fusion technologies and apply them worldwide in today's advanced fusion projects and to apply these technologies in fusion and tritium research facilities. CFFTP concentrates on developing capability in fusion fuel cycle systems, in tritium handling technologies and in remote handling. This is an annual report for CFFTP and as such also includes a financial report

  5. Diurnal and annual variations of meteor rates at the arctic circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Meteors are an important source for (a the metal atoms of the upper atmosphere metal layers and (b for condensation nuclei, the existence of which are a prerequisite for the formation of noctilucent cloud particles in the polar mesopause region. For a better understanding of these phenomena, it would be helpful to know accurately the annual and diurnal variations of meteor rates. So far, these rates have been little studied at polar latitudes. Therefore we have used the 33 MHz meteor radar of the ALOMAR observatory at 69° N to measure the meteor rates at this location for two full annual cycles. This site, being within 3° of the Arctic circle, offers in addition an interesting capability: The axis of its antenna field points (almost towards the North ecliptic pole once each day of the year. In this particular viewing direction, the radar monitors the meteoroid influx from (almost the entire ecliptic Northern hemisphere. We report on the observed diurnal variations (averaged over one month of meteor rates and their significant alterations throughout the year. The ratio of maximum over minimum meteor rates throughout one diurnal cycle is in January and February about 5, from April through December 2.3±0.3. If compared with similar measurements at mid-latitudes, our expectation, that the amplitude of the diurnal variation is to decrease towards the North pole, is not really borne out. Observations with the antenna axis pointing towards the North ecliptic pole showed that the rate of deposition of meteoric dust is substantially larger during the Arctic NLC season than the annual mean deposition rate. The daylight meteor showers of the Arietids, Zeta Perseids, and Beta Taurids supposedly contribute considerably to the June maximum of meteor rates. We note, though, that with the radar antenna pointing as described above, all three meteor radiants are close to the local horizon but all three radiants were detected.

  6. Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    At the two research centers operated by the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEA), considerable effort is devoted to the investigation of phenomena and the development of technologies related to diverse aspects of materials science. This year the entire Ice's annual report is dedicated to the review of our Research and Development activities in this field. Advancement of general scientific knowledge and contribution to technological progress are part of Ice's mission. We believe that this end is best served by the involvement of our scientists and engineers in joint projects with the academic community and with industry. Our commitment to this goal and mode of action is reflected in the fact that all of the four studies reviewed here are products of fruitful collaboration with our academic and industrial partners. Development of a new spray technology for producing hard coatings is described in the first article. This promising technology is based on a concept that evolved from the extensive experience garnered in the course of the development of Electrothermal, Electrothermal-Chemical and Solid-Propellant-Electrothermal-Chemical guns. The applicability of the coating method has been demonstrated and a theoretical model using critical process-controlling parameters has been developed. The growing demand for micro-optical components and integrated micro-optical circuits, similar to that for micro-electronic devices, requires new materials and processes for their fabrication. In the study reported in the second paper it has been shown that new resins synthesized using the fast-sol-gel route have the potential to meet the stringent processibility and cost requirements of the micro-optical components industry. We believe that Ice's contribution to Israel's technological progress should be manifested in its readiness and capability to respond to real problems and needs. This has been done in the third work, which addresses itself to a specific problem encountered in

  7. 1997 annual report; Rapport annuel 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This 1997 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and communication with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the nuclear protection and safety, the advanced technologies, the quasi-particles, the effects of ionizing radiations on humans, the medical imagery, the transfer of technology, the protection and valorization of knowledge, the radioactive wastes and spent fuels management, the training and teaching, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (O.M.)

  8. Health and safety annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    BNFL operates 6 sites in the United Kingdom concerned with the nuclear fuel cycle. The annual report on occupational health and safety gives information on all aspects of health and safety within BNFL with special reference to radiation doses received by the workforce and radiation protection measures taken by the company. BNFL's safety policy is set out. Radiation doses to all workers have remained low. Other industrial accidents are also listed and its safety measures for transport, radioactive effluents and in the event of an incident, are mentioned briefly. (UK)

  9. 1997 annual report; Rapport annuel 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This 1997 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and communication with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the nuclear protection and safety, the advanced technologies, the quasi-particles, the effects of ionizing radiations on humans, the medical imagery, the transfer of technology, the protection and valorization of knowledge, the radioactive wastes and spent fuels management, the training and teaching, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (O.M.)

  10. Annual report ''nuclear safety in France''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). It summarizes the highlights of the year 2000 and details the following aspects: the nuclear safety in France, the organization of the control of nuclear safety, the regulation relative to basic nuclear facilities, the control of facilities, the information of the public, the international relations, the organisation of emergencies, the radiation protection, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive wastes, the PWR reactors, the experimental reactors and other laboratories and facilities, the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and the shutdown and dismantling of nuclear facilities. (J.S.)

  11. 1996 annual report; Rapport annuel 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This 1996 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and external communication with some budgetary informations. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the condensed matter and life sciences, the advanced technologies, the protection and transfer of knowledge and technologies, the environmental activities, the management and processing of nuclear wastes, the nuclear protection and safety, the technical and scientific information, the teaching and training, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (J.S.).

  12. Essays on economic cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert)

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United

  13. Extracting the annual signal from Greenland ice-core chemistry and isotopic records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Andersen, Katrine K.; Andersen, Marie Louise Siggaard

    2002-01-01

    Stratigraphic dating of ice cores by identification and counting of annual cycles in, for example, chemical measurements requires skill and experience. The work presented here investigates a method of data enhancement which is a first step towards an automated and more objective method of annual...

  14. Annual report on occupational safety 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The 1983 Annual Report on occupational safety at BNFL is presented. Data for whole-body radiation doses and skin and extremity doses are given for BNFL employees together with 1982 data for comparison. Similarly, accidental deaths and major injuries are recorded. Finally information on the frequency of both nuclear and non-nuclear incidents reported to the Health and Safety Executive is given. (U.K.)

  15. Annual report 1994-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Activities of the various constituent units of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and also of the institutions financially aided by DAE during the year 1994-95 are reported. The various constituent units of DAE consist of nuclear research establishments, nuclear power plants, heavy water plants, nuclear fabrication facilities, electronic and instrumentation production facilities, atomic mineral processing units and other nuclear installations. These activities cover the whole gamut of nuclear fuel cycle, research and development in nuclear science and reactor technology, applications of radiation and radioisotopes, radiation protection, environmental aspects, research and development in front line areas such as robotics, lasers, parallel processing etc. The activities are described under the headings: introduction, the year at a glance, nuclear power, non-power sectors, public sector undertakings, support to research, services etc.. Other activities of DAE include international relations, emergency planning, training, technology transfer etc. Service activities include materials management, construction, publicity and information etc. The text is illustrated with a number of coloured photographs. A chart showing the organisational structure of atomic energy administration of the country and a map of India showing locations of various atomic energy establishments, spread all over the country are also included in this Annual Report of the Department of Atomic Energy. (M.G.B.)

  16. Annual report 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) was established in 1952 as a Crown Corporation and reports to parliament through the Minister of Natural Resources. As an annual report, financial statements are an integral element, financial analysis and review are also ongoing. AECL is very active in marketing the science culture which is key to public understanding and acceptance of the nuclear industry. In commercial operations, the CANDU is still the flagship to be marketed in many countries. AECL is the main producer of medical isotopes for the global market. AECL and MDS Nordion signed agreements to secure the ongoing supply of isotopes and to build and operate two MAPLE reactors at the Chalk River site. Activities at AECL are focused on improved economics, further enhanced safety systems and fuel cycle flexibility in the research and product development programs. Waste management and nuclear sciences i e. health and environmental sciences are ongoing studies. Site refurbishment focuses on replacing and refurbishing major facilities to meet business needs.

  17. Annual report 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) was established in 1952 as a Crown Corporation and reports to parliament through the Minister of Natural Resources. As an annual report, financial statements are an integral element, financial analysis and review are also ongoing. AECL is very active in marketing the science culture which is key to public understanding and acceptance of the nuclear industry. In commercial operations, the CANDU is still the flagship to be marketed in many countries. AECL is the main producer of medical isotopes for the global market. AECL and MDS Nordion signed agreements to secure the ongoing supply of isotopes and to build and operate two MAPLE reactors at the Chalk River site. Activities at AECL are focused on improved economics, further enhanced safety systems and fuel cycle flexibility in the research and product development programs. Waste management and nuclear sciences i e. health and environmental sciences are ongoing studies. Site refurbishment focuses on replacing and refurbishing major facilities to meet business needs

  18. Annual report 1994-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Activities of the various constituent units of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and also of the institutions financially aided by DAE during the year 1994-95 are reported. The various constituent units of DAE consist of nuclear research establishments, nuclear power plants, heavy water plants, nuclear fabrication facilities, electronic and instrumentation production facilities, atomic mineral processing units and other nuclear installations. These activities cover the whole gamut of nuclear fuel cycle, research and development in nuclear science and reactor technology, applications of radiation and radioisotopes, radiation protection, environmental aspects, research and development in front line areas such as robotics, lasers, parallel processing etc. The activities are described under the headings: introduction, the year at a glance, nuclear power, non-power sectors, public sector undertakings, support to research, services etc.. Other activities of DAE include international relations, emergency planning, training, technology transfer etc. Service activities include materials management, construction, publicity and information etc. The text is illustrated with a number of coloured photographs. A chart showing the organisational structure of atomic energy administration of the country and a map of India showing locations of various atomic energy establishments, spread all over the country are also included in this Annual Report of the Department of Atomic Energy. (M.G.B.).

  19. Health impact assessment of cycling network expansions in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Salmon, Maëlle; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Brand, Christian; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dons, Evi; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Gerike, Regine; Götschi, Thomas; Iacorossi, Francesco; Int Panis, Luc; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Raser, Elisabeth; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA) of cycling network expansions in seven European cities. We modeled the association between cycling network length and cycling mode share and estimated health impacts of the expansion of cycling networks. First, we performed a non-linear least square regression to assess the relationship between cycling network length and cycling mode share for 167 European cities. Second, we conducted a quantitative HIA for the seven cities of different scenarios (S) assessing how an expansion of the cycling network [i.e. 10% (S1); 50% (S2); 100% (S3), and all-streets (S4)] would lead to an increase in cycling mode share and estimated mortality impacts thereof. We quantified mortality impacts for changes in physical activity, air pollution and traffic incidents. Third, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis. The cycling network length was associated with a cycling mode share of up to 24.7% in European cities. The all-streets scenario (S4) produced greatest benefits through increases in cycling for London with 1,210 premature deaths (95% CI: 447-1,972) avoidable annually, followed by Rome (433; 95% CI: 170-695), Barcelona (248; 95% CI: 86-410), Vienna (146; 95% CI: 40-252), Zurich (58; 95% CI: 16-100) and Antwerp (7; 95% CI: 3-11). The largest cost-benefit ratios were found for the 10% increase in cycling networks (S1). If all 167 European cities achieved a cycling mode share of 24.7% over 10,000 premature deaths could be avoided annually. In European cities, expansions of cycling networks were associated with increases in cycling and estimated to provide health and economic benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear power fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, S.; Jakesova, L.

    1982-01-01

    Economic problems are discussed of the fuel cycle (cost of the individual parts of the fuel cycle and the share of the fuel cycle in the price of 1 kWh), the technological problems of the fuel cycle (uranium ore mining and processing, uranium isotope enrichment, the manufacture of fuel elements, the building of long-term storage sites for spent fuel, spent fuel reprocessing, liquid and gaseous waste processing), and the ecologic aspects of the fuel cycle. (H.S.)

  1. Large margin classification with indefinite similarities

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim; Cisse, Moustapha; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    Classification with indefinite similarities has attracted attention in the machine learning community. This is partly due to the fact that many similarity functions that arise in practice are not symmetric positive semidefinite, i.e. the Mercer

  2. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji; Genton, Marc G.; Jun, Mikyoung

    2016-01-01

    extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi

  3. The convergence of European business cycles 1978-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul; Mounfield, Craig

    2002-05-01

    The degree of convergence of the business cycles of the economies of the European Union (EU) is a key policy issue. In particular, a substantial degree of convergence is needed if the European Central Bank is to be capable of setting a monetary policy which is appropriate to the stage of the cycle of the Euro zone economies. We consider the annual rates of real GDP growth on a quarterly basis in the large core economies of the EU (France, Germany and Italy, plus The Netherlands) over the period 1978Q1-2000Q3. An important empirical question is the degree to which the correlations between these growth rates contain true information rather than noise. The technique of random matrix theory is able to answer this question, and has been recently applied successfully in the physics journals to financial markets data. We find that the correlations between the growth rates of the core EU economies contain substantial amounts of true information, and exhibit considerable stability over time. Even in the late 1970s and early 1980s, these economies moved together closely over the course of the business cycle. There was a slight loosening at the time of German re-unification, but the economies are now, if anything, even more closely correlated. As a benchmark for comparison, we add a series to the EU core data set which by construction is uncorrelated with these business cycles. We then analyse the EU core plus Spain, a country which has attached great importance to greater integration with Europe. In the early part of the period examined, the results are very similar to those obtained with the data set of the EU core plus the random series. However, there is a clear trend in the results, which provide strong evidence to support the view that the Spanish economy has now become closely converged with the core EU economies in terms of its movements over the business cycle. In contrast, the results obtained with a data set of the EU core plus the UK show no such trend. In the

  4. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…

  5. Personality similarity and life satisfaction in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Furler Katrin; Gomez Veronica; Grob Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association between personality similarity and life satisfaction in a large nationally representative sample of 1608 romantic couples. Similarity effects were computed for the Big Five personality traits as well as for personality profiles with global and differentiated indices of similarity. Results showed substantial actor and partner effects indicating that both partners' personality traits were related to both partners' life satisfaction. Personality similar...

  6. Fourth annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Independent Radiation Monitoring Scheme for Clwyd began its monitoring programme in Clwyd in 1988. This is the fourth report on the results of the radiation monitoring carried out within Clwyd. The historical reasons for the conception of the Radiation Monitoring Scheme are given in the First Annual Report together with the protocol of operation and detailed sampling and monitoring information. The fourth Annual Report identifies any changes in techniques that have occurred in the last twelve months together with the latest monitoring and analytical data. Samples of air, beach materials, coastal sand and silt, seaweed, meat, fish and milk were taken from various locations within the county. No significant charges in radiation levels were found when compared with data from previous years. The values have remained within the range currently being expected throughout the United Kingdom. (author)

  7. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  8. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Document Server

    Pension Fund

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud). Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys). Questions from members and beneficiaries. Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer). As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  9. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  10. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  11. Annual recertification: fun? Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, A

    1994-01-01

    Learning is critical to fostering a knowledge base required for maintaining currency and furthering professional development. In the ever-changing field of nephrology, most skills practised in nursing are considered to be sanctioned medical acts or added nursing skills. Therefore, annual recertification of the skills designated as sanctioned medical acts is an expectation of the College of Nurses of Ontario. The Wellesley Hospital policy indicates one time only or annual approval of the added nursing skills. The article will discuss the use of games as a creative, non-threatening educational tool in the recertification/re-approval process currently in place at The Wellesley Hospital, renal programs. In the past two years, several games or alternative teaching strategies have been utilized to assist the staff in preparing for recertification. This paper will examine the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing alternative teaching formats. Commentary regarding the response of staff nurses, nursing management and education will be highlighted.

  12. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  13. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  14. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  15. 1986 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This annual report describes the reasearch activity carried out during 1986 by the Fusion Department of the Italian Commision for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA). The report outlines the main results obtained by the three major projects of the Fusion Department (Fusion Physics, Frascati Tokamak Upgrade, and Fusion Reactor Engineering), plus the divisional project Inertial Confinement mentioned separately because of its particular scientific content. Most of the research work was performed by the Fusion Department at its location at the ENEA Frascati Energy Research Center, but some work was also done elsewhere, or with recourse to other ENEA departments. The research activity described in this annual report was carried out with the frame of the Association Euratom-ENEA on Fusion, with the exception of some minor activities

  16. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  17. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  18. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  19. Nagra annual report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    This annual report made by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) takes a look at the cooperative’s activities and work done in 2013. Nagra’s task is recapitulated. Developments in 2013 concerning legislation, inventories of radioactive materials, sectorial planning and scientific and technical aspects are examined. Work done in the rock laboratories, in the public relations sector and consulting areas is looked at. Nagra’s organizational structure with its management, commissions and auditors is commented on and an organigram of the head office is presented. On the financial side of things, the annual financial statement with incomes, cash flow and accumulated accounts is presented as is the report made by the statutory auditors. An appendix to the report contains details on waste inventories and volumes, a list publications made in 2012 as well as Internet addresses and a glossary.

  20. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  1. Nagra annual report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This annual report made by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) takes a look at the cooperative’s activities and work done in 2013. Nagra’s task is recapitulated. Developments in 2013 concerning legislation, inventories of radioactive materials, sectorial planning and scientific and technical aspects are examined. Work done in the rock laboratories, in the public relations sector and consulting areas is looked at. Nagra’s organizational structure with its management, commissions and auditors is commented on and an organigram of the head office is presented. On the financial side of things, the annual financial statement with incomes, cash flow and accumulated accounts is presented as is the report made by the statutory auditors. An appendix to the report contains details on waste inventories and volumes, a list publications made in 2012 as well as Internet addresses and a glossary

  2. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  3. 2017 Annual Technology Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [Formerly NREL; O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-03-26

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually provides an organized and centralized set of such cost and performance data. The ATB uses the best information from the Department of Energy national laboratories' renewable energy analysts as well as information from the Energy Information Administration for fuel-based technologies. The ATB has been reviewed by experts and it includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind, offshore wind, utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), commercial-scale solar PV, residential-scale solar PV, concentrating solar power, geothermal power, hydropower, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and conventional biopower. This webinar presentation introduces the 2017 ATB.

  4. Belowground Water Dynamics Under Contrasting Annual and Perennial Plant Communities in an Agriculturally-Dominated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, G.; Asbjornsen, H.; Helmers, M. J.; Shepherd, G. W.

    2005-12-01

    The conversion from grasslands and forests to row-crops in the Midwest has affected soil water cycling because plant characteristics are one of the main parameters determining soil storage capacity, infiltration rates, and surface runoff. Little is known, however, about the extent of modification of soil water dynamics under different plant communities. To address this important issue, we are documenting soil water dynamics under contrasting perennial and annual plant communities in an agriculturally-dominated landscape. Measurements of soil moisture and depths of uptake of source water were obtained for six vegetative cover types (corn and soybean field, brome pasture, degraded savanna, restored savanna, and restored prairie) at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Prairie City, Iowa. The depths of uptake of soil water were determined on the basis of oxygen isotope composition of soil water and stem water. Measurements were performed once a month during an entire growing season. Preliminary results indicate that soil water present under the different vegetation types show similar profiles with depth during the dry months. Soil water in the upper 5 cm is enriched in oxygen-18 by about 5 per mil relative to soil water at 100 cm. Our preliminary results also indicate that the isotopic composition of stem water from annual plants is typically higher by about 2 per mil relative to that of stem water from perennial plants during the dry period. Whereas the oxygen isotopic composition for corn stem water is -5.49 per mil, that for elm and oak stem water is -7.62 and -7.51 per mil, respectively. The higher isotope values for corn suggest that annual crop plants are withdrawing water from shallower soil horizons relative to perennial plants. Moreover, our preliminary data suggest lower moisture content in soil under annual plant cover. We propose that the presence of deeper roots in the perennial vegetation allows these plants to tap into deeper water sources when

  5. TIARA annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Toraishi, Akio; Itoh, Hisayoshi [eds.; Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; and others

    2000-10-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. Summary reports of 106 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  6. TIARA annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Toraishi, Akio; Namba, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; and others

    2001-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. Summary reports of 103 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  7. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Areva is a world energy expert on technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. This 2005 annual report provides information on the Group results in the following domains: information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operations, new developments and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and outlook. (A.L.B.)

  8. Uranium industry annual, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data on US uranium raw materials and marketing activities of the domestic uranium industry. It contains aggregated data reported by US companies on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (1988), Form EIA-858, and historical data from prior data collections and other pertinent sources. The report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent agency for data collection and analysis with the US Department of Energy

  9. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2006. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2006 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  10. Risoe annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    An explanation of Risoe National Laboratory's function within the Danish research system is followed by brief accounts of research activities at Risoe during 1987. Energy resources, technology and policy are discussed, the annual accounts are presented, a guide to the National Laboratory and a list of its publications are given. Some of the research activities that took place in 1987 described in more detail are within the fields of chemistry and the environment, superconductivity, new aspects of powdery mildew, polymers and robotics. (AB)

  11. Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiboda, G [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented.

  12. Annual Report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1986-06-01

    This annual report covers the work carried out at the Radioisotope Department, ZfK Rossendorf, during the year 1985. It contains 12 contributions related to the development of processes for generating radioisotopes, 23 contributions related to the synthesis of radioactive compounds, and 26 contributions related to the characterization of radioactive compounds. All contributions are published in summary form only and are individually processed for the INIS database. Additionally, a list is given of publications and lectures issued between January and December 1985

  13. ILL Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This annual report provides a general view of the activities of the different sections of the ILL. In 1974, twenty-two different neutron spectrometers with different characteristics were available on a regular basis. Moreover, a number of special neutron sources were employed for on-line experiments. The major effort was devoted to an increase in experimental systems and to the development of new measurement techniques [fr

  14. OPEC annual report 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This annual report is concerned with the following items: the general economic situation of OPEC member countries, other developing countries and the industrial countries; energy market developments (environment, crude oil, crude oil prices, oil stock movements); upstream and downstream activities (exploration, production and reserves, refining, petrochemicals, hydrocarbon transportation, legislation, contracts and agreements in Member Countries); activities of the Secretariat. The annexes contain statistical data, press releases and resolutions and a schedule of member Country representatives and officials of the Secretariat.

  15. Annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Vyver, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    In 1983, the various research projects in which the nuclear physics laboratory of Ghent State University is involved, were continued. In the present Annual Report, the results obtained in the field of photofission, photonuclear reactions positron annihilation, dosimetry and nuclear theory are summarized. The new 10 MeV high duty factor linear electron accelerator is presently being installed: performance tests will be carried out until July 1984; after which this facility will gradually become available for nuclear research purposes. (AF)

  16. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  17. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    In this annual report a survey is given about the research programs of the named institute during 1980. The research concerns experiments with synchrotron radiation, hyperfine structure studies, experiments with the DORIS and PETRA storage rings, and experiments at the CERN accelerators. Furthermore the development of instruments in this institute is described. In addition a list of publications, contributions to conferences, and theses of this institute is given. (HSI)

  18. NERSC 1998 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John (ed.)

    1999-03-01

    This 1998 annual report from the National Scientific Energy Research Computing Center (NERSC) presents the year in review of the following categories: Computational Science; Computer Science and Applied Mathematics; and Systems and Services. Also presented are science highlights in the following categories: Basic Energy Sciences; Biological and Environmental Research; Fusion Energy Sciences; High Energy and Nuclear Physics; and Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Other Projects.

  19. TIARA annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshiro; Arakawa, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shigeru; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Masaru; Itoh, Hisayosi; Yoshikawa, Masato; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Otsubo, Michiaki; Tajima, Satoshi; Tanaka, Susumu

    2004-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2004. Summary reports of 115 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  20. Annual Pension Fund Update

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2011-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual Pension Fund Update to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Tuesday 20 September 2011 from 10-00 to 12-00 a.m. Copies of the 2010 Financial Statements are available from departmental secretariats. Coffee and croissants will be served prior to the meeting as of 9-30 a.m.

  1. Annual Report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This annual report from the Netherlands Centre for Energy Research, includes the progress made in the five main research areas: fission energy, nuclear fusion and superconductivity, combustion energy (including environmental research), current energy and non-energetic applications of nuclear fission. Studies performed by the Energy Study Centrum, a department within ECN, and the Bureau for Energy Research Projects are described. A financial report is presented and a list of publications included. (C.F.)

  2. Annual report ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggin, S.

    1988-07-01

    The paper presents the 1988 Annual Report for ISIS (United Kingdom). A description is given of the accelerator and target station. The capability of ISIS is described including the facilities available and the type of science carried out using the instruments. The development and support activities are outlined, along with the ISIS organisation and user interaction. The appendix contains experimental reports on research work conducted at ISIS. (U.K.)

  3. Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, J; Smulek, W; Godlewska-Para, E [eds.

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes the activities of the Institute in 2005. The document consist of four parts: (1) Radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies; (2) Radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, general chemistry; (3) Radiobiology; (4) Nuclear technologies and methods. In total - 73 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity and the international cooperation is also listed.

  4. Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiboda, G [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2008-07-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2007. The document consist of eight parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear technology in energy generation; Condensed matter physics; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection management of hazards; Radioisotope center POLATOM and in last section in which the lists of published in 2007 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented.

  5. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2007. The document consist of eight parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear technology in energy generation; Condensed matter physics; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection management of hazards; Radioisotope center POLATOM and in last section in which the lists of published in 2007 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  6. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Gaz de France presents the activities for the year 2005 in four main chapters: the group profile, the governance and the challenges; the energy and services display and the infrastructures; the capital opening and some key data; the group collaborators, the energy conservation, the research programs and the future of the gas and the electricity. (A.L.B.)

  7. TIARA annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003. Summary reports of 113 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  8. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirejczyk, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of three parts: ''Research Reports on Reaction Mechanism and Nuclear Structure'', ''Research Reports on Experimental Methods and Instrumentation'' and ''Seminars, Personnel and Publications''. The short description of the whole NPD activity is also given in ''Preface'' written by director of the Department prof. K. Siwek-Wilczynska

  9. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Zupranski, P.

    2007-06-01

    The ''Annual Report 2006'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2006. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  10. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, D; Infeld, E; Zupranski, P [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2007-06-15

    The ''Annual Report 2006'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2006. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute Grzegorz Wrochna is also given.

  11. IKF - annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Steuer, E.

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed in the named institute during 1982 together with a list of publications. The work concerns nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, high-energetic heavy ion physics, heavy ion-atom collisions, nuclear solidstate physics, solid-state particle detectors, the application of nuclear methods and mass spectroscopy, ion source development, instrumental development and data processing, interdisciplinary cooperation, as well as the Van de Graaf accelerator facilities. (HSI) [de

  12. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This annual report gives the activities during the year 2000 and information about the General Direction of the Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) in France. The highlights of the year are discussed in the main following topics: public utilities, the Erika oil slick, the petroleum products prices increase, the energy efficiency national program, Eole 2005, the nuclear industry management. The french energy accounting, the publications and the organization of the DGEMP are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  14. 2008 annual merit review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  15. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This year 2000 annual report of the CEA (atomic energy commissariat) gives a general overview of the CEA activities and organization in the domains of the defence, the nuclear energy the technological research and the fundamental research. It is presented in seven main parts: contribution to national defence, civil nuclear research, technological research for the industry, pushing back the frontiers of scientific knowledge in physics and life science, mastery of installations; institute for protection and nuclear safety, research resources. (A.L.B.)

  16. NSLS annual report 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out.

  17. CRPP Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the CRPP in the domain of fusion and points out the main results and events of the past year. For the sake of clarity the activities have been grouped under five headings, resulting in sections of unequal size. These are: tokamak physics, development of new diagnostics, theory and numerical simulation, non-linear plasma physics and development of microwave sources. figs., tabs., refs

  18. TIARA annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Saido, Masahiro; Nashiyama, Isamu

    1998-10-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998. Summary reports of 90 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  19. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw describes the activities of Laboratory in 2008. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments and Experimental Set-ups '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' General Information on HIL Activities ''. An '' Introduction '' written by directors of the Heavy Ion Laboratory: prof. J. Jastrzebski, prof. J. Kownacki and prof. K. Rusek is also given

  20. TIARA annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997. Summary reports of 88 papers and 4 brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  1. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.; Smulek, W.; Godlewska-Para, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes the activities of the Institute in 2005. The document consist of four parts: (1) Radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies; (2) Radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, general chemistry; (3) Radiobiology; (4) Nuclear technologies and methods. In total - 73 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity and the international cooperation is also listed

  2. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    In part 1, the annual report informs of the organizational and administrative development of the Bundesanstalt, in its 2nd part it presents a survey of scientific activities in 1976, examinations carried out, measuring devices and operational equipment given permission to, and cooperation in national and international bodies. The 3rd part contains scientific summaries of activities published and not published, which were either concluded in the year under review or which came to some interim results. (orig.) [de

  3. 2002 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This annual report presents information of the main activities on the scope of radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002. The following activities and developed topic in this report describe: radiation and nuclear safety, safeguards, physical protection, transport of radioactive materials, regulatory guides and standards, inspections, licensing, emergency systems, occupational and environmental surveillance, institutional relations with national and international organizations, training courses, information systems, human and economic resources

  4. CSIR Annual report 2003

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available ACHIEVEMENTS OF OUR PEOPLE 14 THE STATE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE CSIR 15 ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 20 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 20 CSIR BOARD MEMBERS 24 REPORT OF THE AUDIT COMMITTEE 26 REPORT OF THE AUDITOR GENERAL 27 EXECUTIVE REPORT 28 FIVE..., which followed research and development of new technology related to the Hoodia plant, dubbed P57. Clinical trials relating to the product continue internationally. World-class genomics research > The African Centre for Gene Technologies, established...

  5. 2012 CPES Annual Report

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech. Center for Power Electronics Systems

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Power Electronics Systems at Virginia Tech is a research center dedicated to improving electrical power processing and distribution that impact systems of all sizes – from battery – operated electronics to vehicles to regional and national electrical distribution systems. Our mission is to provide leadership through global collaborative research and education for creating advanced electric power processing systems of the highest value to society. CPES, with annual research expe...

  6. GSF - annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The annual report of the GSF for 1976 describes in brief contributions and surveys the activities of the institutes for biology, microbiology, radiation botany, biochemistry, hematology, medical data processing, ecological chemistry, radiation protection, radiohydrometry, underground disposal, as well as the activities of associated departments and activities of the special departments for algae R+D, for toxicology, for coherent optics and of the physical-technical department. (HK) [de

  7. NSLS annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out

  8. Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, R; Lesniak, L; Malecki, P; Stachura, Z; Wojciechowski, H [eds.

    1993-12-31

    The material presented describing the scientific activities of the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 is the first annual report in several years.The arrangement of the report from various departments reflect the present structure of the Institute and is meant to help in the future task of reconstructing the Institute. Few guidelines proposed by the editorial board gave the individual departments much freedom in selecting the material and choosing the volume and format of presentation. (author).

  9. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    1976-01-01

    This annual report contains research reports from the various groups of the Research Institute of Physics, Stockholm. Reports are made by workers in the Atomic and Molecular Physics group, the Surface Physics group, the Nuclear Physics group, the group researching into High Energy Physics and related topics and the Instrumentation and Methods group. The report also contains a list of the papers published by members of the Institute during the year and a list of the theses which were presented. (B.D.)

  10. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.; Lesniak, L.; Malecki, P.; Stachura, Z.; Wojciechowski, H.

    1992-01-01

    The material presented describing the scientific activities of the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 is the first annual report in several years.The arrangement of the report from various departments reflect the present structure of the Institute and is meant to help in the future task of reconstructing the Institute. Few guidelines proposed by the editorial board gave the individual departments much freedom in selecting the material and choosing the volume and format of presentation. (author)

  11. Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, R.; Lesniak, L.; Malecki, P.; Stachura, Z.; Wojciechowski, H. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    The material presented describing the scientific activities of the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 is the first annual report in several years.The arrangement of the report from various departments reflect the present structure of the Institute and is meant to help in the future task of reconstructing the Institute. Few guidelines proposed by the editorial board gave the individual departments much freedom in selecting the material and choosing the volume and format of presentation. (author).

  12. TIARA annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Namba, Hideki

    2002-11-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002. Summary reports of 109 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  13. TIARA annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. Summary reports of 95 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)

  14. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The 1979 annual report of HMI presents information on the major scientific findings of this year in the fields of nuclear and radiation physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry, data processing and electronics as well as on the scientific cooperation with universities, institutions, and the industry. The general development of HMI, its structure and organisation are reviewed. A detailed list of publications and lectures (also by foreign guests of HMI) in the various fields of research is given. (RB) [de

  15. NIKHEF annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This annual report of NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands) describes experiments carried out at CERN (Geneve), DESY (Hamburg) viz. WA25; CHARM-collaboration; ACCMOR experiments; proton-antiproton collision; LEAR; MARK-J; Crystal Ball experiment; HERA. For the nuclear physics section, experiments are described on electro-excitation of nuclei; pion and muon physics. Theoretical studies are listed concerning electromagnetic interactions in the sigma-omega model and delta-nuclei dynamics. A radiochemical and technical part concludes the report. (Auth.)

  16. Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, D; Infeld, E; Zupranski, P [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2006-06-15

    The ''Annual Report 2005'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2005. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute prof. Ziemowit Sujkowski is also given.

  17. Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, D; Infeld, E; Zupranski, P [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2008-07-01

    The ''Annual Report 2007'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2007. Report consists of two parts. First one consist of of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given.

  18. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Zupranski, P.

    2006-06-01

    The ''Annual Report 2005'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2005. Report consists in general two parts. First consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel financial support and conferences while the second one the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to report written by Director of the Institute prof. Ziemowit Sujkowski is also given

  19. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Zupranski, P.

    2008-01-01

    The ''Annual Report 2007'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2007. Report consists of two parts. First one consist of of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. This part is divided into subsections which present progress in research of the Institut Departments and Establishments. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  20. Areva 2005 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This annual report contains information on AREVA's objectives, prospects and strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7, as well as contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the annual report and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction; 3 - General information on the company and share capital: Information on AREVA, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organizational chart of the AREVA group, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, 5 - New developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, AREVA group energy businesses, Front End Division, Reactors and Services Division, Back End Division, Transmission and Distribution Division, Major Contracts, The Group's principal sites, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Human resources, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development, intellectual property and brand name programs, Risk and insurance; 6 - Assets - Financial position - financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the Group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report 2005, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA Financial statements 2005, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 7 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of administrative bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual General Meeting of Shareholders of May 2, 2006; 8 - Recent developments and outlook: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2005, Outlook