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Sample records for simazine pollution obsolete

  1. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers simazine as material potentiometric sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bow Yohandri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imprinting technology is a promising technique for creating recognition elements for selected compounds and has been successfully applied for synthesis of environmental pollutants such as simazine. Simazine is a pesticide ingredient that is commonly used in agriculture, which has devastating effects on the environment if used excessively. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP provides cavities to form a particular space generated by removing the template when the polymer has formed. In this study, MIP using simazine as template had been made by the cooling-heating method and used as a material potentiometric sensor for detecting simazine. A template (simazine was incorporated into a pre-polymerization solution that contains a methacrylic acid as functional monomer, an ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross linker, and benzoyl peroxide as initiator. Characterization was performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and fourier transforms infra-red (FTIR. The FTIR spectra of the MIP showed that the peaks of amine group decrease significantly, indicating that the simazine concentration decreases drastically. Characterization by SEM images showing the broadest pore size distribution with the highest number of pores in the MIP prepared under the heating time of 150 min. The MIPs therefore could be applied as a simazine sensor.

  2. Pollution by s-triazine herbicides on waters. Electrochemical study on the simazine and propazone reductive deactivation; Contaminacion de aguas por herbicidas s-triazinicos. Estudio electroquimico de la desactivacion reductiva de simazina y propazina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.; Rodriguez Mellado, J. M.; Higuera, M. J. [Universidad de Cordoba (Spain); Ruiz Montoya, M. [Universidad de Huelva (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The s-Triazine herbicides are actually very used in the world's agricultural practices. Due to this they are widely found in soils and waters. In this sense, these herbicides can be deactivated by photooxidative way in that aquatic environments well sun-lighted and oxygenated. This paper deals on a electrochemical study al laboratory-scale on the reduction of simazine and propazine on mercury electrodes. According results, the global processes is irreversible and it is carried out at potentials of -1.000 mV and solutions with pH<4,0. The products then obtained are non aromatic and non chlorinated and must be reasonably of a lower toxicity than that of the primitive herbicides. The above implies that this reductive way could be applied to detoxify wastewaters herbicide-polluted by using another electrodes different of that mercury. On the other hand, the natural deactivation of natural waters containing simazine and propazine could theoretically act by this reductive way in acids, very poor oxygenated and rich in suspended materials waters (specially, carbonaceous). (Author) 23 refs.

  3. Cyclic process of simazine removal from waters by adsorption on zeolite H-Y and its regeneration by thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannino, Filomena; Ruocco, Silvia; Marocco, Antonello; Esposito, Serena; Pansini, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bringing agrochemical concentration below the law limit allowed in wastewaters. ► Regenerating the adsorbent which can be used again in the cyclic process. ► Destroying the agrochemical molecules by combustion. - Abstract: Removal of the agrochemical simazine from polluted waters through adsorption by zeolite Y in its protonic form was studied. The investigated parameters were: pH, time, initial simazine concentration and solid/liquid ratio. An iterative process of simazine removal from waters is proposed, featuring: (i) final agrochemical concentration well below 0.05 mg/dm 3 , the maximum concentration allowed by Italian laws in wastewaters; (ii) regeneration of the adsorbent by a few minutes thermal treatment in air at about 500 °C, which results in the combustion of simazine without damage of the adsorbent; (iii) destruction of the agrochemical compound by combustion.

  4. Cyclic process of simazine removal from waters by adsorption on zeolite H-Y and its regeneration by thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannino, Filomena, E-mail: fsannino@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell' Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Ruocco, Silvia [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell' Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Marocco, Antonello; Esposito, Serena; Pansini, Michele [Laboratorio Materiali - Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio - Universita di Cassino - Via Di Biasio 43 - 03043 Cassino (Italy)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bringing agrochemical concentration below the law limit allowed in wastewaters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regenerating the adsorbent which can be used again in the cyclic process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Destroying the agrochemical molecules by combustion. - Abstract: Removal of the agrochemical simazine from polluted waters through adsorption by zeolite Y in its protonic form was studied. The investigated parameters were: pH, time, initial simazine concentration and solid/liquid ratio. An iterative process of simazine removal from waters is proposed, featuring: (i) final agrochemical concentration well below 0.05 mg/dm{sup 3}, the maximum concentration allowed by Italian laws in wastewaters; (ii) regeneration of the adsorbent by a few minutes thermal treatment in air at about 500 Degree-Sign C, which results in the combustion of simazine without damage of the adsorbent; (iii) destruction of the agrochemical compound by combustion.

  5. Obsolete pesticide storage sites and their POP release into the environment-an Armenian case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorská, Alice; Šír, M.; Honzajková, Z.; Komprda, J.; Čupr, P.; Petrlík, J.; Anakhasyan, E.; Simonyan, L.; Kubal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2012), s. 1944-1952 ISSN 0944-1344 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Obsolete organochlorinated pesticides * Obsolete organochlorinated pesticides * Gradient sampling * Emissions * Diffusivity-based calculations * Health risks * Stockholm Convention Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.618, year: 2012

  6. Will technology make shelters obsolete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, C.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-01-01

    The fears and hopes that shelters for civil defense might be made obsolete by technology fall along diametrically opposed paths. Along the pessimistic direction is the fear that strategic offensive weapons have become so numerous and terrible that no shelter program is worthwhile. This fear has been nurtured by the US deterrence policy of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD), about which we will say more in the first part of this article. In the opposite direction along the optimistic path is the hope that active defensive technology will become so good that shelters will be unnecessary. Very few hold this viewpoint today, although there was a time during the development of antiballistic missiles (ABM) when such a hope was common. The recent emphasis on research and development of laser- and particle-beam weapons has again raised some hopes that defense against strategic missiles may become effective. Researchers will discuss the impact of defensive technology on shelters in Part II of this article

  7. THE VARIATION OF NUCLEIC ACIDS CONTENT AFTER SIMAZIN TREATMENT ON VICIA SATIVA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeta Grama-Tiganasu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Simazin has in certain conditions stimulatory effects on nucleic acids biosynthese. The biosyntese and mitotic division stimulation sugest the possibility to use simazin like growing and germination stimulator.

  8. Capsella bursa + pastoris (L. Med. - another weed resistant to Simazine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Lipecki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotypes of Capsella bursa-pastoris resistant to Simazine were found in orchards in the Lublin region in the years 1984-1986. This resistance was confirmed in pot experiments in 1986. Capsella bursa-pastoris L. has not been listed up to now among species in which such a resistance was found.

  9. Rate of loss of simazine, terbuthylazine, isoproturon, and methabenzthiazuron during soil solarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Simón; Bermejo, Salvador; Vela, Nuria; Hernández, Joaquín

    2009-07-22

    This paper reports the use of solar heating by polyethylene mulching for decontamination of a silty clay-loam soil polluted with herbicides. Soil solarization, a natural and hydrothermal method commonly used for disinfesting soils, was tested during the summer season on a Hipercalcic Calcisol located in Murcia (southeast Spain) for dissipation of s-triazine (simazine and terbuthylazine) and phenylurea (isoproturon and methabenzthiazuron) herbicides using low-density (LD) and high-density (HD) polyethylene (PE) film as a cover. A well-established influence of the film was observed on the dissipation of all herbicides from the soil, although the density (0.92-0.95 g/cm(3)) of the film used (LDPE and HDPE) was not significant in terms of the rate of loss. In all cases, a quick depletion during the first 2 weeks was observed, mainly for terbuthylazine. The first-order model satisfactorily explained the dissipation process, but the Hoerl and biexponential equations were more appropriate, mainly for simazine, isoproturon, and methabenzthiazuron. In all cases, herbicides disappeared at faster rates in solarized soils (DT(50) = 4-29 days) than in nonmulched soils (DT(50) = 11-35 days), especially for terbuthylazine and isoproturon.

  10. 9 CFR 355.36 - Obsolete labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obsolete labels. 355.36 Section 355.36 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

  11. New experimental data on the human dermal absorption of Simazine and Carbendazim help to refine the assessment of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányiová, Katarína; Nečasová, Anežka; Kohoutek, Jiří; Justan, Ivan; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-02-01

    Due to their widespread usage, people are exposed to pesticides on a daily basis. Although these compounds may have adverse effects on their health, there is a gap in the data and the methodology needed to reliably quantify the risks of non-occupational human dermal exposure to pesticides. We used Franz cells and human skin in order to measure the dermal absorption kinetics (steady-state flux, lag time and permeability coefficient) of Carbendazim and Simazine. These parameters were then used to refine the dermal exposure model and a probabilistic simulation was used to quantify risks resulting from exposure to pesticide-polluted waters. The experimentally derived permeability coefficient was 0.0034 cm h(-1) for Carbendazim and 0.0047 cm h(-1) for Simazine. Two scenarios (varying exposure duration and concentration, i.e. environmentally relevant and maximum solubility) were used to quantify the human health risks (hazard quotients) for Carbendazim and Simazine. While no risks were determined in the case of either scenario, the permeability coefficient, which is concentration independent and donor, formulation, compound and membrane specific, may be used in other scenarios and exposure models to quantify more precisely the dermally absorbed dose during exposure to polluted water. To the best of our knowledge, the dermal absorption kinetics parameters defined here are being published for the first time. The usage of experimental permeability parameters in combination with probabilistic risk assessment thus provides a new tool for quantifying the risks of human dermal exposure to pesticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The replacement of technically obsolete equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglaret, Ph.; Patouillaud, M.

    1987-01-01

    The paper covers the analysis of procedures for replacement of technically obsolete but still operational equipments in use in a nuclear power plant. The Three Mile Island accident showed that operators in the control room reqire additional information at their disposal. In 1986 CGEE Alsthom received two orders for improvements to control systems, for the South African nuclear power plant Koeberg and the Dutch nuclear power plant Borssele. The new systems will provide support to normal operation and offer additional help in accident situations. 4 figs

  13. Sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei analysis in lymphocytes of men exposed to simazine through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Susanna; Rubio, Arantxa; Sueiro, Rosa Ana; Garrido, Joaquín

    2003-06-06

    In some cities of the autonomous community of Extremadura (south-west of Spain), levels of simazine from 10 to 30 ppm were detected in tap water. To analyse the possible effect of this herbicide, two biomarkers, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and micronuclei (MN), were used in peripheral blood lymphocytes from males exposed to simazine through drinking water. SCE and MN analysis failed to detect any statistically significant increase in the people exposed to simazine when compared with the controls. With respect to high frequency cells (HFC), a statistically significant difference was detected between exposed and control groups.

  14. X-ray pelvimetry in a resource poor environment. Obsolete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -pelvic disproportion; a risk factor associated with dystocia and obstructed labor. Computed tomography pelvimetry has rendered traditional radiographic assessment obsolete and makes radiography useful probably only in the rural health ...

  15. Sorption of simazine to corn straw biochars prepared at different pyrolytic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guixiang; Zhang Qing; Sun Ke; Liu Xitao; Zheng Wenjuan; Zhao Ye

    2011-01-01

    Simazine sorption to corn straw biochars prepared at various temperatures (100-600 deg. C) was examined to understand its sorption behavior as influenced by characteristics of biochars. Biochars were characterized via elemental analysis, BET-N 2 surface area (SA), FTIR and 13 C NMR. Freundlich and dual-mode models described sorption isotherms well. Positive correlation between log K oc values and aromatic C contents and negative correlation between log K oc values and (O + N)/C ratios indicate aromatic-rich biochars have high binding affinity to simazine (charge transfer (π-π*) interactions) and hydrophobic binding may overwhelm H-bonding, respectively. Dual-mode model results suggest adsorption contribution to total sorption increases with carbonization degree. Positive correlation between amounts of adsorption (Q ad ) and SA indicates pore-filling mechanism. Comparison between our results and those obtained with other sorbents indicates corn straw biochars produced at higher temperature can effectively retain simazine. These observations will be helpful for designing biochars as engineered sorbents to remove triazine herbicides. - Highlights: → Biochars were characterized via elemental analysis, BET-N 2 , FTIR and 13 C NMR. → Freundlich and dual-mode models described sorption isotherms well. → Biochar produced at higher temperature had larger sorption capacity for simazine. → Aromatic-rich biochars have high binding affinity to simazine. → Dual-mode model results suggest adsorption contribution to total sorption. - The corn straw biochar prepared at higher temperature with stronger hydrophobicity, more aromatic C and larger surface area had higher sorption capacity for simazine.

  16. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment - including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of: commercially available equivalent component; modification of a commercial available component; reverse engineering of the original component; and finally, design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: Missing, misleading or no information on the original component; Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant; Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering; and Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  17. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment, including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of, (1) commercially available equivalent component, (2) modification of a commercial available component, (3) reverse engineering of the original component and finally (4) design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: 1) Missing, misleading or no information on the original component. 2) Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant. 3) Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering. 4) Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  18. The Role of the Bacterial Community of an Agroecosystem in Simazine Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ciccoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural practice is the main source of soil and groundwater contamination. S-Triazines are among the most used herbicides in the world for selective weed control in several types of crops. The homeostatic capability of an agroecosystem to remove a triazinic herbicide, simazine, was assessed in microcosms treated with the herbicide in presence/absence of urea fertilizer. The latter, as well as a fertilizer, is also one of the last by-products before simazine mineralization. The biodegradation, in terms of disappearance of 50% of the initial concentration (DT50, was compared to the degradation and metabolite formation occurring in sterilized soil. Moreover, the bacterial community response was assessed in terms of abundance and community structure by the epifluorescence direct count method and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results show that the microbial community has a primary role in simazine degradation and that this process is due to the presence of a microbial pool working in succession and of which the metabolism may be modulated by exogenous sources of nitrogen, like urea. The latter influences the degradative pathway with a greater formation and accumulation of the desethyl-simazine metabolite, which is a hazardous contaminant of soil and groundwater ecosystems, as well as its parent compound.

  19. The Role of the Bacterial Community of an Agroecosystem in Simazine Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Barra Caracciolo

    Full Text Available The use of pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural practice is the main source of soil and groundwater contamination. S-Triazines are among the most used herbicides in the world for selective weed control in several types of crops. The homeostatic capability of an agroecosystem to remove a triazinic herbicide, simazine, was assessed in microcosms treated with the herbicide in presence/absence of urea fertilizer. The latter, as well as a fertilizer, is also one of the last by-products before simazine mineralization. The biodegradation, in terms of disappearance of 50% of the initial concentration (DT50, was compared to the degradation and metabolite formation occurring in sterilized soil. Moreover, the bacterial community response was assessed in terms of abundance and community structure by the epifluorescence direct count method and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results show that the microbial community has a primary role in simazine degradation and that this process is due to the presence of a microbial pool working in succession and of which the metabolism may be modulated by exogenous sources of nitrogen, like urea. The latter influences the degradative pathway with a greater formation and accumulation of the desethyl-simazine metabolite, which is a hazardous contaminant of soil and groundwater ecosystems, as well as its parent compound.

  20. A microcosm system to evaluate the toxicity of the triazine herbicide simazine on aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco, E-mail: marco.vervliet@biologie.uni-freiburg.d [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Straus, Alain [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Tremp, Horst [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Hamer, Mick [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Jealott' s Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, Berkshire RG42 6EY (United Kingdom); Maund, Stephen J. [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, 4002 Basel (Switzerland); Wagner, Edgar [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Schulz, Ralf [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    This study evaluates the effects of the triazine herbicide simazine in an outdoor pond microcosm test system that contained two submerged rooted species (Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea canadensis) and two emergent rooted species (Persicaria amphibia and Glyceria maxima) over a period of 84 days. Simazine was applied to the microcosms at nominal concentrations of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L. General biological endpoints and physiological endpoints were used to evaluate herbicide toxicity on macrophytes and the algae developing naturally in the system. Concentration-related responses of macrophytes and algae were obtained for the endpoints selected, resulting in a no observed ecologically adverse effect concentration (NOEAEC) at simazine concentrations of 0.05 mg active ingredient/L after 84 days. E. canadensis was the most negatively affected species based on length increase, which was consistently a very sensitive parameter for all macrophytes. The experimental design presented might constitute a suitable alternative to conventional laboratory single-species testing. - Simazine at concentrations of 0.05 mg/L does not cause long-term negative effects to aquatic macrophytes or algae.

  1. A microcosm system to evaluate the toxicity of the triazine herbicide simazine on aquatic macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco; Straus, Alain; Tremp, Horst; Hamer, Mick; Maund, Stephen J.; Wagner, Edgar; Schulz, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of the triazine herbicide simazine in an outdoor pond microcosm test system that contained two submerged rooted species (Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea canadensis) and two emergent rooted species (Persicaria amphibia and Glyceria maxima) over a period of 84 days. Simazine was applied to the microcosms at nominal concentrations of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L. General biological endpoints and physiological endpoints were used to evaluate herbicide toxicity on macrophytes and the algae developing naturally in the system. Concentration-related responses of macrophytes and algae were obtained for the endpoints selected, resulting in a no observed ecologically adverse effect concentration (NOEAEC) at simazine concentrations of 0.05 mg active ingredient/L after 84 days. E. canadensis was the most negatively affected species based on length increase, which was consistently a very sensitive parameter for all macrophytes. The experimental design presented might constitute a suitable alternative to conventional laboratory single-species testing. - Simazine at concentrations of 0.05 mg/L does not cause long-term negative effects to aquatic macrophytes or algae.

  2. Rainfall effect on dissipation and movement of diuron and simazine in a vineyard soil

    OpenAIRE

    Alister,C.; Kogan,M.

    2010-01-01

    From 2003 to 2007, a field study was performed in a vineyard in Chile to investigate diuron and simazine soil behavior and the effect of additional rainfall. Both herbicides were applied once a year at a rate of 2.0 kg ha-1 a.i. Herbicide concentrations in soil were measured at 0, 10, 20, 40, 90 and 340 days after application, under two pluviometric conditions, natural rainfall and natural rainfall plus irrigation with 180 mm of simulated rainfall during the first 90 days after application. S...

  3. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  4. Cost analysis of hash collisions : will quantum computers make SHARCS obsolete?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Current proposals for special-purpose factorization hardware will become obsolete if large quantum computers are built: the number-field sieve scales much more poorly than Shor's quantum algorithm for factorization. Will all special-purpose cryptanalytic hardware become obsolete in a post-quantum

  5. Efeitos de misturas de napropamide e simazine no controle de mono e dicotiledoneas em cafeeiros novos Effects of napropamide and simazine mixtures on the control of mono and dicotyledon on new coffee trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.P. Cruz

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de se conhecer a ação de misturas de napropamide e simazine no controle de plantas daninhas mono e dicotiledôneas em cafee iros com dois anos de idade, foi conduzido um experimento de campo em Araras, SP, em 1979/80. 0 delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso com nove tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: napropamide a 2,00 kg e 3,00 kg/ha; simazine a 0,50 kg e 0,75 kg/ha; e, misturas de 2,00 kg/ha de napropamide com 0,50 kg e 0,75 kg/ha de simazine, e de 3,00 kg/ha de napropamide também com 0,50 kg e 0,75 kg/ha de simaz ine . Constou do experimento ainda, uma testemunha sem herbicida. Aos 45 dias após a aplicação dos herbicidas foi feita uma contagem das plantas daninhas, e a cada 15 dias, até aos 90 dias da aplicação, foram realizadas observações visuais de porcentagem de infestação do mato. Nestas mesmas épocas também foram realizadas observações sobre sintomas de fi totoxicidade causados pelos herbicidas aos cafeeiros. As plantas daninhas presentes em maior número no ensaio foram as monocotiledôneas capim - de-colchão - Digitaria horizontalis Willd e capimpé -de-galinha Eleusine indica (L.1 Gaertn, e as dicotiledôneas carurú-de-mancha - Amaranthus viridis L. e picão-preto - Bidens pilosa L. Como era esperado, as misturas foram superiores aos tratamentos com herbicidas isolados. sendo bastante eficientes no controle das mono e dicotiledõneas que incidiram no experimento. Todos os tratamentos com 0.75 k ' ha de simazine apresentaram leves sintomas de fitotoxicidade, limitados a algumas folhas dos cafeeiros. até a última observação realizada.A field experiment was conducted in Araras in 1979/80 with the purpose to study the effects of mixture of napropamide and simazine on the control of mono and dicotyledons weeds in two years old coffee trees. The experiment was in randomised blocks with nine treatments and four repplications. The treatments were the following

  6. The New START Treaty: a necessary or obsolete treaty?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekovich, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In a first part, the author evokes the discussions between the Republicans and the Democrats about the fact that President Obama said to President Medvedev he would have more flexibility to negotiate with Russia after the elections of 2012, whereas there is some controversy about the importance of US antimissile defence in terms of national security when Russia keeps on supporting dangerous states like Syria, North Korea and Iran. In a second part, he briefly recalls the objectives and content of the previous START treaties, outlines that START II is already obsolete, that which lead to a new approach called New START by the White House. Then, while noticing critics and evoking other treaties, he discusses the arguments for or against such a new treaty which is perceived as either only cosmetic or decisive. He comments ambiguities, ulterior motives, perceptions and strategic approaches of the different actors whether they are Russians or Americans. He finally outlines some measures of this New Treaty which may jeopardize positive expectations regarding the reduction of strategic weapons and the antimissile defence

  7. Rainfall effect on dissipation and movement of diuron and simazine in a vineyard soil Efeito da chuva na dissipação e movimentação de diuron e simazine em solo de vinha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alister

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 2003 to 2007, a field study was performed in a vineyard in Chile to investigate diuron and simazine soil behavior and the effect of additional rainfall. Both herbicides were applied once a year at a rate of 2.0 kg ha-1 a.i. Herbicide concentrations in soil were measured at 0, 10, 20, 40, 90 and 340 days after application, under two pluviometric conditions, natural rainfall and natural rainfall plus irrigation with 180 mm of simulated rainfall during the first 90 days after application. Soil partition coefficient (Kd varied in the soil profile (0 to 90 cm deep from 6.75 to 2.04 mL g-1 and from 1.4 to 0.66 mL g-1 and the maximum soil adsorption capacity was approximately 18.3 mg g-1 and 8.3 mg g-1 for diuron and simazine, respectively. Diuron and simazine reached up to 90 and 120 cm of soil depth, with an average of 8.3% and 62.4% of herbicide moved below 15 cm in the soil, respectively. Simazine soil half-life (DT50 was 38.1 days and 7.5 days, whereas the half life for diuron varied from 68.0 and 24.6 for natural rainfall and irrigated, respectively. The average of residual simazine remaining in the whole soil profile after 90 DAA was 25.4% and 39.9% for diuron, with no effect of additional rainfall amount. At 340 DAA the amount of simazine in the whole soil profile corresponded to 13.2% of the initial amount applied, being diuron more persistent with 21.5% of the initial herbicide applied. The high movement in soil of both herbicides could be due to a non-equilibrium sorption process explained by preferential flow, low Kd and high desorption.Entre 2003 e 2007, foi conduzido um estudo de campo em uma vinha no Chile para investigar o comportamento de diuron e simazine no solo e o efeito de irrigação extra. Ambos os herbicidas foram aplicados uma vez por ano, numa base de 2.0 kg ha-1 a.i. Foram medidas as concentrações de herbicida no solo após 0, 10, 20, 40, 90 e 340 dias da aplicação, sob duas condições pluviométricas distintas

  8. Degradation of simazine from aqueous solutions by diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhiming [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Zheng, Shuilin [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Ayoko, Godwin A.; Frost, Ray L. [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Xi, Yunfei, E-mail: y.xi@qut.edu.au [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles were deposited onto acid-leached diatomite through centrifugation or rotary evaporation. The synthesis schematic diagram and morphology of the prepared nZVI/diatomite composites are shown in the illustration. The removal efficiency for herbicide simazine by nZVI/diatomite composites was compared with that of the pristine nZVI and the commercial iron powder. -- Highlights: • Diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite was synthesised. • The obtained composites were characterised by XRD, SEM–EDS, TEM and XPS. • The removal efficiency for simazine in water were studied. • The prepared composite showed potential prospects in environmental remediation. -- Abstract: A novel composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles on acid-leached diatomite was synthesised for the removal of a chlorinated contaminant in water. The nZVI/diatomite composites were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the pure nZVI particles, better dispersion of nZVI particles on the surface or inside the pores of diatom shells was observed. The herbicide simazine was selected as the model chlorinated contaminant and the removal efficiency by nZVI/diatomite composite was compared with that of the pristine nZVI and commercial iron powder. It was found that the diatomite supported nZVI composite material prepared by centrifugation exhibits relatively better efficient activity in decomposition of simazine than commercial Fe, lab synthesised nZVI and composite material prepared via rotary evaporation, and the optimum experimental conditions were obtained based on a series of batch experiments. This study on immobilising nZVI particles onto diatomite opens a new avenue for the practical application of nZVI and the diatomite-supported nanosized zero

  9. Challenge of Replacing Obsolete Equipment and Systems on Brownfield Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teasdale, St.

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is responsible for the decommissioning and clean-up of the UK's civil public sector nuclear sites. One of their top priorities is the retrieval of sludge and fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond (FGMSP) at Sellafield site which is one of the most complex and compact nuclear sites in the world. The FGMSP plant is currently undergoing a series of major modifications in preparation for the retrievals operations. One of the most challenging modifications undertaken in the facility has been the Control and Surveillance Project which covered replacement of the existing Environmental Monitoring System, this presented the complex challenge of replacing an existing system whilst maintaining full functionality on a live radiological safety system with a constant radiological hazard. The Control and Surveillance Project involved the design, procurement, installation, changeover and commissioning of a new Radiological Surveillance System (alpha, beta and gamma monitoring) along with Building Evacuation Systems within the FGMSP complex to replace the existing obsolete system. This Project was a key enabler to future FGMSP retrievals and decommissioning activities. The project objective was to create and maintain a safe radiological working environment for over 450 personnel working in the plant up to 2020. The Legacy Ponds at Sellafield represent one of the biggest challenges in the civil nuclear clean up portfolio in the UK. Retrieval of sludge and fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond (FGMSP), and its safe long term storage is one of the NDA's top priorities. In June 2002 Sellafield Ltd contracted with the ACKtiv Nuclear Joint Venture to progress the risk mitigation, asset restoration and the early enabling works associated with preparation for clean up. Since then significant progress has been made in preparing the facility, and it's support systems, for the clean-up operations. This has been

  10. Nuestra obsoleta mentalidad de mercado Our obsolete market mentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polanyi Karl

    1994-06-01

    rights and would like to see governments behaving responsibly towards society, without
    relying uncritically on market forces. Liberal tradition is not enough, either there or here. Indi vidual freedoms cannot be abandoned: they must be re-created. An obsolete social sys tem , whose evils were hidden by the fog of ideology, cannot be brought back. Society must rebuild itself, learning such lessons as we are able to learn: for example, the fact that human motivation does not revolve around a single institution
    the self-regulating market where hunger and profitare the apparent motives for men to work and be efficient. It is ingenuous, and deceitfully and harmfully so, to believe that world peace and progress will be achieved by trade. Neither a national nor an international system can rely on self-regulation. Balanced budgets, free enterprise and flexible exchange rates will not secure international order: only
    society can achieve this, and international society must also be re-created, with the appropriate regulatory institutions.

  11. Degradation of simazine from aqueous solutions by diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei

    2013-12-15

    A novel composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles on acid-leached diatomite was synthesised for the removal of a chlorinated contaminant in water. The nZVI/diatomite composites were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the pure nZVI particles, better dispersion of nZVI particles on the surface or inside the pores of diatom shells was observed. The herbicide simazine was selected as the model chlorinated contaminant and the removal efficiency by nZVI/diatomite composite was compared with that of the pristine nZVI and commercial iron powder. It was found that the diatomite supported nZVI composite material prepared by centrifugation exhibits relatively better efficient activity in decomposition of simazine than commercial Fe, lab synthesised nZVI and composite material prepared via rotary evaporation, and the optimum experimental conditions were obtained based on a series of batch experiments. This study on immobilising nZVI particles onto diatomite opens a new avenue for the practical application of nZVI and the diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials have potential applications in environmental remediation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Is 137Cs Dating Becoming Obsolete in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, J. Z.; Fuller, C.; Salas, A.

    2016-12-01

    Dating of wetland sediments and peat is routinely carried out using 137Cs and 210Pb analysis. Unlike 210Pb, 137Cs is an anthropogenic radionuclide with a history of fallout from nuclear weapons testing. 137Cs is used as a single time marker; its peak is coincident with the height of atmospheric nuclear testing in 1963/4. During its use in the 1970s-90s, 137Cs peaks were usually highly distinct in wetland sediments (e.g., see 137Cs peaks from Louisiana marshes in Feijtel et al., 1988). This enabled its use as a check for dates assigned to a profile by 210Pb and other methods. However, recently, the efficacy of 137Cs dating in North America has deteriorated. In this presentation, we will provide specific examples of 137Cs as well as 210Pb dating in wetland sediments/peats we collected between 2005 and 2015 in Maine, California, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington. Two main reasons exist for this decline. First, 137Cs activities in our recent cores are 30-40 % of the original activities in 1963/4 due to decay of the original 137Cs in situ (half-life = 30.17 years) and no major new sources. This manifests in lower signal to noise ratio, with some peaks barely recognizable above the noise. Second, 137Cs peaks are much less distinct due to 137Cs migration through time independent of substrate (or sediment) particles. Migration of peaks has resulted in estimated accretion rates being systematically lower or higher than those derived from 210Pb dating. These issues with 137Cs dating have important implications because 137Cs is used with 210Pb dating or even alone to determine rates of recent wetland carbon accumulation. Such rates are required to enter wetland restoration projects into carbon markets and to document IPCC mandated reductions in carbon pollution. Our analysis shows that, although dating by 137Cs alone has always been highly tenuous, now it is especially contraindicated and should be disallowed for the purposes of carbon accounting.

  13. Choledochoduodenostomy in the Management of Common Duct Stones or Associated Pathology – An Obsolete Method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Castro Mendes de Almeida

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Choledochoduodenostomy (CDD has been reported as a more effective treatment of CBD stones than T-tube drainage but it is regarded as a last resort or obsolete therapeutic method due to fears of higher mobidity, cholangitis, “sump” syndrome and liver dysfunction. We aimed to assess the aforementioned issues analyzing prospectively our experience from 1976 through Dec.92.

  14. Is CALL Obsolete? Language Acquisition and Language Learning Revisited in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Huw; Krashen, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Huw Jarvis and Stephen Krashen ask "Is CALL Obsolete?" When the term CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) was introduced in the 1960s, the language education profession knew only about language learning, not language acquisition, and assumed the computer's primary contribution to second language acquisition…

  15. 77 FR 60619 - Removal of Obsolete Regulation: Use of the Centennial of Flight Commission Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Removal of Obsolete Regulation: Use of the Centennial of Flight Commission Name AGENCY: National... section 1204. 506 entitled ``Delegation of Authority to License the Use of the Centennial of Flight Commission Name.'' Section 506, Delegation of Authority to License the Use of the Centennial of Flight...

  16. 75 FR 17857 - Removal of Obsolete References to Herbicides Containing Dioxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Herbicides Containing Dioxin AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... health effects of exposure to herbicides containing dioxin and radiation to remove the obsolete references to herbicides containing dioxin. This final rule reflects changes made by the Agent Orange Act of...

  17. 75 FR 16001 - New Animal Drugs; Removal of Obsolete and Redundant Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... drug-resistant bacteria associated with these animals, was obsolete as FDA had a new strategy and... on any approved new animal drugs, or to cause any approved new animal drug to lose its marketing ability or experience a loss of sales. C. Regulatory Flexibility Analysis The Regulatory Flexibility Act...

  18. Obsolete treaties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, S.

    1999-01-01

    The proliferation of ballistic missile technologies (as opposed to nuclear ones) is not limited actually by any international treaty, there are no treaties of that kind. It is hardly imaginable that the international community could succeed in getting any agreements in the near future that would ban (or seriously limit) missile technology proliferation, similar to Non-proliferation Treaty or CTBT. An optimum option would permit the declared nuclear powers to have intercontinental ballistic missiles until the transition to a nuclear-weapon-free world, while any space activity would be under strict international control

  19. NOW ON THE WEB SALES AND PURCHASE OF OBSOLETE OR SURPLUS EQUIPMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The Recuperation and Sales Service wishes to recall that obsolete or surplus equipment which is no longer needed at CERN may be sold to outside institutes, members of the personnel, companies, etc. For this purpose an 'on-line sales and purchase tool' has been developed and installed on the web: consult the 'Recuperation and Sales Service' site on the CERN homepage. Users wishing to eliminate or sell obsolete or surplus equipment are invited to use the tool to issue an 'on-line sales request' and users who are looking for cheap 2nd hand equipment may consult the 'on-line sales catalogue' and make 'on-line purchase bids'. The direct sale of low value equipment, which takes place Thursdays 13h30 ­ 15h30 in the Recuperation Centre, building 133, will continue as before. For more information contact the Recuperation & Sales Service, tel. 75782 or 78665.

  20. Chemical investigations related to some environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sofany, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Pesticides represent one the environmental pollutants. The determination of these pesticides in water and soil samples are of major importance. In the fist part of the present work, the assessment and optimization of the determination of certain pesticides by High performance liquid chromatography HPLC and Gas chromatography GC were investigated. When using HPLC, two eluent were used ACN: H 2 O and MeOH: H 2 O with two systems; isocreatic and gradient elution's. The optimum conditions for the measurements of Bromoxynil, Cypermethrin, methomyl, Dimethoat, carbofuran, simazine are gradient elution at a timetable of wavelengths. With GC measurements the ECD detector was found to be the best one for the working pesticides and at oven temperature from 100-160 degree C at range 20 deg./ min. and second rate from 160-280 degree C with rate 4 deg./min. at final time 20 min. The second part is the application of the optimised method on surface water samples from El-manzala lake three pesticides are present; simazine, atrazine and carbofuran. The third part of this work is the treatment of the contaminated water samples using economic adsorbents such as animal bones pyrolysis residue, apricot stone shell, Sm-4 and Sm-7. By using animal bones pyrolysis residue 100% of carbofuran and 60% of simazine and atrazine were removed from solutions at concentration 1 mg/L. 26 tabs., 28 figs., 61 refs

  1. A Low-Cost Vehicle Anti-Theft System Using Obsolete Smartphone

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Bang; Liu, Nianbo; Chen, Guihai; Dai, Xili; Liu, Ming

    2018-01-01

    In modern society, vehicle theft has become an increasing problem to the general public. Deploying onboard anti-theft systems could relieve this problem, but it often requires extra investment for vehicle owners. In this paper, we propose the idea of PhoneInside, which does not need a special device but leverages an obsolete smartphone to build a low-cost vehicle anti-theft system. After being fixed in the vehicle body with a car charger, the smartphone can detect vehicle movement and adaptiv...

  2. Phytoremediation of the organic Xenobiotic simazine by p450-1a2 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Ehab; Hegazy, Ahmad K; El-Sharnouby, Mohamed E; Abd Elsalam, Hassan E

    2016-01-01

    The potential use of human P450-transgenic plants for phytoremediation of pesticide contaminated soils was tested in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The transgenic P450 CYP1A2 gene Arabidopsis thaliana plants metabolize number of herbicides, insecticides and industrial chemicals. The P450 isozymes CYP1A2 expressed in A. thaliana were examined regarding the herbicide simazine (SIM). Transgenic A. thaliana plants expressing CYP1A2 gene showed significant resistance to SIM supplemented either in plant growth medium or sprayed on foliar parts. The results showed that SIM produces harmful effect on both rosette diameter and primary root length of the wild type (WT) plants. In transgenic A. thaliana lines, the rosette diameter and primary root length were not affected by SIM concentrations used in this experiment. The results indicate that CYP1A2 can be used as a selectable marker for plant transformation, allowing efficient selection of transgenic lines in growth medium and/or in soil-grown plants. The transgenic A. thaliana plants exhibited a healthy growth using doses of up to 250 μmol SIM treatments, while the non-transgenic A. thaliana plants were severely damaged with doses above 50 μmol SIM treatments. The transgenic A. thaliana plants can be used as phytoremediator of environmental SIM contaminants.

  3. An evaluation on the environmental consequences of residual CFCs from obsolete household refrigerators in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiangyang; Duan Huabo; Li Jinhui

    2011-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) contained in household refrigerators consist mainly of CFC-11 and CFC-12, which will be eventually released into the environment. Consequentially, environmental releases of these refrigerants will lead to ozone depletion and contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect, if waste refrigerators are not disposed of properly. In the present paper, the potential release of residual CFCs and their substitutes from obsolete household refrigerators in China is examined, and their contributions to ozone depletion and greenhouse effect are compared with those of other recognized ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The results imply that annual potential amounts of released residual CFC-11 and CFC-12 will reach their maximums at 4600 and 2300 tons, respectively in 2011, and then decrease gradually to zero until 2020. Meanwhile, the amounts of their most widely used substitutes HCFC-141b and HFC-134a will keep increasing. Subsequently, the contribution ratio of these CFCs and their substitutes to ozone depletion will remain at 25% through 2011, and reach its peak value of 34% by 2018. The contribution to greenhouse effect will reach its peak value of 0.57% by 2010. Moreover, the contribution ratio of these CFCs to the total global release of CFCs will steadily increase, reaching its peak of 15% by 2018. Thus, this period from 2010 to 2018 is a crucial time during which residual CFCs and their substitutes from obsolete household refrigerators in China will contribute significantly to ozone depletion.

  4. Establishing benchmarks and metrics for disruptive technologies, inappropriate and obsolete tests in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechle, Frederick L; Arcenas, Rodney C; Rogers, Linda C

    2014-01-01

    Benchmarks and metrics related to laboratory test utilization are based on evidence-based medical literature that may suffer from a positive publication bias. Guidelines are only as good as the data reviewed to create them. Disruptive technologies require time for appropriate use to be established before utilization review will be meaningful. Metrics include monitoring the use of obsolete tests and the inappropriate use of lab tests. Test utilization by clients in a hospital outreach program can be used to monitor the impact of new clients on lab workload. A multi-disciplinary laboratory utilization committee is the most effective tool for modifying bad habits, and reviewing and approving new tests for the lab formulary or by sending them out to a reference lab. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efeito da chuva na dissipação e movimentação de diuron e simazine em solo de vinha

    OpenAIRE

    Alister, C.; Kogan, M.

    2010-01-01

    From 2003 to 2007, a field study was performed in a vineyard in Chile to investigate diuron and simazine soil behavior and the effect of additional rainfall. Both herbicides were applied once a year at a rate of 2.0 kg ha-1 a.i. Herbicide concentrations in soil were measured at 0, 10, 20, 40, 90 and 340 days after application, under two pluviometric conditions, natural rainfall and natural rainfall plus irrigation with 180 mm of simulated rainfall during the first 90 days after application. S...

  6. The lost constellations a history of obsolete, extinct, or forgotten star lore

    CERN Document Server

    Barentine, John C

    2016-01-01

    Casual stargazers are familiar with many classical figures and asterisms composed of bright stars (e.g., Orion and the Plough), but this book reveals not just the constellations of today but those of yesteryear. The history of the human identification of constellations among the stars is explored through the stories of some influential celestial cartographers whose works determined whether new inventions survived. The history of how the modern set of 88 constellations was defined by the professional astronomy community is recounted, explaining how the constellations described in the book became permanently “extinct.”  Dr. Barentine addresses why some figures were tried and discarded, and also directs observers to how those figures can still be picked out on a clear night if one knows where to look. These lost constellations are described in great detail using historical references, ennabling observers to rediscover them on their own surveys of the sky. Treatment of the obsolete constellations as ...

  7. Dismantling of alpha contaminated obsolete installations and glove boxes on the IRMM site in Geel (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretskens, Pieter; Lenie, Koen; Melis, Gustaaf

    2007-01-01

    At the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (European commission, Joint Research Centre, IRMM) a dismantling campaign of obsolete installations and glove boxes has been carried out in 2005. There were various reasons for their removal. Some large installations did not meet modern safety standards, other installations were worn out and expected to cause a radioactive contamination risk in the future. The main goal was to create as less waste as possible by extensive contamination checks and by decontamination if necessary. For the glove boxes, decontamination was not possible. A controlled area was set up around the installation to be dismantled in order to prevent spreading of contamination from dust and dirt. This was only possible for the 'minor' contaminated installations. The dismantling campaign of the glove boxes was carried out by using tents of two types depending the contamination inside the glove boxes. The most common glove boxes were dismantled in a tent constructed with hard surfaced polycarbonate plates (ventilated cell). For glove boxes with higher contamination, the same principle was used but with a second 'glove box tent' inside (ventilated glove tent). The purpose of this project was to learn from the experience of this campaign which gave the ability to make estimates of future radioactive waste or classic waste that could be expected from dismantled installations. (authors)

  8. A Low-Cost Vehicle Anti-Theft System Using Obsolete Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, vehicle theft has become an increasing problem to the general public. Deploying onboard anti-theft systems could relieve this problem, but it often requires extra investment for vehicle owners. In this paper, we propose the idea of PhoneInside, which does not need a special device but leverages an obsolete smartphone to build a low-cost vehicle anti-theft system. After being fixed in the vehicle body with a car charger, the smartphone can detect vehicle movement and adaptively use GPS, cellular/WiFi localization, and dead reckoning to locate the vehicle during driving. Especially, a novel Velocity-Aware Dead Reckoning (VA-DR method is presented, which utilizes map knowledge and vehicle’s turns at road curves and intersections to estimate velocity for trajectory computation. Compared to traditional dead reckoning, it reduces accumulated errors and achieves great improvement in localization accuracy. Furthermore, based on the learning of the driving history, our system can establish individual mobility model for a vehicle and distinguish abnormal driving behaviors by a Long Short Term Memory (LSTM network. With the help of ad hoc authentication, the system can identify vehicle theft and send out timely alarming and tracking messages for rapid recovery. The realistic experiments running on Android smartphones prove that our system can detect vehicle theft effectively and locate a stolen vehicle accurately, with average errors less than the sight range.

  9. Dr. med. – obsolet? Eine Querschnittserhebung zur Wahrnehmung und Akzeptanz der medizinischen Doktorarbeit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heun, Xenia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Purpose: To obtain the German Medical Degree “Dr.med.” candidates are required to write a scientific thesis which is usually accomplished during Medical school education. This extra work load for the students amongst a lack of standardization and an M.D. awarded upon graduation in other European and Anglo-Saxon countries leads repeatedly to criticism of the German system. However, a systematic survey on the perception and acceptance of the German doctoral thesis among those affected is overdue.Methods: Using an online questionnaire, medical students as well as licensed doctors were asked for the status of their medical degree, their motivation, personal benefit, time and effort, scientific output, its meaningfulness and alternatives concerning their thesis. Patients were asked, how important they value their general practitioner’s title “Dr. med.”. The resulting data were evaluated performing basic statistic analyses.Results and Conclusions: The title “Dr. med.“ does not seem to be obsolete, but there is room for improvement. The scientific output is good and only a mere 15.1% of the candidates do not publish their results at all. Moreover, while at an early stage motivation, appreciation and recognition of personal benefits from the medical degree are considered as independent aspects, they merge to a general view at later stages. The current practice is considered most meaningful by the ones who have already finished their thesis. However, there are discrepancies between the expected and the actual length as well as the type of the thesis indicating that mentoring and educational advertising need improvement. As for the patients, their educational level seems to correlate with the significance attributed to the title “Dr. med.” held by their physician.

  10. Combined effect of diuron and simazine on photosystem II photochemistry in a sandy soil and soil amended with solid olive-mill waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Cox, Lucía; Cornejo, Juan; Figueroa, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- = 1,1-dimethylurea) and simazine (6-chloro-N(2), N(4)-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) are soil-applied herbicides used in olive crops. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of these herbicides on Photosystem II photochemistry of Olea europaea L., and whether the amendment of soil with an organic waste (OW) from olive oil production industry modifies this effect. For this purpose, herbicide soil adsorption studies, with unamended and OW-amended soil, and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements in adult olive leaves, after one, two and three weeks of soil herbicide treatment and/or OW amendment, were performed. Soil application of these herbicides reduced the efficiency of Photosystem II photochemistry of olive trees due to chronic photoinhibition, and this effect is counterbalanced by the addition of OW to the soil. OW reduces herbicide uptake by the plant due to an increase in herbicide adsorption.

  11. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  12. Interrupting a multi-species bioinvasion vector: the efficacy of in-water cleaning for removing biofouling on obsolete vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian C; McCann, Linda D; Sytsma, Mark D; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2008-09-01

    Vector management is the primary method for reducing and preventing nonindigenous species (NIS) invasions and their ecological and economic consequences. This study was the first to examine the efficacy of in-water scrubbing using a submersible cleaning and maintenance platform (SCAMP) to prevent invertebrate species transfers from a heavily fouled obsolete vessel. Initially, prior to treatment, 37 species were recorded in a biofouling matrix that reached 30cm depth in some locations. The bryozoan Conopeum chesapeakensis, and bivalves Mytilopsis leucophaeata and Ischadium recurvum, were dominant sessile species that created structure, supporting mobile biota that included crabs and the associated parasitic barnacle Loxothylacus panopae. Scrubbing had the effect of significantly reducing organism extent and the number of species per sample, but a substantial and diverse (30 species) residual fouling community remained across the entire vessel. Further assessments of management options are needed to prevent potentially damaging NIS transfers. Additional measures taken within an integrated vector management (IVM) strategy may further improve invasion prevention measures.

  13. COP-compost: a software to study the degradation of organic pollutants in composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Lashermes, G; Houot, S; Zhu, Y-G; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2014-02-01

    Composting has been demonstrated to be effective in degrading organic pollutants (OP) whose behaviour depends on the composting conditions, the microbial populations activated and interactions with organic matters. The fate of OP during composting involves complex mechanisms and models can be helpful tools for educational and scientific purposes, as well as for industrialists who want to optimise the composting process for OP elimination. A COP-Compost model, which couples an organic carbon (OC) module and an organic pollutant (OP) module and which simulates the changes of organic matter, organic pollutants and the microbial activities during the composting process, has been proposed and calibrated for a first set of OP in a previous study. The objectives of the present work were (1) to introduce the COP-Compost model from its convenient interface to a potential panel of users, (2) to show the variety of OP that could be simulated, including the possibility of choosing between degradation through co-metabolism or specific metabolism and (3) to show the effect of the initial characteristics of organic matter quality and its microbial biomass on the simulated results of the OP dynamic. In the model, we assumed that the pollutants can be adsorbed on organic matter according to the biochemical quality of the OC and that the microorganisms can degrade the pollutants at the same time as they degrade OC (by co-metabolism). A composting experiment describing two different (14)C-labelled organic pollutants, simazine and pyrene, were chosen from the literature because the four OP fractions simulated in the model were measured during the study (the mineralised, soluble, sorbed and non-extractable fractions). Except for the mineralised fraction of simazine, a good agreement was achieved between the simulated and experimental results describing the evolution of the different organic fractions. For simazine, a specific biomass had to be added. To assess the relative importance

  14. Dr. med.--obsolete? A cross sectional survey to investigate the perception and acceptance of the German medical degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heun, Xenia; Eisenlöffel, Christian; Barann, Bastian; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    To obtain the German Medical Degree "Dr.med." candidates are required to write a scientific thesis which is usually accomplished during Medical school education. This extra work load for the students amongst a lack of standardization and an M.D. awarded upon graduation in other European and Anglo-Saxon countries leads repeatedly to criticism of the German system. However, a systematic survey on the perception and acceptance of the German doctoral thesis among those affected is overdue. Using an online questionnaire, medical students as well as licensed doctors were asked for the status of their medical degree, their motivation, personal benefit, time and effort, scientific output, its meaningfulness and alternatives concerning their thesis. Patients were asked, how important they value their general practitioner's title "Dr. med.". The resulting data were evaluated performing basic statistic analyses. The title "Dr. med." does not seem to be obsolete, but there is room for improvement. The scientific output is good and only a mere 15.1% of the candidates do not publish their results at all. Moreover, while at an early stage motivation, appreciation and recognition of personal benefits from the medical degree are considered as independent aspects, they merge to a general view at later stages. The current practice is considered most meaningful by the ones who have already finished their thesis. However, there are discrepancies between the expected and the actual length as well as the type of the thesis indicating that mentoring and educational advertising need improvement. As for the patients, their educational level seems to correlate with the significance attributed to the title "Dr. med." held by their physician.

  15. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  16. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  17. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  18. Organic/inorganic hybrid filters based on dendritic and cyclodextrin "nanosponges" for the removal of organic pollutants from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkas, Michael; Allabashi, Roza; Tsiourvas, Dimitris; Mattausch, Eva-Maria; Perfler, Reinhard

    2006-04-15

    Long-alkyl chain functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimer, poly(ethylene imine) hyperbranched polymer, and beta-cyclodextrin derivatives, which are completely insoluble in water, have the property of encapsulating organic pollutants from water. Ceramic porous filters can be impregnated with these compounds resulting in hybrid organic/ inorganic filter modules. These hybrid filter modules were tested for the effective purification of water, by continuous filtration experiments, employing a variety of water pollutants. It has been established that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be removed very efficiently (more than 95%), and final concentrations of several ppb (microg/ L) are easily obtained. Representatives of the pollutant group of trihalogen methanes (THMs), monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTX), and pesticides (simazine) can also be removed (>80%), although the filters are saturated considerably faster in these cases.

  19. Incidence and Trends of Six Types of Cancer in Populations Environmentally Exposed to Obsolete Pesticides in the Colombian State of Cesar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas H, Martha P

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine incidence and trends related to the appearance of bladder, kidney, non melanoma skin (except head and neck),lung, liver and colon cancer in the State of Cesar and in the entirety of its municipalities from January 1, 1998-December 31, 2006. Methods: A descriptive, transverse epidemiologic study carried out in the municipalities of the State of Cesar where environmental exposure to obsolete or near obsolete pesticides had occurred. Census of secondary information sources was conducted at main geographical points where state residents sought medical care. Active data collection (at the source) was employed in accordance with Population Cancer Registry. Results: In the State of Cesar, between 1998-2006, average annual percentage and statistically significant changes occurred in the incidence of lung, colon, and rectal cancers for both sexes, and of non melanoma skin cancer for men. The municipalities of Agustin Codazzi and El Copey revealed age standard rates (ASR) above the state average for liver cancer in both sexes, and for bladder cancer in women. Gender related multiple ASR for the municipalities of Valledupar, Aguachica, Pailitas and La Paz stood out with respectively higher ASR than that for the entire State of Cesar. Conclusions: It is possible that there is a statistical and geospatial association between the incidence of the following cancers and the environmental exposure to PLADES: (a) bladder cancer in women, in Agustin Codazzi and El Copey; (b) bladder cancer in men, only in El Copey, and (c) non melanoma skin cancer in men, only in Agustin Codazzi.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from obsolete pesticide dumping ground in Hyderabad City, Pakistan: contamination levels and their potential for air-soil exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination levels in the surface soil and air samples together with air-soil exchange fluxes at an obsolete pesticide dumping ground and the associated areas from Hyderabad City, Pakistan. Among all the sampling sites, concentrations of OCPs in the soil and air samples were found highest in obsolete pesticide dumping ground, whereas dominant contaminants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) (soil: 77-212,200 ng g(-1); air: 90,700 pg m(-3)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) (soil: 43-4,090 ng g(-1); air: 97,400 pg m(-3)) followed by chlordane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). OCPs diagnostic indicative ratios reflect historical use as well as fresh input in the study area. Moreover, the air and soil fugacity ratios (0.9-1.0) at the dumping ground reflecting a tendency towards net volatilization of OCPs, while at the other sampling sites, the fugacity ratios indicate in some cases deposition and in other cases volatilization. Elevated concentrations of DDTs and HCHs at pesticide dumping ground and its surroundings pose potential exposure risk to biological organisms, to the safety of agricultural products and to the human health. Our study thus emphasizes the need of spatio-temporal monitoring of OCPs at local and regional scale to assess and remediate the future adverse implications. © 2013.

  1. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  2. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  3. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  4. Multi-source water pollution in a highly anthropized wetland system associated with the estuary of Huelva (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barba-Brioso, C.; Fernandez-Caliani, J.C.; Miras, A.; Cornejo, J.; Galan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Major ions, nutrients, trace elements and pesticides distribution were studied in a coastal wetland heavily impacted by human development in Spain. Past land use has altered the local hydrodynamics leading to the partitioning of the ecosystem into a tideland subject to marine influence, and an artificial freshwater reservoir created by stream impoundment. The tideland stretch is flooded twice a day with a heavy metal plume that emerges from the mine-polluted estuary of Huelva and propagates landward depicting the same dispersal trend of major seawater ions. Additionally, the tidal channel receives acid discharges from industrial point sources that contribute to metal enhancement. The impounded area and stream tributaries are affected by agrochemicals runoff (nitrate, phosphate, pendimethalin, simazine, diuron and therbuthylazine) from surrounding agricultural lands. The tidal regime plays a crucial role in the transport and dispersion of pollutants, except in the artificial reservoir where freshwater exhibits a seasonal mineralization pattern.

  5. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan, E-mail: ivanmuno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Martinez Bueno, Maria J., E-mail: mjbueno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Agueera, Ana, E-mail: aaguera@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R., E-mail: amadeo@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  6. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ivan; Martinez Bueno, Maria J.; Agueera, Ana; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  7. Polluted Runoff: Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpoint Source (NPS) pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground, it picks up and carries natural and human-made pollutants, depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.

  8. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  9. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  10. Regenerative Medicine Will Make Orthopaedic Implants Obsolete In Our Time Orthopaedic Research Society First Annual Meeting Debate, San Diego, March 21st , 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Brian; Jacobs, Joshua J; Sandell, Linda J; Wilkinson, J Mark

    2018-05-10

    The mission of the Orthopaedic Research Society is to promote and advance musculoskeletal research worldwide. With this in mind, the Annual Meeting Program Committee sought to establish a debate as a key component of the meeting. Our purpose was to provoke discussion on topics that are core to our mission and to engage all constituencies within the society by examining questions of broad relevance. To this end, the topic "Regenerative medicine will make orthopaedic implants obsolete in our time" was selected as the title of the inaugural debate. The arguments for and against the motion are presented in this perspectives article. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. With the Advent of Tomosynthesis in the Workup of Mammographic Abnormality, is Spot Compression Mammography Now Obsolete? An Initial Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhuircheartaigh, Neasa; Coffey, Louise; Fleming, Hannah; O' Doherty, Ann; McNally, Sorcha

    2017-09-01

    To determine if the routine use of spot compression mammography is now obsolete in the assessment of screen detected masses, asymmetries and architectural distortion since the availability of digital breast tomosynthesis. We introduced breast tomosynthesis in the workup of screen detected abnormalities in our screening center in January 2015. During an initial learning period with tomosynthesis standard spot compression views were also performed. Three consultant breast radiologists retrospectively reviewed all screening mammograms recalled for assessment over the first 6-month period. We assessed retrospectively whether there was any additional diagnostic information obtained from spot compression views not already apparent on tomography. All cases were also reviewed for any additional lesions detected by tomosynthesis, not detected on routine 2-view screening mammography. 548 women screened with standard 2-view digital screening mammography were recalled for assessment in the selected period and a total of 565 lesions were assessed. 341 lesions were assessed by both tomosynthesis and routine spot compression mammography. The spot compression view was considered more helpful than tomosynthesis in only one patient. This was because the breast was inadequately positioned for tomosynthesis and the area in question was not adequately imaged. Apart from this technical error there was no asymmetry, distortion or mass where spot compression provided more diagnostic information than tomosynthesis alone. We detected three additional cancers on tomosynthesis, not detected by routine screening mammography. From our initial experience with tomosynthesis we conclude that spot compression mammography is now obsolete in the assessment of screen detected masses, asymmetries and distortions where tomosynthesis is available. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  13. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzuck, W.

    1982-01-01

    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  14. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  15. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  16. Environmental Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong IK

    1990-03-01

    This book tells US that what nature is, which gives descriptions of the world of living things like the role of plant, order of the vegetable kingdom, the world of plant, destruction of the natural world, and the world of bugs, nature and human with man's survive and change of nature, environment and human, and in creasing population and environment, philosophy of conservation of nature on meaning, destroy and management, and direction, air pollution spot, water pollution, soil pollution conservation of nature and industry case of foreign country and view of environment and environmental assimilating capacity.

  17. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  18. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with ... NIEHS Newsletter) Karletta Chief Featured in Science Friday Film (April 2018) Chlorine Levels Help Detect Risk for ...

  19. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  20. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  1. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  2. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  3. Is the Office Hour Obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A colleague can't make a coffee date at a time the author proposes because it would conflict with his office hour. No student has actually made an appointment with him during the hour, but he is committed to being in his office as promised in case someone drops by. The author's reaction to her colleague's faithfulness to his posted office hour…

  4. Are Manual Typewriters Becoming Obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jean

    1976-01-01

    A University of Akron survey of the Akron area revealed that the general trend is for large companies to use manual typewriters in their business offices. Implications for typewriting instruction are discussed. (JT)

  5. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Ramos, julio

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the complexity of the problem of environmental pollution and what can be the possible solutions to the problem. Also, how the Industrial Engineering can contribute to the prevention and control of pollution. El artículo muestra la complejidad del problema de la contaminación ambiental y cuáles pueden ser las propuestas de solución al problema. Así mismo, cómo la Ingeniería Industrial puede contribuir a la prevención y control de la contaminación.

  7. Dose escalation of radical radiation therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer using positron emission tomography/computed tomography-defined target volumes: Are class solutions obsolete?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, S.; Schneider-Kolsky, M.; Budd, R.; Yuen, K.; Manus, M Mac

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This study investigated the maximum theoretical radiation dose that could safely be delivered to 20 patients diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer. Two three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) class-solution techniques (A and B) and an individualized three-dimensional conformal RT technique (C) were compared at the standard dose of 60 Gy (part I). Dose escalation was then attempted for each technique successfully at 60 Gy, constrained by predetermined limits for lung and spinal canal (part II). Part I and part II data were reanalysed to include oesophageal dose constraints (part III). In part I, 60 Gy was successfully planned using techniques A, B and C in 19 (95%), 18 (90%) and 20 (100%) patients, respectively. The mean escalated dose attainable for part II using techniques A, B and C were 76.4, 74 and 97.8 Gy, respectively (P < 0.0005). One (5%) patient was successfully planned for 120 Gy using techniques A and B, whereas four (20%) were successfully planned using technique C. Following the inclusion of additional constraints applied to the oesophagus in part III, the amount of escalated dose remained the same for all patients who were successfully planned at 60 Gy apart from two patients when technique C was applied. In conclusion, individualized three-dimensional conformal RT facilitated greater dose conformation and higher escalation of dose in most patients. With modern planning tools, simple class solutions are obsolete for conventional dose radical RT in non-small-cell lung cancer. Highly individualized conformal planning is essential for dose escalation.

  8. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  9. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  10. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  11. The Internet Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宁宁

    2005-01-01

    Life today has brought new problems. As we know, there are fourterrible pollutions in the world: water pollution, noise pollution, air pol-lution and rubbish pollution. Water pollution kills our fish and pollutesour drinking water. Noise pollution makes us talk louder and become angry more easily. Air pollution makes us hold our breath longer and be badto all living things in the world. Rubbish pollution often makes our livingenvironment much dirtier. But I think that the Internet pollution is anothernew pollution in the world.

  12. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, many individual values for radioactivity in the air, in foodstuffs and in the soil were measured and published. Prof. Dr. Rolf Steiner, Wiesbaden, the author of this paper, evaluated the host of data - mostly official pollution data -, drew conclusions regarding the radioactivity actually released at Chernobyl, and used the data to test the calculation model adotped by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./RB) [de

  14. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  15. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The widely published claims that the public health effects resulting from routine emissions are between 0.01 and 0.1 serious health effects per gigawattyear, and hence are at least a thousand times smaller than those resulting from air pollution by the burning of coal, cannot be true, for two reasons. The authors of these claims have ignored at least two of the more important isotopes, radon-222 and carbon-14, which are presently released to the environment, and thus contribute greatly to the health impact of nuclear energy. The health effects calculated in the earlier work cover only those which occur during the year in which the energy is generated. This means, figuratively speaking, that the authors have confused an annual installment payment with the full cost. This is unacceptable. The contribution to the health impact of nuclear energy arising from the single isotopic species radon-222 emanating from the mill tailings is estimated to 400 lung cancer deaths/GW(e)y, larger even than the most pessimistic estimates of the health impact of energy from coal through atmospheric pollution. We have no assurance that other long-lived isotopes do not contribute comparable amounts to the health impact of nuclear energy. The discussion of the health impact of radon-222 raises the fundamental moral question--how far into the future our responsibility extends. If such a long-termresponsibility is rejected, then we must at least try to predict the environmental buildup of radioactive pollutants, in order to avoid unacceptable and irreversible levels of radiation dose rate. The potential health consequences from long-lived radioisotopes seem to have been largely ignored so far, and should be explored in detail

  16. Air pollution policy in Europe: Quantifying the interaction with greenhouse gases and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, Johannes; Brink, Corjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the computable general equilibrium model WorldScan to analyse interactions between EU's air pollution and climate change policies. Covering the entire world and seven EU countries, WorldScan simulates economic growth in a neo-classical recursive dynamic framework, including emissions and abatement of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 ) and air pollutants (SO 2 , NO x , NH 3 and PM 2.5 ). Abatement includes the possibility of using end-of-pipe control options that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. This paper analyses several variants of EU's air pollution policies for the year 2020. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than two thirds, thus also at least one third of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease, which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, and may even drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy. - Highlights: • This paper models bottom-up emission control in top-down CGE model. • We analyse interactions between air pollution and climate policies in Europe. • Structural changes induced by stringent air policies may make EU-ETS market obsolete

  17. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  18. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  19. The status of pesticide pollution in surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece. Part I. Review on occurrence and levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinou, Ioannis K.; Hela, Dimitra G.; Albanis, Triantafyllos A.

    2006-01-01

    This review evaluates and summarizes the results of long-term research projects, monitoring programs and published papers concerning the pollution of surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece by pesticides. Pesticide classes mostly detected involve herbicides used extensively in corn, cotton and rice production, organophosphorus insecticides as well as the banned organochlorines insecticides due to their persistence in the aquatic environment. The compounds most frequently detected were atrazine, simazine, alachlor, metolachlor and trifluralin of the herbicides, diazinon, parathion methyl of the insecticides and lindane, endosulfan and aldrin of the organochlorine pesticides. Rivers were found to be more polluted than lakes. The detected concentrations of most pesticides follow a seasonal variation, with maximum values occurring during the late spring and summer period followed by a decrease during winter. Nationwide, in many cases the reported concentrations ranged in low ppb levels. However, elevated concentrations were recorded in areas of high pesticide use and intense agricultural practices. Generally, similar trends and levels of pesticides were found in Greek rivers compared to pesticide contamination in other European rivers. Monitoring of the Greek water resources for pesticide residues must continue, especially in agricultural regions, because the nationwide patterns of pesticide use are constantly changing. Moreover, emphasis should be placed on degradation products not sufficiently studied so far. - Information on pesticide pollution of surface waters in Greece is reviewed

  20. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-A041 400 DDC/BIB-77/06 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION SONIC BOOM A DDC BIBLIOGRAPHY DDC-TAS Cameron Station Alexandria, Va...rn7Sttio 658S-A041 400 4 TITLE xand r.VuhtlVlia) 2 TA i b- 1iblog ra ph y ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : --. Apr-l IM59-Jul, 7NOISE POLLUTION -SONIC BOOM. 1,976...BIBLIOGRAPHY SEARCH CONTROL NO. /2OM09 AD- 769 970 20/1 1/3 DEFENSE UOCUMENTATION CENTER ALEXANDRIA VA ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : NOISE POLLUTION

  1. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...EPA is finalizing a limited approval and limited disapproval of two permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on February 22, 2013 and concern construction and modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA). Final approval of these rules makes the rules federally enforceable and corrects program deficiencies identified in a previous EPA rulemaking (76 FR 44809, July 27, 2011). EPA is also making a technical amendment to the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) to reflect this previous rulemaking, which removed an obsolete provision from the California SIP.

  2. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  3. USCG Vessel Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  4. USCG Facility Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  5. Light pollution : working paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechner, Stefan; Arns, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is one of the fastest growing and most pervasive of environmental pollution (Chepesiuk, 2009). In the last couple of years, a lot of research has been done about the effects of light pollution. The interest in light pollution has been growing in many fields of science, extending from

  6. Pollution management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A pollution management system comprises an array of one or more inlets and at least one outlet. The one or more inlets are arranged to collect polluted air and supply said polluted air to a polluted air treatment element. The one or more inlets each comprise a respective inlet sensor for measuring...... a level of pollution at the inlet, and the at least one outlet comprises an outlet sensor for measuring a level of pollution at the outlet. The inlet sensors and the outlet sensor are arranged to provide feedback to the polluted air treatment element....

  7. Failure of Urological Implants in Spinal Cord Injury Patients due to Infection, Malfunction, and Implants Becoming Obsolete due to Medical Progress and Age-Related Changes in Human Body Making Implant Futile: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Any new clinical data, whether positive or negative, generated about a medical device should be published because health professionals should know which devices do not work, as well as those which do. We report three spinal cord injury patients in whom urological implants failed to work. In the first, paraplegic, patient, a sacral anterior root stimulator failed to produce erection, and a drug delivery system for intracavernosal administration of vasoactive drugs was therefore implanted; however, this implant never functioned (and, furthermore, such penile drug delivery systems to produce erection had effectively become obsolete following the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Subsequently, the sacral anterior root stimulator developed a malfunction and the patient therefore learned to perform self-catheterisation. In the second patient, also paraplegic, an artificial urinary sphincter was implanted but the patient developed a postoperative sacral pressure sore. Eight months later, a suprapubic cystostomy was performed as urethral catheterisation was very difficult. The pressure sore had not healed completely even after five years. In the third case, a sacral anterior root stimulator was implanted in a tetraplegic patient in whom, after five years, a penile sheath could not be fitted because of penile retraction. This patient was therefore established on urethral catheter drainage. Later, infection with Staphylococcus aureus around the receiver block necessitated its removal. In conclusion, spinal cord injury patients are at risk of developing pressure sores, wound infections, malfunction of implants, and the inability to use implants because of age-related changes, as well as running the risk of their implants becoming obsolete due to advances in medicine. Some surgical procedures such as dorsal rhizotomy are irreversible. Alternative treatments such as intermittent catheterisations may be less damaging than bladder stimulator in

  8. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  9. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  10. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  11. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  12. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  13. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  14. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elements which constitute an important class of pollutants. Such pollutants ... spheric transport processes. In rural regions ... response of redox potential: those which are fixed in reducing conditions ... pollution in urban areas of northern Britain in the eighteenth .... adjusting the desired flame condition, the instrument is cali-.

  15. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  17. Noise Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Lavaroni, Charles W.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on noise pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of noise pollution and involves students in processes of…

  18. Microbial control of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, J C; Gadd, G M; Herbert, R A; Jones, C W; Watson-Craik, I A [eds.

    1992-01-01

    12 papers are presented on the microbial control of pollution. Topics covered include: bioremediation of oil spills; microbial control of heavy metal pollution; pollution control using microorganisms and magnetic separation; degradation of cyanide and nitriles; nitrogen removal from water and waste; and land reclamation and restoration.

  19. Environmental pollution from new chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1995-01-01

    New chemical pollutants have entered the environment because of industrialisation, urbanization and developments. The new pollutants include polymers, plasticizers, polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitriles, detergents, lead, dioxins and pesticides. Investigations showed substational amount of their presence in the environment. Pesticides and polymers can be controlled by using photo sensitizers. Lead pollution in ambient air can be controlled by reducing lead content in the gasoline. Detergents can be controlled by switching over the manufacturing process from ABS to LAS. Dioxins can be controlled by incinerating the chlorinated waste above 1200 C. (author)

  20. Photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Te Winkel, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    During periods of severe photochemical air pollution (smog) the industry in the Netherlands is recommended by the Dutch government to strongly reduce the emissions of air pollutants. For the electric power generating companies it is important to investigate the adequacy of this policy. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the contribution of electric power plants to photochemical air pollution and to assess the efficacy of emission reducing measures. A literature survey on the development of photochemical air pollution was carried out and modelled calculations concerning the share of the electric power plants to the photochemical air pollution were executed

  1. Clinical observation of Qing Court’s bone-setting manipulation on obso-lete ankle sprain%宫廷正骨手法治疗陈旧性踝关节扭伤疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿伍提·艾克木; 李俊海; 林留洋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effects of bone-setting work,a traditional practice for the Qing Court,on the obsolete ankle sprain.Methods 54 patients with obsolete ankle sprain were treated with the bone-setting manipulation.The therapeutic effects were assessed by comparing the ankle function scores of before and after treatment,according to Baird-Jackson ankle scoring system.Results After treatment,the scores of pain,stability,walking ability,running ability,working ability,range of motion,as well as the total scores were significantly higher than those of before treatment(P <0.05). The total effective rate was 1 00.0% with 46 cured (85.2%),7 markedly improved (1 3.0%),1 im-proved (1 .8%)and none of ineffective.According to Baird-Jackson criteria,36 cases got the scores of 96 to 1 00,1 4 ones got the scores of 91 to 95 and 4 cases got 81 to 90,with the excellent and good rate was 92.6%.Conclusion The efficiency of the Qing Court’s practice of bone-setting on obsolete ankle sprain was proved.%目的:观察宫廷正骨手法治疗陈旧性踝关节扭伤的疗效。方法对54例陈旧性踝关节扭伤的患者采用宫廷正骨手法治疗。治疗前后对患者的踝关节功能情况按照贝尔德-杰克逊(Baird-Jackson)踝关节评分标准进行评分,比较治疗前、后踝关节功能评分,并评定临床疗效。结果治疗后踝关节疼痛、稳定性、行走能力、跑步能力、工作能力、活动范围方面的评分及踝关节总评分较治疗前均显著提高(P <0.05)。治疗后54例中痊愈46例(85.2%),显效7例(13.0%),有效1例(1.8%),无效0例(0%),总有效率为100.0%。治疗后根据 Baird-Jackson 踝关节评分标准评定疗效,优36例,良 1 4例,可 4例,差0例,优良率为92.6%。结论宫廷正骨手法治疗陈旧性踝关节扭伤具有较好的疗效。

  2. Quantifying light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information. - Highlights: • We review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution. • These indicators are a primary step in light pollution quantification. • These indicators allow to improve light pollution mapping from a 2D to a 3D grid. • These indicators allow carrying out a tomography of light pollution. • We show an application of this technique to an Italian region

  3. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  4. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  5. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  6. Perspective of environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argent, B.B.; Thompson, D. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Engineering Materials, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Edyvean, R.G.J. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Spears, D.A. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-01

    This article aims to stimulate interest in pollution problems that are associated with the minerals industries. Because this subject is so broad, this study has concentrated on a limited number of topics that have been studied by the authors. After a brief survey indicating major sources of pollution through gaseous emissions, contamination of waterways and land fill sites, attention is focused on some of the methods of predicting, monitoring and limiting emissions together with remediation of polluted sites. (Author)

  7. Air pollution and lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.

    1973-01-01

    This volume reflects the concern of biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various pollutants. The actions of pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. Separate analytics are included for 17 chapters.

  8. Light Pollution | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preserving the Dark Skies La Oficina de Protección de la Calidad del Cielo del Norte de Chile - OPCC Light ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » NOAO-S EPO Programs » Dark Sky Education » Light Pollution Light Pollution Preserving Dark Skies: Efforts to measure light pollution and work with the local

  9. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    . Heavy metals Editorial Guest The special issue of Environment International has come up with selected papers presented in the International workshop on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa... presented in this special issue are classified into five sections namely, Coastal water quality, Heavy metals, Trace metals, Persistent organic pollutants and Ecotoxicology. 1. Coastal water quality assessment The pollution of the marine environment has...

  10. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  11. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Hester, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10 -3 range

  12. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  13. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter focuses on the air pollutants which are generally found in the troposphere and does not provide detail on specific areas where atmospheric pollutants and atmospheric chemistry may differ from that generally found, such as in the arctic...

  14. Pollution Control Using Ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone.......This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone....

  15. The pollution by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  16. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  17. Pollution and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larr, Allison S.; Neidell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Childhood is a particularly sensitive time when it comes to pollution exposure. Allison Larr and Matthew Neidell focus on two atmospheric pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--that can harm children's health in many ways. Ozone irritates the lungs, causing various respiratory symptoms; it can also damage the lung lining or aggravate lung…

  18. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  19. Air pollution and vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, M

    1975-01-01

    Although the direct effects of each air pollutant have been fairly well studied for specific species of plants used as indicators, studies on the synecological level have not been done. Clement's communities can be used as indicators. The effects of air pollution should be studied as one in a complex of factors. The characteristic features of biological indicators are described in detail with emphasis on applying the results to human beings in polluted environments. The methods of determining the effects of pollution are described, using a community phytometer and remote sensing methods. Directly connecting the level of air pollution to the wilting of trees in general is dangerous unless it is a matter of an acute episode.

  20. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  1. Athlete's Heart: Is the Morganroth Hypothesis Obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykowsky, Mark J; Samuel, T Jake; Nelson, Michael D; La Gerche, Andre

    2018-05-01

    In 1975, Morganroth and colleagues reported that the increased left ventricular (LV) mass in highly trained endurance athletes versus nonathletes was primarily due to increased end-diastolic volume while the increased LV mass in resistance trained athletes was solely due to an increased LV wall thickness. Based on the divergent remodelling patterns observed, Morganroth and colleagues hypothesised that the increased "volume" load during endurance exercise may be similar to that which occurs in patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation while the "pressure" load associated with performing a Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) during resistance exercise may mimic the stress imposed on the heart by systemic hypertension or aortic stenosis. Despite widespread acceptance of the four-decade old Morganroth hypothesis in sports cardiology, some investigators have questioned whether such a divergent "athlete's heart" phenotype exists. Given this uncertainty, the purpose of this brief review is to re-evaluate the Morganroth hypothesis regarding: i) the acute effects of resistance exercise performed with a brief VM on LV wall stress, and the patterns of LV remodelling in resistance-trained athletes; ii) the acute effects of endurance exercise on biventricular wall stress, and the time course and pattern of LV and right ventricular (RV) remodelling with endurance training; and iii) the value of comparing "loading" conditions between athletes and patients with cardiac pathology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Replacement strategy for obsolete plant computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The plant computers of the first generation of larger nuclear power plants are reaching the end of their useful life time with respect to the hardware. The software would be no reason for a system exchange but new tasks for the supervisory computer system, availability questions of maintenance personnel and spare parts and the demand for improved operating procedures for the computer users have stimulated the considerations on how to exchange a computer system in a nuclear power plant without extending plant outage times due to exchange works. In the Federal Republic of Germany the planning phase of such backfitting projects is well under way, some projects are about to be implemented. The base for these backfitting projects is a modular supervisory computer concept which has been designated for the new line of KWU PWR's. The main characteristic of this computer system is the splitting of the system into a data acquisition level and a data processing level. This principle allows an extension of the processing level or even repeated replacements of the processing computers. With the existing computer system still in operation the new system can be installed in a step-by-step procedure. As soon as the first of the redundant process computers of the data processing level is in operation and the data link to the data acquisition computers is established the old computer system can be taken out of service. Then the back-up processing computer can be commissioned to complete the new system. (author)

  3. Is McMurray′s osteotomy obsolete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaltankar P

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of the method of performing, advantages, disadvantages of McMurray′s displacement osteotomy with regard to treatment of nonunion of transcervical fracture neck femur with viable femoral head was carried out in this study of ten cases, in view of the abandonment of the procedure in favour of angulation osteotomy. Good results obtained in the series attest to the usefulness of McMurray′s osteotomy in the difficult problem of nonunion of transcervical fracture neck femur in well selected cases with certain advantages over the angulation osteotomy due to the ′Armchair effect′.

  4. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  5. Environmental pollution by petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, T

    1974-06-01

    Pollution causes, cases, and remedies at various stages of petroleum production and usage are reviewed. Petroleum extraction (off-shore drilling and Arctic drilling) can be accompanied by mishaps. In 1971, IMCO (an international safety committee) proposed the partitioning of oil tanker holds into smaller compartments to minimize spillage in case of disaster. Although the solubility of oil in waste water from refineries is reckoned by ppM, the total amount dissolved is not negligible. Petroleum storage and transport on land is complicated by problems of safety in terms of population density as well as by pollution problems. Petroleum end-products such as plastic trash and automobile exhausts contribute to pollution. The role of aldehydes and peroxides in photochemical smog formation must be investigated further. Proper treatment of pollution at each specific point of occurrence, rather than at the end of a production line is recommended. Pollutant concentration for treatment, rather than pollutant dilution for dispersal, should be considered. Technology for pollution abatement is available, but not always economically feasible.

  6. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  7. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  8. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  9. On spectral pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, X.; Appert, K.; Bondeson, A.; Vaclavik, J.

    1990-01-01

    Finite difference and finite element approximations of eigenvalue problems, under certain circumstances exhibit spectral pollution, i.e. the appearance of eigenvalues that do not converge to the correct value when the mesh density is increased. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated in a homogeneous case by means of discrete dispersion relations: the polluting modes belong to a branch of the dispersion relation that is strongly distorted by the discretization method employed, or to a new, spurious branch. The analysis is applied to finite difference methods and to finite element methods, and some indications about how to avoiding polluting schemes are given. (author) 5 figs., 10 refs

  10. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  11. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  12. Dangers of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental pollution is ever increasing. Protection of the environment must not be neglected for economic reasons. Damage to health due to environmental effects is hard to determine epidemiologically as there are nearly always several causes to consider at the same time. Still, the increase in environmental pollution results in increased damage to humans, animals, and plants. The many dangers to health can be illustrated by the example of energy demand and the different ways to meet it. It is highly necessary to create environmental laws which aim at a reduction of environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  13. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  14. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Landsat and water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  16. Lichens and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, J H

    1964-09-01

    The extreme sensitivity of lichens, particularly the larger ones, to industrialization has been recognized for many years. Most people attribute the absence of lichens from urban areas to the atmospheric pollution prevailing, and a few attribute it to climatic dryness, resulting from efficient drainage systems in towns. The two main components of air pollution are solid matter, or soot, and gaseous sulfur dioxide. The main effects of pollution appear to be: a direct reduction of light intensity by smoke haze, a deposit of soot on the plant surface, an acidification of the soil, and direct damage to plants. A body of evidence indicates that SO/sub 2/ may be the main harmful component for lichens. The distribution of lichens thus might be used to determine the limits within which atmospheric pollution is operating. 5 references.

  17. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  18. Sources of pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Sources of pollution. Domestic wastewater (Sewage). Organic matter; Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pathogens, viruses, …. Agricultural runoff. Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pesticides; Industrial effluents; Organics (oil &grease, pigments, phenols, organic matter ….) Heavy ...

  19. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  20. Fate of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapta, S.C.; Boyer, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A literature review is presented of the fate of pollutants in sediment and water systems. Topics of discussion include the following: modeling, observations, and general studies; chlorinated xenobiotic chemicals; nonchlorinated xenobiotic chemicals; pesticides; heavy metals; and radionuclides

  1. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  2. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  3. Air pollution and bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, J; Goldberg, C

    1954-01-01

    Bronchitis mortality in males and females 45 to 65 or over 65 years of age was compared with air pollution in the county boroughs of England and Wales in 1950 to 1952. There was significant association between SO/sub 2/ and bronchitis mortality for men but only occasionally significant for women. Association between particulate matter and bronchitis was less consistent. Socio-economic class had no association with pollutant levels suggesting this factor does not affect bronchitis mortality significantly.

  4. Radioisotope dust pollution monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szepke, R.; Harasimczuk, J.; Dobrowiecki, J.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring principles and specification of two dust monitors: station-type AMIZ and portable-type PIK-10 for ambient air pollution are presented. The first one, a fully automatic instrument is destined for permanent monitoring of air pollution in preset sampling time from .25 to 24 hours. The second one was developed as a portable working model. Both instruments display their results in digital form in dust concentration units. (author)

  5. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk R. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  6. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  7. Radioactive marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontavice, E. du

    1976-01-01

    Certain provision in international law aim to prevent radioactive marine pollution and others concern compensation of damage from nuclear pollution. Prevention requires regulation of the disposal of wastes from nuclear industry from the operation of nuclear powered ships and from transport of fissile materials. As regards damage, if the measures to limit the extent of the damage come under the law of the sea, the priority of nuclear law over maritime law is clear in respect of financial compensation. (Auth) [fr

  8. Environmental pollution and allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, H; Inoue, K

    2017-01-01

    Environmental changes are thought to be the main factor in the rapid increase and worsening of allergic diseases. While there have been significant changes in many environmental factors, including in environments such as residential, health and sanitation, food, and water/soil/atmospheric environments, the root of each of these changes is likely an increase in chemical substances. In fact, various environmental pollutants, such as air pollutants and chemical substances, have been shown to wor...

  9. Industrial pollution prevention handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  10. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  11. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that pollution ...

  12. Technology of environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    This book aims to be a comprehensive reference for technological advances in pollution control and abatement and pollution regulations. The first chapter, 'The dilemma of environmental pollution' summarises pollution legislation in the United States and discusses worldwide interest in pollution abatement. Chapter 2 describes some recent environmental disasters and discusses the major air pollutants and their harmful effects. Chapters 3 and 4 assess the various techniques for air pollution control and water pollution control. Chapter 5 is devoted to oil pollution impact and abatement. Solid waste management and methods of solid waste disposal are discussed in chapter 6, and noise pollution, its harmful effects and its control are dealt within chapter 7. Appendices contain a glossary, a summary of the US Clean Air Act and the US drinking water regulations and reference figures and tables relating to energy and the environment. Individual chapters contain many references

  13. Environmental pollution and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Nie, Sheng; Ding, Hanying; Hou, Fan Fan

    2018-05-01

    The burden of disease and death attributable to environmental pollution is becoming a public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries. The kidney is vulnerable to environmental pollutants because most environmental toxins are concentrated by the kidney during filtration. Given the high mortality and morbidity of kidney disease, environmental risk factors and their effect on kidney disease need to be identified. In this Review, we highlight epidemiological evidence for the association between kidney disease and environmental pollutants, including air pollution, heavy metal pollution and other environmental risk factors. We discuss the potential biological mechanisms that link exposure to environmental pollutants to kidney damage and emphasize the contribution of environmental pollution to kidney disease. Regulatory efforts should be made to control environmental pollution and limit individual exposure to preventable or avoidable environmental risk. Population studies with accurate quantification of environmental exposure in polluted regions, particularly in developing countries, might aid our understanding of the dose-response relationship between pollutants and kidney diseases.

  14. Air pollution control in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, F.

    1988-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject, from air pollution monitoring and effects on human and animal health, on plants and materials, to pollution reduction measures, practical applications, and legal regulations. It intends to give the air pollution expert a basis for developing practicable solutions. Apart from the 'classic' pollutants, also radioactive air pollution is gone into. (DG) With 366 figs., 190 tabs [de

  15. 40 CFR 180.213 - Simazine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....25 Corn, sweet, stover 0.25 Cranberry 0.25 Currant 0.25 Egg 0.03 Goat, meat 0.03 Goat, meat byproducts 0.03 Grape 0.20 Grapefruit 0.25 Hazelnut 0.20 Horse, meat 0.03 Horse, meat byproducts 0.03 Lemon 0... Apple 0.20 Avocado 0.20 Blackberry 0.20 Blueberry 0.20 Cattle, meat 0.03 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.03...

  16. Lichens as pollution indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, F

    1970-01-01

    Although lichens are generally considered to be of little use to man, their sensitivity to air pollution makes them good biological indicators. The author describes how this feature can help to establish relative degrees of air pollution. He notes areas where lichens are reduced in number and vigor, and some in which they have disappeared altogether. He challenges the idea that dryness is responsible, since they have also disappeared from damp woodland areas. Experimental work supports the view that sulfur dioxide is the major factor rather than smoke, although there is no definitive proof. Lichen damage correlates best with mean winter levels of air pollution by SO/sub 2/. 16 references, 1 figure.

  17. Air pollution and lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.

    1973-01-01

    This volume reflects the particular concern of many biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. It brings together contributions from many experts in this field and includes much previously unpublished data, as well as up-to-date review chapters. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to critical laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various air pollutants on the living tissues of lichens. The action of such pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. It is the editors' intention that the book be both a reference volume and an encouragement for further wor

  18. Pollution at Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour ElDin, H.; Halim, S. N.; Shalby, E.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Mariut, south Alexandria, Egypt suffered in the recent decades from intensive pollution as a result of a continuous discharge of huge amounts of agriculture wastewater that contains a large concentration of the washed pesticides and fertilizers in addition to domestic and industrial untreated wastewater. The over flow from the lake is discharged directly to the sea through El-Max pumping station via EI-Umum drain. Lake Mariout is surrounded by a huge number of different industrial activities and also the desert road is cutting the lake, this means that a huge number of various pollutants cycle through the air and settle down in the lake, by the time and during different seasons these pollutants after accumulation and different chemical interactions will release again from the lake to the surrounding area affecting the surrounding zone

  19. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  20. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  1. The price of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.; Davidson, M.D.; Wit, R.

    1998-06-01

    The market does not create a price for environmental pollution for the simple reason that there is no market for the environment. What can be done is to calculate shadow prices for environmental pollution, which is achieved by calculating the price that would arise if there would be a market for the environment. In applying this method, it generally proves to be necessary to base calculations on government environmental targets. Using available research data, the method is used to calculate shadow prices for a number of key pollutants. The present report is based on the CE studies 'Schaduwprijzen Prioriterings Methodiek (SPM)' (1997), commissioned by ICI Holland BV, and 'De prijs van Milieuvervuiling' (1997), commissioned by KNP BT Packaging

  2. Bioremediation of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on disremediation of environmental pollutants. When a tree falls in the forest, when crop residues are left in the fields, and even when spilled gasoline soaks into the ground, microorganisms go to work. Just as humans eat food to sustain life, microorganisms digest nonliving organic materials, using an astounding diversity of enzymes. In the process of deriving carbon and energy for their own use, microorganisms recycle essential nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to the other species with which they share the biosphere. This has thrown many ecosystems into a unsteady state and has threatened human health. Increasing expertise in analytical chemistry and toxicology has contributed to an understanding of the problems of environmental pollution, and remedies are now being sought. Both physical and chemical processes may be essential to pollution-control technologies, but controlled biodegradation also offers significant promise

  3. Pollution from Urban Runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1992-01-01

    The main idea of this paper is to establish the following facts: Biodegradable organic matter discharged from combined sewer overflows (CSO) gives rise to an acute effect on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of a river. This acute effect consist of two subeffects: an immediate oxygen deplet...... depletion which takes place in the polluted water volume passing down the river, and a delayed oxygen depletion which is associated with degradation of the organic matter accumulated at the river bottom during the passage of the polluted water volume....

  4. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  5. Effects of pollution on freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.M.; Christensen, G.M.; Tucker, J.H.; Benoit, D.A.; Lewis, M.J.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of pollution effects on fishes are reviewed under the following headings: methodology; water quality; pesticide pollutants; industrial pollutants; domestic pollutants; radioactive pollutants; and other pollutants. A table is presented to show acute and chronic toxicity of inorganic and organic pollutants to freshwater fish. (U.S.)

  6. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Lianjun; Maruya, Keith A.; Snyder, Shane A.; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. - Highlights: ► Levels of POPs in China's aquatic systems were generally at the high end of the global range. ► New inputs of DDTs, likely related to the use of dicofol and anti-fouling paints, were found. ► Occurrence of PCBs and DDTs in some water bodies pay pose potential human health risk. ► Long-term monitoring of POPs in China's waters is needed to fill data gaps. - Occurrence, potential sources and ecological and human health risk of persistent organic pollutants in China's waters are reviewed.

  7. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Indoor Air Pollution - Danger at Home. N Pon Saravanan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  8. Controlling Population with Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  9. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  10. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  11. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  12. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Pollution around Malta's sea

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Nicolette

    2014-01-01

    Marine littering is a global concern and every single year tons of litter end up in the ocean all around the globe. It has become such a problem that the waste has amalgamated into huge ‘islands’ floating in the world’s oceans. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/pollution-around-maltas-sea/

  14. Problem of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, H

    1964-01-01

    The effects of air pollutants on plants are dependent on and modified by climatic, orographic, edaphic, and biotic factors; the synergism of pollutants; and differences in the sensitivity of individual plants and species. Sulfur dioxide and fluorine are the most dangerous pollutants for plants, but ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxides, nitric acid, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, bromine, iodine, hydrocyanic acid, ethylene, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, mercaptans, asphalt and tar vapors, mercury, and selenium can also inflict damage. Young leaves, sensitive to H/sub 2/S, nitrogen oxides, Cl, HCl, HCN, mercaptans, Hg, and sulfuric acid, are more resistant to SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ethylene, and selenium than older leaves. Damage is most serious when pollutants enter leaves simultaneously or alternately through epidermis and stomata. The yellow-to-brown coloration of leaves is usually a result of the precipitation of tanning. Plasmolysis is caused by SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, HNO/sub 3/, Br, asphalt and tar vapors, while photosynthesis is stimulated by traces of ammonia, HNO/sub 3/, and saturated hydrocarbons. Increased transpiration due to SO/sub 2/ and HCl and elevated permeability and osmosis due to SO/sub 2/ were observed. 9 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  15. Managing Coastal Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, R.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over the growing incidence of pollution in the Caribbean has been on the rise, as it has the potential to affect livelihoods dependent on fishing and tourism. The IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation launched a regional project on the use of nuclear techniques to address coastal management issues in the Caribbean.

  16. Pollution and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkhoja, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    If no body can dispute the fact that technological progress favours production, comfort and the economy of time, nobody can deny either that the same progress is at the origin of a pollution that puts earth's natural resources in jeopardy. Pollution is physical, but it has a moral aspect as well. In the first case, it spoils water, the soil, the sea, the air and the vegetation. In the second case, it deals a hard blow to man's intelectual and spiritual life. Pollution is natural and biological and, in this case, it is not the result of man's activity, but that of bacteria and viruses which are responsible for various illnesses and epidemics. It could also be the result of toxicity due to volcanic eruptions, solar explosions, or electric charges liberated by clouds. Pollution can also result from harmful waste of chemical and other industries, from the various usages of chemical products, from cars and engines' exhaust, from thermal activities or radioactive spills. Today, it is radioactivity which constitutes the most serious threat to human life.(author)

  17. Pollution problems plague Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajsarowicz, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Poland's environmental problems are said to stem from investments in heavy industries that require enormous quantities of power and from the exploitation of two key natural resources: coal and sulfur. Air and water pollution problems and related public health problems are discussed

  18. Engines, fuels and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, G.

    1992-01-01

    The article points out the close relationship among engines, fuels and polluting emissions, and outlines an overall picture of future trends. The technical trade literature shows that diesel engines may undergo strong future development, due to their more favourable energy converting and less polluting characteristics. With regard to petrol injection engines, their improved construction under extremely close tolerances will result in a severe tightening-up of fuel specifications (with or without lead), so as to prevent the deposition of residues at the inlet (manifolds, injectors, valves, and combustion chamber), and their ensuing adverse effects on vehicle handling especially during the 'warm-up' stage. Recent checkups and tests run in the USA have evidenced that automotive engine-derived pollution in towns is in fact considerably more severe than that derived from mathematical models based on 'average emission factors' determined on a laboratory scale (roller bench tests, vaporization tests etc.). The entire body of regulations issued so far becomes questionable, and supplementary studies based on road-tests have been proposed. The paper's discussion is concluded with statistical data showing traffic pollution caused by VOCs (volatile organic compounds)

  19. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  20. Noise pollution resources compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  1. National pollutants emission limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Pawelec, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  2. National pollutants emission limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Pawelec, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  3. Investigating Ocean Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade class project to investigate two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…

  4. Pollution from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines

  5. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  6. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  7. What is causing the pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Elshout, S.; Ameling, M.; Wester, B.; Molenaar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is usually the most important source of air pollution in the Netherlands, but may be different for local air pollution. This article offers a spatial analysis of all NO2 sources in the Dutch Rijnmond area. [nl

  8. Air pollution and tree growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurfield, G

    1960-01-01

    The problem of air pollution is reviewed with emphasis on its origin and its effects on trees and shrubs. These effects are described from two points of view: the effects of general air pollution, and also the effects of specific pollutants. The considerable mixing, dilution and interaction that pollutants undergo in the air often renders it exceedingly difficult to assign pollution damage to any specific chemical or physical entity. Moreover, it is often impossible to assign responsibility for damage to any particular source. The constituents of general air pollution may be subdivided into those potentially incapable, and those potentially capable, of entering the plant either through the leaf stomata or indirectly by way of the soil. Specific pollutants cause damage directly, as well as indirectly from the chemical reactions that occur in the polluted atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide is discussed in detail in relation to tree and shrub damage, with numerous examples of plant injuries.

  9. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  10. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  11. Air Pollution in Museum Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the main air pollutants relevant for preservation of cultural heritage objects. Air pollutants may originate from outdoor or indoor sources. Indoor sources include the emission of corrosive vapors from construction materials used for museum display settings. Air pollution may...

  12. Air Pollutants Minimalization of Pollutant Absorber with Condensation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhiat, Yayat; Wibowo, Firmanul Catur; Oktarisa, Yuvita

    2017-01-01

    Industrial development has implications for pollution, one of it is air pollution. The amount of air pollutants emitted from industrial depend on several factors which are capacity of its fuel, high chimneys and atmospheric stability. To minimize pollutants emitted from industries is created a tool called Pollutant Absorber (PA) with a condensing system. Research and Development with the approach of Design for Production was used as methodology in making PA. To test the function of PA, the simulation had been done by using the data on industrial emissions Cilegon industrial area. The simulation results in 15 years period showed that the PA was able to minimize the pollutant emissions of SO2 by 38% NOx by 37% and dust by 64%. Differences in the absorption of pollutants shows the weakness of particle separation process in the separator. This condition happen because the condensation process is less optimal during the absorption and separation in the separator. (paper)

  13. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, R.T.H.

    1977-01-01

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  15. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  16. Interaction of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustueva, K A; Sanotsky, I V

    1975-01-01

    In evaluating the health effects of chemical and physical factors, it is of great importance to know the possible interactions between different pollutants. The biological effects of interactions, when present, may be synergistic, antagonistic or additive. Each type of interaction calls for a different evaluation and different practical measures. As yet the understanding of such effects is not clear, probably because of differing definitions of terminology. For example, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide and particulates is interpreted as a synergistic effect; in the author's opinion, this is an aggravating effect. The type of interaction depends on the levels of concentration observed, for example, the synergism shown at high levels of concentration is not always demonstrated for low levels of concentration. In fact there is little evidence of synergistic effects from ambient air pollutant; the more common type of interaction is additive in effect. 12 references.

  17. Emerging organic pollutants in the vadose zone of a soil aquifer treatment system: Pore water extraction using positive displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopilniak, Alexander; Elkayam, Roy; Rossin, Anna Voloshenko; Lev, Ovadia

    2018-01-01

    Trace organic compounds in effluents, water streams and aquifers are amply reported. However, the mobile pool of Emerging Organic Contaminants (EOCs) in the deep parts of the vadose zone is hard to estimate, due to difficulties in extraction of sufficient quantity of pore water. Here, we present a new methodology for depth profiling of EOCs in pore water by Positive Displacement Extraction (PDE): Pore water extraction from unsaturated soil samples is carried out by withdrawal of soil cores by direct-push drilling and infiltrating the core by organics free water. We show that EOC concentrations in the water eluted in the plateau region of the inverse breakthrough curve is equal to their pore water concentrations. The method was previously validated for DOC extraction, and here the scope of the methodology is extended to pore water extraction for organic pollutants analysis. Method characteristics and validation were carried out with atrazine, simazine, carbamazepine, venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine and caffeine in the concentration range of several ng to several μg/liter. Validation was carried out by laboratory experiments on three different soils (sandy, sandy-clayey and clayey). Field studies in the vadose zone of a SAT system provided 27 m deep EOC profiles with less than 1.5 m spatial resolution. During the percolation treatment, carbamazepine remained persistent, while the other studied EOCs were attenuated to the extent of 50-99%.The highest degradation rate of all studied EOCs was in the aerobic zone. EOC levels based on PDE and extraction by centrifugation were compared, showing a positive bias for centrifugation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding metals pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bril, H.; Bollinger, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Either from natural or anthropic origin, be it normal or accidental (Tchernobyl), metallic elements are found everywhere in our environment. After a presentation of their repartition and mobility in water, sediments or soils, the mechanisms allowing their dispersion or their concentration are shown. Finally, transfers between environmental compartments are presented, before evoking the case of polluted sites: diagnostic, remediation and long-time management. (authors)

  19. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  20. Water pollution by agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification o...

  1. Olfactometric pollution of air

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Haraslínová

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the olfactometric assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted by coating films.It describes the measurements of concentration, intensity, hedonic tone and character of odor caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. VOCs’ emitted in to the small-space chamber with capacity of 1 m3 were tested by dynamic olfactometric method. Paper also contains a comparison of olfactometric air pollution of two different types of coating films. The work is aimed to determine ...

  2. The polluted globe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.; Kohout, F.; Malunat, B.M.; Merk, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    It is but a sweeping and determined both national and international environmental policy taking account of all socio-cultural, socio-economic and socio-political concerns, which is able to thwart a further increasing pollution. The publication discusses the political conditions, implications and consequences of an efficient international environmental policy both complying with and setting the standards of national environmental policies. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  4. Environmental pollution and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Hirohisa; Inoue, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Environmental changes are thought to be the main factor in the rapid increase and worsening of allergic diseases. While there have been significant changes in many environmental factors, including in environments such as residential, health and sanitation, food, and water/soil/atmospheric environments, the root of each of these changes is likely an increase in chemical substances. In fact, various environmental pollutants, such as air pollutants and chemical substances, have been shown to worsen various allergies in experimental studies. For example, diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), which are an agglomeration of particles and a wide array of chemical substances, aggravate asthma, primarily due to the principle organic chemical components of DEPs. In addition, environmental chemicals such as phthalate esters, which are commonly used as plasticizers in plastic products, also aggravate atopic dermatitis. It has also become evident that extremely small nanomaterials and Asian sand dust particles can enhance allergic inflammation. While the underlying mechanisms that cause such aggravation are becoming clearer at the cellular and molecular levels, methods to easily and quickly evaluate (screen) the ever-increasing amount of environmental pollutants for exacerbating effects on allergies are also under development. To eliminate and control allergic diseases, medical measures are necessary, but it is also essential to tackle this issue by ameliorating environmental changes.

  5. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  6. Atmospheric pollution in our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanvir, G.

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with all the activities of humans. It is becoming a serious problem in coming years so it is relevant to find out how seriously our atmosphere is being polluted and how this pollution affects human and plant life in our environment. Not only the human activities are the source of our pollution but nature causes more pollution. Air pollution that is due to the pressure of foreign substances in air, effects the quality and concentration of air substances. It is not only injurious to property, but also to vegetation and animal life. Air pollution is one of our most serious environmental problems. The sources vary from smoke-stacks and automobiles to noise and foreon containing aerosols. (orig./A.B.)

  7. Air pollution control regulation. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, K

    1975-05-01

    The Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control is reviewed. The fundamental ideology of pollution control, range of pollution control, environmental standards, and national policy concerning pollution control are discussed. The content of the Air Pollution Control Law is summarized. The purpose of the Air Pollution Control Law, a list of substances regulated by the law, the type of facilities regulated by the law, control standards, type of control means, and emission standards for flue gas (sulfur oxides, particulate matters, and toxic substances) are described. The environmental standard for each pollutant and the target date for achieving the environmental standard are also given. The list of cities where the 7-rank K value control regulation for SOx is enforced is given. The procedure for registration in compliance with the law is also described.

  8. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  9. Towards sustainable pollution management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jern, N. G. W.

    2017-03-01

    It is often overlooked pollution control itself may not be entirely free from adverse impact on the environment if considered from a more holistic perspective. For example mechanised wastewater treatment is energy intensive and so has a carbon footprint because of the need to move air to supply oxygen to the aerobic treatment process. The aerobic treatment process then results in excess bio-sludge which requires disposal and if such is not appropriately performed, then there is risk of surface and groundwater contamination. This presentation explores the changes which have been investigated and are beginning to be implemented in wastewater, sludge, and agro-industrial wastes management which are more environmentally benign. Three examples shall be used to illustrate the discussion. The first example uses the conventional sewage treatment system with a unit process arrangement which converts carbonaceous pollutants from soluble and colloidal forms to particulate forms with an aerobic process before attempting energy recovery with an anaerobic process. Such an arrangement does, however, result in a negative energy balance. This is not withstanding the fact there is potentially more energy in sewage than is required to treat it if that energy can be effectively harvested. The latter can be achieved by removing the carbonaceous pollutants before the aerobic process and thereby using the aerobic process for polishing instead of treating. The carbonaceous pollutants so recovered then becomes the feed for the anaerobic process. Unfortunately conventional anaerobic sludge digestion only removes 35-45% of the organic material fed. Since biogas production (and hence energy recovery) is linked to the amount of organic material which can be degraded anaerobically, the effectiveness of the anaerobic digestion process needs to be improved. Contrary to a commonly held belief wherein methanogenesis is the “bottleneck” in anaerobic processes, hydrolysis is in sludge digestion

  10. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

  11. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  12. Environmental pollution. Uni-Taschenbuecher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odzuck, W

    1982-01-01

    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the future development of the environmental pollution.

  13. Phasing Out a Polluting Input

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Clas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores economic policies related to the potential conflict between economic growth and the environment. It applies a model with directed technological change and focuses on the case with low elasticity of substitution between clean and dirty inputs in production. New technology is substituted for the polluting input, which results in a gradual decline in pollution along the optimal long-run growth path. In contrast to some recent work, the era of pollution and environmental polic...

  14. Western forests and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses

  15. Radiation pollution of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benalashhar, Hanan Ali

    2006-01-01

    This paper interested in the topic of environmental pollution by radioactive materials due to several human activities. The meaning of human activities are nuclear tests and extraction of raw uranium, waste and reactor accidents, nuclear fuel and radon gas, and the peaceful uses of radiation. This paper points out the effects of environmental pollution by radiation and the means of reduction, and also illustrate the radiation pollution in the Arab region. (author)

  16. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Studies of simplified methods of determining various atmospheric pollutants were performed. Measurements with Kitagawa detecting tubes were made in front of Shibuya Station in Tokyo on October 27, 1973. The number of cars that passed the site was counted then the nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide content was determined. The number of cars was about 7000-12,000 between 9 AM and 6 PM. The heaviest traffic occurred around 10 am, and the least traffic occurred around 1 pm. A simulation experiment of smoking was also performed. A simplified model of smoking indicated that the concentration of CO in the mouth is as high as 10,000-15,000 ppM. The simplified measurement of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide by the use of a small piece of an alkaline filter was also investigated. A photoelectric colorimeter gave an excellent demonstration of the pollution due to SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. A simplified determination of NO/sub 2/ by the Saltzman method was also performed.

  17. Lead pollution in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Khatoon, N.; Ishaque, M.; Ahmed, I.

    1997-01-01

    Lead pollution of urban area emanating from the vehicular exhaust alone is being labeled as one of the worst form of environmental degradation attracting our attention for remediation. For factual assessment samples were collected from different areas of Islamabad. These samples consisted of tree scrapings / peelings, which were dried and ground before undertaking analysis for the lead content. The samples were digested with an acid mixture to remove the organic matter and analyzed using GFAAS technique. A total of 81 samples have been analyzed. The results sowed a lead content varying in the range of 8-474 Mu g g/sup -1/) and 23 samples with Pb content <50 Mu g g-1 (8.0-50.0 Mu g g/sup -1/). Most of the samples also contained some growth which consisted of bacterial, algae and fugal cells and the results have been explained on the basis of Pb absorption by these cells. The procedure followed in this study is recommended for evaluation of lead pollution in urban areas. (author)

  18. Gas fired boilers and atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaranello, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A general analysis concerning atmospheric pollution is presented: chemical composition and vertical distribution of atmosphere and pollutants, chemical reactions, ozone destruction and production cycles, COx, NOx and SOx pollutions. The gas fired boiler number and repartition in France are presented and the associated pollution is analyzed (CO2, CO, NOx) and quantified. Various pollution control technics concerning gas fired boiler pollutants are described and a pollution criterion for clean gas fired generators is proposed

  19. Light Pollution and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffek, J.

    2008-12-01

    for Educational Program IYA Dark Skies Education Session Fall American Geophysical Union San Francisco, December 15-19, 2008 Light Pollution and Wildlife This is a very exciting time to be a part of the mission to keep the nighttime skies natural. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 is developing programs for all areas of Dark Skies Awareness. For many years the issue of light pollution focused on the impact to the astronomy industry. While this is an important area, research has shown that light pollution negatively impacts wildlife, their habitat, human health, and is a significant waste of energy. Since the message and impact of the effects of light pollution are much broader now, the message conveyed to the public must also be broader. Education programs directed at youth are a new frontier to reach out to a new audience about the adverse effects of too much artificial light at night. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has developed educational presentations using the National Science Teachers Association Education Standards. These programs focus on youth between the ages of 5 to 17exploring new territory in the education of light pollution. The IDA education programs are broken down into three age groups; ages 5-9, 8-13, 12 and older. The presentations come complete with PowerPoint slides, discussion notes for each slide, and workbooks including age appropriate games to keep young audiences involved. A new presentation reflects the growing area of interest regarding the effects of too much artificial light at night on wildlife. This presentation outlines the known problems for ecosystems caused by artificial light at night. Insects are attracted to artificial lights and may stay near that light all night. This attraction interferes with their ability to migrate, mate, and look for food. Such behavior leads to smaller insect populations. Fewer insects in turn affect birds and bats, because they rely on insects as a food source. The IDA

  20. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  1. Pollution taxes and international competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Throughout the industrialized world policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the potential gains in economic efficiency and environmental quality to be reaped in certain areas of pollution control by switching from direct regulation to market-oriented policy instruments such as pollution taxes. However, concern about the impact on the international competitiveness of domestic producers seems to make governments in many countries hesitant to introduce pollution taxes. As a result, several observers have called for international agreements on harmonized pollution taxes among larger groups of countries such as the member states of the European Community. This paper argues that policy makers should be less concerned about the effects of pollution taxes on international competitiveness and more conscious about their effects on economic efficiency and equity. If pollution taxes improve the allocation of resources, it would be possible to compensate those citizens who might lose from their introduction and still leave the rest of society better off. The openness of the economy only means that a given improvement of environmental quality can be achieved through a lower level of pollution tax rates than would be necessary in a closed economy, because a given pollution tax rate will cause a greater contraction of output in polluting industries, the more these industries are exposed to foreign competition. (EG)

  2. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Jianzhou; Lu, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies. PMID:29673227

  3. Atmospheric pollution and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleasdale, J K.A.

    1952-03-01

    Although sulfur dioxide is the most common and usually the most abundant polluting agent, experiments with this gas have shown that, under the conditions employed, there is no effect on yield unless the concentration is high enough to cause leaf injury. S23 ryegrass was grown in beds in greenhouses. Treatment with purified air gave, with one exception, a dry weight considerably higher than treatment with polluted air. No sign of leaf damage could be detected in the greenhouse with polluted air. This fact would seem to indicate that pollution decreases the growth rate, even in the absence of visible injury.

  4. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Jianzhou; Ma, Xuejiao; Lu, Haiyan

    2018-04-17

    Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  5. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  6. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  7. Optimal Pollution Trading without Pollution Reductions : A Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  8. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  9. heavy metal pollution asse al pollution assessment in the sediments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Sediments were collected from Dumba and to assess the pollution statusof the sedim. Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu. (Zn) and Arsenic (As) were analysed using concentration of heavy metals varies bet with standard average shale to assess pollution in Dumba and KwataYobe sedi assessed ...

  10. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pollution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently small (large), bilateral tariff reduction always decreases (increases) the pollution tax, irrespective of the value of the transboundary pollution parameter. However, when the pollution damage parameter takes intermediate values, bilateral tariff reduction decreases the pollution tax if and only if the transboundary pollution parameter is sufficiently large (or even sufficiently small, in certain cases). Moreover, with pollution being transboundary, the impact of trade liberalization on welfare is non-monotonic and concave. The greater the extent to which pollution crosses borders, the more likely is trade liberalization to reduce welfare

  11. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baksi, S. [Department of Economics, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg (Canada); Ray Chaudhuri, A. [Department of Economics, CentER, TILEC, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pollution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently small (large), bilateral tariff reduction always decreases (increases) the pollution tax, irrespective of the value of the transboundary pollution parameter. However, when the pollution damage parameter takes intermediate values, bilateral tariff reduction decreases the pollution tax if and only if the transboundary pollution parameter is sufficiently large (or even sufficiently small, in certain cases). Moreover, with pollution being transboundary, the impact of trade liberalization on welfare is non-monotonic and concave. The greater the extent to which pollution crosses borders, the more likely is trade liberalization to reduce welfare.

  12. Plant as an index of smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruston, A G

    1921-01-01

    An early (1921) treatment of the effects of air pollution on plants is presented. The author notes variations in tolerance to air pollution between species, and draws correlations between morphology and pollution resistance. Air pollution effects on various species' reproductive success and metabolism are also examined, and the use of plants as bioindicators of air pollution is suggested.

  13. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungs, W. A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) water quality; (2) pesticide pollutants; (3) chemical pollutants; (4) miscellaneous pollutants; and (5) physical factors of pollution on freshwater fish. A list of 338 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 250.300 Section 250.300... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pollution Prevention and Control § 250.300 Pollution prevention. (a... pollution occurs as a result of operations conducted by or on behalf of the lessee and the pollution damages...

  15. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990..., whenever feasible. Pollution prevention approaches should be applied to all pollution-generating activities...

  16. Air Pollution in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

  17. Radon: an environmental pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Radiological concerns with the disposal and use of mining and milling residues have heightened to the point that federal agencies are asking or being asked to formulate new regulactions for controlling radon daughters from a variety of sources - radioactivity previously considered to be part of our natural environment. Based on information derived from epidemiologic studies of underground miners, particularly uranium miners, the health impact on the general public is being projected. Depending on the assumptions made, these projections vary widely. Because of these variations in health risks, decisions on control measures have even wider implications on economic and social considerations. Thus the question: is radon an environmental pollutant. While not fully answering the question, recognizing the uncertainties in assessing and controlling radon daughters can put the question in better perspective

  18. Sanitation without pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winblad, U

    2000-01-01

    The most effective way of protecting drinking water resources from domestic sewage is to use technologies that do not produce sewage. This paper gives an overview of emerging alternatives in the form of ecological sanitation systems for urban and peri-urban areas. A key feature of ecological sanitation is that it regards human excreta as a resource to be recycled rather than as waste to be disposed of. Examples given include ecological sanitation systems based on dehydration and decomposition from Mexico, El Salvador, Sweden, India and Vietnam. These systems need neither water for flushing, nor pipelines for transport, nor treatment plants and arrangements for the disposal of toxic sludge. Large scale application of ecological sanitation would lead to less environmental pollution, reduced water consumption, considerable savings on sewers and treatment plants and increased employment. In addition it would provide valuable resources for food production and wasteland development.

  19. Indoor biological pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    2000-01-01

    Inside buildings - besides the umpteen toxic substances emanating from materials and appliances used daily for the most assorted activities - there are may be a number of different pathogenic micro-organisms able to cause diseases and respiratory system infections. Indoor pollution caused by biological agents may be due not only to living microorganisms, but also to dead ones or to the produce of their metabolism as well as to allergens. The most efficient precautionary measure against biological agents is to ventilate the rooms one lives in. In case of air-conditioning, it's good rule to keep air pipes dry and clean, renewing filters at regular intervals in order to avoid fungi and bacteria from settling in [it

  20. Pollution of living environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Eržen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information on cancer causation has come from investigation of the patterns of cancer in human populations and the induction of tumours in experimental animals following treatment with cancer-causing agents. It has been proven that genetic susceptibility may significantly alter the risk from environmental exposures. The most important human carcinogens include tobacco, asbestos, aflatoxins and ultraviolet light. Almost 20 % of cancers are associated with chronic infections, the most significant ones being hepatitis viruses (HBV, HCV, papillomaviruses (HPV and Helicobacter pylori. Pollution of air, water and soil is estimated to account for 4–7 % of all cancers in developed world. A small proportion of lung cancer (< 5 % is attributable to outdoor air pollution by industrial effluent, engine exhaust products and other toxins. Chlorofluorocarbons cause destruction of the ozone layer and enhance the risk of skin cancer through increased ultraviolet radiation. Contamination of drinking water is not a general carcinogenic hazard, but high levels of arsenic and chlorination by-products in some communities carry a risk. Food may be contaminated by natural or man-made toxins, including substances shown to be carcinogenic in experimental animals and, in some cases, in humans. Naturallyoccurring carcinogens include mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, which contribute to causation of liver cancer. Food can be contaminated by residual pesticides.Conclusions: Means to reduce and, in some cases, eliminate risk of cancer include elimination of carcinogenic factor (asbestos enforced by regulation and reduction of exposure or use of preventive and prophylactic measures (Hepatitis B, HPV vaccination, avoiding of sun.

  1. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  2. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  3. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  4. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  5. Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Hyman, Marvin H.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter offers pollution prevention techniques for design, industrial process, maintenance, and environmental remediation activities. It provides examples of waste reduction, tools for identifying pollution prevention opportunities, and ways of calculating the payback or return on investment associated with the opportunities

  6. Pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Arbuthnot, D.R.; Busness, K.M.; Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.; Lee, R.N.; Young, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    An aircraft, a chartered boat, and a constant altitude balloon were used to study pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The experiments were conducted during the summer under strong atmospheric stability where diffusion and dry deposition of pollutants can be neglected

  7. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  8. Air Pollution Tracking using PDEs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    they can be used to predict the impact of polluting industrial plants on, e.g., ... describes where the pollutant material is generated and its power. Besides the time .... where [ , ], is a vector (or vector valued function) representing the wind- speed ...

  9. Air Pollution and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  10. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  11. Air pollution - health and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, W; Runca, E; Suess, M J [eds.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings of a joint workshop of the World Health Organization and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis are presented. The workshop was to review the interaction between man's industrial and urban activities and the environment, and the relationship between ambient air quality and human health, and to examine the effectiveness of proper management on the control and abatement of air pollution. The discussion topics included atmospheric processes and respective modelling, air pollution impact on human health, effects of air pollutants on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, air pollution episode cycles and management of control. A selected list of 11ASA and WHO/EURO publications related to air pollution is included. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers in this book.

  12. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  13. Ambient air pollution and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sarah; Miller, Mark R

    2018-01-03

    Air pollution is a growing public health concern of global significance. Acute and chronic exposure is known to impair cardiovascular function, exacerbate disease and increase cardiovascular mortality. Several plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed for these associations, however, at present, the pathways are incomplete. A seminal review by the American Heart Association (2010) concluded that the thrombotic effects of particulate air pollution likely contributed to their effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The aim of the current review is to appraise the newly accumulated scientific evidence (2009-2016) on contribution of haemostasis and thrombosis towards cardiovascular disease induced by exposure to both particulate and gaseous pollutants.Seventy four publications were reviewed in-depth. The weight of evidence suggests that acute exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) induces a shift in the haemostatic balance towards a pro-thrombotic/pro-coagulative state. Insufficient data was available to ascertain if a similar relationship exists for gaseous pollutants, and very few studies have addressed long-term exposure to ambient air pollution. Platelet activation, oxidative stress, interplay between interleukin-6 and tissue factor, all appear to be potentially important mechanisms in pollution-mediated thrombosis, together with an emerging role for circulating microvesicles and epigenetic changes.Overall, the recent literature supports, and arguably strengthens, the contention that air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity by promoting haemostasis. The volume and diversity of the evidence highlights the complexity of the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which air pollution promotes thrombosis; multiple pathways are plausible and it is most likely they act in concert. Future research should address the role gaseous pollutants play in the cardiovascular effects of air pollution mixture and direct comparison of potentially

  14. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdrel, Thomas; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Béjot, Yannick; Morel, Olivier; Argacha, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM 10 ), fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m 3 increase in long-term exposure to PM 2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality was also related to long-term and short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Exposure to air pollution and road traffic was associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis, as shown by premature aortic and coronary calcification. Short-term increases in air pollution were associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and acute heart failure. The risk was increased even when pollutant concentrations were below European standards. Reinforcing the evidence from epidemiological studies, numerous experimental studies demonstrated that air pollution promotes a systemic vascular oxidative stress reaction. Radical oxygen species induce endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activation and some proatherogenic changes in lipoproteins, which initiate plaque formation. Furthermore, air pollution favours thrombus formation, because of an increase in coagulation factors and platelet activation. Experimental studies also indicate that some pollutants have more harmful cardiovascular effects, such as combustion-derived PM 2.5 and ultrafine particles. Air pollution is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Promotion of safer air quality appears to be a new challenge in cardiovascular disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Foraminiferal proxies for pollution monitoring in moderately polluted harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armynot du Chatelet, E.; Debenay, J.-P.; Soulard, R.

    2004-01-01

    Foraminiferal density and species richness that decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration may be used as pollution indicators. - Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as environmental bio-indicators, especially in polluted environments where their sensitivity to pollutants may be expressed by a modification of the assemblages. Eighteen sediment samples were collected in September 2000 in five harbors located in moderately polluted estuaries on the coast of Vendee (France) for the study of foraminiferal assemblages. Ten heavy metals and 13 PAH have been analyzed from the sediments. The marine to continental estuarine gradient has a prevalent influence on the foraminiferal distribution. However, the results show that foraminiferal density and species richness of the assemblages decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration, and therefore may be used as pollution indicators. Moreover, the more polluted areas are dominated by the tolerant pioneer species Haynesina germanica that may be used as bio-indicator of pollution, mainly in the uppermost areas

  16. Pollution Status of Dioxins Persistent Organic Pollutants in Guangxi and Control Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Hua; Fan Yongji; Feng Bo; Chen Zhiming; Mo Zhaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Production and pollution control situations of dioxins persistent organic pollutants in Guangxi were introduced.Pollution status of dioxins persistent organic pollutants in Guangxi was understood,and the existing problems in pollution control were analyzed,and finally pollution control countermeasures and suggestions were proposed.

  17. Water Pollution Search | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Pollution Search within the Water Pollutant Loading Tool gives users options to search for pollutant loading information from Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data.

  18. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Contact Us Share Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Overview Learn about pollutants from vehicles and engines that cause harmful health effects and climate change. Overview of air pollution from transportation Key issues, ...

  19. Responses of plants to air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mudd, J. Brian; Kozlowski, T. T

    1975-01-01

    .... KOZLOWSKI Pollution, 1975 ELROY L. RICE. Allelopathy, (Eds.). Fire and Ecosystems, 1974 (Eds.). Responses of Plants to Air Responses of Plants to Air PollutionRESPONSES OF PLANTS TO AIR POLLUTION E...

  20. Effects of pollution on freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.M.; Anderson, R.L.; Benoit, D.A.; Spehar, R.L.; Stokes, G.N.

    1976-01-01

    Studies of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish are reviewed. Subjects include: inorganic industrial pollutants, man-made disturbances and radioactive pollutants. Topics include uptake distribution, retention, mortality, and lethal doses

  1. Groundwater pollution: are we monitoring appropriate parameters?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants...

  2. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2006-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  3. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  4. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2005-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  5. Introduction to pollution and biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horita, Y

    1972-01-01

    The mechanism of photosynthesis, environmental conditions, and the chemical and biological significance of photosynthetic bacteria are discussed. Photosynthetic bacteria, which are extremely useful and important in the ecological system, can become a cause of pollution when excessively proliferated. The idea that pollution could be solved by planting vegetation is also a misconcept. Carbon dioxide is not the major source of pollution, and local increases of CO/sub 2/ partial pressure do not affect the environment in general. More important, green plants are sensitive to air pollutants and react faster than any other living things to pollutants such as fluorides, nitrate, ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and sulfur dioxide. Only 1-3% of solar energy is used for photosynthesis. The use must be increased to maximum by effective planning of plant formation, density, and arrangements. Through genetic studies, production and proliferation of useful plants should be planned and developed. Pollution control must be programmed ecologically, suitable ecological systems must be developed in various geographical areas, in addition to the effort to eliminate pollution sources.

  6. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  7. Fiscal Year 2015 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  8. Fiscal Year 2014 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  9. CISADANE RIVER WATER POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumoro Palupi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sungai Cisadane berfungsi sebagai sumber air baku untuk sistem penyediaan air bersih wilayah Serpong dan Tangerang, Kabupaten Tangerang. Meskipun demikian, sungai Cisadane berfungsi pula sebagai tempat pembuangan limbah bagi rumah tangga dan industri yang berlokasi di sepanjang sungai tersebut. Untuk memperoleh gambaran mengenai tingkat pencemaran airnya, pada bulan September 1992 telah dilakukan pengambilan sampel air sungai Cisadane. Sampel air diambil di sebelah hulu intake instalasi pengolahan air di Cikokol (Tangerang dan Serpong, masing-masing sebanyak lima dan tiga lokasi. Sebanyak 21 parameter dianalisis, kemudian dihitung Individual Index (II dan Pollution Index (PI - nya. Hasil yang diperoleh, yang menggambarkan kualitas pencemaran air sungai Cisadane pada saat itu, adalah sebagai berikut : Tangerang PI=1891. Pencemar utama adalah fenol, dengan II- 110 dan lemak & minyak, dengan II = 2670.Serpong, PI=574. Pencemar utama adalah fenol, dengan 11 = 810 Parameter lain yang mempunyai II > 1 adalah oksigen terlarut, fosfat, zat besi, fecal coli, nitrat, COD dan zat padat tersuspensi. Hasil tersebut menggambarkan baliwa sungai Cisadane telah tercemar oleh limbah industri dan rumah tangga, serta mungkin pula telah tercemar oleh limbah pertanian, peternakan dan perbengkelan.

  10. Herbicides in environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Haq, A.; Maqbool, U.

    1997-01-01

    Herbicide effectiveness on the most pernicious weeds including cyperus rotundus may be limited because spray droplets are not well retained or because penetration and/or translocation is restricted. As a result, chemical pollute the environment and is hazardous to the human health. Monitoring studies ad undertaken to check that the flate and environmental effects of herbicides under field condition are consistent with prediction. Studies on /sup 14/-glyphosate in Cyperus rotundus using radiotracer methods indicated that out of five formulations studies formulation No.3 was the best from penetration point of view of the chemical whereas formulation No. 4 with the high dose showed effective retention and uniform translocation of the chemical after five days of the treatment. Cuticular penetration and translocation of glyphosate in the formulations with or without surfactants have also been studied in C. rotundus. It is also concluded that synperonic surfactants, diesel oil or glycerol did not influence the translocation of glyphosate within the weed. The translocation mainly occurred down swards and accumulated in the plant parts located below the treated zone. (author)

  11. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...

  12. Identification of petroleum pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begak, O.Yu.; Syroezhko, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A possibility of preliminary identification of petroleum pollution sources was investigated on specimens of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district six deposits and specimens of soil and water polluted by these petroleums. Investigations were conducted using IR Fourier spectroscopy and gamma spectrometry, as well as methods of chromato-mass spectrometry and capillary gas liquid chromatography. Every of studied samples of petroleum from different deposits have an individual radiation impression. Insignificant total content of radionuclides in samples is specific to the Khanty-Mansi petroleum region. Gamma spectrometry admits to identify potential source of petroleum pollution using radionuclides of uranium and thorium series [ru

  13. Air pollution damage to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, G T

    1974-01-01

    The effects of the most important air pollutants on plants are described in detail. The include: smoke and particulates, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, peroxyacetyl nitrate, nitrogen oxides, and ozone. An attempt is made to show that plant injury by air pollution can be recognized and evaluated in the presence of effects from insect, fungal, bacterial, viral pathogens and the symptoms of nutrient and enviromental stress. All plants are more or less affected by toxic gases and metals absorbed from the air. For each plant and each pollutant there is a critical concentration above which damage occurs, and below which growth is normal.

  14. Prenatal exposures to persistent organic pollutants as measured in cord blood and meconium from three localities of Zhejiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Gaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Xu Ying [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072 (China)]. E-mail: xuying@ihb.ac.cn; Li Wen [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072 (China); Han Guanggen [Zhejiang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, 310009 (China); Ling Bo [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China)

    2007-05-15

    Prenatal exposures to persistent organic pollutants were assessed using the levels of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) measured in cord blood and meconium samples from Luqiao and two other localities of the Zhejiang province in China. Luqiao is a town with the largest site for disassembly of PCB-containing obsolete transformers and electrical waste in China. The other two localities Pingqiao (100 km NW of Luqiao) and Lin'an (500 km NW of Luqiao) are towns without known electronic or electrical waste sites. A total of 23 PCB congeners (including 12 dioxin-like) and 6 OCPs were measured using the traditional GC-{mu}ECD technique. Micro-EROD bioassay was additionally used to measure TCDD-based TEQ levels of the 12 dioxin-like PCBs. Significant correlations were found between the TEQs measured by the two methods, supporting the application of micro-EROD as a practical tool for complementing the chemical analysis. The data showed that {beta}-HCH, p,p'-DDE, and 6 PCB congeners (101, 138, 153, 180, 183, and 187) were the predominant pollutants, with PCB138 being the best indicator (predictor) for total PCB levels. Cord blood and meconium from Luqiao have higher levels of PCBs than those from the other two localities, suggesting that a disassembly site for electronic and electric waste would provide an environment for greater exposure to these chemicals. The cord blood or meconium levels of {beta}-HCH, though likewise considerably high, were comparable in the three localities. Similar findings were observed for p,p'-DDE. Pollution by these OCPs might have come from past use of agricultural pesticides in the three localities.

  15. Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

  16. Environmental Pollution, Causes and Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Pham van Huong; , Huynh Thanh Dat; Nguyen Quoc Hung

    2017-01-01

    Pollution induces harmful effects on environment and health security. Main deep causes will be analyzed including natural disasters like volcanoes eruption, climate change as well as and men-caused disasters which are nuclear explosions and dioxin sprays.

  17. Lichen techniques of pollution assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hare, G

    1973-01-01

    Available techniques for determining air pollution by sulfur dioxide using lichens are described. An application of these methods - species distributions, zone mapping and analyses of total sulfur content - in the west central Scotland area, is briefly reported.

  18. Botanical indications of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skye, E

    1965-01-01

    This article is a survey of the knowledge current in 1965 concerning plants as bioindicators of air pollution. Discussion centers on lichens, conifers and bryophytes, and is drawn primarily from the European literature.

  19. Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the Regional Transportation Districts (RTDs) light rail operations were examined for pollutant production and runoff. To : accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a rainfall-runoff facility was conducted. Input to this labo...

  20. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  1. Modelling traffic pollution in streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Larsen, S.E.; Soerensen, N.N.; Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Meteorology and Wind Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns mainly the subject related to modelling air pollution from traffic in urban streets. A short overview is presented over the theoretical aspects and examples of most commonly used methods and models are given. Flow and dispersion conditions in street canyons are discussed and the presentation is substantiated with the analysis of the experimental data. The main emphasis is on the modelling methods that are suitable for routine applications and a more detailed presentation is given of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), which was developed by the National Environmental Research Institute. The model is used for surveillance of air pollution from traffic in Danish cities and also for special air pollution studies. (au) 76 refs.

  2. Mercury pollution: a transdisciplinary treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuber, Sharon L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    .... Also included are smaller case studies, such as the Minamata tragedy, fish consumption, and international treaties"-- "Mercury is the gravest chemical pollutant problem of our time, and this is...

  3. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  4. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  5. Air pollution and human mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L B [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Dept. of Economics; Seskin, E P [Department of Commerce, Washington, DC (USA). Environmental and Nonmarket Economics Div.

    1979-11-01

    Investigations have been made on the quantitative relationship between air pollution and human mortality. While primary focus has been on suspended particulates and sulfates from stationary sources of pollution, the evidence relating to air pollutants attributed to mobile sources was also examined. Using statistical analyses for a large number of US metropolitan areas, it was concluded that the benefits associated with a substantial abatement of air pollution from stationary sources are greater than the costs of such abatement. In contrast, the situation for mobile sources-chiefly cars and trucks is less clear-cut. That is, the costs of implementing the currently mandated US standards for automobile emissions probably exeed their potential health benefits.

  6. Ecosystem Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground level ozone is absorbed by the leaves of plants, where it can reduce photosynthesis, damage leaves and slow growth. It can also make sensitive plants more susceptible to certain diseases, insects, harsh weather and other pollutants.

  7. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.

  8. Mining Upgrades to Reduce Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settlement with Southern Coal Corporation and 26 affiliates requires the companies to comprehensively upgrade their coal mining and processing operations to prevent polluted wastewater from threatening rivers and streams and communities across Appalachia.

  9. The price of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemstra-Holtkamp, I.V.L.

    2006-01-01

    The mortality in the Netherlands as a result of exposure to particulates is 18,000 per year. Less known is the high number of cases of sickness cased by air pollution and related cost for the Dutch society [nl

  10. Arsenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  11. DOAS urban pollution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.K.; Vossler, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that during July and August of 1990, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) made by OPSIS Inc., was used to measure gaseous air pollutants over three separate open paths in Atlanta, GA. Over path 1 and path 2, ozone (O 3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrous acid (HNO 2 ), formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were measured. Nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH 3 ) were monitored over path 3 (143 m). The data quality and data capture depended on the compound being measured and the path over which it was measured. Data quality criteria for each compound were chosen such that the average relative standard deviation would be less than 25%. Data capture ranged from 43% for o-xylene for path 1 to 95% for ozone for path 2. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene concentrations measured over path 2, which crossed over an interstate highway, were higher than concentrations measured over path 1, implicating emissions from vehicles on the highway as a significant source of these compounds. Federal Reference Method (FRM) instruments were located near the DOAS light receivers and measurements of O 3 , NO 2 , and NO were made concurrently with the DOAS. Correlation coefficients greater than 0.85 were obtained between the DOAS and FRM's; however, there was a difference between the mean values obtained by the two methods for O 3 and NO. A gas chromatograph for measuring volatile organic compounds was operated next to the FRM's. Correlation coefficients of about 0.66 were obtained between the DOAS and GC measurements of benzene and o-xylene

  12. Soil, a sponge for pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtfouse, E.

    1997-01-01

    Soil has been regarded for a long time as an inert and closed medium where it was possible to dump any kind of hazardous wastes without implications on living organisms. But all pollutants entering the soil system can be stocked, transformed (often into more hazardous compounds) and transferred towards the atmosphere, groundwater and rivers. Obviously, the building up of toxic wastes into the soil system is a risk for all living beings. Pollution sources are numerous and diverse. They are given here into details. To follow the path of pollutants into the soil puzzle, with emphasis on the determination of bound residues, analytical experiments using labelled elements are by far the most efficient. But as a matter of fact, real toxicity can only be measured with biological tests, where living organisms such as light-emitting bacteria or plants are grown in contact with the toxic media. In order to minimize the diffusion of pollutants toward other natural media, a wide panel of remediation techniques are under development. Incineration and thermal desorption, for instance, are fast. Alternatively, the spreading of detergents onto the soil surface solubilizes pollutants that are later water-washed toward other media. Nonetheless, it is rarely complete and favors the migration of the pollutants toward groundwater, rivers and other ecosystems. On the other hand, mild, low-cost and efficient biological methods are now developing rapidly. Their principle lies on the natural ability of living organisms to extract and degrade toxic molecules. Lastly, plants may be used to remedy polluted soils, a process called ''phyto-remediation''. Its principles lies on two main phenomena. Firstly, some plant species are able to selectively extract large amounts of heavy metals from the ground then store them. Secondly, plants activate strongly the microbial biomass by injection of exudate enriched in organic nutriments in the root zone called ''rhizosphere''. Thus, the microbes, well

  13. Vaccination efficacy and environmental pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsen, Katrine; Shamim, Z; Ryder, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the limited number of environmental pollutants for which such vaccination data exists, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFAS), which are described individually. In general, elevated exposures to these compounds were...... in a more direct manner. The presented results in this chapter might explain some of the wide variation in antibody responses to immunization and support the hypothesis that some people today could be immunocompromised because of their exposure to environmental pollutants. Due to their high persistence...

  14. Polluting Production - Environmentally Sound Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Kocsis

    2002-01-01

    With the determination of principal parameters of producing and pollution abatement technologies, this paper quantifies abatement and external costs at the social optimum and analyses the dynamic relationship between technological development and the above-mentioned costs. With the partial analysis of parameters, the paper presents the impacts on the level of pollution and external costs of extensive and intensive environmental protection, market demand change and product fees, and not enviro...

  15. Water pollution from abandoned mines

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, E.; Johannessen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides a country-wide overview of abandoned pyrite mines where operations have been fairly extensive. The water pollution situation is assessed on the basis of reported investigations, inspections and chemical analyses from the individual areas. In cases where larger watercourses (Orkla, Gaula), and the upper stretch of the Glåma are affected the situation appears to be adequately described. However abandoned mine areas may also cause local pollution problems, and here documentat...

  16. Soil, a sponge for pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse , Eric

    1997-01-01

    This article is written both in English and French; International audience; This preface of the special issue entitled "Soil Pollutants" (Analusis Magazine 25, M16-M72, 1997) highlights major basic and applied issues about the sources and fate of organic, mineral and radioactive pollutants in soils. Soils have long been considered as a closed and inert medium where wastes can be dumped without impact on living organisms. This is false and we know now that soils play a vital role in ecosystems...

  17. Fundamentals of air pollution engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics. Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within the last several years. Nonetheless, the development of combus...

  18. Bioremediation of marine oil pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutnick, D L

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of the scientific and technological developments in the area of bioremediation and biodegradation of marine oil pollution, as well as a number of allied technologies. Many of the topics discussed are presented in a summary of a workshop on bioremediation of marine oil pollution. The summary includes an overview of the formal presentations as well as the results of the working groups.

  19. Pollution loads from stormwater overflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The knowledge of the volume of combined effluents outflowing from overflows is not enough to allow a direct evaluation of polluting loads discharged into final receptors; the hypothesis of complete mixing between sewage and stormwater flow, fed in at a pollutant concentration level equal to zero, hasn't proved to be successful. The amount of the outflowing loads largely depends on the contamination of the stormwater runoff before inflow into the drainage system and on sedimentation and resuspension phenomena. This paper reports the main aspects connected with wet and dry atmospheric deposition of pollutants and with paved surface wash-out phenomena. The origin of pollutants flush, due to the resuspension and mass transport of polluting substances stored up in the sewer during draughts, is also described. Attention is drawn to the importance of the behaviour of the different pollutants with respect to the sedimentation phenomena. Reference is made to evaluations conducted on a drainage system for the recovery of a small pre-alpine lake

  20. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  1. The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elichegaray, C.

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

  2. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  3. Oil pollution identification and dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muet, B.; L'Ecluse, J.; Jaegher de, P.

    2005-01-01

    GALLIA SANA is an environmental engineering office, specialized (among other things) in soil pollution. Currently confronted with specific questions about responsibilities of current and former owners, we seek and develop decisional tools regarding pollution origins. This article is about an expertise on a soil polluted by hydrocarbons. It explains strategy, tools and methods Gallia Sana used to identify the nature, the source and the age of the pollution. The source is identified by the nature of the pollution. With chromatographic analysis, it is possible to see differences between heating fuel, motor oil and other compounds distilled from petroleum and so to see where hydrocarbons come from. The relative age determination (one pollution is older than the other) allows experts to determine the way hydrocarbons have migrated through the soil: due to one isolated accident or to a continuous flow. This difference may be important in the case of fuel tanks for insurance reasons. The pollutants studied here are motor oil and heating fuel (the method is also applicable on other hydrocarbons). This article is not exhaustive, only some of the results are shown. The polluted soil is in a garden between two houses, near a garage and an underground fuel tank, so Gallia Sana considered three hypotheses according to the configuration of the zone: heating fuel, motor oil, heating fuel and motor oil mixed. Motor oil and heating fuel are both produced from petroleum distillation. Their chromatographic profiles are comparable as far as their form (like a Gaussian) is concerned, but their elution time is different: the heating fuel analysis is quicker than the motor oil one. Every distillation is different so every oil or every fuel from a different distillation is different. Some compounds can be used as tracers to compare hydrocarbons of the same nature, their composition in non-linear alkanes and PAH being slightly different. The Nordtest Method CHEM 001 can be used to compare

  4. Oil pollution identification and dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muet, B.; L' Ecluse, J.; Jaegher de, P. [Gallia Sana, 59 - Lille (France)

    2005-07-01

    GALLIA SANA is an environmental engineering office, specialized (among other things) in soil pollution. Currently confronted with specific questions about responsibilities of current and former owners, we seek and develop decisional tools regarding pollution origins. This article is about an expertise on a soil polluted by hydrocarbons. It explains strategy, tools and methods Gallia Sana used to identify the nature, the source and the age of the pollution. The source is identified by the nature of the pollution. With chromatographic analysis, it is possible to see differences between heating fuel, motor oil and other compounds distilled from petroleum and so to see where hydrocarbons come from. The relative age determination (one pollution is older than the other) allows experts to determine the way hydrocarbons have migrated through the soil: due to one isolated accident or to a continuous flow. This difference may be important in the case of fuel tanks for insurance reasons. The pollutants studied here are motor oil and heating fuel (the method is also applicable on other hydrocarbons). This article is not exhaustive, only some of the results are shown. The polluted soil is in a garden between two houses, near a garage and an underground fuel tank, so Gallia Sana considered three hypotheses according to the configuration of the zone: heating fuel, motor oil, heating fuel and motor oil mixed. Motor oil and heating fuel are both produced from petroleum distillation. Their chromatographic profiles are comparable as far as their form (like a Gaussian) is concerned, but their elution time is different: the heating fuel analysis is quicker than the motor oil one. Every distillation is different so every oil or every fuel from a different distillation is different. Some compounds can be used as tracers to compare hydrocarbons of the same nature, their composition in non-linear alkanes and PAH being slightly different. The Nordtest Method CHEM 001 can be used to compare

  5. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pol- lution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently sma...

  6. Assessing Air Pollutant-Induced, Health-Related External Costs in the Context of Nonmarginal System Changes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Till M

    2015-08-18

    Marginal analysis is the usual approach to environmental economic assessment, for instance, of health-related external costs due to energy-associated air pollutant emissions. However, nonlinearity exists in all steps of their assessment, i.e., atmospheric dispersion, impact assessment, and monetary valuation. Dedicated assessments thus appear necessary when evaluating large systems or their changes such as in green accounting or the implications of economy-wide energy transitions. Corresponding approaches are reviewed. Tools already exist that allow assessing a marginal change (e.g., one power plant's emissions) for different background emission scenarios that merely need to be defined and implemented. When assessing nonmarginal changes, the top-down approach is considered obsolete, and four variants of the bottom-up approach with different application domains were identified. Variants 1 and 2 use precalculated external cost factors with different levels of sophistication, suitable for energy systems modeling, optimizing for social (i.e., private and external) costs. Providing more reliable results due to more detailed modeling, emission sources are assessed individually or jointly in variants 3 and 4, respectively. Aiming at considering nonlinearity more fully and simultaneously following marginal analysis principles, I propose a variant 3-based approach, subdividing an aggregate (i.e., a nonmarginal change) into several smaller changes. Its strengths and drawbacks, notably the associated effort, are discussed.

  7. Quantifying and Reducing Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Vayujeet; Caples, David; Goins, Jordan; Herdman, Ashley; Pankey, Steven; Wren, Emily

    2018-06-01

    We describe the current level of light pollution in and around Kirksville, Missouri and around Anderson Mesa near Flagstaff, Arizona. We quantify the amount of light that is projected up towards the sky, instead of the ground, using Unihedron sky quality meters installed at various locations. We also present results from DSLR photometry of several standard stars, and compare the photometric quality of the data collected at locations with varying levels of light pollution. Presently, light fixture shields and ‘warm-colored’ lights are being installed on Truman State University’s campus in order to reduce light pollution. We discuss the experimental procedure we use to test the effectiveness of the different light fixtures shields in a controlled setting inside the Del and Norma Robison Planetarium.Apart from negatively affecting the quality of the night sky for astronomers, light pollution adversely affects migratory patterns of some animals and sleep-patterns in humans, increases our carbon footprint, and wastes resources and money. This problem threatens to get particularly acute with the increasing use of outdoor LED lamps. We conclude with a call to action to all professional and amateur astronomers to act against the growing nuisance of light pollution.

  8. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future

  9. Pollution Law - Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt Glaeser, W.; Meins, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This volume deals with how the living space air is kept clean by means of the pollution law, focussing on the documentation of central problems of pollution law by means of selected articles and court decisions. The literature and jurisdiction available on this sector of which we can hardly keep track makes such a documentation look useful and necessary. It will make working easier for those who do not have direct access to large libraries. The only intention of the guide for the pollution law which preceeds the documentation is to outline basic problems. It is intended to provide basic information in this complex field of law. At the same time, it also constitutes a 'guide' for the documentation: By naming the documentation number in the margin of the respective passage reference is made to the documented publications which deal with the legal issues considered. Using this guide, the documentation can be easily tapped. (orig.) [de

  10. Pollutants emission in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen, are the primary source of heat and electrical energy production and are responsible for emitting a large number and amount of pollutants into the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry, power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. During the combustion process, different pollutants such as CO 2 , SO X (including SO 2 and SO 3 ), NO X (including NO 2 , NO and N 2 O), fly ash, VOCs and mercury are emitted. These emissions cause big environmental and human health hazard. CO 2 , N 2 O, some VOCs, CH 4 contribute to the global greenhouse effect, adding a new dimension to the environmental degradation resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. These problems regarding emissions inventory, their impact on the environment and human health, air pollution control technologies and costs, periods of fossil fuels depletion, role of renewable and nuclear energy in the further civilization development are briefly discussed. (author)

  11. Modeling of atmospheric pollutant transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdain, F.

    2007-01-01

    Modeling is today a common tool for the evaluation of the environmental impact of atmospheric pollution events, for the design of air monitoring networks or for the calculation of pollutant concentrations in the ambient air. It is even necessary for the a priori evaluation of the consequences of a pollution plume. A large choice of atmospheric transfer codes exist but no ideal tool is available which allows to model all kinds of situations. The present day approach consists in combining different types of modeling according to the requested results and simulations. The CEA has a solid experience in this domain and has developed independent tools for the impact and safety studies relative to industrial facilities and to the management of crisis situations. (J.S.)

  12. Air pollution control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Baumann, K.; Droescher, F.; Gross, H.; Steisslinger, B.

    1994-01-01

    Controlling the pollution of the air is an interdisciplinary problem. This introduction reaches from the origin of hazardous substances via their extension and conversion in the atmosphere, their effects of men, animals, plants and goods up to reduction methods for the various sources. Measuring techniques are one of the main points of interest, as it plays a key role in detecting hazardous substances and monitoring reduction measures. A survey of the history shows the historical dimension of the subject. The prescriptions relating to air pollution control give an impression of the present situation of air pollution control. Currently existing problems such as waste gases from motor vehicles, SO 2 transports, ozone in the ambient air, newly detected sorts of damage to the forests, emission reduction in the burning of fossile fuels, polychloried dibenzodioxins and furanes are dealt with. (orig.). 232 figs [de

  13. The price of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.; Davidson, M.D.

    1996-11-01

    There is no market price for environmental pollution, simply because of the fact that there is not a market for the environment. However, it is possible to calculate so-called shadow prices for environmental pollution. The calculation method can be summarized as follows: determine the price that exist when there would be a market for the environment. In many cases the calculation must be based on environmental targets as determined by the government. Based on that method and on available data and information, shadow prices are estimated for 18 different pollutants: CO2, CO, CH4, SO2, NH3, NOx, volatile organic materials, final wastes, phosphates, nitrates, COD, fine dust, toluene, benzene, benzopyrene (to air and water), zinc (to water), and copper (to water). 7 figs., 5 tabs., 43 refs

  14. Microbial processes in coastal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capone, D.G.; Bauer, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors describe the nature and range of some of the interactions that can occur between the microbiota and environmental contaminants in coastal areas. The implications of such interactions are also discussed. Pollutant types include inorganic nutrients, heavy metals, bulk organics, organic contaminants, pathogenic microorganisms and microbial pollutants. Both the effects of pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons on natural microbial populations and the mitigation of contaminant effects by complexation and biodegradation are considered. Finally, several areas of emerging concerns are presented that involve a confluence of biogeochemistry, microbial ecology and applied and public health microbiology. These concerns range in relevance from local/regional to oceanic/global scales. 308 ref

  15. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through process modifications, use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, acid recycling, and judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor , not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  16. Pollutant transport in natural streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Hayes, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to estimate the downstream effect of chemical and radioactive pollutant releases to tributary streams and rivers. The one-dimensional dispersion model was employed along with a dead zone model to describe stream transport behavior. Options are provided for sorption/desorption, ion exchange, and particle deposition in the river. The model equations are solved numerically by the LODIPS computer code. The solution method was verified by application to actual and simulated releases of radionuclides and other chemical pollutants. (U.S.)

  17. Air pollution and human health

    CERN Document Server

    Lave, Lester B

    2013-01-01

    Upon competition of a ten year research project which analyzes the effect of air pollution and death rates in US cities, Lester B. Lave and Eugene P. Seskin conclude that the mortality rate in the US could shrink by seven percent with a similar if not greater decline in disease incidence if industries followed EPA regulations in cutting back on certain pollutant emissions. The authors claim that this reduction is sufficient to add one year to average life expectancy. Originally published in 1977.

  18. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  19. Geostatistical models for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A.; Almeida, J.; Branquinho, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present geostatistical models applied to the spatial characterisation of air pollution phenomena. A concise presentation of the geostatistical methodologies is illustrated with practical examples. The case study was conducted in an underground copper-mine located on the southern of Portugal, where a biomonitoring program using lichens has been implemented. Given the characteristics of lichens as indicators of air pollution it was possible to gather a great amount of data in space, which enabled the development and application of geostatistical methodologies. The advantages of using geostatistical models compared with deterministic models, as environmental control tools, are highlighted. (author)

  20. Pollution prevention and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Hector; Tsihrintzis Vassilios

    1997-01-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

  1. Light Pollution: The Global View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, H. E.

    2003-04-01

    It is only since recent years that the importance of the effects of outdoor lighting on the night-time environment and on the physical and mental health of humans is recognized on a wider scale. The related issue of light pollution is a particularly complex one, with potential conflicts of interest between the utilities, environmentalists, astronomers, the lighting industry and various government departments. Energy politics are always a sensitive issue, and light pollution is no exception to this rule. The effects of light pollution on flora, fauna -including humans and their widely varying night-time activities- are often subtle and need extensive field studies to be quantified in a sensible manner. The present conference, initiated by Commission 50 of the International Astronomical Union, is an attempt to bring together the astronomical community, the lighting industry, end-users, the utilities, and public authorities for a discussion and an exchange of ideas and information that will create goodwill among these groups and will thus contribute to making the global efforts to reduce pollution more efficient and effective. Radio frequency pollution was also discussed in the context of radio astronomy and its efforts to create radio-quiet zones in collaboration with the government authorities that allocate frequency bands to the various users -mainly the telecommunications industry- and to protect the major planned and present radio observatories of the world. The 3-day conference was attended by more than 130 representatives from 12 countries of all the above-mentioned groups, and a wide range of topics was discussed. Some of the highlights were: The presentation of the 1st world atlas of artificial night sky brightness (Cinzano et al.); the article by the International Darksky Association on their world-wide efforts to curb light pollution (Alvarez del Castillo et al.); the laws controlling light pollution implemented in Spain (Diaz et al.) and Chile (Sanhueza et

  2. Pollutant dispersion models for issues of air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    14 papers entered separately into the data base were presented at the meeting for application-oriented dispersion models for issues of air pollution control. These papers focus on fields of application, availability of required input data relevant to emissions and meteorology, performance and accuracy of these methods and their practicability. (orig./PW) [de

  3. The Pollution Detectives, Part III: Roadside Lead Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Phil

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple test tube method developed lead analysis of samples of roadside soil. The relationship between the results and the traffic flow indicate car exhausts are the major source of lead pollution. Materials and procedures are detailed. An example of results is provided. (Author/CW)

  4. IBA forensic profiling of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mars, Johan Andre; University of the Western Cape, Bellville

    2017-01-01

    Environmental pollution events occur over extended time periods and is difficult to pinpoint the pollution origin and so holding perpetrators legally responsible. Fish-scales are suitable in monitoring pollution since pollutants are incorporated into the scale matrix as growth occurs. Four scales of Pomadasys kaakan were irradiated, from the centre of the focus to the anterior edge, with a proton beam and then with an electron beam. It was found that the fish has undergone periodic F, Al and Cr pollution and had experienced Pb and Ni pollution throughout its entire life period. (author)

  5. Air pollution and its control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Jiming; HE Kebin; DUAN Lei; LI Junhua; WANG Litao

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of China's economy has led to severe air pollution characterized by acid rain,severe pollution in cities,and regional air pollution.High concentrations are found for various pollutants such as sulfur dioxides(SO2),nitrogen oxides(NOx),and fine particulates.Great efforts have thus been undertaken for the control of air pollution in the country.This paper discusses the development and application of appropriate technologies for reducing the major pollutants produced by coal and vehicles,and investi gates air quality modeling as an important support for policy-making.

  6. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  7. Careers in Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

  8. Water Pollution in School Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Abraham

    1979-01-01

    Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)

  9. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  10. Air pollution and brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Azzarelli, Biagio; Acuna, Hilda; Garcia, Raquel; Gambling, Todd M; Osnaya, Norma; Monroy, Sylvia; DEL Tizapantzi, Maria Rosario; Carson, Johnny L; Villarreal-Calderon, Anna; Rewcastle, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants produces inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Because the nasal cavity is a common portal of entry, respiratory and olfactory epithelia are vulnerable targets for toxicological damage. This study has evaluated, by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosae, olfactory bulb, and cortical and subcortical structures from 32 healthy mongrel canine residents in Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), a highly polluted urban region. Findings were compared to those in 8 dogs from Tlaxcala, a less polluted, control city. In SWMMC dogs, expression of nuclear neuronal NF-kappaB and iNOS in cortical endothelial cells occurred at ages 2 and 4 weeks; subsequent damage included alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), degenerating cortical neurons, apoptotic glial white matter cells, deposition of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-positive lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells and pericytes, nonneuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Persistent pulmonary inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the neuropathology observed in the brains of these highly exposed canines. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's may begin early in life with air pollutants playing a crucial role.

  11. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.; Hoell, J.; Seals, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and vertical distribution of atmospheric ammonia and ozone are remotely sensed, using dual-C02-laser multichannel infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (1HS). Innovation makes atmospheric pollution measurements possible with nearly-quantum-noise-limited sensitivity and ultrafine spectral resolution.

  12. General assessment of estuarine pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. General assessment of estuarine pollution. Contamination of estuaries by untreated domestic wastewater is widespread, however, in absence of time-series studies the responses of native flora and fauna to modified environment are unclear. Agricultural runoff ...

  13. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  14. Noise Pollution and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geravandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Noise pollution is of particular importance due to the physical and psychological effects on humans. Noise is a stressor that affects the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Noise is also a threat to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Health risks from noise are correlated with road traffic. In other words, noise health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels. Objectives This study aims to determine the effect of noise pollution (near roadways on health issues in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, equivalent sound pressure level were measured by sound level meters TES-1353 in 75 locations around 4 roadways, which had a high load of traffic in Ahvaz City during day time. During the study, 820 measurements were recorded at measuring stations, for 7 days per week with 1-hour interval between each measurement. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS software. Results According to the research findings, the equivalent sound pressure levels in all stations were 76.28 ± 3.12 dB (Mean ± SD. According to sound measurements and the survey questionnaire, noise pollution is higher than EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency and Iran standard level. Based on result of this study the worst noise health effects were the nervousness and sleep quality during 2012. Conclusions According to the results of this study, with increasing load of traffic, there is an increasing need for proper consideration plans to control noise pollution and prevent its effects.

  15. Mortality, fog and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A E; Bradley, W H

    1960-01-01

    A study was made associating climate and atmospheric pollution with excess mortality in greater London during the winter of 1958 and 1959. It was a particularly foggy winter with 6 major episodes, 4 of which resembled previous dangerous smogs. There were two additional periods of high pollution without fog. Excess mortality during these 8 periods ranged from 70 to 230. During one period, a flu epidemic accompanied the fog. In 4 to 6 foggy periods, morbidity (hospital bed demand) also increased. This small number of observations indicates mortality association: on 2/3 of days with high SO/sub 2/ (2.5 pphM) or high particulate soot (10 mg/m/sup 3/), and on all days with thick fog, there was an increase in mortality (20 deaths more than previous day) on that or the following day. Fifteen-day moving mortality index and bronchitis mortality index were significantly correlated with black suspended matter and SO/sub 2/; association with pneumonia was not significant. Also little or no relation between mortality and humidity, mean temperature, or barometric pressure was found. Rapid response of mortality to air pollution may indicate that pollution affects mostly those already ill.

  16. Environmental pollution and liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boediker, T.

    1980-01-01

    By the declared will of the legislative bodies to give effect to the polluter pays principle on all levels those have to pay the costs of removing impairments of environmental media that are responsible for its occurence. Thus environmental pollution becomes a considerable financial risk for the polluter. Against this risk they try to protect themselves by the corresponding precautionary measures, e.g. by insurance. The insurance industry is consequently requested to meet this new demand. The legal bases are followed by the description of the insurance relationship under the aspect of the theory of risks, which follows, based on the basic model of decision theory, the objective of a quantitative representation of the situation of the decision. In the last chapter the author deals with the financial security for the risks of a third party liability insurance of environmental pollution as it is offered today in the Federal Republic of Germany. The elaboration of the existing financial security is then compared with the legal conditions of liability. In doing this the author describes cases not covered by financial security and its definition by comparison with findings of risk theory. As a result it becomes obvious that numerous exclusions of risks could quite good be included in the financial security and that the argument of the impossibility to insure often put forward by the insurers to justify the exclusion of risks can neither theoretically nor practically be uphold. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  18. French pollution and German lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that the German energy transition is based on a complete shutting down of nuclear power stations to replace them by renewable energy sources on the one hand, and by coal (lignite, i.e. the dirtiest coal) and gas on the other hand to compensate the intermittency of the former ones, this article notices that pollution peaks occurred in France when an eastern of north-eastern wind was blowing, and not in case of western wind. The author then wanders whether this pollution comes from Germany, and more particularly from the releases of lignite-fuelled power stations. Then, the author comments the high level of pollution associated with coal extraction and exploitation in Germany, causing thousands of deaths and resulting in lung diseases or cancers, myocardial infractions. The author then makes a parallel between, on the one hand, the ignorance of this German pollution and, on the other hand, evacuation measures around Fukushima for a radioactivity which the author considers as less dangerous in terms of life expectancy

  19. Environmental Pollution, A Selective Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, VA.

    This bibliography on environmental pollution is comprised primarily of reports of federally sponsored research by such departments and agencies as HEW, Interior, AEC, NASA, Defense, Transportation, and others. The reports were selected from Clearinghouse announcement journals during the period 1968 through April 1970. The bibliography contains…

  20. Water pollution by radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.

    1976-01-01

    Within the frame of the definition of a philosophy and politics of waste disposal and site selection, an analysis is made of the main elements of radioactive pollution of waters: sources of radioactivity, radionuclides classified according to their hazard, waste processing, disposal criteria and transfer processes in the compartments: water, suspended sediments, deposited sediments, biomass [fr

  1. Soil pollution and soil protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international

  2. Soil fungi as indicators of pesticide soil pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Leka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fungi, with their pronounced enzymic activity and high osmotic potential, represent a significant indicator of negative effects of different pesticides on the agroecosystem as a whole. In that respect, a trial was set up on the alluvium soil type with the aim to investigate the effect of different herbicides (Simazine, Napropamid, Paraquat, fungicides (Captan and Mancozeb and insecticides (Fenitrothion and Dimethoate on a number of soil fungi under apple trees. The number of soil fungi was determined during four growing seasons by an indirect method of dilution addition on the Czapek agar. The study results indicate that the fungi belong to the group of microorganisms that, after an initial sensible response to the presence of pesticides in the soil, very rapidly establish normal metabolism enabling them even to increase their number. The fungicides and insecticides applied were found to be particularly effective in that respect.

  3. Environmental costs of mercury pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Goodsite, Michael E. [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry Research Group, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2500 and 1.1 million US$ kg{sup -1} Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. (author)

  4. Environmental pollution and control, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesilind, P.A.; Peirce, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the problems, principles, and solutions are presented here in a non-biased, easy-to-read format. The language used is non-technical for the most part, and the inclusion of a complete glossary aids when some technical terms must be used. The text itself is supported by photographs, drawings, tables, and examples. Major Sections: Environmental Pollution, Water Pollution; Measurement of Water Quality; Water Supply; Water Treatment; Collection of Wastewater; Wastewater Treatment; Sludge Treatment and Disposal; Nonpoint Source Water Pollution; Water Pollution Law; Solid Waste; Solid Waste Disposal; Resource Recovery; Hazardous Waste; Radioactive Waste; Solid and Hazardous Waste Law; Air Pollution; Meteorology and Air Quality; Measurement of Air Quality; Air Pollution Control; Air Pollution Law; Noise Pollution; Noise Measurement and Control; Environmental Impact; The Environmental Ethic; Appendix: Conversion Factors; Glossary and Abbreviations; Index

  5. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  6. Indicator organisms of pollution in Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Remani, K.N.; Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Indicator organisms of organic pollution in two localities in the Cochin backwaters are identified The two sites have different sources of pollution, one from retting of coconut husk and the other from discharge of municipal wastes @i...

  7. Oil Pollution Research and Technology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Title VII of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) established the thirteen member Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Pollution Research (Committee). The Committee is charged with coordinating a comprehensive program of research, technology d...

  8. EPA RESEARCH IN URBAN STORMWATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This state-of-the-art on the Environmental Protection Agency' s research in urban stormwater and combined sewer overflow pollution control describes the major elements of the Urban Runoff Pollution Control Program. roblem definition, users assistance tools, management alternative...

  9. Anthropogenic impacts on global organic river pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. To implement integrated water

  10. Pollution externalities in a Schumpeterian growth model

    OpenAIRE

    Koesler, Simon

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends a standard Schumpeterian growth model to include an environmental dimension. Thereby, it explicitly links the pollution intensity of economic activity to technological progress. In a second step, it investigates the effect of pollution on economic growth under the assumption that pollution intensities are related to technological progress. Several conclusions emerge from the model. In equilibrium, the economy follows a balanced growth path. The effect of pollution on the ec...

  11. The Firstflush of Pollutants in Surface Runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Pejman Razi; Amir Taebi

    2005-01-01

    One of the factors impacting quality of water resources is pollution due to urban storm runoff during first stage of storm runoff and is commonly called "firsflush". At this stage the pollution load is rather high. However, if this pollution is properly controlled and managed, the size of the required treatment facilities will be considerably reduced. The surface runoff pollution in the city of Isfahan is high and necessitates the implementation of some control system. For this purpose, ten r...

  12. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Mareckova, K.; Pukancikova, K.

    2003-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

  13. Air pollution and floristic biodiversity; Pollution atmospherique et biodiversite floristique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grub, A.; Bungener, P.; Contat, F.; Nussbaum, S.; Endtner, V.; Fuhrer, J. [Station Federale de Recherches en Agroecologie et Agriculture (FAL), Liebefeld-Berne (Switzerland). Institut de Recherches en Protection de l' Environnement et en Agriculture (IUL)

    1999-06-01

    The number of reports on negative effects of air pollution on biodiversity is increasing. Here, examples from the literature are presented which concern effects of fluoride, deposition of nitrogen, and ozone. Today, nitrogen loads and levels of tropospheric ozone seem to be most relevant forms of air pollution affecting species diversity of the flora. Results from recent investigations of ozone effects at Liebefeld indicate that the loss of floristic diversity in permanent meadows is possible because of the high relative sensitivity of some typical species. Further studies will be necessary to validate the results obtained from experiment with single plants at the level of the intact plant community in the field, and to identify the critical level of ozone to protect the floristic biodiversity of meadows. (authors)

  14. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state...

  15. 40 CFR 52.740 - Interstate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.740 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.740 Interstate pollution. (a) The... levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state. [46 FR...

  16. Characterization of redox conditions in pollution plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Banwart, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Evalution of redox conditions in groundwater pollution plumes is often a prerequisite for understanding the behviour of the pollutants in the plume and for selecting remediation approaches. Measuring of redox conditions in pollution plumes is, however, a fairly recent issue and yet relative few...

  17. Groundwater pollution: Are we monitoring appropriate parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants and protection of groundwater resources. Monitoring groundwater quality is a ...

  18. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the

  19. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the

  20. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-01-01

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north.

  1. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  2. Air pollution from motor vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some aspects of air pollution from motor vehicle emissions as: characteristic primary and secondary pollutants, dependence of the motor vehicle emission from the engine type; the relationship of typical engine emission and performance to air-fuel ratio, transport of pollutants from mobile sources of emissions, as well as some world experiences in the control approaches for exhaust emissions. (author)

  3. Physico-Chemical Characterization and Pollution Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-Chemical Characterization and Pollution Index Determination of Leachates from Warri Waste Dumpsite, Southern Nigeria. ... This study characterizes the leachates quality of an active dumpsite in Warri, Delta State and also analyses its contamination or pollution potential. Leachate Pollution Index (LPI) - a tool for ...

  4. Snow as an accumulator of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brown

    1976-01-01

    Using simple analytical techniques, the amounts of air pollutants accumulated in winter snow were determined and the results correlated with lichen survival on trees. Pollutants measured were particulate matter, sulfate, and chloride. An inverse relationship was found between amounts of each of these pollutants and the abundance of various lichens.

  5. Cuticular features as indicators of environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. K. Sharma

    1976-01-01

    Several leaf cuticular features such as stomatal frequency, stomatal size, trichome length, type, and frequency, and subsidiary cell complex respond to environmental pollution in different ways and hence can be used as indicators of environmental pollution in an area. Several modifications in cuticular features under polluted environments seem to indicate ecotypic or...

  6. Guide to Pollution Prevention in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppino, Tony; Gilbert, Reg

    The purpose of this guide is to help citizen advocates create and improve the environmental practices of industry and government in the Great Lakes Basin. The practices advocated focus on pollution prevention instead of relying solely on pollution control. An introduction examines the larger issues of pollution prevention and zero discharge as the…

  7. Pollution and health: a verdict without appeal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The new inquiry of ERPURS ( evaluation of urban pollution risks on health) has definitively established that there are obvious connections between urban pollution and health. Sur mortality, hospitalizations, stoppage of work are particularly observed when the air pollution indicators on diesel particulates, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxides increase. (N.C.)

  8. Urban Air Pollution Climates Throughout the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2009-01-01

    The extent of the urban area, the local emission density, and the temporal pattern in the releases govern the local contribution to air pollution levels in urban environments. However, meteorological conditions also heavily affect the actual pollution levels as they govern the dispersion conditio...... population and provide the right basis for future urban air pollution management....

  9. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use

  10. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  11. Basic characteristics of the pollution laws and pollution regulations of the German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammich, S

    1987-02-02

    The paper abstracted informs about the basic principles characterizing the pollution laws and pollution regulations of the German Democratic Republic. The author deals with the constitutional principles, the National Culture Law valid since 1970 and conceived as a general pollution law, the planning of pollution abatement, legal aspects of water pollution abatement, air pollution abatement, waste management, noise pollution abatement and radiation protection. Particular emphasis is on the legal sanctions devised to ensure the observance of environmental laws and restrictions which are both part of the administrative, civil and economic laws and of the disciplinary and criminal laws. (HSCH).

  12. [India: breast feeding is obsolete, the bottle is modern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, M

    1992-09-07

    In July, 1992 Indian health groups met in New Delhi to demand that the government promote a child nutrition code based on the 1981 code of the WHO which stated that mother's milk is quite sufficient and is the best nourishment for infants. Every day approximately 40,000 children are born in India, but thousands of them die in infancy because of infection caused by the unsanitary mixing of milk powder in unsterile bottles. Indian health activists want the government to regulate the production, access, and distribution of mother's milk substitutes, bottles, and child nutriments. A new law based on internationally recognized codes for marketing mother's milk substitutes could put an end to the present irresponsible marketing. Activists are not opposed to the production of milk powder, but they think it should only be used when the mother has no milk. The turnover of India's child nutrition industry is about $280 million per year with an annual increase of 5%. The use of bottle feeding has infiltrated the whole urban scene, and it is spreading in rural areas. Women consider bottle feeding a modern way of child feeding. 60 million kg of milk powder is produced yearly and sold under 25 different product names. Amul and Nestle command 85% of the growing market. Experts have calculated that 1 billion liters of mother's milk is wasted and replaced by substitute milk every year. Many Indian children get their first substitute milk at health posts where free or subsidized milk is distributed despite notices calling on mothers to breast-feed. According to a national survey sponsored by UNICEF, almost 1/2 of India's mothers give their children milk substitutes at the instigation of doctors or health personnel. 63% of children in the state of West Bengal were undernourished because families did not buy enough milk powder. The activists want the government to launch an offensive against the advertisement of breast milk substitutes in state-owned TV and radio and to promote proper nutrition in magazines read by millions of the Indian middle class who use these products most.

  13. Amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity: will it become obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Stephen; Sherman, Craig; Lewis, David; Owens, Sheri; Bodie, Frankie; McCathran, C Eric; Holliday, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    AMNIOCENTESIS FOR FETAL LUNG MATURITY HAS HISTORICALLY BEEN PERFORMED FOR MANY REASONS: uterine and placental complications, maternal comorbidities, fetal issues, and even obstetric problems. Even though the risks associated with third trimester amniocentesis are extremely low, complications have been documented, including preterm labor, placental abruptions, intrauterine rupture, maternal sepsis, fetal heart rate abnormalities, and fetal-maternal hemorrhage. This review presents the types of tests for fetal lung maturity, presents the indications and tests utilized, and discusses recommendations for when amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity may be appropriate.

  14. Diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders: is MRI obsolete?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downer, Jonathan James; Carter, Ranjana; Kueker, Wilhelm; Quaghebeur, Gerardine [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Leite, Maria Isabel; Palace, Jacqueline [Oxford University, Department of Clinical Neurology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe demyelinating disease that preferentially involves spinal cord and optic nerve. It is part of a spectrum of neurological conditions associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4). This study investigates the role of MRI where novel, more sensitive AQP4 antibody immunoassay techniques are being used. Retrospective review of neuroimaging in 69 patients (25 antibody positive, 44 antibody negative), investigated in the context of suspected NMO or NMO spectrum disorder, was performed independently by two consultant neuroradiologists. Longitudinally extensive, central spinal cord lesions were more frequent in AQP4 positive patients (95.2% vs 35.5%, p < 0.0001; 85.7% vs 45.2%, p = 0.015). Multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria were less frequently fulfilled on brain MRI in antibody positive patients (5.6% vs 33.3%, p = 0.035). Juxtacortical and corpus callosal lesions were also less common in this group (16.7% vs 46.7%, p = 0.063; 5.6% vs 46.7%, p = 0.0034). Hypothalamic and periependymal disease related to the aqueduct was not seen in antibody negative patients. T1 hypointensity was more common in cord lesions of antibody positive patients (75.0% vs 35.3%, p = 0.037). However, this characteristic did not discriminate antibody positive and negative longitudinally extensive cord lesions (73.3% vs 62.5%, p = 0.66). The NMO spectrum of diseases are among an increasing number of neurological conditions defined by serological tests. However, despite improved immunoassay techniques, MRI of the brain and spinal cord continues to be among the first-line investigations in these patients, providing valuable diagnostic information that will help guide patient management. (orig.)

  15. Diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders: is MRI obsolete?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downer, Jonathan James; Carter, Ranjana; Kueker, Wilhelm; Quaghebeur, Gerardine; Leite, Maria Isabel; Palace, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe demyelinating disease that preferentially involves spinal cord and optic nerve. It is part of a spectrum of neurological conditions associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4). This study investigates the role of MRI where novel, more sensitive AQP4 antibody immunoassay techniques are being used. Retrospective review of neuroimaging in 69 patients (25 antibody positive, 44 antibody negative), investigated in the context of suspected NMO or NMO spectrum disorder, was performed independently by two consultant neuroradiologists. Longitudinally extensive, central spinal cord lesions were more frequent in AQP4 positive patients (95.2% vs 35.5%, p < 0.0001; 85.7% vs 45.2%, p = 0.015). Multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria were less frequently fulfilled on brain MRI in antibody positive patients (5.6% vs 33.3%, p = 0.035). Juxtacortical and corpus callosal lesions were also less common in this group (16.7% vs 46.7%, p = 0.063; 5.6% vs 46.7%, p = 0.0034). Hypothalamic and periependymal disease related to the aqueduct was not seen in antibody negative patients. T1 hypointensity was more common in cord lesions of antibody positive patients (75.0% vs 35.3%, p = 0.037). However, this characteristic did not discriminate antibody positive and negative longitudinally extensive cord lesions (73.3% vs 62.5%, p = 0.66). The NMO spectrum of diseases are among an increasing number of neurological conditions defined by serological tests. However, despite improved immunoassay techniques, MRI of the brain and spinal cord continues to be among the first-line investigations in these patients, providing valuable diagnostic information that will help guide patient management. (orig.)

  16. Contamination of water and sediments by obsolete pesticides at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments and water from Vikuge State Farm, Coast Region, Tanzania, where, in 1986, a “donation” of 170 m3 of partially expired pesticides were stored in an open shed- which eventually collapsed, were analysed for 80 different pesticide residues and metabolites. DDT and HCH, two of the most persistent ...

  17. Cadaveric Temporal Bone Dissection: Is It Obsolete Today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik, Sulabha M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Traditionally, surgical training in otology, is imparted by dissecting harvested human cadaveric temporal bones. However, maintenance of a cadaveric temporal bone laboratory is expensive and carries risk of exposure to infection. In recent times, other modalities of training are gaining ground and are likely to eventually replace cadaveric temporal bone dissection altogether. Objectives Other alternative methods of training are emerging. New technology like simulation and virtual reality as high-fidelity, safer alternatives, are making rapid strides as teaching tools. Other options are the use of animal temporal bones as teaching tools. The advantages of these are compared. Data Synthesis None of these modalities can replicate the innumerable anatomical variations which are a characteristic feature of the human temporal bone. A novice surgeon not only needs exposure to surgical anatomy and it's variations but also needs to develop hand-eye coordination skills to gain expertise. Conclusion Deliberate practice on human cadaveric temporal bones only, will confer both mastery in anatomy and surgical technique. The human cadaveric temporal bone is ideal simulator for training in otology.

  18. Cost Earnings Survey of NWHI Bottomfish Fleets (1993): Obsolete

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study collected cost-earnings information for the 12 vessels which had reported bottomfish landings from Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 1993 in order to...

  19. Light Pollution Responses and Remedies

    CERN Document Server

    Mizon, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Light pollution is a major threat to astronomy across the entire developed world. The night sky that most of us can see bears little relationship to the spectacular vistas that our ancestors have gazed at for tens of thousands of years. It is ironic that as our understanding of the universe has improved, our ability to see it has been dramatically reduced by the skyglow of our civilization. In the second edition of Light Pollution - Responses and Remedies, Bob Mizon delves into the history and practice of lighting and how its misue has not only stolen the stars, but blighted our lives and those of our fellow-creatures on this planet. This book suggests how we can win back the night sky and at the same time save energy and money, improve our health, and even lower crime rate! It also includes a list of targets for urban stargazers, and recommendations for ensuring sane lighting worldwide.

  20. Air pollution control in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    Prior to rapid spurt in industrialization in India, people were used to inhale pure air containing about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and some carbon dioxide. But afterwards this composition of pure air was disturbed as a result of increased economic activities. Air, now a days also contains sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides etc., etc. which are extremely harmful for human health. Virulence of air pollution was realised in late eighties after Bhopal Gas Tragedy (BGT) and an effective air quality management started taking shape in India afterwards. The basic components of air quality management are legislation and regulations, emission inventory, air quality standards and monitoring, air dispersion models and installation of pollution control equipment which are being discussed in this paper. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  1. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

  2. Microplastics pollution and reduction strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Min Wu; Jun Yang; Craig S.Criddle

    2017-01-01

    Microplastic particles smaller than 5 mm in size are of increasing concern,especially in aquatic environments,such as the ocean.Primary source is microbeads (< 1 mm) used in cosmetics and cleaning agents and fiber fragments from washing of clothes,and secondary source such as broken down plastic litter and debris.These particles are mostly made from polyethylene (PE),polypropylene (PP),polystyrene (PS),polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyesters.They are ingested by diverse marine fauna,including zooplanktons,mussel,oyster,shrimp,fish etc.and can enter human food chains via several pathways.Strategy for control of microplastics pollution should primarily focus on source reduction and subsequently on the development of cost-effective clean up and remediation technologies.Recent research results on biodegradation of plastics have revealed a potential for microbial biodegradation and bioremediation of plastic pollutants,such as PE,PS and PET under appropriate conditions.

  3. Plastic pollutants in water environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrowiec Bożena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wide applications of plastics result in plastic waste being present in the water environment in a wide variety of sizes. Plastic wastes are in water mainly as microplastics (the size range of 1 nm to < 5 mm. Microplastics have been recognized as an emerging threat, as well as ecotoxicological and ecological risk for water ecosystems. In this review are presented some of the physicochemical properties of plastic materials that determine their toxic effect on the aquatic environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are mentioned as one of main sources of microplastics introduced into fresh water, and rivers are the pathways for the transportation of the pollutants to seas and oceans. But, effluents from tertiary wastewater treatment facilities can contain only minimally microplastic loads. The issue of discharge reduction of plastic pollutants into water environment needs activities in the scope of efficient wastewater treatment, waste disposal, recycling of plastic materials, education and public involvement.

  4. Probing planetary pollution from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will review the data sets obtained from instruments that have measured carbon monoxide and tropospheric ozone from space. In addition, an example of the capability of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) systems will be shown and the current plans for monitoring pollution from spaceborne platforms will be discussed. As a result of these studies, scientists now know that pollution is a widespread phenomenon that has impacted the composition of the atmosphere on continental and hemispheric scales. Such perturbations will have far-reaching consequences for global atmospheric chemistry and climate. New measurement techniques using active remote sensors have already produced exciting data sets from aircraft platforms, and should provide an entirely new capability when used from space sometime in the 21st century

  5. PIXE pollution studies across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innegraeve, O.; Blanchet, X.; Muntele, C.I.; Muntele, I.C.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Popa-Simil, Liviu; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P.M.; Ila, D.

    2002-01-01

    We collected vegetation and soil samples from various locations along a route covering Eastern and Western Europe. We measured the level of elemental pollution in different places uniformly spread across the continent to determine which of them may have common sources. To achieve these objectives, samples were collected along the main roads from Romania to Portugal and analyzed using in-air PEE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission).

  6. Environmental pollution and acne: Chloracne

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Qiang; Zouboulis, Christos C; Xia, Longqing

    2009-01-01

    Environmental pollutants can result in a variant of acne called ‘chloracne’. Chloracne is caused by systemic exposure to certain halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons ‘chloracnegens’, and is considered to be one of the most sensitive indicators of systemic poisoning by these compounds. Dioxin is the most potent environmental chloracnegen. Most cases of chloracne have resulted from occupational and non-occupational exposures, non-occupational chloracne mainly resulted from contaminated industrial ...

  7. Electron beam gaseous pollutants treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Emission of gaseous pollutants, mostly during combustion of fossil fuels, creates a threat to the environment. New, economical technologies are needed for flue gas treatment. A physico-chemical basis of the process using electron beam for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds are presented in this report. Development of the process and its upscaling has been discussed. (author)

  8. Urban structure and air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, T. J.; Kenworthy, J. R.; Newman, P. W. G.

    Representative driving cycles across the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan region illustrate a direct relationship to urban land use. Movement away from the central business district results in fewer traffic events, higher speeds, longer cruise periods and shorter stops. The consequent reduction in root mean square acceleration leads to a corresponding reduction in vehicle emission factors. Urban planning implications are pursued and highlight the importance of public transport as an option in reducing urban air pollution.

  9. Trade Liberalization and Pollution Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington; Arik Levinson; Jenny Minier

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13141 commits the United States to a careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements.' The most direct mechanism through which trade liberalization would affect environmental quality in the U.S. is through changes in the composition of industries. Freer trade means greater specialization, increasing the concentration of polluting industries in some countries and decreasing it in others. Indeed, in this paper we predict a ...

  10. Trade Liberalization and Pollution Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington, Arik Levinson, and Jenny Minier

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13141 commits the United States to a "careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements." The most direct mechanism through which trade liberalization would affect environmental quality in the U.S. is through changes in the composition of industries. Freer trade means greater specialization, increasing the concentration of polluting industries in some countries and decreasing it in others. Indeed, in this paper we predict a...

  11. Reducing Marine and Coastal Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The West African coastline is home to major industries, mining activities, peri-urban and agro-industry, and tourism, as well as urban and seaside residences, all of which generate waste and cause pollution. Many areas along the coast also lack adequate wastewater and solid waste management systems. As a result, large volumes of untreated wastewater and solid waste are dumped into the open...

  12. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  13. Soil pollution and soil protection

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, de, F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international Training Centre (PHLO) of Wageningen Agricultural University.Of the three environmental compartments air, water and soil, it is soil that varies most in composition under natural conditions. The effects o...

  14. Pollutant dispersion in built environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ming, Tingzhen; Gong, Tingrui; Li, Zhengtong

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses energy transfer, fluid flow and pollution in built environments. It provides a comprehensive overview of the highly detailed fundamental theories as well as the technologies used and the application of heat and mass transfer and fluid flow in built environments, with a focus on the mathematical models and computational and experimental methods. It is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of buildings and environment, heat transfer and global warming.

  15. Pollution de l'environnement

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Pollution de l'environnement. Les polluants environnementaux de tous genres contaminent l'eau, l'air et la terre mettant en péril les humains et les écosystèmes. De plus, ils sont souvent sources de conflit entre populations et industrie. En adoptant une approche écosystémique globale pour examiner les intérêts divergents.

  16. Monitoring of pollution in sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee I. Abdallah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs were analyzed in surface sediments collected from Suez till Hurgharda coasts to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated identification of anthropogenic activities, petrogenic and biogenic. AHs for all samples were dominated by unresolved complex mixture (UCM, and petrogenic mixed with biogenic sources. Results also revealed that sedimentary PAHs mainly originated from pyrolysis sources.

  17. Death signals by environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Life and death are directly involved in the normal development of all multicellular organisms. Defects in the regulation of the mechanism of programmed cell death (apoptosis) contribute to many diseases as well as in the toxic effects of xenobiotics. Here it is described which elements of the apoptotic machinery are possible targets of hydrocarbons and metal compounds, prominent environmental pollutants. Moreover, it is shown that cytotoxic rather than cytostatic therapies might be most effective in treatment of cancer. (orig.)

  18. Health hazards from environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    Three examples from current research are cited in order to show the health hazards from environmental pollution and to describe methods of risk quantification: (1) The smog situation of January 1985 is analyzed on the basis of detailed morbidity and mortality statistics; (2) The current knowledge on the contribution of radon decay products to lung cancer is discussed; (3) The problem of abandoned industrial sites is illustrated by a population group living on contaminated ground. (orig.) [de

  19. Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend...... to reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has...

  20. Executive summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    A pollution prevention plan is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan is designed to eliminate or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Site operations. These efforts offer increased protection of public health and the environment. This plan reflects the goals and policies for pollution prevention at the Hanford Site and represents an ongoing effort to make pollution prevention part of the Site operating philosophy. The plan encompasses hazardous waste only and excludes radioactive waste and radioactive mixed waste

  1. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....... pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters...

  2. A Study on environmental pollution accounts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Woo; Choi, Yong Jae [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    According to the industrial classification of 1995 inter-industry relation table, pollutants discharging unit was prepared by industry or by economic activity. Then the method analyzing correlation between pollutant discharge and economic activities by inter-industry analysis mechanism was presented after estimating direct and indirect effects of generation of pollutants. Based on this analysis, the industry causing a large quantity of pollutant discharge was found out and correlation between pollutant discharge coefficient and production inducing effect was analyzed. 23 refs., 52 tabs.

  3. Lead pollution sources and Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Haggar, S.M.; Saad, S.G.; Saleh, S.K.; El-Kady, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the medical awareness of lead toxicity, and despite legislation designed to reduce environmental contamination, lead is one of the most widely used heavy metals. Significant human exposure occurs from automobile exhaust fumes, cigarette smoking, lead-based paints and plumbing systems lead spread in the environment can take place in several ways, the most important of which is through the lead compounds released in automobile exhaust as a direct result of the addition of tetraethyl or tetraethyl lead to gasoline as octane boosting agents. Of special is the effect of lead pollution on children, which affects their behavioral and educational attributes considerably. The major channel through through which lead is absorbed is through inhalation of lead compounds in the atmosphere. Lead is a heavy metal characterized its malleability, ductility and poor conduction of electricity. So, it has a wide range of applications ranging from battery manufacturing to glazing ceramics. It is rarely found free in nature but is present in several minerals and compounds. The aim of this paper is to discuss natural and anthropogenic sources of lead together with its distribution and trends with emphasis on egypt. The effects of lead pollution on human health, vegetation and welfare are also presented. It could be concluded that, the excessive release of lead into the environment, especially through the atmosphere, can produce many detrimental and sometimes fatal effects on human, agriculture and zoological life. Besides, it is very plain that there is a serious problem of pollution lead in egypt and specially in cairo. 7 figs

  4. Pollutant Release and Transfer Register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Since 1974 a number of organisations have been working closely together in this pollutant register (PRTR) project to collect and formally establish the yearly releases of pollutants to air, water and soil in the Netherlands. Results of this project serve to underpin the national environmental policy. Data is in this way also provided for the many environmental reports to international organisations such as the European Union and the United Nations, e.g. the National Inventory Report for the Kyoto Protocol. This website shows the yearly releases (emissions) of the most important pollutants in the Netherlands. You can explore the emission data through various channels, such as maps, graphs and tables. But you can also download all the details into your own database. The data shown in this website is updated 2 to 3 times a year. The current release shows emissions for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005 and 2006 The 2006 emissions are preliminary data and not yet shown in the maps. We expect to add an extra year in August 2008 [nl

  5. Environmental pollution and population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    There is a growing recognition in Malaysia of the interrelationship between population growth, population policies, development policies, and environmental pollution. In Malaysia, with a current population of 13,250,000 and an annual growth rate of 2.4%, economic development is leading to large scale deforestation which in turn is altering climatic conditions, reducing water supplies, and increasing erosion. According to estimates 750,000 acres of jungle were cleared in the last 10 years. Industrial wastes and domestic sewage discharged into rivers and lakes is endangering marine life and padilands. This is a serious problem, since 70% of the Malaysian population derives the bulk of their protein intake from marine life. Noise and carbon monoxide pollution in urban areas is increasing due to the 15% annual increase in the number of vehicles in the country. These dangers need to be taken into account as continuing efforts are made to increase industrialization in order to provide jobs for the 350,000 unemployed and underemployed youth in the country. Fortunately, government officials in Malaysia are giving consideration to energy, water and oil conservation in formulating development plans and are becoming increasingly aware that population growth and population policies have a direct impact on development planning and environmental pollution.

  6. Environmental pollution and world trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Ravi; Beladi, Hamid; Frasca, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a model that highlights the relationship between international trade and environmental pollution. It includes a small open economy that produces a domestic composite good and imports another composite good and energy products. The pollution is created by local production, global production and transportation. Given this model we demonstrate that free trade within the current political and economic context may produce a suboptimal level of welfare. The rationale is based upon the argument that transportation is energy-intensive and that, therefore, trade itself is a source of pollution. Consequently, under certain global conditions the introduction of an energy tariff in a small open economy raises social welfare and is superior to free trade. A consumption tariff adopted by a single nation will not have similar consequences because it has no impact upon local usage. However, when a consumption tariff is globally adopted there is the opportunity for a net benefit. Finally, we argue that a global tariff that raises both the price of energy and the price of the imported composite good may generate the greatest increase in welfare by reducing both energy-intensive production and energy-intensive trade

  7. Pollutants emission in power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A. G. [Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen, are the primary source of heat and electrical energy production and are responsible for emitting a large number and amount of pollutants into the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry, power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. During the combustion process, different pollutants such as CO{sub 2}, SO{sub X} (including SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}), NO{sub X} (including NO{sub 2}, NO and N{sub 2}O), fly ash, VOCs and mercury are emitted. These emissions cause big environmental and human health hazard. CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, some VOCs, CH{sub 4} contribute to the global greenhouse effect, adding a new dimension to the environmental degradation resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. These problems regarding emissions inventory, their impact on the environment and human health, air pollution control technologies and costs, periods of fossil fuels depletion, role of renewable and nuclear energy in the further civilization development are briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Water availability pollution and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Water has played a very important role in the development of human society. Resources of water have shaped the development of people and nations. Management of water gave the birth to innovations and technologies. Our complex metropolitan civilization and advanced technologies have generated new demands for water. Its importance to society and government has never diminished. The growing concern over resources availability and a rapid spread of water pollution, the link between water supply and water quality have become more apparent. The global management of water demands economy in use, restricted chemical and sanitation emissions, population control, discouragement of urbanization and water pollution awareness can greatly assist in averting the water holocaust that the world is expecting to face in the years to come. The scientific community in Pakistan is required to diagnose these problems in a systematic way to give advance warning of expected water scarcity, water pollution, water related land degradation, urban growth and population to assure the water cycle integrity of our world. (author)

  9. Environmental pollution and world trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, Ravi [Department of Economics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0496 (United States); Beladi, Hamid; Frasca, Ralph [Department of Economics and Finance, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-2240 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In this paper we present a model that highlights the relationship between international trade and environmental pollution. It includes a small open economy that produces a domestic composite good and imports another composite good and energy products. The pollution is created by local production, global production and transportation. Given this model we demonstrate that free trade within the current political and economic context may produce a suboptimal level of welfare. The rationale is based upon the argument that transportation is energy-intensive and that, therefore, trade itself is a source of pollution. Consequently, under certain global conditions the introduction of an energy tariff in a small open economy raises social welfare and is superior to free trade. A consumption tariff adopted by a single nation will not have similar consequences because it has no impact upon local usage. However, when a consumption tariff is globally adopted there is the opportunity for a net benefit. Finally, we argue that a global tariff that raises both the price of energy and the price of the imported composite good may generate the greatest increase in welfare by reducing both energy-intensive production and energy-intensive trade

  10. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies.

  11. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  12. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, P.J.H.; Borrell, P.J.H.; Franeker, van J.A.; Aguilar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Awareness of the threat of environmental contaminants to marine mammals is widespread. High concentration of certain compounds in the tissues of these animals has been associated with organ anomalies, impaired reproduction, and immune function and, as a consequence of the latter, with the occurrence

  13. Pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, Y.N. [Mexico City Univ. (Mexico). Center for Atmospheric Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Method based on using the pollutant transport equation and the adjoint technique is described here for estimating the pollutant concentration level in ecologically important zones. The method directly relates the pollution level in such zones with the power of the pollution sources and the initial pollution field. Assuming that the wind or current velocities are known (from climatic data or dynamic model), the main and adjoint pollutant transport equations can be considered in a limited area to solve such theoretically and practically important problems as: (1) optimal location of new industries in a given region with the aim to minimize the pollution concentration in certain ecologically important zones, (2) optimization of emissions from operating industries, (3) detection of the plants violating sanitary regulations, (4) analysis of the emissions coming from the vehicle traffic (such emissions can be included in the model by means of the linear pollution sources located along the main roadways), (5) estimation of the oil pollution in various ecologically important oceanic (sea) zones in case of accident with the oil tanker, (6) evaluation of the sea water desalination level in estuary regions, and others. These equations considered in a spherical shell domain can also be applied to the problems of transporting the pollutants from a huge industrial complex, or from the zone of an ecological catastrophe similar to the Chernobyl one

  14. Pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, Y N [Mexico City Univ. (Mexico). Center for Atmospheric Sciences

    1996-12-31

    Method based on using the pollutant transport equation and the adjoint technique is described here for estimating the pollutant concentration level in ecologically important zones. The method directly relates the pollution level in such zones with the power of the pollution sources and the initial pollution field. Assuming that the wind or current velocities are known (from climatic data or dynamic model), the main and adjoint pollutant transport equations can be considered in a limited area to solve such theoretically and practically important problems as: (1) optimal location of new industries in a given region with the aim to minimize the pollution concentration in certain ecologically important zones, (2) optimization of emissions from operating industries, (3) detection of the plants violating sanitary regulations, (4) analysis of the emissions coming from the vehicle traffic (such emissions can be included in the model by means of the linear pollution sources located along the main roadways), (5) estimation of the oil pollution in various ecologically important oceanic (sea) zones in case of accident with the oil tanker, (6) evaluation of the sea water desalination level in estuary regions, and others. These equations considered in a spherical shell domain can also be applied to the problems of transporting the pollutants from a huge industrial complex, or from the zone of an ecological catastrophe similar to the Chernobyl one

  15. Multi-pollutant interactions in hyporheic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, S.; Weatherill, J.; Bonet, B.; Blaen, P.; Khamis, K.; Cassidy, N. J.; Hannah, D. M.; Rivett, M. O.; Lynch, I.; Ullah, S.

    2017-12-01

    Hyporheic zones represent hotspots of biogeochemical reactivity, with the potential to attenuate pollutants and ameliorate their impact on ecosystem functioning. Sources and types of pollutants in streambed environments are manifold, with legacy industry contaminants, agricultural pollution and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals or engineered nanoparticles entering hyporheic zones along different flow paths where they mix and potentially react with each other. Current conceptualizations of drivers and controls of biogeochemical turnover in hyporheic zones highlight primarily the role of transport and reaction times but do not account for potential interactions between different pollutants. This study presents two case studies of multi-pollutant interactions to illustrate the need to consider interferences between different pollutants, their transport and reaction pathways for adequate impact assessment. We discuss in the first instance how the natural attenuation of a Trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume in an agricultural catchment is limited by high riparian and hyporheic nitrate concentrations. As nitrate outcompeted TCE in its reaction with organic carbon as electron donor, TCE attenuation was in this case limited to hyporheic denitrification hotspots. Hence any pollution control measures to reduce the impact of this TCE plume require a reduction of agricultural nitrate loads, highlighting the connectedness of legacy (TCE) and more recent (nitrate) pollution problems. In the second case, we investigate how the labile organic carbon content of streambed sediments as main control of hyporheic respiration is overridden by exposure to different silver nanoparticle concentrations, representing emerging pollutants in many of our rivers. Also in this case, the impacts of different stressors (nanoparticle exposure) and drivers (availability of organic matter, water temperature) are interacting in their impacts on hyporheic zone functioning. We argue that

  16. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT ampersand E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact

  17. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D

    2008-09-01

    Air pollution is a heterogeneous mixture of gases, liquids and PM (particulate matter). In the modern urban world, PM is principally derived from fossil fuel combustion with individual constituents varying in size from a few nanometres to 10 microm in diameter. In addition to the ambient concentration, the pollution source and chemical composition may play roles in determining the biological toxicity and subsequent health effects. Nevertheless, studies from across the world have consistently shown that both short- and long-term exposures to PM are associated with a host of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischaemia and infarctions, heart failure, arrhythmias, strokes and increased cardiovascular mortality. Evidence from cellular/toxicological experiments, controlled animal and human exposures and human panel studies have demonstrated several mechanisms by which particle exposure may both trigger acute events as well as prompt the chronic development of cardiovascular diseases. PM inhaled into the pulmonary tree may instigate remote cardiovascular health effects via three general pathways: instigation of systemic inflammation and/or oxidative stress, alterations in autonomic balance, and potentially by direct actions upon the vasculature of particle constituents capable of reaching the systemic circulation. In turn, these responses have been shown to trigger acute arterial vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, arrhythmias and pro-coagulant/thrombotic actions. Finally, long-term exposure has been shown to enhance the chronic genesis of atherosclerosis. Although the risk to one individual at any single time point is small, given the prodigious number of people continuously exposed, PM air pollution imparts a tremendous burden to the global public health, ranking it as the 13th leading cause of morality (approx. 800,000 annual deaths).

  18. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  19. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  20. Air pollution and motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzi, L.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is made of the effects of fuel chemical composition and fuel-air mixture on the composition of combustion exhaust gases produced by automotive spark ignition and diesel engines. This analysis considers several aspects: the merits of unleaded gasolines, Italian legal limits on the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline, limits on the sulfur content of diesel fuels, and proposed European Communities limits on automobile air pollution. The paper concludes with an assessment of the cost effective performance of different types of catalytic converters now available on the market

  1. Modeling Water Pollution of Soil

    OpenAIRE

    V. Doležel; P. Procházka; V. Křístek

    2008-01-01

    The government of the Czech Republic decided that in the location to the west of Prague, capital city of the Czech Republic, some deep mines should be closed because of their low efficiency of coal mined i.e. small amounts and low quality of the coal extracted in the final stage of mining. The locations near Prague influenced the decision to do maintenance on the abandoned mines, as the thread of soil pollution was unacceptably high in the neighborhood of the capital city. Before the mines we...

  2. Pollution of the sea (mediterranean)

    CERN Multimedia

    Vicente,N

    1980-01-01

    Le Prof. Nardi Vicente travaille au laboratoire et est Prof. de biologie marine de l'Université de Marseille. Il participe à plusieurs missions, notamment avec le Prof. Coustaud. La conférence est agrémenté d'un film qui a obtenu la palme d'or à Rio de Janeiro. La pollution de la mer méd. provient pour 75% de l'intérieur de terre et les fleuves sont résponsables pour une grande partie et notamment le Rhône qui abouti en Méditerranée.

  3. Light Pollution - An international perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2018-01-01

    The CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, or International Commission on Illumination) is the international organization devoted to worldwide cooperation and the exchange of information on all matters relating to the science and art of light and lighting, colour and vision, photobiology and image technology. Its actions and recommendations affect lighting worldwide, and artifiical lighitng has a profound impact on ground-based astronomy. The CIE establishes Technical Committees to research speicific aspects of lighting. The CIE will hold its biannual meeting in October 2017 in South Korea. I will report on astronomy and light pollution related information from that meeting.

  4. Greywater pollution variability and loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Madsen, Toke S.

    2009-01-01

    Small on-site greywater treatment and reuse plants are susceptible to high short-term variation in flow and pollutant concentrations. As demonstrated in this study of a bathroom greywater plant in Copenhagen, Denmark, the flow ranges from no-flow periods to high-flow periods reaching 34 l min−1...... per day, whereas the paraben loadings were below 1 mg per person per day. These data are highly relevant for comparing decentralised treatment options with existing end-of-pipe treatments, for feeding into risk assessments and for design purposes....

  5. Chernobyl pollution in forest biogeocenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldini, E.; Bettoli, M.G.; Tubertini, O.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of the Chernobyl pollution on forest biogeocenoses are described. Spruce, scotch pine, larch, beech, lichens and soils samples were analysed by high resolution gamma-spectrometry. In the established tree organs radioactivity was related to their structural and physiological features, as well as to their surface/dry weight ratios. In the developing organs growth dilution and translocation caused a lower radioactivity. Lichens retained remarkable amounts of radionuclides. The abnormal 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratios in the organic soils were explained by analysing the 'before Chernobyl' soils sampled in the same area. (orig.)

  6. Catalysis and automotive pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crucq, A.; Frennet, A.

    1987-01-01

    In these proceedings seven lectures are presented dealing with the effects of exhaust gas on human health and the environment, with the economical and legislative problems associated with the new EEC standards and with the points of view of the oil and motor industries. Three papers deal with catalytic converters and problems such as specific pollution control of diesel engines, synthesis of adequate fuels and additives adapted to catalytic converters. Twentyfour papers are devoted to fundamental and applied studies on catalytic converters, support preparation and base metal catalysts. refs.; figs.; tabs

  7. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  8. Understanding environmental pollution: a primer. 2nd ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquita K. Hill [University of Maine, Orono, MN (United States)

    2004-08-15

    The book moves from the definition of pollution and how pollutants behave, to air and water pollution basics, pollution and global change, solid waste, and pollution in the home. It also discusses persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals, and pesticides, and it places greater stress on global pollutants. The relationship between energy generation and use, and pollution is stressed, as well as the importance of going beyond pollution control, to pollution prevention. Impacts on human and environmental health are emphasized throughout. Contents are: 1. Understanding pollution; 2. Reducing pollution; 3. Chemical toxicity; 4. Chemical exposures and risk assessment; 5. Ambient air pollution; 6. Acid deposition; 7. Global climate change; 8. Stratispheric ozone depletion; 9. Water pollution; 10. Drinking water; 11. Solid waste; 12. Hazardous waste; 13. Energy; 14. Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic; 15. Metals; 16. Pesticides; 17. Pollution at home; and 18. Zero waste, zero emissions. 69 figs., 42 tabs.

  9. Air pollution problem in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, H

    1964-10-01

    Air pollution in the United States as a problem affecting health, as well as man's enjoyment of his property, was first noted in 1912 in the reports of the investigators at the Mellon Institute of the University of Pittsburgh. The Selby copper smelter incident in 1915 was among the first episodic air pollution events documented. The US Public Health Service studied carbon monoxide buildup in vehicular tunnels in 1928 and 1929. the Donora (Pennsylvania) pollution episode, where 17 people died, occurred in 1949. It and the onset of smog conditions in the Los Angeles area really initiated broad public awareness of air pollution as a public health hazard in the USA. The symptoms of air pollution-related injuries are discussed, the role of the US Public Health Service in dealing with air pollution, and the effect of the Clean Air Act of 1963 are discussed. 26 references.

  10. Reducing pollution: Who pays the bill?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    Since the nation's lawmakers passed a final version of the Clean Air Act, many utilities will now face large capital expenditures for pollution abatement in the next ten years. That prospect is likely to create problems for the nation's public utility commissioners, who are concerned about the costs to utility customers. A survey of PUC staff and commissioners found that while many are concerned about such issues, few have dealt with pollution abatement problems in the past few years. This survey was conducted during 1989 with all but three states that have commissions. The survey dealt with the ways that commissions have been handling pollution abatement expenditures including: how PUCs handled expenditures in their rate bases; PUC experience with pollution abatement expenditures in rate cases; PUC flexibility in dealing with previous pollution abatement cases; PUC management involvement with utilities; communication between the PUCs and the state air quality offices over problems involving pollution abatement

  11. Air pollution: a tale of two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Budi; Franklin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing economies and continued urbanization in Asian countries have increased the demand for mobility and energy in the region, resulting in high levels of air pollution in cities from mobile and stationary sources. In contrast, low level of urbanization in Australia produces low level of urban air pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that about 500,000 premature deaths per year are caused by air pollution, leaving the urban poor particularly vulnerable since they live in air pollution hotspots, have low respiratory resistance due to bad nutrition, and lack access to quality health care. Identifying the differences and similarities of air pollution levels and its impacts, between Indonesia and Australia, will provide best lesson learned to tackle air pollution problems for Pacific Basin Rim countries.

  12. Teaching Air Pollution in an Authentic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Stavrou, Dimitrios; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) about air pollution and the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers (PET) currently undergraduate students of the Department of Primary Education in the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. The TLS focused on the relation of air pollution with wind and topography in local conditions. An authentic context was provided to the students based on daily up-to-date meteorological data via the Internet in order to estimate air pollution. The results are encouraging given that PET can correlate wind and concentration of air pollutants through reading specialized angular diagrams and weather maps, can recognize the correlation of topography in the concentration of air pollutants, and can describe temperature inversion. However, the PET demonstrated clear difficulties in ability of orientation, in wind naming, and in interpretation of symbols on weather map. Finally, the implications on teaching air pollution are discussed.

  13. Optimal Pollution, Optimal Population, and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Ulla Lehmijoki

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a long-run consumer optimization model with endogenous pollution and endogenous population. The positive check increases mortality if pollution increases. The optimal path is sustainable if it provides non-decreasing consumption for a non-decreasing population. As usually, optimality and sustainability may conflict; with population endogenous to pollution, this conflict may ultimately lead the human species toward self-imposed extinction. Not even technical progress can wa...

  14. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  15. Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-30

    AD-A271 117 fDATE August 30. 1977 ASD (ORA&L) Department of Defense Instruction SUBJECT: Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement...Ensure that any funds appropriated and apportioned for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution are not used for any other...77 References (a) Executive Order 11752, "Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Environmental Pollution at Federal Facilities," December 19, 1973 (b

  16. Strategies for the control of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Q.; Shah, S.M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Global destruction of environment is the most important socio-economic problem today. The environment is being polluted by different types of wastes and bye-products. In this paper a number of ways of atmospheric pollution from noise, global warming, ozone layer with special reference to Pakistan have been explained. Several studies have been completed including management of hazardous chemicals in the country, treatment of effluent from tanneries and pollution due to automotive have also been discussed. (A.B.)

  17. Air pollution and mortality in Barcelona.

    OpenAIRE

    Sunyer, J; Castellsagué, J; Sáez, M; Tobias, A; Antó, J M

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Studies conducted in Barcelona reported a short term relation between daily air pollutant values and emergency department admissions for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and asthma. Air pollution in Barcelona is mainly generated by vehicle exhaust and is below the World Health Organization air quality guidelines. The acute relation between air pollution and mortality was assessed. DESIGN: Daily variations in total mortality, mortality in subjects older ...

  18. Biological monitors of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    1994-01-01

    Direct biological monitoring of air pollution was introduced about 30 years ago. Although still under development, the application of biological monitors, or indicators, may provide important information on the levels, availability, and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic trace elements in the air. A survey is given of the most frequently used biomonitors, such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves or needles, bryophytes, and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In addition to using naturally-occurring biomonitors, a possibility of employing ''transplanted'' species in the study areas, for instance grasses grown in special containers in standard soils or lichens transplanted with their natural substrate to an exposition site, is also mentioned. Several sampling and washing procedures are reported. The important of employing nuclear analytical methods, especially instrumental neutron activation analysis, for multielemental analysis of biomonitors as a pre-requisite for unlocking the information contained in chemical composition of monitor's tissues, such as apportionment of emission sources using multivariate statistical procedures, is also outlined. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs

  19. Nanotechnology, resources, and pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Stephen L.

    1996-09-01

    The separation of different kinds of atoms or molecules from each other is a fundamental technological problem. Current techniques of resource extraction, which use the ancient paradigm of the differential partitioning of elements into coexisting phases, are simple but extremely wasteful and require feedstocks (`ores') that are already anomalously enriched. This is impractical for pollution control and desalination, which require extraction of low concentrations; instead, atomistic separation, typically by differential motion through semipermeable membranes, is used. The present application of such membranes is seriously limited, however, mostly because of limitations in their fabrication by conventional bulk techniques. The capabilities of biological systems, such as vertebrate kidneys, are vastly better, largely because they are intrinsically structured at a molecular scale. Nanofabrication of semipermeable membranes promises capabilities on the order of those of biological systems, and this in turn could provide much financial incentive for the development of molecular assemblers, as well established markets exist already. Continued incentives would exist, moreover, as markets expanded with decreasing costs, leading to such further applications as remediation of polluted sites, cheap desalination, and resource extraction from very low-grade sources.

  20. Plants as indicators of the environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michler, R

    1971-01-01

    Possibilities of surveying air pollution by means of indicator plants are reviewed. Though the effects of air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on plants are dependent on several factors such as plant species, stage of development, weather, pollutant concentration, and part of the day, it is possible to use certain plants, especially lichens, as indicators of the degree of air pollution. Comparative observations of vegetation over a period of years, and the exposure of transplanted plants in selected sites represent two different, though complementary, methods for the use of indicator plants.

  1. AirPEx. Air Pollution Exposure Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freijer, J.I.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Loos, S.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.A.; Steentjes, G.M.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. The AirPEx (Air Pollution Exposure) model, developed to assess the time- and space-dependence of inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollution, has been implemented for use as a Windows 3.1 computer program. The program is suited to estimating various exposure and dose quantities for individuals, as well as for populations and subpopulations. This report describes the fundamentals of the AirPEx model and provides a user manual for the computer program. Several examples included in the report illustrate the possibilities of the AirPEx model in exposure assessment. The model will be used at the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment as a tool in analysing the current exposure of the Dutch population to air pollutants. 57 refs.

  2. Dispersion and transport of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslik, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the physical mechanisms that govern the dispersion and transport of air pollutant; the influence of the state of the 'carrying fluid', i.e. the role of meteorology; and finally, outlines the different techniques of assessing the process. Aspects of physical mechanisms and meteorology covered include: fate of an air pollutant; turbulence and dispersion; transport; wind speed and direction; atmospheric stability; and the role of atmospheric water. Assessment techniques covered are: concentrations measurements; modelling meteorological observations; and tracer releases. It is concluded that the only way to reduce air pollution is to pollute less. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Whitehead, J.K.; Encke, D.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dorsey, J.A. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This material was developed to assist engineers in incorporating pollution prevention into the design of new or modified facilities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The material demonstrates how the design of a facility can affect the generation of waste throughout a facility`s entire life and it offers guidance on how to prevent the generation of waste during design. Contents include: Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design training course booklet; Pollution prevention design guideline; Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design lesson plan; Training participant survey and pretest; and Training facilitator`s guide and schedule.

  4. Controlling the monopolistic polluter: nihilism or eclecticism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, P.

    1981-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the consequences of pollution control when the polluter is a monopolist who can choose between abating pollution by reducing output and by adopting a less-polluting technology. It is suggested that the risk of welfare losses resulting from control policy is lower when technology is flexible than when it is rigid. Nevertheless some risk does remain, so the paper concludes with a discussion of the possible use of selective control instruments to keep the risk to a minimum. 11 references, 1 figure.

  5. Nanoparticle-organic pollutant interaction dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset presents concentrations of organic pollutants, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds, in water samples. Water samples of known volume and concentration...

  6. Atmospheric pollution: history, science and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, M.Z. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (USA). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The book provides an introduction to the history and science of major air pollution issues. It begins with an introduction to the history of discovery of chemicals in the atmosphere, and moves on to a discussion of the evolution of the earth's atmosphere. It then discusses five major atmospheric pollution topics: urban outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution, acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global climate change. The book contains numerous student examples and problems and over 200 color illustrations and photographs.

  7. Effect of industrial pollution on seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, M.Z.; Qadir, S.A.

    1973-01-01

    The germination behavior of seeds in polluted waters and polluted soil extracts was found to be identical, only a few species behaved differently. Prosopis juliflora, Haloxylon recurvum, Acacia senegal showed best germination in the two conditions but Prosopis juliflora was the most resistant to pollution. In Suaeda fruticosa no germination took place in the control treatment whereas highest germination (70%) was seen in treatment with polluted soil extract of EPLA. Blepharis sindica showed a stimulating effect of polluted water on germination, whereas low germination was observed when their seeds were treated with the soil extract of the same site. 40% germination of Suaeda monoica was seen in polluted water of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., whereas 30% germination was found in a control treatment. Low percentage of germination was found when the seeds of Cassia holosericea were treated with polluted waters of different industries as compared to soil extract treatments of the same industries. Datura alba showed 50, 30 and 10% seed germination in polluted soil extract of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., in control and in polluted water of Darbar Soap Works, respectively. 5 references, 1 table.

  8. The atmospheric pollution in a few words; La pollution atmospherique en bref

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper takes stock briefly on the different pollution sources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, VOC, methane...), the mechanisms (acidification, photochemical pollution, eutrophication, greenhouse effect, ozone...) and the effects on the health. (A.L.B.)

  9. Pollutant materials and pollution control at Cupertino de Miranda Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Mosca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dr. António Cupertino de Miranda Foundation is the owner of a toy automobile, trains and boats collection, mainly constituted of zinc alloy (zamac.The characteristics of the displayed materials used in the exhibition, essentially wood composites and carpeting, reads to foreseeing a certain vulnerability and consequent future alteration and decay of the existing collection. This work aimed to identify some of the pollutant materials and to characterize their emissions, to develop low cost monitoring methods easily performed by the museum staff members and to propose new solutions in order to delay a possible degradation of the collection, keeping the current exhibition conditions. Among the solutions proposed are the replacement of the existing MDF with MDF free from moisture or flame resistant treatments and the introduction of RB4 activated charcoal.

  10. Dynamics of a Stage Structured Pest Control Model in a Polluted Environment with Pulse Pollution Input

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Bing; Xu, Ling; Kang, Baolin

    2013-01-01

    By using pollution model and impulsive delay differential equation, we formulate a pest control model with stage structure for natural enemy in a polluted environment by introducing a constant periodic pollutant input and killing pest at different fixed moments and investigate the dynamics of such a system. We assume only that the natural enemies are affected by pollution, and we choose the method to kill the pest without harming natural enemies. Sufficient conditions for global attractivity ...

  11. An early warning system for groundwater pollution based on the assessment of groundwater pollution risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihong.; Zhao, Yongsheng; Hong, Mei; Guo, Xiaodong

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater pollution usually is complex and concealed, remediation of which is difficult, high cost, time-consuming, and ineffective. An early warning system for groundwater pollution is needed that detects groundwater quality problems and gets the information necessary to make sound decisions before massive groundwater quality degradation occurs. Groundwater pollution early warning were performed by considering comprehensively the current groundwater quality, groundwater quality varying trend and groundwater pollution risk . The map of the basic quality of the groundwater was obtained by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation or BP neural network evaluation. Based on multi-annual groundwater monitoring datasets, Water quality state in sometime of the future was forecasted using time-sequenced analyzing methods. Water quality varying trend was analyzed by Spearman's rank correlative coefficient.The relative risk map of groundwater pollution was estimated through a procedure that identifies, cell by cell,the values of three factors, that is inherent vulnerability, load risk of pollution source and contamination hazard. DRASTIC method was used to assess inherent vulnerability of aquifer. Load risk of pollution source was analyzed based on the potential of contamination and pollution degree. Assessment index of load risk of pollution source which involves the variety of pollution source, quantity of contaminants, releasing potential of pollutants, and distance were determined. The load risks of all sources considered by GIS overlay technology. Early warning model of groundwater pollution combined with ComGIS technology organically, the regional groundwater pollution early-warning information system was developed, and applied it into Qiqiha'er groundwater early warning. It can be used to evaluate current water quality, to forecast water quality changing trend, and to analyze space-time influencing range of groundwater quality by natural process and human activities. Keywords

  12. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  13. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  14. Atmospheric pollution and health. An introduction; Pollution atmospherique et sante une introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmirou, D. [Universite-Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    Physiological observations and pollution measurements allowed for the study of short and long term respiratory effects of tropospheric ozone and fine particulate pollution on man, depending on age and health factors. Risk reduction policies towards air quality, and criteria issues for atmospheric pollution control and abatement measures, are discussed

  15. Industrial water pollution: characterization, classification, measurements; Pollution industrielle de l`eau: caracterisation, classification, mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeglin, J.C. [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, IRH-environnement, 54 - Nancy (France)]|[Institut de Promotion Industrielle, IPI-environnement indistriel, 68 - Colmar (France)]|[Centre International de l`eau de Nancy, 54 (France)

    1999-01-01

    In this work is described: 1)the characterization of the industrial wastes pollution and the study of their harmfulness and effects on the environment 2)a classification of the pollution for the different industries 3)the measurements and control of the industrial pollution. (authors) 5 refs.

  16. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  17. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  18. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control. E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion the following: Air Pollution and Control; Noise Pollution and Control; Solid Wastes Pollution and Control; Water Pollution and Control; Pesticides Pollution and Control; Radiation Pollution and Control; Environmental Health and Safety; Environmental Impact Statements.

  19. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  20. Energy, pollution, environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Many of the major environmental problems of today, such as climate change, air pollution, acidification of lakes and forests, deforestation and desertification, share a common causal factor: energy - its production, transformation and final use. The burning of fossil fuels has already contributed to acidification of lakes and forests, and threatens to alter the world's climate. Traditional open fires cause indoor air pollution, thereby harming the health of women and children in the Third World. In many developing countries, the disappearing forest base is increasingly unable to supply enough wood for energy needs, leading to even greater pressure on forests, which in turn can lead to desertification. Nuclear reactor accidents may release large quantities of radioactive materials, and hydro dams may fail and inundate large areas of land. Indeed, every energy system has some impact on health and the environment, either affecting the same group of people who enjoy the benefits: the exposure of a small group to fumes from a poorly vented common cooking device; or a different group: acid rain in one country caused by the burning of fossil fuels in another, or harm to the health of future generations from today's radioactive nuclear waste. During the past two decades, these energy- environment impacts have become so serious that they may limit further growth of the world's energy economy. Consequently, these problems are now being examined more closely by decision makers throughout the world, as well as by the general public. In addition, it has become clear that energy cannot be viewed in isolation and that pollution, environment and health issues must be integrated into the development of national and international energy policies, so that the adverse impacts of energy can be reduced. To do this, the relationships among different energy systems and their impacts need to be defined clearly. To that end, UNEP has convened conferences on this topic and prepared several

  1. 33 CFR 153.405 - Liability to the pollution fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability to the pollution fund... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Administration of the Pollution Fund § 153.405 Liability to the pollution fund. The owner or operator of the vessel...

  2. Proceedings of international conference on environmental pollution. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, B.; Robinson, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented in the following sessions: waste disposal issues, water pollution: management and control, water pollution: management and policy issues, waste water treatment, water pollution and its impact, water pollution issues, water pollution modelling. figs., tabs., refs

  3. Proceedings of international conference on environmental pollution. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, B.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the key-note addresses and the papers presented in the following sessions: air pollution monitoring and analysis, air pollution: clean technologies, air pollution modelling, soil pollution: identification, treatment and control, heavy metal pollution, environmental education. figs., tabs., refs

  4. Catalytic control of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, J.E.; Summers, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Improving the quality of our environment has become a growing concern in this country and around the globe. Research efforts in this field have recently been accelerated by the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act. This book reports on a symposium that is part of a continuing series on the surface science of catalysis. Including stationary and mobile source chapters alike in one volume allows the reader to note the similarities and differences between the two fields and possibly to apply ideas from one area to the other. The coverage is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to serve as a survey of some of the most current topics of interest in this field. The intended audience for this book is the chemist or engineer interested in pollution control, or prevention, or both in the automotive, chemical, petroleum, and other industries, or otherwise involved in the environmental applications of catalysts

  5. Light sources and light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, G.

    2005-01-01

    From the dawn of mankind fire and light sources in general played an essential role in everyday life and protection over night. The development of new light sources went through many stages and is now an immense technological achievement, but also a threat for the wildlife at night, mainly because of the so-called light pollution. This paper discusses several very successful light sources connected with low pressure mercury and sodium vapour electric discharges. The luminous efficacy, colour rendering index and other lighting features cannot be always satisfactory, but at least some of the features can be much better than those met by the standard tungsten filament bulbs. High-pressure metal-vapour discharge lamps definitely have a good colour rendering index and a relatively high luminosity. Different light sources with burners at high pressure are discussed, paying special attention to their spectrum. The paper investigates new trends in development through a number of examples with non-toxic elements and pulsed electric discharge, which may be good news in terms of clean environment and energy savings. Light emitting diodes have recently appeared as worthy competitors to conventional light sources. White LEDs have approached 100 lumen/Watt efficacy in laboratories. This suggests that in some not very distant future they could completely replace high-pressure lamps, at least in indoor lighting. The article speculates on new developments which combine trends in nano technology and material science. The paper concludes with light pollution in view of several recent observations of plant and animal life at night in the vicinity of strong light sources. Photo-induced changes at the cell level may completely alter the normal life of plants and animals.(author)

  6. Archives of Atmospheric Lead Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dominik; Shotyk, William; Kempf, Oliver

    Environmental archives such as peat bogs, sediments, corals, trees, polar ice, plant material from herbarium collections, and human tissue material have greatly helped to assess both ancient and recent atmospheric lead deposition and its sources on a regional and global scale. In Europe detectable atmospheric lead pollution began as early as 6000years ago due to enhanced soil dust and agricultural activities, as studies of peat bogs reveal. Increased lead emissions during ancient Greek and Roman times have been recorded and identified in many long-term archives such as lake sediments in Sweden, ice cores in Greenland, and peat bogs in Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. For the period since the Industrial Revolution, other archives such as corals, trees, and herbarium collections provide similar chronologies of atmospheric lead pollution, with periods of enhanced lead deposition occurring at the turn of the century and since 1950. The main sources have been industry, including coal burning, ferrous and nonferrous smelting, and open waste incineration until c.1950 and leaded gasoline use since 1950. The greatest lead emissions to the atmosphere all over Europe occurred between 1950 and 1980 due to traffic exhaust. A marked drop in atmospheric lead fluxes found in most archives since the 1980s has been attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. The isotope ratios of lead in the various archives show qualitatively similar temporal changes, for example, the immediate response to the introduction and phasing out of leaded gasoline. Isotope studies largely confirm source assessments based on lead emission inventories and allow the contributions of various anthropogenic sources to be calculated.

  7. 33 CFR 401.59 - Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution. 401.59 Section 401.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.59 Pollution. (a) No vessel shall: (1...

  8. The Practice of Water Pollution Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenthun, Kenneth M.

    Water pollution techniques and practices, including data analysis, interpretation and display are described in this book intended primarily for the biologist inexperienced in this work, and for sanitary engineers, chemists, and water pollution control administrators. The characteristics of aquatic environments, their biota, and the effects of…

  9. Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

  10. Measuring environmental quality. An index of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops an index of pollution based on the epidemiological dose-response function associated with each pollutant, and the welfare losses due to exposure to pollution. The probability of damage is translated into welfare losses, which provides the common metric required for aggregation. Isopollution surfaces may then be used to compare environmental quality over time and space. An Air Pollution Index (API) is computed using 1997 data for the criteria pollutants under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The results are compared with the EPA's Pollutant Standards Index (PSI). Two significant differences emerge: unlike the PSI, the API facilitates a detailed ranking of regions by air quality and API values may contradict PSI results. Some regions with PSI values of 100-200 are considered less polluted under the proposed methodology than those with PSI values between 50 and 100. The key reason for the difference is that PSI values are determined entirely by the gas with the highest relative concentration whereas the API value is based on the ambient concentrations of all pollutants. 14 refs

  11. Study of pollution in Rawal lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, M.I.A.; Nisar, M.; Kaleem, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    It was intended to establish effects of pollution on quality of water of Rawal Lake, Islamabad. Six stations were located for collection of water. The data collected and analyzed so far indicated increasing pollution in the lake Increase in growth of hydrophytes in quite evident, leading towards process of eutrophication of the lake. (author)

  12. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  13. PIXE studies of pollutants in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymczyk, S.; Kajfosz, J.; Hrynkiewicz, A.; Curzydlo, J.

    1980-01-01

    Both industrial and road traffic pollutions were studied by PIXE by means of determination of trace elements accumulated in different plant tissues from affected areas. The method was improved by the application of an intermediate atmosphere in the target chamber. The PIXE method was proved to be adequate and convenient for monitoring many of the pollutants. (author)

  14. Dialogues on air pollution: an Asian example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Stalpers, S.I.P.

    2013-01-01

    The efficient reduction of transboundary air pollution requires dialogue on emission reduction at an international level. A model is under construction to facilitate such dialogues for Asia. This is the Regional Air pollution Information System (RAINS-Asia), developed at the International Institute

  15. Chinese air pollution embodied in trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid economic development in China has been accompanied by high levels of air pollution in many areas of China. Although researchers have applied a range of methods to monitor and track pollutant emissions in the atmosphere, studies of the underlying economic and technological drivers of this pollution have received considerably less attention. I will present results of a series of studies that have quantified the air pollutants embodied in goods being traded both within China and internationally. The results show that trade is facilitating the concentration of pollution in less economically developed areas, which in turn export pollution-intensive goods to more affluent areas. However, the export-related pollution itself is sometimes transported long distances; for instance, we have quantified the impacts of the Chinese pollution embodied in internationally-exported goods on air quality in the US. These findings important implications for Chinese efforts to curb CO2 emissions and improve air quality. The research to be presented reflects the efforts of a multiple year, ongoing collaboration among interdisciplinary researchers in China, the US and the UK.

  16. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  17. Total pollution effect of urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongbing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; Liu, Ping; Li, Jingxian; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Rui; Huang, Xiaoxue

    2009-01-01

    For pollution research with regard to urban surface runoff, most sampling strategies to date have focused on differences in land usage. With single land-use sampling, total surface runoff pollution effect cannot be evaluated unless every land usage spot is monitored. Through a new sampling strategy known as mixed stormwater sampling for a street community at discharge outlet adjacent to river, this study assessed the total urban surface runoff pollution effect caused by a variety of land uses and the pollutants washed off from the rain pipe system in the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen City of China. The water quality monitoring indices were COD (chemical oxygen demand), TSS (total suspend solid), TP (total phosphorus), TN (total nitrogen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). The sums of total pollution loads discharged into the river for the four indices of COD, TSS, TN, and TP over all seven rainfall events were very different. The mathematical model for simulating total pollution loads was established from discharge outlet mixed stormwater sampling of total pollution loads on the basis of four parameters: rainfall intensity, total land area, impervious land area, and pervious land area. In order to treat surface runoff pollution, the values of MFF30 (mass first flush ratio) and FF30 (first 30% of runoff volume) can be considered as split-flow control criteria to obtain more effective and economical design of structural BMPs (best management practices) facilities.

  18. Climate, air pollution, and chronic bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawther, P J

    1958-01-01

    Air pollution (SO/sub 2/ and smoke) was correlated with simple, 4-degree diary records of a group of 180 bronchitic patients for the winter of 1955 to 1956. Obvious connection during the winter months disappears in the spring with the decrease in pollution levels.

  19. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hayati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban air pollution as well as the possible reducing of negative affects of tall building on environmental pollution with respect to geographical position, technicalrules, immunization, green space, direct of wind, appropriate distance to other buildings, design in terms of visibility and landscape and urban appearance were reviewed. The study showed that the tall buildings cause increasing the air pollution in large urban area due to changing in wind and its direction and also congestion of tall buildings as a pollution sources. Therefore some techniques to design the tall building must be considered to reduce the negative affects of the tall buildings on environmental pollution. Unfortunately the lack of the construction roles in term of environmental protection and also control of the rules in construction process causing the environmental pollution particularly air pollution. It is suggested that the re-evaluate of the rules with restricted control can improve the air quality in the large cities and also utilization of green spaces in floors and roofs of buildings as environmentally friendly buildings which are attempt to reduce environmental problems.

  20. [Development and current status of atmospheric pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elichegaray, C; Bouallala, S; Maitre, A; Ba, M

    2009-02-01

    Air quality is a public health issue and this article includes a reminder of the related causes and issues and a description of the monitoring of ambient air quality in France. It also provides a review of major developments in recent years of the pollutants measured. Emissions of major air pollutants have declined significantly since the 1970s, and this is reflected in an overall improvement in the quality of ambient air. Nevertheless, various forms of air pollution remain a concern (in the case of photochemical pollution) and health data show that air pollution is still a cause of morbidity and mortality. The fight against air pollution must remain a priority and requires multi-pollutant and multi-effect approaches. The National Health and Environment Program adopted during the Grenelle environment stakeholder consultation processes includes targets for reducing human exposure to air pollution, especially particulate matter, as well as measures to improve indoor air quality. In a context dominated by the struggle against the emission of greenhouse gases, problems of air quality should not be underestimated and policies relating to climate protection must be taken into account.