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Sample records for silybum marianum milk

  1. Effects of silymarin (Silybum marianum) supplementation on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YANLIZ EFE

    2017-09-25

    Sep 25, 2017 ... silymarin treatments speeded up the metabolic adaptation process of the dairy .... and chemical composition of the feeds supplied to animals are provided ... were recorded to a herd management programme separately from the ..... Review of clinical trials evaluating safety and efficacy of milk thistle (Silybum.

  2. Chalcone synthase genes from milk thistle (Silybum marianum)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the identification of encoding genes in milk thistle plant can be of great importance. In the current research, fragments of genes were amplified using degenerate primers based on the conserved parts of Asteraceae genes, and then cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the resultant nucleotide and deduced ...

  3. Evaluation of UAV imagery for mapping Silybum marianum weed patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive weed, milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has the tendency to grow in patches. In order to perform site-specific weed management, determining the spatial distribution of weeds is important for its eradication. Remote sensing has been used to perform species discrimination, and it offers pr...

  4. Qualitative and qualitative characteristics of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. in response to organic, biological and chemical fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yazdani Biuki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L., an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad based on complete randomized block design with three replications and six treatments during year 2007. Treatments included inoculated seeds with Azotobacter, compost, vermicompost, combination of both Azotobacter and compost treatments, chemical NPK fertilizer and control (without any fertilizer. The traits such as number of branches per plant, plant height, number of inflorescences per plant, inflorescence diameter, number of seeds per capitol, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, oil percentage, silymarin percentage, silybin percentage, oil yield and silymarin yield were measured. The results showed that application of different types of organic fertilizers had no effect on yield components, but had significant effect on oil percentage of oil, silymarin and silybin of seed. Compost application resulted the highest oil percentage (20.1 compared to other treatments. There was no significant difference between control, chemical fertilizer, compost and Azotobacter treatments on silymarin percentage. In terms of silybin percentage, there was no significant difference between control, compost, Azotobacter and aztobacter+compost treatments. The chemical fertilizer treatment showed the lowest silybin percentage (16.4. There was a positive correlation between plant height and seed yield (r=0.68**. It seems that biofertilizers can consider as a replacement for chemical fertilizers in Milk thistle medicinal plant production.

  5. Effects of Animal Manures and Chemical Fertilizer on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Milk Thistle Plant (Silybum marianum

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    R Yazdani Biuki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum is one of the medicinal plants that has many drug properties. In order to evaluate effects of animal manures and chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of Milk Thistle plant, an experiment was conducted in the Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2008 based on completely randomized block design with three replications and four treatments. The treatments included: control (without any manure or fertilizer, chemical NPK fertilizer, cattle and sheep manures. The characteristics such as number of lateral stem per plant, height of plant, number of inflorescences per plant, inflorescence diameter, number of seeds per capitol, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, oil percentage, silymarin percentage (active ingredient, silybin percentage, oil yield and silymarin yield were recorded. The results showed that different treatments had no effect on yield components, but had significant effect on oil percentage, silymarin and silybin content of seeds. Cattle manure had more oil (21% and silybin (21.7% compared with other treatments. There was no significant difference in oil and silymarin percentage between control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Cattle manure and sheep manure had minimum percentage of silybin (16.4 and maximum percentage of silymarin (3.1 Compared with other treatments. There were positive correlation between height of plant with seed yield (r=0.86** and inflorescence diameter (r=0.6*, which represents importance of these traits for final yield assessment. There were no positive correlation between seed yield and other yields components. Keywords: Milk Thistle, Quantitative and qualitative characteristics, Animal manures, Medicinal plants

  6. Selectivity and stability of new herbicides and herbicide combinations for the seed yields of some field crops II. Effect at milk thistle (Silybum Marianum Gaertn.)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Delchev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. During 2013 – 2015 on pellic vertisol soil type was conducted a field experiment. Under investigation was Bulgarian milk thistle cultivar Silmar (Silybum marianum Gaertn.). Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check, 6 soil-applied herbicides – Tendar EC, Sharpen 33 EC, Merlin flex 480 SC, Smerch 24 ЕC, Raft 400 SC, Eagle 75 DF and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Kalin flo, Eclipse 70 DWG, Sultan 500 SC, Granstar super 50 SG, Starane 250 ...

  7. Effects of Salinity and Drought Stresses on Germination Characteristics of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Yazdani Biuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the germination and seedling growth responses of Milk Thistle as a medicinal plant to salinity and drought stresses, two separate experiments were conducted based on completely randomised design with four replications. In the first experiment, the effect of drought potential levels (0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -10, -15 and -20 bars due to using polyethilenglycol (PEG 6000 and the second trial evaluated effects of salinity potential (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ml/molar caused by NaCl were studied on germination characteristics and seedling growth. The results indicated that salinity and drought stresses showed significant effects on germination and seedling growth of milk thistle. The seeds were able to germinate in 300 ml/molar salinity potential and -20 bar drought potential conditions. The effect of both stresses on length and dry weight of seedlings were significant and with increasing salinity and drought stresses, the length and dry weight of radicles and plumules decreased. Increasing drought level, led to higher plumule length reduction compared to radicle length reduction, which shows that milk thistle plumule is more sensitive to droughtness than radicle. Dry weight of seedling at -3 bar drought potential was 50% of control plants. Keywords: PEG, Drought stress, Sodium chloride, Milk thistle

  8. Feeding Value of Silybum marianum for Sheep and its Effect on Fiber and Protein Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mojadam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to scarcity of forage and water resources and high feed prices in Iran, it seems that the utilization of native and cheap forage resources for ruminants is important. The Milk thistle (Silybum marianum is distributed in different regions of Iran included: Gonbad Kavoos, Gorgan, Nodeh Kalardasht, Dareh Hezareh, Dasht Mugan, Poshtkoh, Mollassani, Shush, Hamidieh, Ramhormuz, Izeh and Kazeroon. The Silybum marianum seed extract and whole plant contain many compounds including Silybin A and B, Silychristin, Apigenin, deoxy silydianin (flavonolignans. Seeds of this plant has about 20 to 25 percent oil, which oleic acids (31.85 %, linoleic acid (45.36 % percent and palmitic acid (8.25 % are the major fatty acids of Silybum marianum seed. Also, the Silybum marianum contains flavonoids and anti-nutritional compounds such as tannins and nitrates. Tannins, unsaturated oils and other anti-nutritional compounds may have negative effects on the digestion of fiber and protein fractions. Tannins can make complexes with large number of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, bacterial cell membrane protein and carbohydrates, and even digestive enzymes. The Silybum marianum plants are native to northern areas of Ahvaz and abundantly growth as self-propelled. The farm animals in these area (sheep, goats, camels, water buffalo and native cows, etc. graze this plant as well as the manual feeding, but there is little known about its effects on the health, performance and digestibility of nutrients (in particular on the fiber and protein, due to existing the tannin and unsaturated oils in it in those animals, and no research work has been done about Silybum marianum. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to determine the feeding value of Silybum marianum and to measure its effects on rumen fermentation and digestion of fiber (straw and protein constituents (soybean meal feedstuff in Arabi sheep. Materials and Methods Twelve male Arabi sheep

  9. Effects of Potassium Sulfate [K2SO4] on The Element Contents, Polyphenol Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Milk Thistle [Silybum Marianum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldiz, Gulsum

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum L. (Milk thistle) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world. It's sprout is used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of liver disease for centuries. The seeds of milk thistle contain silymarin, an isomeric mixture of flavonolignans [silybin, silychristin, and silydianin]. Silymarin acts as a strong anti-hepatotoxic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of potassium sulfate [K 2 SO 4 ] fertilizer doses on polyphenol content, some nutrient elements, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of milk thistle at experimental fields of Ordu University in Turkey. The antimicrobial activities of seed ethanol extracts and seed oil were tested in vitro against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Escherichia coli, (E. coli) Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Aspergillus niger (A. niger) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) using the disc diffusion method. Free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extracts of milk thistle was determined spectrophotometrically by monitoring the disappearance of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH•) at 517 nm according to the method described by Brand-Williams et al .[17] The phenolic contents in the ethanolic extracts of milk thistle were determined according to the procedure described by Slinkard and Singleton[19] with a slight modification of using a Folin-Ciocalteu phenolic reagent. The amount of total flavonoid in the ethanolic extracts was measured by aluminum chloride [AlCl 3 ] colorimetric assay. The ions in aerosol samples were determined by using Dionex ICS 1100 Series ion chromatography. Seed and seed oils obtained from obvious doses of potassium sulfate [0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha -1 fertilizer applications showed antimicrobial activities against E. coli , A. niger and P. aeruginosa . The application of 90 kg ha -1 of K 2 SO 4 on seed oil resulted in the highest antimicrobial activities. At 100 µg mL -1 and 200 µg mL -1 , except the highest

  10. A descriptor list of Silybum marianum (L. Gaertner – morphological and biological characters

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    Dušková, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn (Milk thistle is an important medicinal plant which fruits are used for treatment of various liver diseases. In an effort to utilize the genetic potential of cultivated plants in the best way, the breeding of new high-performance cultivars is underway all over the world. Genetic improvement in Silybum can only be, as with all other plants, achieved through a clear understanding of the plant´s behaviour and the amount of variability presented in wild populations. Surprisingly no descriptor list has been compiled up to now, which would permit an objective and easily repeatable description an evaluation of the different Silybum genotypes. The first part of such a descriptor list, which is intended mainly for evaluation of genotypes perspective for fruit production, is presented here and it contains both the morphological and biological characters.

  11. Thidiazuron enhanced regeneration and silymarin content in silybum marianum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Abbasi, B.H.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    Silybum marianum, of family Asteraceae is renowned for production of biologically important silymarin, which has shown multi-dimensional medicinal properties. It has a high protective role against jaundice and hepatitis C worldwide. We hereby established a feasible and efficient method for indirect regeneration of S. marianum for production of consistent plantlets. Calli were induced from leaf explants of seed-derived plantlets on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with several concentrations of different plant growth regulators (PGRs). Highest callogenic response (89%) was recorded for 4.4 meu M Thidiazuron (TDZ) in combination with 6.6 meu M Kinetin (Kn). Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture, on medium with similar compositions of PGRs induced shoot organogenesis. Highest shoot induction frequency (86%) with maximum mean multiple shoots (26 shoots per explant) were recorded for 11meu M TDZ after 4 weeks of transfer. Longest shoots (4.1 cm) were recorded for MS medium augmented with 6.6 meu M TDZ and 4.4 meu M naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Furthermore, rooted plantlets were developed on MS medium containing different concentrations of indole acetic acid (IAA). Silymarin was determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 8.47 mg/g DW silymarin was detected in the regenerated plantlets. This study contributes to a better understanding of the different mechanisms involved in morphogenesis and production of biologically active principle in Silybum marianum. (author)

  12. Hepatoprotective Role of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum in Meat Type Chicken Fed Aflatoxin B1 Contaminated Feed

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    Din Muhammad, Naila Chand, Sarzamin Khan*, Asad Sultan, Mohammad Mushtaq and Rafiullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk thistle was added in aflatoxin B1 contaminated poultry feed to investigate and compare its hepatoprotective effects with a commercial toxin binder. Two hundred and forty, day-old broilers were randomly allocated into four major groups A, B, C and D. Group A was kept as control, having aflatoxin free feed, while group B was fed aflatoxin contaminated feed, group C was raised on aflatoxin contaminated feed with toxin binder “Mycoad” @ 3g/kg of feed, while group D was provided aflatoxin contaminated feed along with milk thistle @10g/kg of feed. Aflatoxin B1 was present at the level of 80 µg/kg feed during the first week and 520 µg/kg feed in the remaining experimental period. Serum total protein was significantly (P<0.05 higher in group D, followed by group A, C and B. Serum enzymes including, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT values were significantly (P<0.05 lower in group D, followed by C, A and B, which are indicative of hepatoprotective role of milk thistle. Body weight gain and feed intake was decreased by aflatoxin contaminated feed (group B in comparison with group A and group D. Milk thistle supplementation improved body weight gain and feed intake and was similar to toxin binder treated birds. Average feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly (P<0.05 higher (poor in group B and were the same in all other groups. Present study demonstrated that milk thistle can potentially be used as mycotoxin binder and to minimize the adverse effects of toxin contaminated feed in broilers production.

  13. The Effect of Seed Priming and Accelerated Aging on Germination and Physiochemical Changes in Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum

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    Ghasem PARMOON

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of seed priming and aging on some physiological characteristics of Milk thistle was studied in a factoral experiment based on Complete Randomized Design (CRD. Tratments were included hydro priming (using distilled water, halo priming (0, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6% KNO3 and accelerated aging (0, 2, 4 and 6 days under 45°C and 95% humidity in three replications. Determined parameters were germination charactristics including germination percentage, daily germination speed, mean time of germination, seed vigor index, hypocutile length and hypocutile dry weight. Activity of catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were determined at 12 hours after imbibition and seedling stage. According to results of this experiment, germination percentage, seed vigor and seedling growth of seeds were increased under all priming treatments. Improving the catalase and peroxidase activity led to decrease the aging damages. Germination characteristics were improved under both priming treatments at the beginning of germination as well as seedling growth. Polyphenol oxidase activity was increased in the pre-treated seeds but decreased in seedling growth stage. Aging treatments led to reduce the germination percentage, daily germination speed, seed vigor and seedling growth while the germination time was increased. Accelerated aging caused to reduce the germination rate and seedling growth of milk thistle that is probably due to increasing the lipid peroxidation, free radical increment and decreasing the antioxidants activity. The greatest and lowest antioxidants activity, the germination percentage, germination speed and seed vigor were respectively observed under priming using 3% KNO3 concentration and control seeds.

  14. Trichoderma strains- Silybum marianum hairy root cultures interactions

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    T. Hasanloo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Silymarin is a unique flavonoid complex with documented hepatoprotective properties. Silybum  marianum hairy root culture as a source for producing silymarin has been an important strategy for study the cell signaling pathway. In the present investigation Trichoderma strains- Silybum marianum hairy root cultures interactions have been studied. Methods: The effects of two Trichoderma Strains (KHB and G46-7 (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/ 50 mL culture in 6 different exposure times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h have been investigated on flavonolignans production. The flavonolignans were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography method. Cell signaling pathway was evaluated by determination of H2O2 content, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. Results:The elicitation effects of two Trichoderma Strains (KHB and G46-7 were examined on flavonolignans accumulation and the activation of cell defense system in S. marianum hairy root cultures. The results indicated that the highest silymarin accumulation (0.45 and 0.33 mg/g DW was obtained in media elicited with 0.5 mg/50 mL cultures of T. harzianum Strains (KHB and G46-3, respectively after 120 h. Feeding time experiments indicated that a significant higher content of silymarin production was achieved after 120 and 72 h in media treated with 0.5 mg/50 mL cultures of KHB and G46-3, respectively. Our results showed that S. marianum treated by KHB strain, increased taxifolin, silychristin, isosilybin and silydianin productions significantly. The H2O2 content in the control hairy root cultures remained lower than the treated cultures. There was significant enhancement in both peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities in treated hairy roots reaching a peak after 72 h. Conclusion: These findings suggested that some Trichoderma strains are positive elicitors for promoting silymarin accumulation in S. marianum hairy root cultures. The results also suggested the presence

  15. New amides from seeds of Silybum marianum with potential antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ning-Bo; Jia, Cui-Cui; Xu, Jun; Li, Da-Hong; Xu, Fan-Xing; Bai, Jiao; Li, Zhan-Lin; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Two new amide compounds, mariamides A and B (1-2), were obtained together with fourteen known compounds from the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses, as well as HR-ESI-MS data. Most of the compounds showed significant antioxidant activities than positive control in ABTS and FRAP assays. However, only amide compounds 1-4 showed moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity and compounds 7 and 16 showed the most potent activity against DPPH. Most of the compounds showed moderate to stronger α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Nevertheless, only flavonoids showed strong PTP1B inhibitory activities. These results indicate a use of milk thistle seed extracts as promising antioxidant and antidiabetic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the Antioxidant Activity of Silybum marianum Seed Extract and Its Protective Effect against DNA Oxidation, Protein Damage and Lipid Peroxidation

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    Aynur Serçe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Silybum marianum (milk thistle seeds was investigated. We have also investigated the protein damage activated by oxidative Fenton reaction and its prevention by Silybum marianum seed extract. Antioxidant potential of Silybum marianum seed ethanol extract was measured using diff erent in vitro methods, such as lipid peroxidation, 1,1–diphenyl–2–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ferric reducing power assays. The extract significantly decreased DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals. Protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals was also effi ciently inhibited, which was confirmed by the presence of protein damage markers, such as protein carbonyl formation and by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE. The present study shows that milk thistle seeds have good DPPH free radical scavenging activity and can prevent lipid peroxidation. Therefore, Silybum marianum can be used as potentially rich source of antioxidants and food preservatives. The results suggest that the seeds may have potential beneficial health effects providing opportunities to develop value-added products.

  17. In vitro propagation of silybum marianum (l.) gaertn. and genetic fidelity assessment of micropropagated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Y.W.; Wamg, R.J.; Yang, Z.S.; Wang, Y.J.

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum (milk thistle), an annual and biennial herbaceous plant, has been used to treat liver disease for 2000 years. An efficient system for micropropagation from leaf explants of wild-grown S. marianum was successfully established and the genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants was assessed using PCR-based random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The highest frequency (98.9%) of callus induction was obtained from explants cultivated for 4 weeks on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg l/sup -1/N6-Benzylaminopurine (BA) and 2.0 mg l/sup -1/ alpha-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The optimal medium for shoots organogenesis was MS supplemented with 3.0 mg l/sup -1/ Gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) and 1.0 mg l/sup -1/NAA, while shoot proliferation was accomplished in MS supplemented with 1.0 mg l/sup -1/BA and 0.3 mg l/sup -1/NAA. Rooting (94.5%) of these shoots was achieved after 4 weeks on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l/sup -1/ IBA. A total of 92% of the plants were surviving 6 weeks after transplantation of plantlets to soil. RAPD analysis revealed that the genetic fidelity between the parent and the In vitro-raised plantlets exhibited 100% similarity. This confirmed the true-to-type nature of the In vitro-raised clones. |(author)

  18. Novelty Detection Classifiers in Weed Mapping: Silybum marianum Detection on UAV Multispectral Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Thomas K; Tamouridou, Afroditi Alexandra; Pantazi, Xanthoula Eirini; Lagopodi, Anastasia L; Kashefi, Javid; Ovakoglou, Georgios; Polychronos, Vassilios; Moshou, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, the detection and mapping of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. weed using novelty detection classifiers is reported. A multispectral camera (green-red-NIR) on board a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was employed for obtaining high-resolution images. Four novelty detection classifiers were used to identify S. marianum between other vegetation in a field. The classifiers were One Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM), One Class Self-Organizing Maps (OC-SOM), Autoencoders and One Class Principal Component Analysis (OC-PCA). As input features to the novelty detection classifiers, the three spectral bands and texture were used. The S. marianum identification accuracy using OC-SVM reached an overall accuracy of 96%. The results show the feasibility of effective S. marianum mapping by means of novelty detection classifiers acting on multispectral UAV imagery.

  19. Polysaccharides, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities in different parts of Silybum marianum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaolei

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum L. is used for the production of silymarin, a flavonoid utilized for regenerating damaged hepatic tissues. Herein, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and polysaccharides content (PC) in the roots, main stems, leaves, fruit receptacles, and pappi of Silybum marianum were determined. The antioxidant activities of plant ethanol extracts were assessed to validate the medicinal potential of the various plant parts. The pappi exhibited the highest TFC (17.10 mg rutin/g of dry plant material), followed by the fruit receptacles (15.34 mg/g). The PC varied from 3.57±0.23 to 11.02±0.35 mg glucose /g dry plant material; the highest PC was obtained from the roots. At 50 ug/mL, the pappi ethanol extract showed the highest 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (69.68%), followed by the roots (66.02%).

  20. Quantifying cardinal temperatures and thermal time required for germination of Silybum marianum seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Parmoon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The response of seed germination to environmental factors can be estimated by nonlinear regression. The present study was performed to compare four nonlinear regression models (segmented, beta, beta modified, and dent-like to describe the germination rate–temperature relationships of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. at six constant temperatures, with the aim of identifying the cardinal temperatures and thermal times required to reach different germination percentiles. Models and statistical indices were calibrated using an iterative optimization method and their performance was compared by root mean square error (RMSE, coefficient of determination (R2 and Akaike information criterion correction (AICc. The beta model was found to be the best model for predicting the required time to reach 50% germination (D50, (R2 = 0.99; RMSE = 0.004; AICc = − 276.97. Based on the model outputs, the base, optimum, and maximum temperatures of seed germination were 5.19 ± 0.79, 24.01 ± 0.11, and 34.32 ± 0.36 °C, respectively. The thermal times required for 50% and 90% germination were 4.99 and 7.38 degree-days, respectively.

  1. The Effect of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. Extract on Growth and Enzyme Activities of Common Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L. Seedling

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    Shahla Faramarzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Allelopathy means any process involving the secondary metabolites (allelochemicals produced by plants, algae, bacteria, and fungi (excluding animals that influences the growth and development of agricultural and biological systems, with positive or negative effects. Plants produce secondary metabolites and in certain circumstances, these can act as phytotoxins, inhibiting or promoting some biochemical or physiological processes in the other plants or organisms. Toxicity of allelochemical compounds include effects on growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, relative growth rate, and oxygen uptake in many crops. Furthermore, the influence of allelochemicals on alpha amylase, oxidase, sucrose synthase activity and malon dialdehyde concentration were analysed. The role of numerous plant secondary metabolites is still unclear, and this raises curiosity for both plant physiologist and ecologists. Inhibitory effects on germination and establishments of crops caused by residues of either crops or weeds have lead to investigation of the release of toxic compounds from such residues. This present study was designed to evaluate the allelopathic potential of milk thistle for controlling common cocklebur in vegetables. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effect of milk thistle aqueous extract on growth and enzyme activities of common cocklebur seedlings, two separate experiments were carried out in randomized complete design and randomized complete block designs with five and four replications, respectively, in spring 2012 in seed technology laboratory and greenhouse of Azad University, Shoushtar branch, Shoushtar, Iran. Milk thistle aqueous extract concentrations were involved (0, 5, 10 and 15% (v/v in petridish and (0, 10, 20 and 30% (v/v as spraying on common cocklebur seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Whole plants of milk thistle were gathered from medicine plant farm of Azad

  2. Effect of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. on Biochemical Parameters and Immunity of Broiler Chicks Fed Aflatoxin B1 after Three Weeks

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    Maliheh Amiri Dumari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of milk thistle seeds (MTSs in counteracting the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in a contaminated diet fed to broilers. Methods: Two dietary inclusion rates of AFB1 (0, 0.250 and 500 ppb and MTS (0, 0.5 and 1% were tested in a 3×3 factorial manner. The effect of nine experimental treatments was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with 4 replicates of 6 birds each from one to 21 days of age. The effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors, antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND and influenza disease (ID in broilers were evaluated at the end of this period. Results: Statistical analysis of the main effects of diets indicated no significant changes in uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, ID, and phosphorus compared to the control (P>0.01. Also, addition of 500 ppb of dietary AFB1 into the diet was associated with significant decreases in serum glucose, calcium, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and ND compared to the control group (P<0.01. The contaminated diet significantly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT (P<0.05. Conclusion: Milk thistle showed protective effects and resulted in some serum enzyme activities and serum biochemical changes associated with aflatoxin toxicity.

  3. Temperature and salinity affect the germination and growth of Silybum marianum Gaertn and Avena fatua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashmir, S.; Khan, M. A.; Shad, A.

    2016-01-01

    Two troublesome weeds like Silybum marianum and Avena fatua were exposed to different levels of temperature and salinity. Laboratory based experimented were conducted in the Department of Weed Science, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2015. Sterilized seeds of S. marianum and A. fatua were placed in petri-dishes in a growth chamber. The temperature levels studied were 15, 25 and 40 degree C while the NaCl concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mM. Data revealed that germination and growth related traits responded differently to different levels of temperature and salinity. Optimum temperature (25 degree C) resulted in higher germination and growth of both the weed species. While highest temperature used (40 degree C) or lower temperature (15 degree C) resulted in poor germination and growth of S. marianum and A. fatua. Salinity level up to 100 mM did not affect the seed germination of S. marianum and A. fatua. NaCl concentration above 100 mM significantly decreased germination and ceased the germination of both the weeds at 600 mM. Like germination, the growth related variables were also decreased at very low or very high temperature and higher concentrations of NaCl. It is concluded that temperature and NaCl can affect establishment, growth and seed production potential of S. marianum and A. fatua. (author)

  4. Influence of dietary replacement of sunflower oil with milk thistle (Silybum marianum oil on chicken meat quality and antioxidant status of liver

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    Gordana Kralik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the effects of dietary replacement of 3% sunflower oil (SO group with 3% milk thistle oil (MTO group on the technological quality of meat, such as pH value, colour (CIE L*, CIE a*, CIE b*, drip loss (%, shear force (N, and cooking loss (%, as well as on the content of fatty acid lipids in broiler breast and thigh muscles. Significant difference (P < 0.05 was determined for pHi, pHu, CIE a*, CIE b* values between groups, although the values for the stated indicators were within the standard range. Lipids of breast meat of the MTO group contained more arachidic acid (P < 0.001, octadecenoic acid isomer B (P = 0.047 and eicosatrienoic acid (P = 0.041, and less α-linolenic acid (P < 0.001 and Σn-3PUFA. Lipids of thigh meat of the MTO group contained more ΣSFA, myristoleic acid, eicosatrienoic acid (P < 0.05 and eicosenoic acid (P < 0.001, and less α-linolenic acid, and had narrower Σn-3/n-6 PUFA ratio than the SO group. According to the antioxidant status of broiler liver, there was significantly higher catalase activity determined in the MTO group.

  5. Solid-State Fermentation of Silybum marianum L. Seeds Used as Additive to Increase the Nutritional Value of Wheat Bread

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    Dalia Cizeikiene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Silybum marianum L. seeds were fermented using solid-state fermentation (SSF with several lactic acid bacteria (LAB of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus genera, isolated from spontaneously fermented Lithuanian rye sourdough. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavour of Silybum marianum L. seeds using LAB fermentation was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of the unfermented and LAB-fermented seeds of this plant was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Fermented seeds have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of higher alcohols. Total amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of unfermented and fermented seeds were determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained results indicate that Silybum marianum L. seeds are a valuable source of bioactive compounds. The highest content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids (4596 and 1346 mg of rutin equivalents (RE per 100 g, respectively was determined in the seeds fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7 bacteria in solid-state fermentation. Silybum marianum L. seeds fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7 and Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-9 showed stronger antioxidant activity (1263 and 1041 mg of RE per 100 g, respectively, compared to the unfermented seeds (805 mg of RE per 100 g. The addition of Silybum marianum L. seeds fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7 bacteria had the highest effect on the decrease of the bacterial spoilage of bread. The aroma compounds from the fermented seeds extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. Ultrasonic pretreatment of the seeds reduced the total amount of microorganisms in the raw material. Microbiological tests revealed that the highest antimicrobial effect was achieved using the solid-state fermentation conditions. This

  6. Response of Silybum marianum plant to irrigation intervals combined with fertilization

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    SABER F. HENDAWY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hendawy SF, Hussein MS, Youssef AA, El-Mergawi RA. 2013. Response of Silybum marianum plant to irrigation intervals combined with fertilization. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 21-28. This study was investigated to evaluate the influence of different kinds of organic and bio fertilization under different irrigation intervals on the growth, production and chemical constituents of Sylibium marianum plant. Data indicated that all studied growth and yield characters were significantly affected by the duration of irrigation intervals. Fertilizer treatments had a primitive effect on growth and yield characters. The interaction between irrigation intervals and fertilizer treatments has a clear considerable effect on growth and yield characters. The obtained results indicated the favorable effect of organic and bio fertilizers which reduce the harmful effect of water stress. Different treatments had a pronounced effect on silymarin content.

  7. Synergistic effects of drought stress and photoperiods on phenology and secondary metabolism of Silybum marianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Adnan; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Adil, Muhammad; Anjum, Sumaira; Zia, Muhammad; Ihsan-Ul-Haq

    2014-09-01

    Silybum marianum is an important medicinal plant of the family Asteraceae, well known for its set of bioactive isomeric mixture of secondary metabolites "silymarin", primarily acting as a hepato-protective agent. Abiotic stress augments plant secondary metabolism in different plant tissues to withstand harsh environmental fluctuations. In the current study, our aim was to induce drought stress in vitro on S. marianum under the influence of different photoperiod treatments to study the effects, with respect to variations in secondary metabolic profile and plant growth and development. S. marianum was extremely vulnerable to different levels of mannitol-induced drought stress. Water deficiency inhibited root induction completely and retarded plant growth was observed; however, phytochemical analysis revealed enhanced accumulation of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total protein content along with several antioxidative enzymes. Secondary metabolic content was positively regulated with increasing degree of drought stress. A dependent correlation of seed germination frequency at mild drought stress and antioxidative activities was established with 2 weeks dark + 2 weeks 16/8 h photoperiod treatment, respectively, whereas a positive correlation existed for TPC and TFC when 4 weeks 16/8 h photoperiod treatment was applied. The effects of drought stress are discussed in relation to phenology, seed germination frequency, biomass build up, antioxidative potential, and secondary metabolites accumulation.

  8. Silybin content and overexpression of chalcone synthase genes in Silybum marianum L. plants under abiotic elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Garhy, Hoda A S; Khattab, Salah; Moustafa, Mahmoud M A; Abou Ali, Rania; Abdel Azeiz, Ahmed Z; Elhalwagi, Abeer; El Sherif, Fadia

    2016-11-01

    Silymarin, a Silybum marianum seed extract containing a mixture of flavonolignans including silybin, is being used as an antihepatotoxic therapy for liver diseases. In this study, the enhancing effect of gamma irradiation on plant growth parameters of S. marianum under salt stress was investigated. The effect of gamma irradiation, either as a single elicitor or coupled with salinity, on chalcone synthase (CHS) gene expression and silybin A + B yield was also evaluated. The silybin A + B content in S. marianum fruits was estimated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). An increase in silybin content was accompanied by up-regulation of the CHS1, CHS2 and CHS3 genes, which are involved in the silybin biosynthetic pathway. The highest silybin A + B production (0.77 g/100 g plant DW) and transcript levels of the three studied genes (100.2-, 91.9-, and 24.3-fold increase, respectively) were obtained with 100GY gamma irradiation and 4000 ppm salty water. The CHS2 and CHS3 genes were partially sequenced and submitted to the NCBI database under the accession numbers KT252908.1 and KT252909.1, respectively. Developing new approaches to stimulate silybin biosynthetic pathways could be a useful tool to potentiate the use of plants as renewable resources of medicinal compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Detailed studies on some lipids of Silybum marianum(L. seed oil

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    Hassanein, Minar M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight lipid patterns of Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn seed oil, not hitherto reported, (20% have been elucidated in this laboratory using capillary GLC and HPLC as main tools of analysis. The oil is rich in linoleic acid (53.3% and oleic acid (21.3%. Five major triacylglycerols containing linoleic acyls namely LLL, LLO, LLP, LOO and LOP were detected by HPLC using FID detector, these triacylglycerols are also predominating in both cottonseed and sunflower oils but in different proportions. The total tocopherols content (260 ppm was determined directly in the oil by HPLC. It was found that the oil contains alpha -tocopherol as a major constituent (84.5% resembling sunflower oil. The whole sterols pattern, as determined as their trimethylsilyl derivatives by GLC, includes campesterol, 5-stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, 7-stigmasterol, avenasterol and spinasterol. The four sterols lipid clases of free and acylated sterols and sterylglycosides have been determined as their 9- and 1- anthroylnitrile derivatives by fluorescence and UV- HPLC respectively.La composición de ocho tipos de lípidos en aceite de semillas de Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn, hasta ahora no reportados, han sido identificados en este laboratorio, usando GLC capilar y HPLC como herramientas principales de análisis. El aceite es rico en ácidos linoleico (53,3% y oleico (21,3%. El ácido linoleico está contenido principalmente en cinco formas de triacilgliceroles: LLL, LLO, LLP, LOO y LOP, detectadas por HPLC, usando un detector FID, estos triacilgliceroles son también predominantes en los aceites de semillas de algodón o girasol, pero con diferentes proporciones. El contenido total de tocoferoles (260 ppm fue determinado directamente en el aceite por HPLC. Se encontró que el aceite contenía alfa-tocoferol como principal constituyente (84,5%, recordando al aceite de girasol. El patrón completo de esteroles determinado por GLC como derivados de trimetilsilil incluyó campesterol

  10. Investigation on anatomical, chemical and pulping characteristics of Silybum marianum stem

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    Rahim Yadollahi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To study the possibility of using plant Silybum marianum in paper industry, its stem yield potential, chemical properties, fiber indices and pulping was evaluated. Mean value of fiber length and diameter of Silybum marianumstem harvested in early June, were calculated 178 and 3.5 cm, respectively. Dry weight of whole stem determined 4710 kg per hectar. Mean value of fiber length, diameter, cavity diameter and wall thickness were obtained 1194, 16.06, 9.06, and 3.66 μm, respectively. Raunkel, flexibility, and slenderness ratios of its fibers were determined 80.83, 56.39, and 74.37, respectively. Results of chemical analysis showed that the stem comprises %70.35 holocellulose, %39.25 cellulose, %13.13 lignin, %3.09 acetone-soluble, %18 hot water-soluble extractives, and %11/85 ash. Soda pulp was obtained at 165 °C pulping time, 25% alkaline and 10:1 ratio of liquor to chips. Results of pulping showed that with increasing of pulping time from 30 to 210 minutes, the kappa number and yield decreased from 77.32 to 32.13 and 43.6 to 36.5, respectively; whereas accepted pulp yield (passed from 20 mesh increased from 17.4 to 35.5% paper made of pulp with kappa number 32 had 36.82 Nm/g tensile index, 3.76 km breaking length and 1.75 Kpa.m2/g burst strength. In general, achieved results have shown that the present studied species could be regarded more for papermaking because of the suitable fiber biometrical and chemical properties as compared to other non-woody plants.

  11. Biodiesel production from non-edible Silybum marianum oil using heterogeneous solid base catalyst under ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Mohammed; Chen, Yao; Liu, Hongyang; Zhao, Ting; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate modified TiO2 doped with C4H4O6HK as heterogeneous solid base catalyst for transesterification of non-edible, Silybum marianum oil to biodiesel using methanol under ultrasonication. Upon screening the catalytic performance of modified TiO2 doped with different K-compounds, 0.7 C4H4O6HK doped on TiO2 was selected. The preparation of the catalyst was done using incipient wetness impregnation method. Having doped modified TiO2 with C4H4O6HK, followed by impregnation, drying and calcination at 600 °C for 6 h, the catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, BET, TGA, UV and the Hammett indicators. The yield of the biodiesel was proportional to the catalyst basicity. The catalyst had granular and porous structures with high basicity and superior performance. Combined conditions of 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 5 wt.% catalyst amount, 60 °C reaction temperature and 30 min reaction time was enough for maximum yield of 90.1%. The catalyst maintained sustained activity after five cycles of use. The oxidative stability which was the main problem of the biodiesel was improved from 2.0 h to 3.2h after 30 days using ascorbic acid as antioxidant. The other properties including the flash point, cetane number and the cold flow ones were however, comparable to international standards. The study indicated that Ti-0.7-600-6 is an efficient, economical and environmentally, friendly catalyst under ultrasonication for producing biodiesel from S. marianum oil with a substantial yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Silybum marianum on GFAP and Spatial Memory in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer\\'s Disease

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    A Hadinia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Studies have shown that Silybum marianum have high levels of antioxidant polyphenolic substances and have neuro-protective effects on neurodegenerative diseases. Accordingly, this study was conducted to determine the possible effect of Silybum marianum on expression of and spatial memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Thirty adult male Wistar rats were allocated in three groups: sham group, experimental group, and lesion group, each consisting of ten rats. The experimental and lesion groups received Ibotonic acid of the NBM nucleus in stereotaxic apparatus whereas the sham group underwent surgical procedure without any injection. The experimental group received 200mg/kg of Silybum mirianum extract orally, diluted in 1% Arabic gum. Also the sham group received 1% Arabic gum every day for four weeks. The lesion group did not receive anything. The behavioral assessment was measured, after treatment , by using of Y maze test on day 7 and 28 in all groups. The ELISA method was used to measure the GFAP level in Hippocamp at the end of behavioral assessment. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using ANOVA and Repeated Measures of Analysis Variance tests. Results:Improvement of behavioral performance of the experimental animals compared to the lesion and sham groups were increased significantly on day 7 and 28 (P <0.01 & P <0.001 respectively. The ELISA method showed that the level of the GFAP synthesis decreased in the experimental group compared to the lesion and sham groups (P <0.001. Conclusion: The Silybum marianum plant has a protective effect on the nerve tissue in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by decreasing of the GFAP synthesis and lead to the improvement of behavioral performance. :

  13. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

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    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  14. Efficacy of Silybum Marianum Seeds in Ameliorating the Toxic Effects of Aflatoxin B1 in Broilers

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    Omid Fani Makki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of silybum marianum seeds (SMSs on blood biochemical profile of broiler chickens contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. Methods: Combinations of three levels of AFB1 (0, 250 and 500 ppb with three levels of SMSs (0, 0.5, and 1.0 % were incorporated into the basal diet (corn and soybean meal. The effect of nine experimental treatments was assessed using 216 One-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a complete randomized design based on factorial design with 4 replicates of six birds. The individual effects of dietary AFB1 and SMSs on serum biochemistry factors and liver enzymes were evaluated at 35 days of age. Statistical package SAS (9.1 was used to perform the analysis. Results: The main effects of uric acid, glucose, total bilirubin and liver enzymes (such as; aspartate amino-transferase (AST, alanine amino-transaminase (ALT and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT in groups received different levels of AFB1 significantly increased (P<0.01. In contrast, albumin, direct bilirubin, calcium, and phosphorus significantly decreased (P<0.05. However, the SMSs supplemented diets significantly decreased uric acid, glucose, AST and GGT enzymes compare to control group (P<0.01. Conclusion: SMSs might prevent the adverse effects of AFB1 in contaminated food and improve safety and quality of poultry products for human use.

  15. Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Seed Germination and Spreading Potentials of Silybum marianum Gaertner

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    Pasquale Montemurro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Silybum marianum Gaertner is spreading in many crops of Southern Italy, particularly in durum wheat, sugar beet and some vegetable crops. Information about its biology are useful to set up effective control strategies. Four experiments were carried out at the Crop Science Department of the University of Bari (Southern Italy. Two trials were conducted in Petri dishes and evaluated the effects of different light, temperature and osmotic stress conditions on the seed germination. Another trial evaluated the ability of seedlings to emerge from different depths. The effects of eight different sowing periods on the plant growth were assessed in the fourth experiment. The highest germination rate was found with constant temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C and with alternating temperatures of 25- 15 °C for 8 and 16 hours respectively. Germination was affected by the light and was significantly decreased at 0.2 Mpa and completely inhibited at -0.8 Mpa. Plant emergence was strongly reduced from a depth of more than 3 cm. The plant size at the first bloom was reduced by postponing the sowing period from October to February. The same decreasing trend was observed in the number of flower heads and in the number of days required for the first bloom. Results can suggest some important strategies to manage this species. False sowing, followed by irrigation, can be recommended in summer, in order to obtain the highest seed germination. Since the emergence of this plant is very scarce from a depth of more than 3 cm, ploughing can be effective to bury seeds in case of strong disseminations in order to reduce the infestation in the following crop.

  16. Yield improvement strategies for the production of secondary metabolites in plant tissue culture: silymarin from Silybum marianum tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZid, S

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell culture can be a potential source for the production of important secondary metabolites. This technology bears many advantages over conventional agricultural methods. The main problem to arrive at a cost-effective process is the low productivity. This is mainly due to lack of differentiation in the cultured cells. Many approaches have been used to maximise the yield of secondary metabolites produced by cultured plant cells. Among these approaches: choosing a plant with a high biosynthetic capacity, obtaining efficient cell line for growth and production of metabolite of interest, manipulating culture conditions, elicitation, metabolic engineering and organ culture. This article gives an overview of the various approaches used to maximise the production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. Examples of using these different approaches are shown for the production of silymarin from Silybum marianum tissue culture.

  17. Silybum marianum oil attenuates oxidative stress and ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction in mice treated with D-galactose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu Yun; Dong, Ying; Tu, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Zhou, Xing Hua; Xu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Silybum marianum has been used as herbal medicine for the treatment of liver disease, liver cirrhosis, and to prevent liver cancer in Europe and Asia since ancient times. Silybum marianum oil (SMO), a by-product of silymarin production, is rich in essential fatty acids, phospholipids, sterols, and vitamin E. However, it has not been very good development and use. Objective: In the present study, we used olive oil as a control to investigate the antioxidant and anti-aging effect of SMO in D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging mice. Materials and Methods: D-gal was injected intraperitoneally (500 mg/kg body weight daily) for 7 weeks while SMO was simultaneously administered orally. The triglycerides (TRIG) and cholesterol (CHOL) levels were estimated in the serum. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), monoamine oxidase (MAO), malondialdehyde (MDA), caspase-3, and Bcl-2 were determined in the liver and brain. The activities of Na+-K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, membrane potential (ΔΨm), and membrane fluidity of the liver mitochondrial were estimated. Results: SMO decreased levels of TRIG and CHOL in aging mice. SMO administration elevated the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC, which are suppressed by aging. The levels of MAO and MDA in the liver and brain were reduced by SMO administration in aging mice. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that SMO significantly decreased the concentration of caspase-3 and improved the activity of Bcl-2 in the liver and brain of aging mice. Furthermore, SMO significantly attenuated the D-gal induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction by improving the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, membrane potential (ΔΨm), and membrane fluidity. Conclusion: These results indicate that SMO effectively attenuated oxidative damage and improved apoptosis related factors as well as liver mitochondrial dysfunction in aging mice. PMID:24914315

  18. Study Some Ecological Characteristics on Germination and Seedling Growth of Milky Thistle (Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn

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    E. Zeidali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Milky thistle (Silybum marianum is an annual or biennial plant of the Asteraceae family. Possibly native near the coast of southeast England, it has been widely introduced outside its natural range, for example into North America, Iran, Australia and New Zealand where it is considered an invasive weed. Seed is an important stage of plant life history. Most invasive plants primarily rely on seedling recruitment for population establishment and persistence. The rapid spread of many invasive plants is frequently correlated with special seed traits. Seed trait variations exist not only among species but also within species. Seed traits variations within a species are essential for the seedling establishment at different habitats. Environmental factors, such as temperature, soil solution osmotic potential, solution pH, light quality, management practices and seed location in the soil seedbank, affect weed seed germination and emergence. Fluctuations in temperature can influence seed germination differently than those under constant temperatures; however, such information is not available on Milky thistle. A light requirement for germination is the principal means by which germination can be restricted to an area close to the soil surface, and species requiring light for germination are potentially more likely to be prevalent in no-till and pasture systems. Soil pH affects the development and competitiveness of crops and weeds by affecting the availability of essential minerals, nutrients, the solubility of toxic elements, and soil microflora. Seed burial depth (buried by tillage or other means also affects germination and seedling emergence of several weed species. Better knowledge of the factors that influence seed germination and seedling emergence of Milky thistle could contribute to the development of control measures and help determine its potential for invasion into new areas. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to

  19. Anti-aging potential of a cream containing milk thistle extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to formulate and evaluate antı-agıng effects of a topical cream (water in oil (w/o) emulsion) containig extract of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) against its vehicle (Base) as control. Base containing no extract and a formulation containing 4% concentrated extract of Silybum marianum was developed ...

  20. Chalcone synthase genes from milk thistle (Silybum marianum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the current research, fragments of CHS genes were amplified ... transcript level in petals in the early flowering stage and in the stem of five upper leaves, followed by five upper leaves in the ..... First strand cDNA was amplified by 1 μg of.

  1. Chitosan (middle-viscous as an effective elicitor for silymarin production in Silybum marianum hairy root cultures

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    T. Hasanloo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elicitation with middle-viscous chitosan (30 mg/50 mL significantly stimulated silymarin synthesis in Silybum marianum hairy root cultures. The root cultures established by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes AR15834 showed a potential for production of silymarin. Elicitation with medium molecular weight of chitosan (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/50 mL was used in order to improve silymarin production. Total silymarin increased about 5.26-fold after 96 h of treatment with 30 mg/50 mL chitosan. Dry weight of the hairy roots reached the highest point (0.530 and 0.535 g after 96 h in presence of 20 and 30 mg/50 mL chitosan, respectively. Five different flavonolignans were isolated; taxifolin, silychristin, silydianin, silybin and isosilybin 0.133, 0.200, 0.120, 0.041 and 0.056 mg/g dry weight, respectively. 30 days old hairy roots were treated by 30 mg/50 mL chitosan in different times (12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. The amount of silymarin accumulation significantly increased (0.705 mg/gDW in hairy roots after 96 h treatment. These observations suggested that the medium molecular weight of chitosan could be elicited by S. marianum hairy root cultures that lead to the higher production of silymarin. These results correlated with the culture time, and the biosynthesis which reached to a maximum of 0.705 mg/gDW by 96 h after culture. (2.9-fold higher than the control.

  2. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

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    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  3. Antioxidant and Anti-aging Activities of Silybum Marianum Protein Hydrolysate in Mice Treated with D-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu Yun; Jiang, Ning; Tu, Jie; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Yue

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant and anti-aging effects of Silybum marianum protein hydrolysate (SMPH) in D-galactose-treated mice. D-galactose (500 mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally injected daily for 7 weeks to accelerate aging, and SMPH (400, 800, 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively) was simultaneously administered orally. The antioxidant and anti-aging effects of SMPH in the liver and brain were measured by biochemical assays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the ultrastructure of liver mitochondri. SMPH decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the D-galactose-treated mice. It significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), which were suppressed by D-galactose. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as well as the concentrations of caspase-3 and 8-OHdG in the liver and brain were significantly reduced by SMPH. Moreover, it increased Bcl-2 levels in the liver and brain. Furthermore, SMPH significantly attenuated D-galactose-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction by improving the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and fluidity. TEM showed that the degree of liver mitochondrial damage was significantly decreased by SMPH. The results indicated that SMPH protects against D-galactose-induced accelerated aging in mice through its antioxidant and anti-aging activities. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Osmotic Stress on Seed Germination Indices of Nigella sativa and Silybum marianum

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    H Balouchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of medicinal plants to drought and salt stress tolerance, in an attempt to plant them under drought and saline regions, is of utmost importance. Environmental stresses, especially drought and salt, reduce the global crop yields more than other factors. Selection of drought tolerant crops at germination stage, usually is, the fast and low cost method. In order to study the effect of osmotic stress on germination indices of black cumin and milk thistle, an experiment carried out in a completely randomized design with four replications at the Seed Technology Laboratoary of Yasouj University in 2008. Treatments were 0 (as control, -2.4, -4.8, -7.2 and -9.4 bar osmotic potentials created by using PEG 6000. Results showed that, decreasing of osmotic potential reduced speed of germination and its percentage, root and shoot lengths and dry matter in these two plants. Black cumin showed higher tolerance, to -4.8 bar osmotic potential, as compared to milk thistle. However, milk thistle showed higher tolerance to drought stress, up to this osmotic potential (-4.8 bar, compared to black cumin. Milk thistle had lower germination speed and percentage at higher drought stress as compared to black cumin. Generally, milk thistle showed better growth and survival than black cumin due to its higher root and shoot length and dry matter.

  5. PHYTOTHERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES OF SILYBUM MARIANUM AND ITS USE IN ANIMAL NUTRITION

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    M. Korylyak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Influence of various factors on the quality of animal products encourages the search for new alternative methods to increase productivity. It is therefore important to study dietary supplements of plant origin, which are characterized by a wide range of action, low toxicity, high content of biologically active substances and a positive effect on the immune system. Currently, milk thistle, which is one of the most studied herbal medicines in hematology, is widely used in medicine. An interest to this plant, the seeds of which contains about 200 different active components and products created on the basis, is growing. A rare biologically active substance – silymarin was found in milk thistle fruits. It is due to the content of silymarin that is provides exceptional therapeutic effect. Preparations from the seeds of milk thistle have hepatoprotective, deintoksichny, inflammatory, hemostatic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant and other properties that normalize hepatic function, biliary tracts, spleen and other organs under pathological conditions. Methods. The object of research was milk thistle, material for research - data on its impact on different animal species, particularly their physiology and biochemistry. Also in the study we used normative reference data, specific surveys, the information data from the Internet and so on. Findings. The use of drugs of milk thistle in veterinary and animal science confirms the mechanism of action of this medicinal plant, which has a positive effect on performance providing 100 % yield, increasing daily weight gain, prophylactic and general health (especially that of the digestive system, relieves the stress, which is important for obtaining high-quality products. Originality. Milk thistle does not grow on natural conditions of the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine, therefore, for obtaining herbal raw material, it should ne purposefully cultivated. Recently milk thistle actively began to be grown in

  6. Silymarin from Silybum marianum – new approaches to separation and derivatization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermann, David; Křenková, Alena; Valentová, Kateřina; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, S01/2016 (2016) ISSN 0032-0943. [Joint Natural Products Conference 2016. 24.07.2016-27.07.2016, Kodaň] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15081 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Milk thistle * silymarin * silybin Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. Effect of Osmotic Stress on Seed Germination Indices of Nigella sativa and Silybum marianum

    OpenAIRE

    H Balouchi; A. Yadavi; M. Movahedi Dehnavi

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of medicinal plants to drought and salt stress tolerance, in an attempt to plant them under drought and saline regions, is of utmost importance. Environmental stresses, especially drought and salt, reduce the global crop yields more than other factors. Selection of drought tolerant crops at germination stage, usually is, the fast and low cost method. In order to study the effect of osmotic stress on germination indices of black cumin and milk thistle, an experiment carried out in a...

  8. Instrumental evaluation of anti-aging effects of cosmetic formulations containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on aged human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Jung, Ho Jung; Schrammek-Drusios, Med Christine; Lee, Sung Nae; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Seung Bin; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2016-08-01

    Anti-aging cosmetics are widely used for improving signs of aged skin such as skin wrinkles, decreased elasticity, low dermal density and yellow skin tone. The present study evaluated the effects of cosmetic formulations, eye cream and facial cream, containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum ( S. marianum ) seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone after 4 weeks period of application on aged human skin. Healthy volunteers (n=20) with aged skin were recruited to apply the test materials facially twice per day for 4 weeks. Skin wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone were measured instrumentally for assessing the improvement of skin aging. All the measurements were conducted prior to the application of test materials and at 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Crow's feet wrinkles were decreased 5.97% after 2 weeks of test material application and 14.07% after 4 weeks of application in comparison of pre-application. Skin elasticity was increased 6.81% after 2 weeks and 8.79% after 4 weeks. Dermal density was increased 16.74% after 2 weeks and 27.63% after 4 weeks. With the L* value indicating skin brightness and the a* value indicating erythema (redness), the results showed that brightness was increased 1.70% after 2 weeks and 2.14% after 4 weeks, and erythema was decreased 10.45% after 2 weeks and 22.39% after 4 weeks. Hence, the test materials appear to exert some degree of anti-aging effects on aged human skin. There were no abnormal skin responses from the participants during the trial period. We conclude that the facial and eye cream containing palmitoyl peptides and S. marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other ingredients have effects on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone.

  9. Evaluation the Growth Potential of Artichoke (Synara scolymus L. and Milk thistle (Sylibum marianum L. in Petroleum-contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Zamani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are one of the most common pollutants groups in the environment and threaten the human, animals and plants health. Phytoremediation is a method for cleaning the contaminated areas. Medicinal plants because of their defense mechanisms able to resist and thwart destructive effect of stressors. Some plants have better resistance, including Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. and Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L.; from Asteraceae family that has polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant properties and hepatoprotectors. To evaluation the growth potential of Artichoke and Milk Thistle in petroleum-contaminated soil, an experiment in a completely randomized design was done with 6 levels of gas oil and 3 replications in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. The results showed that, gas oil hydrocarbon had a significant effect at %1 on germination percent of seed and indexes involved in seedling growth including plant height, length, and width, fresh and dry weight of artichoke leaf. In Milk Thistle, gas oil had no significant effect on germination percent. Opposite to that, significant effect at %1 on growth indexes was observed. The maximum germination percent in Artichoke and Milk Thistle seeds was observed in 20 and 10 g/kg gas oil, respectively and the minimum of germination percent was observed in seeds samples that treated with 80 g gas oil per kg soil. Artichoke seedlings were more tolerance than Milk Thistle to the contaminated soil as better growth was observed in this condition. Generally, it seems that these two valuable medicinal plants had relatively resistance to the gas oli pollution and are suggestible to use in oil contaminated soil for cleaning purpose

  10. Biodiesel production from Silybum marianum L. seed oil with high FFA content using sulfonated carbon catalyst for esterification and base catalyst for transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, Abdelrahman B.; Aziz, Akram M.; Al-Tamer, Marwa H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PET was converted to activated carbon and then sulfonated to prepare carbon acid catalyst. • Carbon acid catalyst was used for esterification of high acid value Silybum marianum L. seed oil. • Biodiesel was obtained with 96.98% efficiency. - Abstract: In this research work, waste of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was converted into activated carbon and the latter was used in the preparation of a carbon acid catalyst. Waste of PET was converted into activated carbon via carbonization and steam activation, then the activated carbon was sulfonated using fuming sulfuric acid in order to produce the carbon acid catalyst. The prepared carbon acid catalyst was tested for esterification of high acid value non-edible oil, Silybum marianum L. seed oil (SMSO) via optimized protocol. Amount of the carbon acid catalyst, methanol to oil molar ratio, temperature and time were the experimental variables optimized. Esterification of SMSO with methanol using the prepared carbon acid catalyst reduced its parent acid value (20.0 mg KOH/g) to the acceptable limits for base-catalyzed transesterification (<2.0 mg KOH/g) using 6.0% w/w of the catalyst, 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 68 °C reaction temperature and 180 min of reaction. The performance of the catalyst was reduced gradually during its recycling and reached to 60.0% at the 5th cycle. Kinetics of esterification of SMSO using the prepared carbon acid catalyst followed pseudo first order kinetics, and the activation energy was found to be 70.98 kJ/mol. The esterified oil was converted to biodiesel through optimized base-catalyzed transesterification with methanol. Biodiesel with (96.98% yield and purity of 96.69% w/w) yield was obtained using 0.80% KOH w/w, 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 °C reaction temperature, 75 min of reaction and 600 rpm rate of stirring. The biodiesel properties were within the recommended biodiesel standards as prescribed by ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. Transesterification of

  11. Effects of Drought Stress and Bio-fertilizer Inoculation on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Marian Thistle (Silybum marianum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roghayeh mohammadpour vashvaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Introduction Marian thistle (Silybum marianum L. is a medicinal, herbaceous and annuals plant belongs to the Asteraceae family which is used to treat liver disease. The essential oil of Marian thistle seeds is the type of flavonolignans (phenols family that forms 1.5 to 3% of its seeds weight. The important flavonoids found in the seeds of this plant are silybin, silychristin and silydianin is known as silymarin compounds, that is yellow. Increasing the desired compounds of medicinal plants is possible by cultivation techniques manipulation such as irrigation, fertilization or photo-bioreactor systems. Water deficient is the most important factors limiting the growth and yield of medicinal crops, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Bio-fertilizers as an alternative in some cases and in most cases as a complement to chemical fertilizers can help to ensure the sustainability of agricultural production systems. Han et al. (2006 in the study of the effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB, Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB, Bacillus mucilaginosus in nutrient limited soil planted with pepper and cucumber stated that Rock P and K applied either singly or in combination did not significantly enhance soil availability of P and K. PSB was a more potent P-solubilizer than KSB, and co-inoculation of PSB and KSB resulted in consistently higher P and K availability than in the control. Rock P with inoculation of PSB increased the availability of P and K, the uptake of N, P and K by shoots and roots, and the growth of both pepper and cucumber. Similar but less pronounced results were obtained when rock K and KSB were added concomitantly. Combined together, rock materials and both bacterial strains consistently increased further mineral availability, uptake and plant growth, suggesting their potential use as fertilizer. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of bio

  12. Effect of Different Levels of Silymarin (Silybum marianum on Growth Rate, Carcass Variables and Liver Morphology of Broiler Chickens Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Makki O

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of Silybum marianum seeds (SMS on performance, carcass variables, and liver morphology of the broiler chickens contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. A total of 216 broiler chicks (Ross 308 were used. Birds were randomly assigned to nine treatment groups, with four replicates and six birds in each replicate. Chickens were reared on litter from 1 to 35 days of age. Treatments were (AFB1 in three levels (Zero, 250 and 500 ppb and SMS in three levels (Zero, 0.5 and 1.0 percent using factorial experiment based on completely randomized design. Feed intake at the end of the three weeks did not significantly change in comparison with the control group. With the increase in the level of (AFB1 in the diet, feed intake and body weight gain were decreased compared with the control group in week 4. Feed conversion ratio was not influenced by the treatments. In diets containing AFB1, breast muscle, carcass ratio, abdominal fat and bursal gland weight were significantly decreased (P1 alone did not affect thigh, back, neck, wings, heart, legs and spleen weights. Increasing the level of SMS in the diet alone or in combination with AFB1 resulted in significant changes in the weights of carcass and internal organs. Liver of birds fed diets containing AFB1 showed abnormal signs including enlargement, yellowish, friable and rounded shape. Liver of other treatments did not show any abnormal signs. In conclusion, these findings suggest that silymarin might be used in chickens to prevent the effects of AFB1 in contaminated feed.

  13. Effects of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) extract supplementation on antioxidant status and hs-CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimpour Koujan, Soraiya; Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem; Mobasseri, Majid; Valizadeh, Hadi; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-02-15

    Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder and oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to its pathogenesis and complications. Since Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) extract is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties, this randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of silymarin supplementation on oxidative stress indices and hs-CRP in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. For the present paralleled, randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 40 type 2 diabetes patients aged 25-50 yr old and on stable medication were recruited from the Iranian Diabetes Society and endocrinology clinics in East Azarbayjan (Tabriz, Iran) and randomly assigned into two groups. Patients in the silymarin treatment group received 140 mg, thrice daily of dried extracts of Silybum marianum (n = 20) and those in the placebo group (n = 20) received identical placebos for 45 days. Data pertaining to height, weight, waist circumference and BMI, as well as food consumption, were collected at base line and at the conclusion of the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained and antioxidant indices and hs-CRP were assessed at baseline, as well as at the end of the trial. All 40 patients completed the study and did not report any adverse effects or symptoms with the silymarin supplementation. Silymarin supplementation significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) compared to patients taking the placebo, by 12.85%, 30.32% and 8.43%, respectively (p concentration significantly decreased by 12.01% (p antioxidant indices (SOD, GPX and TAC) and decrease hs-CRP levels in T2DM patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Iaquinto, G

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  15. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  16. Effects of Silybum marianum Seed Oil on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Fatty Acid Composition in Laying Hens%水飞蓟油对蛋鸡产蛋性能、蛋品质及鸡蛋脂肪酸组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建; 曲亮; 李守龙; 沈曼曼; 窦套存; 胡玉萍; 李尚民; 王克华

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究水飞蓟油对蛋鸡产蛋性能、蛋品质及鸡蛋脂肪酸组成的影响. 试验选用30周龄体况良好、产蛋率接近的如皋黄鸡270只,随机分成3个组,每个组6个重复,每个重复15只鸡. 常规饲粮组饲喂玉米-豆粕型饲粮,3%大豆油组饲喂含3%大豆油饲粮,水飞蓟油组饲喂含3%水飞蓟油饲粮. 预试期2周,正试期8周. 结果表明:1)水飞蓟油组产蛋率、日只蛋重、平均蛋重、日只采食量、料蛋比、破蛋率和死淘率与常规饲粮组和3%大豆油组相比,差异均不显著( P>0.05). 2)水飞蓟油组的蛋黄颜色显著低于常规饲粮组( P0.05),其他蛋品质与常规饲粮组和3%大豆油组相比差异均不显著(P>0.05).3)水飞蓟油组鸡蛋的饱和脂肪酸总含量显著高于、多不饱和脂肪酸总含量显著低于3%大豆油组(P0.05). 水飞蓟油组显著增加了鸡蛋α亚麻酸和二十二碳六烯酸( DHA)含量( P0.05) . 2) The yolk color level in the groups which contained 3% soybean oil and Silybum marianum seed oil was less deeper compared with that in the conventional diet group ( P0.05) 3) The con-tents of total saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Silybum marianum seed oil group were much more and less than those in the 3% soybean oil group ( P0.05). The contents ofα-linolenic oil and docosahexaenoic acid ( DHA) in the Silybum marianum seed oil group were much more than those in the conventional diet group and the 3% soybean oil group ( P<0.05) . It is indicated that the Silybum marianum seed oil has no harmful effects on laying performance and egg quality except the yolk color, and significantly increase the content ofα-linolenic oil and DHA in egg compared with convention-al diet and soybean oil diet. Also, compared with soybean oil diet, Silybum marianum seed oil diet can signifi-cantly increase content of total saturated fatty acids and decrease content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, but no

  17. Policosanol composition, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil at different seed maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, Saoussem; Ferchichi, Azza; Bacheli, Asma; Fellah, Hayet

    2018-04-16

    Several anti-arthritic drugs and synthetic antioxidants have wide pharmaceutical uses and are often associated with various side effects on the human health. Dietary seed oils and their minor components like policosanol may offer an effective alternative treatment for arthritic and oxidative-stress related diseases. The biological effects of seed oils were affected by different parameters such as the stage of seed maturity. Hence, this study seeks to determine the policosanol content, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil extracted at various stages of seed maturation. Milk thistle oil samples were extracted from seeds collected at three maturation stages (immature, intermediate, and mature). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the extracted oils. The anti-arthritic activity of oil samples was evaluated with bovine serum protein denaturation and egg albumin denaturation methods. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to determine the policosanol profile. Policosanol profile, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle oil were influenced by the seed maturity stages. The oil extracted from the immature seeds had the highest total policosanol content (987.68 mg/kg of oil) and displayed the maximum antiradical activity (96.42% and 90.35% for DPPH test and ABTS assay, respectively). Nine aliphatic alcohols were identified in the milk thistle oil. The dominant poliosanol in the mature seed oil was octacosanol (75.44%), while triacontanol was the major compound (40.25%) in the immature seed oil. Additionally, the maximum inhibition of bovine serum protein denaturation (92.53%) and egg albumin denaturation (86.36%) were observed in immature seed oil as compared to mature seed oil. A high correlation was found between the total

  18. Changes in the sterol compositions of milk thistle oil (Silybium marianum L.) during seed maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrabi, S.; Curtis, S.; Hayet, F.; Mayer, P.M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the total lipid content and sterol compositions were determined during the development of milk thistle seeds. The oil content increased to a maximum value of 36±1.7% and then declined to reach a value of 30.5±0.9% at full maturity. The sterol content of milk thistle seeds was affected by the ripening degree of the seeds. At the early stages of seed maturation, Δ7 -stigmastenol was the most abundant sterol followed by β-sitosterol. However, at full maturity, β-sitosterol was the most predominant sterol (46.50±0.8%). As the seed developed, campesterol and stigmasterol amounts increased, while Δ7 -avenasterol content decreased. It can be concluded that milk thistle seed oil has a characteristic sterol pattern comparable to the ones elucidated for olive oil and corn oil. The extracted oil from milk thistle seeds is rich in phytosterols and could be used in foodpreparation and human nutrition. (Author)

  19. Evidence for differences in regioselective and stereoselective glucuronidation of silybin diastereomers from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančová, P.; Šiller, M.; Anzenbacherová, E.; Křen, Vladimír; Anzenbacher, P.; Šimánek, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2011), s. 743-751 ISSN 0049-8254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Silybin * conjugation * metabolism Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.791, year: 2011

  20. Antioxidative activity of Silibum marianum cultivated in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ganbaatar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Silibum marianum (Milk thistle contains high amount of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of  phenolic compounds included in Milk thistle. The  antioxidant properties of the leaves and seeds of milk thistle were examined by determining its ability to scavenge the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical. The results obtained from DPPH assay confirm that Milk thistle extracts have high antioxidative activity.DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.323 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p53-55

  1. Milk thistle and the treatment of hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, L A

    2001-01-01

    Gastroenterology nurses and associates will find it helpful to be informed about milk thistle (silybum marianum), a popular, safe and promising herb used by patients with liver disease. Silymarin is a derivative from the milk thistle plant with few side effects that has been safely used for centuries to treat liver ailments. Since the 1970s, there has been a reemergence of the marketing and use of silymarin. Research results of some small studies suggest silymarin has hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, and regenerative properties producing a beneficial effect for some types of hepatitis. It is unclear, however, whether silymarin might interfere with the effect of interferon or ribavirin. A well-designed, placebo-controlled study of a larger population is needed. It is certainly encouraging that a large collaborative study is currently underway for milk thistle therapy in hepatitis C. This study is funded by NCCAM, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Research updates are available online at www.nccam.nih.gov and through the NCCAM Clearinghouse at 1-888-644-6226.

  2. Infusions of artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of phenolic acids and flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-01-01

    Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn (milk thistle) are two herbs well-known for their efficiency in the prevention/treatment of liver injuries, among other chronic diseases. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize specific bioactive components, phenolic compounds, in hydromethanolic extracts but also in infusions (the most commonly used preparations) obtained from the whole plant of milk thistle and artichoke. The phenolic profiles were accessed using HPLC-DAD-MS/ESI. Infusions of both species presented higher phenolic contents than the hydromethanolic extracts. Milk thistle presented a similar phenolic composition between the two preparations, revealing only differences in the quantities obtained. Nevertheless, artichoke revealed a slightly different profile considering infusion and hydromethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide was the major flavonoid found in milk thistle, while luteolin-7-O-glucuronide was the most abundant in artichoke. Therefore, infusions of both artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of bioactive compounds, especially phenolic acids and flavonoids.

  3. Estimation of inorganic constituents in the seeds of blue and white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of inorganic constituents in the seeds of blue and white flowering capitulum of Silybum marianum. FA Khan, MUR Khattak, M Zahoor. Abstract. Silybum Marianum commonly known as milk thistle contains flavonolignans, collectively known as silymarin. The main components of silymarin are silybine, isosilybine, ...

  4. Control de calidad de residuos de biocidas en frutos de Silybum marianum L

    OpenAIRE

    Obreshkova, D.; Pencheva, I.

    2005-01-01

    Los estudios anal??ticos de los biocidas organoclorados demuestran que su nivel de concentraci??n en las ra??ces de plantas es mayor que la concentraci??n en el suelo, y especialmente en las plantas medicinales utilizadas en las industrias farmac??utica y medicinal. Los f??rmacos b??lgaros m??s utilizados (Carsil, Tribestan y Nivalin) contienen extractos de plantas y deben ser analizados de acuerdo con las directivas de la Comunidad Europea EEC/76/895 y EEC/90/642 1998; Por ell...

  5. Antibacterial activity of Ficus capensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    Allium sativum) is used to reduce cholesterol levels and to boost immune system; it lowers high blood pressure and its oil has been seen to have antibacterial properties (Juurlink, 2001). Milk thistle. Silybum marianum has also ...

  6. In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Bill J; Gardner, Stephanie F; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Gentry, W Brooks; Carrier, Julie; Khan, Ikhlas A; Edwards, David J; Shah, Amit

    2004-11-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of Citrus aurantium , Echinacea purpurea , milk thistle (Silybum marianum), or saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 women, 6 men) were randomly assigned to receive C aurantium , E purpurea , milk thistle, or saw palmetto for 28 days. For each subject, a 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. Probe drug cocktails of midazolam and caffeine, followed 24 hours later by chlorzoxazone and debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine), were administered before (baseline) and at the end of supplementation. Presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6 by use of 1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam serum ratios (1-hour sample), paraxanthine/caffeine serum ratios (6-hour sample), 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone serum ratios (2-hour sample), and debrisoquin urinary recovery ratios (8-hour collection), respectively. The content of purported "active" phytochemicals was determined for each supplement. Comparisons of presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic ratios suggested that these particular supplements had no significant effect on CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Phytochemical profiles indicated that C aurantium was devoid of the CYP3A4 inhibitor 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. Quantities of fatty acids, flavonolignans, and cichoric acid were consistent with label claims for saw palmetto, milk thistle, and E purpurea , respectively. Botanical supplements containing C aurantium , milk thistle, or saw palmetto extracts appear to pose a minimal risk for CYP-mediated herb-drug interactions in humans. Although the effects of E purpurea on CYP activity were minor, further

  7. Assessing the experimental investigation of milk thistle oil for biodiesel production using base catalyzed transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Kifayat; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sofia; Qiu, Fengxian

    2015-01-01

    In the present research work, non edible oil source milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaert) plant was investigated for biodiesel production. The extracted crude oil was 26.14% of the total seed dry weight. The free fatty acid content of oil was reduced from 0.56 mg KOH/g to 0.06 mg KOH/g by esterification before the synthesis of biodiesel. The highest conversion percentage of biodiesel was achieved 89.51% and 87.42% using solid base catalyst sodium hydroxide (0.75%) and potassium hydroxide (1.0%), respectively. The protocol for experiment was adjusted as follow: temperature (60 °C); time of reaction (2 h), steering (600 rpm) and the oil molar ratio was fixed 1:6. Qualitatively, the prepared biodiesel was quantified by GC chromatography, 13 C & 1 H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), AAS and FT-IR spectroscopy. The fuel properties of biodiesel were tested and compared with ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. - Highlights: • Biodiesel production from non edible seeds of milk thistle species. • High percentage of oil extraction (26.14%) and biodiesel yield (92%). • Reduction in FFA contents via esterification 0.56 mg KOH/g – 0.06 mg KOH/g. • Quantification analysis of biodiesel using GC, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, FT-IR and AAS. • Fuel properties comparison with ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards

  8. High-performance thin-layer chromatography linked with (bio)assays and mass spectrometry - a suited method for discovery and quantification of bioactive components? Exemplarily shown for turmeric and milk thistle extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud N; Krawinkel, Michael B; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-05-15

    Extraction parameters, chemical fingerprint, and the single compounds' activity levels were considered for the selection of active botanicals. For an initial survey, the total bioactivity (i.e., total reducing capacity, total flavonoids contents and free radical scavenging capacity) of 21 aqueous and 21 ethanolic plant extracts was investigated. Ethanolic extracts showed a higher yield and were further analyzed by HPTLC in detail to obtain fingerprints of single flavonoids and further bioactive components. Exemplarily shown for turmeric (Curcuma longa) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum), effect-directed analysis (EDA) was performed using three selected (bio)assays, the Aliivibrio fischeri bioassay, the Bacillus subtilis bioassay and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) assay. As a proof of principle, the bioactive components found in the extracts were confirmed by HPTLC-MS. Bioassays in combination with planar chromatography directly linked to the known, single effective compounds like curcumin and silibinin. However, also some unknown bioactive components were discovered and exemplarily characterized, which demonstrated the strength of this kind of EDA. HPTLC-UV/Vis/FLD-EDA-MS could become a useful tool for selection of active botanicals and for the activity profiling of the active ingredients therein. The flexibility in effect-directed detections allows a comprehensive survey of effective ingredients in samples. This streamlined methodology comprised a non-targeted, effect-directed screening first, followed by a highly targeted characterization of the discovered bioactive compounds. HPTLC-EDA-MS can also be recommended for bioactivity profiling of food on the food intake side, as not only effective phytochemicals, but also unknown bioactive degradation products during food processing or contamination products or residues or metabolites can be detected. Thus, an efficient survey on potential food intake effects on wellness could be obtained. Having performed

  9. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. MOHSEN EBRAHIMI. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 94 Issue 4 December 2015 pp 611-617 Research Article. Chalcone synthase genes from milk thistle (Silybum marianum): isolation and expression analysis · Sepideh Sanjari Zahra Sadat Shobbar Mohsen Ebrahimi ...

  10. Silibinin chirality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 203, 2-3 (2009), s. 222-223 ISSN 1010-6030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : milk thistle * silybum-marianum Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2009

  11. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  12. Retrospective analysis of the effects of a highly standardized mixture of Berberis aristata, Silybum marianum, and monacolins K and KA in patients with dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Pietro Putignano,2 Tarcisio Ferrara,3 Carmela Raiola,4 Giuliana Rapacioli,5 Nicola Villanova6 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2Outpatient Diabetic Clinic, University Hospital San Gerardo, Monza, Italy; 3District 63, Cava de’ Tirreni-Costa d’Amalfi, Salerno, Italy; 4Outpatient Clinic “Ordine di Malta”, Naples, Italy; 5AIOR, Piacenza, Italy; 6Metabolic Disorders, S. Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy Background: Berberis aristata, because of its berberine content, and Monascus purpureus fermented rice, because of the presence of monacolins (naturally derived statins, are widely investigated food-grade ingredients used to formulate cholesterol-lowering supplements. Although they are extensively used, berberine is poorly absorbed and monacolins are poorly chemically characterized, not standardized, and possibly contaminated with toxic compounds. Silymarin is reported to enhance berberine absorption, while Monakopure™-K20 (MK-20 is a highly standardized red yeast rice containing monacolins K and KA in the ratio of 1:1 but not secondary monacolins, dehydromonacolins, or citrinin.Aim: The effects of a cholesterol-lowering supplement (Berberol®K containing berberine, silymarin, and MK-20 (BSM in patients with dyslipidemia were clinically analyzed.Methods: The clinical role of BSM in naïve and in statin-intolerant patients was retrospectively evaluated and the effects observed were compared with those obtained in patients without treatment or treated with lovastatin.Results: Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels were approximately 4%, 6%, and 11% lower, respectively, and the creatine phosphokinase increase was reduced in patients treated with BSM compared to those treated with lovastatin. Similar results were also obtained in statin-intolerant subjects where BSM was administered as add-on therapy to ezetimibe or fenofibrate. Conclusion: BSM is a food supplement potentially useful 1 as a primary intervention in low-cardiovascular-risk subjects with dyslipidemia; 2 as add-on therapy in mildly statin-intolerant patients; and 3 in dyslipidemic patients with a negative perception of statins who prefer a treatment seen as natural. Keywords: berberine, Berberol®K, silymarin, P-glycoprotein, cholesterol, triglycerides, Monascus purpureus, Monakopure™-K20

  13. Clinical role of a fixed combination of standardized Berberis aristata and Silybum marianum extracts in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic patients intolerant to statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Iaele Bellone,2 Giuliana Rapacioli,3 Pietro Putignano4 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 3AIOR, Pontenure, Province of Piacenza, Italy; 4University Hospital San Gerardo, Monza, Italy Background: Statin intolerance is a medical condition often leading patients to nonadherence to the prescribed therapy or to a relevant reduction of the statin dosage. Both situations determine a totally or partially uncontrolled lipid profile, and these conditions unquestionably increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Methods: We enrolled hypercholesterolemic, type 2 diabetic patients complaining of intolerance to statins. Some of them had reduced the statin dose ‘until the disappearance of symptoms’; others had opted for treatment with ezetimibe; and yet others were not undergoing any treatment at all. All patients of the three groups were then given a fixed combination of berberine and silymarin (Berberol®, known from previous papers to be able to control both lipidic and glycemic profiles. Results: The tested product both as a single therapy and as add-on therapy to low-dose statin or to ezetimibe reduced triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin in a significant manner without inducing toxicity conditions that might be somehow ascribed to a statin-intolerant condition. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that use of Berberol®, administered as a single or add-on therapy in statin-intolerant subjects affected by diabetes and hypercholesterolemia is a safe and effective tool capable of improving the patients' lipidic and glycemic profiles. Keywords: berberine, silymarin, Berberol®, ezetimibe, cholesterol, type 2 diabetes

  14. Evaluation of Some Medicinal Herbs Cold Pressed Oils According Their Physicochemical Properties with Chemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Üstün Argon, Zeliha; Gökyer, Ali; Gümüş, Zinar Pınar; Büyükhelvacıgil, Mevlüt

    2017-01-01

    In thisstudy, we investigated the effects of cold pressed oil on physicochemical propertiesof milk thistle (Silybum marianum), aniseseed (Pimpinella anisum), fennel seed(Foeniculum vulgare), terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and nettle seed (Urtica dioica). Selected oils from CentralAnatolia Regions, were investigated in terms of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)compositions, peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), refraction index (RI)at 40 ° C and oilsee...

  15. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contain blood Abdominal cramps Runny nose Watery eyes Colic, in babies Milk allergy or milk intolerance? A ... fat milk, skim milk, buttermilk Butter Yogurt Ice cream, gelato Cheese and anything that contains cheese Half- ...

  16. INVESTIGATION ON THE HYPOGLYCEMIANT EFFECT OF SOME VEGETAL EXTRACTS IN EXPERIMENTAL INTOXICATIONS AT CD-1 MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bucă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using plants in treating some diseases has become a tradition, ‘the nature’s pharmacy’ being an important source of therapy. At present, the medicinal plants properties are being re-assessed due to progress made in chemical, pharmaceutical and clinical research of plants and due to forms obtained from vegetal products, but especially due to the advantages they offer. In the context of more frequent use of natural products with pharmaceutical and therapeutical aims, both at a national and at an international level, our research hints at highlighting and giving details about a series of effects produced by vegetal extracts of Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum on certain physiological, biochemical and histopathological processes at CD1 mice. In this study, 2 hydro-alcoholic extracts obtained from 2 species of medicinal plants (Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum, were tested in order to analyse the hypoglycemiant activity. The data accumulated in the specialty literature reveal that the phytotherapeutic use of extracts of Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum is based only on the major pharmacologic effect while the intimate action mechanism of the two vegetal products, al cellular and subcellular level, is not known. Starting from these premises, we considered useful the initiation of a comparative study regarding the antidiabetic influence of fluid extracts of Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum upon mice experimentally intoxicated with alloxan monohydrate solution. CDI mice were used as an experimental model in order to induce diabetes: alloxan monohydrate was injected intraperitoneal with concentration of 130 mg/kg body (Ahmed Saber Abu – zaiton, 2013, dissolved in physiological serum, during two weeks, at an interval of 3 days. Both extracts acted positively by lowering blood sugar and by returning to normal body weight in diabetic mice. Aronia extract has a pronounced effect compared to milk thistle extract for both

  17. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Milk Allergy What's in this ... to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, which ...

  18. Milk removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferneborg, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Milk from dairy cows is a staple dietary component for humans all over the world. Regardless of whether milk is consumed in its purest, unaltered form or as high-end products such as fine cheese or ice cream, it needs to be of high quality when taken from the cow, produced at a low price and produced in a system that consider aspects such as animal health, animal welfare and sustainability. This thesis investigated the role of milk removal and the importance of residual milk on milk yield...

  19. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Camel milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk and camel milk products have always been highly esteemed playing even today an important role in the diet of the population in the rural areas of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with scarce agricultural areas, high temperatures and small amount of precipitation. In aggravated environmental circumstances, camels may produce more milk than any other species, while their demand for food is very modest. A camel produces between 1000 and 2000 L of milk during the lactation period of 8 to 18 months, while the daily production of milk is between 3 and 10 L. The goal of the overview is to present the chemical composition of camel milk, and products made from camel milk. On average camel milk contains 81.4-87 % water, 10.4 % dry matter, 1.2-6.4 % milk fat, 2.15-4.90 % protein, 1.63-2.76 % casein, 0.65-0.80 % whey protein, 2.90-5.80 % lactose and 0.60-0.90 % ash. Variations in the contents of camel milk may be attributed to several factors such as analytical methods, geographical area, nutrition conditions, breed, lactation stage, age and number of calvings. Camel milk is becoming an increasingly interesting product in the world, not only for its good nutritive properties, but also for its interesting and tasteful products.

  1. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flavor Baked goods Caramel candies Chocolate Lactic acid starter culture and other bacterial cultures Luncheon meat, hot ... Cream of tartar Lactic acid (however, lactic acid starter culture may contain milk) Oleoresin Sodium lactate Sodium ...

  2. Potassium in milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Tangonan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  3. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  4. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow's milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough ...

  5. Radiating school milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    School milk is milk delivered by a separate distribution network to schools and sold there at reduced prices. Radioactivities of these school milk have been sampled and compared to the milk sold in the usual shops. It turns out that the school milk is frequently more active than the ordinary milk: this is critisized. (qui)

  6. Milk Thistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Grants and Contracts General Award Mechanisms Small Business Research Grant Program (SBIR) Funding for: Natural Product Research ... Festi D. Silybin and the liver: from basic research to clinical practice. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2011;17(18):2288-2301. Milk ...

  7. Milk Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s leading food company has expanded its business into the dairy industry A combined financial venture between China’s largest agricultural trading and processing company and a private equity firm formed to milk profits from the dairy business has led to

  8. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Chagunda, G G

    2011-01-01

    Automatic milking systems allow cows voluntary access to milking and concentrates within set limits. This leads to large variation in milking intervals, both within and between cows, which further affects yield per milking and composition of milk. This study aimed to describe the degree to which ...

  9. The Tchernobyl milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Nadai, E.A.; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Tchernobyl nuclear accident contamined the milk exported to Brazil. A lot of analysis in this powder milk were realized in this powder milk were realized to identify the cesium 137 and 134 contamination. The results of the milk samples are discussed. (author)

  10. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  11. In vitro inhibitory effects of major bioactive constituents of Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa and Silybum marianum on human liver microsomal morphine glucuronidation: A prediction of potential herb-drug interactions arising from andrographolide, curcumin and silybin inhibition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchaipichat, Verawan

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the liver microsomal inhibitory effects of silybin, silychristin, andrographolide, and curcumin by using morphine as an in vitro UGT2B7 probe substrate, and predict the magnitude of the herb-drug interaction arising from these herbal constituents' inhibition in vivo. Studies were performed in the incubation with and without bovine serum albumin (BSA). Andrographolide and curcumin showed a marked inhibition on morphine 3- and 6-glucuronidation with IC 50 of 50&87 and 96&111 μM, respectively. In the presence of 2%BSA, andrographolide also showed a strong inhibition on morphine 3- and 6-glucuronidation (IC 50 4.4&21.6 μM) whereas curcumin showed moderate inhibition (IC 50 338&333 μM). In the absence and presence of 2%BSA, morphine 3- and 6-glucuronidation was moderately inhibited by silybin (IC 50 583&862 and 1252&1421 μM, respectively), however was weakly inhibited by silychristin (IC 50 3527&3504 and 1124&1530 μM, respectively). The K i of andrographolide, curcumin and silybin on morphine 3- and 6-glucuronidation were 7.1&9.5, 72.7&65.2, and 224.5&159.7 μM, respectively, while the respective values generated from the system containing 2%BSA were 2.4&3.1, 96.4&108.8, and 366.3&394.5 μM. Using the in vitro and in vivo extrapolation approach, andrographolide was herbal component that may have had a potential interaction in vivo when it was co-administered with morphine. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pfarms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency. We concluded that most of the studied variables were mainly related to goat physiology characteristics, as the effects of milking parameters and

  13. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  15. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics ( ...

  16. Special Milk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  17. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  19. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  20. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    C. Pietrasanta; B. Ghirardi; M.F. Manca; S. Uccella; C. Gualdi; E. Tota; L. Pugni; F. Mosca

    2014-01-01

    Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections ar...

  1. Milk: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulajić, S.; Đorđević, J.; Ledina, T.; Šarčević, D.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    Although milk/dairy consumption is part of many cultures and is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of controversy, leading to a highly polarized debate within the scientific community, media and public sector. The present article, at first, describes the evolutionary roots of milk consumption, then reviews the milk-derived bioactive peptides as health-promoting components. The third part of the article, in general, presents the associations between milk nutrients, disease prevention, and health promotion.

  2. Enzymes in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, David C; German, J Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function, intact milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that, when released as peptides, exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity, which could contribute to the infant's competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother's milk has been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides. Moreover, our recent research demonstrates that these milk proteases continue to digest milk proteins within the infant's stomach, possibly even to a larger extent than the infant's own proteases. As the neonate has relatively low digestive capacity, the activity of milk proteases in the infant may provide important assistance to digesting milk proteins. The coordinated release of these encrypted sequences is accomplished by selective proteolytic action provided by an array of native milk proteases and infant-produced enzymes. The task for scientists is now to discover the selective advantages of this protein-protease-based peptide release system. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Sphingosine basis in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Ribar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are widespread membrane components that are found in all eukaryotic cells. They are defined as compounds having a long-chain sphingoid base as the backbone. The most frequent long-chain bases in most of the mammals are D-erythro-sphinganine and sphingosine. Sphingolipids can be expected in minor quantities in all food products. Milk fat contains a number of different sphingolipid classes. Originally they were presumed to contribute to the structural integrity of membranes, but there nowadays it is confirmed that they have an important physiological role. Dietary sphingolipids have gained attention because of their possibility to inhibit colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of free and total sphinganine and sphingosine in milk (human, cow's, sheep’s, goat’s, soy’s Sphingolipids were extracted from milk. Free and total sphingoid bases were obtained by alkaline and acid hydrolysis respectively. Sphinganin and sphingosine were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. The results of this research illustrate the differences between the concentrations of sphingoid bases in cow’s milk with various content of milk fat. The concentrations of free sphingosine and sphinganine in cow’s milk were lower than in human milk. In sheep’s and goat’s milk, the concentrations of total sphingoid bases were higher than in human and cow’s milk. Quantity of the most sphingoid bases decreased during pasteurization.

  4. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M.A.; Rashid, M.H.; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  5. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  6. Urea in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Projectsatbangalore

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, portable instrument using CO2 and NH3 gas sensor technology to quantify and differentiate milk samples containing excess urea. Milk containing urea, in presence of urease enzyme hydrolyses urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide.

  7. Transglutaminase inhibitor from milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A.H. de; Wijngaards, G.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Cross-linking experiments of skimmed bovine milk with bacterial transglutaminase isolated from Streptoverticillium mobaraense showed only some degree of formation of high-molecular-weight casein polymers. Studies on the nature of this phenomenon revealed that bovine milk contains an inhibitor of

  8. Milk free desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-19

    Robinson's Baby Foods have added a new range of milk free desserts, including Banana and Pineapple Treat and Summer Fruit Salad. The desserts can be mixed with water for mothers who need to feed their babies on a milk free diet.

  9. Herpesviruses and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasanta, C; Ghirardi, B; Manca, M F; Uccella, S; Gualdi, C; Tota, E; Pugni, L; Mosca, F

    2014-06-30

    Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  10. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  11. [HTLV and "donating" milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigourd, V; Meyer, V; Kieffer, F; Aubry, S; Magny, J-F

    2011-08-01

    In France, the screening for human T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) during the donation of human milk has been carried out from 1992 with the application of the circular DGS 24 November 1992. The screening for antibodies against these viruses is regulated and done systematically during every donation of milk. Breast feeding being the main mode of transmission of the HTLV-1, the last ministerial decree of 25 August 2010 has made the screening test compulsory for the anonymous donation and for the personalized donation (of a mother for her own child) from all women including those affected by the infection. The milk delivered by milk banks is pasteurized (62.5 °C for 30 minutes) before freezing at -18 °C, which inactivates the pathogens. This double means of prevention of the transmission of the HTLV-1 paradoxically seems disproportionate in the absence of any precautionary measure in the case of direct breast-feeding and the use of mother's raw milk. Indeed, in most neonatal intensive care units in maternity hospitals, unpasteurized milk is administered to the neonates without any systematic preliminary testing of the serological HTLV-1 status of the mother. An increased sensitization of the community of the obstetricians, midwives and neonatologists by the Association of the Milk Banks of France (ADLF) and the Société de pathologie exotique could address the issue of screening for HTLV-1 in "donated" milk and breast-feeding.

  12. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  13. Influence of raw milk quality on fluid milk shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Ma, Y; Santos, M V

    2006-03-01

    Pasteurized fluid milk shelf life is influenced by raw milk quality. The microbial count and somatic cell count (SCC) determine the load of heat-resistant enzymes in milk. Generally, high levels of psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk are required to contribute sufficient quantities of heat-stable proteases and lipases to cause breakdown of protein and fat after pasteurization. Sanitation, refrigeration, and the addition of CO2 to milk are used to control both total and psychrotrophic bacteria count. It is not uncommon for total bacterial counts of raw milk to be milk processors have not focused much attention on milk SCC. Increased SCC is correlated with increased amounts of heat-stable protease (plasmin) and lipase (lipoprotein lipase) in milk. When starting with raw milk that has a low bacterial count, and in the absence of microbial growth in pasteurized milk, enzymes associated with high SCC will cause protein and fat degradation during refrigerated storage, and produce off-flavors. As the ability to kill, remove, or control microbial growth in pasteurized refrigerated milk continues to improve, the original milk SCC will be the factor limiting the time of refrigerated storage before development of an off-flavor in milk. Most healthy cows in a dairy herd have a milk SCC 200,000 cell/mL are usually due to the contribution of high SCC milk from a small number of cows in the herd. Technology to identify these cows and keep their milk out of the bulk tank could substantially increase the value of the remaining milk for use in fluid milk processing. To achieve a 60- to 90-d shelf life of refrigerated fluid milk, fluid processors and dairy farmers need to work together to structure economic incentives that allow farmers to produce milk with the SCC needed for extended refrigerated shelf life.

  14. Cytokines in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  15. CONDUCTIVITY OF DONKEY MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity (EC of milk is considered as one of the most important parameters which supports the diagnosis of mastitis in cows.Milk ions have a considerable influence on EC and their concentrations vary depending on animal species, season, lactation stage, etc. Some components of milk can change the EC, e.g. lactose. A negative correlation between EC values and the concentration of lactose is noticed, as a consequence of the inverse relation between this disaccharide and the chlorine content in milk. Fat and casein contents exert some influence on the EC, too. This study provides preliminary results on the physiological EC values in donkey milk and aims to highlight any correlation with some of its chemical-physical parameters and Somatic Cell Count (SCC. Mean EC value in donkey milk was found to be 3.57 mS. Statistically significant correlations were found between EC and SCC (r = 0.57 , p < 0.01 and between EC and (r = 0.30 , p < 0.05. The EC and lactose were not correlated although a reduction of EC was often observed when the lactose content increased, as reported in the literature for bovine milk. According to the EC can be considered as a reliable parameter to identify any breast disorder, taking into account the physiological factors that influence EC.

  16. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  17. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  18. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States. ...

  19. Colostrum and milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quesnel, H; Farmer, Chantal; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... to shifts in housing, and in Europe, this shift is now associated with a change from loose group housing to individual housing. Around parturition, colostrum is being secreted and milk synthesis is initiated in the mammary glands. After the onset of lactation, milk composition changes, especially during...

  20. Pasteurization of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Barbosa Alzate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the time it takes milk, which is heated from 60°F to 150°F, to achieve pasteurization and compared this result with the standard pasteurization process of heating milk at a constant temperature of 150°F for 30 minutes. Instead of directly quantifying the bacterium population, we considered the bacteria to milk concentration ratio. To solve for the unknown time, we equated the final bacterium concentration ratio achieved through both varied temperature and constant temperature. After equating the final pasteurization concentrations we were unable to find an analytical solution, so we used numerical techniques to find the unknown heating time.

  1. Milk-alkali syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium-alkali syndrome; Cope syndrome; Burnett syndrome; Hypercalcemia; Calcium metabolism disorder ... Milk-alkali syndrome is almost always caused by taking too many calcium supplements, usually in the form of calcium carbonate. Calcium ...

  2. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 904 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  3. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 90�4 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  4. Milking Efficiency – A Milkability Trait for Automatically Milked Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Lassen, Jan; Chagunda, M G G

    efficiency which showed only intermediate correlation. Both traits had weak correlations to somatic cell counts. It is concluded that either trait will be effective in selecting for cows giving more milk per minute occupying the milking robot, without increasing risk of mastitis......Data from an experimental herd with automatic milkings from 486 first lactation cows were used to study alternative measures of milkability. One trait was milking efficiency, (kg milk per minute used in robot) the other “residual milking box time” using a linear regression to adjust daily time...

  5. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. NMR-based milk metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking...... compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics applications elucidating how the differential regulated genes affects milk composition are also reported. This review will highlight the recent advances in NMR-based metabolomics on milk, as well as give a brief summary of when NMR spectroscopy can be useful for gaining...

  7. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  8. Use of milk-based kombucha inoculum for milk fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages were typical and yoghurt-like for all obtained products. The best textural and sensory characteristics possesed beverage obtained in fermentation of milk using 10% (v/v of milk-based kombucha inoculum.

  9. ANALYSIS OF MILK QUALITY AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR MILK PROCESSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA POPESCU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present some aspects regarding milk quality and its importance for milk processors , taking into account a study case at FLAV O’RICH DAIRY INC,USA. The study analyses how milk quality is checked from the bulk milk to final product according to the Milk Quality Program in force. The main aspects concerning raw milk selection criteria such as : antibiotic test, temperature, bacteria, organoleptic properties , acidity, somatic cell count , but also main milk components such as water, butterfat , total solids, protein, lactose , solids non fats , minerals, acids have been approached . Also a comparison for 7 butterfat producers for East Fluid Group has been done . Milk processing assures the destruction of human pathogens , the maintenance of product quality without significant loss of flavor, appearance, physical and nutritive properties and the selection of organisms which may produce unsatisfactory products.

  10. Biochemical histological and histochemical changes induced in pregnant albino rats as affected by SILYMARIN treatment and/or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.; Othman, A.

    2007-01-01

    Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), that has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin that are displaying estrogenic effects. Silybum marianum has been traditionally used in Egypt for its antifertility effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of silymarin administration and / or exposure to gamma radiation in pregnant rats. Silymarin at a dose level 75.6 mg/kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy while mothers were subjected to gamma radiation (1.5 Gy) as fractionated dose; 0.75 Gy on the 6th day and 0.75 Gy on 12th day of pregnancy. Experimental investigations carried out one day prior to parturition have demonstrated that silymarin intake throughout the whole gestational period induced biochemical, histopathological and histochemical disorders in irradiated mothers. The data obtained revealed that silymarin administration and/or gamma radiation exposure caused significant elevation in levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), the luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol in pregnant rats.Moreover, the histopathological results showed different distortions which varied from hyperemic blood vessels, fibroblasts in the ovary, degenerated uterine glands, erosion in the lining epithelia of the uterus and degenerated epithelial cells, necrosis in trophospongium, necrosis in the giant cells, massive blood in the labyrinth and cytoplasmic vacuolation in the placenta. In addition, the histochemical observations revealed various diminutions in each of the polysaccharides, total protein and DNA content. Conclusively, these findings proved that radiation exposure and/or silymarin intake could exert deleterious effect, therefore, it is recommended that radiation occupational workers especially females have to be careful toward

  11. Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Flavonolignans in Different Cellular Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bijak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5–3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.. In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides their hepatoprotective action, silymarin flavonolignans have many other healthy properties, such as anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of flavonolignans on blood platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and human lung cancer cell line—A549—using different molecular techniques. We established that three major flavonolignans: silybin, silychristin and silydianin, in concentrations of up to 100 µM, have neither a cytotoxic nor genotoxic effect on blood platelets, PMBCs and A549. We also saw that silybin and silychristin have a protective effect on cellular mitochondria, observed as a reduction of spontaneous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA damage in A549, measured as mtDNA copies, and mtDNA lesions in ND1 and ND5 genes. Additionally, we observed that flavonolignans increase the blood platelets’ mitochondrial membrane potential and reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species in blood platelets. Our current findings show for the first time that the three major flavonolignans, silybin, silychristin and silydianin, do not have any cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various cellular models, and that they actually protect cellular mitochondria. This proves that the antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effect of these compounds is part of our molecular health mechanisms.

  12. Milk by Any Other Name... Consumer Benefits from Labeled Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Tirtha; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2004-01-01

    This article uses revealed preferences of consumers to study the consumer benefits from rBST-free and organic labeled milk. The article specifies and estimates a quadratic AIDS demand system model for different milk types using U.S. supermarket scanner data. The introduction of rBST-free and organic milk is used to estimate consumer benefits that are decomposed into two components, competitive and variety effects. Results show significant consumer benefits from organic milk and to a lesser ex...

  13. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (powdered milk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in powdered milk were determined using radiochemical analysis. Six brands of commercial milk were purchased as samples in consuming districts in December 1984. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 33 +- 1.0 pCi/kg and 140 +- 2 pCi/kg, respectively, in skim milk manufactured by Meiji. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S. M.; Itawi, R. K.; Saad, A; Shihab, K. M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi food analysis program (IFAP) the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples have been determined by using the NAA techniques. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb, and Br the concentrations of the elements was approximately identical in both the natural milk and milk powder. (author)

  15. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S.M.; Itawi, R.K.; Saad, A.; Shihab, K.M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi Food Analysis Programme the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples was determined by NAA technique. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb and Br the concentration of the elements was approximately identical in both natural milk and milk powders. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  16. Prion protein in milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Franscini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prions are known to cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE after accumulation in the central nervous system. There is increasing evidence that prions are also present in body fluids and that prion infection by blood transmission is possible. The low concentration of the proteinaceous agent in body fluids and its long incubation time complicate epidemiologic analysis and estimation of spreading and thus the risk of human infection. This situation is particularly unsatisfactory for food and pharmaceutical industries, given the lack of sensitive tools for monitoring the infectious agent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed an adsorption matrix, Alicon PrioTrap, which binds with high affinity and specificity to prion proteins. Thus we were able to identify prion protein (PrP(C--the precursor of prions (PrP(Sc--in milk from humans, cows, sheep, and goats. The absolute amount of PrP(C differs between the species (from microg/l range in sheep to ng/l range in human milk. PrP(C is also found in homogenised and pasteurised off-the-shelf milk, and even ultrahigh temperature treatment only partially diminishes endogenous PrP(C concentration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In view of a recent study showing evidence of prion replication occurring in the mammary gland of scrapie infected sheep suffering from mastitis, the appearance of PrP(C in milk implies the possibility that milk of TSE-infected animals serves as source for PrP(Sc.

  17. Drugs in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervada, A R; Feit, E; Sagraves, R

    1978-09-01

    The amount of drug excreted into breast milk is dependent upon the lipid solubility of the medication, the mechanism of transport, the degree of ionization, and change in plasma pH. The higher the lipid solubility, the greater the concentration in human milk. The majority of drugs are transported into mammary blood capillaries by passive diffusion. The rest are transported by reverse pinocytosis. Once the drug has entered the epithelial cells of breast tissue, the drug molecules are excreted into the human milk by active transport, passive diffusion, or apocrine secretion. The amount of free (active) drug available for transport depends on the degree of protein binding the plasma pH. Another factor affecting excretion of drugs is the time when breast feeding occurs. In the 1st few days of life, when colostrum is present, water-soluble drugs pass through the breast more easily than afterwards when milk is produced. Then lipid-soluble drugs cross in higher concentrations. The effect on nursing infants is dependent on the amount excreted into the milk, the total amount absorbed by the infant, and the toxicity of the drug. The use of the following drugs in breast feeding mothers is reviewed: anticoagulants, antihypertensives and diuretics, antimicrobials, drugs affecting the central nervous system (alcohol, chloral hydrate, meprobamate, lithium, and aspirin), marijuana, other drugs (antihistamines, atropine, ergot alkaloids, laxatives, nicotine, iodides, propylthiouracil, theophylline), hormones (insulin, thyroxine, and oral contraceptives), and radiopharmaceuticals.

  18. Human periodontal ligament cell viability in milk and milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Robert M; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Leslie A; Patton, William R; McPherson, James C; Runner, Royce R

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of several milk substitutes compared to whole milk in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from freshly extracted, healthy third molars and cultured in Eagle's minimal essential media (EMEM). The cells were plated onto 24-well culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. EMEM was replaced with refrigerated whole milk (positive control), reconstituted powdered milk, evaporated milk, or one of two baby formulas (Similac or Enfamil). Tap water served as the negative control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with the experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, or 8 h. Cell viability was determined by a cell proliferation assay (CellTiter 96 AQ Assay), with absorbance read at 450 nM. A two-way ANOVA (p effect on PDL cell viability between any of the materials and whole milk. At 2 h, Enfamil and Similac performed significantly better than whole milk, whereas evaporated milk performed worse. At 4 h, Enfamil performed better than whole milk, whereas all other milk substitutes performed worse. At 8 h, all substitutes performed worse than whole milk. These results suggest that Enfamil, which is supplied in powder form that does not require special storage and has a shelf life of 18 months, is a more effective storage medium for avulsed teeth than pasteurized milk for at least 4 h.

  19. Associations between milk protein polymorphisms and milk production traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenhuis, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Korver, S.

    1992-01-01

    Associations between milk protein genotypes and milk production traits were estimated from 6803 first lactation records. Exact tests of associated hypotheses and unbiased estimates of genotype effects were from an animal model. Milk protein genotype effects were estimated using a model in which each

  20. Association of Genetic Variants of Milk Proteins with Milk Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    For example, increasing the frequency of a milk protein genotype associated with ... date of milking, somatic cell count, daily milk yield, protein and fat ..... G sulla ripartizione percentuale delle caseine αS1, αS2, β e κ in vacche die razze. Bruna.

  1. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  2. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow's milk allergy is more common in children than in adults. CaSSim ... adverse reactions to cow's milk protein such as lactose intolerance. .... possible hormonal effects on the reproductive ... formula in humans – such studies are much.

  3. Milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy products. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy products in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG) [de

  4. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on the cheese-making properties of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pirlo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic milking systems (RMS modify dairy herd management and therefore some aspects of production. The mainresults from scientific literature on RMS and cheese-making properties have been reported. The decrease in fat content,as a consequence of the increased milking frequency, is generally confirmed. The lack of specific studies on creamingproperties of milk from robotic milking experiences and with different milking frequencies has been highlighted.Indications on clotting features were obtained with a different milking frequency in a traditional milking parlour; theseresults showed an improvement in the casein index of milk from three daily milkings. A reduction of casein exposure tothe plasminogen-plasmin complex activity in the mammary gland between two consecutive milkings seems to explainthis result. The effect of RMS on milk quality for cheese-making purposes was first evaluated in a two-year monitoringstudy in a herd representative of Po Valley dairy farms. Preliminary results from laboratory tests on bulk milk samplesindicate that milk from RMS seems suitable for cheese-making processes.

  5. The influence of milking procedures on cow’s teat tissue, milk yield and milking time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Špoljar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different milking procedures on teat length and diameter, milk yield and milking time. During the first milking procedure the milker decides when to remove the milking cluster from the udder, while in the second an automatic cluster removal, when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min, was performed. Measurements were made on two commercial farms B and A on 15 randomly chosen cows without any clinical sign of mastitis. There were no significant differencesbetween those farms in teat length and diameter differences before and after the milking. Average milking time on farm A was 6 min and 58 s, while on farm B was 5 min and 3 s. Average milk yield was 12.9 kg on farm B and 13.4 kg on farm A. Milking time was considerably shorter on farm B compared to farm A, while milk yield was almost equal on both farms. Automatic cluster weighting 2 kg removal was performed when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min in order to shorten the time needed to milk the cow, ensuring good udder health.

  6. Effect of changes in milking routine on milking related behaviour and milk removal in Tunisian dairy dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atigui, Moufida; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Ayeb, Naziha; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    We studied the effects of changes in the milking routine (lack or presence of 30-s prestimulation, 0 or 1, 2 or 4-min delay between preparation and cluster attachment) and environmental perturbation (unusual loud sounds capable of frightening animals just after stall entry or during the course of milking) on milk removal and milking-related behaviour in dairy dromedary camels. A 30-s prestimulation decreased incidence of bimodal milk flow curves and increased occurrence of the best milk ejection patterns with higher milk flow but had limited effect on milk production in our well-trained animals within a good machine milking setting. However, unusual sounds heard from the beginning of milking or even after milk ejection caused inhibition or disruption of milk removal and modification of camels' behaviour. Milk ejection was significantly delayed (1·58±0·17 min), residual milk increased over 40% of total milk yield and average and peak milk flow rates were significantly lowered when unusual noises were heard from the beginning of milking. These environmental perturbations increased signs of vigilance and the number of attempts to escape the milking parlour. Delaying cluster attachment for over 1 min after the end of udder preparation caused serious milk losses. Up to 62% of total milk was withheld in the udder when the delay reached 4 min. Average and peak milk flow rates also decreased significantly with delayed milking. Signs of vigilance and attempts to escape from the milking parlour appeared when camels waited for over 2 min. After a 4-min delay, camels showed signs of acute stress. Defaecation prior to milk ejection (solid faeces) and rumination during milking can be used to assess camels' milk ejection during milking. Animal welfare and milking efficiency can be ensured when camels are pre-stimulated, milked in calm conditions and with cluster attachment within a maximum of a 1-min delay after stimulation.

  7. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giangiacomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975. Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002. In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and cardiac pathologies (Sharmanov et al., 1982; Mirrakimov et al., 1986, or as a drink obtained from lactic and alcoholic fermentation (Koumiss...

  8. Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedö, S; Nikodémusz, E; Percsich, K; Bárdos, L

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of a dairy cow colony (n = 23) were analyzed during 11 months of lactation. Milk yield followed a characteristic decreasing pattern in negative correlations with solid components (milk protein, lactose, total solids, milk fat). Titrable acidity (degree SH) was significantly (p < 0.1) higher in the milk of fresh-milking cows and it correlated negatively with lactose and positively with milk protein, milk fat and total solids. The concentrations of Zn, Fe and Cu tended to decrease, while Mn showed insignificant variation during lactation. Milk vitamin A showed a significant positive whilst milk vitamin E had a negative correlation with milk fat.

  9. Immunology of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Patricia; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2016-09-01

    In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk's immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant's ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant's secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  10. Microstructure of milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fat and protein in milk may be examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and any bacteria present may be viewed by light microscopy. The fat exists as globules, the bulk of the protein is in the form of casein micelles, a...

  11. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  12. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  13. Adipokines in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Bae, Yoon Ju; Kiess, Wieland

    2018-01-01

    The review describes the molecular characteristics of so far detected breast milk adipokines and ranks their breast milk level compared to the respective levels in maternal and infant blood. Moreover, analytical knowledge for measurements of breast milk adipokines will be delineated. Next, we summarized data about two main potential influencing factors on adipokine concentration in breast milk, maternal weight and pasteurization of milk. Finally, associations between adipokines in breast milk and weight gain in infants as well as the putative mechanisms for effects of breast milk adipokines on food intake and weight gain in later life will debated. Our findings suggest that a source of adipokines in human breast milk cannot be uniformly defined. In dependence on the ratio between serum and breast milk levels the major quantity of these proteins may be derived from peripheral tissues, from the breast tissue itself or from both. Thus, leptin and in part adiponectin levels in breast milk are dependent on a plenty of influencing factors with an important relevance of maternal anthropometric characteristics There is some evidence that leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin levels in breast milk may be associated with growth gain of infants and even with increased risk for being overweight during infancy or childhood. We hypothesize that a dysregulation in adipokine homeostasis in early life could promote obesity and metabolic disturbance in later life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Allergy to cow's milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrier, E

    1997-04-01

    After recalling the medical reluctance as well as the risks that there are in complete elimination of milk in infants, the author presents several clinical pictures and then a classification of the immunological types: Allergic shock of neonates, digestive and extra-digestive (skin and respiratory airways) symptoms finally the rare chronic gastro-enteritis to cow milk. Non-reaginic food allergies: Acute gastro-enteropathy to cow milk, with villous atrophy and Heiner's syndrome, delayed hypersensitivities are studied, of difficult diagnosis that may cover almost all pathologies. They may be found in the digestive system, respiratory, the kidneys and even in the organs of behaviour. Migraine of food origin must be remembered. Development in regressive rules is a function of the type of allergy and the suddenness of the symptoms. Diagnosis is above all by questioning and confirmation or not by skin and in vitro tests. Certainty can only be shown by tests of elimination and re-introduction. The diet, at the same time of both diagnostic and therapeutic value, is based on the replacement of cow milk by foods that contain the same amount of proteins. It is essential, especially in the very small, to have perfect match of food so as to avoid any risk of a dramatic hypoprotinemia, which may happen if the child does not like the suggested diet, or if the parents cannot buy the substitution products. In such conditions great care must be taken to avoid provoking a crisis. Care must be taken to decide: If the elimination of cow milk is always justified each time. If it is, always check that the substituted protein is properly made, the family may change the diet mistakenly.

  15. Human milk donation is an alternative to human milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ho-Torng; Fong, Tze-Vun; Hassan, Nurulhuda Mat; Wong, Hoi-Ling; Rai, Jasminder Kaur; Khalid, Zorina

    2012-04-01

    Human milk bank is a source of human milk supply in many neonatal intensive care units. However, there are some hospitals without this facility because of financial or religious impediments, such as the Muslim community. We introduced human milk donation as an alternative to human milk banking based on Islamic principles. The suitable donor is a healthy rooming-in mother whose expressed breastmilk is in excess of her baby's demand. The milk is used after 72 hours of freezing at -20°C. The donor must fulfill the criteria for selection of donors and be nonreactive to human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis. Once the recipient's family and the donor state their desire for the human milk donation, a meeting with both parties is made. Unpasteurized frozen-thawed donor's milk will be provided to the recipient after written consents are obtained from both parties. This study was carried out in the Duchess of Kent Hospital (Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia) between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 48 babies received donated breastmilk. Forty-two infants were from the special care nursery, and the remaining six were from the pediatric ward. Eighty-eight percent of the donors and 77% of the recipients were Muslims. Sixty percent of the infants who received donated human milk were premature. Two infants died because of the underlying nature of their disease. Human milk donation is an option for hospitals without a human milk bank or in the Muslim community.

  16. Milk fat threshold determination and the effect of milk fat content on consumer preference for fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K S; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Milk consumption in the United States has been in decline since the 1960s. Milk fat plays a critical role in sensory properties of fluid milk. The first objective of this study was to determine the change in percent milk fat needed to produce a detectable or just noticeable difference (JND) to consumers in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks. The second objective was to evaluate how milk fat affected consumer preferences for fluid milk. Threshold tests were conducted to determine the JND for each reference milk (skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milk), with a minimum of 60 consumers for each JND. The JND was determined for milks by visual appearance without tasting and tasting without visual cues. Serving temperature effect (4, 8, or 15°C) on tasting JND values were also investigated. The established JND values were then used to conduct ascending forced-choice preference tests with milks. Consumers were assigned to 3 groups based on self-reported milk consumption: skim milk drinkers (n = 59), low-fat milk drinkers (consumed 1% or 2% milk, n = 64), and whole milk drinkers (n = 49). Follow-up interviews were conducted where consumers were asked to taste and explain their preference between milks that showed the most polarization within each consumer segment. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed on the milks used in the follow-up interviews to quantify sensory differences. Visual-only JND were lower than tasting-only JND values. Preference testing revealed 3 distinct preference curves among the consumer segments. Skim milk drinkers preferred skim milk and up to 2% milk fat, but disliked milk higher in fat due to it being "too thick," "too heavy," "flavor and texture like cream," "too fatty," and "looks like half and half." Low-fat milk drinkers preferred 2% milk up to 3.25% (whole milk), but then disliked higher milk fat content. Whole milk drinkers preferred whichever milk was higher in milk fat regardless of how high the fat content was, distinct from skim and low-fat milk

  17. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 62 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of inorganic constituents in the seeds of blue and white flowering capitulum of Silybum marianum · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. FA Khan, MUR Khattak, M Zahoor, 13491-13494 ...

  18. Liu et al.,Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(5):310-312 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    ml of Silybum marianum extract (high-, medium-, and low-doses) per day. ... being fasted for 12 h, were intraperitoneally injected with 10% chloral hydrate (40 mg/kg) to .... lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis and inhibition of interleukin-1β and ...

  19. Impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cattle producers' reports of milking labour management, milk production and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, C; Barkema, H W; DeVries, T J; Rushen, J; Pajor, E A

    2018-04-04

    Automatic milking systems (AMS), or milking robots, are becoming widely accepted as a milking technology that reduces labour and increases milk yield. However, reported amount of labour saved, changes in milk yield, and milk quality when transitioning to AMS vary widely. The purpose of this study was to document the impact of adopting AMS on farms with regards to reported changes in milking labour management, milk production, milk quality, and participation in dairy herd improvement (DHI) programmes. A survey was conducted across Canada over the phone, online, and in-person. In total, 530 AMS farms were contacted between May 2014 and the end of June 2015. A total of 217 AMS producers participated in the General Survey (Part 1), resulting in a 41% response rate, and 69 of the respondents completed the more detailed follow-up questions (Part 2). On average, after adopting AMS, the number of employees (full- and part-time non-family labour combined) decreased from 2.5 to 2.0, whereas time devoted to milking-related activities decreased by 62% (from 5.2 to 2.0 h/day). Median milking frequency was 3.0 milkings/day and robots were occupied on average 77% of the day. Producers went to fetch cows a median of 2 times/day, with a median of 3 fetch cows or 4% of the herd per robot/day. Farms had a median of 2.5 failed or incomplete milkings/robot per day. Producers reported an increase in milk yield, but little effect on milk quality. Mean milk yield on AMS farms was 32.6 kg/cow day. Median bulk tank somatic cell count was 180 000 cells/ml. Median milk fat on AMS farms was 4.0% and median milk protein was 3.3%. At the time of the survey, 67% of producers were current participants of a DHI programme. Half of the producers who were not DHI participants had stopped participation after adopting AMS. Overall, this study characterized impacts of adopting AMS and may be a useful guide for making this transition.

  20. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  1. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant's intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant's gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing infant.

  2. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk), including nonfat... market; (2) The quantity of milk diverted by a handler described in § 1000.9(c) may not exceed 90 percent... a milk classification and pricing program imposed under the authority of a State government...

  3. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat in milk of a producer that is: (a) Received by the operator of a pool... percentage in paragraph (d)(2) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if...

  4. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk), including nonfat components, and butterfat in milk of a producer that is: (a... percentages in paragraph (d)(4) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if...

  5. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat contained in milk of a producer that is: (a) Received by the operator... be increased or decreased by the Market Administrator if the Market Administrator finds that such...

  6. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section, Producer milk means the skim milk (or skim milk equivalent of components of skim milk), including... filed a request in writing with the market administrator before the first day of the month the agreement... producer deliveries of each according to a method approved by the market administrator. (4) Diverted milk...

  7. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk), including nonfat components, and butterfat contained in milk of a producer that is...) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if there is a finding that...

  8. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat contained in milk of a producer that is: (a) Received by the operator... (d) (1) through (3) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if the...

  9. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails to...

  10. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States. ...

  11. World production and quality of cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Bosnić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 % production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms. With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure, between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.

  12. Milk of human kindness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuthnott, Felicity; Webb, Tony.

    1988-01-01

    Instances where food contaminated above EEC (European Economic Community) limits has been exported to developing countries are quoted. The contamination is mainly from the Chernobyl accident and the foods concerned are dairy products, powdered milk, whey powder, flour and meat, mostly from Europe. In some cases the food has been sent as part of an aid programme. Evidence of deliberate mixing of food (eg milk powder) with uncontaminated stock to reduce the contamination levels has been found. Pressure has sometimes been applied to the developing countries to accept the food but much has been sent back to the country of origin. Suggestions that the developing countries have analysed levels incorrectly are not compatible with assertions that developing countries are competent to administer and control nuclear energy programmes and other nuclear technology. (U.K.)

  13. Radionuclides in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I in cow's milk from all Nordic countries for the NWF and the post-Chernobyl periods have previously been collated in an excel database. In 2004 the database was further extended by including new data from Finland, Sweden and Norway. In order to explain the time development of contamination in different Nordic regions dual regression analyses of some selected time-series were performed. Since the NWF period was subject to similar investigations in previous year's report, the present study focused on the post-Chernobyl period (1986-). Effective ecological half lives of Cs- 137 in milk from 12 regions were estimated. The fast component (T1) was about 1 year for all series (except Sandnessjoeen in Norway), while the slow component (T2) was more variable (7-13 years) - and in some cases not applicable. (au)

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (powdered milk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in powdered milk were determined using radiochemical analysis. Four brands of commercial milk were purchased as samples in consuming districts in June and July 1985. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 31 +- 1.2 pCi/kg and 62 +- 1.5 pCi/kg, respectively, in skim milk manufactured by Meiji. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Immunology of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Palmeira

    Full Text Available Summary In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk’s immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant’s ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant’s secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  16. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Theresa Cacho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system

  17. Breast milk: immunosurveillance in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachita Nanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is unique and a natural source of nutrition. However, it also helps to protect against various types of disease, not only infective but also immunological diseases. The wide variety of molecules in milk is responsible for its varied role for the newborn infant. Various breast milk proteins, contribute for its immunological, nutritional as well as its antimicrobial role. The naive immune system, intestinal mucosa and other organs of the neonate are also developed by various cellular factors. Breast milk protects not only during the neonatal period but also beyond it. By educating the neonatal immune system it also protects against the development of diseases later in life.

  18. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level.

  19. Proper Handling and Storage of Human Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintain the safety and quality of expressed breast milk for the health of the baby. These are general guidelines for storing human milk at different temperatures. Various factors (milk volume, room ...

  20. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  1. The Milk and Milk Products Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: Coordination Group, or CG) for stakeholders of the milk and milk products value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to

  2. Breast milk is conditionally perfect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erick, Miriam

    2018-02-01

    Breast milk is the universal preferred nutrition for the newborn human infant. New mother have been encouraged to exclusively breastfeed by health care professionals and consumer-advocacy forums for years, citing "breast milk is the perfect food". The benefits are numerous and include psychological, convenience, economical, ecological and nutritionally superior. Human milk is a composite of nutritional choices of the mother, commencing in the pre-conceptual era. Events influencing the eventual nutritional profile of breast milk for the neonate start with pre-conceptual dietary habits through pregnancy and finally to postpartum. Food choices do affect the nutritional profile of human breast milk. It is not known who coined the phrase "breast milk is the perfect food" but it is widely prevalent in the literature. While breast milk is highly nutritive, containing important immunological and growth factors, scientific investigation reveals a few short-falls. Overall, human breast milk has been found to be low in certain nutrients in developed countries: vitamin D, iodine, iron, and vitamin K. Additional nutrient deficiencies have been documented in resource-poor countries: vitamin A, vitamin B 12, zinc, and vitamin B 1/thiamin. Given these findings, isn't it more accurate to describe breast milk as "conditionally perfect"? Correcting the impression that breast milk is an inherently, automatically comprehensive enriched product would encourage women who plan to breastfeed an opportunity to concentrate on dietary improvement to optimizes nutrient benefits ultimately to the neonate. The more immediate result would improve pre-conceptual nutritional status. Here, we explore the nutritional status of groups of young women; some of whom will become pregnant and eventually produce breast milk. We will review the available literature profiling vitamin, mineral, protein and caloric content of breast milk. We highlight pre-existing situations needing correction to optimize

  3. From swill milk to certified milk: progress in cow's milk quality in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization jeopardized infant nutrition during the 19th century. Cow's milk was produced in the cities or transported long distances under suspect conditions. Milk was contaminated with bacteria or adulterated with water, flour, chalk and other substances. When distilleries proliferated in the metropoles, their waste slop was fed to cows which then produced thin and contaminated swill milk. Following a press campaign in the USA, the sale of swill milk was prohibited by law in 1861. Bacterial counts became available in 1881 and helped to improve the quality of milk. Debates on pasteurization remained controversial; legislation varied from country to country. Disposal of the wastewater of millions of inhabitants and the manure of thousands of cows was environmentally hazardous. It was not until 1860 and after several pandemics of Asiatic cholera that effective sewage systems were built in the metropoles. Milk depots were established in the USA by Koplik for sterilized and by Coit for certified milk. In France, Budin and Dufour created consultation services named goutte de lait, which distributed sterilized milk and educated mothers in infant care. Multiple efforts to improve milk quality culminated in the International gouttes de lait Congresses for the Study and Prevention of Infantile Mortality.

  4. 14C-Profenofos Residues in Milk and Milk Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhr, I.M.I.; Afifi, L.M.; Fouzy, A.S.M.; Hegazi, B.

    1999-01-01

    Treatment of lactating goats with only one dose of 14 C-ethoxy profenofos (17.9 mg/Kg) in gelatin capsules and then feeding normally, resulted in the presence of 0.5% of the radioactive insecticide residues in the milk collected through the fourteen successive days. The highest activity level was depicted at the first day and almost disappeared after two weeks. After processing, the analysis of milk products revealed difference in radioactive residue level according to the nature of the product and increased in the order: whey< skim < yoghurt < pasteurized milk < cheese< cream. TLC analysis of milk and milk products revealed the absence of the parent compound and the presence of 4 major metabolites, which were identified by co-chromatography with authentic compounds

  5. Radiopharmaceuticals in breast milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.; Coakley, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    As assessment has been made of the radiological hazards to an infant following the administration of a radiopharmaceutical to a breast feeding mother. Feeding should be discontinued after administration of most I-131 and I-125 compounds, Ga-67 citrate or Se-78 methionine, and for iodinated compounds where it was possible to resume feeding, a thyroid-blocking agent should be administered. For Tc-99m compounds, pertechnetate had the greatest excretion in milk and interruptions of 12hr and 4hr were considered appropriate for pertechnetate and MAA respectively. Other Tc-99m compounds, Cr-51 EDTA and In-111 leucocytes did not justify an interruption just on the grounds of their associated excretion in milk. The ingestion hazard could be minimized by reducing the administered activity, and in some cases, by the substitution of a radiopharmaceutical with lower breast milk excretion. For Tc-99m lung and brain scans, the absorbed dose due to radiation emitted by the mother (i.e. when cuddling) was less than the ingested dose, but for a Tc-99m bone scan the emitted dose was greater. In all three cases, the emitted dose did not exceed 0 x 5 mGy for the infant in close contact to the mother for one-third of the time. For In-111 leucocytes, the emitted dose was about 2mGy, and it was concluded that close contact should be restricted to feeding times during the first 3 days after injection. 36 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  6. Milk allergy prevention and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention provides a new strategy for achieving desensitisation or induction of tolerance to milk protein allergens, e.g. BLG, in humans or animals, comprising formulating and using a composition comprising a purified intact expressed milk protein together with one or more purified peptides...

  7. Milk fouling in heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, T.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the

  8. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  9. Raw milk consumption and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39% outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%, bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79% outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31095

  10. Amiata donkey milk chain: animal health evaluation and milk quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ragona

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1. In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis- causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow’s milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/ allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Peer-to-peer milk donors' and recipients' experiences and perceptions of donor milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2013-07-01

    To explore the intersection of peer-to-peer milk sharing and donor milk banks. A descriptive survey design containing closed and open-ended questions was used to examine women's perceptions of peer-to-peer milk sharing and milk banking. Closed-ended questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to analyze open-ended responses. Participants were recruited via the Facebook sites of two online milk-sharing networks (Human Milk 4 Human Babies and Eats on Feet). Ninety-eight milk donors and 41 milk recipients who had donated or received breast milk in an arrangement that was facilitated via the Internet. One half of donor recipients could not donate to a milk bank because there were no banks local to them or they did not qualify as donors. Other respondents did not donate to a milk bank because they viewed the process as difficult, had philosophical objections to milk banking, or had a philosophical attraction to peer sharing. Most donor respondents felt it was important to know the circumstances of their milk recipients. No recipient respondents had obtained milk from a milk bank; it was recognized that they would not qualify for banked milk or that banked milk was cost prohibitive. Peer-to-peer milk donors and recipients may differ from milk bank donors and recipients in significant ways. Cooperation between milk banks and peer sharing networks could benefit both groups. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  12. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a...

  13. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk. 131.110 Section 131.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.110 Milk. (a...

  14. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat... market administrator if the market administrator finds that such revision is necessary to assure orderly marketing and efficient handling of milk in the marketing area. Before making such a finding, the market...

  15. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat... market administrator if the market administrator finds that such revision is necessary to assure orderly marketing and efficient handling of milk in the marketing area. Before making such a finding, the market...

  16. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136. Unless...

  17. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skim milk. 58.233 Section 58.233 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements as...

  18. Growth of bifidobacteria in mammalian milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ročková, Š.; Rada, V.; Havlík, J.; Švejstil, R.; Vlková, E.; Bunešová, V.; Janda, K.; Profousová, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2013), s. 99-105 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : human milk * colostrum of swine * cow’s milk * sheep’s milk * rabbit’s milk * lysozyme Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.871, year: 2013 http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/86263.pdf

  19. Lipolytic Changes in the Milk Fat of Raw Milk and Their Effects on the Quality of Milk Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kirst, E.

    1986-01-01

    Lipolytic changes in milk rat affect sensory attributes and techno logicaI properties of milk and milk products. They are affectcd by physiologal, thermal . and biochemical factors as well as by the mechanics of fluids Lipolytic processes in milk are intensified by modern processing methods. In this review. special attention has been paid to runinant- related feeding of dairy cows. foaming of milk. mechanical and thermal influences and the growth of psycllrotrophic bacteria. Feeds defic...

  20. Storage of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Can

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Storage of human breast milk by freezing or refrigeration of milk has been recommended especially at some social circumstances of most mothers who are regularly separated from their infants because of work. The greatest fear that has hindered the prospects of in - vitro storage of breast milk for any considerable period of time is the possibility of bacterial contamination and growth of infectious pathogens in the stored milk, there by rendering them unsafe for human consumption. The storage container can influence the cell content of milk, as the cells adhere to the walls of a glass container but not to polyethylene or polypropylene containers. Bacteriological examination of refrigerated milks has proven their safety for human consumption for even up to 72 h. For a storage over longer periods up to 1 month, freezing at - 20 0C could be recommended, but the most preferred method, especially for longer storage would be fresh freezing at - 70 0C, if affordable or available. The nutrient value of human milk is essentially unchanged, but the immunological properties are reduced by various storage techniques. Boiling and microwave radiation have not been recommended. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 375-379

  1. Digital Prototyping of Milk Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2012-01-01

    reflectance measurements can be used for more extensive validation and for gathering data that can be used to extend our current model such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during fermentation or acidification of milk to yogurt. A well-established way of measuring optical properties...... prototyping of milk products such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during gelation of milk to yogurt. The influence of the colloidal aggregation on the optical properties is described by the static structure factor. As our method is noninvasive, we can use our setup for monitoring...

  2. 2008 Chinese Milk Products Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Rini Ariani Basyamfar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Milk is one of the most important food products for children’s growth and overall health.  Melamine (2,4,6-triazine-1,3,5-triamino) is an organic compound used in the manufacture of pesticides, plastics, sanitizers, and disinfectants.  Melamine when added to milk increases the overall amount of nitrogen in the milk thus fooling common tests for protein content.  Melamine is also extremely harmful when ingested, especially for young children.  Sanlu, one of China's largest dairy prod...

  3. PIXE analysis of powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallak, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    An accelerator-based study, using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) was performed on four full-cream and four half-cream brands of powdered milk commonly consumed in Jordan. The elements detected in the samples are S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. The significance of some of these elements is discussed from the viewpoint of nutrition and also their effect on milk processing and dairy technology. The standard reference milk sample, A-11, which is distributed by IAEA was also examined, and the results for trace elements detected are compared with the values certified by IAEA. (author)

  4. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-22

    Sep 22, 2014 ... feed intake and milk yield parameters was determined for dairy cows. Three feeding ... therefore fat yield, was lower in the treatment containing only wheat as an energy source. .... paddocks for heat detection and grooming.

  5. Mare’s milk: composition and protein fraction in comparison with different milk species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Kuterovac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The usage of the mare’s milk as functional food especial for children intolerant to cow’s milk, with neurodermitis, allergies and similar disorders desiring to improve the quality of life is fiercely debated for last decades but there were no scientific studies to suggest such use of mare’s milk based on scientific research. The objectives of this study were to determine similarities of mare’s milk in comparison with milk of ruminants (cattle, sheep and goat and human milk in terms of milk composition and protein fraction as whey proteins, caseins and micelles size. All differences were discussed regarding usage of mare’s milk in human diet and compared to milk which is usually used in human nutrition. Regarding composition, the mare’s milk is similar to human milk in of crude protein, salt and lactose content, but it has significantly lower content of fat. Fractions of main proteins are similar between human and mare’s milk, except nitrogen casein (casein N which has twice lower content in human than in mare’s milk. Content of casein N from all ruminants’ milk differ much more. Just for true whey N and non-protein nitrogen (NPN similar content as human and mare’s milk has also goat milk. The casein content is the lowest in human milk; this content is three times greater in mare’s milk and six to seven times greater in goat’s and cow’s milk, while in sheep’s milk it is more than 10 times grater. In many components and fractions mare’s milk is more similar to human milk than milk of ruminants. A detail comparison of protein fraction shows quite large differences between milk of different species. More study and clinical research are needed that can recommend usage of mare’s milk in human diet as functional food on scientific bases.

  6. Short-term effects of milking frequency on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count and milk protein profile in dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Alexandr; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without impai...... was returned to X2 and X1. Finally, quantitative analysis showed an increase in intensities of milk protein bands from X1 to X2, but the intensities of casein bands (αS1-CN, αS2-CN, β-CN, κ-CN) and major whey proteins (α-La, β-Lg) decreased from X2 to X3.......Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without...... impairing milk quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the short term effects of three milking frequencies on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and milk protein profile in dairy goats traditionally milked once a day. Twelve Majorera goats in early lactation (48±4 d...

  7. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam P. Sagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT of camel milk was significantly higher than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The camel, cow and buffalo milk samples showed negative alcohol stability. The rate of acidity was increased propositionally with time in camel milk with no curd formation and weaker body.

  8. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  9. Radioactivity of milk in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuletic, V.; Vitorovic, G.; Mitrovic, B.; Pantelic, G.; Andric, V.

    2011-01-01

    After the accident in Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan, radionuclides released into the atmosphere during the accident were detected in different environmental samples in Serbia. Samples of cow, goat and sheep milk were collected at 13 sites in Serbia and activity concentrations of 40 K, 131 I and 137 Cs were determined. Results confirm transfer of 131 I to goat and sheep milk. [sr

  10. Multielemental analysis of milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar Al-Dayel; Jameel Al-Hefne; Didarul A Chowdhury; Turki Al-Ajyan

    2002-01-01

    Milk is a basic food since it provides essential nutrients (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) and micronutrients (minerals, Vitamins, enzymes). In fact, in formula milk essential elements have been usually added in order to satisfy nutritional requirements. However, too high additions of these elements can produce detrimental effects on human health. More important, milk can also constitute a source of exposure to toxic elements, especially dangerous for infants. Method is presented for the multielemental analysis of a wide range of elements in milk samples. The aim of this work is the development of a multielemental method for the analysis of major, minor and trace essential and toxic elements in milk. Several milk samples with different origins were collected from the Saudi Arabia markets and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). For preparation of the samples for analysis, they were digested by closed vessel microwave digestion system with H 2 O 2 /HNO 3 . About 40 elements were determined. A reference material was analysed for the validation of the proposed method. (Author)

  11. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  12. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Anatolitou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is uniquely superior for infant feeding and represents the perfect example of individualization in Pediatrics. Human milk is not a uniform body fluid but a secretion of the mammary gland of changing composition. Foremilk differs from hindmilk, and colostrum is strikingly different from transitional and mature milk. Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk. Breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health outcomes in both the industrialized and developing world. Some specific topics will be discussed such as the preventive effect of human milk on infections, overweight, obesity and diabetes, malignant disease, neurodevelopmental outcomes, reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis. Important health benefits of breastfeeding and lactation are also described for mothers. Finally, contraindications to breastfeeding and supplementation of breastfed infants are presented. Interventions to promote breastfeeding are relatively simple and inexpensive. Infant feeding should not be regarded as a lifestyle choice but rather as a basic health issue.

  13. Application of Multilayer Perceptron with Automatic Relevance Determination on Weed Mapping Using UAV Multispectral Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamouridou, Afroditi A; Alexandridis, Thomas K; Pantazi, Xanthoula E; Lagopodi, Anastasia L; Kashefi, Javid; Kasampalis, Dimitris; Kontouris, Georgios; Moshou, Dimitrios

    2017-10-11

    Remote sensing techniques are routinely used in plant species discrimination and of weed mapping. In the presented work, successful Silybum marianum detection and mapping using multilayer neural networks is demonstrated. A multispectral camera (green-red-near infrared) attached on a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was utilized for the acquisition of high-resolution images (0.1 m resolution). The Multilayer Perceptron with Automatic Relevance Determination (MLP-ARD) was used to identify the S. marianum among other vegetation, mostly Avena sterilis L. The three spectral bands of Red, Green, Near Infrared (NIR) and the texture layer resulting from local variance were used as input. The S. marianum identification rates using MLP-ARD reached an accuracy of 99.54%. Τhe study had an one year duration, meaning that the results are specific, although the accuracy shows the interesting potential of S. marianum mapping with MLP-ARD on multispectral UAV imagery.

  14. Gamma spectrometric determination of radioactivity in milk, milk products and breast-milk after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raics, Peter; Gyarmati, Edit

    1988-01-01

    Ge(Li) spectrometer was used to determine specific activities for nuclides 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 129 Te m , 132 Te, 131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 La. Measurements lasted for 70 days. Maximum specific activities of commercial milk and breast-milk for 131 I were 225, and 133 Bq/l, respectively. Milk samples of cows stalled by different feeds, of scalded, unscalded milk, and of milk products were compared. Radioacitivity of powdered milk, parsley and red currant was also measured. Detailed results for nuclides as a function of time are listed in five tables. (author) 10 refs.; 5 tabs

  15. Impact of Freezing Time on Dornic Acidity in Three Types of Milk: Raw Donor Milk, Mother's Own Milk, and Pasteurized Donor Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Román, Sara; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Alonso-Díaz, Clara; Lora, David; Martín-Pelegrina, María Dolores; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2016-03-01

    Although under certain circumstances it is necessary to express milk, there are not many recommendations about the ideal storage conditions for human milk. The objectives of this study were to analyze the effects on Dornic acidity of frozen storage at -20 °C in three types of milk: raw donor milk, mother's own raw milk, and pasteurized donor milk. Forty-three samples of raw donor milk, 40 samples of pasteurized donor milk, and 16 samples of mother's own milk were analyzed. Dornic acidity was measured at time 0, before freezing. The remaining aliquots were frozen and analyzed after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks and after 2 and 3 months. In raw donor milk, the median acidity at the start was 3 °D (interquartile range [IQR] 2-3 °D); after 3 months, it was 5 °D (IQR 3-7 °D), with a significant increase in acidity after the second week. In mother's own milk, the mean acidity at the start was 3 °D (IQR 2-4 °D) and 7 °D (IQR 4-8 °D) at 3 months. The increase was significant after the third week. In pasteurized donor milk, the mean acidity was 3 °D (IQR 2-3 °D) at the start and 2 °D (IQR 2-3 °D) at the end. When comparing the three types of milk, there were significant differences from the first week between the two types of raw milk and the pasteurized milk (p raw milks (p = 0.77). Dornic acidity in unpasteurized milk significantly increases with the duration of freezing, probably due to the action of lipases, which is lost with pasteurization. It would be advisable to reduce the length of freezing time for unpasteurized milk.

  16. Rapid capillary electrophoresis approach for the quantification of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Francesca; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Cicino, Caterina; Palmieri, Camillo; Britti, Domenico

    2017-10-13

    The substitution of ewe milk with more economic cow milk is a common fraud. Here we present a capillary electrophoresis method for the quantification of ewe milk in ovine/bovine milk mixtures, which allows for the rapid and inexpensive recognition of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk. We utilized a routine CE method for human blood and urine proteins analysis, which fulfilled the separation of skimmed milk proteins in alkaline buffer. Under this condition, ovine and bovine milk exhibited a recognizable and distinct CE protein profiles, with a specific ewe peak showing a reproducible migration zone in ovine/bovine mixtures. Based on ewe specific CE peak, we developed a method for ewe milk quantification in ovine/bovine skimmed milk mixtures, which showed good linearity, precision and accuracy, and a minimum amount of detectable fraudulent cow milk equal to 5%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  18. [Environmental toxins in breast milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratlid, Dag

    2009-12-17

    Breast milk is very important to ensure infants a well-composed and safe diet during the first year of life. However, the quality of breast milk seems to be affected by an increasing amount of environmental toxins (particularly so-called Persistent, Bioaccumulative Toxins [PBTs]). Many concerns have been raised about the negative effects this may have on infant health. The article is a review of literature (mainly review articles) identified through a non-systematic search in PubMed. The concentration of PBTs in breast milk is mainly caused by man's position as the terminal link in the nutritional chain. Many breast-fed infants have a daily intake of such toxins that exceed limits defined for the population in general. Animal studies demonstrate effects on endocrine function and neurotoxicity in the offspring, and a number of human studies seem to point in the same direction. However the "original" optimal composition of breast milk still seems to protect against long-term effects of such toxicity. There is international consensus about the need to monitor breast milk for the presence of PBTs. Such surveillance will be a good indicator of the population's general exposure to these toxins and may also contribute to identifying groups as risk who should not breast-feed their children for a long time.

  19. Microencapsulation of babassu coconut milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audirene Amorim Santana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain babassu coconut milk powder microencapsulated by spray drying process using gum Arabic as wall material. Coconut milk was extracted by babassu peeling, grinding (with two parts of water, and vacuum filtration. The milk was pasteurized at 85 ºC for 15 minutes and homogenized to break up the fat globules, rendering the milk a uniform consistency. A central composite rotatable design with a range of independent variables was used: inlet air temperature in the dryer (170-220 ºC and gum Arabic concentration (10-20%, w/w on the responses: moisture content (0.52-2.39%, hygroscopicity (6.98-9.86 g adsorbed water/100g solids, water activity (0.14-0.58, lipid oxidation (0.012-0.064 meq peroxide/kg oil, and process yield (20.33-30.19%. All variables influenced significantly the responses evaluated. Microencapsulation was optimized for maximum process yield and minimal lipid oxidation. The coconut milk powder obtained at optimum conditions was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size distribution, bulk and absolute density, porosity, and wettability.

  20. Concentrate composition for automatic milking systems - effect on milking frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of affecting milking frequency in an Automatic Milking System (AMS) by changing ingredient composition of the concentrate fed in the AMS. In six experiments, six experimental concentrates were tested against a Standard concentrate all...... supplied in the amounts of 5 kg/cow/day. Fifteen cows were fed the experimental concentrate and another 15 cows the Standard concentrate for 14 days and then for the next 14 days the cows were fed the opposite diets to be their own control. The change from one mixture to the next was done over only one day...

  1. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in or...

  2. The effect of ewes relocation on milk composition and milk flow kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Jackuliaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of an influence of ewes relocation and milking in other parlour (treatment on milk flow kinetics, milkability and milk composition was the aim of this study. In total 34 ewes of two breeds and crosbreeds Tsigai (14 heads and Improved Valachian (20 heads with Lacaune were tested. Two weeks after lamb weaning the ewes were milked in parallel milking parlour (1x16 stalls under shelter. On the last evening milking (first experimental milking, EB before relocation of flock to another parlour, and during next three continuous evening milkings (E0 - second, E1 - third and E2 - fourth milking of exp. after relocation the milk flow kinetics were measured using electronic collection jar. On day E0 after morning milking the flock was moved on a pasture and milked in other parlour (1x24-stalls. During E0 we recorded a significant decrease of total milk yield in comparison with EB (0.527 ±0.04 and 0.647 ±0.04 L. Significant differences were also recorded in machine milk yield, machine stripping, milking time and in maximum milk flow rate. During E0 there was a higher number of nonbimodal and lower numbers of bimodal flow types. The response of ewe to E0 depended on its response to EB. Ewes with bimodal flow at EB responded more negatively to E0 than ewes with nonbimodal or plateau flow. During E2 there were significantly increased protein content and solids not fat in milk. Thus the treatment significantly influenced the milkability of ewes in a negative way, but more clear response was found out in ewes with bimodal flow response to machine milking before treatment. We could assume that relocation to other milking conditions caused only short-term changes in milk flow kinetic and milk yield. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  3. Effect of package light transmittance on vitamin content of milk. Part 2: UHT whole milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.

    2008-01-01

    This work is the second part of a milk study evaluating the effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, in this case on UHT whole milk. The milk was stored at three different light intensities in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles with varying light transmittance as

  4. Variation in retinol and carotenoid content of milk and milk products in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, P.J.M.; Roekel-Jansen, van G.C.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; West, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Retinol and carotenoids were measured in Dutch milk and dairy products using a validated approach based on complete extraction of fat, followed by mild saponification and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Raw milk, full fat milk, semi-skimmed milk and butter contain about 10 ¿g

  5. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  6. Chocolate milk consequences: a pilot study evaluating the consequences of banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Hanks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk. If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? METHODS: In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP were compared year to date. RESULTS: Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01. Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001, 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. CONCLUSIONS: Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose.

  7. 7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  8. 7 CFR 1124.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1124.75 Section 1124.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  9. 7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  10. 7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  11. 7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  12. 7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  13. 7 CFR 1001.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1001.75 Section 1001.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  14. 7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  15. 7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  16. Genomic regions associated with bovine milk fatty acids in both summer and winter milk samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background - In this study we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for bovine milk fatty acids from summer milk samples. This study replicates a previous study where we performed a GWAS for bovine milk fatty acids based on winter milk samples from the same population. Fatty acids from

  17. Factors affecting Import Shares of Powdered Milk and other Milk Products and their Implications in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Bogahawatte, C.; Herath, Janaranjana

    2006-01-01

    Import shares of liquid milk, powdered milk, condensed milk and other milk products were estimated to determine their relative competitiveness. The change of import shares with changes of exchange rate and world price of milk. The analysis based on yearly data between 1975-2006 showed that relative CIF prices and incomes were important factors influencing the market shares of milk and milk products. The results also showed that imported milk powder is price inelastic and a weak substitute for...

  18. Relationships between milking frequency, lactation persistency and milk yield in Sweish Red heifers and cows milked in a voluntary attendance automatic milking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Gunnar; Svvenersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2011-01-01

    A large dataset comprising output from an automatic milking (AM) system between 1999 and 2006 was examined and a total of 172 cow lactation curves and 68 heifer lactation curves were identified for further analysis. Relationships between milking frequency at different stages of lactation...... and lactation persistency and total lactation yield were determined. Cows had higher peak and total milk yields than heifers, but heifers had higher persistency (defined as the rate of decline in milk yield between days 100 and 300 post calving). Milking frequency did not differ significantly between cows...... and heifers in early lactation, but thereafter decreased significantly more in cows than in heifers. The effect of milking frequency on yield characteristics was analysed by comparing the highest and lowest quartiles for milking frequency. High milking frequency in early lactation was consistently associated...

  19. The distribution of environmental contaminants and pharmaceuticals among skim milk, milk fat, curd, whey, and milk protein fractions through milk processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-seven environmental contaminants and pharmaceuticals encompassing a wide range of physicochemical properties were utilized to determine the effects of milk processing on xenobiotic distribution among milk fractions. Target compounds included radiolabeled antibiotics [ciprofloxacin (CIPR), cl...

  20. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  1. ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic production systems are based on natural processes, leveraging local resources and decreasing in soil degradation. Effectiveness of milk production of organic systems vs. conventional production systems is a subject open to debate. There are various studies in which there is a positive effect of organic systems in relation to the welfare and animal health, product quality and environmental impact. However, some authors report lower milk yields production and increased susceptibility to environmental conditions compared with those obtained in conventional systems. The lower milk yields in organic systems in Dairy sheep's production, are related to the limited nutritional value, low genetic potential, and the changing environmental conditions. These systems are mainly a production method for a specific market with premium quality products and high standards in their production processes. Thus, a company organic Dairy sheep production should be considered viable when present a positive global sustainability level, that is socially beneficial, economically viable and environmentally responsible.

  2. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the fat...

  3. New perspectives in human milk banks

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Bertino; Claudia Rossi; Paola Di Nicola; Chiara Peila; Elena Maggiora; Liliana Vagliano; Alessandra Coscia

    2015-01-01

    Mother’s own milk (MOM) is the first choice in preterm infant feeding, and when it is not available or is insufficient, donor human milk (DHM) is recommended. It has been shown that feeding preterm infants with human milk is less related to major morbidities, enhances feeding tolerance and prevents metabolic syndrome in childhood. As The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) states, specific guidelines for Human Milk...

  4. STRAINED OFF BREAST MILK: PRO AND CONTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Lukoyanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions of feeding of children with strained off breast milk are discussed in this article. Author presents medical indications to such type of feeding, peculiarities and rules of storage of strained off milk. There is a brief literature review on the influence of different factors on the composition of strained off breast milk.Key words: strained milk, breast feeding, pasteurization, freezing.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:70-73

  5. Major advances in fresh milk and milk products: fluid milk products and frozen desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, H D; Griffiths, M W

    2006-04-01

    Major technological advances in the fluid milk processing industry in the last 25 yr include significant improvements in all the unit operations of separation, standardization, pasteurization, homogenization, and packaging. Many advancements have been directed toward production capacity, automation, and hygienic operation. Extended shelf-life milks are produced by high heat treatment, sometimes coupled with microfiltration or centrifugation. Other nonthermal methods have also been investigated. Flavored milk beverages have increased in popularity, as have milk beverages packaged in single-service, closeable plastic containers. Likewise, the frozen dairy processing industry has seen the development of large-capacity, automated processing equipment for a wide range of products designed to gain market share. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. Incidents of foodborne disease associated with dairy products continue to occur, necessitating even greater diligence in the control of pathogen transmission. Analytical techniques for the rapid detection of specific types of microorganisms have been developed and greatly improved during this time. Despite tremendous technological advancements for processors and a greater diversity of products for consumers, per capita consumption of fluid milk has declined and consumption of frozen dairy desserts has been steady during this 25-yr period.

  6. Bioactivity of Minor Milk Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh

    . In particular, 3-15% of very low birth weight preterm infants suffer from the most servere form of intestinal inflammation, known as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This disease is incurable with a high mortality rate of 15-30%. Mother’s breast milk consists of different bioactive constituents...... of infant formula. Thereafter, bioactive milk components which were preserved in gently-processed infant formula were selected for further investigation of their immunomodulatory activity in cell and preterm pig models. We hope this project will contribute to the research on the development of new...

  7. crobiological Property of Abyssinian Donkey's Milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University. *Corresponding author: ... milk in its protein, lactose, vitamin C, pH, density, and zinc contents whereas, ... its unique nutritional quality and its similarity to human milk. ... acid rinsed, sterile container from 24 healthy jennies. The milk ...

  8. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115...

  9. Natural variation in casein composition of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, E.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milk contains 3-4 % protein and almost 80% of the milk protein fraction consist of four caseins; αs1-casein, β-casein, αs2-casein and κ-casein. Most of the caseins in milk are assembled in casein micelles, which consist of several thousands of individual casein

  10. 7 CFR 58.932 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.932 Section 58.932 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....932 Milk. The raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138. Unless...

  11. 7 CFR 58.232 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.232 Section 58.232 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....232 Milk. Raw milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.138 and, unless...

  12. 7 CFR 58.518 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.518 Section 58.518 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....518 Milk. The selection of raw milk for cottage cheese shall be in accordance with §§ 58.132 through...

  13. Donkey’s milk caseins characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Polidori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years the interest around donkey’s milk had a marked increase since it has been demonstrated that this milk can be used for feeding of infants affected by dairy cow’s milk protein intolerance (Businco et al., 2000; Iacono et al., 1992.

  14. Do farm audits improve milk quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Miyamoto, A.; Reij, M.W.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk quality is assessed using bulk milk analysis and by farm audits in the Netherlands. However, the extent of the effect that dairy farm audits have on milk quality is unknown. Data from over 13,000 audits performed on 12,855 dairy farms from February 2006 to April 2008 were merged with laboratory

  15. The Effects of Herbs on Milk Yield and Milk Quality of Mastitis Dairy Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdin, E; Amelia, T; Makin, M

    2011-01-01

    This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa) supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status) in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++) were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia...

  16. From milk to diet: feed recognition for milk authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, E; Gianì, S; Mastromauro, F; Breviario, D

    2009-11-01

    The presence of plastidial DNA fragments of plant origin in animal milk samples has been confirmed. An experimental plan was arranged with 4 groups of goats, each provided with a different monophytic diet: 3 fresh forages (oats, ryegrass, and X-triticosecale) and one 2-wk-old silage (X-triticosecale). Feed-derived rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, rbcL) DNA fragments were detected in 100% of the analyzed goat milk samples, and the nucleotide sequence of the PCR-amplified fragments was found to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments amplified from the plant species consumed in the diet. Two additional chloroplast-based molecular markers were used to set up an assay for distinctiveness, conveniently based on a simple PCR. In one case, differences in single nucleotides occurring within the gene encoding for plant maturase K (matK) were exploited. In the other, plant species recognition was based on the difference in the length of the intron present within the transfer RNA leucine (trnL) gene. The presence of plastidial plant DNA, ascertained by the PCR-based amplification of the rbcL fragment, was also assessed in raw cow milk samples collected directly from stock farms or taken from milk sold on the commercial market. In this case, the nucleotide sequence of the amplified DNA fragments reflected the multiple forages present in the diet fed to the animals.

  17. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In each experiment, 10 randomly selected Holstein cows were fed the five diets according to a double 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. ... In the trial using a 50 : 50 mixture of LH and OH as roughage source, the fat content of milk ...

  18. Commercial Milk Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kit Reactivities to Purified Milk Proteins and Milk-Derived Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivens, Katherine O; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2016-07-01

    Numerous commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits exist to quantitatively detect bovine milk residues in foods. Milk contains many proteins that can serve as ELISA targets including caseins (α-, β-, or κ-casein) and whey proteins (α-lactalbumin or β-lactoglobulin). Nine commercially-available milk ELISA kits were selected to compare the specificity and sensitivity with 5 purified milk proteins and 3 milk-derived ingredients. All of the milk kits were capable of quantifying nonfat dry milk (NFDM), but did not necessarily detect all individual protein fractions. While milk-derived ingredients were detected by the kits, their quantitation may be inaccurate due to the use of different calibrators, reference materials, and antibodies in kit development. The establishment of a standard reference material for the calibration of milk ELISA kits is increasingly important. The appropriate selection and understanding of milk ELISA kits for food analysis is critical to accurate quantification of milk residues and informed risk management decisions. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Donkey milk production: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vincenzetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the most common causes of food allergies among children under one year of age. No specific therapy exists for this allergy, and thus the only feasible response is to avoid assumption of milk and derived products. Studies conducted on the serum of children with hypersensi- tivity to milk have shown that caseins are the proteins with the greater allergenic potential. However, in some cases, children have also shown hypersensitivity to the β-lactoglobulines and to the α-lactal- bumins. When food intolerance is diagnosed in an infant, it is often necessary to impose a period of total parenteral feeding, followed by breast feeding, considered the most correct method of re-feeding. When human milk can not be given, alternative food sources must be sought. Clinical studies have demonstrated that donkey milk could substitute breast feeding in infants affected by severe Ig-E me- diated milk allergies. In these subjects, donkey milk is not only useful, but also safer than other types of milk. In fact donkey milk composition in lipids (high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid and pro- teins (low caseins content is very close to human milk. Lysozyme content in donkey milk resulted to be very high (mean value 1.0 mg/ml if compared to bovine (traces, caprine (traces and human milk. The high lysozyme content of donkey milk may be responsible of the low bacterial count reported in literature and also makes this milk suitable to prevent intestine infections to infants. Among seropro- teins, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin content in donkey milk was respectively 3.75 and 1.80 mg/ml and remained substancially the same during the different stages of lactation.

  20. Analysis of Milk Marketing Chain – Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Zia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With an estimated annual milk production of approximately 29 million tonnes in 2004-2005, Pakistan is one of the world’s top milk producers. The competitiveness of Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan was studied, including constraints and opportunities. The study also includes unprecendented legal research on the government’s role vis a vis the private sector contribution. Buffaloes and cows are the main source of milk production, with an estimated 67% of the milk being produced by buffaloes and 30% by cows.

  1. Transfer of estradiol to human milk. [Radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, S.; Nygren, K.G.; Johansson, E.D.B.

    1978-11-15

    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of estradiol in human milk is evaluated. The detection limit was found to be 25 pg of estradiol per milliliter of milk. In milk samples collected from four lactating women during three to four months and from one pregnant and lactating woman, the concentration of estradiol was found to be below the detection limit of the assay. When six lactating women were given vaginal suppositories containing 50 or 100 mg of estradiol, it was possible to estimate the estradiol concentration in milk. A ratio of transfer of estradiol from plasma to milk during physiologic conditions is calculated to be less than 100 : 10.

  2. Transfer of estradiol to human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, S.; Nygren, K.G.; Johansson, E.D.B.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of estradiol in human milk is evaluated. The detection limit was found to be 25 pg of estradiol per milliliter of milk. In milk samples collected from four lactating women during three to four months and from one pregnant and lactating woman, the concentration of estradiol was found to be below the detection limit of the assay. When six lactating women were given vaginal suppositories containing 50 or 100 mg of estradiol, it was possible to estimate the estradiol concentration in milk. A ratio of transfer of estradiol from plasma to milk during physiologic conditions is calculated to be less than 100 : 10

  3. Fate of leptophos residues in milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mohammed, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The fate of leptophos residues in various milk products was studied using 14 C-phenyl labelled leptophos. Milk products were prepared from milk fortified with the radioactive insecticide by methods simulating those used in industry. The highest leptophos level was found in butter and the lowest in skim milk and whey. Analysis of the radioactive residues in all products showed the presence of leptophos alone. A trace of the oxon could be detected in whey. The results obtained in this investigation indicated that processing of milk did not affect the nature of leptophos to any appreciable extent. (author)

  4. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is primarily caused by dryness of the skin and is linked to hereditary factors. However ... in Table I. FPI disorders are typically cow's milk and soya protein induced3 but may also ... fish, chicken, turkey, corn and vegetables. FPI enteropathy ...

  5. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  6. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  7. Modifying milk composition through forage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, A.; Tamminga, S.; Ellen, G.

    2006-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of cows milk has become less favorable to human health in the last four decades due to changed feeding and management practices, notably higher proportions of concentrates and silages in diets with less grazing. Essential FA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)

  8. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  9. Iron concentrations in breast milk and selected maternal factors of human milk bank donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Neto, Julio; Rondó, Patrícia H C; Morgano, Marcelo A; Oshiiwa, Marie; Santos, Mariana L; Oliveira, Julicristie M

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron concentration in mature breast milk and characteristics of 136 donors of a Brazilian milk bank. Iron, vitamin A, zinc, and copper concentrations were assessed in human milk and maternal blood. Data were collected on maternal anthropometrics, obstetric, socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Iron, zinc, and copper in milk and zinc and copper in blood were detected by spectrophotometry. Vitamin A in milk and blood was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Hemoglobin was measured by electronic counting and serum iron and ferritin by colorimetry and chemoluminescence, respectively. Transferrin and ceruloplasmin were determined by nephelometry. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, iron in milk was positively associated with vitamin A in milk and with smoking but negatively associated with timing of breast milk donation (P milk of Brazilian donors may be influenced by nutritional factors and smoking.

  10. An Analysis of Reconstituted Fluid Milk Pricing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Glen D. Whipple

    1983-01-01

    This analysis suggests that alteration of the reconstituted fluid milk pricing provisions of federal and state milk market orders would have a substantial impact on market equilibrium. A reactive programming model of the U.S. milk market was used to simulate the effects of altered reconstituted fluid milk pricing policy. The solutions indicate that reconstituted fluid milk, as a lower cost alternative to fresh fluid milk, would make up a substantial portion of the fluid milk consumption in so...

  11. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-10-28

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%-53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk-fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  12. Identification of cow milk in goat milk by nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jie; Dong, Wen-Bin; Fan, Cheng; Wang, Er-Dan

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop a nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique for identifying and detecting adulteration of goat milk with cow milk. In this study, by taking the Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillatory chemical reaction using acetone and substrates in goat milk or cow milk as main dissipative substances, when the same dosage of goat milk and cow milk was introduced to the "H +  + Mn 2+  + BrO 3 -  + acetone" oscillating system respectively, nonlinear chemical fingerprints were obtained for goat milk and cow milk from the same origin. The results showed that inductive time value and the content of cow milk in goat milk had a linear relationship in the range of 0-100% and the corresponding regression coefficient was 0.9991. A detection limit of 0.0107 g/g was obtained, and the content of cow milk in mixed milk was calculated. The proposed method in this study was simple, economical and effective. In addition, the method did not need the pretreatment and separation of samples for identifying and evaluating cow milk adulteration in goat milk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and milk products from central highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Eyasu Tigabu; Woldetsadik, Daniel Asrat; Mekonen, Tesfu Kassa; Gezahegn, Haile Alemayehu; Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe

    2015-11-30

    Listeria monocytogenes is of major significance in human and veterinary medicine. Most human Listeria infections are foodborne and the association of contaminated milk and dairy produce consumption with human listeriosis is noteworthy. In Ethiopia, there is limited data regarding the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy products. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy produce. A total of 443 milk and milk product samples were microbiologically analyzed following methods recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to isolate Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria spp. was 28.4% and specifically that of L. monocytogenes was 5.6%. Taking the prevalence of Listeria spp. into consideration, cheese was found to be highly contaminated at 60%, followed by pasteurized milk samples (40%), raw milk (18.9%) and yoghurt (5%). Considering the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes only, raw milk had the lowest contamination while cheese had the highest, followed by pasteurized milk and yoghurt. Raw milk and milk products produced in urban and peri-urban areas of central Ethiopia were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, L. monocytogenes. The detection of this pathogen in raw milk and milk products warrants an urgent regulatory mechanism to be put in place and also the potential role of milk processing plants in the contamination of dairy products should be investigated.

  14. Influence of milking number and frequency on milk production in Martina Franca breed asses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martemucci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in Martina Franca asses in order to study milk yield and udder healthy conditions in relation to daily milking number and frequency. Experiment I - A total of 15 asses were subdivided into three groups (N.5 corresponding to: one milking per day, after a 3 hour interval from foal separation by dams (Group A; three milkings per day with 3 hour frequency (Group B; three milkings per day with 2 hour frequency (Group 3M. Experiment II - Evaluation was made of the effect of a schedule of 6 milkings per day with frequency of 2 hours on milk yield (Group 6M; N. 5, compared to Group 3M. Healthy udder conditions in relation to the number of milking per day was monitored in 3M and 6M Groups, by somatic cell count. Average yield per milking was highest (P<0.01 following 3 rather 1 milkings per day and with milking frequency of 3 hours rather than 2 hours (P<0.01. A schedule of six milkings per day did not improve mean milk yield and determined an increase in somatic cell count compared to 3 daily milkings regimen (63.2 vs 17.5 x 1000/mL; P<0.05.

  15. The analysis of milk components and pathogenic bacteria isolated from bovine raw milk in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y K; Koo, H C; Kim, S H; Hwang, S Y; Jung, W K; Kim, J M; Shin, S; Kim, R T; Park, Y H

    2007-12-01

    Bovine mastitis can be diagnosed by abnormalities in milk components and somatic cell count (SCC), as well as by clinical signs. We examined raw milk in Korea by analyzing SCC, milk urea nitrogen (MUN), and the percentages of milk components (milk fat, protein, and lactose). The associations between SCC or MUN and other milk components were investigated, as well as the relationships between the bacterial species isolated from milk. Somatic cell counts, MUN, and the percentages of milk fat, protein, and lactose were analyzed in 30,019 raw milk samples collected from 2003 to 2006. The regression coefficients of natural logarithmic-transformed SCC (SCCt) on milk fat (-0.0149), lactose (-0.8910), and MUN (-0.0096), and those of MUN on milk fat (-0.3125), protein (-0.8012), and SCCt (-0.0671) were negative, whereas the regression coefficient of SCCt on protein was positive (0.3023). When the data were categorized by the presence or absence of bacterial infection in raw milk, SCCt was negatively associated with milk fat (-0.0172), protein (-0.2693), and lactose (-0.4108). The SCCt values were significantly affected by bacterial species. In particular, 104 milk samples infected with Staphylococcus aureus had the highest SCCt (1.67) compared with milk containing other mastitis-causing bacteria: coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 755, 1.50), coagulase-positive staphylococci (except Staphylococcus aureus; n = 77, 1.59), Streptococcus spp. (Streptococcus dysgalactiae, n = 37; Streptococcus uberis, n = 12, 0.83), Enterococcus spp. (n = 46, 1.04), Escherichia coli (n = 705, 1.56), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 456, 1.59), and yeast (n = 189, 1.52). These results show that high SCC and MUN negatively affect milk components and that a statistical approach associating SCC, MUN, and milk components by bacterial infection can explain the patterns among them. Bacterial species present in raw milk are an important influence on SCC in Korea.

  16. Use of Donkey Milk in Children with Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Polidori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is the best nutritional support that insures the right development and influences the immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed, it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infant develops allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Cow’s milk allergy can be divided into immunoglobulin IgE mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Most infants with cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow’s milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow’s milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. Donkey milk total protein content is low (1.5–1.8 g/100 g, very close to human milk. A thorough analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study; the interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in humans. The content of lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme, peptides with antimicrobial activity, able to stimulate the development of the neonatal intestine, was determined. Donkey milk is characterized by a low casein content, with values very close to human milk; the total whey protein content in donkey milk ranges between 0.49 and 0.80 g/100 g, very close to human milk (0.68–0.83 g/100 g. Among whey proteins, α-lactalbumin average concentration in donkey milk is 1.8 mg/mL. The results of this study confirmed the possibility of using donkey milk in feeding children with CMPA.

  17. Why human milk is more nutritious than cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhoeve, Niels; Allan, Douglas C.; Moret, M. A.; Zebende, G. F.; Phillips, J. C.

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of milk, the key infant nutrient, is analyzed using a novel thermodynamic molecular method. The method is general, and it has many advantages compared to conventional molecular dynamics simulations. It is much simpler, and it connects amino acid sequences directly to function, often without knowing detailed "folded" globular structures. It emphasizes synchronized critical fluctuations due to long-range correlations in globular curvatures. The titled question has not been answered, or even discussed successfully, by other molecular methods.

  18. Urea concentration in sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Havranek

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator for controlling supply of proteins to organisms, as well as the relationship of energy and protein in the food, thus it is finding more and more ways of practical use. The concentration of urea in milk, along with the feeding process, is influenced by a number of other factors such as: breed, stage and sequence of lactation, body mass, daily production and chemical structure of milk, number of somatic cells, season, milking.The goal of the research was to establish the influence of the breed (Island of Krk, East Frisian, lactation stage (beginning, middle and the end and the herd (3 to the concentration of urea in milk during lactation.For each breed there has been established daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in milk.Statistical analysis of data was conducted by using General Linear Models procedure, SAS program system (1999.The breed of sheep considerably (P<0.001 influenced daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in the milk.East Frisian sheep produced on average almost double the daily quantities of milk (1070 mL compared to the Krk sheep (588 mL.Protein share and the urea concentration in Krk sheep milk were higher (5.99 % and 35.97 mg/100 mL then in the milk of East Frisian sheep (5.12 % and 33.31 mg/100 mL.For both breeds the significant influence of lactation stage to the daily milk quantity has been established (0.001, that is also for the urea concentration in the milk of Krk sheep (0.001, as well as protein share in the milk of East Frisian sheep (0.001.Herd influence significantly affected daily milk quantities (0.001 and concentration of urea in the milk (0.05.The defining of the urea concentration in sheep milk should be occasionally carried out in the Republic of Croatia to establish the standard physiological values typical for the particular sheep breed.

  19. On-line milk spectrometry: analysis of bovine milk composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Kyle; Kuennemeyer, Rainer; Woolford, Murray; Claycomb, Rod

    2005-04-01

    We present partial least squares (PLS) regressions to predict the composition of raw, unhomogenised milk using visible to near infrared spectroscopy. A total of 370 milk samples from individual quarters were collected and analysed on-line by two low cost spectrometers in the wavelength ranges 380-1100 nm and 900-1700 nm. Samples were collected from 22 Friesian, 17 Jersey, 2 Ayrshire and 3 Friesian-Jersey crossbred cows over a period of 7 consecutive days. Transmission spectra were recorded in an inline flowcell through a 0.5 mm thick milk sample. PLS models, where wavelength selection was performed using iterative PLS, were developed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell content. The root mean square error of prediction (and correlation coefficient) for the nir and visible spectrometers respectively were 0.70%(0.93) and 0.91%(0.91) for fat, 0.65%(0.5) and 0.47%(0.79) for protein, 0.36%(0.49) and 0.45%(0.43) for lactose, and 0.50(0.54) and 0.48(0.51) for log10 somatic cells.

  20. Cortisol in human milk predicts child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Le, Tran Bao; Chung, Anna; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2016-12-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of childhood obesity. Human milk contains cortisol, known to regulate glucose storage and metabolism. The aim of this study was to to test the hypothesis that early exposure to cortisol in human breast milk helps to modulate infant body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the first 2 years of life. Growth curve modeling was used to examine whether infant exposure to cortisol in human milk at 3 months predicted changes in child body mass index percentile (BMIP) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in 51 breastfeeding mother-child pairs. Infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels at 3 months were less likely to exhibit BMIP gains over the first 2 years of life, compared with infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. By age 2, infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels had lower BMIPs than infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. Milk cortisol was a stronger predictor of BMIP change in girls than boys. Cortisol exposure through human milk may help to program metabolic functioning and childhood obesity risk. Further, because infant formula contains only trace amounts of glucocorticoids, these findings suggest that cortisol in milk is a novel biological pathway through which breastfeeding may protect against later obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  1. Application of osmometry in quality analysis of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Musara, Colin; Pote, William

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate osmometry as a tool in quality analysis of milk. The osmolality of raw milk, sterilized milk, skimmed UHT (ultra-high temperature-treated) milk, pasteurized milk, standardized UHT milk and fermented milk (Lactococcus lactis culture) was determined by freezing point osmometry. The relationship between osmolality and pH of fermented milk was further investigated during spontaneous fermentation of UHT milk at 37 °C for 48 h. Average osmolality values (mean ±...

  2. Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants’ feces (n = 5, each) and mothers’ feces (n = 3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk. Results The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants’ and mothers’ feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P milk metagenome also contained a similar occurrence of immune-modulatory DNA motifs to that of infants’ and mothers’ fecal metagenomes. Conclusions Our results further expand the complexity of the human milk metagenome and enforce the benefits of human milk ingestion on the microbial colonization of the infant gut and immunity. Discovery of immune-modulatory motifs in the metagenome of human milk indicates more exhaustive analyses of the functionality of the human

  3. Distribution of Spiked Drugs between Milk Fat, Skim Milk, Whey, Curd, and Milk Protein Fractions: Expansion of Partitioning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; Shappell, Nancy W; Shelver, Weilin L; Hakk, Heldur

    2018-01-10

    The distributions of eight drugs (acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid/salicylic acid, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, flunixin, phenylbutazone, praziquantel, and thiamphenicol) were determined in milk products (skim milk, milk fat, curd, whey, and whey protein) and used to expand a previous model (from 7 drugs to 15 drugs) for predicting drug distribution. Phenylbutazone and praziquantel were found to distribute with the lipid and curd phases (≥50%). Flunixin distribution was lower but similar in direction (12% in milk fat, 39% in curd). Acetaminophen, ciprofloxacin, and praziquantel preferentially associated with casein proteins, whereas thiamphenicol and clarithromycin associated preferentially to whey proteins. Regression analyses for log [milk fat]/[skim milk] and log [curd]/[whey] had r 2 values of 0.63 and 0.67, respectively, with p of <0.001 for 15 drugs (7 previously tested and 8 currently tested). The robustness of the distribution model was enhanced by doubling the number of drugs originally tested.

  4. Somatic cell counts in bulk milk and their importance for milk processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, N. R.; Mikulec, D. P.; Radovanović, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Bulk tank milk somatic cell counts are the indicator of the mammary gland health in the dairy herds and may be regarded as an indirect measure of milk quality. Elevated somatic cell counts are correlated with changes in milk composition The aim of this study was to assess the somatic cell counts that significantly affect the quality of milk and dairy products. We examined the somatic cell counts in bulk tank milk samples from 38 farms during the period of 6 months, from December to the May of the next year. The flow cytometry, Fossomatic was used for determination of somatic cell counts. In the same samples content of total proteins and lactose was determined by Milcoscan. Our results showed that average values for bulk tank milk samples were 273,605/ml from morning milking and 292,895/ml from evening milking. The average values for total proteins content from morning and evening milking are 3,31 and 3,34%, respectively. The average values for lactose content from morning and evening milking are 4,56 and 4,63%, respectively. The highest somatic cell count (516,000/ml) was detected in bulk tank milk sample from evening milk in the Winter and the lowest content of lactose was 4,46%. Our results showed that obtained values for bulk tank milk somatic cell counts did not significantly affected the content of total proteins and lactose.

  5. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  6. Improved growth of preterm infants receiving mother's own raw milk compared with pasteurized donor milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montjaux-Régis, N; Cristini, C; Arnaud, C; Glorieux, I; Vanpee, M; Casper, C

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether growth, feeding tolerance and infectious events of preterm infants is related to the proportion of intake of mother's own raw milk (maternal milk) versus pooled pasteurized banked breast milk (donor milk). This is a prospective observational study of 55 premature infants born less than 32 weeks of gestational age admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at the Children's Hospital of Toulouse during two 6-month periods from 2003 to 2005. Enrolled infants were exclusively on enteral feeds with maternal milk ± donor milk. Mean gestational age was 28.6 weeks (SD 1.5) and mean birth weight 1105 grams (SD 282). During the time of exclusively breast milk feeds, weight gain (g/kg/day) was correlated to the proportion of maternal milk consumed (p = 0.0048, r = 0.4). Necrotizing enterocolitis was inversely correlated to the amount of maternal milk. The amount of maternal milk did not impact on infectious events. Mother's own raw milk improves weight gain compared with donor milk in preterm infants. Lactation strategies should be sought that helps mothers to increase their milk production. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  7. Physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of milk, butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the physicochemical, microbial load and sensory properties of milk, butter with or without garlic was carried out using fresh milk from white Fulani cow for eight weeks of the lactation. The milk used was milked manually by the Fulanis early in the morning. Fat content was highest in milk (4.13±0.16) and least in ...

  8. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms...

  9. Preference for goat meat and milk products consumption in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few people were involved in the consumption of goat milk and milk products, with the highest percentage coming from respondents who consume goat milk only on certain occasions. In general, the study indicated that goat meat is well cherished, while milk from goats is unpopular in the state. Since goat milk is known ...

  10. Is there a feeding strategy to increase milk casein content?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Because more than 60% of milk produced in Italy is transformed into cheese, milk economical value strongly depends on cheese yield. Among the factors that influence cheese yield, milk casein and fat content plays a major role: when milk is converted into Grana Padano and Parmigiano reggiano, three grams of seasoned cheese are produced from one gram of milk casein.....

  11. Consumers' sensory and nutritional perceptions of three types of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, A.E.M.; Worsley, A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify consumer perceptions of whole milk, reduced-fat milk and soy milk, and to investigate demographic influences on perceptions and types of milk consumption. Design and setting: Questionnaires covering nutritional and sensory perceptions of three types of milk. Subjects: Three

  12. Impact of processing on the digestibility of milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processing of milk by homogenization and pasteurization causes changes in the milk proteins and fats, but there is little information about whether these changes affect milk digestibility. In this study, whole and skim milk samples were processed and compared to raw milk after all samples had underg...

  13. 7 CFR 1001.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1001.44 Section 1001... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1001.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  14. 7 CFR 760.3 - Indemnity payments on milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indemnity payments on milk. 760.3 Section 760.3... Farmers for Milk § 760.3 Indemnity payments on milk. An indemnity payment for milk may be made to an... whole milk marketed during the applications period, and (b) any payment not subject to refund which he...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1033.44 Section 1033... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1033.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  16. 7 CFR 1007.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1007.44 Section 1007... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1007.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  17. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for U.S...

  18. 7 CFR 1126.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1126.44 Section 1126... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1126.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  19. 7 CFR 1030.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1030.44 Section 1030... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1030.44 Classification of producer milk...

  20. 7 CFR 1131.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1131.44 Section 1131... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1131.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  1. 7 CFR 1124.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1124.44 Section 1124... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1124.44 Classification of producer milk...

  2. 7 CFR 1006.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1006.44 Section 1006... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1006.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  3. 7 CFR 1032.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1032.44 Section 1032... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1032.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  4. 7 CFR 1005.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1005.44 Section 1005... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1005.44 Classification of producer milk...

  5. [Cow's milk protein sensitive enteropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, H K

    1982-01-01

    Cow's milk protein sensitive enteropathy (CMPSE) is characterized by the following items: 1. The great majority of affected infants have not been breast fed or only for a few days. Additional risks are immaturity, preceding enteritis, trisomy 21, and abdominal operation in the newborn. 2. Half of the patients become ill during the first two weeks after starting cow's milk formula. The main symptoms are watery, mucus containing diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal distension, pallor and rapid weight loss. 3. In CMPSE the small intestinal mucosa shows varying degrees of inflammation and villous atrophy. Bloody stools refer to large bowel affection. 4. CMPSE is always transitory and usually persists for less than one year. Inadequate treatment leads to "severe protracted diarrhea" or "intractable diarrhea" syndrome. Soya-based formula should not be the diet of first choice, since secondary intolerance to soya proteins will frequently develop. Exclusive breast feeding during the first months of life is the best prophylaxis of CMPSE.

  6. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  7. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  8. Effects of lactation number, milk yield and milk composition on freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Otwinowska-Mindur; Ewa PTAK

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the influence of lactation number, daily milk yield, somatic cell count and milk composition on the freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The data comprised 3,067,343 test day milk samples collected in 2014 from 865,198 first seven lactations of 714,018 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, made available by the Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers. The cows calved in 20,043 herds in 2013 and 2014. Four lactation classes w...

  9. Evaluation of the Influence of Frequency of Milk Collection and Milking Dayshift on the Microbiological Quality of Raw Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Reguillo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of milk collection frequency (24 h versus 48 h and milking dayshift (morning and evening on total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB and psychrotrophic bacteria (PSY counts in raw milk samples. MAB counts were determined by flow cytometry (BactoScan and PSY counts by the plate counting agar method. An univariate statistical analysis was performed to find out significant differences among the studied factors. Results obtained showed that collecting milk every 24 h was effective in reducing MAB and PSY counts by 32 and 18%, respectively, compared to 48 h milk collection. This positive impact allowed reducing up to 4°C the temperature of the heat treatment in the dairy industry, thus involving energy savings of 22%. Milking during the mornings showed a significant reduction of MAB counts in comparison to milking performed during the evenings (P<0.05. These results are highly useful for the improvement of milk quality through the optimization of collection and milking systems set at primary production.

  10. Does milk increase mucus production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Jim; McGlashan, Susan Read

    2010-04-01

    Excessive milk consumption has a long association with increased respiratory tract mucus production and asthma. Such an association cannot be explained using a conventional allergic paradigm and there is limited medical evidence showing causality. In the human colon, beta-casomorphin-7 (beta-CM-7), an exorphin derived from the breakdown of A1 milk, stimulates mucus production from gut MUC5AC glands. In the presence of inflammation similar mucus overproduction from respiratory tract MUC5AC glands characterises many respiratory tract diseases. beta-CM-7 from the blood stream could stimulate the production and secretion of mucus production from these respiratory glands. Such a hypothesis could be tested in vitro using quantitative RT-PCR to show that the addition of beta-CM-7 into an incubation medium of respiratory goblet cells elicits an increase in MUC5AC mRNA and by identifying beta-CM-7 in the blood of asthmatic patients. This association may not necessarily be simply cause and effect as the person has to be consuming A1 milk, beta-CM-7 must pass into the systemic circulation and the tissues have to be actively inflamed. These prerequisites could explain why only a subgroup of the population, who have increased respiratory tract mucus production, find that many of their symptoms, including asthma, improve on a dairy elimination diet. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcumamangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milkprotein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomizeddesign was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcumazeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. Thecollected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects wastested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbssignificantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreasedmastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  12. Effects of light and copper ions on volatile aldehydes of milk and milk fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeno, W.; Bassette, R.; Crang, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Raw, laboratory-pasteurized and plant-pasteurized homogenized milks were exposed to copper ions (5 ppm), to sunlight or fluorescent light and the effects determined on the composition of volatile aldehydes. The greatest change due to copper treatment was an increase in n-hexanal; acetaldehyde showed the least response in each of the sources of milk. The responses were similar from all three sources of milk with laboratory-pasteurized milk samples showing the greatest responses for each aldehyde analyzed. Similar milk samples exposed to sunlight also showed an increase in volatile aldehydes from all milk sources but with the greatest response being acetaldehyde and n-pentanal components. The milk fraction most susceptible to changes in the presence of light was neutralized whey, whereas resuspended cream was most susceptible to copper exposure. Overall, dialyzed whey appeared to be influenced more than other milk fractions by both light and copper ions.

  13. How Research on Charitable Giving Can Inform Strategies to Promote Human Milk Donations to Milk Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-08-01

    Many hospitalized preterm infants do not exclusively receive mother's own milk, so milk from another mother may be sought. Previous research indicated that just 1% of US women who express breast milk actually donate it for another family. Therefore, strategies to boost donation rates should be identified. We draw upon the experimental literature on charitable giving of monetary donations to offer 6 strategies to promote breast milk donations to milk banks in North America. These strategies include (1) highlighting a potential identifiable recipient of donated breast milk as opposed to highlighting groups of potential recipients; (2) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and potential beneficiaries; (3) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and previous donors; (4) using negative arousal to promote donations; (5) emphasizing the self-interest of those asking for breast milk donations; and (6) highlighting the specific effect of breast milk donations. Potential limitations of these strategies are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Determination of Dornic acidity as a method to select donor milk in a milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Román, Sara; Garcia-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Chaves-Sánchez, Fernando; De la Cruz-Bertolo, Javier; Pallas-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Dornic acidity may be an indirect measurement of milk's bacteria content and its quality. There are no uniform criteria among different human milk banks on milk acceptance criteria. The main aim of this study is to report the correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk in order to validate the Dornic acidity value as an adequate method to select milk prior to its pasteurization. From 105 pools, 4-mL samples of human milk were collected. Dornic acidity measurement and culture in blood and McConkey's agar cultures were performed. Based on Dornic acidity degrees, we classified milk into three quality categories: top quality (acidity pasteurize in a human milk bank based in quality and safety criteria.

  15. Milk Fistula: Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kelsey E; Valente, Stephanie A

    2016-01-01

    Milk fistula is an uncommon condition which occurs when there is an abnormal connection that forms between the skin surface and the duct in the breast of a lactating woman, resulting in spontaneous and often constant drainage of milk from this path of least resistance. A milk fistula is usually a complication that results from a needle biopsy or surgical intervention in a lactating patient. Here, the authors present an unusual case of a spontaneous milk fistula which developed from an abscess in the breast of a lactating woman. The patient initially presented to the office with a large open wound on her breast, formed from skin breakdown, within which milk was pooling. She was treated with local wound care and cessation of breastfeeding, with appropriate healing of the wound and closure of the fistula with 6 weeks. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of milk fistula were reviewed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rogelj

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fermented milk with probiotic bacteria has again become the prominent representative of this new category of food. Milk alone is much more than the sum of its nutrients. It contains an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth, and immunoregulation. When fermented milk is enriched with probiotic bacteria and prebiotics it meets all the requirements of functional food. The possible positive effects of enriched fermented milk on host health will be reviewed.

  17. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  18. Human milk composition and infant growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Christensen, Sophie Hilario; Lind, Mads Vendelbo

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights relevant studies published between 2015 and 2017 on human milk composition and the association with infant growth. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality studies investigating how human milk composition is related to infant growth are sparse. Recent observational...... studies show that human milk concentrations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate likely have important influence on infant growth and body composition. Furthermore, some observational studies examining human milk oligosaccharides and hormone concentrations suggest functional relevance to infant growth....... For human milk micronutrient concentrations and microbiota content, and other bioactive components in human milk, the association with infant growth is still speculative and needs further investigation. The included studies in this review are all limited in their methodological design and methods but have...

  19. SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Lukushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  20. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  1. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  2. Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    Sonck, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Research issues

    The research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid to the future requirements concerning human labour and labour (re)organisation with respect to the complex interaction between the cows and an automatic milking system (AMS) on a robotic milking d...

  3. Raw Milk Hygiene at Local Markets and Automatic Milk Dispenser Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, direct sales of raw milk to the final consumer is developed based on the local regulations. These are in accordance to European Regulation that must meet some quality requirements for the total number of germs, somatic cells, without antibiotics, coming from healthy animals who did not suffer from diseases that can be transmitted to humans through milk. Raw milk is sold in Romania in local markets and by automatic milk dispenser machines. Based on these regulations, a study regarding the quality and security to human health of raw milk was conducted on the commercialized milk in local markets and automatic milk dispensers. During May-June 2014 samples of raw milk were collected from Cluj-Napoca local markets and automatic milk dispensers. All samples were kept to refrigeration conditions until the moment of analyze which took place at the sampling day. The following parameters were taken into account: fat content, protein, casein, lactose, nonfat dry matter, pH, milk freezing point, added water, antibiotics residues, milk urea, number of germ cells and somatic cells. All obtained results were verified by the validated methods applied. Our research can be forward conducted in order to verify the hygiene and composition of milk from the whole dairy chain. 

  4. A Qualitative Investigation of Adults' Perceived Benefits, Barriers and Strategies for Consuming Milk and Milk Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mary E.; Mistry, Chetan; Bourne, Jessica E.; Perrier, Marie-Josee; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Milk and milk products provide important nutrients and have been associated with numerous health benefits in addition to bone health, including a healthy weight and a reduction of risk for certain conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, consumption of milk and milk…

  5. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? Methods In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk–which will be referred to as chocolate milk–was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Results Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (pchocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Conclusions Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose. PMID:24740451

  6. Consumption of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products by pregnant women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sales of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products are still legal in at least 30 states in the United States. Raw milk and milk products from cows, goats, and sheep continue to be a source of bacterial infections attributable to a number of virulent pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella species, Brucella species, and Escherichia coli O157. These infections can occur in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals, including older adults, infants, young children, and pregnant women and their unborn fetuses, in whom life-threatening infections and fetal miscarriage can occur. Efforts to limit the sale of raw milk products have met with opposition from those who are proponents of the purported health benefits of consuming raw milk products, which contain natural or unprocessed factors not inactivated by pasteurization. However, the benefits of these natural factors have not been clearly demonstrated in evidence-based studies and, therefore, do not outweigh the risks of raw milk consumption. Substantial data suggest that pasteurized milk confers equivalent health benefits compared with raw milk, without the additional risk of bacterial infections. The purpose of this policy statement was to review the risks of raw milk consumption in the United States and to provide evidence of the risks of infectious complications associated with consumption of unpasteurized milk and milk products, especially among pregnant women, infants, and children.

  7. 119-132 Microbiological Quality of Raw Cow Milk across the Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    t

    equipment of producers in rural areas of Babile district; from the equipment of .... pastoral areas is supplied to urban centers through informal milk marketing channels ... raw milk across the milk supply chain to ensure safety and suitability ... Materials and Methods. 2.1. ... Ethiopia at 9°36′ N latitude and 41°52′ E longitude.

  8. Voluntary automatic milking in combination with grazing of dairy cows : Milking frequency and effects on behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C.; Ipema, A.H.; Ouwerkerk, van E.N.J.; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) enable cows to be milked without human interference. Such systems are more acceptable to consumers and from the animal welfare point of view if they can be combined with grazing in the summer season. In this study, grazing was combined with fully automatic milking for

  9. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF GOAT MILK CASEIN

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Ahmed Salem; Elsayed Ibrahim Elagamy; Fatma Salama; Nagwa Hussein Abosoliman

    2009-01-01

    The effect of feeding of goat and cow milk caseins on the body weight gain, body organs, erythrocytic & leukocytic counts and their parameters, plasma lipid profile, liver enzyme activities, renal function and plasma proteins of rats over a period of 45 days was studied. Feeding of goat or cow milk caseins had no significant effect on the parameters studied (P≤0.05) between rats fed either milk. However, rats fed on goat milk casein showed a significant increase in high density lipoproteins...

  10. From pasture grass to cattle milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Susumu

    1979-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the important fission products since it is selectively accumulated in the thyroid gland of man. The transfer of this isotope from contaminated grass to cows' milk is therefore of particular importance since milk is a major constituent of the diet especially for infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transfer rate of this isotope from grass to milk of lactuating cows and its distribution in milk. It is said that the orally administered iodide is rapidly absorbed through the rumen wall and excreted mainly to urine. The absorbed iodine is accumulated highly in the thyroid gland and the considerable amount is secreted to milk. Garner et al. showed that about 5% of a dose of 131 I was found in the milk within 7 days. The extremes were 1.43 to 16.4%. Present author obtained that 18 - 30% of the dosed 131 I was secreted into milk within 7 days, indicating somewhat higher transfer rate than that of Garner et al. It was reported that more than 90% of 131 I was found in milk serum in the ionic form. The countermeasures for diminishing 131 I in milk were also presented. (author)

  11. Detecting Candida albicans in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Jimi Francis; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Heinig, M Jane; Lönnerdal, Bo; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    Procedures for diagnosis of mammary candidosis, including laboratory confirmation, are not well defined. Lactoferrin present in human milk can inhibit growth of Candida albicans, thereby limiting the ability to detect yeast infections. The inhibitory effect of various lactoferrin concentrations on the growth of C. albicans in whole human milk was studied. The addition of iron to the milk led to a two- to threefold increase in cell counts when milk contained 3.0 mg of lactoferrin/ml and markedly reduced the likelihood of false-negative culture results. This method may provide the necessary objective support needed for diagnosis of mammary candidosis.

  12. Selenium in human milk: An Australian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, F.J.; Fardy, J.J.; Woodward, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this Australian study were to determine (total) selenium concentration in breast milk and in maternal blood, and to assess the relationship between the two. The authors also aimed to assess the infants' selenium intake. Twenty lactating women from Brisbane (Queensland) participated in the study, at 6-12 weeks post-partum. Small samples (approximately 10 ml) of breast-milk were manually expressed at the beginning and end of a mid-morning feed, from the first breast offered at that feed. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were also collected from the mothers. Milk and blood samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Babies' milk intake over a 24-hour period was estimated using a modified test-weighing technique. Infant selenium intakes were calculated directly for each infant, using his/her mother's milk selenium level and his/her own 24-hour breast milk intake. The mean selenium concentration in maternal blood was 101 (±SD 19) ng/g and in maternal serum 81 (±15) ng/g. Breast milk selenium concentrations (11.9 ± 3.5 ng/g) were fairly low by international standards. There was no correlation between selenium concentrations in milk and blood (or serum). The infants' 24-hour breast-milk intakes were 856 ± 172 g, and their selenium intakes were 10.7 ± 4.1 μg per day

  13. Natural variation in casein composition of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Bijl, E.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milk contains 3-4 % protein and almost 80% of the milk protein fraction consist of four caseins; αs1-casein, β-casein, αs2-casein and κ-casein. Most of the caseins in milk are assembled in casein micelles, which consist of several thousands of individual casein molecules and salts. The unique structure of casein micelles allows the delivery of large amounts of calcium and phosphate to the neonate. Considerable natural variation in casein content and composition exists between milk sam...

  14. Color Changes of UHT Milk During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja M. Sikimić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study measurements of color parameters of UHT milk were performed, by using a MOM-color 100 photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter. Colors of UHT milk samples containing 3.2% and 1.6% milk fat, processed under industrial conditions, packed in polyethylene terephtalate (PET based packages, and stored for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days at ambient temperature (20±5°C were examined. Results are shown in four different systems that define measurement of color parameters expressed in: CIE, CIE L*a*b*, Hünter and ANLAB – Adams Nickerson systems. Average value of mean reflectance of UHT milk determined in CIE system statistically is highly significantly changed, (p < 0.01 depending on duration of storaging, percentage of milk fat, as well as on the interaction of the mentioned factors. For the UHT milk with 1.6% milk fat statistically significant (p < 0.05 decrease of psychometric chroma b* occurs after 60 days, and for milk with 3.2% milk fat established on 45th day of storage.

  15. Design and manufacture a coconut milk squeezer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayan Surata, I.; Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Budyanto, D.; Yulianto, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    The process of cooking oil production generally is started by grating the ripe coconut meat, then pressing the grated meat to obtain coconut milk, and finally heating the coconut milk to obtain the cooking oil. Pressing mechanism to obtain coconut milk is a very important step and decisive in the process of producing cooking oil. The amount of milk produced depends on the pressure applied at the time of pressing grated coconut. The higher the pressure, the more milk is obtained. Some commercial mechanical pressing tools that available in the market are not efficient due to the working steps too much and take long time per cycle of work. The aims of this study was to design and manufacture a power screw squeezer for the collection of coconut milk. Power screw produces a compressive force in the cylinder to push and press the grated coconut until the end of the cylinder while the coconut milk and coconut dregs flow out simultaneously. Screw press was designed using straight shaft configuration with square profile. Performance test was done to investigate the actual capacity and yield of milk produced. The results showed that squeezer of grated coconut worked well with capacity an average of 13,63 kg/h and coconut milk yield of 58%.

  16. Bacteriological monitoring of unheated human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D C; Poll, R A; Roberts, C

    1979-10-01

    To assess the bacteriological quality of unpooled expressed breast milk, a pilot bottle sample of each donation was examined before the milk was given to the neonate. Provided the milk did not contain greater than 2500 organisms/ml or potential pathogens it was used unheated. Milk containing between 2500 and 5000 organisms/ml and no potential pathogens was used after pasteurisation. Using these criteria, 67% of 460 donations were acceptable. However, because the bacteriological quality varied, 45% of domiciliary donations were discarded compared with only 29% of those from hospital.

  17. Robotic milking: Feeding strategies and economic returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor

    2017-09-01

    Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS. However, milking frequency is dependent on many factors, including the social structure of the herd, the farm layout design, the type of traffic imposed to cows, the type of flooring, the health status of the cow (especially lameness, but also mastitis, metritis, among others), the stage of lactation, the parity, and the type of ration fed at the feed bunk and the concentrate offered in the AMS. Uneven milk frequency has been associated with milk losses and increased risk of mastitis, but most importantly it is a lost opportunity for milking the cow and generating profit. On the other hand, the opportunity from AMS resides in the possibility of milking more frequently and feeding cows more precisely or more closely to their nutrient needs on an individual basis, potentially resulting in a more profitable production system. But, feeding cows in the parlor or AMS has many challenges. On one side, feeding starchy, highly palatable ingredients in large amounts may upset rumen fermentation or alter feeding behavior after milking, whereas feeding high-fiber concentrates may compromise total energy intake and limit milking performance. Nevertheless, AMS (and some milking parlors, especially rotary ones) offer the possibility of feeding the cows to their estimated individual nutrient needs by combining different feeds on real time with the aim of maximizing profits rather

  18. Commercial milk distribution profiles and production locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Anderson, D.M.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. For this period iodine-131 is the most important offsite contributor to radiation doses from Hanford operations. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 is the dominant radiation pathway for individuals who drank milk (Napier 1992). Information has been developed on commercial milk cow locations and commercial milk distribution during 1945 and 1951. The year 1945 was selected because during 1945 the largest amount of iodine-131 was released from Hanford facilities in a calendar year (Heeb 1993); therefore, 1945 was the year in which an individual was likely to have received the highest dose. The year 1951 was selected to provide data for comparing the changes that occurred in commercial milk flows (i.e., sources, processing locations, and market areas) between World War II and the post-war period. To estimate the doses people could have received from this milk flow, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk people consumed, the source of the milk, the specific feeding regime used for milk cows, and the amount of iodine-131 contamination deposited on feed

  19. Human milk pasteurization: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Deborah L; Ewaschuk, Julia B; Unger, Sharon

    2015-05-01

    Recent findings substantiate that the optimal method of nourishing preterm, very low birth weight infants (VLBW, born pasteurized donor milk. The availability of donor milk for VLBW infants during initial hospitalization continues to increase with the launch of new milk banks in North America. The majority of North American neonatal ICUs now have written policies governing the provision of donor milk. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent evidence regarding the risks and benefits of pasteurization of human milk and outcomes associated with its provision to VLBW preterm infants. Studies investigating the impact of collection, storage and pasteurization on the bacteriostatic, immunologic and nutritional aspects of human milk continue to be published, generally revealing a partial, but not complete reduction in bioactivity. Risk of contamination of pasteurized donor human milk with pathogenic agents is mitigated through pasteurization. New pasteurization methods aiming to maintain the safety of pooled human milk while better preserving bioactivity are under investigation. Provision of a human milk-derived diet to preterm VLBW infants is associated with improved outcomes.

  20. Chemistry of silybin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermann, David; Vavříková, Eva; Cvak, L.; Křen, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 9 (2014), s. 1138-1157 ISSN 0265-0568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0662; GA MŠk LH13097; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14096; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13042 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : silybin * Silybum marianum * separation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 10.107, year: 2014

  1. Flavonolignan 2,3-dehydrosilydianin activates Nrf2 and upregulates NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in Hepa1c1c7 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubalová, L.; Dinkova-Kostova, A.T.; Biedermann, David; Křen, Vladimír; Ulrichová, J.; Vrba, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, Jun 2017 (2017), s. 115-120 ISSN 0367-326X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15081 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Silybum marianum * Silymarin * Flavonolignans Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.698, year: 2016

  2. VITAL: Vanguard Investigations of Therapeutic Approaches to Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    nor enhances TRAIL‑induced apoptosis in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.117 Luteolin (Fig. 2), a naturally occurring flavonoid ...in leukemia cells.119 Silibinin (Fig. 2), a flavonoid isolated from Silybum marianum, can sensitize glioma cells to TRAIL‑induced apoptosis...tion of cells to death ligand‑ or death receptor activation‑mediated apoptosis.140,141 Similarly, the flavonoid quercetin (Fig. 2) enhances TRAIL

  3. The efficacy of silymarin in the treatment of physiological neonatal jaundice: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kassem, Lamyaa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common conditions in neonates. Conventional treatment are phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Phototherapy is safe and effective, but it has several disadvantages. That indicates the need to develop an alternative pharmacological treatment strategies. It should be less invasive, and at least, as effective and safe as phototherapy. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Silybum marianum (silymarin) on the d...

  4. Composition and Variation of Macronutrients, Immune Proteins, and Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Human Milk From Nonprofit and Commercial Milk Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith-Dennis, Laura; Xu, Gege; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Underwood, Mark A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2018-02-01

    When human milk is unavailable, banked milk is recommended for feeding premature infants. Milk banks use processes to eliminate pathogens; however, variability among methods exists. Research aim: The aim of this study was to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat, energy), immune-protective protein, and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) content of human milk from three independent milk banks that use pasteurization (Holder vs. vat techniques) or retort sterilization. Randomly acquired human milk samples from three different milk banks ( n = 3 from each bank) were analyzed for macronutrient concentrations using a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy human milk analyzer. The concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, α antitrypsin, casein, and HMO were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The concentrations of protein and fat were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized compared with the Holder and vat pasteurized samples, respectively. The concentrations of all immune-modulating proteins were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized samples compared with vat and/or Holder pasteurized samples. The total HMO concentration and HMOs containing fucose, sialic acid, and nonfucosylated neutral sugars were significantly ( p < .05) less in retort sterilized compared with Holder pasteurized samples. Random milk samples that had undergone retort sterilization had significantly less immune-protective proteins and total and specific HMOs compared with samples that had undergone Holder and vat pasteurization. These data suggest that further analysis of the effect of retort sterilization on human milk components is needed prior to widespread adoption of this process.

  5. of market milk supplies a survey of penicillin contaminatio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the preparation used and the dosage administered. The excretion of penicillin in milk ... of antibiotic contamination of the milk supply as a veterinary and public health problem .... milk samples, and to the Director of the Abattoir and Livestock.

  6. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  7. Stability in Organic Milk Farm Prices: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Ye; Brown, Scott; Cook, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The organic milk pay price is more stable year round and increases every year. However, the conventional milk price varies within the year and from year to year. As an emerging segment of the milk industry, consumer demand for organic milk is increasing rapidly. The growth in demand relative to supply provides organic milk producers and processors large premiums over the conventional milk price. Many conventional dairy farms have converted to organic operations for the more stable price. The ...

  8. Allergenicity of milk of different animal species in relation to human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pastuszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein content in cow milk (with over 20 proteins, and peptides may also occur as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis ranges from 2.5% to 4.2% and is about 1.5-2 times higher than in human milk. Its most important allergens are considered to be β-lactoglobulin (absent in human milk and αs1-casein. The most similar in composition to human milk is horse and donkey milk. It contains considerably more whey proteins (35-50% than cow milk (about 20%, and the concentration of the most allergenic casein fraction αs1 is 1.5-2.5 g/l. In comparison, the content of αs1-casein in cow milk is about 10 g/l. β-lactoglobulin present in donkey milk is a monomer, while in milk of ruminants it is a dimer. Like human milk, it contains a substantial amount of lactose (about 7%, which determines its flavour and facilitates calcium absorption. The high lysozyme content (about 1 g/l gives it antibacterial properties (compared to trace amounts in ruminants. Camel milk is also more digestible and induces fewer allergic reactions, because it lacks β-lactoglobulin, and its β-casein has a different structure. It also contains (compared to cow milk more antibacterial substances such as lysozyme, lactoferrin and immunoglobulins, and furthermore the number of immunoglobulins is compatible with human ones. Goat milk components have a higher degree of assimilability as compared to cow milk. Its main protein is β-casein, with total protein content depending on the αs1-casein genetic variant. Goats with the ‘0’ variant do not synthesize this allergenic protein. Clinical and immunochemical studies indicate, however, that it cannot be a substitute for cow milk without the risk of an anaphylactic reaction.

  9. The application of NMR-based milk metabolite analysis in milk authenticity identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiangqiang; Yu, Zunbo; Zhu, Dan; Meng, Xianghe; Pang, Xiumei; Liu, Yue; Frew, Russell; Chen, He; Chen, Gang

    2017-07-01

    Milk is an important food component in the human diet and is a target for fraud, including many unsafe practices. For example, the unscrupulous adulteration of soymilk into bovine and goat milk or of bovine milk into goat milk in order to gain profit without declaration is a health risk, as the adulterant source and sanitary history are unknown. A robust and fit-for-purpose technique is required to enforce market surveillance and hence protect consumer health. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique for characterization of food products based on measuring the profile of metabolites. In this study, 1D NMR in conjunction with multivariate chemometrics as well as 2D NMR was applied to differentiate milk types and to identify milk adulteration. Ten metabolites were found which differed among milk types, hence providing characteristic markers for identifying the milk. These metabolites were used to establish mathematical models for milk type differentiation. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of adulteration was 2% (v/v) for soymilk in bovine milk, 2% (v/v) for soymilk in goat milk and 5% (v/v) for bovine milk in goat milk, with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 10%, which can meet the needs of daily inspection. The NMR method described here is effective for milk authenticity identification, and the study demonstrates that the NMR-based milk metabolite analysis approach provides a means of detecting adulteration at expected levels and can be used for dairy quality monitoring. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Expanding the Supply of Pasteurized Donor Milk: Understanding Why Peer-to-Peer Milk Sharers in the United States Do Not Donate to Milk Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Goodell, L Suzanne; Fogleman, April; Pettus, Hannah; Bodenheimer, Amanda L; Palmquist, Aunchalee E L

    2016-05-01

    Lactating women in the United States have several options for what they do with excess breast milk, including donating to milk banks that serve medically fragile infants, sharing directly with families seeking milk, and selling to individuals or for-profit entities. The World Health Organization and the US Surgeon General have issued calls to increase access to pasteurized donor milk for medically fragile infants. To explore how lactating women with a surplus of breast milk come to the decision to share their milk with a peer rather than donate to a milk bank. A qualitative design using a grounded theory approach was employed. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 27 women who had shared milk with a peer but not with a milk bank. Five dominant themes were identified: a strong belief in the value of breast milk, unexpected versus planned donation, sources of information regarding milk exchange, concerns and knowledge gaps about milk banks, and helping and connecting. This research offers insights into potential strategies for promoting milk bank donation among peer-to-peer milk sharers, including developing donor education campaigns focused on knowledge gaps regarding milk banks and developing health care professional referral programs that can reduce barriers associated with the convenience of milk bank donation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Distribution of animal drugs among curd, whey, and milk protein fractions in spiked skim milk and whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is important to understand the partitioning of drugs in processed milk and milk products, when drugs are present in raw milk, in order to estimate the potential consumer exposure. Radioisotopically labelled erythromycin, ivermectin, ketoprofen, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, sulfadimethoxine, and...

  12. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Silymarin as a Natural Antioxidant: An Overview of the Current Evidence and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Surai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Silymarin (SM, an extract from the Silybum marianum (milk thistle plant containing various flavonolignans (with silybin being the major one, has received a tremendous amount of attention over the last decade as a herbal remedy for liver treatment. In many cases, the antioxidant properties of SM are considered to be responsible for its protective actions. Possible antioxidant mechanisms of SM are evaluated in this review. (1 Direct scavenging free radicals and chelating free Fe and Cu are mainly effective in the gut. (2 Preventing free radical formation by inhibiting specific ROS-producing enzymes, or improving an integrity of mitochondria in stress conditions, are of great importance. (3 Maintaining an optimal redox balance in the cell by activating a range of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants, mainly via Nrf2 activation is probably the main driving force of antioxidant (AO  action of SM. (4 Decreasing inflammatory responses by inhibiting NF-κB pathways is an emerging mechanism of SM protective effects in liver toxicity and various liver diseases. (5 Activating vitagenes, responsible for synthesis of protective molecules, including heat shock proteins (HSPs, thioredoxin and sirtuins and providing additional protection in stress conditions deserves more attention. (6 Affecting the microenvironment of the gut, including SM-bacteria interactions, awaits future investigations. (7 In animal nutrition and disease prevention strategy, SM alone, or in combination with other hepatho-active compounds (carnitine, betaine, vitamin B12, etc., might have similar hepatoprotective effects as described in human nutrition.

  14. Treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid, prevents ultraviolet light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2002-12-01

    It is well documented that ultraviolet (UV) light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress play an important role in the induction of skin cancers. Earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), to mouse skin prevents photocarcinogenesis, but the preventive mechanism of photocarcinogenesis in vivo animal system by silymarin is not well defined and understood. To define the mechanism of prevention, we employed immunostaining, analytical assays and ELISA which revealed that topical treatment of silymarin (1 mg/cm2 skin area) to C3H/HeN mice inhibits UVB (90 mJ/cm2)-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to contact sensitizer dinitrofluorobenzene. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of CHS by silymarin was found to be associated with the inhibition of infiltrating leukocytes, particularly CD11b+ cell type, and myeloperoxidase activity (50-71%). Silymarin treatment also resulted in significant reduction of UVB-induced immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 producing cells and its production (58-72%, pskin cancer risk human population and ii) development of sunscreen containing silymarin as an antioxidant (chemopreventive agent) or silymarin can be supplemented in skin care products.

  15. A Novel Role of Silibinin as a Putative Epigenetic Modulator in Human Prostate Carcinoma

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    Ioannis Anestopoulos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silibinin, extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L., has exhibited considerable preclinical activity against prostate carcinoma. Its antitumor and chemopreventive activities have been associated with diverse effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and receptor-dependent mitogenic signaling pathways. Here we hypothesized that silibinin’s pleiotropic effects may reflect its interference with epigenetic mechanisms in human prostate cancer cells. More specifically, we have demonstrated that silibinin reduces gene expression levels of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2 members Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2, Suppressor of Zeste Homolog 12 (SUZ12, and Embryonic Ectoderm Development (EED in DU145 and PC3 human prostate cancer cells, as evidenced by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. Furthermore immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that silibinin-mediated reduction of EZH2 levels was accompanied by an increase in trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine (Κ-27 residue (H3K27me3 levels and that such response was, in part, dependent on decreased expression levels of phosphorylated Akt (ser473 (pAkt and phosphorylated EZH2 (ser21 (pEZH2. Additionally silibinin exerted other epigenetic effects involving an increase in total DNA methyltransferase (DNMT activity while it decreased histone deacetylases 1-2 (HDACs1-2 expression levels. We conclude that silibinin induces epigenetic alterations in human prostate cancer cells, suggesting that subsequent disruptions of central processes in chromatin conformation may account for some of its diverse anticancer effects.

  16. Silymarin attenuated hepatic steatosis through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xunjun; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin, which derived from the milk thistle plant (silybum marianum), has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. Considering the therapeutic potential to liver disease, we tested efficacy of silymarin on hepatic steatosis with a high fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and investigated possible effects on lipid metabolic pathways. In our study, silymarin could attenuate the hepatic steatosis, which was proved by both Oil Red O staining and hepatic triglyceride (TG) level determination. Furthermore, compared with INT-747, a potent and selective FXR agonist, silymarin could preserve plasmatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to a higher level and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to a lower level, which benefited more to the circulation system. Through real-time PCR analysis, we clarified a vital protective role of silymarin in mRNA regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. It was also shown that silymarin had no effects on body weight, food intake, and liver transaminase. Taken together, silymarin could attenuate hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of NAFLD through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, and benefit to the circulation system. All these findings shed new light on NAFLD treatment.

  17. Stability studies of silymarin nanoemulsion containing Tween 80 as a surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabea Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silymarin, a flavonolignan from "milk thistle" (Silybum marianum plant is used almost exclusively for hepatoprotection. Because of its low bioavailability, it was incorporated into a nanoemulsion formulation. The aim of the present study was to check the stability of silymarin nanoemulsion at different temperatures for 3 months. Materials and Methods: The oil-in-water based nanoemulsion formulation was prepared by titration method. Silymarin nanoemulsion was characterized by droplet size, viscosity, and refractive index. Droplet size, viscosity, and refractive index were determined every month. The shelf-life of silymarin nanoemulsion was determined by accelerated stability testing. Results: It was found that there was no significant change in the droplet size, viscosity, and refractive index at refrigerator and room temperature during the period of 3 months. The half-life of the optimized nanoemulsion formulation was found to be 4.74 years at room temperature. Conclusion: These results indicated that stability of silymarin can be enhanced in nanoemulsion formulation using Tween 80 as a surfactant.

  18. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug–botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug–botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug–botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. PMID:26438626

  19. http://bulletin.mfd.org.mk/volumes/Volume%2051/51_005.pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Kadifkova Panovska

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the ability of different extracts of H. plicatum obtained from flowers, stems and leaves, to act as natural antioxidants in different in vitro experimental models in which free radical reactions are involved: inhibition of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical, inhibition of hydroxyl radicals and protection of β-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Investigate extracts showed radical scavenging activity with IC50 from 6 to 11 mg/ml. The extracts are capable to reacting with OH• radical with inhibition of its production ranged between 33-58%. The high preventive activity against the bleaching of beta-carotene (15-49% of initial value after 120 minutes was also observed. The antioxidative activity of the extracts in the experimental systems was compared with that of reference substances: luteolin, quercetin, BHA, BHT and sylimarin (the main agent of the well-known milk thistle – Silybum marianum L.. Results of this study suggest that Helichrysum plicatum represent a natural source with antioxidant potential.

  20. Silymarin/Silybin and Chronic Liver Disease: A Marriage of Many Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Federico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silymarin is the extract of Silybum marianum, or milk thistle, and its major active compound is silybin, which has a remarkable biological effect. It is used in different liver disorders, particularly chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic power. Indeed, the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of silymarin is oriented towards the reduction of virus-related liver damages through inflammatory cascade softening and immune system modulation. It also has a direct antiviral effect associated with its intravenous administration in hepatitis C virus infection. With respect to alcohol abuse, silymarin is able to increase cellular vitality and to reduce both lipid peroxidation and cellular necrosis. Furthermore, silymarin/silybin use has important biological effects in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These substances antagonize the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, by intervening in various therapeutic targets: oxidative stress, insulin resistance, liver fat accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Silymarin is also used in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma that represent common end stages of different hepatopathies by modulating different molecular patterns. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine scientific studies concerning the effects derived from silymarin/silybin use in chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Silibinin ameliorates anxiety/depression-like behaviors in amyloid β-treated rats by upregulating BDNF/TrkB pathway and attenuating autophagy in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Liu, Bo; Cui, Lingyu; Zhou, Biao; Liu, Weiwei; Xu, Fanxing; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Hattori, Shunji; Ushiki-Kaku, Yuko; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Depression and anxiety are associated with increased risk of developing AD. Silibinin, a flavonoid derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been used as a hepato-protectant in the clinical treatment of liver diseases. In this study, the effect of silibinin on Aβ-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors in rats was investigated. Silibinin significantly attenuated anxiety/depression-like behaviors caused by Aβ1-42-treatment as shown in tail suspension test (TST), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming tests (FST). Moreover, silibinin was able to attenuate the neuronal damage in the hippocampus of Aβ1-42-injected rats. Silibinin-treatment up-regulated the function through BDNF/TrkB pathway and attenuated autophagy in the hippocampus. Our study provides a new insight into the protective effects of silibinin in the treatment of anxiety/depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The changes of proteins fractions shares in milk and fermented milk drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonczar, Genowefa; Walczycka, Maria; Duda, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to observe the changes which take place in the electrophoretic picture of milk proteins after pasteurisation and inoculation with different starter cultures (both traditional and probiotic). After incubation, the yoghurt, kefir, acidified milk, fermented Bifidobacterium bifidum drink and Lactobacillus acidophillus drink were chilled for 14 days to observe the changes which occurred. The research materials were raw and pasteurised milk, as well as fermented milk- based drinks. The raw milk used for research came from Polish Holstein-Fresian black and white cows. The milk was sampled 3 times and divided into 5 parts, each of which was pasteurised at 95°C for 10 min and then cooled for inoculation: yoghurt to 45°C, kefir and acidified milk to 22°C and drinks with Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophillus to 38°C. Milk was inoculated with lyophilised, direct vat starter cultures, in an amount equal to 2% of the working starter. For the production of fermented drinks, the subsequent starters were applied: "YC-180" Christian Hansen for yoghurt, "D" Biolacta-Texel-Rhodia for kefir, CH-N--11 Christian Hansen for acidified milk, starter by Christian Hansen for the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum milk, starter by Biolacta-Texel-Rhodia for the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophillus milk. The analyses were conducted in raw, pasteurised and freshly fermented milk as well as in milk drinks stored for 14 days. The total solid content was estimated by the drying method; the fat content by the Gerber method; the lactose content by the Bertrand method; the protein content by the Kjeldahl method with Buchi apparatus; the density of milk was measured with lactodensimeter; acidity with a pH-meter; and potential acidity by Soxhlet-Henkl method (AOAC, 1990). The electrophoretic separation of proteins in raw and pasteurised milk, as well as in freshly produced milk drinks and those stored for 14 days, was performed with SDS-PAGE (on

  3. Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.

  4. Best Practices to Limit Contamination of Donor Milk in a Milk Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Elizabeth B; Vanderpool, Jill; Spatz, Diane L

    2018-01-02

    Human milk donated to a milk bank can become contaminated in a number of ways, but processes exist to eradicate pathogenic bacterial growth. Donor human milk may be cultured before or after pasteurization or both. The purpose of this article is to describe standard operations of the Mothers' Milk Bank of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, best practices to limit the bacterial contamination of donor human milk, and implications for future research. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of lactose ureide, a urea derivative of lactose, in milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, K; Sasaki, A; Oritani, T; Hosono, A

    2011-12-01

    With the widespread consumption of milk, the complete characterization of the constituents of milk and milk products is important in terms of functionality and safety. In this study, a novel nonreducing carbohydrate was separated from powdered skim milk and was identified using electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (m/z 385.1[M + H(+)]), ¹H, ¹³C, ¹H¹H-correlation spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The carbohydrate was identified as a lactose derivative of urea, N-carbamoyl-o-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucopyranosylamine (lactose ureide, LU). For the HPLC analysis of LU in milk and milk products, benzoylated LU, hepta-o-benzoyl lactose ureide (melting point 137-139°C; m/z 1,113 [M + H⁺]; wavelength of maximum absorption, λ(max), 229 nm; molar extinction coefficient, ε, 8.1037 × 10⁷), was used as a standard. The crude nonreducing carbohydrate fraction from raw milk, thermally processed milk, and milk products such as powdered milks were directly benzoylated and subjected to HPLC analysis using an octadecylsilyl column to determine the quantity of LU. The content of LU in 10% solutions of powdered skim milk and powdered infant formula (5.0±1.1 and 4.9±1.5 mg/L, respectively) were almost 3-fold higher than that of UHT milk (1.6±0.5 mg/L) and higher than that of low-temperature, long-time-processed (pasteurized at 65°C for 30 min) milk (1.2±0.3 mg/L) and the fresh raw milk sample (0.3±0.1 mg/L). A time-course of the LU content in raw milk during heating at 110°C revealed that LU increased with time. From these results, it is likely that LU is formed by the Maillard-type reaction between the lactose and urea in milk and milk products. Because the concentration of LU in milk increased with the degree of processing heat treatment, it could serve as an indicator of the thermal deterioration of milk. Although it is known that the human intestine is unable to digest LU, the gastrointestinal bacteria

  6. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Olena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2015-01-01

    a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic...... analysis by MS/MSALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MSALL analysis demonstrated...... that the similar FA profile of human milk and Lacprodan determined by GC analysis is attributed to the composition of individual TAG species in human milk and glycerophospholipid species in Lacprodan. Moreover, the analysis of TAG molecules in Lacprodan and cow milk showed a high proportion of short-chain FAs...

  7. Physico-chemical characterisation of some samples of fresh milk and milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soceanu Alina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk consumption is important in the diet of all age groups because it provides important nutrients that are essential for humans. Children are the largest consumers of milk, thus, it’s very important that milk is free of toxic compounds that can be harmful for humans. Aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of some samples of milk powder for different stage of baby growing and for some samples of fresh milk: raw cow’s milk, milk trade and UHT type. The following physico-chemical properties: density, pH, acidity, the presence of acetone, enzymes, antiseptics, dry substance, the ash, total fat, saponification and peroxide index, total nitrogen and protein content were determined. Comparing the values of acidity for analyzed samples it can be concluded that the powder milk acidity value is much lower than the fresh milk. The presence of antiseptics and acetone was not identified, and amylase and peroxidase were found only in raw cow's milk. The highest protein content was found for milk powder (27.22%.

  8. Milking performance evaluation and factors affecting milking claw vacuum levels with flow simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokidani, Masafumi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Yasunori; Watanabe, Aiko

    2017-08-01

    Milking performance of milking machines that matches the production capability of dairy cows is important in reducing the risk of mastitis, particularly in high-producing cows. This study used a simulated milking device to examine the milking performance of the milking system of 73 dairy farms and to analyze the factors affecting claw vacuum. Mean claw vacuum and range of fluctuation of claw vacuum (claw vacuum range) were measured at three different flow rates: 5.7, 7.6 and 8.7 kg/min. At the highest flow rate, only 16 farms (21.9%) met both standards of mean claw vacuum ≥35 kPa and claw vacuum range ≤ 7 kPa, showing that milking systems currently have poor milking performance. The factors affecting mean claw vacuum were claw type, milk-meter and vacuum shut-off device; the factor affecting claw vacuum range was claw type. Examination of the milking performance of the milking system using a simulated milking device allows an examination of the performance that can cope with high producing cows, indicating the possibility of reducing the risk of mastitis caused by inappropriate claw vacuum. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Detection of non-milk fat in milk fat by gas chromatography and linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, R; Vega, S; Díaz, G; Sánchez, J; Coronado, M; Ramírez, A; Pérez, J; González, M; Schettino, B

    2009-05-01

    Gas chromatography was utilized to determine triacylglycerol profiles in milk and non-milk fat. The values of triacylglycerol were subjected to linear discriminant analysis to detect and quantify non-milk fat in milk fat. Two groups of milk fat were analyzed: A) raw milk fat from the central region of Mexico (n = 216) and B) ultrapasteurized milk fat from 3 industries (n = 36), as well as pork lard (n = 2), bovine tallow (n = 2), fish oil (n = 2), peanut (n = 2), corn (n = 2), olive (n = 2), and soy (n = 2). The samples of raw milk fat were adulterated with non-milk fats in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to form 5 groups. The first function obtained from the linear discriminant analysis allowed the correct classification of 94.4% of the samples with levels <10% of adulteration. The triacylglycerol values of the ultrapasteurized milk fats were evaluated with the discriminant function, demonstrating that one industry added non-milk fat to its product in 80% of the samples analyzed.

  10. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  11. Movements of dams milked for fermented horse milk production in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Oyun, Tserenpurev; Ito, Takehiko Y; Purevdorj, Yadamjav; Shinoda, Masato; Ishii, Satomi; Buho, Hoshino; Morinaga, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    Airag, (Fermented horse milk) is a traditional milk product in Mongolia. Herders separate foals from their dams and tie them at a milking site during the daytime to produce airag. To evaluate the effects of horse management on the movement of dams, we tracked three dams in a herd in camp 1 during summer and camp 2 during autumn of 2013 and analyzed their movements during the milking (daytime) and non-milking (nighttime) periods in an area famous for its high-quality airag. Dams were gathered every 1.7 ± 0.0 h between 07.46 and 15.47 hours at the milking sites and milked 4.6 ± 0.2 times/day during the study period (86 days). Daily cumulative and maximum linear distances from the milking sites were longer (P airag production and sustainable pasture use, our results provide insights useful for evaluating the effects of milking management on vegetation and soil in those pastures, for selecting the appropriate milking times and frequency, and for choosing the right timing to shift milking sites. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Measurement of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements in human milk and commercially available milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Suma; Sathyapriya, R.S.; Nair, M.G.; Ravi, Prabhat; Bhati, Sharda

    2011-01-01

    Milk is considered to be a complete food and an almost indispensable part of the diets of infants and children. In this paper we present the concentration of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements such as Th, Cs, Co, Rb, Fe, Ca and Zn present in human milk and commercially available milk. The trace elements in human and other milk samples were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The results show that higher concentrations of Th, Cs, Ca and Rb were found in ordinary milk samples in comparison with the human milk samples. Whereas, a higher concentrations of Fe and Co were observed in human milk samples. These data will be useful for the nutritional and biokinetic studies of these elements in infants and children of different age groups. (author)

  13. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow?s milk, ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and stored at 4? during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made withou...

  14. Investigation of the radioactivity of cow milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadchikov, S; Andreeva, O

    1957-01-01

    The highest concentration of radioactive /sup 131/I in milk was found in the fat. /sup 131/I of milk varied, however, from 1.5 x 10/sup -8/ c./1. and was from 13.8 to approximate 20.0 per cent of that emitted by the Pyatigorsk mineral waters.

  15. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was

  16. Strontium 90 in Swedish dairy milk 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.; Oestergren, I.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of strontium-90 in Swedish milk during 1978 is practically the same as in 1977. The country-wide mean ratio of strontium-90 to calcium in milk is 0.12 Bq 90 Sr(gCa) -1 , based on monthly determinations of samples obtained from 8 dairy plants situated throughout the country. (author)

  17. Modeling to control spores in raw milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling approach was used to identify measures at the farm that reduce transmission of microorganisms to raw milk. Butyric acid bacteria (BAB) and Bacillus cereus were used as case-studies. Minimizing the concentration of BAB spores in raw milk is important to prevent late-blowing of Gouda-type

  18. Bone metabolism in cow milk allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakusova, Lubica; Jesenak, Milos; Schudichova, Jela; Banovcin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Children with cow milk allergy are suspected to develop calcium metabolism disturbances. We observed increased markers of bone turnover in these children. Children with cow milk allergy are more prone to develop the disturbances of the bone mineralization even in the first year of life.

  19. Electrochemical acidification of milk by whey desalination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Lammers, H.; Verver, A.B.; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    We describe a process configuration for the electrochemical acidification of milk using the desalination function and the acid/base production function of a bipolar membrane process. First, the milk is acidified by the acid produced in the bipolar membrane stack. The precipitate is removed by a

  20. Steam-frothing of milk for coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münchow, Morten; Jørgensen, Leif; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A method for evaluation of the foaming properties of steam-frothed milk, based on image analysis (feature extraction) carried out on a video taken immediately after foam formation, was developed. The method was shown to be able to analyse steam-frothed milk made using a conventional espresso mach...

  1. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  2. Lipase in milk, curd and cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, T.J.; Lettink, F.J.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Presence of lipase in milk, curd, whey and cheese was studied. A small amount of the product was added to a large volume of lipase-free whole milk that had been made sensitive to lipolysis by homogenization. Increase of the acidity of the fat in the mixture, determined after incubation, was

  3. Pasteurization and radiation of fresh milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani

    1976-01-01

    In this investigation, treatments with pasteurization and irradiation with gamma rays on fresh milk were used. Pasteurization was done at temperatures of 62 deg C and 70 deg C. The irradiation doses used were 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 krad. The results of the investigation showed that the number of bacteria decreased after either pasteurization or irradiation. The higher the dose of irradiation the lower the total bacterial counts in milk became, but the latter increased during storage at 10 deg C. The number of bacteria in pasteurized milk did not show any significant difference from milk irradiated with the dose of 300-600 krad after 15 days of storage in the refrigerator. No enzymatic activity was detected in pasteurized milk, but after storage the coli bacteria acivity tested to become positive in the MPN test. On the countrary irradiation of fresh milk could stimulate the enzymatic activity, although the protein content was constant. Finally, heating as a pretreatment is better to be used before pasteurizing or sterilizing milk with ionizing radiation in order to preserve fresh milk for a longer period without any changes in the nutritional quality and taste. (author)

  4. The composition of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; de Wit, M

    2006-01-01

    Milk was obtained from two captive bred cheetahs. The nutrient content was 99.6 g protein; 64.8 g fat; and 40.21 g lactose per kg milk. Small amounts of oligosaccharides, glucose, galactose and fucose were noted. The protein fraction respectively consisted of 34.2 g caseins per kg milk and of 65.3 g whey proteins per kg milk. Very little variation in milk composition among the individual cheetahs was noted. Electrophoresis and identification of protein bands showed a similar migrating sequence of proteins as seen in lion's and cat's milk, with small differences in the beta-caseins. The lipid fraction contains 290.4 g saturated and 337.3 g mono-unsaturated fatty acids per kg milk fat respectively. The high content of 279.5 g kg(-1) milk fat of polyunsaturated fatty acids is due to a high content in alpha-linolenic acid. No short chain fatty acids, but substantial levels of uneven carbon chain fatty acids were observed.

  5. Effect of leaving milk trucks empty and idle for 6 h between raw milk loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Eva; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy G

    2018-02-01

    The US Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) allows milk tanker trucks to be used repeatedly for 24 h before mandatory clean-in-place cleaning, but no specifications are given for the length of time a tanker can be empty between loads. We defined a worst-case hauling scenario as a hauling vessel left empty and dirty (idle) for extended periods between loads, especially in warm weather. Initial studies were conducted using 5-gallon milk cans (pilot-scale) as a proof-of-concept and to demonstrate that extended idle time intervals could contribute to compromised raw milk quality. Based on pilot-scale results, a commercial hauling study was conducted through partnership with a Pacific Northwest dairy co-op to verify that extended idle times of 6 h between loads have minimal influence on the microbiological populations and enzyme activity in subsequent loads of milk. Milk cans were used to haul raw milk (load 1), emptied, incubated at 30°C for 3, 6, 10, and 20 h, and refilled with commercially pasteurized whole milk (load 2) to measure cross-contamination. For the commercial-scale study, a single tanker was filled with milk from a farm known to have poorer quality milk (farm A, load 1), emptied, and refilled immediately (0 h) or after a delay (6 h) with milk from a farm known to have superior quality milk (farm B, load 2). In both experiments, milk samples were obtained from each farm's bulk tank and from the milk can or tanker before unloading. Each sample was microbiologically assessed for standard plate count (SPC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and coliform counts. Selected isolates were assessed for lipolytic and proteolytic activity using spirit blue agar and skim milk agar, respectively. The pilot-scale experiment effectively demonstrated that extended periods of idle (>3 h) of soiled hauling vessels can significantly affect the microbiological quality of raw milk in subsequent loads; however, extended idle times of 6 h or less would not measurably compromise milk

  6. [Contamination of human milk with aerobic flora: Evaluation of losses for a human milk bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, C; Courdent, P; Charlet, C; Dumoulin, D; Courcol, R; Pierrat, V

    2015-05-01

    In France, human milk banks pasteurize milk for the mother's own hospitalized baby (personalized milk) and for donation. There is specific legislation regulating the activity of human milk banks with bacterial screening of donor milk before and after pasteurization. Milk should be tested for Staphylococcus aureus and total aerobic flora. Any sample of milk positive for aerobic flora and/or S. aureus before and/or after pasteurization should be discarded. The real pathogenicity of the total aerobic flora is actually debated as well as the usefulness of systematic postpasteurization screening. The aim of this study was to quantify milk losses related to prepasteurization contamination by total aerobic flora in a regional milk bank, to identify losses due to contamination with S. aureus or aerobic flora, and to analyze differences between centers. This was a prospective observational study conducted in the regional human milk bank of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais area in France. Data were collected from six major centers providing 80% of the milk collected between June 2011 and June 2012. Variables were the volumes of personalized milk collected by each center, volumes of contaminated milk, and the type of bacteria identified. During the study period, the regional human milk bank treated 4715 L (liters) of personalized milk and 508 L (10.8%) were discarded due to bacteriological screening. Among these 508 L, 43% were discarded because of a prepasteurization contamination with aerobic flora, 55% because of a prepasteurization contamination with S. aureus, and 2% because of other pathogenic bacteria. Postpasteurization tests were positive in 25 samples (0.5%). Only five of these 25 samples were positive before pasteurization and in all cases with S. aureus. A total of 218 L were destroyed because of prepasteurization contamination with total aerobic flora, while the postpasteurization culture was sterile. There was a great difference between centers in the percentage of

  7. Informal milk sharing: what nurses need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Kimberly; Spatz, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Human milk is the ideal food for human infants. However, some infants will be in situations wherein there is insufficient human milk to meet their needs. This article addresses formal breast milk donation (donor milk) and informal sharing of breast milk. Healthcare providers are likely to encounter families who access milk by informal breast milk sharing or cross-nursing. Both practices rely heavily on receiving human milk from women who are potentially unscreened for disease, medication, and illicit substances. Therefore, it is important for perinatal nurses to have adequate information to be able to inform these families of the risks and benefits of breast milk sharing. Two case exemplars are provided to illustrate the nuances of informal milk sharing. Implications for practice include providing families with information on health history and laboratory screening as well as safe milk-handling practices.

  8. Turkish Women's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors on Wet-Nursing, Milk Sharing and Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Ahmet; Uzun, S Utku

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine Turkish women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing, and human milk banking in a primary care setting located in a semi-rural area. Description Donated human milk is a feasible option for feeding infants and children. Currently, there is a debate on the topic starts with the preparations to launch a human milk bank in a large city in Turkey. Several previous papers reported women's opinions in large hospital based studies. Little is known about women's views and practice on donated human milk in the rural areas of Turkey. Assessment The study sample was recruited among married women aged 15-49 years who had given birth within the past 5 years and who were in a family health center for any reason in Honaz, Denizli, Turkey. A total of 240 women were included in the study. The data were collected by questionnaire created by the researchers and consisting of two parts: sociodemographic characteristics, and women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing and human milk banking. Results Thirty women (12.5%) had had a wet-nurse; 20 women (8.7%) wet-nursed babies before; and 17 (7.2%) of the women's children had a wet-nurse. If necessary, 80.9 and 78.3% were willing to accept to do wet-nursing and milk sharing, respectively. 150 (62.5%) heard of human milk banks; 55 (22.9%) approved of the establishment of milk banks. However, only 46 women (19.1%) were willing to donate to the bank. Possibility of marriages between milk siblings (76.8%) was the main reason for not considering the donation. Women's education was another factor affecting their opinion on breast milk sharing and donation to human milk banks. Less educated women were sympathetic to milk sharing (p = 0.02), however, more educated mothers had a propensity to donate to milk banks (p = 0.02). Conclusion Wet-nursing decreased over the years in Turkey, but still an ongoing small child feeding method

  9. Results from raw milk microbiological tests do not predict the shelf-life performance of commercially pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-03-01

    Analytical tools that accurately predict the performance of raw milk following its manufacture into commercial food products are of economic interest to the dairy industry. To evaluate the ability of currently applied raw milk microbiological tests to predict the quality of commercially pasteurized fluid milk products, samples of raw milk and 2% fat pasteurized milk were obtained from 4 New York State fluid milk processors for a 1-yr period. Raw milk samples were examined using a variety of tests commonly applied to raw milk, including somatic cell count, standard plate count, psychrotrophic bacteria count, ropy milk test, coliform count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, and spore pasteurization count. Differential and selective media were used to identify groups of bacteria present in raw milk. Pasteurized milk samples were held at 6°C for 21 d and evaluated for standard plate count, coliform count, and sensory quality throughout shelf-life. Bacterial isolates from select raw and pasteurized milk tests were identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Linear regression analysis of raw milk test results versus results reflecting pasteurized milk quality consistently showed low R(2) values (tests and results from tests used to evaluate pasteurized milk quality. Our findings suggest the need for new raw milk tests that measure the specific biological barriers that limit shelf-life and quality of fluid milk products. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Communod

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%, high value of d at peak (103 d and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.

  11. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption)

  12. Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerdal, B.B.; Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Since copper deficiency is known to occur during infancy, it becomes important to assess copper uptake from various infant diets. The authors have investigated the uptake of copper from human milk, cow's milk, cow's milk formulas, cereal/milk formula and soy formula, compensating for the decay of 64 Cu and using the suckling rat as a model. Radiocopper was added to the diet in trace amounts. Ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration were used to show that the added 64 Cu bound to milk fractions and individual binding compounds in a manner analogous to the distribution of native copper, thus validating the use of extrinsically labeled diets. Labeled diets were intubated into 14-day-old suckling rats. Animals were killed after 6 h and tissues removed and counted. Liver copper uptake was 25% from human milk, 23% from cow's milk formula, 18% from cow's milk, 17% from premature (cow's milk based) infant formula, 17% from cereal/milk formula and 10% from soy formula. These results show that the rat pup model may provide a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to assay bioavailability of copper from infant foods

  13. Donor human milk versus mother's own milk in preterm VLBWIs: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, F; Prandi, G; Coscia, A; Cresi, F; Di Nicola, P; Raia, M; Sabatino, G; Occhi, L; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    As for term infants, over the past decades there has been increasing evidence of the benefits of human milk in the feeding of Very Low Birth Weight Infants (VLBWI), influencing not only short-term health outcomes but also long-term neurodevelopmental, metabolic outcomes, and growth. Mother's own milk is the first choice for all neonates including preterm infants, when it is unavailable or in short supply, pasteurized donor breast milk offers a safe alternative and is considered the next best choice. The main aim of this case-control retrospective analysis was to evaluate short term advantages of mother's own milk as a sole diet compared to donor milk as a sole diet, in terms of growth, antiinfectious properties, feeding tolerance, NEC and ROP prevention in a population of VLBWI born in a tertiary center. We did not find significant differences in clinical outcome from mother's own milk compared with pasteurized donor milk. Only a slight and statistically not significant difference in growth could be observed, in favour of maternal milk. We conclude that the maximum effort should always be put in supporting and promoting breastfeeding and donor milk used not only as an alternative to mother's milk but also as a breastfeeding promotion and support strategy.

  14. The milk-mucus belief: sensory analysis comparing cow's milk and a soy placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, C B; Arney, W K

    1993-02-01

    A questionnaire designed to measure the "milk mucus effect" was based on sensations and symptoms after drinking milk reported in interviews with 169 individuals, 70 of whom held the belief that milk produces mucus. This was used to measure responses in a randomized, double-blind trial of a flavoured UHT cow's milk drink, compared with a similarly flavoured and constituted UHT soy milk drink. The soy placebo was indistinguishable from cow's milk in a pretest of 185 individuals. Of 14 milk-mucus effect indicator variables, three showed significant increases after consumption of 300 ml of the test drink. These were "coating/lining over the mouth, throat or tongue" (39% increase), "need to swallow a lot" (31% increase) and "saliva thicker, harder to swallow than before" (42% increase). However, these increases occurred in both milk and placebo groups. It is concluded that the effect measured is not specific to cow's milk, but can be duplicated by a non-cow's milk drink with similar sensory characteristics.

  15. Milk Vending Does Not Improve College Students' Milk and Calcium Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Hanks, Andrew S; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2018-03-01

    In the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, overall diet quality decreases, including a reduction in both dairy and calcium consumption. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the impact of milk vending on milk and calcium intakes in college students. Participants were 124 college students living in dorms at a large public university (Fall 2012). Milk vending machines were installed in two campus dorms. Before and 2 months after installation, students were surveyed about milk and calcium intakes, as well as attitudes regarding milk vending. Sales data for the newly installed machines were also collected between the pre- and posttest surveys. Students reported similar milk and calcium consumption before and after the intervention. Mean calcium intakes were lower than the recommended dietary allowance for students in either life stage group (18 years old or 19 years and older). Milk vending sales data showed that during the study period, approximately nine bottles of milk were bought each day from the two dorms combined. Results from this study suggest that milk vending alone may not be an effective strategy for preventing the commonly observed decrease in milk and calcium intakes among college students.

  16. Temperature and storing time influence on selected physical properties of milk and acidophilus milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Božiková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with thermophysical parameters as: temperature, thermal conductivity, diffusivity and rheologic parameters as: dynamic, kinematic viscosity and fluidity of milk and acidophilus milk. For thermophysical parameters measurements was used Hot Wire method and for rheologic parameters measurements was used single – spindle viscometer. In the first series of measurements we measured relations between thermophysical and rheologic parameters in temperature range (5–25 °C for milk and acidophilus milk. Relations of all physical parameters of milk to the temperature showed influence of relative fat content. Effect of storage on milk and acidophilus milk is shown in the text. All measured relations for milk and acidophilus milk during temperature stabilisation had linear increasing progress with high coefficients of determination in the range (0.991–0.998. It was shown that increasing relative fat content has decreasing influence on milk thermal conductivity. Relations of rheologic parameters as dynamic and kinematic viscosity to the temperature had decreasing exponential progress, while relation of fluidity to the temperature had increasing exponential shape with high coefficients of determination in the range (0.985–0.994.. Mathematical description of the dependencies is summarised by regression equations and all coefficients are in presented tables.

  17. Iodine concentration of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK in comparison with cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Hill, Sarah; Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Elghul, Sarah; Nezianya, Carolina J; Rayman, Margaret P

    2017-10-01

    Iodine deficiency is present in certain groups of the UK population, notably in pregnant women; this is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development. UK milk is rich in iodine and is the principal dietary iodine source. UK sales of milk-alternative drinks are increasing but data are lacking on their iodine content. As consumers may replace iodine-rich milk with milk-alternative drinks, we aimed to measure the iodine concentration of those available in the UK. Using inductively coupled plasma-MS, we determined the iodine concentration of seven types of milk-alternative drink (soya, almond, coconut, oat, rice, hazelnut and hemp) by analysing forty-seven products purchased in November/December 2015. For comparison, winter samples of conventional (n 5) and organic (n 5) cows' milk were included. The median iodine concentration of all of the unfortified milk-alternative drinks (n 44) was low, at 7·3 μg/kg, just 1·7 % of our value for winter conventional cows' milk (median 438 μg/kg). One brand (not the market leader), fortified its soya, oat and rice drinks with iodine and those drinks had a higher iodine concentration than unfortified drinks, at 280, 287 and 266 μg/kg, respectively. The iodine concentration of organic milk (median 324 μg/kg) was lower than that of conventional milk. Although many milk-alternative drinks are fortified with Ca, at the time of this study, just three of forty-seven drinks were fortified with iodine. Individuals who consume milk-alternative drinks that are not fortified with iodine in place of cows' milk may be at risk of iodine deficiency unless they consume alternative dietary iodine sources.

  18. State of the art of automatic milking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, W.; Hogewerf, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Milking cows two or three times a day for 7 days a week is time-consuming and a heavy load for the farmer. Many high-yielding cows enter the milking parlour with heavy udders. To be able to increase the milking frequency and to decrease the physical labour requirements automatic milking systems are

  19. Contaminants in milk and impact of heating: an assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Vandana; Bahman, Sanjivan; Thakur, Lalit K; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Dua, Ajit; Ganguly, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    The major contaminants usually encountered in milk and milk products include pesticide residues, heavy metals, and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Primarily, milk get contaminated before milching, from the cattle feed, from sources/materials used during the processing of milk as well as improper handling of the milk during the pre- and postprocessing period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of household practices on milk contaminants. Samples of pasteurized as well as unpasteurized milk (Vendor's milk) were analyzed for AFM1, pesticide residues, and heavy metals. Simulating the household practices, the impact of boiling on these contaminants was assessed. The contaminant Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was detected at a concentration ranging from 0.071-0.075 ppb in unpasteurized as well as pasteurized milk samples analyzed during the course of study. Moreover, boiling had no impact on the quantity of AFM1 present in the milk. Pesticides and heavy metal contents were found to be within acceptable limits in all the milk samples tested. Mycotoxins especially aflatoxins in cattle feed and their consequential presence in milk and milk products is a serious concern world over as they are reported carcinogens. These fungal toxins are resistant to high temperatures and may lead to various health hazards. Preventive steps must be taken at each stage to ensure good quality of milk and milk products free from these contaminants. Awareness programs and education for the dairy farmers and milk processors may be helpful in this regard.

  20. 21 CFR 131.147 - Dry whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry whole milk. 131.147 Section 131.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.147 Dry whole milk. (a...

  1. 21 CFR 131.125 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 131.125 Section 131.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.125 Nonfat dry milk. (a...

  2. 21 CFR 163.140 - Skim milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk chocolate. 163.140 Section 163.140 Food... milk chocolate. (a) Description. Skim milk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  3. Microbiological quality and safety of raw and pasteurized milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This requires urgent attention by the appropriate authorities, because the poor microbiological quality of raw milk and pasteurized milk may expose consumers to health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated milk. Key words: Marketed milk, quality, acidity, total viable count, coliforms, enterobacteriaceae, ...

  4. Physicochemical and sensory qualities of spiced soy-corn milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy-corn milk type was produced from a blend of soybean milk and corn milk extract at a ratio of 3:1. The soy-corn milk type was spiced with ginger and garlic extract respectively to improve the taste. Total dissolved solid (TDS), total titrable acidity (TTA) specific gravity (SG), apparent colloidal stability, pH and sensory ...

  5. Hygienic and other aspects of raw milk vending machines

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL, Radovan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate opportunities of raw milk sales. The questionnaire was submitted to respondents, which assessed the direct sale of milk, consumption, awareness about milk quality connecting with the sales of raw milk using a vending machines.

  6. Bovine subclinical mastitis reduces milk yield and economic return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves, J.L.; Kamphuis, C.; Martins, C.M.M.R.; Barreiro, J.R.; Tomazi, T.; Gameiro, A.H.; Hogeveen, H.; Santos, dos M.V.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of different pathogens was studied by evaluating the contralateral (healthy and infected) mammary quarters of 146 lactating cows. The impact of SM on economic return (quarter milk yield × milk price) was determined by applying milk payment estimates on milk collected from healthy vs.

  7. Production and quality evaluation of probiotic soy milk | Onyibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy milk is produced from a protein rich legume with high nutritional value. Adding probiotic agent(s) to soy milk increases its health value. In this study, soy milk and probiotic soy milk samples were produced, their qualities evaluated and shelf life at different temperatures of storage monitored. Products were of good taste ...

  8. Devices used by automated milking systems are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting a representative milk sample compared with devices used by farms with conventional milk recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Dela Rue, B.; Turner, S.A.; Petch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information on accuracy of milk-sampling devices used on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) is essential for development of milk recording protocols. The hypotheses of this study were (1) devices used by AMS units are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting

  9. The biology of milk synthesis from a proteomics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Large variation in bovine milk composition of Dutch Holstein cows has been observed. The factors influencing the milk synthesis and secretion process in the mammary gland and the variations in this process lead to variation in milk composition. The understanding of milk synthesis was improved

  10. 7 CFR 1160.115 - Milk marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk marketing area. 1160.115 Section 1160.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Definitions § 1160.115 Milk marketing area. Milk marketing area means each area within which milk...

  11. 7 CFR 1001.14 - Other source milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other source milk. 1001.14 Section 1001.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.14 Other source milk. See § 1000.14. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.14 - Other source milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other source milk. 1032.14 Section 1032.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.14 Other source milk. See § 1000.14. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1006.14 - Other source milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other source milk. 1006.14 Section 1006.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.14 Other source milk. See § 1000.14. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1126.14 - Other source milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other source milk. 1126.14 Section 1126.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.14 Other source milk. See § 1000.14. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.14 - Other source milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other source milk. 1033.14 Section 1033.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.14 Other source milk. See § 1000.14. ...

  16. 7 CFR 1007.14 - Other source milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other source milk. 1007.14 Section 1007.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.14 Other source milk. See § 1000.14. ...

  17. 7 CFR 58.248 - Nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonfat dry milk. 58.248 Section 58.248 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.248 Nonfat dry milk. (a) Nonfat dry milk in commercial....S. Standard Grade. (b) Regular nonfat dry milk in consumer size packages which bears an official...

  18. 7 CFR 1005.14 - Other source milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other source milk. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.14 Other source milk. See § 1000.14. ...

  19. 7 CFR 760.4 - Normal marketings of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Normal marketings of milk. 760.4 Section 760.4... Farmers for Milk § 760.4 Normal marketings of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the affected... whole milk which such farmer would have sold in the commercial market in each of the pay periods in the...

  20. 7 CFR 1030.14 - Other source milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other source milk. 1030.14 Section 1030.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.14 Other source milk. See § 1000.14. ...

  1. 7 CFR 1131.14 - Other source milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other source milk. 1131.14 Section 1131.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.14 Other source milk. See § 1000.14. ...

  2. 7 CFR 1124.14 - Other source milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other source milk. 1124.14 Section 1124.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.14 Other source milk. See § 1000.14. ...

  3. Business plan Milk Collection Center Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan describes the establishment of a milk collection centre with a storage capacity of 2,000 litres of milk. This milk will be collected daily or every other day by a dairy plant and milk supply comes from several dairy farms in the surroundings of the centre.

  4. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  5. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  6. Milk consumption and lactose intolerance in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Rong; Huang, ChengYu; Du, HuiZhang; Zeng, Guo; Li, Ling; Ye, Sheng

    2011-10-01

    To investigate relations between milk consumption and lactose intolerance (LI) in adults and to explore the effect of milk consumption on lactase activity. Total of 182 subjects aged 20-70 years were recruited and interviewed by questionnaires, and their accumulative cow's milk intake (AMI) was calculated. LI was evaluated by hydrogen breath test (HBT). A negative correlation was found between AMI and severity of observed LI symptom (r=-0.2884; P<0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed a negative correlation between LI and duration and frequency of milk consumption (OR, 0.317 and 0.465, respectively; both P<0.05) and a positive correlation between LI and amount of milk consumed per sitting (OR, 6.337; P<0.05). LI is related to various milk consumption behaviors. Most Chinese adults with LI may tolerate moderate milk consumption <160 mL. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaudeen, S; Muslim, N; Faridah, K; Azman, A; Arshat, H

    1988-12-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's).

  8. [Human milk, immune responses and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løland, Beate Fossum; Baerug, Anne B; Nylander, Gro

    2007-09-20

    Besides providing optimal nutrition to infants, human milk contains a multitude of immunological components. These components are important for protection against infections and also support the development and maturation of the infant's own immune system. This review focuses on the function of some classical immunocomponents of human milk. Relevant studies are presented that describe health benefits of human milk for the child and of lactation for the mother. Relevant articles were found mainly by searching PubMed. Humoral and cellular components of human milk confer protection against infections in the respiratory--, gastrointestinal--and urinary tract. Human milk also protects premature children from neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. There is evidence that human milk may confer long-term benefits such as lower risk of certain autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease and probably some malignancies. Human milk possibly affects components of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies demonstrate long-term health benefits of lactation also for the mother. A reduced incidence of breast cancer is best documented. An increasing number of studies indicate protection against ovarian cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and type II diabetes.

  9. [Chemical pollution and breast milk: Taking positions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, N M; Ares, S; Hernández-Aguilar, M T; Ortega-García, J A; Paricio-Talayero, J M; Landa-Rivera, L

    2013-12-01

    Chemical pollution affects all ecosystems of our planet. Human milk has been used as a biomarker of environmental pollution as, due to bioaccumulation processes in fat tissue, many chemical compounds reach measurable concentrations that can be readily tested in breast milk. Quite frequently information about the presence of contaminants in breast milk appears in the media, leading to misunderstanding among parents and health professionals, and in some cases breastfeeding the child is stopped. In this article, the Breastfeeding Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics stresses the importance of promoting breastfeeding as the healthiest option, because its benefits clearly outweigh any health risks associated with chemical contaminants in breast milk. Breast milk contains protective factors that counteract the potential effects related to prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. This article summarises the key recommendations to reduce the level of chemical contaminants in breast milk. It also highlights the importance of government involvement in the development of programs to eliminate or reduce chemical contamination of food and the environment. In this way, the negative effects on child health resulting from exposure to these toxic compounds through the placenta and breast milk may be prevented. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution of strontium in milk component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Galambos, M.; Rajec, P.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of strontium between the milk components, i.e., serum, casein micelles, whey and hydroxyapatite was determined. The sorption on hydroxyapatite was investigated using batch method and radiotracer technique. The aqueous phase comprised of either milk or whey. The sorption of strontium on hydroxyapatite depended on the method of its preparation and on the composition of the aqueous phase. The sorption of strontium was increased with an increase of pH. The presence of citrate species resulted in decrease of the sorption of strontium on hydroxyapatite. The sorption of 85 Sr on hydroxyapatite decreased with the increasing concentration of Ca 2+ ions. Addition of Ca 2+ ions to milk resulted in milk pH decrease. The decrease in pH value after calcium addition to milk is related to exchanges between added calcium and micellar H + . The average value of strontium sorption on casein micelles in milk with presence of hydroxyapatite was (47.3 ± 5.6) %. The average value of sorption of 85 Sr on casein micelles in milk without the addition of hydroxyapatite was (68.9 ± 2.2) %. (author)

  11. Experiences of Women Who Donated Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Laura M; Spatz, Diane L; Giordano, Noreen

    2018-03-01

    To examine the experiences of women who donated breast milk to a hospital-based milk bank regulated under the policies and procedures set forth by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA). Qualitative, phenomenological design. The Mothers' Milk Bank in a children's hospital in the Northeastern region of the United States. Twelve HMBANA-approved milk donors older than 21 years with infants hospitalized in the NICU. Edmund Husserl's design of interpretive phenomenology and Colaizzi's method of data analysis were used for this study. Participants were interviewed using a face-to-face, semistructured interview format. Four themes represented the experience of donating breast milk: Ripple of Hope and Help, Dynamic Interplay of Nurturance, Standing on the Shoulders of Others, and Sharing Their Stories. Donors felt proud and accomplished to provide hope for other infants and families. Nurses were crucial in facilitating and motivating donors and making donation achievable in a supportive environment. Donors felt compelled to share their experiences to teach and motivate others to donate. For our participants, donation of human milk was a positive, valuable, and nurturing experience. Donors reported feelings of increased self-esteem during donation that motivated them to "give back" and continue. The support of a well-trained nursing staff is essential for donors to meet their personal goals. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento RANGEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins or in whey (milk albumin. The allergic reaction is type IV mediated by T lymphocytes. The allergic reaction produces severe cellular damage and it triggers physical, mental and emotional symptomatology that may vary in time, intensity and severity. Lactose intolerance is originated by total or partial absence of the enzyme that digests this disaccharide. Lactose intolerance can be primary or congenital and secondary; the former being more rare and severe, the latter being more common. Lactase deficiency can be diagnosed by symptoms associated with cramping and diarrhea. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct a review of available literature on cow’s milk protein allergy and lactose intolerance.

  13. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk and milk filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in raw milk and milk filters, its antibiotic resistance and detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Samples of raw cow´s milk and milk filters were collected in the period from 2012 till 2014, from 50 dairy farms in the Czech Republic. The total of 261 samples (164 samples of raw milk and 97 milk filters were cultivated on Baird-Parker agar. Both the typical and atypical colonies were examined by plasmacoagulase test and PCR method was used for detection of species specific fragment SA442 and mecA gene. Standard disk diffusion method was used to determinate resistance to antimicrobial agents. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was detected on 25 farms (50%. The antimicrobial resistance showed differences between the farms. Total of 58 samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, of which were 37 (14.2% isolated from raw milk samples and 21 (8.1% from milk filters. From these samples we isolated 62 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 41 isolates bacteria S. aureus from raw milk (66.1% and 21 isolates S. aureus from milk filters (33.9%. The presence of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates was low, most of them were resistant to amoxicilin. According to the results obtained by the PCR method for the methicillin - resistant S. aureus (MRSA, the mecA gene was present in 6 strains (9.7%, 4 isolates obtained from milk samples (6.5% and 2 isolates from milk filters (3.2%.  These isolates can be considered as a possible source of resistance genes, which can be spread through the food chain. Nowadays, a globally unfavourable increasing trend of prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains especially Staphylococcus aureus is being observed worldwide. The improper hygiene and poor farm management practices contributed to the presence of S. aureus in the milk. This may have contributed to the high level of S. aureus isolated

  14. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an O...

  15. Freeze dehydration of milk using microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souda, K.B.; Akyel, C.; Bilgen, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on heat and mass transfer during a microwave freeze dehydration process. An experimental system and procedure was developed to freeze dry milk. A 2500-W microwave system with an appropriate wave guide was set up and instrumented, and a procedure was experimentally developed to obtain milk powder first by freezing milk and then dehydrating it at low pressure using microwave energy. An unsteady-state analysis was used to derive a one-dimensional mathematical model of the freeze dehydration process in a microwave electromagnetic field

  16. Microorganisms in human milk: lights and shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Elisa; Garofoli, Francesca; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Paolillo, Piermichele; Bollani, Lina; Stronati, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism during maternal infection, if contaminated during expression or in case of vaccination of the mother. The non-sterility of breast milk can, thus, be seen as a protective factor, or rarely, as a risk factor for the newborn.

  17. Breast-milk characteristics protecting against allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniti, Federica; Comberiati, Pasquale; Munblit, Daniel; Piacentini, Giorgio L; Antoniazzi, Elisa; Zanoni, Laura; Boner, Attilio L; Peroni, Diego G

    2014-03-01

    Breast milk and colostrum are the first feeding sources for a child, providing nutrients, growth factors and immunological components, which are crucial for the newborn's correct development and health. Length of exclusive breastfeeding and time of solid foods introduction is a key factor that may influence allergy development. There is an emerging evidence of a relationship between breastfeeding, milk composition and lower risk of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension and allergies. This review examines current evidence regarding humoral and cellular characteristics of breast-milk, and potential role of environment, maternal diet and breastfeeding on the allergy development in children.

  18. Determination of caesium-137 in liquid milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowska, S.

    1969-01-01

    A technique for determining caesium-137 in milk on the basis of caesium-137 sorption has been adapted according to the method of Broadbank. The caesium carrier is not added, because its addition decreases the sensitivity of measurement. Two procedures were used for the assay of caesium-137 in milk: (a) Sorption of caesium-137 from the solution of milk ash dissolved in 3M HNO 3 ; (b) Sorption of caesium-137 from whey. In both methods the radioactivity of caesium-137 was determined directly on the ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) bed by means of counting

  19. Radiochemical analysis of phosphorus in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by thermal neutron activation analysis employing radiochemical separation is described. The radiochemical separation consists of the simultaneous irradiation of samples and standards, dissolution of the milk samples in a perchloric acid and nitric acid mixture, addition of zinc hold-back carrier, precipitation of phosphorus as ammonium phospho molybdate (A.M.P.) and sample counting in a Geiger-Mueller detector. The analysis sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to phosphorus analyses in commercial milk samples. (author)

  20. Robotic Milking Implementation in the Sverdlovsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor Artyomovich Skvortcov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research topic is relevant due to a high rate of the implementation of milking robots (automatic milking system, AMS in Western Europe and in the Middle Urals. As of January 1, 2016, 21 milking robot systems of six different brands of foreign production were installed in the region. Milking robotics is used in small, medium and large enterprises (by the number of personnel, in contrast to Western Europe, where it is mainly used on the farms of family type. The article examines the socioeconomic causes of the introduction of robotics, as well as the impact of the use of robots to the economic indicators of milk production. The expert survey has revealed as the main reasons for the introduction of robotics, a desire to reduce the risks of personnel (45.5 % and a shortage of staff (18.2 %. The analysis of the utilization efficiency of fixed assets in all organizations introduced robots has shown both a decrease of capital productivity after the introduction of milking robots for 15–60 % or more, and the reduce of the profit rate in 9 out of 11 of the analysed organizations because of the high capital intensity of robotics projects. The analysis of labour indicators and the net cost of milk is carried out in 45.5 % of organizations, where we have obtained the consistent results of the use of robotics. The authors have analysed the direct costs for the production of 1 quintal of milk. In a group of 5 companies, on a robotic farm, it is 5.1 % lower than in a conventional farm. The complexity of the production of milk on a robotic farm is lower by 48.7 %, and labour productivity per person is higher on 95.3 % than on conventional farms. The results of the study can be used as the recommendations for agricultural organizations to use robotics milking to reduce the deficit of staff and to minimize the impact of personnel risks on production results. The growth of the importance of the reasons for the introduction of milking robots and a high

  1. Trace elements in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, R M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1983-06-01

    Trace elements are those elements having a concentration lower than 10 ppm in body fluids or tissues. A total of 24 elements, both trace and minor elements, present in human milk have been analysed in this study, employing neutron activation analysis and absorption spectroscopy. The analyses have been carried out collaboratively by several different laboratories and the Agency which has also served as a coordinating centre. Although the evaluation of the results, altogether 8500 separate values, is still in progress, enough evidence is already available, however, to show some very interesting differences between different study areas and, in some cases, between different socio-economic groups within a single country. The main value of these data will probably be to throw new light on the nutritional requirements of young babies for trace elements.

  2. Frozen yogurt from sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela de Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to develop frozen yogurt formulations from powdered yogurt of sheep milk, through an experimental design of 2², with a triplicate at the central point. The variables studied were emulsifier/stabilizer (0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% and powder for cream (2.75%, 3.00% and 3.25%. The parameters evaluated were sensory characteristics, texture, and microbiological counts. The results showed that the formulations had counts of S. aureus and fecal coliforms at 45 °C, lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella sp within the limits established by legislation. Instrumental analysis of texture-related parameters (firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and consistency of the formulations with different concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer and cream powder showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. In sensory analysis, Formulations 3 and 4 with lower concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer scored the highest values, thus indicating good acceptability.

  3. Effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, part 3: Fortified UHT low-fat milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.

    2009-01-01

    This work is the third and last part of a milk study evaluating the effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, in this case on fortified UHT low-fat milk. The milk was stored under light with an intensity of 700 lux in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles with varying

  4. An Analysis of the Impact of Deregulating the Pricing of Reconstituted Milk Under Federal Milk Marketing Orders

    OpenAIRE

    Novakovic, Andrew M.; Aplin, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    This study reports an effort to improve estimates of the cost of reconstituted milk relative to fresh milk. The cost advantage of reconstituted milk is calculated for representative plants in six cities across the U.S. The implications for farm prices of lower cost reconstituted milk are discussed.

  5. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... pasteurization are provided for by regulation, such as in part 133 of this chapter for curing of certain cheese...

  6. [THE IMPORTANCE OF "MILK BONES" TO "WISDOM BONES" - COW MILK AND BONE HEALTH - LESSONS FROM MILK ALLERGY PATIENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Liat; Katz, Yitzhak

    2016-03-01

    The necessity of milk consumption in the western diet is a subject of intense controversy. One of the main benefits of milk is that it is the main source of dietary calcium. Calcium is a major bone mineral, mandatory for bone health. Its supply is derived exclusively from external dietary sources. During the growth period, an increased calcium supply is needed for the process of bone mass accumulation. An optimal bone mass achieved by the end of the growth period may be protective later in life against the bone mass loss that commonly occurs. This in turn, can be preventative against the occurrence of osteoporosis and the development of spontaneous bone fractures. Over the past several decades, an increased incidence of osteoporosis has been documented in western countries, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality in the middle-aged and geriatric population. Many studies have investigated the dietary calcium requirements for different ages, to achieve and maintain proper bone health. Based on their results, guidelines concerning calcium intake in every stage of life have been published by national and international organizations. In the western diet, it is difficult to achieve the recommended calcium intake without milk consumption. Moreover, calcium bioavailability for intestinal absorption is high. Several studies have recently raised doubts concerning the amounts of calcium intake in the western diet and its effectiveness in preventing osteoporosis. The main disadvantage of these studies is their being based on the patient's past memory recall of milk consumption. Patients with IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy are a unique population. Their lifetime negligible milk consumption is undisputed. A recent study investigated for the first time, the bone density of young adults with milk allergy at the end of their growth period. Their severe reduction in bone mineral density and dietary calcium intake defines them as a high risk group for the

  7. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R; Lefèvre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T; Hassiotou, Foteini

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that the lipid fraction may contain more microRNA. This study aimed to standardize isolation of microRNA and total RNA from all three fractions of human milk to determine the most appropriate sampling and analysis procedure for future studies. Three different methods from eight commercially available kits were tested for their efficacy in extracting total RNA and microRNA from the lipid, skim, and cell fractions of human milk. Each fraction yielded different concentrations of RNA and microRNA, with the highest quantities found in the cell and lipid fractions, and the lowest in skim milk. The column-based phenol-free method was the most efficient extraction method for all three milk fractions. Two microRNAs were expressed and validated in the three milk fractions by qPCR using the three recommended extraction kits for each fraction. High expression levels were identified in the skim and lipid milk factions for these microRNAs. These results suggest that careful consideration of both the human milk sample preparation and extraction protocols should be made prior to embarking upon research in this area. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pricing and Policy Problems in the Northeast Fluid Milk Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    This article documents the need for reform of milk pricing in the Northeast. The New York price gouging law can be recast as a fair share law. This new milk policy "kills two birds with one stone." It corrects regional inequities in raw milk pricing by reforming the pricing of milk at retail by limiting and redistributing excessive retail margins to farmers and consumers. The fair share policy relieves allocative price inefficiency, improves the performance of the federal milk market order po...

  9. Breast milk donation after neonatal death in Australia: a report

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Katherine E; Lenne, Brydan S; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Amir, Lisa H; Bredemeyer, Sandra; Hartmann, Ben; Jones, Rachel; Koorts, Pieter; McConachy, Helen; Mumford, Patricia; Polverino, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia ho...

  10. Viscosity and Analytical Differences between Raw Milk and UHT Milk of Czech Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbár V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity and analytical differences in four milk samples from Czech cows were described. Three samples of UHT milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat and one sample of raw milk from a Czech bio-farm were analyzed. The following analytical properties were observed: titratable acidity, fat content, dry matter content, and protein content. Titratable acidity and dry matter content decreased in dependence upon the increasing milk fat content. The protein content ranged 3.51-3.57 g per 100 g milk. The milk flow behaviour represented by density, dynamic and kinematic viscosity, as well as the dependence of the milk flow behaviour on temperature were investigated. These properties were measured using a digital densitometer and a rotary viscometer. Milk density was studied at temperatures ranging 0-60 °C and dynamic viscosity at 0-100 °C. With increasing temperature, the density and dynamic viscosity of the studied milk samples decreased. The temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was manifested in all samples. Kinematic viscosity was calculated from experimental data. Furthermore, mathematical models using Power law and Gaussian fitting were constructed. Determination coefficients achieved high values (0.843-0.997.

  11. COMPARISON BETWEEN SOME PHYSICAL - CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CACAO MILK AND RAW MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Roman

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison between some physical - chemical characteristics of the cacao milk and of the raw milk. For this comparison we made the following determinations for both types of milk: the determination of the dry substance using the drying oven with a 102 °C temperature, the determination of the proteic substance by titration with sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) N/10, the milk pasteurization control by the starch and potassium iodide test and the pH determination using the indicato...

  12. Radiocaesium transfer from whole milk to a range of milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnri, Catherine; Cunningham, J.D.; Mitchell, P.I.

    1990-12-01

    Milk and milk products constitute a substantial portion of the human diet and represent one of the principal means by which food-borne radionuclides are ingested. The Chernobyl accident and subsequent widespread contamination demonstrated clearly that the dairy industry is highly sensitive to air-borne pollution. In this report, the results of a project to study the transfer of radiocaesium from whole milk to a wide range of milk products manufactured by the Irish Dairy Industry are presented together with a review of the relevant literature

  13. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MILK FAT FATTY ACIDS IN RELATION TO MILK PRODUCTION AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Foltys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is from a nutritional point of view of the negative evaluation because of the dominant content of saturated fatty acid with high atherogenic index. Intake of milk fat in the diet is important because of the content of monounsaturated fatty acids, acting favorably against cardiovascular diseases and especially of essential fatty acids, linoleic, alpha linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. These are precursors of biologically active substances - hormones and enzymes. The analysis of relations of fatty acids in milk fat to qualitative-production parameters of milk shows that the correlations of fatty acids with lactation stage and qualitative-production parameters of milk are quite weak in dairy cows with stable type of nutrition in form of whole-the-year feeding mixed feed ration in lowland agricultural area. Changes in milk fat composition are caused by the change in the ratio of de novo and depot fatty acids. Relation of fatty acids to the evaluated parameters lies with their metabolic origin and neither acid nor group underlies the specific influence of the studied parameters, by the means of which it would be possible to influence its proportion in milk fat. And so it is not possible to influence some group or a desirable fatty acid, e.g. CLA, without the influence on total milk fat.

  15. "Lost milk?": Counting the economic value of breast milk in gross domestic product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J P

    2013-11-01

    The contribution of breastfeeding and mothers milk to the economy is invisible in economic statistics. This article demonstrates how the economic value of human milk production can be included in economic statistics such as gross domestic product (GDP) and provides estimates for Australia, the United States, and Norway. The contribution of human milk and lactation to GDP in these countries is estimated using United Nations (System of National Accounting) guidelines and conventional economic valuation approaches to measuring production in GDP. In Australia, current human milk production levels exceed $3 billion annually. The United States has the potential to produce human milk worth more than US$110 billion a year, but currently nearly two thirds of this value is lost due to premature weaning. In Norway, production valued at US$907 million annually is 60% of its potential value. The potential loss of economic value from not protecting women's lactation and milk production from competing market pressures is large. Failure to account for mothers' milk production in GDP and other economic data has important consequences for public policy. The invisibility of human milk reduces the perceived importance of programs and regulations that protect and support women to breastfeed. The value of human milk can be measured using accepted international guidelines for calculating national income and production. It is quantitatively nontrivial and should be counted in GDP.

  16. Quality of human milk expressed in a human milk bank and at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mayla S; Oliveira, Angela M de M; Hattori, Wallisen T; Abdallah, Vânia O S

    2017-08-30

    To evaluate the quality of the human milk expressed at home and at a human milk bank. This a retrospective, analytical, and observational study, performed by assessing titratable acidity records and the microbiological culture of 100 human milk samples expressed at home and at a human milk bank, in 2014. For the statistical analysis, generalized estimating equations (GEE) and the chi-squared test were used. When comparing the two sample groups, no significant difference was found, with 98% and 94% of the samples being approved among those collected at the milk bank and at home, respectively. No main interaction effect between local and titratable acidity records (p=0.285) was observed, and there was no statistically significant difference between the expected and observed values for the association between the collection place and the microbiological culture results (p=0.307). The quality of human milk expressed at home and at the milk bank are in agreement with the recommended standards, confirming that the expression of human milk at home is as safe as expression at the human milk bank, provided that the established hygiene, conservation, storage, and transport standards are followed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. The radioactive contamination of milk and milk products due to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.

    1987-01-01

    The situation in the area around the town of Kiel in a given period of time is taken as the example to explain the radioactive contamination of milk and milk products due to the Chernobyl fallout. The measured data reported refer to the nuclides I-131 and Cs-137 in milk, and are compared with data on the I-131 and Cs-137 activity measured in raw milk collected in southern Bavaria, and in other Lands of the F.R.G. (DG) [de

  18. Milk Consumption in the Milk Bars of the City of N’Djamena in Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Koussou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Out-of-home milk consumption has been increasing for the past ten years in N’Djamena, capital of Chad, through small shops called milk bars. In order to understand the reasons for this new dynamic, 180 consumers chosen at random in 36 of these places were interviewed by means of a transversal survey conducted in March-April 2007. The surveyed consumers were on average 31 years old, unmarried for the majority (54%, originated from the Sahara-Sahelian region (84% and worked in the informal sector (half of them. More than one third (37% bought milk “to take away” and the rest consumed it in the bars, mostly in the evening (79%. The dairy products consisted in sweetened fresh milk (halib and cultured whole milk (rayeb often consumed with bread. Average consumed quantities per client were 11.5 L/month for fresh milk and 19.5 L/month for rayeb. Quantities varied according to the season and the origin of the client. A consumption peak occurred during the hot dry season when production was at its lowest level. However, the price of these two products was stable at 1000 FCFA/L throughout the year, because of the existence of supply contracts with the milk bars. The farm origin of fresh or fermented whole milk greatly influenced the consumers’ choice. Suggestions are made to improve milk supply during the hot season so as to meet the increasing demand.

  19. Bovine milk in human nutrition--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Anna; Høstmark, Arne T; Harstad, Odd M

    2007-09-25

    Milk and milk products are nutritious food items containing numerous essential nutrients, but in the western societies the consumption of milk has decreased partly due to claimed negative health effects. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Full-fat milk has been shown to increase the mean gastric emptying time compared to half-skimmed milk, thereby increasing the gastrointestinal transit time. Also the low pH in fermented milk may delay the gastric emptying. Hence, it may be suggested that ingesting full-fat milk or fermented milk might be favourable for glycaemic (and appetite?) regulation. For some persons milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may be of health concern. The interaction between carbohydrates (both natural milk sugar and added sugar) and protein in milk exposed to heat may give products, whose effects on health should be further studied, and the increasing use of sweetened milk products should be questioned. The concentration in milk of several nutrients can be manipulated through feeding regimes. There is no evidence that moderate intake of milk fat gives increased risk of diseases.

  20. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a..., flavorings, or seasonings specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section are used in the breakfast cocoa, the...

  1. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Wirth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.) [de

  2. Energy performance indicator report: fluid milk plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In Canada, the dairy sector consumes significant amounts of energy and is looking for new ways of saving energy. The aim of this study, performed by the Competitive Analysis Centre Inc., was to find novel energy savings ideas for fluid milk plants. For this purpose, the energy consumption of 17 fluid milk plants, which accounts for over 50% of total Canadian output, was analyzed; first, at the plant level, and then by 8 categories at the sub-plant level in order to develop benchmarks that could be applied at both these levels. The paper provides background information on Canada's fluid milk sector and outlines the methodology used to develop and apply energy efficiency measures in the sector; the study findings are also presented. This report found that the energy consumption of the Canadian fluid milk sector could be lowered by applying the energy saving proposals developed herein.

  3. Selenium content in milk and diary samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2005-01-01

    Food is the primary source of Se for human beings. As such determining Se levels in foodstuffs become very important. However, information concerning Se levels in different sources of nutrition in different country, particularly in Brazil, is limited. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used to effectively determine micronutrient levels in foodstuffs, such as milk and dairy samples. The advantage of using the INAA technique is that the samples do not require previous dissolution before analysis. In this study, INAA was applied to determine Se concentration in milk and dairy products. The samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After a 8-hour irradiation in the research reactor IEA-R1, selenium was analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials (Whole Milk Powder and Non Fat Milk Powder). Se concentrations in the sample analyzed were below 0.300 μg g -1 . (author)

  4. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Marlies A; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope  Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle co......-products. Insight is needed in the effect of choice on results of environmental analyses of agricultural products, such as milk. The main goal of this study was to demonstrate and compare ALCA and CLCA of an average conventional milk production system in The Netherlands. Materials and methods  ALCA describes...... the pollution and resource flows within a chosen system attributed to the delivery of a specified amount of the functional unit. CLCA estimates how pollution and resource flows within a system change in response to a change in output of the functional unit. For an average Dutch conventional milk production...

  5. Vitamin D metabolites in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisman, Y.; Bawnik, J.C.; Eisenberg, Z.; Spirer, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of unconjugated 25-OHD, 24, 25(OH)2D, and 1,25(OH)2D were measured in human milk by competitive protein-binding radioassays following successive preparative Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and HPLC. The mean (+/- SE) concentration of 25-OHD was 0.37 +/- 0.03 ng/ml, of 24,25(OH)2D was 24.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml, and of 1,25(OH)2D was 2.2 +/-0.1 pg/ml. The concentration of 25-OHD3 in milk as determined by HPLC and UV detection at 254 nm was 0.27 +/- 0.08 ng/ml. The milk concentrations of vitamin D metabolites did not correlate with the maternal serum 25-OHD levels. The total amounts of unconjugated vitamin D metabolites correspond to the known low bioassayable vitamin D antirachitic activity in human milk

  6. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Miriam; Figueredo, Nancy; Castillo, Sonia; Pizarro

    2002-01-01

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  7. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in colostrum and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide...... a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases....... The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted...

  8. Effects of Fermented Milk Products on Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, René; Biver, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Fermented milk products like yogurt or soft cheese provide calcium, phosphorus, and protein. All these nutrients influence bone growth and bone loss. In addition, fermented milk products may contain prebiotics like inulin which may be added to yogurt, and provide probiotics which are capable of modifying intestinal calcium absorption and/or bone metabolism. On the other hand, yogurt consumption may ensure a more regular ingestion of milk products and higher compliance, because of various flavors and sweetness. Bone mass accrual, bone homeostasis, and attenuation of sex hormone deficiency-induced bone loss seem to benefit from calcium, protein, pre-, or probiotics ingestion, which may modify gut microbiota composition and metabolism. Fermented milk products might also represent a marker of lifestyle promoting healthy bone health.

  9. Determination of essential nutrients in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penphimon Phongphanphanee

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Thailand has gradually increased since 1961. Occasional oversupply of raw milk has become one of dairy farmers' major problems. Increasing the consumption of milk by making use of its separated nutrients may offer a solution. This study was to assess the composition of raw milk produced in Thailand, which included fat, protein, lactose, solid-not-fat (SNF and total solid (TS. A large dairy cooperatives in Saraburi Province was selected for the study. About 9% of its total members, constituting 108 farms, were randomly chosen. They consisted of small size (less than 20 cows/farm, medium size (21-100 cows/farm and large size (>100 cows/farm. The majority was medium-size. Raw milk from each farm was sampled at the delivery site of the cooperatives in the morning. Milk data of the 108 farms were compiled at 3 different periods between February and July 2003. The raw milk was analyzed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using MilkoScan FT6000. The results showed the average fat content of 3.50±0.47%, protein of 3.13±0.16%, lactose of 4.59±0.12%, SNF of 8.42±0.20%, and TS of 11.92±0.54%. The samples were superior in all of the nutrients as compared to the standard levels set by the Department of Livestock Development, except for TS. This indicates the possibility of a local production of milk nutrients such as lactose and protein as ingredients for the pharmaceutical and health food industries.

  10. Human milk glycoconjugates that inhibit pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburg, D S

    1999-02-01

    Breast-fed infants have lower incidence of diarrhea, respiratory disease, and otitis media. The protection by human milk has long been attributed to the presence of secretory IgA. However, human milk contains large numbers and amounts of complex carbohydrates, including glycoproteins, glycolipids, glycosaminoglycans, mucins, and especially oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides comprise the third most abundant solid constituent of human milk, and contain a myriad of structures. Complex carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides are synthesized by the many glycosyltransferases in the mammary gland; those with homology to cell surface glycoconjugate pathogen receptors may inhibit pathogen binding, thereby protecting the nursing infant. Several examples are reviewed: A fucosyloligosaccharide inhibits the diarrheagenic effect of stable toxin of Escherichia coli. A different fucosyloligosaccharide inhibits infection by Campylobacter jejuni. Binding of Streptococcus pneumoniae and of enteropathogenic E. coli to their respective receptors is inhibited by human milk oligosaccharides. The 46-kD glycoprotein, lactadherin, inhibits rotavirus binding and infectivity. Low levels of lactadherin in human milk are associated with a higher incidence of symptomatic rotavirus in breast-fed infants. A mannosylated glycopeptide inhibits binding by enterohemorrhagic E. coli. A glycosaminoglycan inhibits binding of gp120 to CD4, the first step in HIV infection. Human milk mucin inhibits binding by S-fimbriated E. coli. The ganglioside, GM1, reduces diarrhea production by cholera toxin and labile toxin of E. coli. The neutral glycosphingolipid, Gb3, binds to Shigatoxin. Thus, many complex carbohydrates of human milk may be novel antipathogenic agents, and the milk glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides may be a major source of protection for breastfeeding infants.

  11. Immune Defence Factors In Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sanjeev

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence is accumulating to prove the nutritional, anti-infective, anti-fertility, psychosomal and economic advantages of breast-feeding. A number of studies have shown that breast milk protects against diarrheal, respiratory and other infections. Its value in protecting against allergy has also been established. This article reviews the studies on various immune defence factors present in the human milk. The available scientific knowledge makes a very strong case in favour of promoting breast-feeding.

  12. Selenium bioavailability of infant milk diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghib, H.; Chan, W.Y.; Rennert, O.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of age, types of milk diet and chemical forms of SE on its bioavailability were studied using suckling rats as a model. Human milk, bovine milk and infant formula (regular Similac) extrinsically labeled with either ( 75 Se) selenite or ( 75 Se) selenomethionine were fed by gastric intubation to 8, 10, 15 and 20 (or 30)-day-old rats. Retention of 75 Se in gut free carcass and liver was measured 3 hours after feeding. At any given age the corresponding absorption of 75 Se from the 3 diets was similar except at 15 days of age when significantly more ( 75 Se) selenomethionine was absorbed from human milk (83%) than from bovine milk or formula (72%). Much higher amount of ( 75 Se) selenomethionine was absorbed by any age group from the 3 milk diets compared to ( 75 Se) selenite. An age related change in both ( 75 Se) selenite and ( 75 Se) selenomethionine absorption was noticed in all 3 diets. Gut free carcass ( 75 Se) selenite absorption was 32% in 8-d-old rats and increased to 46% in 20-d-old rats. The corresponding liver 75 Se retention was 7.5 and 19.5%. On the other hand, ( 75 Se) selenomethionine retention by the gut free carcass decreased with age from an average of 83% in 8-d-old rats to 72% in 20-d-old rats. The corresponding 75 Se incorporation into the liver increased from 15.5% in 8-d-old rats to 21.9% in 20-d-old rats. It is concluded that twice as much 75 Se) selenite and an age related change in 75 Se absorption was noticed between the 2 chemical forms of Se and between human milk and the other 2 milk diets

  13. Valuing Attributes of Fluid Milk in Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Won Lee; Taeyoon Kim; Viengsakoun Napasirth

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the random utility function of fluid milk using 1,165 survey responses in Laos. It finds that both products’ attributes and individual characteristics affect consumers’ preference for the milk and the hypothetical brand of Laos-Korea has a potential compared to four real dairy products. Results also show that calories have a positive relationship with consumer’s preference while the price and fat content have a negative one. The decision for choosing each brand is signifi...

  14. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995. In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  15. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  16. The overall and fat composition of milk of various species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk, an essential source of offspring nourishment, varies in it’s composition and properties significantly across species. In human nutrition, fresh milk and dairy products are valuable sources of protein, fat and energy, and are an important part of daily meals. Most of the world’s milk production (85 % comes from cows followed by buffaloes, goats, ewes, mares and donkeys. However milk related food allergies in infants may be a reason for health problems and may cause a decrease in milk. The objective of this paper was to give an overview of the overall composition of milk and fat from different species in comparison to women milk. Regarding the overall milk composition remarkable differences in energy content, fat, lactose, protein and ash of the various milks were found, but also some similarities among milk from ruminants and non-ruminants were detected. The structures of fat globule membranes were similar among non-ruminants and women milk, while the milk fat globule structure in ruminants differed significantly. The size of fat globules was significantly different between species and highly correlated to the milk fat content, regardless of the specie. The amount of triacylglycerols was notably higher, while the amount of free fatty acids and phospholipids was notably lower in milk from ruminants and women compared to milk from mares and donkeys. The triacylglycerol structure in women and non-ruminantsˈ was similar. The percentage of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was lower, while the unsaturated fatty acid content was higher in milk from non-ruminants, with a remarkably higher percentage of C-18:2 and C-18:3. The cholesterol content was similar in women and ruminantsˈ milk, but lower in that of non-ruminants. This review indicates that milk from non-ruminants could be more suitable for human nourishment than milk from ruminants.

  17. Radiation levels in Ecuadorian Cattle Milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoso, Teresa; Vasquez, Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiation and natural radioactivity present in the ground from a radioactive decay of 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th, and of the radioisotope 40 K can be transferred to the nutritional chain of the human being. Milk is a food considered basic within population's diet. The Ecuadorian Highlands has the greater production of cattle milk in the country, this industry needs great extensions of graze and available superficial water, which the cows consumed for crude milk production, with the consequent product industrialization. In the present research, gamma radiation levels where monitoring in 12 crude milk representative samples of the zone. The measurements where carried out using an equipment of spectrometry gamma ray system, with a detector of Hiperpuro Germanium (GeHp), which has been used in the analysis of standard and samples spectrums, with a constant geometry of the sample holder. The spectrums of the milk analysis show the presence of the radioisotopes coming from uranium radioactive decay. The majority of the values of activity concentration are below the minimum detection activity, unlike the potassium that presents a detectable but a non quantitative spectrum. So far, with the results obtained it is possible to guarantee the milk consumption and its derivatives in the Andean Region of the country. Related research will allow us implementing the radiological monitoring of this and other foods in the country, in order to protected population health. (author)

  18. Valuing Attributes of Fluid Milk in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the random utility function of fluid milk using 1,165 survey responses in Laos. It finds that both products’ attributes and individual characteristics affect consumers’ preference for the milk and the hypothetical brand of Laos-Korea has a potential compared to four real dairy products. Results also show that calories have a positive relationship with consumer’s preference while the price and fat content have a negative one. The decision for choosing each brand is significantly affected by individual characteristics such as gender, age, whether or not respondents live with their children, the level of education, income, the frequency of purchasing milk per week, and the region where they live. The preference for five brands appears in the order of Foremost, Nabong, Thai-Danish, Meiji, and Lao-Korea, and probabilities of purchasing each brand at the mean level are 30.9%, 17.48%, 21.48%, 15.0% and 10.39%, respectively. Nabong that was Lao national milk brand still has a significant market power even though it was closed in 2008. The policies to promote milk industry by implementing its national milk brand again would be more effective if it focuses on the young generation, female consumers, families with children, quality of dairy products, and Vientiane capital areas.

  19. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-07-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  20. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  1. Milk production, raw milk quality and fertility of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius) under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Péter; Thomas, Sonia; Markó, Orsolya; Juhász, Jutka

    2013-03-01

    In many arid countries, dromedaries play an important role as a milk source in rural areas. However, the milk and meat production potential of this species is not well understood and documented. A large-scale camel dairy farm was established in 2006 in the United Arab Emirates. This study summarises the most important data on milk production, raw milk quality and reproductive efficiency collected on this farm during the first three years of operation. The average daily milk production, the mean length of lactation and the mean total milk production per lactation of 174 dromedaries were 6.0 ± 0.12 kg (± SEM), 586 ± 11.0 days (± SEM) and 3314 ± 98.5 kg (± SEM), respectively. The lactation curve reached its peak during the 4th month after parturition (mean ± SEM, 8.9 ± 0.04 kg), then it declined gradually, falling to 50% of the maximum by the 16th month postpartum (mean ± SEM, 4.3 ± 0.06 kg). Milking three times a day did not increase daily milk production compared to two times milking. Mean total viable bacterial count (TVC) and mean somatic cell count (SCC, ± SEM) of bulk raw camel milk were 4,403 ± 94 CFU/cm3 and 392,602 ± 5,999 cells/cm3 for a one-year period, respectively. There was a significant difference among months (P fat, protein, lactose, total solids (TS) and solid-non-fat (SNF) concentrations of individual milk samples were 2.51 ± 0.03%, 2.60 ± 0.01%, 4.03 ± 0.03%, 9.98 ± 0.03% and 7.56 ± 0.03%, respectively. Lactation period, average daily milk production and morning vs. evening milking significantly influenced milk chemical composition. For the 470 camels in the breeding programme, end-of-season pregnancy rate and birth rate were 87.0% and 82.6%, respectively, after natural mating. We have demonstrated that sustainable milk production is possible from a traditional species, the dromedary camel, under an intensive management system.

  2. Quality of raw milk from a farm with automatic milking system in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumíra Janštová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the quality of raw cow’s milk from an automatic milking system. Samples of milk (48 were analyzed chemically and microbiologically and the somatic cell count, freezing point and inhibitor residues were determined. For comparison purposes, milk analysis data from two farms using conventional machine milking and 2008 milk analysis report data for the Czech Republic were used. All physical and chemical characteristics of the study samples were within the established limits. The average content (% of chemical indicators was following: fat 3.79 ± 0.18, protein 3.46 ± 0.06, casein 2.67 ± 0.09, lactose 4.82 ± 0.04 and NFS 8.96 ± 0.11. The values for freezing point and somatic cells count were 221 ± 46.103·ml-1 and -0.521 ± 0.003 °C respectively. No inhibitor residue was detected in any of the samples. Microbiological values were lower than the limits: the total microbial count (2.3·104 CFU·ml-1, psychrotrophic count (6.3·103 CFU·ml-1, coliform count (2.4·101 CFU·ml-1, Escherichia coli count (3.2·101 CFU·ml-1, enterococci count (8.5·101 CFU·ml-1 and Staphylococcus aureus count (1.1·101 CFU·ml-1. The study provides a comprehensive view on the quality of milk produced by robotic milking. The automatic milking system seems to be excellent in terms of milking and milk hygiene.

  3. Peptidome analysis of human skim milk in term and preterm milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Jun; Cui, Xian-wei; Zhang, Jun; Fu, Zi-yi; Guo, Xi-rong; Sun, Li-Zhou; Ji, Chen-bo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A method was developed for preparation of peptide extracts from human milk. •Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 peptide-like features. •419 Peptides were identified by LC–MS/MS from 34 proteins. •Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis revealed 41 peptides differentially expressed. -- Abstract: The abundant proteins in human milk have been well characterized and are known to provide nutritional, protective, and developmental advantages to both term and preterm infants. Due to the difficulties associated with detection technology of the peptides, the expression of the peptides present in human milk is not known widely. In recent years, peptidome analysis has received increasing attention. In this report, the analysis of endogenous peptides in human milk was done by mass spectrometry. A method was also developed by our researchers, which can be used in the extraction of peptide from human milk. Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 Da peptide-like features. Out of these, 419 peptides were identified by MS/MS. The identified peptides were found to originate from 34 proteins, of which several have been reported. Analysis of the peptides’ cleavage sites showed that the peptides are cleaved with regulations. This may reflect the protease activity and distribution in human body, and also represent the biological state of the tissue and provide a fresh source for biomarker discovery. Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis was also used to test the effects of premature delivery on milk protein composition in this study. Differences in peptides expression between breast milk in term milk (38–41 weeks gestation) and preterm milk (28–32 weeks gestation) were investigated in this study. 41 Peptides in these two groups were found expressed differently. 23 Peptides were present at higher levels in preterm milk, and 18 were present at higher levels in term milk

  4. Nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk for preterm infants following hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, G; Fahey, T; McGuire, W

    2007-10-17

    Preterm infants are often growth-restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding infants after hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula milk instead of human breast milk might facilitate "catch-up" growth and improve development. To determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched formula compared with human breast milk on growth and development of preterm infants following hospital discharge. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - May 2007), EMBASE (1980 - May 2007), CINAHL (1982 - May 2007), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula compared with human breast milk. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. No eligible trials were identified. There are no data from randomised controlled trials to determine whether feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk affects growth and development. Mothers who wish to breast feed, and their health care advisors, would require very clear evidence that feeding with a nutrient-enriched formula milk had major advantages for their infants before electing not to feed (or to reduce feeding) with maternal breast milk. If evidence from trials that compared feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched versus standard formula milk demonstrated an effect on growth or development, then this might strengthen the case for undertaking trials of nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk.

  5. Peptidome analysis of human skim milk in term and preterm milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Jun; Cui, Xian-wei [Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Medical Institute, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital (China); Zhang, Jun [Department of Pediatric Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (China); Fu, Zi-yi [Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Medical Institute, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital (China); Guo, Xi-rong [Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Medical Institute, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital (China); Institute of Pediatrics, Nanjing Medical University (China); Sun, Li-Zhou, E-mail: lizhou_sun121@hotmail.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (China); Ji, Chen-bo, E-mail: chenboji@njmu.edu.cn [Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Medical Institute, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital (China)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •A method was developed for preparation of peptide extracts from human milk. •Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 peptide-like features. •419 Peptides were identified by LC–MS/MS from 34 proteins. •Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis revealed 41 peptides differentially expressed. -- Abstract: The abundant proteins in human milk have been well characterized and are known to provide nutritional, protective, and developmental advantages to both term and preterm infants. Due to the difficulties associated with detection technology of the peptides, the expression of the peptides present in human milk is not known widely. In recent years, peptidome analysis has received increasing attention. In this report, the analysis of endogenous peptides in human milk was done by mass spectrometry. A method was also developed by our researchers, which can be used in the extraction of peptide from human milk. Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 Da peptide-like features. Out of these, 419 peptides were identified by MS/MS. The identified peptides were found to originate from 34 proteins, of which several have been reported. Analysis of the peptides’ cleavage sites showed that the peptides are cleaved with regulations. This may reflect the protease activity and distribution in human body, and also represent the biological state of the tissue and provide a fresh source for biomarker discovery. Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis was also used to test the effects of premature delivery on milk protein composition in this study. Differences in peptides expression between breast milk in term milk (38–41 weeks gestation) and preterm milk (28–32 weeks gestation) were investigated in this study. 41 Peptides in these two groups were found expressed differently. 23 Peptides were present at higher levels in preterm milk, and 18 were present at higher levels in term milk.

  6. [Setting up a donor milk bank within a neonatal unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, S Vázquez; Díaz, C Alonso; López, C Medina; Lozano, G Bustos; Hidalgo, M V Martínez; Alonso, C R Pallás

    2009-10-01

    Breast milk is the best choice to feed premature and ill babies, but when there is not enough mother milk available donor breast milk is the best alternative. Nowadays, Milk Banks are present worldwide. In December 2007 the second Spanish Milk Bank opened within the Department of Neonatology of the Hospital 12 Octubre, Madrid (BLHDO). There are no international recommendations for processing breast milk, therefore other Milk Banks guidelines are the only standards to follow. BLHDO uses the Brazilian model as they focus on milk quality, in addition to safety issues. Lack of legislation for human milk processing in Spain has led to BLHDO complying with Spanish Law on blood and tissues donation with its strict regulations on safety issues and record keeping. This article summarises the first year of operating the BLHDO and its future projects and developments.

  7. Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Glycogen in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui-Yatsuhashi, Hiroko; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Takata, Hiroki; Ishida, Miyuki; Takumi, Hiroko; Kakutani, Ryo; Kamasaka, Hiroshi; Nagao, Saeko; Hirose, Junko; Kuriki, Takashi

    2017-02-22

    Identification as well as a detailed analysis of glycogen in human milk has not been shown yet. The present study confirmed that glycogen is contained in human milk by qualitative and quantitative analyses. High-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and high-performance size exclusion chromatography with a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS) were used for qualitative analysis of glycogen in human milk. Quantitative analysis was carried out by using samples obtained from the individual milks. The result revealed that the concentration of human milk glycogen varied depending on the mother's condition-such as the period postpartum and inflammation. The amounts of glycogen in human milk collected at 0 and 1-2 months postpartum were higher than in milk collected at 3-14 months postpartum. In the milk from mothers with severe mastitis, the concentration of glycogen was about 40 times higher than that in normal milk.

  8. Nonprofit Human Milk Banking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegrove, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Human milk, widely understood to be beneficial for infants, can be lifesaving for preterm neonates, especially in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Donor human milk (DHM) is an option when mothers are unable to provide milk or have an inadequate supply for their infants. Nonprofit donor human milk banks are established to provide safe, processed human milk from milk donated by healthy lactating mothers who have undergone a rigorous screening process. These milk banks, operating under the auspices of the Human Milk Banking Association of North America, obtain, process, and dispense human milk under strict guidelines set by the association. Increasing the supply of donor human milk to meet a dramatic increase in demand poses a significant challenge for nonprofit milk banks. Efforts to increase supply nationwide include education of providers, use of social media to engage potential donors, and outreach to news media. In parallel, milk banks are establishing regional depots to collect donations, and additional milk banks are being developed. This article describes the current nonprofit milk bank industry in the United States, its challenges, and its future prospects. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  9. Theory of Reasoned Action predicts milk consumption in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J L; Blake, A J; Rankin, S A; Douglass, L W

    1999-01-01

    To determine the factors influencing the consumption or avoidance of milk in women. One hundred women completed food frequency questionnaires and a milk attitudes questionnaire framed within the Theory of Reasoned Action and performed sensory evaluations of different milk samples. Differences among milk types were assessed using 2-way analysis of variance and least-significant-difference mean comparison procedures. Correlation and multiple regression analyses, and standardized partial regression coefficients, were used to determine the contribution of each component of the model in predicting behavior. Mean age of the 100 subjects was 39 years (range = 20-70 years). Milk consumption among subjects was low; 23 subjects indicated that they seldom or never drank milk. Data from the dairy frequency questionnaire showed that the primary milk for 42%, 36%, 27%, and 18% of the milk drinkers was skim, 2%, 1%, and whole, respectively (subjects could indicate more than 1 type of milk consumed). The Theory of Reasoned Action indicated that health and familiarity belief items were most associated with attitudes toward milk consumption. Skim milk had significantly lower scores for taste and texture belief items than 1%, 2%, and whole milk (P reasons other than beliefs about taste and texture or actual sensory preference. This study identifies important factors contributing to milk consumption such as beliefs, attitudes, and sensory evaluation, which can be used to develop a specific framework in which to examine other components of milk consumption behavior.

  10. Human milk donation: what do you know about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Katie; Spatz, Diane

    2007-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) strongly endorses that human milk is species specific and the optimal nutrition for infants, and that banked human milk is a suitable alternative. After the death of an infant, breast milk often is disposed of without consideration of donation because the public and healthcare providers are unaware of human milk banks. In the United States, 10 human milk banks operate under strict guidelines established by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America. Donors are screened, and milk is pasteurized while preserving many of the beneficial components of breast milk. It is imperative that healthcare providers become educated regarding human milk banking because of the increase in informal sharing of breast milk via the Internet. Breast milk that has not been screened and treated has the risk of transmitting infections such as hepatitis and HIV. Healthcare providers should be familiar with the selection criteria for suitable donors and how to approach families when the death of an infant is imminent. Human milk banks are able to provide human milk to adopted, preterm, or ill infants whose mothers are unable to provide their own milk.

  11. Characteristics of the first human milk bank in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Yuan; Cheng, Shao-Wen; Wu, Tsung-Zu; Fang, Li-Jung

    2013-02-01

    The benefits of feeding human milk to infants, even in prematurity, have been well documented. Well-organized donor milk processing has made the milk bank a good source of nutrition for premature or sick infants if their own mother's milk is not sufficient or suitable. The Taipei City Hospital Milk Bank was established in 2005 and is the first nonprofit human milk bank to operate in Taiwan. The milk bank has adopted standards of practice laid down by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America and United Kingdom Association for Milk Banking. The clinical characteristics of the eligible milk donors, the recipients, and the donor milk were reviewed retrospectively. In the past 6 years, 816 eligible donors donated a total or 13,900 L (mean 17.03 L/donor) of breast milk. The mean age of these donors was 31.3 years, and 79.7% of them had college education. Most had term delivery (91.2%), with mean birth weight of their babies being 3120 g; 68.9% of the donors were primiparas. A total of 551 infants had received bank milk, with these indications: prematurity (65.4%), malabsorption (7.6%), feeding intolerance (7.2%), maternal illness (5.1%) and post-surgery (4.6%). The pass rate of raw donor milk was around 72.1%. The most common reasons to discard raw milk were Gram-negative rods contamination (72.8%) and ≥10 colony-forming units/mL of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (62.3%). Only 0.63% of donor milk post pasteurization showed bacterial growth. Proper management and operation of a human milk bank can support breastfeeding, and provide a safe alternative to artificial formula for feeding preterm or ill infants in Taiwan. Sustainability of the milk bank needs more propagation and financial support by health authorities. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in bulk tank milk in relation to raw milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstedt, Maria; Waller, Karin Persson; Sternesjö, Ase

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationships between the presence of the two major bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) and raw milk quality parameters in bulk tank milk samples. Hp and SAA have been suggested as specific markers of mastitis but recently also as markers for raw milk quality. Since mastitis has detrimental effects on milk quality, it is important to investigate whether the presence of Hp or SAA indicates such changes in the composition and properties of the milk. Bulk tank milk samples (n=91) were analysed for Hp, SAA, total protein, casein, whey protein, proteolysis, fat, lactose, somatic cell count and coagulating properties. Samples with detectable levels of Hp had lower casein content, casein number and lactose content, but higher proteolysis than samples without Hp. Samples with detectable levels of SAA had lower casein number and lactose content, but higher whey protein content than samples without SAA. The presence of acute phase proteins in bulk tank milk is suggested as an indicator for unfavourable changes in the milk composition, e.g. protein quality, due to udder health disturbances, with economical implications for the dairy industry.

  13. Quantitative milk genomics: estimation of variance components and prediction of fatty acids in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kristian

    The composition of bovine milk fat, used for human consumption, is far from the recommendations for human fat nutrition. The aim of this PhD was to describe the variance components and prediction probabilities of individual fatty acids (FA) in bovine milk, and to evaluate the possibilities...

  14. Spreeta-based biosensor immunoassays to detect fraudulent adulteration in milk and milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.

    2006-01-01

    Biacore biosensors (Biacore AB, Uppsala, Sweden) have proven to be robust analytical tools for the automated immunochemical detection of different adulterants and contaminants in milk and milk powder. However, the significant cost of the instruments is a disincentive for their wide application in

  15. Rapid measurement of macronutrients in breast milk: How reliable are infrared milk analyzers?✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Choi, Arum; Fusch, Stephanie; Poeschl, Susanna; Ubah, Adelaide Obianuju; Lee, Sau-Young; Raja, Preeya; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background & aims Significant biological variation in macronutrient content of breast milk is an important barrier that needs to be overcome to meet nutritional needs of preterm infants. To analyze macronutrient content, commercial infrared milk analyzers have been proposed as efficient and practical tools in terms of efficiency and practicality. Since milk analyzers were originally developed for the dairy industry, they must be validated using a significant number of human milk samples that represent the broad range of variation in macronutrient content in preterm and term milk. Aim of this study was to validate two milk analyzers for breast milk analysis with reference methods and to determine an effective sample pretreatment. Current evidence for the influence of (i) aliquoting, (ii) storage time and (iii) temperature, and (iv) vessel wall adsorption on stability and availability of macronutrients in frozen breast milk is reviewed. Methods Breast milk samples (n = 1188) were collected from 63 mothers of preterm and term infants. Milk analyzers: (A) Near-infrared milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, USA) and (B) Mid-infrared milk analyzer (Miris, Sweden) were compared to reference methods, e.g. ether extraction, elemental analysis, and UPLC-MS/MS for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively. Results For fat analysis, (A) measured precisely but not accurately (y = 0.55x + 1.25, r2 = 0.85), whereas (B) measured precisely and accurately (y = 0.93x + 0.18, r2 = 0.86). For protein analysis, (A) was precise but not accurate (y = 0.55x + 0.54, r2 = 0.67) while (B) was both precise and accurate (y = 0.78x + 0.05, r2 = 0.73). For lactose analysis, both devices (A) and (B) showed two distinct concentration levels and measured therefore neither accurately nor precisely (y = 0.02x + 5.69, r2 = 0.01 and y = −0.09x + 6.62, r2 = 0.02 respectively). Macronutrient levels were unchanged in two independent samples of stored breast milk (−20 °C measured with IR; −80

  16. Undernourished Children and Milk Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenov, Benedikte; Briend, André; Sangild, Per T; Thymann, Thomas; Rytter, Maren H; Hother, Anne-Louise; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2016-03-01

    Lactose is an important energy source in young mammals, and in fully breast-fed human infants, it constitutes around 40% of the total daily energy intake. The role of lactose in feeding of undernourished infants and young children is not well described. A narrative review of the potential positive and negative effects of lactose in the treatment of undernourished children. Searches were conducted using PUBMED and Web of Science up to July 2015. Relevant references in the retrieved articles were included. Lactose may exhibit several health benefits in young children, including a prebiotic effect on the gut microbiota and a positive effect on mineral absorption. Studies in piglets suggest there might also be a stimulating effect on growth, relative to other carbohydrates. Lactose intolerance is a potential concern for undernourished children. Most undernourished children seem to tolerate the currently recommended (low lactose level) therapeutic foods well. However, a subgroup of severely undernourished children with secondary lactase deficiency due to severe diarrhea or severe enteropathy may benefit from products with even more restricted lactose content. At limited extra costs, lactose or lactose-containing milk ingredients may have beneficial effects if added to food products for undernourished children. Lactose may be an overlooked beneficial nutrient for young and undernourished children. Research is needed to define the balance between beneficial and detrimental effects of lactose in undernourished children at different ages and with different degrees of diarrhea and intestinal integrity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurki

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The somatic cell count (SCC and total bacterial count (TBC as well as the presence of major food-borne pathogens and udder pathogens in reindeer raw milk were studied. Two groups of 4 female reindeer were milked on alternate days for six weeks. A milk sample from each quarter was taken before milking and of the bulk milk at the end of milking. Micrococcus sp. was observed in one, Staphylococcus aureus in one and coagulase-negative staphylococci in five of the quarter samples (n=318. In the bulk milk (n=19 TBC varied between 700 and 1 700 000 cfu (colony forming units/ml and SCC between 52 000 and 183 000 cells/ml. No Bacillus cereus, S. aureus or Listeria monocytogenes were detected in the bulk milk, but Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae were found in 5 bulk milk samples. According to the bacteriological examination the udder health of the reindeer was good. Indicative information on the SCC of healthy reindeer was obtained. None of the common potential food-poisoning bacteria were found in raw milk. There was great variation in the bulk milk TBC and the average TBC was rather high (ca. 300 000 cfu/ml. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk makes it well suited for food manufacture. However, the results indicate that the milking conditions may be crucial for the quality of raw milk.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto:Tutkimuksen kohteena oli poron raakamaidon solupitoisuus ja kokonaispesäkeluku sekä tärkeimpien elintarvike- ja utarepatogeenien esiintyminen raakamaidossa. Kaksi 4 vaatimen ryhmää lypsettiin vuoropäivinä 6 viikon ajan. Ennen lypsyä vaatimista otettiin vedinkohtaiset näytteet ja lypsyn päätyttyä näyte yhteismaidosta. Micrococcus sp. todettiin yhdessä, Staphylococcus aureus yhdessä ja koagulaasinegatiivisia stafylokokkeja viidessä vedinkohtaisessa näytteessä (n=318. Yhteismaitonäytteiden (n=19 kokonaispesäkeluvut vaihtelivat välillä 700-1 700 000 pmy (pesäkkeitä muodostava yksikkö/ml ja somaattisten

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Physicochemical Parameters of Breast Milk, Starter Infant Formulas and Commercial Cow Milks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarić Slavica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on the physical properties of cow milk and infant formulas are important since they indicate the differences in physicochemical and rheological characteristics and compatibility with natural breast milk. This fact is important not only for quality control but also for the use of these commercial products as infant diet supplements or as complete breast milk substitutes. This study was undertaken to determine refractive index, surface tension, pH, electrical conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity of the UHT cow milk, starter infant formulas and breast milk of Serbian mothers in order to compare commercial milk formulations with natural human milk. The paper also presents the measured data of some physical parameters of human milk about which there is little information in the literature. It has been also demonstrated how these parameters were changed by freezing and prolonged storage of breast milk.

  19. The effect of milk and milk proteins on risk factors of metabolic syndrome in overweight adolecents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina

    This PhD is based on data from an intervention study with milk and milk proteins conducted in Danish adolescents with overweight. There is a high prevalence of overweight in Danish adolescents. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors related to overweight and believed to increase the risk...... of type-2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Overweight children have higher concentrations of the metabolic syndrome risk factors than normal weight children and the pathological condition underlying cardiovascular diseases, called atherosclerosis, seems to start in childhood. A well...... skimmed milk, whey, casein or water for three months. The background for the intervention is that milk is an important source of protein in the Western diet and epidemiological studies in children have shown that children drinking low amounts of milk have higher concentrations of the metabolic risk...

  20. Milking performance and udder health of cows milked with two different liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten D.; Frimer, Erik S.; Kaartinen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of milking cows with two different liners were measured for a period of 8 months with 115 Danish Holstein cows divided into two groups. G-roup H and L animals were milked with liners with mouthpiece cavity]heights of 30 and 18 mm respectively (other dimensions also differed between...... the two liners). Aver age teat lengths of first lactation cows were 45 and 40 mm for front and rear teats. Older cows had teats similar to 10 min longer. There was no difference in milk yield or milk flow rates between the two groups. Average machine-on time was shorter for group L, and first lactation...... cows of group L were less restive. The frequency of red and blue discoloured teats immediately after milking was higher for group H, and teat length increased on average 5 mm during lactation with no increase for group L. The small overall differences in udder health between the two groups were...