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Sample records for silver-zinc battery ranger

  1. Nickel hydrogen and silver zinc battery cell modeling at the Aerospace Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1996-02-01

    A nickel hydrogen battery cell model has been fully developed and implemented at The Aerospace Corporation. Applications of this model to industry needs for the design of better cells, power system design and charge control thermal management, and long-term performance trends will be described. Present efforts will be described that are introducing the silver and zinc electrode reactions into this model architecture, so that the model will be able to predict performance for not only silver zinc cells, but also nickel zinc, silver hydrogen, and silver cadmium cells. The silver zinc cell modeling effort is specifically designed to address the concerns that arise most often in launch vehicle applications: transient response, power-on voltage regulation, hot or cold operation, electrolyte spewing, gas venting, self-discharge, separator oxidation, and oxalate crystal growth. The specific model features that are being employed to address these issues will be described.

  2. Lifetime estimates for sterilizable silver-zinc battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Walmsley, D. E.; Moacanin, J.

    1972-01-01

    The lifetime of separator membranes currently employed in the electrolyte environment of silver-zinc batteries was estimated at 3 to 5 years. The separator membranes are crosslinked polyethylene film containing grafted poly (potassium acrylate)(PKA), the latter being the hydrophilic agent which promotes electrolyte ion transport. The lifetime was estimated by monitoring the rate of loss of PKA from the separators, caused by chemical attack of the electrolyte, and relating this loss rate to a known relationship between battery performance and PKA concentration in the separators.

  3. Silver-zinc: status of technology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpinski, A.P.; Makovetski, B.; Russell, S.J.; Serenyi, J.R.; Williams, D.C. [Yardney Technical Products, Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Michel Yardney and Professor Henri Andre developed the first practical silver-zinc battery more than 55 years ago. Since then, primary and rechargeable silver-zinc batteries have attracted a variety of applications due to their high specific energy/energy density, proven reliability and safety, and the highest power output per unit weight and volume of all commercially available batteries. Although significant improvements have been achieved on traditional systems such as lead-acid and nickel/cadmium, and in spite of the advent of new electrochemistries such as lithium-ion and nickel/metal hydride, many users still rely on silver-zinc to satisfy their most demanding and critical requirements. Over the past few years, several of the internal components have been subject to many studies which resulted in significant improvements in the battery wet life and cycle life. Specifically, these include new separator materials which offer an alternative to the cellulosic membranes, improvements to the zinc electrode that include additives that help reduce shape-change and dendritic growth, and to a lesser extent, process changes to the silver electrode and additives to the electrolyte. In comparison, the commonly used secondary systems are lead-acid, nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion. Each has attributes which make them desirable for certain applications. Where low cost, high voltage, and high rate capability is required, the lead-acid battery is an obvious choice whenever size and weight are not critical. For applications requiring longer wet life, moderate rate capability, and high cycle life, nickel/cadmium or nickel/metal hydride can be used in spite of their poor charge retention and higher costs. Relatively newer systems are also available such as lithium-ion or lithium polymer technology which are preferred for their high voltage and excellent cycle life. Among the disadvantages of these systems are higher costs, limited configurations (usually

  4. Enhanced thermal property measurement of a silver zinc battery cell using isothermal calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubelhor, Ryan, E-mail: ryan.ubelhor@navy.mil [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, 300 Highway 361, Crane, IN 47522 (United States); Ellison, Daniel [Science Applications International Corporation, 300 Highway 361, Crane, IN 47522 (United States); Pierce, Cecilia [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, 300 Highway 361, Crane, IN 47522 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    Highlights: • Design and construction of novel heat flow calorimeter for large battery cell. • Heat flow characterization of silver zinc battery under load. • Thermal efficiency determination of silver zinc battery under load. • Surface map of heat flow of silver zinc battery under load. - Abstract: The push for increased energy density of electrochemical cells highlights the need for novel electrochemical techniques as well as additional characterization methods for these cells in order to meet user needs and safety requirements. To achieve ever increasing energy densities and faster controlled release of that energy, all materials of construction must be constantly evaluated from electrode to casing and everything in-between. Increasing the energy density of the cell improves its utility, but it also increases the waste heat and maximum potential uncontrolled energy release. Design agents and system developers need new ways to monitor and classify the probability and severity of the catastrophic failures as well as the system characteristics during intended operation. To support optimization of these battery cells it is necessary to understand their thermal characteristics at rest as well as under prescribed charge and discharge cycles. One of the many calorimetric tools available to observe and record these characteristics is heat flow calorimetry. Typically, a heat flow calorimeter is operated isothermally and measures the sum heat released or consumed by a sample material inside of a calorimetric measuring cell. For this study an improved calorimetric measuring cell for a modified Hart 6209 precision temperature bath was designed and constructed to measure the heat flow of larger electrochemical cells (18 × 8 × 16 cm). This new calorimetric measuring cell is constructed to allow independent measurements of heat flow among each of the sample’s six sides in contrast to the typical one measurement of the average heat flow. Heat flows from 0.01 to 7

  5. Enhanced thermal property measurement of a silver zinc battery cell using isothermal calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubelhor, Ryan; Ellison, Daniel; Pierce, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Design and construction of novel heat flow calorimeter for large battery cell. • Heat flow characterization of silver zinc battery under load. • Thermal efficiency determination of silver zinc battery under load. • Surface map of heat flow of silver zinc battery under load. - Abstract: The push for increased energy density of electrochemical cells highlights the need for novel electrochemical techniques as well as additional characterization methods for these cells in order to meet user needs and safety requirements. To achieve ever increasing energy densities and faster controlled release of that energy, all materials of construction must be constantly evaluated from electrode to casing and everything in-between. Increasing the energy density of the cell improves its utility, but it also increases the waste heat and maximum potential uncontrolled energy release. Design agents and system developers need new ways to monitor and classify the probability and severity of the catastrophic failures as well as the system characteristics during intended operation. To support optimization of these battery cells it is necessary to understand their thermal characteristics at rest as well as under prescribed charge and discharge cycles. One of the many calorimetric tools available to observe and record these characteristics is heat flow calorimetry. Typically, a heat flow calorimeter is operated isothermally and measures the sum heat released or consumed by a sample material inside of a calorimetric measuring cell. For this study an improved calorimetric measuring cell for a modified Hart 6209 precision temperature bath was designed and constructed to measure the heat flow of larger electrochemical cells (18 × 8 × 16 cm). This new calorimetric measuring cell is constructed to allow independent measurements of heat flow among each of the sample’s six sides in contrast to the typical one measurement of the average heat flow. Heat flows from 0.01 to 7

  6. A versatile silver oxide-zinc battery for synchronous orbit and planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.; Soltis, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    A new kind of silver-zinc cell has been developed and tested under NASA support which can withstand severe heat sterilization requirements and does not display the traditional life limiting aspect of zinc electrodes - i.e., shape change. These cells could be used on a planetary lander mission which requires wet-stand periods of over a year, a modest number of cycles (400 to 500) and may require dry heat sterilization. The weight advantage of these cells over the traditional nickel-cadmium batteries makes them also an attractive alternative for synchronous orbit service where 400 to 500 cycles would be required over a five-year period.

  7. Models for mass transfer effects in semi-fuel cells and for a silver-zinc battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Murali Sankar

    Semi-Fuel Cells (SFCs) and Silver-Zinc batteries have been recognized as batteries for high power applications. For channel flow between two parallel plates, featured in SFCs, obstacles may take the form of ordered asymmetrical porous nets. The net controls the spacing between the two electrode plates. The effect of the inert insulating net and its geometry on the heat and mass transfer characteristics in such a system is presented. The governing equations for momentum, continuity, and energy are solved in a three-dimensional domain using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software for fully developed flow with constant temperature boundary conditions. The local Nusselt number is calculated from the resulting temperature distribution. This net also affects the limiting current distribution in an SFC operating at limiting current because it disrupts the parabolic laminar flow velocity distribution. Hence, the current density distribution is obtained from the Nusselt number distribution through a heat and mass transfer analogy. The location, spacing, and number of the longitudinal and transverse ribs of the net are shown to affect the local and average current density distributions and Nusselt numbers on each of the two electrode plates. The results show that transverse ribs have a greater effect and that the enhancements of the average current density of 250% can be obtained for a spacing of 0.94 x 10-3 m with greater than 16 transverse ribs. A silver-zinc battery shows similar mass transfer limitations while discharged at moderate to high discharge rates. A one-dimensional mathematical model consisting of a negative (zinc) electrode, separator, and positive (silver) electrode, has been developed to study the performance and thermal behavior of the silver-zinc cell during discharge. The physical phenomena described here are reaction kinetics, mass transfer and heat generation. The analysis includes finite matrix conductivities (thermal and electrical

  8. Synthesis of battery grade reduced silver powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.; Hameed, M.; Ikram, S.; Munir, A.

    2002-01-01

    Process for production of battery grade reduced silver powder, an active positive material for zinc-silver oxide batteries, having specific characteristics has been optimized and the synthesized reduced silver powder was characterized. Results reveal that the values of bulk density (1.25 0.1 g/cm3) and activity (73.27 %) of synthesized reduced silver powder lies within the recommended range for use as battery material. It has purity ≥ 98% and contains Fe and Cu as traces in the concentration range of 30 5 ppm and 15 7 ppm respectively. Others determined values of surface and pores parameters are: surface area 2.6 .4 m2/g: pore volume 3.10 cm3/g: pore diameter 0.043 mu m and porosity 20%. XRD studies reveal that reduced silver powder has a cubic structure. (author)

  9. Fabrication and test of inorganic/organic separators. [for silver zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smatko, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Completion of testing and failure analysis of MDC 40 Ahr silver zinc cells containing largely inorganic separators was accomplished. The results showed that the wet stand and cycle life objectives of the silver zinc cell development program were accomplished. Building, testing and failure analysis of two plate cells employing three optimum separators selected on the basis of extensive screening tests, was performed. The best separator material as a result of these tests was doped calcium zirconate.

  10. A super ink jet printed zinc-silver 3D microbattery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. C.; Murata, K.; Steingart, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Wright, P. K.

    2009-09-01

    A novel super ink jet printing (SIJP) system was used to fabricate 3D zinc-silver microbatteries directly on a substrate. The SIJP provides a simple and flexible method to deposit interesting 2D and 3D structures of varying morphologies without the waste and large energy inputs typical of standard microfabrication technologies. The system was used to print pairs of silver electrodes with arrays of pillars on glass substrates, and in the presence of an electrolyte, the battery self-assembled during the first charge. Using an aqueous electrolyte solution of KOH with dissolved ZnO, the SIJP printed structures showed similar electrochemical behavior to batteries composed of silver foil electrodes. For a sparse array of pillars (~2.5% footprint area of each electrode pad occupied by pillars), a capacity increase of 60% was achieved in comparison with a cell with planar electrodes.

  11. Cycle life test. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. [performance tests on silver zinc batteries, silver cadmium batteries, and nickel cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable research is being done to find more efficient and reliable means of starting electrical energy for orbiting satellites. Rechargeable cells offer one such means. A test program is described which has been established in order to further the evaluation of certain types of cells and to obtain performance and failure data as an aid to their continued improvement. The purpose of the program is to determine the cycling performance capabilities of packs of cells under different load and temperature conditions. The various kinds of cells tested were nickel-cadmium, silver-cadmium, and silver-zinc sealed cells. A summary of the results of the life cycling program is given in this report.

  12. Miniature fuel cells relieve gas pressure in sealed batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Miniature fuel cells within sealed silver zinc batteries consume evolved hydrogen and oxygen rapidly, preventing pressure rupturing. They do not significantly increase battery weight and they operate in all battery life phases. Complete gas pressure control requires two fuel cells during all phases of operation of silver zinc batteries.

  13. Effect of electrolysis condition of zinc powder production on zinc-silver oxide battery operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojtahedi, M.; Goodarzi, M.; Sharifi, B.; Vahdati Khaki, J.

    2011-01-01

    A research conducted to produce zinc powder through electrolysis of alkaline solutions by using various concentrations of KOH and zincate in the bath. Different current densities were applied for each concentration and then, morphological changes of Zn powder batches were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Afterward, an anode electrode was produced from each pack of powder. Thirty-six Zn-AgO battery cells were prepared totally. Discharge parameters of the cells were examined and time-voltage curves were analyzed. Discharge times were investigated for various conditions of Zn deposition and the proper terms were suggested. It has been seen that increase of KOH concentration and decrease of zincate ion in the bath solution will change the zinc morphology and increase the resultant battery discharge time. The longest time of discharge, before reduction of cell voltage to 1.25 V, was 7.91 min. This result was obtained for Zn powder produced in zincate concentration of 0.5 M, KOH concentration of 11 M and current density of 2500 A/m 2 .

  14. Silver-zinc electrodeposition from a thiourea solution with added EDTA or HEDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.M. de; Carlos, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows the study of silver-zinc electrodeposition from a thiourea solution with added (ethylenedinitrilo)tetraacetic acid (EDTA), disodium salt and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), trisodium salt. Voltammetric results indicated that silver-zinc alloy can be obtained applying overpotential higher than 0.495 V, in Tu solution containing 1.0 x 10 -1 mol L -1 Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + 2.5 x 10 -2 mol L -1 AgNO 3 . This was due to silver(I) ion complexation with thiourea, which shifted the silver deposition potential to more negative value and due to silver-zinc alloy deposition, which occurred at potentials more positive than the potential to zinc deposition alone. EDTA or HEDTA did not significantly affect the silver and zinc deposition potentials, but decreased the current density for silver-zinc deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of the silver-zinc deposits showed that the morphology and composition changed as a function of the conditions of deposition, viz, deposition potential (E d ), deposition charge density (q d ) and solution composition (silver, EDTA and HEDTA concentrations). EDS analysis of the deposits showed sulphur (S) incorporated into the silver-zinc deposit, while SEM images showed that this sulphur content seemed to improve the silver-zinc morphology, as did the presence of EDTA and HEDTA in the solution, which enhanced the sulphur incorporation into the silver-zinc deposit. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the silver-zinc deposit showed that it was amorphous, irrespective of its composition and morphology

  15. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  16. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes, E-mail: rayssasouza.net@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  17. First Principles Investigation of Zinc-anode Dissolution in Zinc-air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Tripkovic, Vladimir; Lundgård, Keld Troen

    2013-01-01

    With surging interest in high energy density batteries, much attention has recently been devoted to metal-air batteries. The zinc-air battery has been known for more than hundred years and is commercially available as a primary battery, but recharging has remained elusive; in part because...... the fundamental mechanisms still remain to be fully understood. Here, we present a density functional theory investigation of the zinc dissolution (oxidation) on the anode side in the zinc-air battery. Two models are envisaged, the most stable (0001) surface and a kink surface. The kink model proves to be more....... The applied methodology provides new insight into computational modelling and design of secondary metal-air batteries....

  18. Antimicrobial electrospun silver-, copper- and zinc-doped polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirós, Jennifer; Borges, João P.; Boltes, Karina; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Rosal, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing silver, copper, and zinc. • Antimicrobial effect for the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. • Silver strongly reduced colony forming units and bacterial viability. • Silver, copper, and zinc led to a significant increase of non-viable cells on mats. - Abstract: The use of electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing silver, copper, and zinc nanoparticles was studied to prepare antimicrobial mats using silver and copper nitrates and zinc acetate as precursors. Silver became reduced during electrospinning and formed nanoparticles of several tens of nanometers. Silver nanoparticles and the insoluble forms of copper and zinc were dispersed using low molecular weight PVP as capping agent. High molecular weight PVP formed uniform fibers with a narrow distribution of diameters around 500 nm. The fibers were converted into an insoluble network using ultraviolet irradiation crosslinking. The efficiency of metal-loaded mats against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was tested for different metal loadings by measuring the inhibition of colony forming units and the staining with fluorescent probes for metabolic viability and compromised membranes. The assays included the culture in contact with mats and the direct staining of surface attached microorganisms. The results indicated a strong inhibition for silver-loaded fibers and the absence of significant amounts of viable but non-culturable microorganisms. Copper and zinc-loaded mats also decreased the metabolic activity and cell viability, although in a lesser extent. Metal-loaded fibers allowed the slow release of the soluble forms of the three metals.

  19. Antimicrobial electrospun silver-, copper- and zinc-doped polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirós, Jennifer [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Borges, João P. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Boltes, Karina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Water (IMDEA Agua), Parque Científico Tecnológico, E-28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Rodea-Palomares, Ismael [Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rosal, Roberto [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Water (IMDEA Agua), Parque Científico Tecnológico, E-28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing silver, copper, and zinc. • Antimicrobial effect for the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. • Silver strongly reduced colony forming units and bacterial viability. • Silver, copper, and zinc led to a significant increase of non-viable cells on mats. - Abstract: The use of electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing silver, copper, and zinc nanoparticles was studied to prepare antimicrobial mats using silver and copper nitrates and zinc acetate as precursors. Silver became reduced during electrospinning and formed nanoparticles of several tens of nanometers. Silver nanoparticles and the insoluble forms of copper and zinc were dispersed using low molecular weight PVP as capping agent. High molecular weight PVP formed uniform fibers with a narrow distribution of diameters around 500 nm. The fibers were converted into an insoluble network using ultraviolet irradiation crosslinking. The efficiency of metal-loaded mats against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was tested for different metal loadings by measuring the inhibition of colony forming units and the staining with fluorescent probes for metabolic viability and compromised membranes. The assays included the culture in contact with mats and the direct staining of surface attached microorganisms. The results indicated a strong inhibition for silver-loaded fibers and the absence of significant amounts of viable but non-culturable microorganisms. Copper and zinc-loaded mats also decreased the metabolic activity and cell viability, although in a lesser extent. Metal-loaded fibers allowed the slow release of the soluble forms of the three metals.

  20. Ranger uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia, Peko-Wallsend Operations Ltd., Electrolytic Zinc Company of Australasia Limited, and the Australian Atomic Energy Commission sets out articles under which the Ranger uranium project in the Northern Territory of Australia is to be operated

  1. Zinc electrode - its behaviour in the nickel oxide-zinc accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Certain aspects of zinc electrode reaction and behavior are investigated in view of their application to batteries. The properties of the zinc electrode in a battery system are discussed, emphasizing porous structure. Shape change is emphasized as the most important factor leading to limited battery cycle life. It is shown that two existing models of shape change based on electroosmosis and current distribution are unable to consistently describe observed phenomena. The first stages of electrocrystallization are studied and the surface reactions between the silver substrate and the deposited zinc layer are investigated. The reaction mechanism of zinc and amalgamated zinc in an alkaline electrolyte is addressed, and the batter system is studied to obtain information on cycling behavior and on the shape change phenomenon. The effect on cycle behavior of diferent amalgamation techniques of the zinc electrode and several additives is addressed. Impedance measurements on zinc electrodes are considered, and battery behavior is correlated with changes in the zinc electrode during cycling. 193 references.

  2. Range-extending Zinc-air battery for electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Sherman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle model is used to evaluate a novel powertrain that is comprised of a dual energy storage system (Dual ESS. The system includes two battery packs with different chemistries and the necessary electronic controls to facilitate their coordination and optimization. Here, a lithium-ion battery pack is used as the primary pack and a Zinc-air battery as the secondary or range-extending pack. Zinc-air batteries are usually considered unsuitable for use in vehicles due to their poor cycle life, but the model demonstrates the feasibility of this technology with an appropriate control strategy, with limited cycling of the range extender pack. The battery pack sizes and the battery control strategy are configured to optimize range, cost and longevity. In simulation the vehicle performance compares favourably to a similar vehicle with a single energy storage system (Single ESS powertrain, travelling up to 75 km further under test conditions. The simulation demonstrates that the Zinc-air battery pack need only cycle 100 times to enjoy a ten-year lifespan. The Zinc-air battery model is based on leading Zinc-air battery research from literature, with some assumptions regarding achievable improvements. Having such a model clarifies the performance requirements of Zinc-air cells and improves the research community's ability to set performance targets for Zinc-air cells.

  3. Improved electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. C.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.; Zhang, R. H.

    2018-04-01

    Conventional zinc bromide electrolytes offer low ionic conductivity and often trigger severe zinc dendrite growth in zinc-bromine flow batteries. Here we report an improved electrolyte modified with methanesulfonic acid, which not only improves the electrolyte conductivity but also ameliorates zinc dendrite. Experimental results also reveal that the kinetics and reversibility of Zn2+/Zn and Br2/Br- are improved in this modified electrolyte. Moreover, the battery's internal resistance is significantly reduced from 4.9 to 2.0 Ω cm2 after adding 1 M methanesulfonic acid, thus leading to an improved energy efficiency from 64% to 75% at a current density of 40 mA cm-2. More impressively, the battery is capable of delivering an energy efficiency of about 78% at a current density of as high as 80 mA cm-2 when the electrode is replaced by a thermally treated one. Additionally, zinc dendrite growth is found to be effectively suppressed in methanesulfonic acid supported media, which, as a result, enables the battery to be operated for 50 cycles without degradation, whereas the one without methanesulfonic acid suffers from significant decay after only 40 cycles, primarily due to severe zinc dendrite growth. These superior results indicate methanesulfonic acid is a promising supporting electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries.

  4. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  5. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  6. Analysis of reaction and transport processes in zinc air batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a novel combination of experimental and model-based investigations, elucidating the complex processes inside zinc air batteries. The work presented helps to answer which battery composition and which air-composition should be adjusted to maintain stable and efficient charge/discharge cycling. In detail, electrochemical investigations and X-ray transmission tomography are applied on button cell zinc air batteries and in-house set-ups. Moreover, model-based investigations of the battery anode and the impact of relative humidity, active operation, carbon dioxide and oxygen on zinc air battery operation are presented. The techniques used in this work complement each other well and yield an unprecedented understanding of zinc air batteries. The methods applied are adaptable and can potentially be applied to gain further understanding of other metal air batteries. Contents Introduction on Zinc Air Batteries Characterizing Reaction and Transport Processes Identifying Factors for Long-Term Stable O...

  7. Impact of anode substrates on electrodeposited zinc over cycling in zinc-anode rechargeable alkaline batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xia; Desai, Divyaraj; Yadav, Gautam G.; Turney, Damon E.; Couzis, Alexander; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of Ag, Bi, Cu, Fe, Ni and Sn substrates on zinc deposition was evaluated over battery cycling by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The effect of Bi, Cu, Ni, and Sn substrates on zinc electrodeposition during battery cycling was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behavior of each metal in 9 M KOH and the corrosion rates of zinc plated on each substrate were analyzed by Tafel extrapolation method from the potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Although the charge-transfer resistance (R_c_t) of zinc electrodeposition is lowest on Sn, Sn eventually corrodes on cycling in alkaline media. Use of Ni as a substrate causes zinc to deteriorate on account of rapid hydrogen evolution. Bi and Cu substrates are more suitable for use as current collectors in zinc-anode alkaline rechargeable batteries because of their low corrosion rate and compact zinc deposition over battery cycling.

  8. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for high rate extended mission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Mark; Brown, Robert A.

    An effort has been made to develop technology for lithium-thionyl chloride batteries whose emission times will extend beyond 20 min and whose power levels will be in excess of 1800 W, using the requirements for an existing silver-zinc battery's electrical requirements as a baseline. The target design encompasses separate 31- and 76-V sections; the design goal was the reduction of battery weight to 50 percent that of the present silver/zinc cell. A cell has been achieved whose mission can be conducted without container heat losses.

  9. The growth and tensile deformation behavior of the silver solid solution phase with zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiaqi; Lee, Chin C.

    2016-01-01

    The growth of homogeneous silver solid solution phase with zinc are conducted at two different compositions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) are carried out for phase identification and chemical composition verification. The mechanical properties of silver solid solution phase with zinc are evaluated by tensile test. The engineering and true stress vs. strain curves are presented and analyzed, with those of pure silver in comparison. According to the experimental results, silver solid solution phase with zinc at both compositions show tempered yield strength, high tensile strength and large uniform strain compared to those of pure silver. Fractography further confirmed the superior ductility of silver solid solution phase with zinc at both compositions. Our preliminary but encouraging results may pave the way for the silver based alloys to be applied in industries such as electronic packaging and structure engineering.

  10. Zinc composite anode for batteries with solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjar, F.; Melki, T.; Zerroual, L.

    A new negative composite anode for batteries with a solid electrolyte is studied. Using a complex of zinc ammonium chloride mixed with zinc metal powder, the advantage of the Zn/Zn 2+ electrode ( e = -760 mV) is kept while the energy density and the shelf-life of the battery are increased.

  11. Zinc composite anode for batteries with solid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedjar, F.; Melki, T.; Zerroual, L. (Setif Univ. (Algeria). Unite de Recherche Electrochimie)

    1992-05-01

    A new negative composite anode for batteries with a solid electrolyte is studied. Using a complex of zinc ammonium chloride mixed with zinc metal powder, the advantage of the Zn/Zn[sup 2+] electrode (e = -760 mV) is kept while the energy density and the shelf-life of the battery are increased. (orig.).

  12. Proof-of-Concept of a Zinc-Silver Battery for the Extraction of Energy from a Concentration Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Marino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of heat into current can be obtained by a process with two stages. In the first one, the heat is used for distilling a solution and obtaining two flows with different concentrations. In the second stage, the two flows are sent to an electrochemical cell that produces current by consuming the concentration difference. In this paper, we propose such an electrochemical cell, working with water solutions of zinc chloride. The cell contains two electrodes, made respectively of zinc and silver covered by silver chloride. The operation of the cell is analogous to that of the capacitive mixing and of the “mixing entropy battery”: the electrodes are charged while dipped in the concentrated solution and discharged when dipped in the diluted solution. The cyclic operation allows us to extract a surplus of energy, at the expense of the free energy of the concentration difference. We evaluate the feasibility of such a cell for practical applications and find that a power up to 2 W per m2 of the surface of the electrodes can be achieved.

  13. Design and fabrication of a micro zinc/air battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, L; Luo, J K; Huber, J E; Lu, T J

    2006-01-01

    Micro-batteries are one of the key components that restrict the application of autonomous Microsystems. However little efforts were made to solve the problem. We have proposed a new planar zinc/air micro-battery, suitable for autonomous microsystem applications. The micro-battery has a layered structure of zinc electrode/alkaline electrolyte/air cathode. A 3D zinc electrode with a high density of posts was designed to obtain a high porosity, hence to offer a best performance. A model of the micro-battery is developed and the device performances were simulated and discussed. A four-mask process was developed to fabricate the prototype micro-batteries. The preliminary testing results showed the micro-batteries is able to deliver a maximum power up to 5 mW, and with an average power of 100 μW at a steady period for up to 2hrs. Fabrication process is still under optimization for further improvement

  14. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial activity of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Mohamed Ibrahim; El-Mahdy, Magdy Mohamed; Theiner, Sarah; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Saleh, Mona

    2017-07-21

    Antibiotic resistance is a global issue that threatens public health. The excessive use of antibiotics contributes to this problem as the genes of antibiotic resistance can be transferred between the bacteria in humans, animals and aquatic organisms. Metallic nanoparticles could serve as future substitutes for some conventional antibiotics because of their antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against major fish pathogens and assess their safety in vitro. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction and characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer. The concentrations of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Subsequently, silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Edwardsiella tarda, Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, Yersinia ruckeri and Aphanomyces invadans and the minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. MTT assay was performed on eel kidney cell line (EK-1) to determine the cell viability after incubation with nanoparticles. The interaction between silver nanoparticles and A. salmonicida was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The tested nanoparticles exhibited marked antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth of both A. salmonicida and A. invadans at a concentration of 17 µg/mL. Zinc oxide nanoparticles inhibited the growth of A. salmonicida, Y. ruckeri and A. invadans at concentrations of 15.75, 31.5 and 3.15 µg/mL respectively. Silver nanoparticles showed higher cell viability when compared to zinc oxide nanoparticles in the MTT assay. Transmission electron microscopy showed the attachment of silver nanoparticles to the bacterial membrane and disruption of its

  15. Anglesite and silver recovery from jarosite residues through roasting and sulfidization-flotation in zinc hydrometallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haisheng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Jia, Baoliang; Tang, Honghu

    2014-08-15

    Hazardous jarosite residues contain abundant valuable minerals that are difficult to be recovered by traditional flotation process. This study presents a new route, roasting combined with sulfidization-flotation, for the recovery of anglesite and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Surface appearance and elemental distribution of jarosite residues was examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, respectively. Decomposition and transformation mechanisms of jarosite residues were illustrated by differential thermal analysis. Results showed that after roasting combined with flotation, the grade and recovery of lead were 43.89% and 66.86%, respectively, and those of silver were 1.3 kg/t and 81.60%, respectively. At 600-700 °C, jarosite was decomposed to release encapsulated valuable minerals such as anglesite (PbSO4) and silver mineral; silver jarosite decomposed into silver sulfate (Ag2SO4); and zinc ferrite (ZnO · Fe2O3) decomposed into zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hematite (Fe2O3). Bared anglesite and silver minerals were modified by sodium sulfide and easily collected by flotation collectors. This study demonstrates that the combination of roasting and sulfidization-flotation provides a promising process for the recovery of zinc, lead, and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Kasraei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Recurrent caries was partly ascribed to lack of antibacterial properties in composite resin. Silver and zinc nanoparticles are considered to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of composite resins containing 1% silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods Ninety discoid tablets containing 0%, 1% nano-silver and 1% nano zinc-oxide particles were prepared from flowable composite resin (n = 30. The antibacterial properties of composite resin discs were evaluated by direct contact test. Diluted solutions of Streptococcus mutans (PTCC 1683 and Lactobacillus (PTCC 1643 were prepared. 0.01 mL of each bacterial species was separately placed on the discs. The discs were transferred to liquid culture media and were incubated at 37℃ for 8 hr. 0.01 mL of each solution was cultured on blood agar and the colonies were counted. Data was analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Composites containing nano zinc-oxide particles or silver nanoparticles exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus compared to the control group (p < 0.05. The effect of zinc-oxide on Streptococcus mutans was significantly higher than that of silver (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in the antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus between composites containing silver nanoparticles and those containing zinc-oxide nanoparticles. Conclusions Composite resins containing silver or zinc-oxide nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus.

  17. Lead and silver extraction from waste cake from hydrometallurgical zinc production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN D. STANOJEVIC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental results of the extraction of lead and silver from a lead–silver waste cake obtained in the process of hydrometallurgical zinc production. While controlling the pH value, the lead–silver cake was leached at a temperature close to boiling point in different concentrations of aqueous calcium chloride solutions. The experiments were performed applying different ratios between the mass of cake and the volume of the leaching agent under different durations of the process. It was concluded that at the optimal process parameters (pH 2.0–2.5; CaCl2 concentration, 3.6 mol dm-3; temperature, 95 °C; solid/liquid ratio, 1:5, the leaching efficiency of lead and silver could reach the approximate value of 94 %. Applying the same optimal process parameters, the method was applied to the leaching of a lead–silver cake in a magnesium chloride solution, but with significantly lower efficiencies. The results show that leaching of lead and silver in a calcium chloride solution could be a prospective method for increasing the recovery of lead and silver during hydrometallurgical zinc production.

  18. Non-polluting disposal of spent primary batteries. Varta-Spezial-Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, F

    1982-01-01

    Reflections on non-polluting disposal of spent primary batteries result in the following: Mercury content of battery systems which are either available on or being introduced to the market varies extremely. Coal/zinc cells, i.e. Leclanche cells and lithium cells, contain practically no mercury. A system for collecting and recycling cells with an increased mercury content (HgO/Zn cells) has existed for year. The mercury content of a cell does not mean ony hazard for the user. The following strategy, therefore, appears to be applicable for spent batteries: - collection and recycling of mercury oxide and silver oxide button cells, - disposal of zinc/coal batteries with domestic refuse, - quantitative reduction of alkaline zinc/manganese dioxide cells through substitution.

  19. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  20. Latest position in battery techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staeger, H J

    1960-03-17

    A short survey of the development of electrochemical properties as batteries is followed by an account of the construction, properties, and fields of application of lead, iron--nickel, and silver--zinc batteries, and their more recent developments, such as the hollow-rod plates in lead batteries, sintered plates, and sealed batteries. The work in progress on fuel cells is discussed and different practical cells are compared. There is no battery which is the best for all applications, each system has its own advantages or disadvantages. The lead battery in its different forms still remains the most universally applied.

  1. Anglesite and silver recovery from jarosite residues through roasting and sulfidization-flotation in zinc hydrometallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Haisheng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Jia, Baoliang; Tang, Honghu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Jarosite precipitate hindered the recovery of valuable minerals. • Under 600–700 °C, jarosite decomposed and released the encapsulated valuable minerals. • The bared valuable minerals were easily collected by flotation process. • The new process was promising for dealing with jarosite residues. - Abstract: Hazardous jarosite residues contain abundant valuable minerals that are difficult to be recovered by traditional flotation process. This study presents a new route, roasting combined with sulfidization-flotation, for the recovery of anglesite and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Surface appearance and elemental distribution of jarosite residues was examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, respectively. Decomposition and transformation mechanisms of jarosite residues were illustrated by differential thermal analysis. Results showed that after roasting combined with flotation, the grade and recovery of lead were 43.89% and 66.86%, respectively, and those of silver were 1.3 kg/t and 81.60%, respectively. At 600–700 °C, jarosite was decomposed to release encapsulated valuable minerals such as anglesite (PbSO 4 ) and silver mineral; silver jarosite decomposed into silver sulfate (Ag 2 SO 4 ); and zinc ferrite (ZnO·Fe 2 O 3 ) decomposed into zinc sulfate (ZnSO 4 ) and hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ). Bared anglesite and silver minerals were modified by sodium sulfide and easily collected by flotation collectors. This study demonstrates that the combination of roasting and sulfidization-flotation provides a promising process for the recovery of zinc, lead, and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy

  2. Anglesite and silver recovery from jarosite residues through roasting and sulfidization-flotation in zinc hydrometallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Haisheng; Sun, Wei, E-mail: hanhaishengjingji@126.com; Hu, Yuehua; Jia, Baoliang; Tang, Honghu

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Jarosite precipitate hindered the recovery of valuable minerals. • Under 600–700 °C, jarosite decomposed and released the encapsulated valuable minerals. • The bared valuable minerals were easily collected by flotation process. • The new process was promising for dealing with jarosite residues. - Abstract: Hazardous jarosite residues contain abundant valuable minerals that are difficult to be recovered by traditional flotation process. This study presents a new route, roasting combined with sulfidization-flotation, for the recovery of anglesite and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Surface appearance and elemental distribution of jarosite residues was examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, respectively. Decomposition and transformation mechanisms of jarosite residues were illustrated by differential thermal analysis. Results showed that after roasting combined with flotation, the grade and recovery of lead were 43.89% and 66.86%, respectively, and those of silver were 1.3 kg/t and 81.60%, respectively. At 600–700 °C, jarosite was decomposed to release encapsulated valuable minerals such as anglesite (PbSO{sub 4}) and silver mineral; silver jarosite decomposed into silver sulfate (Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4}); and zinc ferrite (ZnO·Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) decomposed into zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4}) and hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Bared anglesite and silver minerals were modified by sodium sulfide and easily collected by flotation collectors. This study demonstrates that the combination of roasting and sulfidization-flotation provides a promising process for the recovery of zinc, lead, and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy.

  3. Manganese Sesquioxide as Cathode Material for Multivalent Zinc Ion Battery with High Capacity and Long Cycle Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Baozheng; Xu, Chengjun; Wu, Changle; Dong, Liubing; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Manganese oxides with Mn(III) state is firstly reported to store zinc ion. • Zinc ion battery with α-Mn 2 O 3 cathode is assembled. • Storage mechanism of zinc ion in α-Mn 2 O 3 is investigated. - Abstract: Rechargeable zinc ion battery is considered as one of the most potential energy storage devices for large-scale energy storage system due to its safety, low-cost, high capacity and nontoxicity. However, only a few cathode materials have been studied for rechargeable zinc ion batteries. Here, we firstly report manganese sesquioxide (Mn 2 O 3 ) with Mn(III) state as cathode material for rechargeable zinc ion battery. The α-Mn 2 O 3 cathode displays a reversible capacity of 148 mAh g −1 , which is relatively high among all the reported cathode materials for ZIB. The cathode also exhibits good rate capability and excellent cycling stability with a long cycle life up to 2000 times. The ion storage mechanism of α-Mn 2 O 3 in zinc ion battery was also revealed. The pristine α-Mn 2 O 3 undergoes a reversible phase transition from bixbyite structure to layered-type zinc birnessite during the electrochemical zinc ion insertion and extraction. The results not only benefit for the practical application of rechargeable zinc ion battery, but also broaden the horizons of understanding the electrochemical behavior and mechanism of rechargeable zinc ion batteries.

  4. A Quaternized Polysulfone Membrane for Zinc-Bromine Redox Flow Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quaternized polysulfone (QNPSU composite membrane is fabricated for zinc-bromine redox flow battery. The structure of the membrane is examined by FT-IR spectra and SEM. The conductivity of the membrane is tested by electrochemical analyzer. After a zinc-bromine battery with this composite membrane is operated at different voltage while charging and at different current while discharging to examine the performance of the membrane, it is found that the discharge voltage was 0.9672 V and the power density was 6 mW/cm2 at a current of 0.1 A, which indicated that the novel composite membrane is a promising material for the flow battery.

  5. Silver decorated LaMnO_3 nanorod/graphene composite electrocatalysts as reversible metal-air battery electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jie; Liu, Qiunan; Shi, Lina; Shi, Ziwei; Huang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Silver decorated LaMnO_3 nanorod/reduced graphene oxide composite possess excellent bifunctional electrocatalytic activity and good electrochemical stability in alkaline medium. - Highlights: • Silver decorated LaMnO_3 nanorod/graphene composite were synthesized for the first time. • The ORR and OER of composite in alkaline medium were evaluated. • This composite as an efficient bifunctional catalyst has a good cycle performance. - Abstract: Perovskite LaMnO_3 nanorod/reduced graphene oxides (LMO-NR/RGO) decorated with Ag nanoparticles are studied as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte. LMO-NR/RGO composites are synthesized by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template via a simple hydrothermal reaction followed by heat treatment; overlaying of Ag nanoparticles is obtained through a traditional silver mirror reaction. Electron microscopy reveals that LMO-NR is embedded between the sheets of RGO, and the material is homogeneously overlaid with Ag nanoparticles. The unique composite morphology of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO not only enhances the electron transport property by increasing conductivity but also facilitates the diffusion of electrolytes and oxygen. As confirmed by electrochemical testing, Ag/LMO-NR/RGO exhibits very strong synergy with Ag nanoparticles, LMO-NR, and RGO, and the catalytic activities of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO during ORR and OER are significantly improved. With the novel catalyst, the homemade zinc-air battery can be reversibly charged and discharged and display a stable cycle performance, indicating the great potential of this composite as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for metal-air batteries.

  6. Selection of organic acid leaching reagent for recovery of zinc and manganese from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Amiliana, R. A.; Wulandari, P. T.; Ramadhan, I. T.; Kusumadewi, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries are often used in electronic equipment that requires small quantities of power. The waste from these batteries contains valuable metals, such as zinc and manganese, that are needed in many industries and can pollute the environment if not treated properly. This paper concerns the recovery of zinc and manganese metals from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries with leaching method and using organic acid as the environmental friendly leaching reagent. Three different organic acids, namely citric acid, malic acid and aspartic acid, were used as leaching reagents and compared with sulfuric acid as non-organic acid reagents that often used for leaching. The presence of hydrogen peroxide as manganese reducers was investigated for both organic and non-organic leaching reagents. The result showed that citric acid can recover 64.37% Zinc and 51.32% Manganese, while malic acid and aspartic acid could recover less than these. Hydrogen peroxide gave the significant effect for leaching manganese with non-organic acid, but not with organic acid.

  7. Rechargeable nickel-3D zinc batteries: An energy-dense, safer alternative to lithium-ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joseph F; Chervin, Christopher N; Pala, Irina R; Machler, Meinrad; Burz, Michael F; Long, Jeffrey W; Rolison, Debra R

    2017-04-28

    The next generation of high-performance batteries should include alternative chemistries that are inherently safer to operate than nonaqueous lithium-based batteries. Aqueous zinc-based batteries can answer that challenge because monolithic zinc sponge anodes can be cycled in nickel-zinc alkaline cells hundreds to thousands of times without undergoing passivation or macroscale dendrite formation. We demonstrate that the three-dimensional (3D) zinc form-factor elevates the performance of nickel-zinc alkaline cells in three fields of use: (i) >90% theoretical depth of discharge (DOD Zn ) in primary (single-use) cells, (ii) >100 high-rate cycles at 40% DOD Zn at lithium-ion-commensurate specific energy, and (iii) the tens of thousands of power-demanding duty cycles required for start-stop microhybrid vehicles. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Rechargeable Aqueous Zinc-Ion Battery Based on Porous Framework Zinc Pyrovanadate Intercalation Cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Guo, Jing; Lei, Yongjiu; Liang, Hanfeng; Zhao, Chao; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    metal pyrovanadate compounds. The zinc pyrovanadate nanowires show significantly improved electrochemical performance when used as intercalation cathode for aqueous zinc–ion battery. Specifically, the ZVO cathode delivers high capacities of 213 and 76 m

  9. Sulfur dioxide leaching of spent zinc-carbon-battery scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avraamides, J.; Senanayake, G.; Clegg, R. [A.J. Parker Cooperative Research Centre for Hydrometallurgy, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2006-09-22

    Zinc-carbon batteries, which contain around 20% zinc, 35% manganese oxides and 10% steel, are currently disposed after use as land fill or reprocessed to recover metals or oxides. Crushed material is subjected to magnetic separation followed by hydrometallurgical treatment of the non-magnetic material to recover zinc metal and manganese oxides. The leaching with 2M sulfuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide recovers 93% Zn and 82% Mn at 25{sup o}C. Alkaline leaching with 6M NaOH recovers 80% zinc. The present study shows that over 90% zinc and manganese can be leached in 20-30min at 30{sup o}C using 0.1-1.0M sulfuric acid in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The iron extraction is sensitive to both acid concentration and sulfur dioxide flow rate. The effect of reagent concentration and particle size on the extraction of zinc, manganese and iron are reported. It is shown that the iron and manganese leaching follow a shrinking core kinetic model due to the formation of insoluble metal salts/oxides on the solid surface. This is supported by (i) the decrease in iron and manganese extraction from synthetic Fe(III)-Mn(IV)-Zn(II) oxide mixtures with increase in acid concentration from 1M to 2M, and (ii) the low iron dissolution and re-precipitation of dissolved manganese and zinc during prolonged leaching of battery scrap with low sulfur dioxide. (author)

  10. Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc-Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei

    2007-01-01

    Current regulative diodes (CRDs) are applied to develop new educational experiments on Faraday's law by using a zinc-air battery (PR2330) and a resistor to discharge it. The results concluded that the combination of zinc-air batteries and the CRD array is simpler, less expensive, and quantitative and gives accurate data.

  11. Analysis of impurities in silver matrix by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.; Ishaque, M.; Mohammad, D.

    1999-01-01

    A procedure for the analysis of aluminium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc mainly using flame lens atomic absorption spectrophotometry has been described. The results depict that the presence of silver does not introduce any significant interference, when standards are prepared in matching silver matrix solutions. The calibration curves obey the straight-line equations passing through the origin. Thus the separation of silver matrix from the analyte solutions is not necessary. The method has successfully been applied for the analysis of silver foils, wires, battery grade silver oxides and silver nitrate samples containing analyte elements in the concentration range 2 to 40 ppm. (author)

  12. Fate of Zinc and Silver Engineered Nanoparticles in Sewerage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) used in consumer products are largely released into the environment through the wastewater stream. Limited information is available regarding the transformations they undergo during their transit through sewerage sy...

  13. Environmental significance of copper, lead, manganese, uranium and zinc speciation in the event of contaminated waters release from the Ranger Uranium Mining Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, B.N.; Currey, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The likely impact of the accidental release of tailings dam water during the dry season at the Ranger Uranium Mining Complex was examined. A speciation scheme utilising sizing by filtration and ion-exchange with Chelex 100 has given an insight into the likely partitioning of zinc, copper, lead, manganese and uranium following the addition of tailings dam water to samples from waterbodies in the vicinity of the uranium mining/milling complex. The speciation findings are discussed in terms of likely toxic effects on fish

  14. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  15. The Silver Oxide-Zinc Alkaline Primary Cell. Part 2. Effects of Various Types of Negative Electrodes on Cell Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shepherd, C. M

    1951-01-01

    ... (generally a potassium hydroxide solution). During discharge, the silver peroxide in the positive electrode is reduced to metallic silver and the metallic zinc in the negative electrode is oxidized either to zinc oxide or to a complex zincate ion...

  16. Structural and silver/vanadium ratio effects on silver vanadium phosphorous oxide solution formation kinetics: impact on battery electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, David C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2015-01-21

    The detailed understanding of non-faradaic parasitic reactions which diminish battery calendar life is essential to the development of effective batteries for use in long life applications. The dissolution of cathode materials including manganese, cobalt and vanadium oxides in battery systems has been identified as a battery failure mechanism, yet detailed dissolution studies including kinetic analysis are absent from the literature. The results presented here provide a framework for the quantitative and kinetic analyses of the dissolution of cathode materials which will aid the broader community in more fully understanding this battery failure mechanism. In this study, the dissolution of silver vanadium oxide, representing the primary battery powering implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), is compared with the dissolution of silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (Ag(w)VxPyOz) materials which were targeted as alternatives to minimize solubility. This study contains the first kinetic analyses of silver and vanadium solution formation from Ag0.48VOPO4·1.9H2O and Ag2VP2O8, in a non-aqueous battery electrolyte. The kinetic results are compared with those of Ag2VO2PO4 and Ag2V4O11 to probe the relationships among crystal structure, stoichiometry, and solubility. For vanadium, significant dissolution was observed for Ag2V4O11 as well as for the phosphate oxide Ag0.49VOPO4·1.9H2O, which may involve structural water or the existence of multiple vanadium oxidation states. Notably, the materials from the SVPO family with the lowest vanadium solubility are Ag2VO2PO4 and Ag2VP2O8. The low concentrations and solution rates coupled with their electrochemical performance make these materials interesting alternatives to Ag2V4O11 for the ICD application.

  17. High-capacity aqueous zinc batteries using sustainable quinone electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Huang, Weiwei; Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Luojia; Lu, Yong; Li, Yixin; Li, Lin; Hu, Jinyan; Ma, Hua; Chen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Quinones, which are ubiquitous in nature, can act as sustainable and green electrode materials but face dissolution in organic electrolytes, resulting in fast fading of capacity and short cycle life. We report that quinone electrodes, especially calix[4]quinone (C4Q) in rechargeable metal zinc batteries coupled with a cation-selective membrane using an aqueous electrolyte, exhibit a high capacity of 335 mA h g−1 with an energy efficiency of 93% at 20 mA g−1 and a long life of 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 87% at 500 mA g−1. The pouch zinc batteries with a respective depth of discharge of 89% (C4Q) and 49% (zinc anode) can deliver an energy density of 220 Wh kg−1 by mass of both a C4Q cathode and a theoretical Zn anode. We also develop an electrostatic potential computing method to demonstrate that carbonyl groups are active centers of electrochemistry. Moreover, the structural evolution and dissolution behavior of active materials during discharge and charge processes are investigated by operando spectral techniques such as IR, Raman, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies. Our results show that batteries using quinone cathodes and metal anodes in aqueous electrolyte are reliable approaches for mass energy storage. PMID:29511734

  18. Extraction of Zinc and Manganese from Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Spent Batteries by Citric-Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of citric acid as reducing agent. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 24 full factorial design, and empirical equations for Mn and Zn extraction yields are determined from experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, and citric acid concentration. The highest values experimentally observed for extraction yields were 97% of manganese and 100% of zinc, under the following operating conditions: temperature 40∘C, pulp density 20%, sulphuric acid concentration 1.8 M, and citric acid 40 g L-1. A second series of leaching tests is also performed to derive other empirical models to predict zinc and manganese extraction. Precipitation tests, aimed both at investigating precipitation of zinc during leaching and at evaluating recovery options of zinc and manganese, show that a quantitative precipitation of zinc can be reached but a coprecipitation of nearly 30% of manganese also takes place. The achieved results allow to propose a battery recycling process based on a countercurrent reducing leaching by citric acid in sulphuric solution.

  19. Significant deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.; DeYoung, J.H.; Ludington, S.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 99 percent of past production and remaining identified resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States are accounted for by deposits that originally contained at least 2 metric tonnes (t) gold, 85 t silver, 50,000 t copper, 30,000 t lead, or 50,000 t zinc. The U.S. Geological Survey, beginning with the 1996 National Mineral Resource Assessment, is systematically compiling data on these deposits, collectively known as 'significant' deposits. As of December 31, 1996, the significant deposits database contained 1,118 entries corresponding to individual deposits or mining districts. Maintaining, updating and analyzing a database of this size is much easier than managing the more than 100,000 records in the Mineral Resource Data System and Minerals Availability System/Minerals Industry Location System, yet the significant deposits database accounts for almost all past production and remaining identified resources of these metals in the United States. About 33 percent of gold, 22 percent of silver, 42 percent of copper, 39 percent of lead, and 46 percent of zinc are contained in or were produced from deposits discovered after World War II. Even within a database of significant deposits, a disproportionate share of past production and remaining resources is accounted for by a very small number of deposits. The largest 10 producers for each metal account for one third of the gold, 60 percent of the silver, 68 percent of the copper, 85 percent of the lead, and 75 percent of the zinc produced in the United States. The 10 largest deposits in terms of identified remaining resources of each of the five metals contain 43 percent of the gold, 56 percent of the silver, 48 percent of the copper, 94 percent of the lead, and 72 percent of the zinc. Identified resources in significant deposits for each metal are less than the mean estimates of resources in undiscovered deposits from the 1996 U.S. National Mineral Resource Assessment. Identified

  20. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l(-1)). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l(-1) is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications.

  1. A concentrated electrolyte for zinc hexacyanoferrate electrodes in aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a concentrated electrolyte was applied in an aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion battery system with a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) electrode to improve the electrochemical performance by changing the hydration number of the zinc ions. To optimize the active material, ZnHCF was synthesized using aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate with three different concentrations. The synthesized materials exhibited some differences in structure, crystallinity, and particle size, as observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, these well-structured materials were applied in electrochemical tests. A more than two-fold improvement in the charge/discharge capacities was observed when the concentrated electrolyte was used instead of the dilute electrolyte. Additionally, the cycling performance observed in the concentrated electrolyte was superior to that in the dilute electrolyte. This improvement in the electrochemical performance may result from a decrease in the hydration number of the zinc ions in the concentrated electrolyte.

  2. New Lithium-ion Polymer Battery for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, J. A.; Darcy, E. C.

    2004-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit currently has a silver-zinc battery that is 20.5 V and 45 Ah capacity. The EMU's portable life support system (PLSS) will draw power from the battery during the entire period of an EVA. Due to the disadvantages of using the silver-zinc battery in terms of cost and performance, a new high energy density battery is being developed for future use, The new battery (Lithium-ion battery or LIB) will consist of Li-ion polymer cells that will provide power to the EMU suit. The battery design consists of five 8 Ah cells in parallel to form a single module of 40 Ah and five such modules will be placed in series to give a 20.5 V, 40 Ah battery. Charging will be accomplished on the Shuttle or Station using the new LIB charger or the existing ALPS (Air Lock Power Supply) charger. The LIB delivers a maximum of 3.8 A on the average, for seven continuous hours, at voltages ranging from 20.5 V to 16.0 V and it should be capable of supporting transient pulses during start up and once every hour to support PLSS fan and pump operation. Figure 1 shows the placement of the battery in the backpack area of the EMU suit. The battery and cells will undergo testing under different conditions to understand its performance and safety characteristics.

  3. Critical rate of electrolyte circulation for preventing zinc dendrite formation in a zinc-bromine redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyeon Sun; Park, Jong Ho; Ra, Ho Won; Jin, Chang-Soo; Yang, Jung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    In a zinc-bromine redox flow battery, a nonaqueous and dense polybromide phase formed because of bromide oxidation in the positive electrolyte during charging. This formation led to complicated two-phase flow on the electrode surface. The polybromide and aqueous phases led to different kinetics of the Br/Br- redox reaction; poor mixing of the two phases caused uneven redox kinetics on the electrode surface. As the Br/Br- redox reaction was coupled with the zinc deposition reaction, the uneven redox reaction on the positive electrode was accompanied by nonuniform zinc deposition and zinc dendrite formation, which degraded battery stability. A single-flow cell was operated at varying electrolyte circulation rates and current densities. Zinc dendrite formation was observed after cell disassembly following charge-discharge testing. In addition, the flow behavior in the positive compartment was observed by using a transparent version of the cell. At low rate of electrolyte circulation, the polybromide phase clearly separated from the aqueous phase and accumulated at the bottom of the flow frame. In the corresponding area on the negative electrode, a large amount of zinc dendrites was observed after charge-discharge testing. Therefore, a minimum circulation rate should be considered to avoid poor mixing of the positive electrolyte.

  4. Silver decorated LaMnO{sub 3} nanorod/graphene composite electrocatalysts as reversible metal-air battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science & Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Environment and Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Liu, Qiunan; Shi, Lina; Shi, Ziwei [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Environment and Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Huang, Hao, E-mail: huanghao@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science & Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004 (China); Henan Huanghe Whirlwind Co. Ltd., Changge, 461500 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Graphical abstract: Silver decorated LaMnO{sub 3} nanorod/reduced graphene oxide composite possess excellent bifunctional electrocatalytic activity and good electrochemical stability in alkaline medium. - Highlights: • Silver decorated LaMnO{sub 3} nanorod/graphene composite were synthesized for the first time. • The ORR and OER of composite in alkaline medium were evaluated. • This composite as an efficient bifunctional catalyst has a good cycle performance. - Abstract: Perovskite LaMnO{sub 3} nanorod/reduced graphene oxides (LMO-NR/RGO) decorated with Ag nanoparticles are studied as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte. LMO-NR/RGO composites are synthesized by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template via a simple hydrothermal reaction followed by heat treatment; overlaying of Ag nanoparticles is obtained through a traditional silver mirror reaction. Electron microscopy reveals that LMO-NR is embedded between the sheets of RGO, and the material is homogeneously overlaid with Ag nanoparticles. The unique composite morphology of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO not only enhances the electron transport property by increasing conductivity but also facilitates the diffusion of electrolytes and oxygen. As confirmed by electrochemical testing, Ag/LMO-NR/RGO exhibits very strong synergy with Ag nanoparticles, LMO-NR, and RGO, and the catalytic activities of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO during ORR and OER are significantly improved. With the novel catalyst, the homemade zinc-air battery can be reversibly charged and discharged and display a stable cycle performance, indicating the great potential of this composite as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for metal-air batteries.

  5. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Silver nanowires as catalytic cathodes for stabilizing lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Won-Jin; Jung, Hun-Gi; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Park, Jin-Bum; Aurbach, Doron; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanowires have been investigated as a catalytic cathode material for lithium-oxygen batteries. Their high aspect ratio contributes to the formation of a corn-shaped layer structure of the poorly crystalline lithium peroxide (Li2O2) nanoparticles produced by oxygen reduction in poly-ether based electrolyte solutions. The nanowire morphology seems to provide the necessary large contact area and facile electron supply for a very effective oxygen reduction reaction. The unique morphology and structure of the Li2O2 deposits and the catalytic nature of the silver nano-wires promote decomposition of Li2O2 at low potentials (below 3.4 V) upon the oxygen evolution. This situation avoids decomposition of the solution species and oxidation of the electrodes during the anodic (charge) reactions, leading to high electrical efficiently of lithium-oxygen batteries.

  7. Operando studies of all-vanadium flow batteries: Easy-to-make reference electrode based on silver-silver sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa, Edgar; Skoumal, Marcel; Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Flox, Cristina; Morante, Joan Ramon

    2014-12-01

    In-depth evaluation of the electrochemical performance of all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) under operando conditions requires the insertion of a reliable reference electrode in the battery cell. In this work, an easy-to-make reference electrode based on silver-silver sulfate is proposed and described for VRFBs. The relevance and feasibility of the information obtained by inserting the reference electrode is illustrated with the study of ammoxidized graphite felts. In this case, we show that the kinetic of the electrochemical reaction VO2+/VO2+ is slower than that of V2+/V3+ at the electrode. While the slow kinetics at the positive electrode limits the voltage efficiency, the operating potential of the negative electrode, which is outside the stability widow of water, reduces the coulombic efficiency due to the hydrogen evolution.

  8. Facile preparation of Ag-Cu bifunctional electrocatalysts for zinc-air batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yachao; Chen, Fuyi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag-Cu dendrites are observed for the first time to exhibit high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. • Ag-Cu dendrites are directly synthesized through galvanic displacement on the current collector layer made of Ni foams. • A bifunctional air cathode is fabricated using Ag-Cu dendrites as a carbon-free, binder-free catalyst layer. • Both the primary and rechargeable zinc–air batteries fabricated by Ag-Cu catalysts exhibit excellent performance. - ABSTRACT: An inexpensive, facile galvanic displacement reaction for the direct growth of silver–copper (Ag-Cu) catalysts on nickel foams is developed for the first time. The resulting Ag-Cu catalysts exhibit dendritic morphologies. Ag and Cu atoms are in their metallic state while the presence of CuO and Cu 2 O are limited on the surface of catalyst. The catalysts demonstrate high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solution, as evaluated by both linear scanning voltammetry and rotating disk electrode polarization measurements. The ORR catalysed by Ag-Cu catalyst in alkaline solution proceeds through a four-electron pathway. An air cathode is fabricated using Ag-Cu catalyst as a carbon-free, binder-free catalyst layer. Using this Ag-Cu catalyst based air cathode, both the primary and rechargeable zinc-air batteries show excellent battery performance. The specific capacity of the primary zinc-air battery is 572 mAh g −1 . Especially, the rechargeable zinc-air battery shows high round-trip efficiency, appealing stability at a long charge-discharge cycle period

  9. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    The feasibility of the nickel zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion is discussed. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal manufacturing, and thermal management. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. Progress in the area of thermal management was significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation.

  10. Charge-discharge characteristics of nickel/zinc battery with polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakura, Chiaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Nohara, Shinji; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    A new nickel/zinc (Ni/Zn) battery was assembled by using polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and KOH aqueous solution, and its charge-discharge characteristics were investigated. The experimental Ni/Zn cell with the polymer hydrogel electrolyte exhibited well-defined charge-discharge curves and remarkably improved charge-discharge cycle performance, compared to that with a KOH aqueous solution. Moreover, it was found that dendritic growth hardly occurred on the zinc electrode surface during charge-discharge cycles in the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. These results indicate that the polymer hydrogel electrolyte can successfully be used in Ni/Zn batteries as an electrolyte with excellent performance. (author)

  11. Charge-discharge characteristics of nickel/zinc battery with polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakura, Chiaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Nohara, Shinji; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    A new nickel/zinc (Ni/Zn) battery was assembled by using polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and KOH aqueous solution, and its charge-discharge characteristics were investigated. The experimental Ni/Zn cell with the polymer hydrogel electrolyte exhibited well-defined charge-discharge curves and remarkably improved charge-discharge cycle performance, compared to that with a KOH aqueous solution. Moreover, it was found that dendritic growth hardly occurred on the zinc electrode surface during charge-discharge cycles in the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. These results indicate that the polymer hydrogel electrolyte can successfully be used in Ni/Zn batteries as an electrolyte with excellent performance.

  12. Rechargeable Aqueous Zinc-Ion Battery Based on Porous Framework Zinc Pyrovanadate Intercalation Cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2017-12-11

    In this work, a microwave approach is developed to rapidly synthesize ultralong zinc pyrovanadate (Zn3V2O7(OH)2·2H2O, ZVO) nanowires with a porous crystal framework. It is shown that our synthesis strategy can easily be extended to fabricate other metal pyrovanadate compounds. The zinc pyrovanadate nanowires show significantly improved electrochemical performance when used as intercalation cathode for aqueous zinc–ion battery. Specifically, the ZVO cathode delivers high capacities of 213 and 76 mA h g−1 at current densities of 50 and 3000 mA g−1, respectively. Furthermore, the Zn//ZVO cells show good cycling stability up to 300 cycles. The estimated energy density of this Zn cell is ≈214Wh kg−1, which is much higher than commercial lead–acid batteries. Significant insight into the Zn-storage mechanism in the pyrovanadate cathodes is presented using multiple analytical methods. In addition, it is shown that our prototype device can power a 1.5 V temperature sensor for at least 24 h.

  13. Facilitated Oxygen Chemisorption in Heteroatom-Doped Carbon for Improved Oxygen Reaction Activity in All-Solid-State Zinc-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mengfan; Sun, Xinyi; Xu, Na; Liu, Jie; Wang, Yuzhou; Qian, Tao; Yan, Chenglin

    2018-01-01

    Driven by the intensified demand for energy storage systems with high-power density and safety, all-solid-state zinc-air batteries have drawn extensive attention. However, the electrocatalyst active sites and the underlying mechanisms occurring in zinc-air batteries remain confusing due to the lack of in situ analytical techniques. In this work, the in situ observations, including X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, of a heteroatom-doped carbon air cathode are reported, in which the chemisorption of oxygen molecules and oxygen-containing intermediates on the carbon material can be facilitated by the electron deficiency caused by heteroatom doping, thus improving the oxygen reaction activity for zinc-air batteries. As expected, solid-state zinc-air batteries equipped with such air cathodes exhibit superior reversibility and durability. This work thus provides a profound understanding of the reaction principles of heteroatom-doped carbon materials in zinc-air batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Electrocontact material based on silver dispersion-strengthened by nickel, titanium, and zinc oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeer, G. M.; Zelenkova, E. G.; Belousov, O. V.; Beletskii, V. V.; Nikolaev, S. V.; Ledyaeva, O. N.

    2017-09-01

    Samples of a composite electrocontact material based on silver strengthened by the dispersed phases of zinc and titanium oxides have been investigated by the electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A uniform distribution of the oxide phases containing 2 wt % zinc oxide in the initial charge has been revealed. The increase in the amount of zinc oxide leads to an increase of the size of the oxide phases. It has been shown that at the zinc oxide content of 2 wt %, the minimum wear is observed in the process of electroerosion tests; at 3 wt %, an overheating and welding of the contacts are observed.

  15. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The work carried out under the Yardney Contract with ANL for R, D and D on nickel zinc batteries over the past year was directed in three major areas: (1) elucidating the failure modes of the nickel-zinc battery system; (2) improving performance of the system; and (3) effecting a cost reduction program. Progress on the three areas is reported. (TFD)

  16. Soil contamination of toxic metals from zinc carbon batteries inadequate disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazano, Vanessa Santos Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the concentration of Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, and Ni in an oxisol column contaminated with zinc-carbon batteries. Two control and two contaminated columns, and batteries alone were leached for a periods of six months and one year with aqueous solution of HNO3 and H2SO4 (1:1, pH 4,0) to simulate rainwater. The metal concentrations in effluent and soil were measured by means of ICP-OES technique. Results from the contaminated column showed enhanced concentrations in both effluent and soil (mainly zinc, manganese and lead). In addition, the total amount of metals in effluent and soil showed similar sequence order as observed for batteries alone (Zn > Mn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd) indicating that batteries can be considered the main source of contamination. We also observed migration of Zn and Mn from the top to the lower layers of the soil columns. The study gives further evidence that batteries can significantly contaminate the soil with metals like Zn, Mn and Pb, and maybe Cd too. This soil contamination combined with the enhanced concentrations found in the effluent can point out a probable groundwater contamination. (author)

  17. Silver decorated LaMnO3 nanorod/graphene composite electrocatalysts as reversible metal-air battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Liu, Qiunan; Shi, Lina; Shi, Ziwei; Huang, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Perovskite LaMnO3 nanorod/reduced graphene oxides (LMO-NR/RGO) decorated with Ag nanoparticles are studied as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte. LMO-NR/RGO composites are synthesized by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template via a simple hydrothermal reaction followed by heat treatment; overlaying of Ag nanoparticles is obtained through a traditional silver mirror reaction. Electron microscopy reveals that LMO-NR is embedded between the sheets of RGO, and the material is homogeneously overlaid with Ag nanoparticles. The unique composite morphology of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO not only enhances the electron transport property by increasing conductivity but also facilitates the diffusion of electrolytes and oxygen. As confirmed by electrochemical testing, Ag/LMO-NR/RGO exhibits very strong synergy with Ag nanoparticles, LMO-NR, and RGO, and the catalytic activities of Ag/LMO-NR/RGO during ORR and OER are significantly improved. With the novel catalyst, the homemade zinc-air battery can be reversibly charged and discharged and display a stable cycle performance, indicating the great potential of this composite as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for metal-air batteries.

  18. Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    demonstrates the energy security and cost benefits of implementing a Zn/Br Flow Battery-based ESS at the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) located at...user will be realized through the system’s peak shaving mode. This benefit was also used to calculate the operational cost reductions when using the...EW-201242) Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power August 2017 This document has been cleared for public release

  19. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This is the first annual report describing progress in the 33-month cooperative program between Argonne National Laboratory and Gould Inc.'s Nickel-Zinc/Electric Vehicle Project. The purpose of the program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The successful completion of the program will qualify the nickel-zinc battery for use in the Department of Energy's demonstration program under the auspices of Public Law 94-413.

  20. ERA's Ranger uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.

    1997-01-01

    Energy Resource of Australia (ERA) is a public company with 68% of its shares owned by the Australian company North Limited. It is currently operating one major production centre - Ranger Mine which is 260 kilometres east of Darwin, extracting and selling uranium from the Ranger Mine in the Northern Territory to nuclear electricity utilities in Japan, South Korea, Europe and North America. The first drum of uranium oxide from Ranger was drummed in August 1981 and operations have continued since that time. ERA is also in the process of working towards obtaining approvals for the development of a second mine - Jabiluka which is located 20 kilometres north of Ranger. The leases of Ranger and Jabiluka adjoin. The Minister for the Environment has advised the Minister for Resources and Energy that there does not appear to be any environmental issue which would prevent the preferred Jabiluka proposal from proceeding. Consent for the development of ERA's preferred option for the development of Jabiluka is being sought from the Aboriginal Traditional Owners. Ranger is currently the third largest producing uranium mine in the world producing 4,237 tonnes of U 3 O 8 in the year to June 1997

  1. Continuous synthesis of magnesium-hydroxide, zinc-oxide, and silver nanoparticles by microwave plasma in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi; Inoue, Toru; Nomura, Shinfuku

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles are continuously synthesized from submerged magnesium, zinc, and silver rods 1–2 mm in diameter by microwave plasma in pure water at 20 kPa. Magnesium-hydroxide nanoplates shaped as triangles, truncated triangles or hexagons with 25–125 nm in size are synthesized with a production rate of 60 g h −1 . Zinc-oxide nanoparticles formed as sharp sticks with diameters of 50 nm and lengths of 150–200 nm are synthesized with a production rate of 14 g h −1 . Silver nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 6 nm are synthesized with a production rate of 0.8 g h −1 . The excitation temperature is estimated by applying the Boltzmann plot method in assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The excitation temperatures obtained from hydrogen, magnesium, and zinc lines are 3300 ± 100 K, 4000 ± 500 K, and 3200 ± 500 K, respectively.

  2. Light-emitting diodes based on nontoxic zinc-alloyed silver-indium-sulfide (AIZS) nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Saikat; Guchhait, Asim; Pal, Amlan J.

    2014-04-01

    We report solution-processed growth of zinc-alloyed silver-indium-sulfide (AIZS) nanocrystals followed by fabrication and characterization of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on such nanostructures. While growing the low dimensional crystals, we vary the ratio between the silver and zinc contents that in turn tunes the bandgap and correspondingly their photoluminescence (PL) emission. We also dope the AIZS nanocrystals with manganese, so that their PL emission, which appears due to a radiative transition between the d-states of the dopants, becomes invariant in energy when the diameter of the quantum dots or the dopant concentration in the nanostructures varies. The LEDs fabricated with such undoped and manganese-doped AIZS nanocrystals emit electroluminescence (EL) that matches the PL spectrum of the respective nanomaterial. The results demonstrate examples of quantum dot LEDs (QDLEDs) based on nontoxic AIZS nanocrystals.

  3. A high-energy-density redox flow battery based on zinc/polyhalide chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqun; Lai, Qinzhi; Zhang, Jianlu; Zhang, Huamin

    2012-05-01

    Zn and the Art of Battery Development: A zinc/polyhalide redox flow battery employs Br(-) /ClBr(2-) and Zn/Zn(2+) redox couples in its positive and negative half-cells, respectively. The performance of the battery is evaluated by charge-discharge cycling tests and reveals a high energy efficiency of 81%, based on a Coulombic efficiency of 96% and voltage efficiency of 84%. The new battery technology can provide high performance and energy density at an acceptable cost. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLARK,NANCY H.; EIDLER,PHILLIP

    1999-10-01

    This report documents Phase 2 of a project to design, develop, and test a zinc/bromine battery technology for use in utility energy storage applications. The project was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Power Technologies through Sandia National Laboratories. The viability of the zinc/bromine technology was demonstrated in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the technology developed during Phase 1 was scaled up to a size appropriate for the application. Batteries were increased in size from 8-cell, 1170-cm{sup 2} cell stacks (Phase 1) to 8- and then 60-cell, 2500-cm{sup 2} cell stacks in this phase. The 2500-cm{sup 2} series battery stacks were developed as the building block for large utility battery systems. Core technology research on electrolyte and separator materials and on manufacturing techniques, which began in Phase 1, continued to be investigated during Phase 2. Finally, the end product of this project was a 100-kWh prototype battery system to be installed and tested at an electric utility.

  5. Production of zinc pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  6. Manganese dioxide-supported silver bismuthate as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in zinc-oxygen batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yanzhi; Yang, Meng; Pan, Junqing; Wang, Pingyuan; Li, Wei; Wan, Pingyu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new efficient composite electrocatalyst, manganese dioxide-supported silver bismuthate (Ag 4 Bi 2 O 5 /MnO 2 ), for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. The new electrocatalyst was characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical measurements indicate that the Ag 4 Bi 2 O 5 /MnO 2 composite is a very efficient electrocatalyst for ORR in alkaline media. The physical and electrochemical characterization results suggest that the high activity is ascribed to the support effects from MnO 2 and the synergetic effects among Ag 4 Bi 2 O 5 and MnO 2 . The analysis of rotating disk electrode (RDE) results shows that the ORR occurs via a four-electron pathway on the surface of the Ag 4 Bi 2 O 5 /MnO 2 electrocatalyst. This electrocatalyst was further tested in a designed zinc–oxygen (Zn–O 2 ) battery. This battery can offer a discharge time of 225 h at 120 mA cm −2 , increasing by more than 492% as compared with pure MnO 2 electrocatalyst. It demonstrates that this inexpensive Ag 4 Bi 2 O 5 /MnO 2 electrocatalyst is a viable alternative to platinum electrocatalyst for energy conversion devices.

  7. Application of non-aqueous solvents to batteries. I Physicochemical properties of propionitrile/water two-phase solvent relevant to zinc-bromine batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.; White, K.; Parker, A. J.

    1983-11-01

    The properties of bromine/propionitrile solution are investigated with a view to its use as an electrolyte in zinc-bromine batteries which use circulating electrolyte. The solution, which forms a two-phase system with water, has higher conductivity than the oils formed by complexation of bromine with organic salts such as N,N-methoxymethyl methylpiperidinium bromide and N,N-ethyl methylmorpholinium bromide. The activity of bromine in the aqueous phase of the bromine-propionitrile/water, two-phase system is very low; thus, coulombic efficiencies greater than 85 percent are achieved. Zinc-bromine batteries containing this solvent system show good charge/discharge characteristics.

  8. 78 FR 48205 - Ranger Alternative Management, L.P. and Ranger Funds Investment Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Alternative Management, L.P. and Ranger Funds Investment Trust; Notice of Application August 1, 2013. AGENCY... Management, L.P. (``Ranger'') and Ranger Funds Investment Trust (the ``Trust''). Summary of Application... (e) certain registered management investment companies and unit investment trusts outside of the same...

  9. Continuous fabrication of a MnS/Co nanofibrous air electrode for wide integration of rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Yining; Li, Matthew; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Li, Guang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-10-26

    Exploring highly efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts toward the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions is essential for the realization of high-performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Herein, a novel nanofibrous bifunctional electrocatalyst film, consisting of metallic manganese sulfide and cobalt encapsulated by nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (CMS/NCNF), is prepared through a continuous electrospinning method followed by carbonization treatment. The CMS/NCNF bifunctional catalyst shows both comparable ORR and OER performances to those of commercial precious metal-based catalysts. Furthermore, the free-standing CMS/NCNF fibrous thin film is directly used as the air electrode in a solid-state zinc-air battery, which exhibits superior flexibility while retaining stable battery performance at different bending angles. This study provides a versatile design route for the rational design of free-standing bifunctional catalysts for direct use as the air electrode in rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

  10. ERA`s Ranger uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, W. [Energy Resources of Australia Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Energy Resource of Australia (ERA) is a public company with 68% of its shares owned by the Australian company North Limited. It is currently operating one major production centre - Ranger Mine which is 260 kilometres east of Darwin, extracting and selling uranium from the Ranger Mine in the Northern Territory to nuclear electricity utilities in Japan, South Korea, Europe and North America. The first drum of uranium oxide from Ranger was drummed in August 1981 and operations have continued since that time. ERA is also in the process of working towards obtaining approvals for the development of a second mine - Jabiluka which is located 20 kilometres north of Ranger. The leases of Ranger and Jabiluka adjoin. The Minister for the Environment has advised the Minister for Resources and Energy that there does not appear to be any environmental issue which would prevent the preferred Jabiluka proposal from proceeding. Consent for the development of ERA`s preferred option for the development of Jabiluka is being sought from the Aboriginal Traditional Owners. Ranger is currently the third largest producing uranium mine in the world producing 4,237 tonnes of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the year to June 1997.

  11. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidler, Phillip

    1999-07-01

    The Zinc/Bromine Load-Leveling Battery Development contract (No. 40-8965) was partitioned at the outset into two phases of equal length. Phase 1 started in September 1990 and continued through December 1991. In Phase 1, zinc/bromine battery technology was to be advanced to the point that it would be clear that the technology was viable and would be an appropriate choice for electric utilities wishing to establish stationary energy-storage facilities. Criteria were established that addressed most of the concerns that had been observed in the previous development efforts. The performances of 8-cell and 100-cell laboratory batteries demonstrated that the criteria were met or exceeded. In Phase 2, 100-kWh batteries will be built and demonstrated, and a conceptual design for a load-leveling plant will be presented. At the same time, work will continue to identify improved assembly techniques and operating conditions. This report details the results of the efforts carried out in Phase 1. The highlights are: (1) Four 1-kWh stacks achieved over 100 cycles, One l-kWh stack achieved over 200 cycles, One 1-kWh stack achieved over 300 cycles; (2) Less than 10% degradation in performance occurred in the four stacks that achieved over 100 cycles; (3) The battery used for the zinc loading investigation exhibited virtually no loss in performance for loadings up to 130 mAh/cm{sup 2}; (4) Charge-current densities of 50 ma/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in minicells; (5) Fourteen consecutive no-strip cycles have been conducted on the stack with 300+ cycles; (6) A mass and energy balance spreadsheet that describes battery operation was completed; (7) Materials research has continued to provide improvements in the electrode, activation layer, and separator; and (8) A battery made of two 50-cell stacks (15 kWh) was produced and delivered to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for testing. The most critical development was the ability to assemble a battery stack that remained leak free. The

  12. Bipolar zinc/oxygen battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schlatter, C [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A bipolar electrically rechargeable Zn/O{sub 2} battery has been developed. Reticulated copper foam served as substrate for the zinc deposit on the anodic side, and La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3}-catalyzed bifunctional oxygen electrodes were used on the cathodic side of the cells. The 100 cm{sup 2} unit cell had an open circuit voltage of 1,4 V(O{sub 2}) in moderately alkaline electrolyte. The open circuit voltage and the peak power measured for a stack containing seven cells were ca. 10V and 90W, respectively. The current-potential behaviour was determined as a function of the number of bipolar cells, and the maximum discharge capacity was determined at different discharge rates. (author) 4 figs., 1 ref.

  13. Long-term loss rates of radioisotopes of cobalt, zinc, ruthenium, caesium and silver by Mytilus edulis under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term loss rates of cobalt, zinc, ruthenium, caesium and silver by Mytilus edulis soft parts as well as shells were measured under field conditions in the Mediterranean Sea at Monaco during a period of 13 months after experimental contamination. For all 5 elements, the loss could be described by two exponential functions for the soft parts and one for the shells. Biological half lives for the long-lived compartment ranged from ∼20 days for caesium to 100 - 200 days for cobalt, zinc, ruthenium and silver for soft parts as well as for shells. A comparison with results from similar experiments performed under very different environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea indicated that caesium and maybe silver had a faster turnover in the warm and saline Mediterranean, whereas loss rates for cobalt and zinc were comparable. It is argued, that reliable deduction of loss rates require experiments running over several months to a year, and it is pointed out that shorter term experiments - even up to 3 months - may give biased results. (author)

  14. Investigation of zinc recovery by hydrogen reduction assisted pyrolysis of alkaline and zinc-carbon battery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Zinc (Zn) recovery from alkaline and zinc-carbon (Zn-C) battery waste were studied by a laboratory scale pyrolysis process at a reaction temperature of 950°C for 15-60min residence time using 5%H 2(g) -N 2(g) mixture at 1.0L/min gas flow rate. The effect of different cooling rates on the properties of pyrolysis residue, manganese oxide particles, were also investigated. Morphological and structural characterization of the produced Zn particles were performed. The battery black mass was characterized with respect to the properties and chemical composition of the waste battery particles. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process was studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. A hydrogen reduction reaction of the battery black mass (washed with Milli-Q water) takes place at the chosen temperature and makes it possible to produce fine Zn particles by rapid condensation following the evaporation of Zn from the pyrolysis batch. The amount of Zn that can be separated from the black mass increases by extending the residence time. Recovery of 99.8% of the Zn was achieved at 950°C for 60min residence time using 1.0L/min gas flow rate. The pyrolysis residue contains MnO and Mn 2 O 3 compounds, and the oxidation state of manganese can be controlled by cooling rate and atmosphere. The Zn particles exhibit spherical and hexagonal particle morphology with a particle size varying between 200nm and 3µm. However the particles were formed by aggregation of nanoparticles which are primarily nucleated from the gas phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Battery with a microcorrugated, microthin sheet of highly porous corroded metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFollette, Rodney M.

    2005-09-27

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (i) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and (j) high specific capacitance.

  16. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig

  17. Preliminary study on zinc-air battery using zinc regeneration electrolysis with propanol oxidation as a counter electrode reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yue-Hua; Cheng, Jie; Ning, Shang-Qi; Yang, Yu-Sheng

    A zinc-air battery using zinc regeneration electrolysis with propanol oxidation as a counter electrode reaction is reported in this paper. It possesses functions of both zincate reduction and electrochemical preparation, showing the potential for increasing the electronic energy utilization. Charge/discharge tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs reveal that when a nickel sheet plated with the high-H 2-overpotential metal, cadmium, was used as the negative substrate electrode, the dendritic formation and hydrogen evolution are suppressed effectively, and granular zinc deposits become larger but relatively dense with the increase of charge time. The performance of batteries is favorable even if the charge time is as long as 5 h at the current density of 20 mA cm -2. Better discharge performance is achieved using a 'cavity-opening' configuration for the discharge cell rather than a 'gas-introducing' configuration. The highest energy efficiency is up to 59.2%. That is, the energy consumed by organic electro-synthesis can be recovered by 59.2%. Cyclic voltammograms show that the sintered nickel electrode exhibits a good electro-catalysis activity for the propanol oxidation. The increase of propanol concentration conduces to an enhancement in the organic electro-synthesis efficiency. The organic electro-synthesis current efficiency of 82% can be obtained.

  18. Allegheny County Park Rangers Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Launched in June 2015, the Allegheny County Park Rangers program reached over 48,000 people in its first year. Park Rangers interact with residents of all ages and...

  19. Preliminary study on zinc-carbon battery performance by using neutron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Nor Abidin Ashari; Mohd Zaid Abdullah; Junita Mohamad Saleh; Azraf Azman; Megat Harun AlRashid Megat Ahmad; Rafhayudi Jamro

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes on the discharging characteristic of zinc-carbon batteries (dry cells) by using a neutron imaging technique called a monochromatic neutron tomography. Experiment was conducted on the Nuclear Malaysia neutron tomography prototype instrument which based on 1-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector. The instrument is constructed at the small angle neutron scattering (SANS) beam line built at the one of the beam ports of TRIGA MARK II Research reactor, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor. The main aim of this preliminary experiment was to test the instrument capability on a real industrial component. It was also aimed to understand structural and chemical changes of these battery particles after experiencing a discharging process. In this preliminary work, new and used batteries used were the products of Eveready company. (Author)

  20. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Progress in developing nickel-zinc batteries for propelling electric vehicles is reported. Information is included on component design, battery fabrication, and module performance testing. Although full scale hardware performance has fallen short of the contract cycle life goals, significant progress has been made to warrant further development. (LCL)

  1. Effect of inhibitors on Zn-dendrite formation for zinc-polyaniline secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan Jinqing; Xue Huaiguo; Mu Shaolin [Dept. of Chemistry, Teacher`s College, Yangzhou Univ. (China)

    1998-07-15

    The effects of Pb{sup 2+}, sodium lauryl sulfate and Triton X-100 on inhibition of Zn-dendrite growth in Zn-polyaniline batteries were studied by scanning electron micrograph and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that Triton X-100 in the region of 0.02-500 ppm in the electrolyte containing 2.5 M ZnCl{sub 2} and 2.0 M NH{sub 4}Cl with pH 4.40 can effectively inhibit zinc-dendrite growth during charge-discharge cycles of the battery and yield longer cycles. (orig.)

  2. Single-Site Active Iron-Based Bifunctional Oxygen Catalyst for a Compressible and Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longtao; Chen, Shengmei; Pei, Zengxia; Huang, Yan; Liang, Guojin; Mo, Funian; Yang, Qi; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua; Zapien, Juan Antonio; Zhi, Chunyi

    2018-02-27

    The exploitation of a high-efficient, low-cost, and stable non-noble-metal-based catalyst with oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) simultaneously, as air electrode material for a rechargeable zinc-air battery is significantly crucial. Meanwhile, the compressible flexibility of a battery is the prerequisite of wearable or/and portable electronics. Herein, we present a strategy via single-site dispersion of an Fe-N x species on a two-dimensional (2D) highly graphitic porous nitrogen-doped carbon layer to implement superior catalytic activity toward ORR/OER (with a half-wave potential of 0.86 V for ORR and an overpotential of 390 mV at 10 mA·cm -2 for OER) in an alkaline medium. Furthermore, an elastic polyacrylamide hydrogel based electrolyte with the capability to retain great elasticity even under a highly corrosive alkaline environment is utilized to develop a solid-state compressible and rechargeable zinc-air battery. The creatively developed battery has a low charge-discharge voltage gap (0.78 V at 5 mA·cm -2 ) and large power density (118 mW·cm -2 ). It could be compressed up to 54% strain and bent up to 90° without charge/discharge performance and output power degradation. Our results reveal that single-site dispersion of catalytic active sites on a porous support for a bifunctional oxygen catalyst as cathode integrating a specially designed elastic electrolyte is a feasible strategy for fabricating efficient compressible and rechargeable zinc-air batteries, which could enlighten the design and development of other functional electronic devices.

  3. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Progress in the development of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicles is reported. Information is presented on nickel electrode preparation and testing; zinc electrode preparation with additives and test results; separator development and the evaluation of polymer-blend separator films; sealed Ni-Zn cells; and the optimization of electric vehicle-type Ni-Zn cells. (LCL)

  4. 78 FR 69147 - Ranger Alternative Management, L.P. and Ranger Funds Investment Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...] Ranger Alternative Management, L.P. and Ranger Funds Investment Trust; Notice of Application November 12... Application: Applicants request an order that would permit (a) certain open-end management investment... Units; and (e) certain registered management investment companies and unit investment trusts outside of...

  5. Determination of silver, gold, zinc and copper in mineral samples by various techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez R, N. I.; Rios M, C.; Pinedo V, J. L.; Yoho, M.; Landsberger, S.

    2015-09-01

    Using the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, mineral exploration samples were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of silver, gold, zinc and copper; these minerals being the main products of benefit of Tizapa and Cozamin mines. Samples were subjected to various techniques, where the type of radiation and counting methods were chosen based on the specific isotopic characteristics of each element. For calibration and determination of concentrations the comparator method was used, certified standards were subjected to the same conditions of irradiation and measurement that the prospecting samples. The irradiations were performed at the research reactor TRIGA Mark II of the University of Texas at Austin. The silver concentrations were determined by Cyclical Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis. This method in combination with the transfer pneumatic system allowed a good analytical precision and accuracy in prospecting for silver, from photo peak measurement 657.7 keV of short half-life radionuclide 110 Ag. For the determination of gold and zinc, Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis was used, the photo peaks analyzed corresponded to the energies 411.8 keV of radionuclide 199 Au and 438.6 keV of metastable radionuclide 69m Zn. On the other hand, copper quantification was based on the photo peak analysis of 1039.2 keV produced by the short half-life radionuclide 66 Cu, by Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis. The photo peaks measurement corresponding to gold, zinc and copper was performed using a Compton suppression system, which allowed an improvement in the signal to noise relationship, so that better detection limits and low uncertainties associated with the results were obtained. Comparing elemental concentrations the highest values in silver, zinc and copper was for samples of mine Tizapa. Regarding gold values were found in the same range for both mines. To evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methods used, various geological

  6. Zinc oxide nanotubes decorated with silver nanoparticles as an ultrasensitive substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, M.; Feng, B.; Sun, Y.; Xing, G.; Li, S.; Yang, J.; Yang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.; Fan, H.; Sui, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Liu, S.; Song, H.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a highly aligned silver-decorated array of zinc oxide nanotubes for use in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The ZnO nanotube array was first prepared by chemical etching, and the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were then deposited on their surface by magnetron sputtering. Such ZnO/Ag hybrid structures are shown to act as SERS-active substrates with remarkable sensitivity. The enhancement factor can be as high as 10 5 when using 4-mercaptopyridine in solution as a SERS probe. The synergistic combination between SERS 'hot spots' and the formation of an interfacial electric field between the zinc oxide nanotubes and the AgNPs in our opinion contribute to the high sensitivity. The relative standard deviations of signal intensities for the major SERS peaks are <7 %. This demonstrates that the optimized ZnO/Ag hybrid represents an excellent SERS substrate that may be used in trace analysis and ultrasensitive molecular sensing. (author)

  7. Development and characterization of textile batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann, M.; Grethe, T.; Schwarz-Pfeiffer, A.; Ehrmann, A.

    2017-02-01

    During the past years, smart textiles have gained more and more attention. Products cover a broad range of possible applications, from fashion items such as LED garments to sensory shirts detecting vital signs to clothes with included electrical stimulation of muscles. For all electrical or electronic features included in garments, a power supply is needed - which is usually the bottleneck in the development of smart textiles, since common power supplies are not flexible and often not lightweight, prohibiting their unobtrusive integration in electronic textiles. In a recent project, textile-based batteries are developed. For this, metallized woven fabrics (e.g. copper, zinc, or silver) are used in combinations with carbon fabrics. The article gives an overview of our recent advances in optimizing power storage capacity and durability of the textile batteries by tailoring the gel-electrolyte. The gel-electrolyte is modified with respect to thickness and electrolyte concentration; additionally, the influence of additives on the long-time stability of the batteries is examined.

  8. Highly Durable Na2V6O16·1.63H2O Nanowire Cathode for Aqueous Zinc-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Zhu, Ting; Wang, Xuanpeng; Wei, Xiujuan; Yan, Mengyu; Li, Jiantao; Luo, Wen; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Wencui; Zhou, Liang; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-03-14

    Rechargeable aqueous zinc-ion batteries are highly desirable for grid-scale applications due to their low cost and high safety; however, the poor cycling stability hinders their widespread application. Herein, a highly durable zinc-ion battery system with a Na 2 V 6 O 16 ·1.63H 2 O nanowire cathode and an aqueous Zn(CF 3 SO 3 ) 2 electrolyte has been developed. The Na 2 V 6 O 16 ·1.63H 2 O nanowires deliver a high specific capacity of 352 mAh g -1 at 50 mA g -1 and exhibit a capacity retention of 90% over 6000 cycles at 5000 mA g -1 , which represents the best cycling performance compared with all previous reports. In contrast, the NaV 3 O 8 nanowires maintain only 17% of the initial capacity after 4000 cycles at 5000 mA g -1 . A single-nanowire-based zinc-ion battery is assembled, which reveals the intrinsic Zn 2+ storage mechanism at nanoscale. The remarkable electrochemical performance especially the long-term cycling stability makes Na 2 V 6 O 16 ·1.63H 2 O a promising cathode for a low-cost and safe aqueous zinc-ion battery.

  9. High surface area carbon for bifunctional air electrodes applied in zinc-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, H [on leave from NTT Laboratories (Japan); Mueller, S; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Bifunctional air electrodes with high surface area carbon substrates showed low reduction overpotential, thus are promising for enhancing the energy efficiency and power capability of zinc-air batteries. The improved performance is attributed to lower overpotential due to diffusion of the reaction intermediate, namely the peroxide ion. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  10. Bile secretion of cadmium, silver, zinc and copper in the rat. Involvement of various transport systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, R; Vonk, RJ; Kuipers, F

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we compared, in vivo in rats, the hepatobiliary transport of monovalent (silver:Ag) and divalent metals (zinc:Zn; cadmium:Cd) with that of copper (Cu). Cu can have two oxidation states in vivo, i.e. Cu(I) and Cu(II). Studies were performed in normal Wistar (NW) rats and mutant

  11. Use of pyrrole black in zinc-halogen batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengoli, G.; Musiani, M.M.; Tomat, R.; Valcher, S.; Pletcher, D.

    1985-09-01

    The storage of Br/sub 2//Br/sup -/ and I/sub 2//I/sup -/ couples in a conducting polymer matrix, polypyrrole coated on a reticulated vitreous carbon disc, is described and the application of these positive electrodes in zinc-halogen model batteries is discussed. The cell based on the polypyrrole bromine adduct shows the higher open circuit voltage which, however, depends on the state of charge. Such cells self discharge thus limiting their usefulness. In the case of the iodine cell the self discharge is due to loss of iodine from the polymer to the bulk solution, but with the bromine cell the cause is oxidative bromination and depolymerization of the polypyrrole. 22 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  13. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpert, G.; Frank, H.; Lutwack, R.

    1988-04-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  14. Highly reversible zinc metal anode for aqueous batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Borodin, Oleg; Gao, Tao; Fan, Xiulin; Sun, Wei; Han, Fudong; Faraone, Antonio; Dura, Joseph A.; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2018-06-01

    Metallic zinc (Zn) has been regarded as an ideal anode material for aqueous batteries because of its high theoretical capacity (820 mA h g-1), low potential (-0.762 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode), high abundance, low toxicity and intrinsic safety. However, aqueous Zn chemistry persistently suffers from irreversibility issues, as exemplified by its low coulombic efficiency (CE) and dendrite growth during plating/ stripping, and sustained water consumption. In this work, we demonstrate that an aqueous electrolyte based on Zn and lithium salts at high concentrations is a very effective way to address these issues. This unique electrolyte not only enables dendrite-free Zn plating/stripping at nearly 100% CE, but also retains water in the open atmosphere, which makes hermetic cell configurations optional. These merits bring unprecedented flexibility and reversibility to Zn batteries using either LiMn2O4 or O2 cathodes—the former deliver 180 W h kg-1 while retaining 80% capacity for >4,000 cycles, and the latter deliver 300 W h kg-1 (1,000 W h kg-1 based on the cathode) for >200 cycles.

  15. Ag-Cu nanoalloyed film as a high-performance cathode electrocatalytic material for zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yimin; Chen, Fuyi; Jin, Yachao; Liu, Zongwen

    2015-04-01

    A novel Ag50Cu50 film electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The electrocatalyst actually is Ag-Cu alloyed nanoparticles embedded in amorphous Cu film, based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization. The rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements provide evidence that the ORR proceed via a four-electron pathway on the electrocatalysts in alkaline solution. And it is much more efficient than pure Ag catalyst. The catalytic layer has maximum power density of 67 mW cm-2 and an acceptable cell voltage at 0.863 V when current densities increased up to 100 mA cm-2 in the Ag50Cu50-based primary zinc-air battery. The resulting rechargeable zinc-air battery exhibits low charge-discharge voltage polarization of 1.1 V at 20 mAcm-2 and high durability over 100 cycles in natural air.

  16. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.

    2005-01-01

    Overview -- Silver is one of the eight precious, or noble, metals; the others are gold and the six platinum-group metals (PGM). World mine production in 2001 was 18,700 metric tons (t) and came from mines in 60 countries; the 10 leading producing countries accounted for 86 percent of the total. The largest producer was Mexico, followed by Peru, Australia, and the United States. About 25 percent of the silver mined in the world in 2001 came from silver ores; 15 percent, from gold ores and the remaining 60 percent, from copper, lead, and zinc ores. In the United States, 14 percent of the silver mined in 2001 came from silver ores; 39 percent, from gold ores; 10 percent, from copper and copper-molybdenum ores; and 37 percent, from lead, zinc, and lead-zinc ores. The precious metal ores (gold and silver) came from 30 lode mines and 10 placer mines; the base-metal ores (copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc) came from 24 lode mines. Placer mines yielded less than 1 percent of the national silver production. Silver was mined in 12 States, of which Nevada was by far the largest producer; it accounted for nearly one-third of the national total. The production of silver at domestic mines generated employment for about 1,100 mine and mill workers. The value of mined domestic silver was estimated to be $290 million. Of the nearly 27,000 t of world silver that was fabricated in 2001, about one-third went into jewelry and silverware, one-fourth into the light-sensitive compounds used in photography, and nearly all the remainder went for industrial uses, of which there were 7 substantial uses and many other small-volume uses. By comparison, 85 percent of the silver used in the United States went to photography and industrial uses, 8 percent to jewelry and silverware, and 7 percent to coins and medals. The United States was the largest consumer of silver followed by India, Japan, and Italy; the 13 largest consuming countries accounted for nearly 90 percent of the world total. In the

  17. The effects of element Cu on the electrochemical performances of Zinc-Aluminum-hydrotalcites in Zinc/Nickel secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Xing; Yang, Zhanhong; Xie, Xiaoe; Feng, Zhaobin; Huang, Jianhang

    2015-01-01

    Zn-Cu-Al-CO_3 layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been successfully synthesized by using the method of constant pH co-precipitation. And it also has been proposed as a novel anodic material in Zinc-Nickel secondary batteries. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the as-prepared sample exhibit that the samples are well crystallized and have hexagon structure. The electrochemical performances of Zn-Al-LDHs and Zn-Cu-Al-LDHs with different Zn/Cu/Al molar ratios are investigated by the measurements such as galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammogram and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Comparing with the pure Zn-Al-LDHs, Zn-Cu-Al-LDHs show more stable cycling performance, exhibit better reversibility and display lower charge-transfer resistance. Especially, the Zn-Cu-Al-LDHs with the Zn/Cu/Al molar ratio being 2.8:0.2:1 exhibits the best electrochemical properties than other samples. After 800 cell cycles, the specific discharge capacity of Zn-Cu-Al-LDHs with the Zn/Cu/Al molar ratio of 2.8:0.2:1is 345 mA h g"−"1, while that of pure Zn-Al-LDHs is only 177 mA h g"−"1. Based on these observations, the prepared Zn-Cu-Al-LDHs may be a promising anode active material for Zinc/Nickel secondary batteries.

  18. Synthesis of supported silver nano-spheres on zinc oxide nanorods for visible light photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saoud, Khaled [Virginia Commonwealth University-Qatar, Doha (Qatar); Alsoubaihi, Rola [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Bensalah, Nasr [Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); Bora, Tanujjal [Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al-Khoudh-123 (Oman); Bertino, Massimo [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Dutta, Joydeep, E-mail: dutta@squ.edu.om [Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al-Khoudh-123 (Oman)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of supported Ag NPs on ZnO nanorods using open vessel microwave reactor. • Use of the Ag/ZnO NPs as an efficient visible light photocatalyst. • Complete degradation of methylene blue in 1 h with 0.5 g/L Ag/ZnO NPs. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of silver (Ag) nano-spheres (NS) supported on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods through two step mechanism, using open vessel microwave reactor. Direct reduction of ZnO from zinc nitrates was followed by deposition precipitation of the silver on the ZnO nanorods. The supported Ag/ZnO nanoparticles were then characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, photoluminescence and UV–vis spectroscopy. The visible light photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO system was investigated using a test contaminant, methylene blue (MB). Almost complete removal of MB in about 60 min for doses higher than 0.5 g/L of the Ag/ZnO photocatalyst was achieved. This significant improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of Ag/ZnO photocatalyst under visible light irradiation can be attributed to the presence of Ag nanoparticles on the ZnO nanoparticles which greatly enhances absorption in the visible range of solar spectrum enabled by surface plasmon resonance effect from Ag nanoparticles.

  19. The History of the 2nd Ranger Company

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bond, Victor

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to uncover the history of the 2nd Ranger Company and to determine the impact segregation had on the selection, training, and combat operations of the 2nd Ranger Company...

  20. Opportunities for Ranger and Jabiluka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxnam, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The processing of ore from ERA's Ranger mine will be completed before 2009, so the development of the Company's Jabiluka project is vital to its future. In order to achieve the Company's aim of utilising the Ranger mill to process the Jabiluka ore ERA is looking at innovative ways of furthering community relationships and responding to the needs of its major stakeholders, particularly the local Aboriginal landowners. The Jabiluka development has been a trigger for ERA to reconsider the way it does business in order to meet expectations of the community while maintaining financial viability

  1. Long life, low cost, rechargeable AgZn battery for non-military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Curtis C.

    1996-03-01

    Of the rechargeable (secondary) battery systems with mature technology, the silver oxide-zinc system (AgZn) safely offers the highest power and energy (watts and watt hours) per unit of volume and mass. As a result they have long been used for aerospace and defense applications where they have also proven their high reliability. In the past, the expense associated with the cost of silver and the resulting low production volume have limited their commercial application. However, the relative low cost of silver now make this system feasible in many applications where high energy and reliability are required. One area of commercial potential is power for a new generation of sophisticated, portable medical equipment. AgZn batteries have recently proven ``enabling technology'' for power critical, advanced medical devices. By extending the cycle calendar life to the system (offers both improved performance and lower operating cost), a combination is achieved which may enable a wide range of future electrical devices. Other areas where AgZn batteries have been used in nonmilitary applications to provide power to aid in the development of commercial equipment have been: (a) Electrically powered vehicles; (b) Remote sensing in nuclear facilities; (c) Special effects equipment for movies; (d) Remote sensing in petroleum pipe lines; (e) Portable computers; (f) Fly by wire systems for commercial aircraft; and (g) Robotics. However none of these applications have progressed to the level where the volume required will significantly lower cost.

  2. Zinc electrode shape change II. Process and mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einerhand, R.E.F.; Visscher, W.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Barendrecht, E.

    1991-01-01

    The process and mechanism of zinc electrode shape change is investigated with the radiotracer technique. It is shownthat during repeated cycling of the nickel oxide/zinc battery zinc material is transported over the zinc electrode via the battery electrolyte. During charge as well as during

  3. Oxygen reduction reaction catalysts of manganese oxide decorated by silver nanoparticles for aluminum-air batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shanshan; Miao, He; Xue, Yejian; Wang, Qin; Li, Shihua; Liu, Zhaoping

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the hybrid catalysts of manganese oxide decorated by silver nanoparticles (Ag-MnO x ) are fully investigated and show the excellent oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. The Ag-MnO 2 is synthesized by a facile strategy of the electroless plating of silver on the manganese oxide. The catalysts are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Then, the ORR activities of the catalysts are systematically investigated by the rotating disk electrode (RDE) and aluminum-air battery technologies. The Ag nanoparticles with the diameters at about 10 nm are anchored on the surface of α-MnO 2 and a strong interaction between Ag and MnO 2 components in the hybrid catalyst are confirmed. The electrochemical tests show that the activity and stability of the 50%Ag-MnO 2 composite catalyst (the mass ratio of Ag/MnO 2 is 1:1) toward ORR are greatly enhanced comparing with single Ag or MnO 2 catalyst. Moreover, the peak power density of the aluminum-air battery with 50%Ag-MnO 2 can reach 204 mW cm −2 .

  4. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  5. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-03-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  6. The emerging case of nanopollutants in the aquatic environment: analytical challenges for the exposure assessment of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thwala, Melusi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available of emerging environmental contaminants partly due to limited capability to detect and quantify them in environmental matrices. The current paper presents findings from the exposure assessments of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles (Ag and ZnO NPs...

  7. A shortcut hydrothermal strategy for the synthesis of zinc nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jianqiang; Chen Zhiwu; Xie Jingsi; Yu Ying

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of metal nanowires has opened many new possibilities for designing ideal building blocks for future nanodevices. In this work, zinc nanowires with lengths of micrometre magnitude were synthesized in high yield by a shortcut hydrothermal strategy. The synthesis involves a template-free, non-seed and catalyst-free solution-phase process to high-quality zinc nanowires, which is low-cost and proceeds at relatively short time. In this process, zinc nanowires were prepared through the reduction of zinc acetate with absolute ethanol in the presence of silver nitrate under hydrothermal atmosphere. The strategy suggests that silver ion plays a vital role in the synthesis of zinc nanowires, without which the substituted product is zinc oxide nanowires. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements confirm the final formation of zinc nanowires and component transformation from zinc oxide nanowires in the introduction of silver ion. We believe that with the efficient synthesis, longer zinc nanowires can be fabricated and may find potential applications for superconductors and nanodevices. (fast track communication)

  8. Photochemical oxygen reduction by zinc phthalocyanine and silver/gold nanoparticle incorporated silica thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Manas; Ganesan, Vellaichamy, E-mail: velganesh@yahoo.com; Azad, Uday Pratap

    2012-12-15

    Silver or gold nanoparticles are synthesized using a borohydride reduction method and are anchored simultaneously into/onto the mercaptopropyl functionalized silica. Later, zinc phthalocyanine is adsorbed onto the above materials. Thin films of these materials are prepared by coating an aqueous colloidal suspension of the respective material onto glass plates. Visible light irradiation of these films in oxygen saturated, stirred aqueous solutions effectively reduces oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The photocatalytic reduction of oxygen is explained on the basis of the semiconducting properties of the silica films. The back electron transfer reaction is largely prevented by means of a sacrificial electron donor, triethanolamine. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc phthalocyanine adsorbed silica materials were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films of these materials photocatalytically reduce oxygen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalysis is explained based on semiconductor properties of the materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal nanoparticles increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the materials.

  9. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  10. The Green Synthesis and Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebear-Eigzabher, Bellsabel

    Nanoparticle (NP) research has received exceptional attention as the field of study that contributes to transforming the world of materials science. When implementing NPs in consumer and industrial products, their unique properties improve technologies to the extent of significant game-changing breakthroughs. Conversely, the increased production of NPs, their use, their disposal or inadvertent release in the environment drove the need for processes and policies that ensures consumer and environmental safety. Mitigation of any harmful effects that NPs could potentially have combines methods of safe preparation, safe handling and safe disposal as well as containment of any inadvertent release. Our focus is in safe preparation of nanomaterials and we report green and energy efficient synthesis methods for metal NPs and metal oxide NPs of two popular materials: silver (Ag) and zinc oxide (ZnO). The thesis explained: 1) The impact of NPs in nowadays' world; 2) Synthesis methods that were designed to include environmentally-friendly staring materials and energy-saving fabrication processes, with emphasis on maintaining NPs final size and morphology when compared with existing methods; and 3) Nanoparticles characterization and data collection which allowed us to determine and/or validate their properties. Nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD), low-voltage (5 keV) transmission electron microscopy (LV EM 5), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. We developed an aqueous-based preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using microwave-assisted chemistry to render a well-controlled particle size distribution within each set of reaction conditions in the range of 15 nm to 75 nm. We developed a scalable silver nanoparticles synthesis by chemical reduction methods. The NPs could be used in consumer products. The measurement tools for consumer products

  11. Are ranger patrols effective in reducing poaching-related threats within protected areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennnifer F.; Mulindahabi, Felix; Masozera, Michel K.; Nichols, James; Hines, James; Turikunkiko, Ezechiel; Oli, Madan K.

    2018-01-01

    Poaching is one of the greatest threats to wildlife conservation world-wide. However, the spatial and temporal patterns of poaching activities within protected areas, and the effectiveness of ranger patrols and ranger posts in mitigating these threats, are relatively unknown.We used 10 years (2006–2015) of ranger-based monitoring data and dynamic multi-season occupancy models to quantify poaching-related threats, to examine factors influencing the spatio-temporal dynamics of these threats and to test the efficiency of management actions to combat poaching in Nyungwe National Park (NNP), Rwanda.The probability of occurrence of poaching-related threats was highest at lower elevations (1,801–2,200 m), especially in areas that were close to roads and tourist trails; conversely, occurrence probability was lowest at high elevation sites (2,601–3,000 m), and near the park boundary and ranger posts. The number of ranger patrols substantially increased the probability that poaching-related threats disappear at a site if threats were originally present (i.e. probability of extinction of threats). Without ranger visits, the annual probability of extinction of poaching-related threats was an estimated 7%; this probability would increase to 20% and 57% with 20 and 50 ranger visits per year, respectively.Our results suggest that poaching-related threats can be effectively reduced in NNP by adding ranger posts in areas where they do not currently exist, and by increasing the number of patrols to sites where the probability of poaching activities is high.Synthesis and applications. Our application of dynamic occupancy models to predict the probability of presence of poaching-related threats is novel, and explicitly considers imperfect detection of illegal activities. Based on the modelled relationships, we identify areas that are most vulnerable to poaching, and offer insights regarding how ranger patrols can be optimally deployed to reduce poaching-related threats and

  12. Electrodeposition, characterization, and antibacterial activity of zinc/silver particle composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Vidal, Y.; Suarez-Rojas, R.; Ruiz, C.; Torres, J. [Center of Research and Technological Development in Electrochemistry (CIDETEQ), Parque Tecnológico Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, Querétaro, A.P.064, C.P.76703, Querétaro (Mexico); Ţălu, Ştefan [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of AET, Discipline of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics, 103-105 B-dul Muncii St., Cluj-Napoca 400641 Cluj (Romania); Méndez, Alia [Centro de Química-ICUAP Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Ciudad Universitaria Puebla, 72530 Puebla (Mexico); Trejo, G., E-mail: gtrejo@cideteq.mx [Center of Research and Technological Development in Electrochemistry (CIDETEQ), Parque Tecnológico Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, Querétaro, A.P.064, C.P.76703, Querétaro (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • Zn/AgPs composites coatings were formed for electrodeposition. • CTAB promotes occlusion of silver particles in the coating. • Zn/AgPs coatings present very good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Composite coatings consisting of zinc and silver particles (Zn/AgPs) with antibacterial activity were prepared using an electrodeposition technique. The morphology, composition, and structure of the Zn/AgPs composite coatings were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The antibacterial properties of the coatings against the microorganisms Escherichia coli as a model Gram-negative bacterium and Staphylococcus aureus as a model Gram-positive bacterium were studied quantitatively and qualitatively. The results revealed that the dispersant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) assisted in the formation of a stable suspension of Ag particles in the electrolytic bath for 24 h. Likewise, a high concentration of CTAB in the electrolytic bath promoted an increase in the number of Ag particles occluded in the Zn/AgPs coatings. The Zn/AgPs coatings that were obtained were compact, smooth, and shiny materials. Antimicrobial tests performed on the Zn/AgPs coatings revealed that the inhibition of bacterial growth after 30 min of contact time was between 91% and 98% when the AgPs content ranged from 4.3 to 14.0 mg cm{sup −3}.

  13. Autometallography: tissue metals demonstrated by a silver enhancement kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Nørgaard, J O; Baatrup, E

    1987-01-01

    , primarily intended for the amplification of colloidal gold particles, has been used to demonstrate these catalytic tissue metals. Sections from animals exposed intravitally to aurothiomalatate, silver lactate, mercury chloride, sodium selenite or perfused with sodium sulphide were subjected to a commercial......In biological tissue, minute accumulations of gold, silver, mercury and zinc can be visualized by a technique whereby metallic silver is precipitated on tiny accumulations of the two noble metals, or on selenites or sulphides of all four metals. In the present study a silver enhancement kit...... silver enhancement kit (IntenSE, Janssen Pharmaceutica). It was found that the kit performs adequately to the silver lactate gum arabic developer and to the photographic emulsion technique. The kit can be used as a silver enhancement medium for the demonstration of zinc by the Neo-Timm and selenium...

  14. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  15. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, P.M. (Alliant Techsystems, Inc., Power Sources Center, Horsham, PA (United States))

    1993-03-15

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thinoyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings (>40%) over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, (CoPC)[sub n], into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Finally, the results of testing a complete prototype battery are described in detail. (orig.)

  16. Determination of silver, gold, zinc and copper in mineral samples by various techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis; Determinacion de plata, oro, zinc y cobre en muestras minerales mediante diversas tecnicas de analisis por activacion de neutrones instrumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez R, N. I.; Rios M, C.; Pinedo V, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Yoho, M.; Landsberger, S., E-mail: neisla126@hotmail.com [University of Texas at Austin, Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, Austin 78712, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Using the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, mineral exploration samples were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of silver, gold, zinc and copper; these minerals being the main products of benefit of Tizapa and Cozamin mines. Samples were subjected to various techniques, where the type of radiation and counting methods were chosen based on the specific isotopic characteristics of each element. For calibration and determination of concentrations the comparator method was used, certified standards were subjected to the same conditions of irradiation and measurement that the prospecting samples. The irradiations were performed at the research reactor TRIGA Mark II of the University of Texas at Austin. The silver concentrations were determined by Cyclical Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis. This method in combination with the transfer pneumatic system allowed a good analytical precision and accuracy in prospecting for silver, from photo peak measurement 657.7 keV of short half-life radionuclide {sup 110}Ag. For the determination of gold and zinc, Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis was used, the photo peaks analyzed corresponded to the energies 411.8 keV of radionuclide {sup 199}Au and 438.6 keV of metastable radionuclide {sup 69m}Zn. On the other hand, copper quantification was based on the photo peak analysis of 1039.2 keV produced by the short half-life radionuclide {sup 66}Cu, by Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis. The photo peaks measurement corresponding to gold, zinc and copper was performed using a Compton suppression system, which allowed an improvement in the signal to noise relationship, so that better detection limits and low uncertainties associated with the results were obtained. Comparing elemental concentrations the highest values in silver, zinc and copper was for samples of mine Tizapa. Regarding gold values were found in the same range for both mines. To evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methods used

  17. Electrical properties of fast ion conducting silver based borate glasses: Application in solid battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, Emad M.; Khairy, M.; Mousa, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •AgI dopant created more opened borate network structure. •Dielectric constant and loss values increased with AgI concentration. •AgI dopant enhanced both ion migration and orientation. •0.6 AgI–0.27 Ag 2 O–0.13 B 2 O 3 showed the highest DC-conductivity at room temperature. •It showed also good life time as a solid electrolyte in solid battery at room temperature. -- Abstract: The electrical properties of the ternary ionic conducting glass system xAgI–(1 – x)[0.67Ag 2 O–0.33B 2 O 3 ], where x = 0.4 , 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8, were studied for emphasizing the influence of silver iodide concentration on the transport properties in the based borate glasses. The glasses were prepared by melt quenching technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectra and differential thermal analysis (DTA). XRD confirmed a glassy nature for all investigated compositions. Electrical conductivity (σ), dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss (ε ″ ) and impedance spectra (Z′–Z′′) were studied for all samples at a frequency range of 0–10 6 Hz and over a temperature range of 303–413 K. Changes of conductivity and dielectric properties with composition, temperature and frequency were analyzed and discussed. A silver iodine battery using glassy electrolyte sample with the highest ionic conductivity (x = 0.6) was studied

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Comparing Alginate Silver Dressing with Silver Zinc Sulfadiazine Cream in the Treatment of Pressure Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apirag Chuangsuwanich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe treatment of pressure ulcers is complicated, given the various wound dressing products available. The cost of different treatments varies and the cost-effectiveness of each product has not been thoroughly evaluated. We compare two wound dressing protocols-alginate silver dressing (AlSD and silver zinc sulfadiazine cream (AgZnSD with regard to wound healing and cost-effectiveness.MethodsPatients with grade III or IV sacral or trochanteric pressure ulcers were eligible for this prospective, randomized controlled trial. The patients were randomized to receive one of the two dressings for an eight-week period. The criteria of efficacy were based on the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH scoring tool. The cost of treatment was also assessed.ResultsTwenty patients (12 women and 8 men were randomly assigned to receive either AlSD (n=10 or AgZnSD cream (n=10. The demographic data and wound characteristics were comparable in the two groups. The two groups showed no significant difference in the reduction of PUSH score, wound size, or volume of exudate. The tissue type score was significantly lower in the AlSD group (3.15±0.68-1.85±0.68 vs. 2.73±0.79-2.2±0.41; P=0.015. The cost of treatment was significantly lower in the AlSD group (377.17 vs. 467.74 USD, respectively; P<0.0001.ConclusionsAlginate silver dressing could be effectively used in the treatment of grade III and IV pressure ulcers. It can improve wound tissue characteristics and is cost-effective.

  19. Synthesis and investigation of physico-chemical, antibacterial, biomymetic properties of silver and zinc containing hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Ilya; Rasskazova, Lyudmila; Korotchenko, Natalia; Kozik, Vladimir; Kurzina, Irina

    2017-11-01

    In the work we carried out microwave synthesis of modified hydroxyapatites (HA) with different content of ions. A solid solution based on HA remains a single-phase sample when the calcium ions are substituted by silver and zinc ions up to 5 % by weight (0.5 mole fraction). The microstructure parameters, morphology and the particle powders size were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the modification of HA by silver (AgHA) and zinc (ZnHA) ions increases the size of its particles, the degree of crystallinity, and the pore sizes of the samples while reducing their specific surface and uniformity of their forms. Elemental analysis and distribution of elements over the surface of HA, AgHA, and ZnHA powders were performed by X-ray spectral microanalysis (RSMA). The ratio of Ca/P is within the range of 1.66-1.77 and corresponds to the ratio of Ca/P in stoichiometric HA and the HA entering bone tissue. The ability of AgHA- and ZnHA-substrates to form on their surface a calcium-phosphate layer from the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C is determined. This ability decreases in the order: in ZnHA it is less than in AgHA, but greater than in HA. The antibacterial activity of the samples was analyzed. The AgHA sample has both bactericidal and persistent bacteriostatic properties in the case of direct contact with Escherichia coli cells.

  20. Mercury free zinc alloy powder for alkaline manganese battery. 2. Effect of additive species to zinc particle on suppressing hydrogen gas evolution; Arukari mangan denchiyo mukoka aen gokin funmatsu. 2. Suiso gas hassei ni oyobosu aen ryushi eno tenka genso no yokusei koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, M.; Fujitani, S.; Nishio, K. [Sanyo electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Akai, Y.; Kurimura, M. [Sanyo Excell Co. Ltd., Tottori (Japan)

    1997-08-05

    In order to make alkaline manganese batteries mercury-free and suppress hydrogen gas generation, investigations were given on the effect of additive species on modification of zinc particles present on negative electrode surface. Mercury with high hydrogen overvoltage has been added conventionally, but the mercury can cause an environmental problem. Surface modification by using indium exhibited hydrogen gas generation suppressing effect. With the surface modification amount of 0.10% by weight or more, the suppressing effect is saturated, reducing the effect to 50% of that of mercury. Surface-modifying the bismuth added zinc particles with indium showed greater suppressing effect than the case where each element is used independently. Zinc-indium (0.10% by weight) - bismuth (0.025% by weight) based alloy powder showed the same hydrogen generation suppressing effect as zinc-mercury (0.15% by weight) alloy powder. A sealed test battery using this alloy powder in negative active material exhibited a discharge capacity of 1700 mAh similarly to the initial stage even after having been stored for 20 days at 60 degC. Self-discharge characteristics equivalent to that of zinc-mercury (0.15% by weight) based alloy powder were obtained. An environment compatible dry cell battery containing no mercury whatsoever was developed successfully. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Influence of silver and copper doping on luminescent properties of zinc-phosphate glasses after x-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, Alexander A.; Sidorov, Alexander I.; Shakhverdov, Teimur A.; Stolyarchuk, Maxim V.

    2017-11-01

    It is shown, experimentally, that in silver- and copper-containing zinc-phosphate glasses, metal molecular clusters are formed during the glass synthesis. X-ray irradiation of these glasses led to the considerable increase of its luminescence in visible spectral range. This effect is caused by the transformation of the charged metal molecular clusters into the neutral state. Luminescence and excitation spectra of the glass, doped with silver and copper simultaneously, change significantly in comparison with the spectra of glasses doped with one metal. The reason for this can be the formation of hybrid AgnCum molecular clusters. The computer simulation of the structure and optical properties of such clusters by the time-dependent density functional theory method is presented. It is shown that the optimal luminescent material for photonics application, in comparison with other studied materials, is glass, containing hybrid molecular clusters.

  2. Avoiding short circuits from zinc metal dendrites in anode by backside-plating configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Shougo; Lee, Seok Woo; Lee, Jang Soo; Takechi, Kensuke; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Portable power sources and grid-scale storage both require batteries combining high energy density and low cost. Zinc metal battery systems are attractive due to the low cost of zinc and its high charge-storage capacity. However, under repeated plating and stripping, zinc metal anodes undergo a well-known problem, zinc dendrite formation, causing internal shorting. Here we show a backside-plating configuration that enables long-term cycling of zinc metal batteries without shorting. We demonstrate 800 stable cycles of nickel–zinc batteries with good power rate (20 mA cm−2, 20 C rate for our anodes). Such a backside-plating method can be applied to not only zinc metal systems but also other metal-based electrodes suffering from internal short circuits. PMID:27263471

  3. Participation of the Third Order Optical Nonlinearities in Nanostructured Silver Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Solid Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Torres-Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the transmittance modulation of optical signals in a nanocomposite integrated by two different silver doped zinc oxide thin solid films. An ultrasonic spray pyrolysis approach was employed for the preparation of the samples. Measurements of the third-order nonlinear optical response at a nonresonant 532 nm wavelength of excitation were performed using a vectorial two-wave mixing. It seems that the separated contribution of the optical nonlinearity associated with each film noticeable differs in the resulting nonlinear effects with respect to the additive response exhibited by the bilayer system. An enhancement of the optical Kerr nonlinearity is predicted for prime number arrays of the studied nanoclusters in a two-wave interaction. We consider that the nanostructured morphology of the thin solid films originates a strong modification of the third-order optical phenomena exhibited by multilayer films based on zinc oxide.

  4. Silver-induced reconstruction of an adeninate-based metal-organic framework for encapsulation of luminescent adenine-stabilized silver clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Dries; Coutino-Gonzalez, Eduardo; Baekelant, Wouter; Bueken, Bart; Reinsch, Helge; Stassen, Ivo; Fenwick, Oliver; Richard, Fanny; Samorì, Paolo; Ameloot, Rob; Hofkens, Johan; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; De Vos, Dirk E

    2016-05-21

    Bright luminescent silver-adenine species were successfully stabilized in the pores of the MOF-69A (zinc biphenyldicarboxylate) metal-organic framework, starting from the intrinsically blue luminescent bio-MOF-1 (zinc adeninate 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate). Bio-MOF-1 is transformed to the MOF-69A framework by selectively leaching structural adenine linkers from the original framework using silver nitrate solutions in aqueous ethanol. Simultaneously, bright blue-green luminescent silver-adenine clusters are formed inside the pores of the recrystallized MOF-69A matrix in high local concentrations. The structural transition and concurrent changes in optical properties were characterized using a range of structural, physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques (steady-state and time-resolved luminescence, quantum yield determination, fluorescence microscopy). The presented results open new avenues for exploring the use of MOFs containing luminescent silver clusters for solid-state lighting and sensor applications.

  5. A Low-Cost Neutral Zinc-Iron Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Stationary Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Congxin; Duan, Yinqi; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-11-20

    Flow batteries (FBs) are one of the most promising stationary energy-storage devices for storing renewable energy. However, commercial progress of FBs is limited by their high cost and low energy density. A neutral zinc-iron FB with very low cost and high energy density is presented. By using highly soluble FeCl 2 /ZnBr 2 species, a charge energy density of 56.30 Wh L -1 can be achieved. DFT calculations demonstrated that glycine can combine with iron to suppress hydrolysis and crossover of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ . The results indicated that an energy efficiency of 86.66 % can be obtained at 40 mA cm -2 and the battery can run stably for more than 100 cycles. Furthermore, a low-cost porous membrane was employed to lower the capital cost to less than $ 50 per kWh, which was the lowest value that has ever been reported. Combining the features of low cost, high energy density and high energy efficiency, the neutral zinc-iron FB is a promising candidate for stationary energy-storage applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Rangers Lead the Way: The Vision of General Creighton W. Abrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kent

    2003-01-01

    .... A restoration which was key to the Army emerging from its post Viet Nam period of decline. The values and standards incorporated in the Ranger Battalions were promulgated throughout the rest of the Army by Rangers returning...

  7. Silver recovery from the waste materials by the method of flotation process

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak; G. Siwiec; A. Tomaszewska; D. Piękoś

    2018-01-01

    During the leaching process of zinc concentrates, the waste materials rich in various metals such as eg. silver are produced. So far no attempts of silver recovery from the mentioned waste materials have been made due to the lack of any method which would be both effective and beneficial. The paper presents some possibilities of application of flotation process in silver recovery form waste materials generated during zinc production.

  8. Co3O4/MnO2/Hierarchically Porous Carbon as Superior Bifunctional Electrodes for Liquid and All-Solid-State Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Dong, Fang; Xu, Nengneng; Zhang, Tao; Li, Kaixi; Qiao, Jinli

    2018-05-09

    The design of efficient, durable, and affordable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is very indispensable in liquid-type and flexible all-solid-state zinc-air batteries. Herein, we present a high-performance bifunctional catalyst with cobalt and manganese oxides supported on porous carbon (Co 3 O 4 /MnO 2 /PQ-7). The optimized Co 3 O 4 /MnO 2 /PQ-7 exhibited a comparable ORR performance with commercial Pt/C and a more superior OER performance than all of the other prepared catalysts, including commercial Pt/C. When applied to practical aqueous (6.0 M KOH) zinc-air batteries, the Co 3 O 4 /MnO 2 /porous carbon hybrid catalysts exhibited exceptional performance, such as a maximum discharge peak power density as high as 257 mW cm -2 and the most stable charge-discharge durability over 50 h with negligible deactivation to date. More importantly, a series of flexible all-solid-state zinc-air batteries can be fabricated by the Co 3 O 4 /MnO 2 /porous carbon with a layer-by-layer method. The optimal catalyst (Co 3 O 4 /MnO 2 /PQ-7) exhibited an excellent peak power density of 45 mW cm -2 . The discharge potentials almost remained unchanged for 6 h at 5 mA cm -2 and possessed a long cycle life (2.5 h@5 mA cm -2 ). These results make the optimized Co 3 O 4 /MnO 2 /PQ-7 a promising cathode candidate for both liquid-type and flexible all-solid-state zinc-air batteries.

  9. Tapioca binder for porous zinc anodes electrode in zinc–air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Najmi Masri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tapioca was used as a binder for porous Zn anodes in an electrochemical zinc-air (Zn-air battery system. The tapioca binder concentrations varied to find the optimum composition. The effect of the discharge rate at 100 mA on the constant current, current–potential and current density–power density of the Zn-air battery was measured and analyzed. At concentrations of 60–80 mg cm−3, the tapioca binder exhibited the optimum discharge capability, with a specific capacity of approximately 500 mA h g−1 and a power density of 17 mW cm−2. A morphological analysis proved that at this concentration, the binder is able to provide excellent binding between the Zn powders. Moreover, the structure of Zn as the active material was not affected by the addition of tapioca as the binder, as shown by the X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of Zn into ZnO represents the full utilization of the active material, which is a good indication that tapioca can be used as the binder.

  10. Characterization of the products attained from a thermal treatment of a mix of zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Lin, Chitsan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Wang, Chih-Ta

    2016-01-01

    This study applies a thermal separation process (TSP) to recover Fe, Mn, and Zn from hazardous spent zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries. In the TSP, the batteries were heated together with a reducing additive and the metals in batteries, according to their boiling points and densities, were found to move into three major output materials: slag, ingot (mainly Fe and Mn), and particulate (particularly Zn). The slag well encapsulated the heavy metals of interest and can be recycled for road pavement or building materials. The ingot had high levels of Fe (522,000 mg/kg) and Mn (253,000 mg/kg) and can serve as an additive for stainless steel-making processes. The particulate phase had a Zn level of 694,000 mg/kg which is high enough to be directly sold for refinement. Overall, the TSP effectively recovered valuable metals from the hazardous batteries.

  11. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Progress in work at Exide in three main development areas, i.e., battery design and development, nickel cathode study, and electrochemical studies is reported. Battery design and development concentrated on the optimization of design parameters, including electrode spacing, charging methods, electrolyte concentration, the design and fabrication of prototype cells and modules, and testing to verify these parameters. Initial experiments indicated that an interelectrode spacing of 2.5 mm was optimum when normal (D.C.) charging is used. It was during these experiments that a high rate charging technique was developed to deposit a dense active zinc which did not shed during vibration. A 4 cell - 300 Ah experimental module was built and sent to NBTL for testing. Initial testing on this module and a 300 Ah cell are reported. Experiments on electrolyte concentration indicate that higher concentrations of KOH (8M, 9M or 10M) are beneficial to capacity maintenance. Available nickel cathodes were evaluated for possible use in the VIBROCEL. These included pocket, sintered plaque impregnated, nickel plated steel wool impregnated, plastic bonded and CMG (multifoil) electrodes. These electrodes have Coulombic densities ranging from 70 Ah/Kg for pocket plates to 190 Ah/Kg for CMG electrodes. Detailed test data are presented for each type including rate capability, effect of zincate on performance, and capacity maintenance with cycling. Work on zinc deposition emphasized the special charging technique. This is a deposition using special waveforms of charging current, to deposit dense crystalline zinc on the anode substrate.

  12. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

  13. Silver recovery from the waste materials by the method of flotation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the leaching process of zinc concentrates, the waste materials rich in various metals such as eg. silver are produced. So far no attempts of silver recovery from the mentioned waste materials have been made due to the lack of any method which would be both effective and beneficial. The paper presents some possibilities of application of flotation process in silver recovery form waste materials generated during zinc production.

  14. Zinc deposition and dissolution in methanesulfonic acid onto a carbon composite electrode as the negative electrode reactions in a hybrid redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.K.; Ponce-de-Leon, C.; Low, C.T.J.; Walsh, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Use methanesulfonic acid to avoid dendrite formation during a long (>4 h) zinc electrodeposition. → Electrochemical characterization of Zn(II) deposition and its morphology using methanesulfonic acid solutions. → Use of additives to improve the efficiency of zinc deposition and dissolution as the half cell reaction of a redox flow battery. - Abstract: Electrodeposition and dissolution of zinc in methanesulfonic acid were studied as the negative electrode reactions in a hybrid redox flow battery. Cyclic voltammetry at a rotating disk electrode was used to characterize the electrochemistry and the effect of process conditions on the deposition and dissolution rate of zinc in aqueous methanesulfonic acid. At a sufficiently high current density, the deposition process became a mass transport controlled reaction. The diffusion coefficient of Zn 2+ ions was 7.5 x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1 . The performance of the zinc negative electrode in a parallel plate flow cell was also studied as a function of Zn 2+ ion concentration, methanesulfonic acid concentration, current density, electrolyte flow rate, operating temperature and the addition of electrolytic additives, including potassium sodium tartarate, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, and indium oxide. The current-, voltage- and energy efficiencies of the zinc-half cell reaction and the morphologies of the zinc deposits are also discussed. The energy efficiency improved from 62% in the absence of additives to 73% upon the addition of 2 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 of indium oxide as a hydrogen suppressant. In aqueous methanesulfonic acid with or without additives, there was no significant dendrite formation after zinc electrodeposition for 4 h at 50 mA cm -2 .

  15. Immersion autometallography: histochemical in situ capturing of zinc ions in catalytic zinc-sulfur nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, Gorm; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Bruhn, Mikkel; Søndergaard, Chris; Jensen, Dorete

    2004-12-01

    In the mid-1980s, two versions of Timm's original immersion sulfide silver method were published. The authors used immersion of tissue in a sulfide solution as opposed to Timm, who used immersion of tissue blocks in hydrogen sulfide-bubbled alcohol. The autometallography staining resulting from the "sulfide only immersion" was not particularly impressive, but the significance of this return to an old approach became obvious when Wenzel and co-workers presented their approach in connection with introduction by the Palmiter group of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3). The Wenzel/Palmiter pictures are the first high-resolution, high-quality pictures taken from tissues in which free and loosely bound zinc ions have been captured in zinc-sulfur nanocrystals by immersion. The trick was to place formalin-fixed blocks of mouse brains in a solution containing 3% glutaraldehyde and 0.1% sodium sulfide, ingredients used for transcardial perfusion in the zinc-specific NeoTimm method. That the NeoTimm technique results in silver enhancement of zinc-sulfur nanocrystals has been proved by proton-induced X-ray multielement analyses (PIXE) and in vivo chelation with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC). The aims of the present study were (a) to make the immersion-based capturing of zinc ions in zinc-sulfur nanocrystals work directly on sections and slices of fixed brain tissue, (b) to work out protocols that ensure zinc specificity and optimal quality of the staining, (c) to apply "immersion autometallography" (iZnSAMG) to other tissues that contain zinc-enriched (ZEN) cells, and (d) to make the immersion approach work on unfixed fresh tissue.

  16. Electrochemical power sources batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S; Volfkovich, Yurij M

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Power Sources (EPS) provides in a concise way theoperational features, major types, and applications of batteries,fuel cells, and supercapacitors Details the design, operational features, andapplications of batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors Covers improvements of existing EPSs and thedevelopment of new kinds of EPS as the results of intense R&Dwork Provides outlook for future trends in fuel cells andbatteries Covers the most typical battery types, fuel cells andsupercapacitors; such as zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline manganesedioxide batteries, mercury-zinc cells, lead

  17. Electrocatalytic activity of silver decorated ceria microspheres for the oxygen reduction reaction and their application in aluminium-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanshan; Xue, Yejian; Wang, Qin; Li, Shihua; Huang, Heran; Miao, He; Liu, Zhaoping

    2017-07-11

    Nanosheet-constructing porous CeO 2 microspheres with silver nanoparticles anchored on the surface were developed as a highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The aluminum-air batteries applying Ag-CeO 2 as the ORR catalyst exhibit a high output power density and low degradation rate of 345 mW cm -2 and 2.6% per 100 h, respectively.

  18. Electrode fabrication for Lithium-ion batteries by intercalating of carbon nano tubes inside nano metric pores of silver foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshnevisan, B.

    2011-01-01

    Here there is an on effort to improve working electrode (Ag + carbon nano tubes) preparation for Li-Ion batteries applications. Nano scaled silver foam with high specific area has been employed as a frame for loading carbon nano tubes by electrophoretic deposition method. In this ground, the prepared electrodes show a very good stability and also charge-discharge cycles reversibility.

  19. Fate of Zinc and Silver Engineered Nanoparticles in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) used in consumer products are largely released into the environment through the wastewater stream. Limited information is available regarding the transformations they undergo during their transit through sewerage systems before reaching wastewater treatment plants. To address this knowledge gap, laboratory-scale systems fed with raw wastewater were used to evaluate the transformation of ZnO- and Ag-NPs within sewerage transfer networks. Two experimental systems were established and spiked with either Ag- and ZnO-NPs or with their dissolved salts, and the wastewater influent and effluent samples from both systems were thoroughly characterised. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to assess the extent of the chemical transformation of both forms of Zn and Ag during transport through the model systems. The results indicated that both ZnO- and Ag-NPs underwent significant transformation during their transport through the sewerage network. Reduced sulphur species represented the most important endpoint for these NPs in the sewer with slight differences in terms of speciation; ZnO converted largely to Zn sulfide, while Ag was also sorbed to cysteine and histidine. Importantly, both ionic Ag and Ag-NPs formed secondary Ag sulfide nanoparticles in the sewerage network as revealed by TEM analysis. Ag-cysteine was also shown to be a major species in biofilms. These results were verified in the

  20. The economic impact on Aboriginal communities of the Ranger Project: 1979-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, C.

    1986-01-01

    What are the benefits generated for Aboriginal people by mining projects like the Ranger Project? Are these projects likely to fulfill the expectations of Aborigines who support the controlled exploitation of mineral resources on their land? This article examines the economic impact of the Ranger uranium project on Aboriginal people. Its principal aim is to provide detailed information on the use of royalty-related payments made to traditional owners as a result of Ranger's operations, and the consequent employment, training and social service opportunities for Aborigines

  1. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  2. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.

    1982-02-01

    This report reviews the status of the Department of Energy Subelement on Electrochemical Storage Systems. It emphasizes material presented at the Fourth US Department of Energy Battery and Electrochemical Contractors' Conference, held June 2-4, 1981. The conference stressed secondary batteries, however, the aluminum/air mechanically rechargeable battery and selected topics on industrial electrochemical processes were included. The potential contributions of the battery and electrochemical technology efforts to supported technologies: electric vehicles, solar electric systems, and energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, are reviewed. The analyses of the potential impact of these systems on energy technologies as the basis for selecting specific battery systems for investigation are noted. The battery systems in the research, development, and demonstration phase discussed include: aqueous mobile batteries (near term) - lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, zinc/nickel-oxide; advanced batteries - aluminum/air, iron/air, zinc/bromine, zinc/ferricyanide, chromous/ferric, lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur; and exploratory batteries - lithium organic electrolyte, lithium/polymer electrolyte, sodium/sulfur (IV) chloroaluminate, calcium/iron disulfide, lithium/solid electrolyte. Supporting research on electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials, ionic conducting solid electrolytes, and electrocatalysis is reviewed. Potential energy saving processes for the electrowinning of aluminum and zinc, and for the electrosynthesis of inorganic and organic compounds are included

  3. Deposition and Characterization of Silver Oxide from Solution of Silver, Cassava and Sugarcane Juice Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uche E. Ekpunobi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver oxide was deposited on metallic substrates (zinc and lead from silver solution with different additives at a pH of 5, dc current of 0.2A, 4V for 20seconds at 25°C. The additives were cassava solution and sugarcane juice. The metallic substrates served as cathode while a copper electrode serves as the anode. Compositions of the electrolytes were 50ml AgNO3, 50ml AgNO3 and 50ml of cassava solution or 50ml of sugarcane juice. Structural and textural characterizations were carried out on the deposits. The result showed that deposition using zinc substrate gave a better result than that of lead in that the deposits were pure without impurities. Using cassava solution as additive, a pure Ag2O3 deposit was obtained while sugarcane juice gave a pure intergrowth of Ag2O3 and Ag3O4 deposits both on zinc substrates.

  4. Zinc terephthalates ZnC_8H_4O_4 as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Zou, Jian; Chen, Shulin; Yang, Jingyi; Qing, Fangzhu; Gao, Peng; Li, Jingze

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Both of well-crystalline and amorphous zinc terephthalates ZnC_8H_4O_4 are synthesized and amorphous structure demonstrates a higher capacity and better cycling performance. - Highlights: • Crystalline and amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 are obtained. • Both crystalline and amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 have σ_e of 10"−"7 S m"−"1. • Lithium ion diffusion is the rate-determine process. • Amorphous has a high capacity and durable performance. • Amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 has a high apparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient. - Abstract: Organic materials offer the advantages of cost-effective, environmental benignity, and molecular structural diversity as applications of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. In fact, their lithium storage behaviors in terms of dynamics and kinetics intrinsically lie in ion migration in solids. Thus the solid forms including crystalline and amorphous states are crucial for the properties. In this study, a conventional carbonyl type organic material, namely zinc terephthalate (ZnC_8H_4O_4), is obtained in both well-crystalline and amorphous forms and applied as anodes for lithium ion batteries. ZnC_8H_4O_4 with amorphous structure shows higher lithium storage capacity and better capacity retention compared with that of crystalline one. It is ascribed that the amorphous phase provides a higher lithium ion diffusion coefficient than the crystalline one under the conditions of similar electronic conductivity.

  5. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. 0 East Cent. Afr. J. 0 East Cent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    2014-04-01

    Apr 1, 2014 ... Disk or button batteries are small, coin shaped batteries used in hearing aids, watches, and calculators. The danger of batteries is that they contain mercury, silver, zinc, manganese, cadmium, lithium, sulfur oxide, copper & sodium or potassium hydroxide. If the battery is lodged in the gastrointestinal tract it.

  6. Investigation on synergism of composite additives for zinc corrosion inhibition in alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Hebing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang Qiming; Liang Man; Lv Dongsheng; Xu Mengqing; Li Hong [Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li Weishan, E-mail: liwsh@scnu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} An kind of environmentally benign organic composite additives is used firstly. {yields} The corrosion of zinc is inhibited used the organic compound as additive. {yields} The rate performance of the battery used the organic compound as additive is improved. {yields} The synergism of composite additives for zinc corrosion inhibition is investigated. - Abstract: The synergism of imidazole (IMZ) and poly(ethylene glycol) 600 (PEG) for zinc corrosion inhibition in 3 mol L{sup -1} KOH solution was investigated using a combination of electrochemical and gravimetric methods, and the surface morphology of the zinc was observed by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that there is a synergistic effect between IMZ and PEG for the zinc corrosion inhibition. The difference in molecular structure, ring for IMZ and chain for PEG, and in binding atoms with zinc, nitrogen in IMZ and oxygen in PEG, contributes to this synergistic effect. IMZ inhibits zinc corrosion by mainly depressing the anodic reaction, whereas PEG by depressing the cathodic reaction. The storage performance of the zinc-manganese dioxide batteries using IMZ and/or PEG as inhibitors was determined by discharge test, with a comparison of the battery using mercury as the inhibitor. The battery containing 0.05% IMZ + 0.05% PEG exhibits better performance than the mercury-containing battery, especially when discharged at high rate.

  7. Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Thomas; Schmidt, Hans; Fluegge, Harald; Nikolayzik, Fabian; Baumann, Ihno; Schmale, Stephan; Johannes, Hans-Hermann; Rabe, Torsten [Institut fuer Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Schleinitzstr. 22, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Hamwi, Sami, E-mail: sami.hamwi@ihf.tu-bs.de [Institut fuer Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Schleinitzstr. 22, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Riedl, Thomas [Institute of Electronic Devices, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Rainer-Gruenter Str. 21, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Kowalsky, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Schleinitzstr. 22, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    We report on transparent and highly conductive multilayer electrodes prepared at room temperature by RF sputtering of zinc tin oxide (ZTO) and thermal evaporation of ultrathin silver (Ag) as top contact for transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLED). Specifically, we study the morphological, electrical and optical properties of the multilayer structure in particular of the thin Ag film. The tendency of Ag to form agglomerates over time on top of ZTO is shown by atomic force microscopy. From the optical constants derived from ellipsometric measurements we evidenced a bulk like behavior of an Ag film with a thickness of 8 nm embedded in ZTO leading to a low sheet resistance of 9 {Omega}/sq. Furthermore we verify the optical constants by simulation of an optimized ZTO/Ag/ZTO structure. As an application we present a highly efficient TOLED providing a device transmittance of > 82% in the visible part of the spectrum. The TOLED shows no damage caused by sputtering on a lighting area of 80 mm{sup 2} and exhibits efficiencies of 43 cd/A and 36 lm/W.

  8. RELATIONSHIPS IN THE WORKPLACE AND OCCUPATIONAL ATTRACTIVENESS AMONG STUDENTS, TEACHERS AND RANGERS-SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Ivantchev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Perceived occupational attractiveness could be due to many factors and relationships in the workplace are among them. The questionnaire “Attractiveness of the profession” created by Ivanov (1999 was used to study how relationships in the workplace were related to perceptions of occupational attractiveness among students, teachers and rangers-sportsmen participating in special missions abroad. In 2012 and 2013, 46 secondary school teachers, 40 students in pedagogical specialties, and 27 sportsmen-rangers participating in special missions abroad were studied in Bulgaria. The results indicated that the students and the rangers were more satisfied with their work than the teachers were. The interpersonal relationships influenced mainly the students’ and rangers’ perceptions of occupational attractiveness. The rangers were more influenced by the relationships with the colleagues. The psycho-climate in the workplace was considered as more important by the rangers. The students were more influenced by the interpersonal communication at the workplace and their heads’ expertise. Some moderators of interpersonal relationships in the workplace were found – such as the tasks in the work, the prestige of occupation, the interaction between occupation and rewards, and the psycho-climate in the workplace.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Comparing Alginate Silver Dressing with Silver Zinc Sulfadiazine Cream in the Treatment of Pressure Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apirag Chuangsuwanich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The treatment of pressure ulcers is complicated, given the various wound dressingproducts available. The cost of different treatments varies and the cost-effectiveness of eachproduct has not been thoroughly evaluated. We compare two wound dressing protocolsalginatesilver dressing (AlSD and silver zinc sulfadiazine cream (AgZnSD with regard towound healing and cost-effectivenessMethods Patients with grade III or IV sacral or trochanteric pressure ulcers were eligible forthis prospective, randomized controlled trial. The patients were randomized to receive oneof the two dressings for an eight-week period. The criteria of efficacy were based on thePressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH scoring tool. The cost of treatment was also assessed.Results Twenty patients (12 women and 8 men were randomly assigned to receive eitherAlSD (n=10 or AgZnSD cream (n=10. The demographic data and wound characteristics werecomparable in the two groups. The two groups showed no significant difference in the reductionof PUSH score, wound size, or volume of exudate. The tissue type score was significantlylower in the AlSD group (3.15±0.68-1.85±0.68 vs. 2.73±0.79-2.2±0.41; P=0.015. The costof treatment was significantly lower in the AlSD group (377.17 vs. 467.74 USD, respectively;P<0.0001.Conclusions Alginate silver dressing could be effectively used in the treatment of grade IIIand IV pressure ulcers. It can improve wound tissue characteristics and is cost-effective.

  10. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District published a document in...

  11. Emergency power supply with batteries. Notstromversorgung mit Batterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings volume contains the wording of the following 15 papers presented at the symposium: 'The physical chemistry of power sources'; 'Conventional and sealed maintenance-free Pb batteries'; 'Open and gas-tight Ni/Cd batteries'; 'Advances in the development and acceptance of primary and secondary lithium systems'; 'Metal-hydrogen, especially nickel oxide-hydrogen, a new battery system'; 'The storage systems zinc-bromine and zinc-chlorine'; 'High temperature batteries'; 'Material problems of lead batteries and fuel cells'; 'DIN/VDE 0510, safety specifications for batteries and battery systems'; 'Frequency control, immediate reserve and peak load compensation with large battery systems in electric utilities'; 'Versatile emergency power supply at the Bundesanstalt fuer Flugsicherung'; 'Batteries used by the Bundeswehr'; 'Batteries in the service of the Deutsche Bundesbahn'; 'State of the art and development of opto- and micro-electronics and their power supply'; 'Experience and requirements of the Deutsche Bundespost on central and decentralized battery systems'. The proceedings also contain the wording of the discussions following the papers.

  12. Electrochemical characteristics of silver- and nickel-coated synthetic graphite prepared by a gas suspension spray coating method for the anode of lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Chang; Byun, Dongjin; Lee, Joong Kee; Cho, Byung won

    2004-01-01

    Four kinds of synthetic graphite coated with silver and nickel for the anodes of lithium secondary batteries were prepared by a gas suspension spray coating method. The electrode coated with silver showed higher charge-discharge capacities due to a Ag-Li alloy, but rate capability decreased at higher charge-discharge rate. This result can be explained by the formation of an artificial Ag oxidation film with higher impedance, this lowered the rate capability at high charge-discharge rate due to its low electrical conductivity. Rate capability is improved, however, by coating nickel and silver together on the surface of synthetic graphite. The nickel which is inactive with oxidation reaction plays an important role as a conducting agent which enhanced the conductivity of the electrode

  13. 77 FR 58354 - Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District; Oregon; Withdrawal of Notice for Preparation of an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ...-Fort Rock Ranger District; Oregon; Withdrawal of Notice for Preparation of an Environmental Impact... Administration, USDOT. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District and FHWA are..., Project Leader, Bend- Fort Rock Ranger District, 63095 Deschutes Market Road, Bend, OR 97701, phone 541...

  14. Ranger uranium environmental enquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The submission is divided into three sections. Section A considers the international implications of the development of uranium resources including economic and resource aspects and environmental and social aspects. Section B outlines the government's position on export controls over uranium and its effect on the introduction of nuclear power in Australia. Section C describes the licensing and regulatory functions that would be needed to monitor the environmental and health aspects of the Ranger project. (R.L.)

  15. Silver-Copper Nanoalloy Catalyst Layer for Bifunctional Air Electrodes in Alkaline Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Fuyi; Jin, Yachao; Zhang, Nan; Johnston, Roy L

    2015-08-19

    A carbon-free and binder-free catalyst layer composed of a Ag-Cu nanoalloy on Ni foam was used as the air cathode in a zinc-air battery for the first time. The Ag-Cu catalyst was prepared using pulsed laser deposition. The structures of the catalysts were found to consist of crystalline Ag-Cu nanoalloy particles with an average size of 2.58 nm embedded in amorphous Cu films. As observed in the X-ray photoelectron spectra, the Ag 3d core levels shifted to higher binding energies, whereas the Cu 2p core levels shifted to lower binding energies, indicating alloying of the silver and copper. Rotating disk electrode measurements indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeded through a four-electron pathway on the Ag50Cu50 and Ag90Cu10 nanoalloy catalysts in alkaline solution. Moreover, the catalytic activity of Ag50Cu50 in the ORR is more efficient than that of Ag90Cu10. By performing charge and discharge cycling measurements, the Ag50Cu50 catalyst layer was confirmed to have a maximum power density of approximately 86.3 mW cm(-2) and an acceptable cell voltage at 0.863 V for current densities up to 100 mA cm(-2) in primary zinc-air batteries. In addition, a round-trip efficiency of approximately 50% at a current density of 20 mA cm(-2) was also obtained in the test.

  16. Galvanostatic polarization of zinc microanodes in KOH electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.B.; Cook, G.M.; Yao, N.P.

    1980-05-01

    This report includes a critical review of the current literature on the anodic passivation of zinc electrodes, a description of supplementary experimental studies to extend the data to a low-current-density region and to provide a basis for evaluating conflicting results of published work, and a new interpretation of the anodic passivation mechanism. This work provides a starting point for understanding passivation phenomena in battery electrodes. The utilization of a zinc electrode in alkaline batteries depends on the ability of the electrode to remain active during the anodic dissolution process. This dissolution period is often terminated by the onset of passivation. Experiments were conducted on the effects of current density on passivation time of a small zinc anode (6.6 x 10/sup -3/ cm/sup 2/) in KOH at concentrations of 0.784, 2.92, 4.98 and 7.24M KOH as well as 7.24M KOH saturated with zinc oxide. It was concluded that there are two mechanisms for anodic passivation, one occurring at current densities below about 150 mA/cm/sup 2/ and another at higher current densities. Accordingly, in the overall mechanism, the total time to passivation includes the times to achieve the maximum zincate concentration as well as to form porous type I ZnO and compact type II ZnO. In Ni/Zn batteries under development for vehicle propulsion, the electrolyte is usually 30% KOH (7M) saturated with zinc oxide; and the zinc electrode is formed in-situ by electrodeposition of zinc onto the grid. For a current density of 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ in a Ni/Zn battery cycled at a 2-h rate and a zinc electrode with a porosity of 0.6 at the fully charged state, a current density of 338 mA/cm/sup 2/ was calculated to be that above which the passivation limits the utilization of the zinc electrode. 7 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Solution processed zinc oxide nanopyramid/silver nanowire transparent network films with highly tunable light scattering properties

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Saahil

    2013-01-01

    Metal nanowire transparent networks are promising replacements to indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrodes for optoelectronic devices. While the transparency and sheet resistance are key metrics for transparent electrode performance, independent control of the film light scattering properties is important to developing multifunctional electrodes for improved photovoltaic absorption. Here we show that controlled incorporation of ZnO nanopyramids into a metal nanowire network film affords independent, highly tunable control of the scattering properties (haze) with minimal effects on the transparency and sheet resistance. Varying the zinc oxide/silver nanostructure ratios prior to spray deposition results in sheet resistances, transmission (600 nm), and haze (600 nm) of 6-30 Ω □-1, 68-86%, and 34-66%, respectively. Incorporation of zinc oxide nanopyramid scattering agents into the conducting nanowire mesh has a negligible effect on mesh connectivity, providing a straightforward method of controlling electrode scattering properties. The decoupling of the film scattering power and electrical characteristics makes these films promising candidates for highly scattering transparent electrodes in optoelectronic devices and can be generalized to other metal nanowire films as well as carbon nanotube transparent electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Process optimization and leaching kinetics of zinc and manganese metals from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries using citric acid reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Amiliana, R. A.; Wulandari, P. T.; Huda, M.; Kusumadewi, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Zn-Carbon and Alkaline spent batteries contains heavy metals, such as zinc and manganese, which can causes environmental problem if not handled properly. Usually the recovery of these metals were done by leaching method using strong acid, but the use of strong acids as leaching reagents can be harmful to the environment. This paper concerns the recovery of Zn and Mn metals from Zn-C and alkaline spent batteries with leaching method using citric acid as the environmental friendly leaching reagent. The leaching conditions using citric acid were optimized and the leaching kinetics of Zn and Mn in citric acid solution was investigated. The leaching of 89.62% Zn and 63.26% Mn was achieved with 1.5 M citric acid, 90°C temperature, and 90 minutes stirring time. Kinetics data for the dissolution of Zn showed the best fit to chemical control shrinking core model, while the diffusion controlled model was suitable for the dissolution of Mn kinetics data. The activation energy of 6.12 and 1.73 kcal/mol was acquired for the leaching of Zn and Mn in the temperature range 60°C-90°C.

  19. RANGER-DTL 2.0: Rigorous Reconstruction of Gene-Family Evolution by Duplication, Transfer, and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Mukul S; Kellis, Manolis; Kordi, Misagh; Kundu, Soumya

    2018-04-24

    RANGER-DTL 2.0 is a software program for inferring gene family evolution using Duplication-Transfer-Loss reconciliation. This new software is highly scalable and easy to use, and offers many new features not currently available in any other reconciliation program. RANGER-DTL 2.0 has a particular focus on reconciliation accuracy and can account for many sources of reconciliation uncertainty including uncertain gene tree rooting, gene tree topological uncertainty, multiple optimal reconciliations, and alternative event cost assignments. RANGER-DTL 2.0 is open-source and written in C ++ and Python. Pre-compiled executables, source code (open-source under GNU GPL), and a detailed manual are freely available from http://compbio.engr.uconn.edu/software/RANGER-DTL/. mukul.bansal@uconn.edu.

  20. Electrochemical intercalation of lithium into polypyrrole/silver vanadium oxide composite used for lithium primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N. [Center for Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2006-10-20

    Hybrid composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and silver vanadium oxide (SVO) used for lithium primary batteries were chemically synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the SVO surface in an acidic medium. The composite electrode exhibited higher discharge capacity and better rate capability as compared with the pristine SVO electrode. The improvement in electrochemical performance of the composite electrode was due to PPy which accommodates lithium ions and also enhances the SVO utilization. Chronoamperometric and ac-impedance measurements indicated that lithium intercalation proceeds under the mixed control by interfacial charge transfer and diffusion. The enhanced SVO utilization in the composite electrode results from a facilitated kinetics of interfacial charge transfer in the presence of PPy. (author)

  1. Electrochemical intercalation of lithium into polypyrrole/silver vanadium oxide composite used for lithium primary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N.

    Hybrid composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and silver vanadium oxide (SVO) used for lithium primary batteries were chemically synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the SVO surface in an acidic medium. The composite electrode exhibited higher discharge capacity and better rate capability as compared with the pristine SVO electrode. The improvement in electrochemical performance of the composite electrode was due to PPy which accommodates lithium ions and also enhances the SVO utilization. Chronoamperometric and ac-impedance measurements indicated that lithium intercalation proceeds under the mixed control by interfacial charge transfer and diffusion. The enhanced SVO utilization in the composite electrode results from a facilitated kinetics of interfacial charge transfer in the presence of PPy.

  2. Facile fabrication of dual emissive nanospheres via the self-assembling of CdSe@CdS and zinc phthalocyanine and their application for silver ion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuning; Liu, Chenchen; Luan, Xinying; Yao, Rui; Feng, Yakai

    2017-09-01

    The far-red/near infrared photoluminescence of zinc phthalocyanines would be strongly quenched once they are aggregated, which will obviously hinder their wide applications in environmental, energy related and biomedical fields. Herein, the ultra-small sized semiconductor quantum dots with core-shell structures (CdSe@CdS) have been firstly synthesized and then assembled with a dendritic zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) in the H2O/DMF mixed solvent to obtain monodispersed nanospheres. Finally, it was found that the resultant ethanolic colloids can be employed as a sensitive and specific fluorescent nanoprobe for silver ions discrimination with a limit of detection (LOD) approaching to 10-8 mol/L.

  3. Economic considerations of battery recycling based on the Recytec process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Pierre

    The Recytec process is successfully operated on a continuous industrial base since autumn 1994. All the products are regularly re-used without any problems and environmental limits are fully respected. The European Community Battery Directive is valid since many years and only a few countries like Switzerland and The Netherlands have implemented it in national guidelines. In the meantime, battery producers have accepted the necessity of the recycling of mercury-free batteries in order to prevent the contamination of municipal waste streams by other heavy metals, such as zinc and cadmium. Recycling processes like the Recytec process are considered by the battery producers as highly expensive and they are looking for cheaper alternatives. Steel works are confronted with a market change and have to produce less quantities of better quality steels with more stringent environmental limits. The electric arc furnace (EAF), one of the chosen battery destruction techniques, is producing 20% of the European steel. Even if the battery mixes contain only mercury-free batteries, the residual mercury content and the zinc concentration will be too high to insure a good steel quality, if all collected batteries will be fed in EAF. In Waelz kilns (production of zinc oxide concentrates for zinc producers) the situation is the same with regard to the residual mercury concentration and environmental limits. Sorting technologies for the separation of battery mixes into the different battery chemistries will presently fail because the re-users of these sorted mercury-free batteries are not able to accept raw waste batteries but they are interested in some fractions of them. This means that in any case pretreatment is an unavoidable step before selective reclamation of waste batteries. The Recytec process is the low-cost partner in a global strategy for battery recycling. This process is very flexible and will be able to follow, with slight and inexpensive adaptations of the equipment

  4. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D.; Morse, T.; Patel, P.; Patel, S.; Bondar, J.; Taylor, L.

    1980-12-01

    Nickel-zinc, lead-acid, nickel-iron, zinc-chlorine, sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte), sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte), lithium-metal sulfide, and aluminum-air batteries were studied in order to evaluate the energy used to produce the raw materials and to manufacture the battery, the energy consumed by the battery during its operational life, and the energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. Battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling are described. The operational energy for an electric vehicle and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  5. Nitrogen and Sulfur Co-doped Graphene Supported Cobalt Sulfide Nanoparticles as an Efficient Air Cathode for Zinc-air Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, Pandian; Ramakrishnan, Prakash; Prabu, Moni; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CoS 2 nanoparticles supported on a nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene oxide is described. • Improved round trip efficiency was observed for CoS 2 (400)/N,S-GO. • CoS 2 (400)/N,S-GO possess improved durability with low over-potential. • CoS 2 (400)/N,S-GO is a promising air cathode for zinc-air battery. - ABSTRACT: Zinc-air battery is considered as one of the promising energy storage devices due to their low cost, eco-friendly and safe. Here, we present a simple approach to the preparation of cobalt sulfide nanoparticles supported on a nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene oxide surface. Cobalt sulfide nanoparticles dispersed on graphene oxide hybrid was successfully prepared by solid state thermolysis approach at 400 °C, using cobalt thiourea and graphene oxide. X-ray diffraction study revealed that hybrid electrode prepared at 400 °C results in pure CoS 2 phase. The hybrid CoS 2 (400)/N,S-GO electrode exhibits low over-potential gap about 0.78 V vs. Zn after 70 cycles with remarkable and robust charge and discharge profile. And also the CoS 2 (400)/N,S-GO showing deep discharge behavior with stability up to 7.5 h.

  6. RangerMaster trademark: Real-time pattern recognition software for in-field analysis of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.S.; Ziemba, F.; Szluk, N.

    1998-01-01

    RangerMaster trademark is the embedded firmware for Quantrad Sensor's integrated nuclear instrument package, the Ranger trademark. The Ranger trademark, which is both a gamma-ray and neutron detection system, was originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for in situ surveys at the Plutonium Facility to confirm the presence of nuclear materials. The new RangerMaster trademark software expands the library of isotopes and simplifies the operation of the instrument by providing an easy mode suitable for untrained operators. The expanded library of the Ranger trademark now includes medical isotopes 99 Tc, 201 Tl, 111 In, 67 Ga, 133 Xe, 103 Pa, and 131 I; industrial isotopes 241 Am, 57 Co, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 40 K, 60 Co, 232 Th, 226 Ra, and 207 Bi; and nuclear materials 235 U, 238 U, 233 U, and 239 Pu. To accomplish isotopic identification, a simulated spectrum for each of the isotopes was generated using SYNTH. The SYNTH spectra formed the basis for the knowledge-based expert system and selection of the regions of interest that are used in the pattern recognition system. The knowledge-based pattern recognition system was tested against actual spectra under field conditions

  7. RangerMasterTM: real-time pattern recognition software for in-field analysis of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.S.; Ziemba, F.; Szluk, N.

    1998-01-01

    RangerMaster TM is the embedded firmware for Quantrad Sensor's integrated nuclear instrument package, the Ranger TM . The Ranger TM , which is both a gamma-ray and neutron detection system, was originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for in situ surveys at the Plutonium Facility to confirm the presence of nuclear materials. The new RangerMaster TM software expands the library of isotopes and simplifies the operation of the instrument by providing an 'easy' mode suitable for untrained operators. The expanded library of the Ranger TM now includes medical isotopes 99 Tc, 201 Tl, 111 In, 67 Ga, 133 Xe, 103 Pa, and 131 I; industrial isotopes 241 Am, 57 Co, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 40 K, 60 Co, 232 Th, 226 Ra, and 207 Bi; and nuclear materials 235 U, 238 U, 233 U, and 239 Pu. To accomplish isotopic identification, a simulated spectrum for each of the isotopes was generated using SYNTH 2 . The SYNTH spectra formed the basis for the knowledge-based expert system and selection of the regions of interest that are used in the pattern recognition system. The knowledge-based pattern recognition system was tested against actual spectra under field conditions. (author)

  8. Safe Energy Source in Battery-operated Toys for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alfredo; Vignola, Silvia; Nason, Francesca; Boschetti, Federica; Bramerio, Manuela; Bailini, Alessandro; Pinarello, Giordano

    2017-11-01

    Serious and even fatal consequences of disk batteries ingestion in children are well known. Among other applications, disk batteries are used to power small toys, from which they can be unexpectedly extracted and swallowed. We tested a new cell intended for little toys (green cell [GC]), after 6 and 12 hours of in vitro close contact with esophageal swine mucosa. The GC was compared with lithium and silver button batteries under the same experimental conditions. Tissues in contact with the GC did not show pH variations nor histological alterations after 6 and 12 hours. In such conditions, statistically significant differences were found between the GC and the lithium and silver batteries. So far, multidisciplinary medical effort has been driven to both emergency approach and subsequent operative strategies in children with ingested batteries. Our trial demonstrates the possibility to primarily prevent battery-induced damages by designing new-generation safe cells with no tissue toxicity to power little toys intended for children.

  9. Analysis of batteries for use in photovoltaic systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, A; Kapner, M

    1981-02-01

    An evaluation of 11 types of secondary batteries for energy storage in photovoltaic electric power systems is given. The evaluation was based on six specific application scenarios which were selected to represent the diverse requirements of various photovoltaic systems. Electrical load characteristics and solar insulation data were first obtained for each application scenario. A computer-based simulation program, SOLSIM, was then developed to determine optimal sizes for battery, solar array, and power conditioning systems. Projected service lives and battery costs were used to estimate life-cycle costs for each candidate battery type. The evaluation considered battery life-cycle cost, safety and health effects associated with battery operation, and reliability/maintainability. The 11 battery types were: lead-acid, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, nickel-hydrogen, lithium-iron sulfide, calcium-iron sulfide, sodium-sulfur, zinc-chlorine, zinc-bromine, Redox, and zinc-ferricyanide. The six application scenarios were: (1) a single-family house in Denver, Colorado (photovoltaic system connected to the utility line); (2) a remote village in equatorial Africa (stand-alone power system); (3) a dairy farm in Howard County, Maryland (onsite generator for backup power); (4) a 50,000 square foot office building in Washington, DC (onsite generator backup); (5) a community in central Arizona with a population of 10,000 (battery to be used for dedicated energy storage for a utility grid-connected photovoltaic power plant); and (6) a military field telephone office with a constant 300 W load (trailer-mounted auxiliary generator backup). Recommendations for a research and development program on battery energy storage for photovoltaic applications are given, and a discussion of electrical interfacing problems for utility line-connected photovoltaic power systems is included. (WHK)

  10. Environmental auditing at Ranger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.; Reid, A.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary external audit was carried out on three aspects of the Ranger Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), namely meteorological data, water release and water quality of releases. It assessed the accuracy of forecasts and predictive data statements against the actual environmental data obtained during operations, and concluded that impacts of the project were adequately described but inadequately quantified. The second state of the auditing is concerned with the assessment of the effectiveness of practices and procedures which are integrated into the ongoing environmental management program. 7 tabs. 2 figs

  11. Age of uranium ores at Ranger and Jabiluka unconformity vein deposits, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, K.R.; Grauch, R.I.; Nutt, C.J.; Frishman, D.; Nash, J.T.; Simmons, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Ranger and Jabiluka uranium deposits are the largest in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field (ARUF), which contains at least 20% of the world's low-cost uranium reserves. Ore occurs in early Proterozoic metasediments, below an unconformity with sandstones of the 1.65 Ga Kombolgie Formation. This study uses U-Pb isotope data from over 60 whole-rock drill core samples that contained a variety of mineral assemblages and textures. Data for Ranger samples indicate a well-defined age of 1.74 +/-.02 Ga. This 1.74 Ga age is distinctly pre-Kombolgie, so the Ranger deposit cannot have been formed by processes requiring its presence. This Ranger age is consistent, however, with mineralization related to heating associated with either the emplacement of early post-metamorphic granites, or possibly with intrusion of the nearby Oenpelli Dolerite. In contrast, data for the least-altered Jabiluka ores yield a concordia-intercept age of 1.44 +/-.02 Ga--significantly younger than the Ranger age, and also younger than the Komobolgie. This age may correspond to a regional thermal event, as indicated both by mafic dikes of roughly this age and a zircon lower-intercept age from a nearby granite-gneiss. Thus, together with the well-defined ∼900 Ma age of ores at the Nabarlek deposit, there are at least 3 distinct periods of major U-mineralization in the ARUF. Data for both Ranger and Jabiluka indicate the same, profound isotopic disturbance at some time in the interval of 0.4-0.6 Ga. Possibly this time corresponds to the development of basins and associated basalt flows to the W and SW, a suggested by Crick et. al. (1980)

  12. Development of the Ranger uranium milling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baily, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The development and operation of the Ranger uranium project is described. In 1969 Ranger discovered a uranium-bearing ore deposit in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia. Extensive testwork on drill core samples proved the viability of the extraction of the uranium and a process flowsheet and plant design criteria were developed based on a conventional crushing, grinding, acid leach, C.C.D., solvent extraction circuit. Detailed design concentrated on plant layout, materials of construction, equipment vendor selection and process control. These factors required special attention because of the remote location of the mine and the high cost and difficulty in obtaining trained labour for such sites. Environmental considerations were key factors in design. The mine is located adjacent to a national park and has an average rainfall of 1,600 mm. No water or liquid effluents are to be released from the project area and thus water management is a key factor. Tailings are ponded in an impervious earth-rockfill dam

  13. Silver Flakes and Silver Dendrites for Hybrid Electrically Conductive Adhesives with Enhanced Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongru; Li, Zhuo; Tian, Xun; Yan, Shaocun; Li, Zhe; Guo, Xuhong; Ma, Yanqing; Ma, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Silver dendrites were prepared by a facile replacement reaction between silver nitrate and zinc microparticles of 20 μm in size. The influence of reactant molar ratio, reaction solution volume, silver nitrate concentration, and reaction time on the morphology of dendrites was investigated systematically. It was found that uniform tree-like silver structures are synthesized under the optimal conditions. Their structure can be described as a trunk, symmetrical branches, and leaves, which length scales of 5-10, 1-2 μm, and 100-300 nm, respectively. All features were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and x-ray powder diffraction. A hybrid fillers system using silver flakes and dendrites as electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) exhibited excellent overall performance. This good conductivity can be attributed mainly to the synergy between the silver microflakes (5-20 μm sized irregular sheet structures) and dendrites, allowing more conductive pathways to be formed between the fillers. In order to further optimize the overall electrical conductivity, various mixtures of silver microflakes and silver dendrites were tested in ECAs, with results indicating that the highest conductivity was shown when the amounts of silver microflakes, silver dendrites and the polymer matrix were 69.4 wt.% (20.82 vol.%), 0.6 wt.% (0.18 vol.%), and 30.0 wt.% (79.00 vol.%), respectively. The corresponding mass ratio of silver flakes to silver dendrites was 347:3. The resistivity of ECAs reached as low as 1.7 × 10-4 Ω cm.

  14. Influence of pH and media composition on suspension stability of silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles and immobilization of Daphnia magna under guideline testing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Baun, Anders

    2016-01-01

    sterically stabilized, test suspensions of silver (Ag) ENPs formed large agglomerates in both VS EPA and M7 media; and toxicity was found to be higher in VS EPA medium due to increased dissolution. Low-agglomerate suspensions for zinc oxide (ZnO) could be obtained at pH 7 in VS EPA medium, but the increase...

  15. 77 FR 23658 - Six Rivers National Forest, Gasquet Ranger District, California, The Smith River National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... National Forest, Gasquet Ranger District, California, The Smith River National Recreation Area [email protected] . Please insure that ``Smith River NRA Restoration and Motorized Travel Management'' occurs... UARs totaling 80 miles. The project encompasses the Smith River NRA and Gasquet Ranger District...

  16. Land application at Ranger uranium mine, northern Australia: six years'review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, B.N.; Zhou, J.X.

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the six years' practice of land application of waste water at the Ranger Uranium Mine, northern Australia. Elements of significance to the chemical impact on the environment by mining and milling at Ranger are analysed taking into consideration ore petrology and mineralogy, chemical compositions of rocks and ore, relative enrichment of different rock- and ore-forming elements, and the chemicals involved in the milling and extraction processes. Biogeochemistry of land application of waste water as an efficient environmental managing technique is discussed by analysing its biogeochemical cycles, variables which affect the biogeochemical processes, and aqueous chemistry. Data from monitoring of the soils, groundwater, biota, and seepage in the land application area at Ranger are collected and re-organised. A new approach to data presentation and interpretation is made based on the analysis of the most important variables which may affect the extent of the chemical impact of land application of waste water. The environmental impact of land application of waste water on soils, ground water, biota, and surface water (through seepage) is assessed accordingly. Uranium is retained in the near-surface soil layer while sulfate is present at lower depths. Manganese shows some mobility, appearing in depressions. Radium 226 shows no clear-cut relationship between location of soil sample and level. It is concluded that land application of waste water at Ranger has resulted in minimal environmental impact. 4 refs

  17. Conservation′s Ambiguities: Rangers on the Periphery of the W Park, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Poppe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the central role of ambiguity in the (reproduction process of conservation practice. It argues that some current political economy as well as environmentality approaches to research conservation practice fail to capture the complexity of the lived experience of local conservationists. The article focuses on the multiple identities of rangers in interaction with other residents at the periphery of the W Park in Burkina Faso, as rangers are local conservationists who simultaneously submit to and produce conservation practices. Park rangers are village men who are recruited under the banner of community participation in conservation projects and state forestry. On a day-to-day basis, these rangers help the foresters with the management of the natural resources on the one hand, and guide tourists, especially in the hunting concessions, on the other. They occupy ambiguous positions at the crossroads of conservationist, state, political, economic, spiritual, social, and cultural practices, inherent to their conservation occupations at the lowest echelon, where residents have to transform conservation policies into practices. It is precisely this ambiguity that turns out to ensure the conservation implementation.

  18. Ranger© - An Affordable, Advanced, Next-Generation, Dual-Pol, X-Band Weather Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedronsky, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The Enterprise Electronics Corporation (EEC) Ranger© system is a new generation, X-band (3 cm), Adaptive Polarization Doppler Weather Surveillance Radar that fills the gap between high-cost, high-power traditional radar systems and the passive ground station weather sensors. Developed in partnership with the University of Oklahoma Advanced Radar Research Center (ARRC), the system uses relatively low power solid-state transmitters and pulse compression technology to attain nearly the same performance capabilities of much more expensive traditional radar systems. The Ranger© also employs Adaptive Dual Polarization (ADP) techniques to allow Alternating or Simultaneous Dual Polarization capability with total control over the transmission polarization state using dual independent coherent transmitters. Ranger© has been designed using the very latest technology available in the industry and the technical and manufacturing experience gained through over four decades of successful radar system design and production at EEC. The entire Ranger© design concept emphasizes precision, stability, reliability, and value using proven solid state technology combined with the most advanced motion control system ever conceived for weather radar. Key applications include meteorology, hydrology, aviation, offshore oil/gas drilling, wind energy, and outdoor event situational awareness.

  19. Electrochemical Reduction of Zinc Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jung Hyun; Shin, Woon Sup

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated first that the electrochemical reduction of zinc phosphate in neutral phosphate buffer is possible and potentially applicable to bio-compatible rechargeable battery. The actual redox component is Zn(s)/Zn phosphate(s) and the future research about the control of crystal formation for the better cyclability is required. In lead-acid battery, the electrochemical redox reaction of Pb (s) /PbSO 4(s) is used by reducing Pb(II) and oxidizing Pb(0) in sulfate rich solution. Since both reduced form and oxidized form are insoluble, they cannot diffuse to the opposite electrodes and react. It is a very common strategy to make a stable battery electrode that a metal element is reduced and oxidized in solution containing an abundance of anion readily precipitating with the metal ion. For the application of this strategy to construction of rechargeable battery using bio-compatible electrode materials and electrolytes, the use of phosphate ion can be considered as anion readily precipitating with metal ions. If phosphate buffer with neutral pH is used as electrolyte, the better bio-compatibility will be achieved than most of rechargeable battery using strong acid, strong base or organic solvent as electrolyte solution. There are many metal ions readily precipitating with phos-phate ion, and zinc is one of them

  20. Smart methanol sensor based on silver oxide-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles deposited on microchips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Mohammed M.; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared calcined silver oxide-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) by a hydrothermal method using reducing agents in alkaline medium. The doped NPs were characterized by UV/vis, FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and by X-ray powder diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The NPs were deposited on microchips to result in a sensor that has a fast response to methanol in the liquid phase. Features include high sensitivity, low-sample volume, reliability, reproducibility, ease of integration, long-term stability, and enhanced electrochemical responses. The calibration plot is linear (r 2  = 0.9981) over the 0.25 mmolL −1 to 0.25 molL −1 methanol concentration range. The sensitivity is ∼7.917 μA cm −2 mmolL −2 , and the detection limit is 71.0 ± 0.5 μmolL −1 at a signal-to-noise-ratio of 3. (author)

  1. The chemistry of Magela Creek. A baseline for assessing change downstream of Ranger. Supervising Scientist report 151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klessa, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    The compositions of waters in Magela Creek upstream and downstream of Ranger uranium mine were reviewed. The water quality parameters examined were pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and turbidity, and dissolved calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, ammonium, nitrate, copper, lead, manganese, zinc, uranium and radium-226. The frequency distributions of each of these parameters in waters upstream of the mine were characterised and statistically described to provide a baseline which allows a change in water chemistry downstream of the mine to be assessed. With the exception of pH, EC, turbidity, magnesium, calcium, sodium and manganese, data that comprise the baseline are not normally distributed. The frequency distributions of copper, lead, zinc, uranium and radium-226 forming the baseline are characterised by a large proportion of values at or near analytical detection limits and contamination in a relatively large proportion of the remainder. A comparison of upstream and downstream data shows that there is good conformity in pH, EC, turbidity, sodium, potassium and chloride. For calcium, nitrate, ammonium, lead, uranium, radium and zinc less than 40% of the downstream data fall outside the 20th and 80th baseline percentiles but in the ease of U, data are biased towards relatively high values. More than 40% of downstream magnesium and sulphate data are outside these percentile boundaries and are skewed towards relatively high concentrations. Copper, lead and zinc in mine waters (characterised by the composition of waters contained in the former RP4) do not appear to pose a risk as contaminants based upon the results of toxicity testing and water quality guideline trigger levels with risk minimised for greater than 1 in 20 dilution

  2. Determination of microquantities of silver in platinum by isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedinakova, V.; Sladkovska, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for determining microquantities of silver in platinum. It is based on isotope dilution by means of substoichiometric extraction of dithizonates with carbon tetrachloride. The determination of silver according to this technique is not interfered by zinc or gold in quantities exceeding the silver content by one order of magnitude nor by a great excess of platinum. In the presence of copper the addition of complexon is necessary. (author)

  3. Canadian Ranger Rifle: Human Factors Requirements Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    index-eng.asp retrieved 9 February 2010 2 http://www.armee.forces.gc.ca/land-terre/cr-rc/history- histoire -eng.asp retrieved 9 February 2010 3 http... histoire -eng.asp Department of National Defence. (2010). Canadian Ranger Patrol (CRPG). Retrieved June 3, 2010, from http://www.army.forces.gc.ca

  4. Zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles toxicity in the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván Márquez, Imelda; Ghiyasvand, Mergan; Massarsky, Andrey; Babu, Mohan; Samanfar, Bahram; Omidi, Katayoun; Moon, Thomas W; Smith, Myron L; Golshani, Ashkan

    2018-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly incorporated into a variety of commercial applications and consumer products; however, ENMs may possess cytotoxic properties due to their small size. This study assessed the effects of two commonly used ENMs, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A collection of ≈4600 S. cerevisiae deletion mutant strains was used to deduce the genes, whose absence makes S. cerevisiae more prone to the cytotoxic effects of ZnONPs or AgNPs. We demonstrate that S. cerevisiae strains that lack genes involved in transmembrane and membrane transport, cellular ion homeostasis, and cell wall organization or biogenesis exhibited the highest sensitivity to ZnONPs. In contrast, strains that lack genes involved in transcription and RNA processing, cellular respiration, and endocytosis and vesicular transport exhibited the highest sensitivity to AgNPs. Secondary assays confirmed that ZnONPs affected cell wall function and integrity, whereas AgNPs exposure decreased transcription, reduced endocytosis, and led to a dysfunctional electron transport system. This study supports the use of S. cerevisiae Gene Deletion Array as an effective high-throughput technique to determine cellular targets of ENM toxicity.

  5. Progress in batteries and solar cells. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimotake, H.

    1984-01-01

    The 89 articles in this book are on research in batteries, solar cells and fuel cells. Topics include uses of batteries in electric powered vehicles, load management in power plants, batteries for miniature electronic devices, electrochemical processes, and various electrode and electrolyte materials, including organic compounds. Types of batteries discussed are lithium, lead-acid, manganese dioxide, Silver cells, Air cells, Nickel cells and solar cells. Problems of recharging and life cycle are also discussed

  6. Natural resources youth training program (NRYTP), resource rangers 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    In 2010, for a second year, the natural resources youth training program (NRYTP) was developed in northern Manitoba thanks to Manitoba Keewatinowi Okimakanak Inc. (MKO) and the collaboration of 42 sponsors. 16 aboriginal youth representing six northern communities took part in the five-week program located at the Egg Lake camp. The objective was to provide these resources rangers with knowledge and training in the most widespread resource sectors in northern Manitoba, including mining, forestry and hydropower. Trainers and experts provided by industry partners offered training sessions, hands-on work experience and other activities to help resource rangers to acquire a better understanding of the employability in this field in the northern region and the knowledge and skills the resource-based careers require. Life and professional skills training was given by the camp staff and local professionals. On-site elders and cultural events also allowed the integration of a northern Cree cultural component. Three staff members, a cook and elders assisted daily the resource rangers. Many improvements and refinements have been made since the success of the 2009 program, including the involvement of a larger number of communities, program contributors and program graduates. The program length has doubled and the number of jobs created has increased, important cultural aspects were introduced and the overall expenses were reduced.

  7. 75 FR 14419 - Camp Tatiyee Land Exchange on the Lakeside Ranger District of the Apache-Sitgreaves National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Ranger, Lakeside Ranger District, Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests, c/o TEC Inc., 514 Via de la Valle... to other papers serving areas affected by this proposal: Tucson Citizen, Sierra Vista Herald, Nogales...

  8. Application of non-aqueous solvents to batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.

    1984-02-01

    The successful application of organic and aquo-organic solvents in lithium batteries and in zinc bromine batteries is discussed. Results are presented for a comparison of propylene carbonate and 50 percent propylene carbonate/acetonitrile for lithium intercalation cells at 25 C 1 M LiAsF6 as electrolyte and discharge at 2 mA/sq cm. Higher cathode utilization and energy efficiencies are achieved in PC/AN. It was found that the self-discharge problem of the zinc/bromine battery may be overcome by dissolving bromine and bromide salt in water-immiscible dipolar aprotic solvent-proprionitrile (PN). Cells using this PN/H2O two-phase system have an energy efficiency above 75 percent and coulombic efficiency above 85 percent.

  9. Transport and solid state battery characteristic studies of silver based super ion conducting glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaseelan, S.; Muralidharan, P.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Satyanarayana, N.

    2005-01-01

    Silverarsenotellurite (SAT), silverphosphotellurite (SPT) and silvervanadotellurite (SVT) quaternary glass systems were prepared with various formers compositions by a melt quenching method. Glass nature, glass transition temperature (T g ) and structure of the prepared glasses were identified respectively by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technique. Electrical conductivity studies were carried out by impedance measurement in the frequency range 40 Hz to 100 KHz at different temperatures for all three sets of AgI-Ag 2 O-[TeO 2 -M 2 O 5 ] (M 2 O 5 = As 2 O 5 , P 2 O 5 , V 2 O 5 ) glasses. The high conducting compositions of SAT, SPT and SVT glass samples were fixed from the results of total conductivity (σ t ). Electronic conductivity (σ e ) studies were made on high conducting composition of each glass system by Wagner's polarization method. Total current (i t ) is due to ion and electron. Electronic current (i e ) due to electron were estimated through mobility studies. Ionic conductivity (σ i ) and ionic current (i i ) were calculated respectively using the conductivity (σ t and σ e ) and current (i t and i e ) results for the SAT, SPT and SVT glasses. Transport numbers due to ion (t i ) and electron (t e ) were calculated using the conductivity and mobility results for each glass system. The high conducting composition of the SAT, SPT and SVT glasses were used as solid electrolytes with silver metal as an anode and iodine:graphite (I:C) as a cathode for the fabrication of solid state batteries (SSBs). All the fabricated batteries were characterized by measuring the open circuit voltage (OCV) and polarization properties and estimated the batteries performances

  10. The contribution of the Ranger Uranium Mine to the Northern Territory and Australian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This is the report of a study by ACIL Economics and Policy Pty Ltd (ACIL) which estimates the contribution of the fist eleven years of the Ranger uranium project to the Northern Territory and Australian economies. It looks at the purchases and sales by the Company and the contributions of the project to tourism, the town of Jabiru, scientific work and royalty and taxation revenues. In the process it also assembles the available data on monies that have flowed from Ranger operations to the Aboriginal people of the Northern Territory. The analyses in intended to enable Ranger's contribution to be compared with that of other activities in the economy. Thus care has been taken to employ accepted national accounting definitions and to apply a degree of rigor which ensures that the figures generated are meaningful in relation to the official statistics covering the economy which are produced by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Besides analysing the net economic contribution of Ranger, the report looks at certain distributional aspects, in particular the impact on Aboriginal people. The vast majority of Ranger's value-added contribution has been in a form that appears in ERA's accounts. Side-benefits estimated to have been generated through supplying infrastructure used by Kakadu tourist, excess-payments for town-building and its contribution through the existence of the Office of the Supervising Scientist have been significant in absolute terms, but over the mine's life so far these side-benefits have not added more than five per cent to the mine's GDP contribution. 20 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Mighty Morphin Power Ranger Play: Research and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosser, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    Explores the question of whether or not Mighty Morphin Power Rangers-type aggressive play is developmentally appropriate for the early childhood classroom. Compares results from research in child development to the reality of television programming, highlighting the relationship between television violence and children's aggressive behavior. (AA)

  12. Relative SHG measurements of metal thin films: Gold, silver, aluminum, cobalt, chromium, germanium, nickel, antimony, titanium, titanium nitride, tungsten, zinc, silicon and indium tin oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Che

    Full Text Available We have experimentally measured the surface second-harmonic generation (SHG of sputtered gold, silver, aluminum, zinc, tungsten, copper, titanium, cobalt, nickel, chromium, germanium, antimony, titanium nitride, silicon and indium tin oxide thin films. The second-harmonic response was measured in reflection using a 150 fs p-polarized laser pulse at 1561 nm. We present a clear comparison of the SHG intensity of these films relative to each other. Our measured relative intensities compare favorably with the relative intensities of metals with published data. We also report for the first time to our knowledge the surface SHG intensity of tungsten and antimony relative to that of well known metallic thin films such as gold and silver. Keywords: Surface second-harmonic generation, Nonlinear optics, Metal thin films

  13. The Ranger and Nabarlek mining agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    This article contains information about the content of the agreements which have been entered into between the Australian Government and the Northern Land Council in relation to the Ranger deposits in the Northern Territory and between the Government and Queensland Mines Limited and the N.L.C. in relation to the Nabarlek deposit. A statement by the Minister for Aboriginal Affairs on the impact of uranium mining on Northern Territory Aboriginals is included

  14. The Ranger project - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.I.

    1983-01-01

    Ranger Uranium Mines Pty. Ltd. operates an open pit mine and ore treatment plant in the Northern Territory designed to produce 3000 tonne/yr of U 3 O 8 from 3500 tonne/day of mill feed. The construction of the project was completed in 1981. Wright-Davy were the project managers and designers of the $270 million ore treatment plant and associated infrastructure. Details of project cost, staffing, project design and project systems are given

  15. High-performance aqueous rechargeable batteries based on zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    and environment-friendly energy storage system. Battery is the most versatile ... safe but limited in energy density.2 Therefore, new aque- ous rechargeable battery ... The working electrodes were prepared by coating slur- ries of active material ...

  16. Electric radiation mapping of silver/zinc oxide nanoantennas by using electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J. E.; Mendoza-Santoyo, F.; Cantu-Valle, J.; Velazquez-Salazar, J.; José Yacaman, M.; Ponce, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio 78249 (United States); González, F. J. [Coordinación para la Innovación y la Aplicación de la Ciencia y la Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de San Luís Potosí, San Luis Potosí 78210 (Mexico); Diaz de Leon, R. [Instituto Tecnológico de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosi 78437 (Mexico)

    2015-01-21

    In this work, we report the fabrication of self-assembled zinc oxide nanorods grown on pentagonal faces of silver nanowires by using microwaves irradiation. The nanostructures resemble a hierarchal nanoantenna and were used to study the far and near field electrical metal-semiconductor behavior from the electrical radiation pattern resulting from the phase map reconstruction obtained using off-axis electron holography. As a comparison, we use electric numerical approximations methods for a finite number of ZnO nanorods on the Ag nanowires and show that the electric radiation intensities maps match closely the experimental results obtained with electron holography. The time evolution of the radiation pattern as generated from the nanostructure was recorded under in-situ radio frequency signal stimulation, in which the generated electrical source amplitude and frequency were varied from 0 to 5 V and from 1 to 10 MHz, respectively. The phase maps obtained from electron holography show the change in the distribution of the electric radiation pattern for individual nanoantennas. The mapping of this electrical behavior is of the utmost importance to gain a complete understanding for the metal-semiconductor (Ag/ZnO) heterojunction that will help to show the mechanism through which these receiving/transmitting structures behave at nanoscale level.

  17. Ergonomic Synthesis Suitable for Industrial Production of Silver-Festooned Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, G. R.; Khan, R. A.

    2015-07-01

    For maximizing productivity, minimizing cost, time-boxing process and optimizing human effort, a single-step, cost-effective, ultra-fast and environmentally benign synthesis suitable for industrial production of nanocrystalline ZnO, and Ag-doped ZnO has been reported in this paper. The synthesis based on microwave-supported aqueous solution method used zinc acetate dehydrate and silver nitrate as precursors for fabrication of nanorods. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The undoped and Ag-doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in a hexagonal wurtzite structure having spindle-like morphology. The blue shift occurred at absorption edge of Ag-doped ZnO around 260 nm compared to 365 nm of bulk ZnO. The red shift occurred at Raman peak site of 434 cm-1 compared to characteristic wurtzite phase peak of ZnO (437 cm-1). The bandgap energies were found to be 3.10 eV, 3.11 eV and 3.18 eV for undoped, 1% Ag-doped, and 3% Ag-doped ZnO samples, respectively. The TEM results provided average particle sizes of 17 nm, 15 nm and 13 nm for undoped, and 1% and 3% Ag-doped ZnO samples, respectively.

  18. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery with carbon-silver electrodes for converting low-grade waste heat to electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mohammad; Kim, Taeyoung; Gorski, Christopher A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2018-01-01

    Thermally regenerative ammonia batteries (TRABs) have shown great promise as a method to convert low-grade waste heat into electrical power, with power densities an order of magnitude higher than other approaches. However, previous TRABs based on copper electrodes suffered from unbalanced anode dissolution and cathode deposition rates during discharging cycles, limiting practical applications. To produce a TRAB with stable and reversible electrode reactions over many cycles, inert carbon electrodes were used with silver salts. In continuous flow tests, power production was stable over 100 discharging cycles, demonstrating excellent reversibility. Power densities were 23 W m-2-electrode area in batch tests, which was 64% higher than that produced in parallel tests using copper electrodes, and 30 W m-2 (net energy density of 490 Wh m-3-anolyte) in continuous flow tests. While this battery requires the use a precious metal, an initial economic analysis of the system showed that the cost of the materials relative to energy production was 220 per MWh, which is competitive with energy production from other non-fossil fuel sources. A substantial reduction in costs could be obtained by developing less expensive anion exchange membranes.

  19. Nucleation and growth in alkaline zinc electrodeposition An Experimental and Theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Divyaraj

    The current work seeks to investigate the nucleation and growth of zinc electrodeposition in alkaline electrolyte, which is of commercial interest to alkaline zinc batteries for energy storage. The morphology of zinc growth places a severe limitation on the typical cycle life of such batteries. The formation of mossy zinc leads to a progressive deterioration of battery performance while zinc dendrites are responsible for sudden catastrophic battery failure. The problems are identified as the nucleation-controlled formation of mossy zinc and the transport-limited formation of dendritic zinc. Consequently, this thesis work seeks to investigate and accurately simulate the conditions under which such morphologies are formed. The nucleation and early-stage growth of Zn electrodeposits is studied on carbon-coated TEM grids. At low overpotentials, the morphology develops by aggregation at two distinct length scales: ~5 nm diameter monocrystalline nanoclusters form ~50nm diameter polycrystalline aggregates, and second, the aggregates form a branched network. Epitaxial (0002) growth above a critical overpotential leads to the formation of hexagonal single-crystals. A kinetic model is provided using the rate equations of vapor solidification to simulate the evolution of the different morphologies. On solving these equations, we show that aggregation is attributed to cluster impingement and cluster diffusion while single-crystal formation is attributed to direct attachment. The formation of dendritic zinc is investigated using in-operando transmission X-ray microscopy which is a unique technique for imaging metal electrodeposits. The nucleation density of zinc nuclei is lowered using polyaniline films to cover the active nucleation sites. The effect of overpotential is investigated and the morphology shows beautiful in-operando formation of symmetric zinc crystals. A linear perturbation model was developed to predict the growth and formation of these crystals to first

  20. Electrodeposition of silver nanoparticle arrays on transparent conductive oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dezhong; Tang, Yang; Jiang, Fuguo; Han, Zhihua; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The sliver nanoparticles' size and the distance between nanoparticles are tunable. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a facile method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) via electrodeposition techniques at room temperature. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Due to localized surface plasmon resonances, as-prepared silver nanoparticles on AZO glass exhibited different reflectivity in contrast with bare AZO glass. The weighted reflection of AZO substrate increased from 10.2% to 12.8%. The high reflection property of silver nanoparticle arrays on AZO substrate might be applicable for thin film solar cells and other optoelectronics applications.

  1. Electrodeposition of silver nanoparticle arrays on transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dezhong; Tang, Yang, E-mail: tangyang@nicenergy.com; Jiang, Fuguo; Han, Zhihua; Chen, Jie

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • The sliver nanoparticles' size and the distance between nanoparticles are tunable. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a facile method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) via electrodeposition techniques at room temperature. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Due to localized surface plasmon resonances, as-prepared silver nanoparticles on AZO glass exhibited different reflectivity in contrast with bare AZO glass. The weighted reflection of AZO substrate increased from 10.2% to 12.8%. The high reflection property of silver nanoparticle arrays on AZO substrate might be applicable for thin film solar cells and other optoelectronics applications.

  2. Thermal management of batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbard, H. F.; Chen, C.-C.

    Control of the internal temperature during high rate discharge or charge can be a major design problem for large, high energy density battery systems. A systematic approach to the thermal management of such systems is described for different load profiles based on: thermodynamic calculations of internal heat generation; calorimetric measurements of heat flux; analytical and finite difference calculations of the internal temperature distribution; appropriate system designs for heat removal and temperature control. Examples are presented of thermal studies on large lead-acid batteries for electrical utility load levelling and nickel-zinc and lithium-iron sulphide batteries for electric vehicle propulsion.

  3. Nanoscale zinc-based metal-organic framework with high capacity for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changdong [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Gao, Yuanrui; Liu, Lili [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Song, Yidan; Wang, Xianmei [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Liu, Hong-Jiang, E-mail: liuhj@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: liuqi62@163.com [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China)

    2016-12-15

    Layered zinc-based metal-organic framework ([Zn(4,4′-bpy)(tfbdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}], Zn-LMOF) nanosheets were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method (4,4′-bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine, H{sub 2}tfbdc = tetrafluoroterephthalic acid). The materials were characterized by IR spectrum, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface. When the Zn-LMOF nanosheets with the thickness of about 24 ± 8 nm were used as an anode material of lithium-ion batteries, not only the Zn-LMOF electrode shows a high reversible capacity, retaining 623 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1} but also exhibits an excellent cyclic stability and a higher rate performance.

  4. Tuning photoluminescence of ZnS nanoparticles by silver

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Ag@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles. ... doped ZnS NPs and thus changes the emission charac- teristics. We also ... Nanoparticles; photoluminescence; silver; zinc sulfide; doping. 1. ..... Sooklal K, Brain S, Angel M and Murphy C J 1996 J. Phys.

  5. Oxidative Pressure Leaching of Silver from Flotation Concentrates with Ammonium Thiocyanate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Hai; Yang, Jian-Guang; Liu, Wei; Chen, Geng-Tao; Tang, Mo-Tang; Qiu, Guan-Zhou

    2010-02-01

    The thermodynamics and technologies of the selective pressure leaching of silver from flotation concentrates were investigated in an ammonium thiocyanate medium. Thermodynamic analyses, which include silver solubility in NH4SCN solution and Eh-pH diagrams of the Me-MeS-NH4SCN-H2O system at 25 °C, were discussed. The effects of several factors, such as temperature, leaching time, oxidant, pH value, flotation concentrates concentration, surfactant concentration, and so on, on the extraction percentages of silver and zinc were investigated. The following optimal leaching conditions were obtained: NH4SCN concentration 1.5 M, lignin concentration 0.5 g/L, Fe3+ concentration 2 g/L, flotation concentrates addition 200 g/L, and oxygen pressure 1.2 MPa at 130 °C for 3 hours. Under these optimum conditions, the average extraction percentage of silver exceeded 94 pct, whereas the average extraction percentage of zinc was less than 3 pct. Only 7 pct of ammonium thiocyanate was consumed after 4 cycles, which indicated that ammonium thiocyanate hardly was oxidized under these oxidative pressure leaching conditions.

  6. A super ink jet printed zinc–silver 3D microbattery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C C; Evans, J W; Murata, K; Steingart, D A; Wright, P K

    2009-01-01

    A novel super ink jet printing (SIJP) system was used to fabricate 3D zinc–silver microbatteries directly on a substrate. The SIJP provides a simple and flexible method to deposit interesting 2D and 3D structures of varying morphologies without the waste and large energy inputs typical of standard microfabrication technologies. The system was used to print pairs of silver electrodes with arrays of pillars on glass substrates, and in the presence of an electrolyte, the battery self-assembled during the first charge. Using an aqueous electrolyte solution of KOH with dissolved ZnO, the SIJP printed structures showed similar electrochemical behavior to batteries composed of silver foil electrodes. For a sparse array of pillars (∼2.5% footprint area of each electrode pad occupied by pillars), a capacity increase of 60% was achieved in comparison with a cell with planar electrodes

  7. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis, E-mail: l.moreno@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; Losa, Almudena de la [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Geodinámica Externa, C/ José Antonio Novais, 12, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  8. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; Losa, Almudena de la; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  9. The radiological impact of the Ranger Uranium Mine on the general public in Jabiru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasnicka, Jiri

    1992-01-01

    Potential alpha energy concentrations (PAEC) of radon daughters were monitored by a Kodak LR 115 nuclear track detector both outdoors and indoors in Jabiru (a township 9 km west of the Ranger Uranium Mine) at five locations between Ranger and Jabiru during the 1989 Dry Season. The average outdoor PAEC and the indoor PAEC in private dwellings in Jabiru were 2.4 ± 0.2 mWL and 2.4 ± 0.7 mWL respectively. Though the total radon emission from the Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) project is relatively high (about 7 MBq s -1 ) the mining and milling of uranium contributes only marginally to the PAEC in Jabiru as can be seen from results of the air dispersion modelling and environmental radon daughter monitoring carried out in parallel with the indoor monitoring in Jabiru. The description of the radon daughter monitor and the major characteristics of the RUM project are given in the Appendixes. The average annual PAEC in Jabiru attributable t the mining and milling operations at Ranger was calculated to be about 0.16 mWL, which corresponds to an effective dose equivalent of 0.07 mSv y -1 (7% of the 1 mSv y -1 public limit) for members of the public in Jabiru. 17 refs., 3 tab., 7 figs

  10. Performance evaluation of Mg-AgCI batteries for underwater propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    K. Venkateswara Rao

    2001-01-01

    Magnesium-silver chloride seawater activated reserve pile-type battery was exclusively used in all underwater vehicles as a source of power due to its high energy density and power density. Various tests have been conducted on fully assembled battery to test its performance, suitability and compatibility. However, it is also essential that the battery is subjected to failure mode studies to understand the limitations of the battery and to analyse the vehicles performance under such sit...

  11. Vacancy enhancement of diffusion after quenching and during irradiation in silver-zinc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuele, W.

    1980-01-01

    Quenching and annealing experiments were performed on silver-zinc alloys with 8.14 and 30 at %Zn. From the changes of the electrical resistivity due to an increase of the degree of short-range order, the activation energy of self-diffusion was determined to be Qsub(SD) = 1.60 and Qsub(SD) = 1.38 eV for both alloys, respectively. For the migration energy of vacancies, a value Esub(V)sup(M) = 0.64 eV was found for the alloy with 8.14 at %Zn. Evidence is given that the vacancy migration energy Esub(V)sup(M) of the alloys with 30 at %Zn is smaller than 0.60 eV in agreement with data given by Berry and Orehotsky. The results of measurements of radiation-enhanced diffusion obtained by a Russian and a French group, are reinterpreted. It follows that the increase of the degree of order during irradiation is obtained only be vacancy enhancement of diffusion and that the migration activation energy of self-interstitials is Esub(I)sup(M) approximately 0.46 eV and Esub(I)sup(M) approximately 0.41 eV for the alloys with 8.14 and 30 at %Zn, respectively. (author)

  12. Neurotoxicity of dental amalgam is mediated by zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobner, D; Asrari, M

    2003-03-01

    The use of dental amalgam is controversial largely because it contains mercury. We tested whether amalgam caused toxicity in neuronal cultures and whether that toxicity was caused by mercury. In this study, we used cortical cell cultures to show for the first time that amalgam causes nerve cell toxicity in culture. However, the toxicity was not blocked by the mercury chelator, 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate (DMPS), but was blocked by the metal chelator, calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA). DMPS was an effective mercury chelator in this system, since it blocked mercury toxicity. Of the components that comprise amalgam (mercury, zinc, tin, copper, and silver), only zinc neurotoxicity was blocked by CaEDTA. These results indicate that amalgam is toxic to nerve cells in culture by releasing zinc. While zinc is known to be neurotoxic, ingestion of zinc is not a major concern because zinc levels in the body are tightly regulated.

  13. Test Report : GS Battery, EPC power HES RESCU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borneo, Daniel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  14. Rehabilitation of the Ranger Mine Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, J.; Uren, C.; Cull, R.; Curley, P.; Unger, C.

    1989-01-01

    Designs for long-lived waste rock piles in tropical Australia need to consider the climatic factors affecting erosion. Erosion trials on four plots at the Ranger waste rock dump demonstrate that some features of natural stable landforms such as slope morphogenetic variables and the size characteristics of aerial cover of resistive rock particles on the surface, can be sucessfully used in the design of the waste rock piles. Preliminary results indicate that the erosional stability of slopes can be enhanced by the use of concave surfaces. ills., diagrams

  15. Structural modification in the formation of starch - silver nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, S. N. Suraiya; Aswal, V. K.; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal

    2016-05-01

    Polymer based nanocomposites have gained wide applications in field of battery technology. Starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide with sustainable properties such as biodegradable, non toxic, excellent film forming capacity and it also act as reducing agent for the metal nanoparticles. In our research various concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO3) was added to the starch solution and films were obtained using solution casting method. Surface electron microscope (SEM) of the films shows modifications depending upon the concentration of AgNO3. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis showed that addition of silver nitrate modifies the starch to disc like structures and with increasing the AgNO3 concentration leads to the formation of fractals. This research could benefit battery technology where solid polymer membranes using starch is used.

  16. Ranger project starts-up amid doubts and optimism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, B.

    1982-01-01

    After two and a half years construction and commissioning, the Ranger uranium project was officially opened on November 20, 1981. It was later closed for four days in connection with possible breaches of environmental regulations owing to the appearance of islands in the tailings dam. Contracts currently held represent a production commitment slightly in excess of the design capacity of the plant for the next decade

  17. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  18. Weavable, Conductive Yarn-Based NiCo//Zn Textile Battery with High Energy Density and Rate Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Ip, Wing Shan; Lau, Yuen Ying; Sun, Jinfeng; Zeng, Jie; Yeung, Nga Sze Sea; Ng, Wing Sum; Li, Hongfei; Pei, Zengxia; Xue, Qi; Wang, Yukun; Yu, Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhi, Chunyi

    2017-09-26

    With intrinsic safety and much higher energy densities than supercapacitors, rechargeable nickel/cobalt-zinc-based textile batteries are promising power sources for next generation personalized wearable electronics. However, high-performance wearable nickel/cobalt-zinc-based batteries are rarely reported because there is a lack of industrially weavable and knittable highly conductive yarns. Here, we use scalably produced highly conductive yarns uniformly covered with zinc (as anode) and nickel cobalt hydroxide nanosheets (as cathode) to fabricate rechargeable yarn batteries. They possess a battery level capacity and energy density, as well as a supercapacitor level power density. They deliver high specific capacity of 5 mAh cm -3 and energy densities of 0.12 mWh cm -2 and 8 mWh cm -3 (based on the whole solid battery). They exhibit ultrahigh rate capabilities of 232 C (liquid electrolyte) and 116 C (solid electrolyte), which endows the batteries excellent power densities of 32.8 mW cm -2 and 2.2 W cm -3 (based on the whole solid battery). These are among the highest values reported so far. A wrist band battery is further constructed by using a large conductive cloth woven from the conductive yarns by a commercial weaving machine. It powers various electronic devices successfully, enabling dual functions of wearability and energy storage.

  19. Using Spin-Coated Silver Nanoparticles/Zinc Oxide Thin Films to Improve the Efficiency of GaInP/(InGaAs/Ge Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsun Lei

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized a silver nanoparticle/zinc oxide (Ag NP/ZnO thin film by using spin-coating technology. The treatment solution for Ag NP/ZnO thin film deposition contained zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO2, sodium hydroxide (NaOH, and silver nitrate (AgNO3 aqueous solutions. The crystalline characteristics, surface morphology, content of elements, and reflectivity of the Ag NPs/ZnO thin film at various concentrations of the AgNO3 aqueous solution were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ultraviolet–visible–near infrared spectrophotometry. The results indicated that the crystalline structure, Ag content, and reflectance of Ag NP/ZnO thin films depended on the AgNO3 concentration. Hybrid antireflection coatings (ARCs composed of SiNx and Ag NPs/ZnO thin films with various AgNO3 concentrations were deposited on GaInP/(InGaAs/Ge solar cells. We propose that the optimal ARC consists of SiNx and Ag NP/ZnO thin films prepared using a treatment solution of 0.0008 M AgNO3, 0.007 M Zn(CH3COO2, and 1 M NaOH, followed by post-annealing at 200 °C. GaInP/(AlGaAs/Ge solar cells with the optimal hybrid ARC and SiNx ARC exhibit a conversion efficiency of 34.1% and 30.2% with Voc = 2.39 and 2.4 V, Jsc = 16.63 and 15.37 mA/cm2, and fill factor = 86.1% and 78.8%.

  20. Impact of waste batteries dumpsites on the water quality of parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open dump methods used by Exide Batteries Manufacturing Company are unsatisfactory means of solid waste disposal because certain elements such as Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) used in the Production of these batteries are toxic and require special handling in disposal. The disposal of waste batteries and ...

  1. Zinc-based electrolyte compositions, and related electrochemical processes and articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniajanski, Sergei; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2018-02-20

    An aqueous electrolyte composition is described, including a zinc salt based on zinc acetate or zinc glocolate. The saturation concentration of zinc in the electrolyte composition is in the range of about 2.5M to about 3.5M. The composition also contains at least one salt of a monovalent cation. The molar ratio of zinc to the monovalent cation is about 1:2. An aqueous zinc electroplating bath, containing the aqueous electrolyte composition, is also disclosed, along with a method for the electrochemical deposition of zinc onto a substrate surface, using the electroplating bath. Related flow batteries are also described, including a catholyte, as well as an anolyte based on the aqueous electrolyte composition, with a membrane between the catholyte and the anolyte.

  2. In situ Zn/ZnO mapping elucidating for "shape change" of zinc electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akiyoshi; Arai, Hajime; Murayama, Haruno; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Yamane, Tomokazu; Hirai, Toshiro; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Yamaki, Jun-ichi; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2018-04-01

    For the use of the zinc anode in secondary batteries, it is necessary to solve the "shape change" deterioration issue in that zinc species agglomerate in the center of the electrode to fade the available capacity. The local chemical compositions of the zinc electrodes during "shape change" were precisely analyzed using the synchrotron X-ray diffraction mapping analysis of practical zinc-nickel cells in a non-destructive manner. The in situ Zn/ZnO mapping shows that metallic Zn deposition chiefly occurs in the periphery of ZnO while ZnO are left in the center of electrode like a hill on charging. On discharging, the ZnO hill grows to the perpendicular direction on the electrode while metallic zinc is oxidized and dissolved. These findings allow us to propose a mechanism for the shape change; thus dissolved zincate species are decomposed on the ZnO hill during discharging to be accumulated in the center of the electrode. It is suggested that suppressing zincate dissolution and non-uniform zinc deposition slow the growth rate of the ZnO hill to enhance the cyclability of zinc-based secondary batteries.

  3. Transformation of Leaf-like Zinc Dendrite in Oxidation and Reduction Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Akiyoshi; Murayama, Haruno; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Yamane, Tomokazu; Arai, Hajime; Hirai, Toshiro; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Yamaki, Jun-ichi; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Leaf-like zinc dendrites change to leaf-like residual oxides at high oxidation current density (10 mA cm −2 ) whereas it completely dissolves at low oxidation current density (1 mA cm −2 ). • Leaf-like residual oxide products is transformed to zinc deposits with particulate morphology, resulting in good rechargeability. • The residual zinc oxide provides sufficient zincate on its reduction, preventing the diffusion-limited condition that causes leaf-like dendrite formation. - Abstract: Zinc is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous battery systems whereas it shows insufficient rechargeability for use in secondary batteries. It has been reported that leaf-like dendrite deposits are often the origin of cell-failure, however, their nature and behavior on discharge (oxidation) - charge (reduction) cycling have been only poorly understood. Here we investigate the transformation of the leaf-like zinc dendrites using ex-situ scanning electron microscopy, X-ray computational tomography and in-situ X-ray diffraction. It is shown that the leaf-like zinc dendrites obtained under diffusion-limited conditions are nearly completely dissolved at a low oxidation current density of 1 mA cm −2 and cause re-evolution of the zinc dendrites. Oxidation at a high current density of 10 mA cm −2 leads to the formation of leaf-like zinc oxide residual products that result in particulate zinc deposits in the following reduction process, enabling good rechargeability. The reaction behavior of this oxide residue is detailed and discussed for the development of long-life zinc electrodes

  4. Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

  5. Range Riders and Game Wardens: A Brief History of Fort Bragg’s Forest Ranger Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Estelle Rowland and Evelyn Ellington. Infor- mal interviews were conducted with family members of former rangers, Myra Mort Hanni , Elizabeth McPherson, Dun...worked under the command of the sergeant whose family resided in the main house. As Myra Mott Hanni , daughter of 1920s ranger Sergeant John Sidney Mott...above as well as by Myra Mott Hanni who retains a photograph of her father standing next to a confiscated still. Wilson recalls finding stills on the

  6. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  7. Influence of residual elements in lead on oxygen- and hydrogen-gassing rates of lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Ceylan, H.; Haigh, N. P.; Lwin, T.; Rand, D. A. J.

    Raw lead materials contain many residual elements. With respect to setting 'safe' levels for these elements, each country has its own standard, but the majority of the present specifications for the lead used to prepare battery oxide apply to flooded batteries that employ antimonial grids. In these batteries, the antimony in the positive and negative grids dominates gassing characteristics so that the influence of residual elements is of little importance. This is, however, not the case for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, which use antimony-free grids and less sulfuric acid solution. Thus, it is necessary to specify 'acceptable' levels of residual elements for the production of VRLA batteries. In this study, 17 elements are examined, namely: antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, germanium, iron, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, tellurium, thallium, tin, and zinc. The following strategy has been formulated to determine the acceptable levels: (i) selection of a control oxide; (ii) determination of critical float, hydrogen and oxygen currents; (iii) establishment of a screening plan for the elements; (iv) development of a statistical method for analysis of the experimental results. The critical values of the float, hydrogen and oxygen currents are calculated from a field survey of battery failure data. The values serve as a base-line for comparison with the corresponding measured currents from cells using positive and negative plates produced either from the control oxide or from oxide doped with different levels of the 17 elements in combination. The latter levels are determined by means of a screening plan which is based on the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Following this systematic and thorough exercise, two specifications are proposed for the purity of the lead to be used in oxide production for VRLA technology.

  8. New developments in battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J

    1982-01-01

    Practical, high energy density alternatives to the lead-acid battery are considered for both vehicular and utility load-leveling use, in view of year 2000 potential markets. After demonstrating the high costs and low energy densities and life cycles of lead/acid, nickel/iron and nickel/zinc systems, as well as batteries using gaseous electrodes such as the nickel/hydrogen system employed by communication satellites and those taking advantage of light metals like lithium and sodium, a description is given of the design features and operational characteristics of the sodium/sulfur battery. Attention is given to both internal and external sodium volume battery configurations, both of which employ beta alumina as a solid electrolyte with high sodium ion conductivity, and molten sodium and sulfur at 350 C. It is the thermal insulation of the sodium/sulfur battery that makes its application to electric vehicles difficult, despite a very high energy density.

  9. Structural modification in the formation of starch – silver nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, S. N. Suraiya; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal, E-mail: perumal.ramasamy@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science and Technology, A.C.Tech. Campus, Anna University, Chennai – 600 025 (India); Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polymer based nanocomposites have gained wide applications in field of battery technology. Starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide with sustainable properties such as biodegradable, non toxic, excellent film forming capacity and it also act as reducing agent for the metal nanoparticles. In our research various concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) was added to the starch solution and films were obtained using solution casting method. Surface electron microscope (SEM) of the films shows modifications depending upon the concentration of AgNO{sub 3}. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis showed that addition of silver nitrate modifies the starch to disc like structures and with increasing the AgNO{sub 3} concentration leads to the formation of fractals. This research could benefit battery technology where solid polymer membranes using starch is used.

  10. Structural modification in the formation of starch – silver nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, S. N. Suraiya; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal; Aswal, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer based nanocomposites have gained wide applications in field of battery technology. Starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide with sustainable properties such as biodegradable, non toxic, excellent film forming capacity and it also act as reducing agent for the metal nanoparticles. In our research various concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO_3) was added to the starch solution and films were obtained using solution casting method. Surface electron microscope (SEM) of the films shows modifications depending upon the concentration of AgNO_3. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis showed that addition of silver nitrate modifies the starch to disc like structures and with increasing the AgNO_3 concentration leads to the formation of fractals. This research could benefit battery technology where solid polymer membranes using starch is used.

  11. Development and Characterization of an Electrically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Ma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An electrically rechargeable zinc-air battery stack consisting of three single cells in series was designed using a novel structured bipolar plate with air-breathing holes. Alpha-MnO2 and LaNiO3 severed as the catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR and oxygen evolution reaction (OER. The anodic and cathodic polarization and individual cell voltages were measured at constant charge-discharge (C-D current densities indicating a uniform voltage profile for each single cell. One hundred C-D cycles were carried out for the stack. The results showed that, over the initial 10 cycles, the average C-D voltage gap was about 0.94 V and the average energy efficiency reached 89.28% with current density charging at 15 mA·cm−2 and discharging at 25 mA·cm−2. The total increase in charging voltage over the 100 C-D cycles was ~1.56% demonstrating excellent stability performance. The stack performance degradation was analyzed by galvanostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The charge transfer resistance of ORR increased from 1.57 to 2.21 Ω and that of Zn/Zn2+ reaction increased from 0.21 to 0.34 Ω after 100 C-D cycles. The quantitative analysis guided the potential for the optimization of both positive and negative electrodes to improve the cycle life of the cell stack.

  12. Joint optimisation of arbitrage profits and battery life degradation for grid storage application of battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    To meet European decarbonisation targets by 2050, the electrification of the transport sector is mandatory. Most electric vehicles rely on lithium-ion batteries, because they have a higher energy/power density and longer life span compared to other practical batteries such as zinc-carbon batteries. Electric vehicles can thus provide energy storage to support the system integration of generation from highly variable renewable sources, such as wind and photovoltaics (PV). However, charging/discharging causes batteries to degradate progressively with reduced capacity. In this study, we investigate the impact of the joint optimisation of arbitrage revenue and battery degradation of electric vehicle batteries in a simplified setting, where historical prices allow for market participation of battery electric vehicle owners. It is shown that the joint optimisation of both leads to stronger gains then the sum of both optimisation strategies and that including battery degradation into the model avoids state of charges close to the maximum at times. It can be concluded that degradation is an important aspect to consider in power system models, which incorporate any kind of lithium-ion battery storage.

  13. Influence of daylight on the fate of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in natural aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzak, Niksa; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles, such as silver (Ag-NP) and zinc oxide (ZnO-NP), are increasingly used in many consumer products. These nanoparticles (NPs) will likely be exposed to the aquatic environment (rain, river, lake water) and to light (visible and UV) in the products where they are applied, or after those products are discharged. Dissolution of Ag-NP and ZnO-NP is an important process because the dissolved Ag + and Zn 2+ are readily available and toxic for aquatic organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of daylight (UV and visible) for the fate of engineered Ag-NP and ZnO-NPs in different types of natural waters. Ag-NP and ZnO-NP were exposed to rainwater, river Rhine, and lake waters (Greifen, Lucerne, Cristallina, Gruère) under different light conditions (no light, UV 300–400 nm and visible light 400–700 nm) for up to 8 days. Stronger agglomeration of Ag-NP was observed in the waters with higher ionic strength in comparison to those with lower ionic strength. Visible light tended to increase the dissolution of Ag-NP under most natural water conditions in comparison to dark conditions, whereas UV-light led to decreased dissolved Ag + after longer exposure time. These effects illustrate the dynamic interactions of Ag-NP with light, which may lead both to increased oxidation and to increased reduction of Ag + by organic compounds under UV-light. In the case of ZnO-NP, agglomeration occurred at higher ionic strength, but the effects of pH were predominant for dissolution, which occurred up to concentrations close to the solubility limit of ZnO(s) at pH around 8.2 and to nearly complete dissolution of ZnO-NP at lower pH (pH 4.8–6.5), with both visible and UV-light facilitating dissolution. This study thus shows that light conditions play an important role in the dissolution processes of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Effects of visible and UV-light on dissolution of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were examined. • Natural waters

  14. Content Validity Index and Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of a New Muscle Strength/Endurance Test Battery for Swedish Soldiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Larsson

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of commonly used muscle performance tests in military personnel and to investigate the reliability of a proposed test battery. For the content validity investigation, thirty selected tests were those described in the literature and/or commonly used in the Nordic and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO countries. Nine selected experts rated, on a four-point Likert scale, the relevance of these tests in relation to five different work tasks: lifting, carrying equipment on the body or in the hands, climbing, and digging. Thereafter, a content validity index (CVI was calculated for each work task. The result showed excellent CVI (≥0.78 for sixteen tests, which comprised of one or more of the military work tasks. Three of the tests; the functional lower-limb loading test (the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, and back extension, showed excellent content validity for four of the work tasks. For the development of a new muscle strength/endurance test battery, these three tests were further supplemented with two other tests, namely, the chins and side-bridge test. The inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC2,1 0.99 for all five tests. The intra-rater reliability was good to high (ICC3,1 0.82-0.96 with an acceptable standard error of mean (SEM, except for the side-bridge test (SEM%>15. Thus, the final suggested test battery for a valid and reliable evaluation of soldiers' muscle performance comprised the following four tests; the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, chins, and back extension test. The criterion-related validity of the test battery should be further evaluated for soldiers exposed to varying physical workload.

  15. Quick charge battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  16. Electrochemical and morphological investigation of silver and zinc modified calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings on metallic implant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furko, M.; Jiang, Y.; Wilkins, T.A.; Balázsi, C.

    2016-01-01

    In our research nanostructured silver and zinc doped calcium-phosphate (CaP) bioceramic coatings were prepared on commonly used orthopaedic implant materials (Ti6Al4V). The deposition process was carried out by the pulse current technique at 70 °C from electrolyte containing the appropriate amount of Ca(NO_3)_2 and NH_4H_2PO_4 components. During the electrochemical deposition Ag"+ and Zn"2"+ ions were introduced into the solution. The electrochemical behaviour and corrosion rate of the bioceramic coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in conventional Ringer's solution in a three electrode open cell. The coating came into contact with the electrolyte and corrosion occurred during immersion. In order to achieve antimicrobial properties, it is important to maintain a continuous release of silver ions into physiological media, while the bioactive CaP layer enhances the biocompatibility properties of the layer by fostering the bone cell growth. The role of Zn"2"+ is to shorten wound healing time. Morphology and composition of coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Differential thermal analyses (DTA) were performed to determine the thermal stability of the pure and modified CaP bioceramic coatings while the structure and phases of the layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. - Highlights: • Ag and Zn doped calcium phosphate (CaP) layers were electrochemically deposited. • Layer degradation was studied by EIS and potentiodynamic measurements. • The bioceramic coatings became passive after a period of immersion time. • Ag and Zn modified layer shows higher degradation rate compared to pure CaP coating.

  17. Flotation of traces of silver and copper(II) ions with a methyl cellosolve solution of dithizone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraide, M; Mizuike, A

    1975-06-01

    Microgram quantities of silver and copper(II) ions in aqueous solutions are collected on dithizone precipitates, which are then floated with the aid of small nitrogen bubbles. This separation technique has been successfully applied to the atomic-absorption spectrophotometric determination of down to a tenth ppm of silver and copper in high-purity lead and zinc metals.

  18. The mission and status of the U.S. Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. E.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to the U.S. Department of Energy's battery energy storage program history, assessing the importance it has had in the national interest to date in industrial, vehicular, and electric utility load leveling applications. The development status of battery technology is also evaluated for the cases of sodium-sulfur, zinc-bromine, zinc-ferricyanide, nickel-hydrogen, aluminum-air, lithium-metal disulfide, and fuel cell systems. Development trends are projected into the foreseeable future.

  19. A Hollow-Structured Manganese Oxide Cathode for Stable Zn-MnO₂ Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaotong; Li, Jianming; Jin, Xu; Han, Yehu; Lin, Yue; Lei, Zhanwu; Wang, Shiyang; Qin, Lianjie; Jiao, Shuhong; Cao, Ruiguo

    2018-05-05

    Aqueous rechargeable zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn-MnO₂) batteries are considered as one of the most promising energy storage devices for large scale-energy storage systems due to their low cost, high safety, and environmental friendliness. However, only a few cathode materials have been demonstrated to achieve stable cycling for aqueous rechargeable Zn-MnO₂ batteries. Here, we report a new material consisting of hollow MnO₂ nanospheres, which can be used for aqueous Zn-MnO₂ batteries. The hollow MnO₂ nanospheres can achieve high specific capacity up to ~405 mAh g −1 at 0.5 C. More importantly, the hollow structure of birnessite-type MnO₂ enables long-term cycling stability for the aqueous Zn-MnO₂ batteries. The excellent performance of the hollow MnO₂ nanospheres should be due to their unique structural properties that enable the easy intercalation of zinc ions.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of the superonic-based secondary battery cell Ag/RbAg4I5/RbI3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effendi Nurdin; Jahja, A.K.; Purnama, S.

    2000-01-01

    The solid electrolyte material silver based, RbAg 4 I 5 had been used as electrolyte in making a secondary rechargeable battery cell with silver (Ag) as the anode and rubidium tri-iodide (RbI 3 ) as the cathode.The charge-discharge characteristics measurements and the battery polarization in normal atmospheric pressure, at ambient temperature had been carried out. It can be deduced that the cell configuration Ag/RbAg 4I5/ RbI 3 has performed as a secondary battery. The cell performed well with current density up to 230 μA/cm 2

  1. Polyaniline silver nanoparticle coffee waste extracted porous graphene oxide nanocomposite structures as novel electrode material for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundriyal, Poonam; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2017-03-01

    The exploration of new and advanced electrode materials are required in electronic and electrical devices for power storage applications. Also, there has been a continuous endeavour to formulate strategies for extraction of high performance electrode materials from naturally obtained waste products. In this work, we have developed an in situ hybrid nanocomposite from coffee waste extracted porous graphene oxide (CEPG), polyaniline (PANI) and silver nanoparticles (Ag) and have found this novel composite to serve as an efficient electrode material for batteries. The successful interaction among the three phases of the nano-composite i.e. CEPG-PANI-Ag have been thoroughly understood through RAMAN, Fourier transform infrared and x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, morphological studies through field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the nano-composite demonstrates higher thermal stability up-to a temperature of 495 °C. Further BET studies through nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms confirm the presence of micro/meso and macro-pores in the nanocomposite sample. The cyclic-voltammetry (CV) analysis performed on CEPG-PANI-Ag nanocomposite exhibits a purely faradic behaviour using nickel foam as a current collector thus suggests the prepared nanocomposite as a battery electrode material. The nanocomposite reports a maximum specific capacity of 1428 C g-1 and excellent cyclic stability up-to 5000 cycles.

  2. Expansion of the ore treatment plant at Ranger Uranium Mines at Jabiru, NT Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nice, R.W.; Banaczkowski, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Ranger Uranium Mine commenced processing ore in 1980. The original plant designed by the joint venture between Davy and Wright Engineers had been designed to treat 1.3 Mtpa of ore to produce 3500 tpa of U 3 O 8 concentrates. The plant operated successfully through good and bad years until the 1995 when the owners of Energy Resources of Australia, North Ltd. (70%) decided that there was a market opening to allow expansion of the treatment plant such that it would produce 6000 tpa of concentrate.The desire to produce more concentrates was market driven but the change from the mine Ranger 1 to a new pit Ranger 3 also necessitated the inclusion of the ability to treat more ore. This involved the installation of more grinding and CCD washing capacity. There were some other changes that were to be included into the expansion to overcome operating deficiencies, reduce operating costs and to generally make the operation easier.The Australian engineering company, Kvaerner Davy, was commissioned to provide the EPCM services to the clients, North and the Ranger Operation Group. North Technical Services managed the Project with considerable input from the site operating and maintenance personnel. The site operating personnel commissioned the plant and are successfully operating it at the time of the preparation of this paper. The first part of this paper presents the basic process related activities required to provide the expanded facilities. This includes the flowsheet modifications, equipment changes and new equipment procured. Additionally, a discussion is given regarding the P and ID changes, the piping modifications and the means to install the expanded facilities with a minimum of interruption to the continuing plant operation. A second part of the paper details some of the experiences gained while constructing the expansion and commissioning and operating the expanded plant. (author)

  3. Analysis of metals with luster: Roman brass and silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajfar, H., E-mail: helena.fajfar@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, Z. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Šmit, Ž. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-11-01

    Non-destructive PIXE analysis using in-air proton beam was used for the studies of earliest brass coins issued during the 1st century BC by Greek cities in Asia Minor, Romans and Celts, and for the studies of plated low grade silver coins of the 3rd century AD. The analysis determined the levels of zinc and important trace elements, notably selenium, which confirms spread of selenium-marked copper from the east. For plating, combined tinning and silvering was identified by the mapping technique for the mid 3rd century AD, which evolved into mere plating by 270 AD.

  4. Analysis of metals with luster: Roman brass and silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajfar, H.; Rupnik, Z.; Šmit, Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Non-destructive PIXE analysis using in-air proton beam was used for the studies of earliest brass coins issued during the 1st century BC by Greek cities in Asia Minor, Romans and Celts, and for the studies of plated low grade silver coins of the 3rd century AD. The analysis determined the levels of zinc and important trace elements, notably selenium, which confirms spread of selenium-marked copper from the east. For plating, combined tinning and silvering was identified by the mapping technique for the mid 3rd century AD, which evolved into mere plating by 270 AD.

  5. Enhancement in sensitivity of graphene-based zinc oxide assisted bimetallic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kushwaha, Angad S.; Srivastava, Monika; Mishra, H.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    In the present communication, a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with Kretschmann configuration having alternate layers, prism/zinc oxide/silver/gold/graphene/biomolecules (ss-DNA) is presented. The optimization of the proposed configuration has been accomplished by keeping the constant thickness of zinc oxide (32 nm), silver (32 nm), graphene (0.34 nm) layer and biomolecules (100 nm) for different values of gold layer thickness (1, 3 and 5 nm). The sensitivity of the proposed SPR biosensor has been demonstrated for a number of design parameters such as gold layer thickness, number of graphene layer, refractive index of biomolecules and the thickness of biomolecules layer. SPR biosensor with optimized geometry has greater sensitivity (66 deg/RIU) than the conventional (52 deg/RIU) as well as other graphene-based (53.2 deg/RIU) SPR biosensor. The effect of zinc oxide layer thickness on the sensitivity of SPR biosensor has also been analysed. From the analysis, it is found that the sensitivity increases significantly by increasing the thickness of zinc oxide layer. It means zinc oxide intermediate layer plays an important role to improve the sensitivity of the biosensor. The sensitivity of SPR biosensor also increases by increasing the number of graphene layer (upto nine layer).

  6. Optimized Power Generation and Distribution Unit for Mobile Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    that produces electricity’ [19], but more succinctly, it is an energy converter – from chemically stored energy to electrical energy. Alessandro ... Volta is credited with the creation of the world’s first ever battery, produced in 1800. It consisted of alternating layers of zinc, silver, and

  7. Chemical data and statistical interpretations for rocks and ores from the Ranger uranium mine, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas; Frishman, David

    1983-01-01

    Analytical results for 61 elements in 370 samples from the Ranger Mine area are reported. Most of the rocks come from drill core in the Ranger No. 1 and Ranger No. 3 deposits, but 20 samples are from unmineralized drill core more than 1 km from ore. Statistical tests show that the elements Mg, Fe, F, Be, Co, Li, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, Ti, V, CI, As, Br, Au, Ce, Dy, La Sc, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Tb have positive association with uranium, and Si, Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Ce, and Cs have negative association. For most lithologic subsets Mg, Fe, Li, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Y, Sm, Sc, Eu, and Yb are significantly enriched in ore-bearing rocks, whereas Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ce, and Cs are significantly depleted. These results are consistent with petrographic observations on altered rocks. Lithogeochemistry can aid exploration, but for these rocks requires methods that are expensive and not amenable to routine use.

  8. An assessment of the water management program proposed in the Ranger EIS and its environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment of the water management program proposed in the Ranger EIS has three components: a) a statement of water quality criteria and standards that the program must meet, b) a set of calculations based on the best available estimates, that compares the expected levels of waste with the standards set for the release, c) the plan of the surveillance program aimed at demonstrating compliance with these standards and at revealing deficiencies in the choice of criteria, the derivation of standards from them and unforseen departures from expectation. Standards are suggested for the operation of the Ranger mines based on the most restrictive criterion out of: (i) acute toxicity tests carried out on organisms and water from the Magela Creek combined with application factors recommended by AWRC, (ii) the results on indicator species and biological diversity indices for the Finniss river, (iii) requirements for agricultural and pastoral use, (iv) the requirements for portable water. It is expected that the program proposed by Ranger will meet these standards and it is concluded that planning for a comprehensive environmental program is adequate. (author)

  9. Performance characteristics of silver cerium vanadate batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Arof , Abdul; Kamaluddin , Burhanuddin; Radhakrishna , S.

    1993-01-01

    Stoichiometric ratios of AR grade AgI, Ag2O, V2O5 and CeO2 were melted in a furnace and the melt was rapidly quenched to liquid nitrogen temperature to form a glass. The glassy nature of the sample has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction technique. The microstructure and microanalysis studies of the silver cerium vanadate (SCV) have been carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX). The SEM micrograph of the as-quenched melt showed c...

  10. 3D hollow sphere Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs: Its high-performance bi-functional cathode catalysis and application in rechargeable zinc-air battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a continuous need for high active, excellently durable and low-cost electrocatalysts for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Among many low-cost metal based candidates, transition metal oxides with the CNTs composite have gained increasing attention. In this paper, the 3-D hollow sphere MnO2 nanotube-supported Co3O4 nanoparticles and its carbon nanotubes hybrid material (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs have been synthesized via a simple co-precipitation method combined with post-heat treatment. The morphology and composition of the catalysts are thoroughly analyzed through SEM, TEM, TEM-mapping, XRD, EDX and XPS. In comparison with the commercial 20% Pt/C, Co3O4/MnO2, bare MnO2 nanotubes and CNTs, the hybrid Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs-350 exhibits perfect bi-functional catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction under alkaline condition (0.1 M KOH. Therefore, high cell performances are achieved which result in an appropriate open circuit voltage (∼1.47 V, a high discharge peak power density (340 mW cm−2 and a large specific capacity (775 mAh g−1 at 10 mA cm−2 for the primary Zn-air battery, a small charge–discharge voltage gap and a high cycle-life (504 cycles at 10 mA cm−2 with 10 min per cycle for the rechargeable Zn-air battery. In particular, the simple synthesis method is suitable for a large-scale production of this bifunctional material due to a green, cost effective and readily available process. Keywords: Bi-functional catalyst, Oxygen reduction reaction, Oxygen evolution reaction, Activity and stability, Rechargeable zinc-air battery

  11. Electrically rechargeable zinc/air battery: a high specific energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzer, F; Sauter, J -C; Masanz, G; Mueller, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This contribution describes our research and development efforts towards the demonstration of a light-weight, low-cost 12 V/20 Ah electrically rechargeable Zn/air battery. We successfully developed electrodes having active areas of up to 200 cm{sup 2}. Deep discharge cycles at different currents as well as current-voltage curves are reported for a 10 cell Zn/air battery (serial connection) with a rated capacity of 20 Ah. Based on the discharge cycle at a power of 19 W, and the weight of the battery, a specific energy of more than 90 Wh/kg could be evaluated for the whole system. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  12. The application of image processing in the measurement for three-light-axis parallelity of laser ranger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Qianqian

    2008-12-01

    When laser ranger is transported or used in field operations, the transmitting axis, receiving axis and aiming axis may be not parallel. The nonparallelism of the three-light-axis will affect the range-measuring ability or make laser ranger not be operated exactly. So testing and adjusting the three-light-axis parallelity in the production and maintenance of laser ranger is important to ensure using laser ranger reliably. The paper proposes a new measurement method using digital image processing based on the comparison of some common measurement methods for the three-light-axis parallelity. It uses large aperture off-axis paraboloid reflector to get the images of laser spot and white light cross line, and then process the images on LabVIEW platform. The center of white light cross line can be achieved by the matching arithmetic in LABVIEW DLL. And the center of laser spot can be achieved by gradation transformation, binarization and area filter in turn. The software system can set CCD, detect the off-axis paraboloid reflector, measure the parallelity of transmitting axis and aiming axis and control the attenuation device. The hardware system selects SAA7111A, a programmable vedio decoding chip, to perform A/D conversion. FIFO (first-in first-out) is selected as buffer.USB bus is used to transmit data to PC. The three-light-axis parallelity can be achieved according to the position bias between them. The device based on this method has been already used. The application proves this method has high precision, speediness and automatization.

  13. Electrochemical and morphological investigation of silver and zinc modified calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings on metallic implant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furko, M., E-mail: monika.furko@bayzoltan.hu [Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd. for Applied Research, H-1116 Budapest, Fehérvári u. 130 (Hungary); Jiang, Y.; Wilkins, T.A. [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Balázsi, C. [Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd. for Applied Research, H-1116 Budapest, Fehérvári u. 130 (Hungary)

    2016-05-01

    In our research nanostructured silver and zinc doped calcium-phosphate (CaP) bioceramic coatings were prepared on commonly used orthopaedic implant materials (Ti6Al4V). The deposition process was carried out by the pulse current technique at 70 °C from electrolyte containing the appropriate amount of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} components. During the electrochemical deposition Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} ions were introduced into the solution. The electrochemical behaviour and corrosion rate of the bioceramic coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in conventional Ringer's solution in a three electrode open cell. The coating came into contact with the electrolyte and corrosion occurred during immersion. In order to achieve antimicrobial properties, it is important to maintain a continuous release of silver ions into physiological media, while the bioactive CaP layer enhances the biocompatibility properties of the layer by fostering the bone cell growth. The role of Zn{sup 2+} is to shorten wound healing time. Morphology and composition of coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Differential thermal analyses (DTA) were performed to determine the thermal stability of the pure and modified CaP bioceramic coatings while the structure and phases of the layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. - Highlights: • Ag and Zn doped calcium phosphate (CaP) layers were electrochemically deposited. • Layer degradation was studied by EIS and potentiodynamic measurements. • The bioceramic coatings became passive after a period of immersion time. • Ag and Zn modified layer shows higher degradation rate compared to pure CaP coating.

  14. Recovery of Mn as MnO2 from spent batteries leaching solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manciulea A. L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of spent batteries and recovery of metals from them is of great scientific and economic interest, on account of recycling requirement of these wastes and recovery of valuable materials (De Michellis et al., 2007. Usage of recycled materials is diminishing the energy consumption and pollution. It is important that the recycling process to be environmentally friendly, practical and cost-effective. Tests for the process of manganese removal from spent battery leaching solutions, with ammonium peroxodisulfate, prior to recovery of zinc by electrolysis are presented. The experiments were carried out according to a 23 full factorial design as a function of ammonium peroxodisulfate concentration, temperature and pH. Because the excessive manganese in the spent batteries leach solutions can cause problems in the process of Zn recovery by electrolysis the main focus of this study is the manganese removal without altering the concentration of zinc in solutions. Data from XRF and AAS during the reaction at different time are presented. Manganese is obtained with high extraction degree as MnO2, which is economic and commercial important with applications in battery industry, water treatment plants, steel industry and chemicals (Pagnanelli et al., 2007. The analysis of variance (ANOVA was carried out on the extraction yields of Zn after 30min, 1h, 2h and 3h of reaction. The preliminary results denoted that by chemical oxidation with ammonium peroxodisulfate is a suitable method for manganese removal as MnO2 prior zinc recovery by electrolysis, from spent batteries solutions and it could be used in a plant for recycling batteries.

  15. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Sarma Mallela

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  16. Controlling Solid–Liquid Conversion Reactions for a Highly Reversible Aqueous Zinc–Iodine Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Huilin; Li, Bin; Mei, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Li, Guosheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Han, Kee Sung; Muller, Karl T.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2017-10-30

    Aqueous rechargeable batteries are desirable for many energy storage applications due to their low cost and high safety. However, low capacity and short cycle life are the significant obstacles to their practical applications. Here, we demonstrate a highly reversible aqueous zinc-iodine battery using encapsulated iodine in microporous active carbon fibers (ACFs) as cathode materials through the rational control of solid-liquid conversion reactions. The experiments and density function theory (DFT) calculations were employed to investigate the effects of solvents and properties of carbon hosts, e.g. pore size, surface chemistries, on the adsorption of iodine species. The rational manipulation of the competition between the adsorption in carbon and solvation in electrolytes for iodine species is responsible for the high reversibility and cycling stability. The zinc-iodine batteries deliver a high capacity of 180 mAh g-1 at 1C and a stable cycle life over 3000 cycles with ~90% capacity retention as well as negligible self-discharge. We believe the principles for stabilizing the zinc-iodine system could provide new insight into conversion systems such as Li-S systems.

  17. Stable and Controllable Synthesis of Silver Nanowires for Transparent Conducting Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bitao; Yan, Hengqing; Chen, Shanyong; Guan, Youwei; Wu, Guoguo; Jin, Rong; Li, Lu

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanowires without particles are synthesized by a solvothermal method at temperature 150 °C. Silver nanowires are prepared via a reducing agent of glycerol and a capping agent of polyvinylpyrrolidone ( M w ≈ 1,300,000). Both of them can improve the purity of the as-prepared silver nanowires. With controllable shapes and sizes, silver nanowires are grown continuously up to 10-20 μm in length with 40-50 nm in diameter. To improve the yield of silver nanowires, the different concentrations of AgNO3 synthesis silver nanowires are discussed. The characterizations of the synthesized silver nanowires are analyzed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM), and silver nanowires are pumped on the cellulose membrane and heated stress on the PET. Then, the cellulose membrane is dissolved by the steam of acetone to prepare flexible transparent conducting thin film, which is detected 89.9 of transmittance and 58 Ω/□. Additionally, there is a close loop connected by the thin film, a blue LED, a pair of batteries, and a number of wires, to determinate directly the film if conductive or not.

  18. Financing the Ranger uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.J.; Miskelly, N.

    1983-01-01

    Construction of the Ranger uranium project located 230 km east of Darwin in the Northern Territory commenced in January 1979. Energy Resources of Australia Ltd was incorporated in February 1980 to acquire all the rights in the project. The total cost to ERA of these rights was $407 million. In October 1980 ERA'S cash requirements were estimated to be $553 million. Overseas participants (power utilities who had agreed to purchase uranium yellowcake under contract) arranged to take up 25% of the equity capital, Peko-Wallsend Ltd and EZ Industries Ltd were allotted 30.5% each and 14% was issued to Australian residents. The loan and equity financing arrangements required the successful resolution of many complex and interlocking factors, including technical and economic feasibility, agreement with aboriginal interests, compliance with Government policies and securing of sales contracts

  19. Inactivation of Vegetative Cells, but Not Spores, of Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. subtilis on Stainless Steel Surfaces Coated with an Antimicrobial Silver- and Zinc-Containing Zeolite Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Belinda; Korff, Emily; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    Stainless steel surfaces coated with paints containing a silver- and zinc-containing zeolite (AgION antimicrobial) were assayed in comparison to uncoated stainless steel for antimicrobial activity against vegetative cells and spores of three Bacillus species, namely, B. anthracis Sterne, B. cereus T, and B. subtilis 168. Under the test conditions (25°C and 80% relative humidity), the zeolite coating produced approximately 3 log10 inactivation of vegetative cells within a 5- to 24-h period, but viability of spores of the three species was not significantly affected. PMID:12839825

  20. Environmental impact of the Ranger uranium mine, Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.; Needham, S.

    2002-01-01

    Stringent environmental controls have been applied to the Ranger mine, in the Northern Territory of Australia, because of its location in an area of outstanding natural and cultural values. The adjacent Kakadu National Park contains a wild and extensive biodiversity, striking landscapes, ancient Aboriginal rock art and a living Aboriginal culture. A special regime of biological, radiological and chemical monitoring has been applied to protect the environment and detect even very low intensity impacts. The results from this regime demonstrate to the government and general public that the high conservation values of the national park around the mine are being properly protected. This paper describes the techniques used to measure environmental impact at Ranger, and summarizes the results of over 20 years of monitoring. The overwhelming conclusion is that a very high standard of environmental protection has been achieved. (author)

  1. Used Battery Collection and Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistoia, G.; Wiaux, J.P.; Wolsky, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of spent battery collection and recycling. First of all, the legislative and regulatory updates are addressed and the main institutions and programs worldwide are mentioned. An overview of the existing battery systems, of the chemicals used in them and their hazardous properties is made, followed by a survey of the major industrial recycling processes. The safety and efficiency of such processes are stressed. Particular consideration is given to the released emissions, i.e. to the impact on human health and the environment. Methods for the evaluation of this impact are described. Several chapters deal with specific battery chemistries: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride, zinc (carbon and alkaline), lithium and lithium-ion. For each type of battery, details are provided on the collection/recycling process from the technical, economic and environmental viewpoint. The chemicals recoverable from each process and remarketable are mentioned. A chapter deals with recovering of the large batteries powering electric vehicles, e.g. lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. The final chapter is devoted to the important topic of collecting batteries from used electrical and electronic equipment. The uncontrolled disposal of these devices still containing their batteries contributes to environmental pollution

  2. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  3. Electrochemical and rheological behaviour of a fluid zinc paste; Comportement electrochimique et rheologique d`une pate de zinc fluide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajot, N.

    1997-12-04

    Zinc is a performing anodic material in numerous types of batteries. The anode of alkaline cells is typically a suspension of metallic powder in a gelled potassium hydroxide electrolyte, called zinc paste. We process such a homogeneous, fluid and stable paste, we study its physical electrochemical and rheological properties. Electrical power delivered during galvano-static electrolysis is about a few tens of mW.cm{sup -2} for anodic overvoltages inferior to 200 mV until the complete oxidation of the metal, 10 oxidation-reduction cycles are realised on paste samples of few mm width. In other respects, the product has a Bingham-type flow behavior, of critical shearing stress close to 200 Pa, and plastic viscosity about Pa.s, valid from 0,1 s{sup -1} shear rate. Zinc paste circulates in a slim rectangular section channel. Movement is ensured by a peristaltic pump placed on a cylindrical flexible tube. The paste transit between rectangular and circular sections is made through a profiled mechanical piece called a fish tail, without draft edge or roughness. An electrolytic separator and a current collector form the walls of the parallelopipedal channel, thus an electrolysis cell is framed. We record electrical and rheological characteristics of 2 oxidation-reduction cycles, during which the paste continues to flow and remains conductive. Established performances on the elementary cell allow to make up an air-zinc circulating paste battery for an electrical vehicle: the hydraulic recharge of a 100 l anodic paste tank is made in a few minutes, corresponding to a 300 km autonomy. (author) 87 refs.

  4. Response of nickel to zinc cells to electric vehicle chopper discharge waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary results of simulated electric vehicle chopper controlled discharge of a Nickel/Zinc battery shows delivered energy increases of 5 to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges of the same average current. The percentage increase was a function of chopper frequency, the ratio of peak to average current, and the magnitude of the discharge current. Because the chopper effects are of a complex nature, electric vehicle battery/speed controller interaction must be carefully considered in vehicle design to optimize battery performance.

  5. Managing the Ranger uranium mine in the Alligator Rivers Region -there is much more to this business enterprise than just production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggate, J.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental protection is very closely and continuously regulated at the Ranger uranium mine. Since the commencement of operations at Ranger the company has operated within these regulations and demonstrated clearly that yellowcake can be produced efficiently, economically and safely. The company also recognises that in order to ensure continuity of production, it will have to continue to operate within these strictly supervised regulations

  6. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Silver Using a Carbon Paste Electrode and a Screen Printed Electrode Modified with Chromium(III Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Koudelkova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the preparation and electrochemical application of a chromium(III oxide modified carbon paste electrode (Cr-CPE and a screen printed electrode (SPE, made from the same material and optimized for the simple, cheap and sensitive simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and the detection of silver ions, is described. The limits of detection and quantification were 25 and 80 µg·L−1 for Zn(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Cd(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Pb(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Cu(II, and 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Ag(I, respectively. Furthermore, this promising modification was transferred to the screen-printed electrode. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead on the screen printed electrodes were found to be 350 µg·L−1 for Zn(II, 25 µg·L−1 for Cd(II, 3 µg·L−1 for Pb(II and 3 µg·L−1 for Cu(II. Practical usability for the simultaneous detection of these heavy metal ions by the Cr-CPE was also demonstrated in the analyses of wastewaters.

  7. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Silver Using a Carbon Paste Electrode and a Screen Printed Electrode Modified with Chromium(III) Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelkova, Zuzana; Syrovy, Tomas; Ambrozova, Pavlina; Moravec, Zdenek; Kubac, Lubomir; Hynek, David; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-08-09

    In this study, the preparation and electrochemical application of a chromium(III) oxide modified carbon paste electrode (Cr-CPE) and a screen printed electrode (SPE), made from the same material and optimized for the simple, cheap and sensitive simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and the detection of silver ions, is described. The limits of detection and quantification were 25 and 80 µg·L -1 for Zn(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Cd(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Pb(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Cu(II), and 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Ag(I), respectively. Furthermore, this promising modification was transferred to the screen-printed electrode. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead on the screen printed electrodes were found to be 350 µg·L -1 for Zn(II), 25 µg·L -1 for Cd(II), 3 µg·L -1 for Pb(II) and 3 µg·L -1 for Cu(II). Practical usability for the simultaneous detection of these heavy metal ions by the Cr-CPE was also demonstrated in the analyses of wastewaters.

  8. Symposium on Electrochemical and Thermal Modeling of Battery, Fuel Cell, and Photoenergy Conversion Systems, San Diego, CA, Oct. 20-22, 1986, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, J. Robert; Maru, Hans C.

    Papers are presented on modeling of the zinc chlorine battery, design modeling of zinc/bromine battery systems, the modeling of aluminum-air battery systems, and a point defect model for a nickel electrode structure. Also considered are the impedance of a tubular electrode under laminar flow, mathematical modeling of a LiAl/Cl2 cell with a gas diffusion Cl2 electrode, ultrahigh power batteries, and battery thermal modeling. Other topics include an Na/beta-alumina/NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell, leakage currents in electrochemical systems having common electrodes, modeling for CO poisoning of a fuel cell anode, electrochemical corrosion of carbonaceous materials, and electrolyte management in molten carbonate fuel cells.

  9. The nano-structured battery plays extra time; La batterie nanostructuree joue les prolongations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deroin, Ph.

    2005-06-01

    The Bell Labs of Lucent Technologies and the laboratories of mPhase company (Connecticut, USA) have developed a new architecture of battery cell based on nano-structured material which should lead to a 15 to 20 years lifetime without any significant discharge. In this structure, the electrolyte (zinc and ammonium chlorides) and the electrodes (Zn, MnO{sub 2}) are not in contact as long as the battery is not activated. A fluorocarbon hydrophobic coating (the 'nano-metric grass') ensures the separation between electrolyte and electrodes. This hydrophobic effect can be instantaneously cancelled by an electric pulse which provokes an electro-wetting effect allowing the migration of the electrolyte towards the electrodes. Short paper. (J.S.)

  10. Spectroscopic attributes of Sm3+ doped magnesium zinc sulfophosphate glass: Effects of silver nanoparticles inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, F.; Hussin, R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    2017-11-01

    We report the modified optical properties of Sm3+ doped magnesium zinc sulfophosphate glass system with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) inclusion. Three glass samples were prepared using melt quenching method and characterized. TEM images revealed the nucleation of Ag NPs with average diameter ≈12.50 nm. The UV-Vis-NIR spectra showed thirteen absorption bands. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Ag NPs was manifested at 446 nm. FTIR spectra disclosed the bonding vibrations for P-O bonds, P-O-P linkages, and PO2 units. Ag NPs concentration dependent bonding parameters and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were calculated. The JO parameter Ω2 was reduced with the increase of Ag NPs contents, indicating the ionicity and symmetry enhancement between Sm3+ ions with their surrounding ligands. The emission spectra of all samples under the excitation wavelength of 402 nm exhibited four significant peaks centered at 562, 599, 644 and 702 nm which are allocated to 4G5/2 →6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 transitions, respectively. Inclusion of Ag NPs was discerned to augment the luminescence intensity by a factor of two, which was majorly ascribed to the local field effect of Ag NPs and subsequent energy transfer from the NPs to Sm3+ ions.

  11. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  12. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  13. Management of Ranger uranium mine waters, Kakadu Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallenstein, C.; Bastias, J.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives, development and operation of the Ranger Uranium Mine's water management system are discussed. The discharge standards for release of excess mine water to Magela Creek are described and mine water quality data presented. It can be confidently concluded that controlled release will not cause detriment to the aquatic ecosystems of the Kakadu region. 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Silver recovery from zinc metallurgical sludge – analysis of solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzyk Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the hydrometallurgical process of zinc production, conducted in the ZGH “Bolesław” S.A. in Bukowno [Mine and Metallurgical Plant], about 40,000 tons of sludge is generated. After dehydration in the Larox filter presses, sludge contains ca. 16-18% of Zn, 20-25% of Fe, and 200-300 ppm of Ag. Next, sludge is transported to the Olkusz concentrator for flotation to obtain concentrate enriched with Ag (1,000-1,500 ppm. The concentrate is then sent to the HC “Miasteczko Śląskie” [zinc smelter], while the flotation tailings are subjected to recycling in waelz kiln in Bukowno to regain mainly Zn and Pb, in the form of oxides (also sent later to the HC “Miasteczko Śląskie”.

  15. The effect of biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Joanna; Biedroń, Izabela; Mendrek, Barbara; Płaza, Grażyna

    2017-11-01

    Bionanotechnology has emerged up as integration between biotechnology and nanotechnology for developing biosynthetic and environmental-friendly technology for synthesis of nanomaterials. Different types of nanomaterials like copper, zinc, titanium, magnesium, gold, and silver have applied in the various industries but silver nanoparticles have proved to be most effective against bacteria, viruses and eukaryotic microorganisms. The antimicrobial property of silver nanoparticles are widely known. Due to strong antibacterial property silver nanoparticles are used, e.g. in clothing, food industry, sunscreens, cosmetics and many household and environmental appliances. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized biologically and chemically on the biofilm formation. The biofilm was formed by the bacteria isolated from the water supply network. The commonly used crystal violet assay (CV) was applied for biofilm analysis. In this study effect of biologically synthesized Ag-NPs on the biofilm formation was evaluated.

  16. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  17. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazono, Atsushi, E-mail: terazono@nies.go.jp [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiro [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Iino, Shigenori [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 1-7-5 Shinsuna, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-0075 (Japan); Mogi, Satoshi [Bureau of Environment, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2-8-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8001 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  18. Third International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-18

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at Kobe, Japan, from March 18 through 22, 1991. At the utility energy storage session, a power research program plan, operational and economic benefits of BESP (battery energy storage plant), the Moonlight Project, etc., were presented, respectively, by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) of the U.S., BEWAG Corporation of Germany, and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, etc. At the improved lead-acid batteries session, the characteristics of improved lead-acid batteries, load levelling and life cycle, problems in BESP, comparisons and tests, etc., were presented by Japan, Italy, the U.S., etc. At the advanced batteries session, presentations were made about the sodium-sulfur battery, zinc-bromine battery, redox battery, etc. Furthermore, there were sessions on consumer energy systems, control and power conditioning technology, and commercialization and economic studies. A total 53 presentations were made. (NEDO)

  19. Zn/V2O5 Aqueous Hybrid-Ion Battery with High Voltage Platform and Long Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Yan, Mengyu; Zhu, Ting; Wang, Xuanpeng; Wei, Xiujuan; Li, Jiantao; Zhou, Liang; Li, Zhaohuai; Chen, Lineng; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-12-13

    Aqueous zinc-ion batteries attract increasing attention due to their low cost, high safety, and potential application in stationary energy storage. However, the simultaneous realization of high cycling stability and high energy density remains a major challenge. To tackle the above-mentioned challenge, we develop a novel Zn/V 2 O 5 rechargeable aqueous hybrid-ion battery system by using porous V 2 O 5 as the cathode and metallic zinc as the anode. The V 2 O 5 cathode delivers a high discharge capacity of 238 mAh g -1 at 50 mA g -1 . 80% of the initial discharge capacity can be retained after 2000 cycles at a high current density of 2000 mA g -1 . Meanwhile, the application of a "water-in-salt" electrolyte results in the increase of discharge platform from 0.6 to 1.0 V. This work provides an effective strategy to simultaneously enhance the energy density and cycling stability of aqueous zinc ion-based batteries.

  20. Water-Lubricated Intercalation in V2 O5 ·nH2 O for High-Capacity and High-Rate Aqueous Rechargeable Zinc Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mengyu; He, Pan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Shanyu; Wei, Qiulong; Zhao, Kangning; Xu, Xu; An, Qinyou; Shuang, Yi; Shao, Yuyan; Mueller, Karl T; Mai, Liqiang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Jihui

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost, environment-friendly aqueous Zn batteries have great potential for large-scale energy storage, but the intercalation of zinc ions in the cathode materials is challenging and complex. Herein, the critical role of structural H 2 O on Zn 2+ intercalation into bilayer V 2 O 5 ·nH 2 O is demonstrated. The results suggest that the H 2 O-solvated Zn 2+ possesses largely reduced effective charge and thus reduced electrostatic interactions with the V 2 O 5 framework, effectively promoting its diffusion. Benefited from the "lubricating" effect, the aqueous Zn battery shows a specific energy of ≈144 Wh kg -1 at 0.3 A g -1 . Meanwhile, it can maintain an energy density of 90 Wh kg -1 at a high power density of 6.4 kW kg -1 (based on the cathode and 200% Zn anode), making it a promising candidate for high-performance, low-cost, safe, and environment-friendly energy-storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Application of best practicable technology to water management at Ranger Uranium mine: report of the technical working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    An assessment is made of best practicable technology (BPT) as applied to the water management system of Ranger Uranium Mines for the period 1986-91. A specification of BPT cannot be made for the indefinite future because major changes in operation of the mine may occur which could have an impact on future water management. It is for these reasons that the period of detailed assessment has been limited to the next 5 years. For the purposes of the report, BPT is considered to be that technology relevant to the Ranger project which produced the minimum environmental pollution and degradation that can reasonably be achieved, having regard to a number of technical factors, including practice in uranium mining elsewhere in the world, cost, evidence of detriment or lack of it, project location and the age and effectiveness of equipment and facilities at Ranger. Three options are presented, in order of preference: no prohibition on release to Magela Creek, limitation on frequency of release to Magela Creek and prohibition on release to Magela Creek

  2. 75 FR 16728 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger... manner that increases resiliency of the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project area ecosystem to... requirements to require. The Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project includes treatments previously proposed...

  3. Zinc-air cell with KOH-treated agar layer between electrode and electrolyte containing hydroponics gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otham, R. [International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yahaya, A. H. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Chemistry, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Arof, A. K. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2002-07-01

    Zinc-air electrochemical power sources possess the highest density compared to other zinc anode batteries, due their free and unlimited supply from the ambient air. In this experiment zinc-air cells have been fabricated employing hydroponics gel as an alternative alkaline electrolyte gelling agent. Thin KOH-treated agar layer was applied between the electrode-electrolyte interfaces which produced significant enhancement of the cells' capacities, indicating that the application of thin agar layer will improve the electrode-gelled electrolyte interfaces. Promising results have been achieved with porous zinc anode prepared from dried zinc-graphite-gelatinized agar paste; e g. a zinc-air cell employing a porous zinc anode has demonstrated a capacity of 1470 mAh rated at 0.1 A continuous discharge. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Printed batteries and conductive patterns in technical textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willert, Andreas; Meuser, Carmen; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2018-05-01

    Various applications of functional devices need a tailored and reliable supply of electrical energy. Batteries are electrochemical systems that deliver energy for functional devices and applications. Due to the common use, several rigid types of batteries have been standardized. To fully integrate the battery into a product that is bendable, free in geometry and less than 1 mm thick, printing of power adaptable batteries is a challenging area of research. Therefore, the well-known zinc-manganese system, which is very promising due to its environmental sustainability and its simplicity, has been used to manufacture battery solutions on a new kind of substrate: technical textiles. Another challenge is the deposition of conductive patterns. At present, embroidery with metallic yarn is the only possibility to provide conducting paths on technical textiles, a time-consuming and elaborate process. Screen printed conductive pathways will generate a new momentum in the manufacturing of conductivity on textiles.

  5. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Sung

    Inkjet printing of electrode using copper nanoparticle ink is presented. Electrode was printed on a flexible glass epoxy composite substrate using drop on demand piezoelectric dispenser and was sintered at 200°C in N 2 gas condition. The printed electrodes were made with various widths and thicknesses. Surface morphology of electrode was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Reliable dimensions for printed electronics were found from this study. Single-crystalline silicon solar cells were tested under four-point bending to find the feasibility of directly integrating them onto a carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate. These solar cells were not able to withstand 0.2% strain. On the other hand, thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells were subjected to flexural fatigue loadings. The current density-voltage curves were analyzed at different cycles, and there was no noticeable degradation on its performance up to 100 cycles. A multifunctional composite laminate which can harvest and store solar energy was fabricated using printed electrodes. The integrated printed circuit board (PCB) was co-cured with a carbon/epoxy composite laminate by the vacuum bag molding process in an autoclave; an amorphous silicon solar cell and a thin-film solid state lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery were adhesively joined and electrically connected to a thin flexible PCB; and then the passive components such as resistors and diodes were electrically connected to the printed circuit board by silver pasting. Since a thin-film solid state Li-ion battery was not able to withstand tensile strain above 0.4%, thin Li-ion polymer batteries were tested under various mechanical loadings and environmental conditions to find the feasibility of using the polymer batteries for our multifunctional purpose. It was found that the Li-ion polymer batteries were stable under pressure and tensile loading without any noticeable degradation on its charge and discharge

  6. 76 FR 13344 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger... Impact Statement for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project was published in the Federal Register... Responsible Official for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project. DATES: The Final Environmental Impact...

  7. Reassessment of Loblolly Pine Decline on the Oakmulgee Ranger District, Talladega National Forest, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan J. Hess; William J. Otroana; John P. Jones; Arthur J. Goddard; Charles H. Walkinshaw

    1999-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) decline has been a management concern on the Oakmulgee Ranger District since the 1960's. The symptoms include sparse crowns, reduced radial growth, deterioration of fine roots, decline, and mortality of loblolly pine by age 50.

  8. Rechargeable MnO/sub 2/ battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblowa, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    Sixty years after Volta used for the first time (1800) zinc as an electrode, Leclanche patented a MnO/sub 2/NH/sub 4/Cl/Zn cell with a zinc rod negative, which was then shortly replaced by the amalgamated zinc can. Although the original patents for wet and dry alkaline systems were filed already towards the end of 19th and during the first two decades of the 20th century, the first alkaline commercial battery (Herbert's crown cell), appeared only in the early fifties. Since then the introduction of large area zinc electrodes and voluminous work leading to the development of positive electrodes with highest possible reactivity, i.e., capable of releasing a maximum charge at a maximum voltage difference between terminals over longest periods of time, coupled with growing demands of the electronic industries led to the emergence of a several billion dollar primary cell market of which alkaline MnO/sub 2//Zn cells are capturing a rapidly increasing share and are expected to fully dominate the dry cell market. Their better performance/cost ratio compensates for a cost higher than that of their Leclanche type counterparts. The prospects of better utilization of this more expensive system, problems of energy wste4 and of waste disposal of the ever increasing numbers of throw-away batteries, prompted numerous attempts to produce a rechargeable MnO/sub 2//Zn system capable not only of high reactivity, i.e., high power drains, but also applicable for several commercial uses

  9. 78 FR 15681 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Dillon Ranger District; Montana; Birch, Willow, Lost Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... higher susceptibility to insect and disease such as mountain pine beetle and blister rust. Responsible... documentation. Dated: March 5, 2013. Cole Mayn, Acting Dillon District Ranger. [FR Doc. 2013-05574 Filed 3-11-13...

  10. 75 FR 8297 - Tongass National Forest, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Thorne Bay, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ..., Thorne Bay, AK AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Cancellation of Notice of intent to prepare an... Roberts, Zone Planner, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Tongass National Forest, P.O. Box 19001, Thorne Bay, AK 99919, telephone: 907-828-3250. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The 47,007-acre Kosciusko Project Area is...

  11. An electric vehicle propulsion system's impact on battery performance: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.; Smithrick, J. J.; Cataldo, R. C.; Ewashinka, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of two types of batteries, lead-acid and nickel-zinc, was measured as a function of the charging and discharging demands anticipated from electric vehicle propulsion systems. The benefits of rapid high current charging were mixed: although it allowed quick charges, the energy efficiency was reduced. For low power (overnight) charging the current wave shapes delivered by the charger to the battery tended to have no effect on the battery cycle life. The use of chopper speed controllers with series traction motors resulted in a significant reduction in the energy available from a battery whenever the motor operates at part load. The demand placed on a battery by an electric vehicle propulsion system containing electrical regenerative braking confirmed significant improvment in short term performance of the battery.

  12. Voltammetric determination of sodium anthraquinone-2-sulfonate using silver solid amalgam electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skalová, Štěpánka; Navrátil, Tomáš; Barek, J.; Vyskočil, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 3 (2017), s. 577-583 ISSN 0026-9247 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Anthraquinone * Drugs * Silver solid amalgam electrode * Voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  13. Determination of high content of copper lead zinc silver in Geo-logical Samples by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry%火焰原子吸收法测定地质样品中高含量的铜铅锌银

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文双辉

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the method of non sensitive line determination of high content of copper lead zinc silver in Geological Samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, The optimum condi-tions for determination of each component are determined through ex-periment The working curve range 0-125 ug g/ ml,Determination of values and standard values,Component relative standard deviation (n=11) were lower than 1%, suitable for the determination of copper lead zinc silver in the range of 1%-15% samples.%本文研究了采用非灵敏线火焰原子吸收法测定地质样中较高含量的铜铅锌银的方法,通过实验确定了各组分测定的最佳条件。工作曲线范围0-125微克/毫升,测定值与标准值相吻合,各组分相对标准差(n=11)均低于1%,适合地质样品中较高含量铜铅锌银的测定。

  14. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  15. Electrochemistry of Some New Alkaline Battery Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    1NýT;7 ~~ AFAPI 4TR- 75)aI Electrochemistry of Somwý New Alkaline V CI RG, 0OTNME Dr/ David F., ’Pickett, IM Wayue ’,Hisb’q Mr. R ic ha rd A I Mid...adding ZnO to the electi-olyte (saturated) and usi .j the interc:ell conrec;tor d isr:ussed earlier ,itLh el4cc.roploated zinc ag inst. the silver fo

  16. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly Active Electrocatalysts for High-Energy Density, Aqueous Zinc-Polyiodide Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Liu, Jian; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Reed, David; Liu, Jun; McGrail, Pete; Sprenkle, Vincent

    2016-07-13

    The new aqueous zinc-polyiodide redox flow battery (RFB) system with highly soluble active materials as well as ambipolar and bifunctional designs demonstrated significantly enhanced energy density, which shows great potential to reduce RFB cost. However, the poor kinetic reversibility and electrochemical activity of the redox reaction of I3(-)/I(-) couples on graphite felts (GFs) electrode can result in low energy efficiency. Two nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MIL-125-NH2 and UiO-66-CH3, that have high surface areas when introduced to GF surfaces accelerated the I3(-)/I(-) redox reaction. The flow cell with MOF-modified GFs serving as a positive electrode showed higher energy efficiency than the pristine GFs; increases of about 6.4% and 2.7% occurred at the current density of 30 mA/cm(2) for MIL-125-NH2 and UiO-66-CH3, respectively. Moreover, UiO-66-CH3 is more promising due to its excellent chemical stability in the weakly acidic electrolyte. This letter highlights a way for MOFs to be used in the field of RFBs.

  17. 78 FR 45495 - Conejos Peak Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Cumbres Vegetation Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., Team Leader, San Luis Valley Publ ic Land Center, 1803 W. Hwy 160, Monte Vista, CO 81144. Commen ts may... the long-term. Responsible Official Conejos Peak District Ranger at 15571 County Road T5, La J ara, CO...

  18. Nitrogen-doped micropore-dominant carbon derived from waste pine cone as a promising metal-free electrocatalyst for aqueous zinc/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoke; Wang, Mengran; Lai, Yanqing; Hu, Langtao; Wang, Hao; Fang, Zhao; Li, Jie; Fang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    The exploitation for highly effective and low-cost metal-free catalysts with facile and environmental friendly method for oxygen reduction reaction is still a great challenge. To find an effective method for catalyst synthesis, in this manuscript, waste biomass pine cone is employed as raw material and nitrogen-doped micropore-dominant carbon material with excellent ORR catalytic activity is successfully synthesized. The as-prepared N-doped micropore-dominant carbon possesses a high surface area of 1556 m2 g-1. In addition, this carbon electrocatalyst loaded electrode exhibits a high discharge voltage 1.07 V at the current density of 50 mA cm-2, which can be ascribed to the rich micropores and high content of pyridinic N of the prepared carbon, indicative of great potential in the application of zinc/air batteries.

  19. 75 FR 10456 - Kootenai National Forest, Fortine Ranger District, Montana; Galton Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ...) Planning Areas (Wigwam, Grave, and Murphy) and the Fortine Ranger District portions of two (2) Planning... lawsuit settlement agreement with the Montana Wilderness Association commits the Forest Service to develop... travel planning for the Ten Lakes WSA. This project will also reduce hazardous fuels within and outside...

  20. 75 FR 3195 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment Management Plans EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent... allotments on the Lookout Mountain Ranger District. These four allotments are: Cox, Craig, Mill Creek, and..., Mill Creek and Old Dry Creek allotments. The responsible official will also decide how to mitigate...

  1. Potential Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries in Electronic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163 544 mg/kg; σ = 62 897; limit 8000), copper (average 98 694 mg/kg; σ = 28 734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11 438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  2. A rainfall-based mechanism to regulate the release of water from Ranger uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    The far north of Australia (the Top End) has a monsoon-like climate. This wet-dry climate presents problems in water management for mining operations. These problems are exacerbated for the Ranger uranium mine at Jabiru due to the need to protect the environment of the surrounding Kakadu National Park, particularly the major wetland system downstream of the Ranger mine. An analysis of rainfall records for the wet-dry tropics of the far north of Australia is presented. A probability curve of the ratio between rainfall at a given date and rainfall at the year end, has been produced from actual data and can be used with a normalized curve to set levels of confidence of predicted rainfall being exceeded. The results of this analysis are used to develop a regulatory mechanism to limit release of waste water from a uranium mine to particularly wet years in accordance with the Australian Government's environmental protection policy. 19 refs., 11 tabs., 17 figs

  3. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of thermal processing on silver thin films of varying thickness deposited on zinc oxide and indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, K.; Ngo, A. T.; Alford, T. L.; Iyer, S.

    2009-01-01

    Silver films of varying thicknesses (25, 45, and 60 nm) were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) on silicon and zinc oxide (ZnO) on silicon. The films were annealed in vacuum for 1 h at different temperatures (300-650 deg. C). Four-point-probe measurements were used to determine the resistivity of the films. All films showed an abrupt change in resistivity beyond an onset temperature that varied with thickness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements revealed agglomeration of the Ag films upon annealing as being responsible for the resistivity change. X-ray pole figure analysis determined that the annealed films took on a preferential texturing; however, the degree of texturing was significantly higher in Ag/ZnO/Si than in Ag/ITO/Si samples. This observation was accounted for by interface energy minimization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements revealed an increasing surface roughness of the annealed films with temperature. The resistivity behavior was explained by the counterbalancing effects of increasing crystallinity and surface roughness. Average surface roughness obtained from the AFM measurements were also used to model the agglomeration of Ag based on Ostwald ripening theory

  5. Delayed-action battery with an improved depolarizer. Einen verbesserten Depolarisator enthaltende Batterie mit verzoegerter Wirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, R.F.; Klein, L.E.

    1978-11-27

    The invention refers to a delayed action battery, which has an anode made of magnesium, aluminium or zinc, and whose cathode consists of a conducting metal grid, and is coated with a depolarising material. The depolarising material consists of caprothio cyanate, carbon sulphur and a binder such as PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene). This mixture is heated to a certain temperature, in order to melt the sulphur contained in it, before it is applied to the metal grid, in order to melt the sulphur contained in it, before it is applied to the metal grid, in order to form the cathode depolariser. The metal grid is also used as current terminal. The delayed action battery is activated by normal seawater or any other suitable aquaeous solution.

  6. Spatiotemporal trends of illegal activities from ranger-collected data in a Ugandan national park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchlow, R; Plumptre, A J; Driciru, M; Rwetsiba, A; Stokes, E J; Tumwesigye, C; Wanyama, F; Beale, C M

    2015-10-01

    Within protected areas, biodiversity loss is often a consequence of illegal resource use. Understanding the patterns and extent of illegal activities is therefore essential for effective law enforcement and prevention of biodiversity declines. We used extensive data, commonly collected by ranger patrols in many protected areas, and Bayesian hierarchical models to identify drivers, trends, and distribution of multiple illegal activities within the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area (QECA), Uganda. Encroachment (e.g., by pastoralists with cattle) and poaching of noncommercial animals (e.g., snaring bushmeat) were the most prevalent illegal activities within the QECA. Illegal activities occurred in different areas of the QECA. Poaching of noncommercial animals was most widely distributed within the national park. Overall, ecological covariates, although significant, were not useful predictors for occurrence of illegal activities. Instead, the location of illegal activities in previous years was more important. There were significant increases in encroachment and noncommercial plant harvesting (nontimber products) during the study period (1999-2012). We also found significant spatiotemporal variation in the occurrence of all activities. Our results show the need to explicitly model ranger patrol effort to reduce biases from existing uncorrected or capture per unit effort analyses. Prioritization of ranger patrol strategies is needed to target illegal activities; these strategies are determined by protected area managers, and therefore changes at a site-level can be implemented quickly. These strategies should also be informed by the location of past occurrences of illegal activity: the most useful predictor of future events. However, because spatial and temporal changes in illegal activities occurred, regular patrols throughout the protected area, even in areas of low occurrence, are also required. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Improvement of Electrochemical Properties of Lithium–Oxygen Batteries Using a Silver Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Bum; Luo, Xiangyi; Lu, Jun; Shin, Chang Dae; Yoon, Chong Seung; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-07-09

    Silver (Ag) electrodes are prepared by an electrodeposition method at -0.25 V versus SCE. To evaluate the effect of particle size on Li–air cells, deposition times are 3, 10, 30, and 300 s. When cycled at a current density of 0.032 mA cm–2, the Ag-deposited electrode for 300 s shows very low polarization corresponding to the oxygen evolution reaction potential at 3.6 V. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that the main discharge product is Li2O2, and the results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy of the discharged electrodes show lithium peroxides at different positions due to the limitation of active sites on silver particles.

  8. High-performance aqueous rechargeable batteries based on zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new aqueous Zn–NiCo2O4 rechargeable battery system with a high voltage, consisting of NiCo2O4 as cathode and metal Zn as anode, is proposed for the first time. It is cheap and environmental friendly, and its energy density is about 202.8 Wh kg–1. The system still maintains excellent capacity retention of about 85% ...

  9. 77 FR 18997 - Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger District, Coconino County, AZ AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The U.S. Forest Service (FS) will...

  10. 75 FR 31418 - Intermountain Region, Payette National Forest, Council Ranger District; Idaho; Mill Creek-Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Ranger District; Idaho; Mill Creek--Council Mountain Landscape Restoration Project AGENCY: Forest Service... the Mill Creek--Council Mountain Landscape Restoration Project. The approximate 51,900 acre project area is located about two miles east of Council, Idaho. The Mill Creek--Council Mountain Landscape...

  11. Methanesulfonic acid solution as supporting electrolyte for zinc-vanadium redox battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chao; Zhou Debi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Methanesulfonic acid as supporting electrolyte for V(V)/V(IV) was discussed. ► V(V)/V(IV) concentration as high as 3 mol L −1 was obtained. ► A Zn-V battery was assembled. ► The assembled Zn-V battery has good cycle performance and high cell voltage. - Abstract: The present work was performed in order to evaluate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as electrolyte medium for V(IV)/V(V) redox couple as positive species applied in redox flow battery (RFB). V-MSA solutions containing more than 3.0 mol L −1 vanadium ions were obtained. Conductivity and viscosity of 3.0 mol L −1 V(IV)/V(V) electrolyte were determined to be 0.10 cm s −1 and 12.37 mPa s respectively. Cyclic voltammetry was conducted to investigate the electrochemical behavior of V(IV)/V(V) redox couple. The diffusion coefficients of V(IV) on Pt electrode in 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mol L −1 V(IV)/V(V) electrolytes determined were 3.606 × 10 −6 , 1.813 × 10 −6 and 0.5244 × 10 −6 cm 2 s −1 , respectively. A Zn-V battery was assembled with V(IV)/V(V)-MSA positive species and Zn/Zn(II)-MSA negative species. The cell voltage in charged state was 1.9–2.0 V and discharge voltage reached up to 1.7 V. The average coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the assembled cell were 95.85% and 63.90% respectively and it showed a good cyclic charge–discharge performance, which indicates that MSA has a promise application prospect in vanadium redox battery.

  12. A low cost, disposable cable-shaped Al-air battery for portable biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotouhi, Gareth; Ogier, Caleb; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Sooyeun; Cao, Guozhong; Shen, Amy Q.; Kramlich, John; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    A disposable cable-shaped flexible battery is presented using a simple, low cost manufacturing process. The working principle of an aluminum-air galvanic cell is used for the cable-shaped battery to power portable and point-of-care medical devices. The battery is catalyzed with a carbon nanotube (CNT)-paper matrix. A scalable manufacturing process using a lathe is developed to wrap a paper layer and a CNT-paper matrix on an aluminum wire. The matrix is then wrapped with a silver-plated copper wire to form the battery cell. The battery is activated through absorption of electrolytes including phosphate-buffered saline, NaOH, urine, saliva, and blood into the CNT-paper matrix. The maximum electric power using a 10 mm-long battery cell is over 1.5 mW. As a demonstration, an LED is powered using two groups of four batteries in parallel connected in series. Considering the material composition and the cable-shaped configuration, the battery is fully disposable, flexible, and potentially compatible with portable biosensors through activation by either reagents or biological fluids.

  13. A low cost, disposable cable-shaped Al–air battery for portable biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotouhi, Gareth; Kramlich, John; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Ogier, Caleb; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Sooyeun; Cao, Guozhong; Shen, Amy Q

    2016-01-01

    A disposable cable-shaped flexible battery is presented using a simple, low cost manufacturing process. The working principle of an aluminum–air galvanic cell is used for the cable-shaped battery to power portable and point-of-care medical devices. The battery is catalyzed with a carbon nanotube (CNT)-paper matrix. A scalable manufacturing process using a lathe is developed to wrap a paper layer and a CNT-paper matrix on an aluminum wire. The matrix is then wrapped with a silver-plated copper wire to form the battery cell. The battery is activated through absorption of electrolytes including phosphate-buffered saline, NaOH, urine, saliva, and blood into the CNT-paper matrix. The maximum electric power using a 10 mm-long battery cell is over 1.5 mW. As a demonstration, an LED is powered using two groups of four batteries in parallel connected in series. Considering the material composition and the cable-shaped configuration, the battery is fully disposable, flexible, and potentially compatible with portable biosensors through activation by either reagents or biological fluids. (paper)

  14. Sustainability of silver nanoparticles in solutions and polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.R.; Malikov, Sh.; Khaydarov, R.A.; Mironov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The technology of obtaining stable silver nanoparticles in solutions and composite materials for attainment of antimicrobial and antifungal properties to different surfaces has been developed. The shape of particles is spherical, diameter is about 5 nm. Various concentrations of silver nanoparticles have been deposited onto surfaces of different materials (cotton and synthetic fabrics, fibroid sorbents and polymer materials). Different ways of treatment and densities of nanoparticles on the treated surface have been studied during 6 months with respect to the best sustainability. In order to prevent agglomeration of obtained metal nanoparticles on the surface of materials treated, stabilizing reagents (ethylene glycol, formic acid, sodium dodecyl sulphate, etc.) have been used and their relative efficacy has been examined. Residual concentrations of the nanoparticles on various fabrics after 1, 3, 5 and 10 cycles of washing have been also studied. The treated fabrics keep their antibacterial properties after at least 3 times of laundering. The best finishing process to attach silver nanoparticles combination to various materials has been compared with biocidal properties of such antibacterial agents as metal salt solutions and zinc pyrithione.The possibility of treatment of nuclear track membranes by silver nanoparticles in order to prevent microbial growth on the surface of membranes has been discussed. (author)

  15. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: challenges for hazardous substance control and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6-10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using insulation (tape) on waste batteries to prevent fires, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. Our field study of small WEEE showed that batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE on a weight basis. Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, digital cameras, radios, and remote controls, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. Given the safety issues and the rapid changes occurring with mobile phones or other types of small WEEE, discussion is needed among stakeholders to determine how to safely collect and recycle WEEE and waste batteries. Copyright

  16. Mechanical Coating of Zinc Particles with Bi2O3-Li2O-ZnO Glasses as Anode Material for Rechargeable Zinc-Based Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Michlik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical performance of zinc particles with 250 μm and 30 μm diameters, coated with Bi2O3-Li2O-ZnO glass is investigated and compared with noncoated zinc particles. Galvanostatic investigations were conducted in the form of complete discharge and charging cycles in electrolyte excess. Coated 30 μm zinc particles provide the best rechargeability after complete discharge. The coatings reached an average charge capacity over 20 cycles of 113 mAh/g compared to the known zero rechargeability of uncoated zinc particles. Proposed reasons for the prolonged cycle life are effective immobilization of discharge products in the glass layer and the formation of percolating metallic bismuth and zinc phases, forming a conductive network through the glass matrix. The coating itself is carried out by mechanical ball milling. Different coating parameters and the resulting coating quality as well as their influence on the passivation and on the rechargeability of zinc–glass composites is investigated. Optimized coating qualities with respect to adhesion, homogeneity and compactness of the glass layer are achieved at defined preparation conditions, providing a glass coating content of almost 5 wt % for 250 μm zinc particles and almost 11 wt % for 30 μm zinc particles.

  17. Progress in electrolytes for rechargeable Li-based batteries and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Owing to almost unmatched volumetric energy density, Li-based batteries have dominated the portable electronic industry for the past 20 years. Not only will that continue, but they are also now powering plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and zero-emission vehicles. There is impressive progress in the exploration of electrode materials for lithium-based batteries because the electrodes (mainly the cathode are the limiting factors in terms of overall capacity inside a battery. However, more and more interests have been focused on the electrolytes, which determines the current (power density, the time stability, the reliability of a battery and the formation of solid electrolyte interface. This review will introduce five types of electrolytes for room temperature Li-based batteries including 1 non-aqueous electrolytes, 2 aqueous solutions, 3 ionic liquids, 4 polymer electrolytes, and 5 hybrid electrolytes. Besides, electrolytes beyond lithium-based systems such as sodium-, magnesium-, calcium-, zinc- and aluminum-based batteries will also be briefly discussed. Keywords: Electrolyte, Ionic liquid, Polymer, Hybrid, Battery

  18. Occupational health and safety inspection of the Ranger Uranium Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, R.

    1987-04-01

    The principal purpose of the inspection was to assess all aspects of occupational health and safety at the Ranger Uranium Mine. A major objective was to identify actual and potential hazards under normal and abnormal conditions, particularly in relation to those topics about which the unions had expressed some concern. An assessment was made of current safety policies, procedures and practices at the site; and, as far as practicable, those tasks which involved risks to workers were identified. The results and recommendations of the inspection are contained in this report

  19. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. I. Concentrations and loads of iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during flood periods in the 1978-1979 wet season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; Davies, S.H.R.; Thomas, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    In order that realistic effluent standards may be established for the Ranger uranium operations at Jabiru, Northern Territory, it is necessary that there be a clear and detailed knowledge of the pre-mining levels of trace metals and their behaviour within the Magela Creek system. During the wet season, floodwaters were sampled for conductivity, suspended solids and the trace metals, iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. All concentrations were found to be very low, as were the denudation rates for the trace metals and suspended materials

  20. Hydrology of Ranger land application area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 Ranger Uranium Mines (RUM) began assessing the technique of water treatment by land application as a means of reducing the volume of stored water within the Restricted Release Zone. Knowledge of the hydrological characteristics of the treatment site is necessary for optimal day to day and season to season operation of the system and as an input into the assessment of the long-term viability of the site. This paper provides background information on the hydrological requirements for a water treatment site, describes the RUM's water treatment by land application system and summarises the operational statistics and current hydrological knowledge of the site. The general groundwater hydrology of the area comprises a surface soil aquifer overlying a semi-confined aquifer. Drainage of the surface aquifer follows the surface topography along the sandy clays. Vertical permeability ranges between 3 and 12 times greater than horizontal permeability. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam anodes, methods of producing the same, and methods for their use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingart, Daniel A.; Chamoun, Mylad; Hertzberg, Benjamin; Davies, Greg; Hsieh, Andrew G.

    2018-02-13

    Disclosed are hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam electrodes, viz., anodes, methods of producing the same, and methods for their use in electrochemical cells, especially in rechargeable electrical batteries.

  2. Development of near-term batteries for electric vehicles. Summary report, October 1977-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, J.B. (comp.)

    1980-06-01

    The status and results through FY 1979 on the Near-Term Electric Vehicle Battery Project of the Argonne National Laboratory are summarized. This project conducts R and D on lead-acid, nickel/zinc and nickel/iron batteries with the objective of achieving commercialization in electric vehicles in the 1980's. Key results of the R and D indicate major technology advancements and achievement of most of FY 1979 performance goals. In the lead-acid system the specific energy was increased from less than 30 Wh/kg to over 40 Wh/kg at the C/3 rate; the peak power density improved from 70 W/kg to over 110 W/kg at the 50% state of charge; and over 200 deep-discharge cycle life demonstrated. In the nickel/iron system a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg was achieved; a peak power of about 100 W/kg demonstrated and a life of 36 cycles obtained. In the nickel/zinc system, specific energies of up to 64 Wh/kg were shown; peak powers of 133 W/kg obtained; and a life of up to 120 cycles measured. Future R and D will emphasize increased cycle life for nickel/zinc batteries and increased cycle life and specific energy for lead-acid and nickel/iron batteries. Testing of 145 cells was completed by NBTL. Cell evaluation included a full set of performance tests plus the application of a simulated power profile equivalent to the power demands of an electric vehicle in stop-start urban driving. Simplified test profiles which approximate electric vehicle demands are also described.

  3. Selenium-induced autometallographic demonstration of endogenous zinc in organs of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E

    1989-01-01

    , the intestine, and the gills, whereas, no such grains were found in preparations from fish having received 1 ppm Se. The use of selenium for the histochemical demonstration of endogenous zinc versus exogenous metals is discussed. Also, consideration is given to the question of which part of the total tissue......Autometallographic (AMG) silver enhancement of endogenous zinc was studied in seven organs of the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Groups of trout were injected intraperitoneally with sodium selenite in doses ranging from 0.08 to 25 ppm, administered 1 h before being killed. The concentration...

  4. Recovery of zinc and cadmium from spent batteries using Cyphos IL 102 via solvent extraction route and synthesis of Zn and Cd oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi; Mahandra, Harshit; Gupta, Bina

    2017-09-01

    The overall aim of this study is to separate and recover zinc and cadmium from spent batteries. For this purpose Cyphos IL 102 diluted in toluene was employed for the extraction and recovery of Zn and Cd from Zn-C and Ni-Cd batteries leach liquor. The influence of extractant concentration for the leach liquors of Zn-C (0.01-0.05mol/L) and Ni-Cd (0.04-0.20mol/L) batteries has been investigated. Composition of the leach liquor obtained from Zn-C/Ni-Cd spent batteries is Zn - 2.18g/L, Mn - 4.59g/L, Fe - 4.0×10 -3 g/L, Ni - 0.2×10 -3 g/L/Cd - 4.28g/L, Ni - 0.896×10 -1 g/L, Fe - 0.148g/L, Co - 3.77×10 -3 g/L, respectively. Two stage counter current extraction at A/O 1:1 and 3:2 with 0.04mol/L and 0.2mol/L Cyphos IL 102 for Zn and Cd, respectively provide more than 99.0% extraction of both the metal ions with almost negligible extraction of associated metal ions. A stripping efficiency of around 99.0% for Zn and Cd was obtained at O/A 1:1 using 1.0mol/L HNO 3 in two and three counter current stages, respectively. ZnO and CdO were also synthesized using the loaded organic phase and characterized using XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. XRD peaks of ZnO and CdO correspond to zincite and monteponite, respectively. The average particle size was ∼27.0nm and ∼37.0nm for ZnO and CdO, respectively. The EDX analysis of ZnO and CdO shows almost 1:1 atomic percentage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. 78 FR 3879 - Ochoco National Forest, Paulina Ranger District; Oregon; Fox Canyon Cluster Allotment Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... approximately 35 miles east of Prineville, south of Big Summit Prairie. The four allotments are Antler, Brush... other applicable legal requirements within the project area. Paulina Ranger District data indicates that throughout the project area, stream shade and bank stability do not meet Forest Plan standards. In addition...

  6. The influence of narrow optical gap silver oxide on zinc oxide nanoparticles produced by microwave-assisted colloidal synthesis: photocatalytic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, S. P.; Paramarta, V.; Tju, H.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports a photocatalytic study on wide band gap zinc oxide (ZnO) incorporated by narrow band gap silver oxide (Ag2O), namely Ag2O/ZnO nanocomposites, which were prepared by colloidal synthesis with microwave supports. The Ag2O/ZnO nanocomposites were prepared with three different molar ratios (MR) of Ag2O to ZnO (MR: 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75). In order to confirm qualitatively the concentration ratio of Ag2O in ZnO, crystal phase intensity ratio was executed by peak indexing from x-ray diffraction. The Ag2O/ZnO nanocomposites properties were further investigated using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The nanocomposites were tested for the degradation of organic dyes solutions under visible and UV light irradiations. The photocatalytic activity of Ag2O/ZnO nanocomposites under visible light increased with increasing molar ratio of Ag2O to ZnO, while the opposite trends observed under UV light irradiation. The improvement of photoabsorption together with photocatalytic activities might be suspected due to the p-n heterojunction structure in Ag2O/ZnO nanocomposites. The corresponding mechanism will be discussed in detail.

  7. The influence of narrow optical gap silver oxide on zinc oxide nanoparticles produced by microwave-assisted colloidal synthesis: photocatalytic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakoso, S. P.; Paramarta, V.; Tju, H.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a photocatalytic study on wide band gap zinc oxide (ZnO) incorporated by narrow band gap silver oxide (Ag 2 O), namely Ag 2 O/ZnO nanocomposites, which were prepared by colloidal synthesis with microwave supports. The Ag 2 O/ZnO nanocomposites were prepared with three different molar ratios (MR) of Ag 2 O to ZnO (MR: 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75). In order to confirm qualitatively the concentration ratio of Ag 2 O in ZnO, crystal phase intensity ratio was executed by peak indexing from x-ray diffraction. The Ag 2 O/ZnO nanocomposites properties were further investigated using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The nanocomposites were tested for the degradation of organic dyes solutions under visible and UV light irradiations. The photocatalytic activity of Ag 2 O/ZnO nanocomposites under visible light increased with increasing molar ratio of Ag 2 O to ZnO, while the opposite trends observed under UV light irradiation. The improvement of photoabsorption together with photocatalytic activities might be suspected due to the p-n heterojunction structure in Ag 2 O/ZnO nanocomposites. The corresponding mechanism will be discussed in detail. (paper)

  8. New process to discharge negative cadmium electrodes for Ni/Cd batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiker, B.; Vignaud, R.

    1984-01-01

    The new process relates to the chemical oxidation (whether partial or total) of cadmium metal negative electrodes, as used in alkaline nickel-cadmium or silver-cadmium batteries. This process concerns all cadmium electrodes but more particularly the electrodeposited cadmium electrode developed by the company LES PILES WONDER and described in this publication

  9. Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, J. D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M. K.; Whisler, D. J.

    1980-02-01

    Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were (1) an Al-air battery only electric vehicle; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

  10. Investigations in French battery and recycling plants; Traitement des dechets des piles et accumulateurs usages. Enquete dans des entreprises specialisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, A.; Elcabache, J.M. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite -INRS, Lab. de Chimie Analytique Minerale, Dept. Metrologie des Polluants, Centre de Lorraine, 54 - Vandoeuvre (France)

    2003-07-01

    The Analytical Chemistry laboratory of INRS assessed the occupational exposure of 380 employees in 15 enterprises specialized in the reprocessing of electrochemical generators accepting to take part in this study (2 firms sorting and preparing batteries for shipment to reprocessing centres, 7 recycling plants for alkaline, nickel-cadmium and zinc-carbon batteries, 5 spent lead accumulator processing plants). Assessments were also carried out in an enterprise with a workforce of 180 producing 'mercury free' zinc-carbon batteries. These assessments highlighted: - a high potential risk of lead impregnation in the milling and fusion phases of spent lead accumulator processing; - a potential risk of mercury intoxication during the use of pyrometallurgical processes allowing other mercury waste products to be processed simultaneously to spent batteries; - that during the processing of nickel-cadmium batteries the air cleaning systems of the workshops are largely inefficient and must be improved. The constant wearing of filtering respirators is a solution that must remain temporary, the prevention measure to be applied as early as possible being the capture of the cadmium dust fume emissions at source. (authors)

  11. Zinc polymer electrolytes in battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, W.P.; Latham, R.J.; Linford, R.G.; Vickers, S.L. (Dept. of Chemistry, School of Applied Sciences, De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom))

    1994-06-01

    We have previously reported results of our studies of structure-conductivity relationships for polymer electrolytes of the form PEO[sub n][center dot]ZnX[sub 2]. In this paper we report the results of investigations of battery systems based on these electrolytes. Results will be presented for OCV and discharge curves for loaded cells of the type: Zn/polymer electrolyte/MnO[sub 2]. We are particularly interested in the speciation between oxidation states of manganese as a function of the degree of cell discharge, and have carried out determinations by chemical methods based on polarography. Preliminary studies indicate the presence of Mn[sup II] in cells discharged at various rates. The discharge times for a series of optimised cells show an exponential decrease with increasing load. This is consistent with a low electrolyte conductivity and less than ideal cathode conductivity, which leads to an increased 'front face' reaction with increasing load

  12. Robust Pose Estimation using the SwissRanger SR-3000 Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Sigurjon Arni; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a robust method is presented to classify and estimate an objects pose from a real time range image and a low dimensional model. The model is made from a range image training set which is reduced dimensionally by a nonlinear manifold learning method named Local Linear Embedding (LLE)......). New range images are then projected to this model giving the low dimensional coordinates of the object pose in an efficient manner. The range images are acquired by a state of the art SwissRanger SR-3000 camera making the projection process work in real-time....

  13. 76 FR 22075 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; CO; Black Mesa Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; CO; Black Mesa Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest... Web site http://www.fs.usda.gov/riogrande under ``Land & Resource Management'', then ``Projects'' on... need for the Black Mesa Vegetation Management Project is move toward achieving long-term desired...

  14. 78 FR 4377 - Idaho Panhandle National Forests, Coeur d'Alene River Ranger District, Shoshone County, ID...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Ranger District, Shoshone County, ID; Beaver Creek Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Forest Service will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a proposal to accomplish vegetation management in the Beaver Creek...

  15. The influence of natural organic matter and aging on suspension stability in guideline toxicity testing of silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles with Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated changes in suspension stability and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) by addition of Suwannee River natural organic matter and aging of stock and test suspensions prior to testing. Acute toxicity tests of silver (Ag), zinc oxide (ZnO), and titanium...... not decrease toxicity significantly. Conversely, the presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM; 20mgL-1) completely alleviated Ag ENP toxicity in all testing scenarios and did not aid in stabilizing suspensions. In contrast, addition of Suwannee River NOM stabilized ZnO ENP suspensions and did...... in stock suspensions. The authors' results suggest that aging and presence of Suwannee River NOM are important parameters in standard toxicity testing of ENPs, which in some cases may aid in gaining better control over the exposure conditions but in other cases might contribute to agglomeration...

  16. Studies on the development of mossy zinc electrodeposits from flowing alkaline electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Vay, L.

    1991-07-01

    The initiation and characteristics of mossy zinc electrodeposits have been investigated. Batteries with zinc electrodes are candidates for electric vehicle applications; however, this electrode is prone to form non-compact deposits that contribute to capacity loss and battery failure. Moss is deposited when the current density is far from the limiting current. This morphology first appears only after the bulk deposit is approximately 1 {mu}m thick. In this investigation, the effects of flow rate (Re=0--4000), current density (0--50 mA/cm{sup 2}), concentration of the electroactive species (0.25 and 0.5 M), and the concentration of supporting electrolyte (3, 6, and 12 M) on the initiation of moss were examined. The rotating concentric cylinder electrode was employed for most of the experiments; and a flow channel was used to study the development of morphology. After the experiment, the deposit was characterized using microscopic, x-ray diffraction, and profilometric techniques. 94 refs., 72 figs.

  17. Electrochemical performance of CuNCN for sodium ion batteries and comparison with ZnNCN and lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguia-Barrio, A.; Castillo-Martínez, E.; Klein, F.; Pinedo, R.; Lezama, L.; Janek, J.; Adelhelm, P.; Rojo, T.

    2017-11-01

    Transition metal carbodiimides (TMNCN) undergo conversion reactions during electrochemical cycling in lithium and sodium ion batteries. Micron sized copper and zinc carbodiimide powders have been prepared as single phase as confirmed by PXRD and IR and their thermal stability has been studied in air and nitrogen atmosphere. CuNCN decomposes at ∼250 °C into CuO or Cu while ZnNCN can be stable until 400 °C and 800 °C in air and nitrogen respectively. Both carbodiimides were electrochemically analysed for sodium and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical Na+ insertion in CuNCN exhibits a relatively high reversible capacity (300 mAh·g-1) which still indicates an incomplete conversion reaction. This incomplete reaction confirmed by ex-situ EPR analysis, is partly due to kinetic limitations as evidenced in the rate capability experiments and in the constant potential measurements. On the other hand, ZnNCN shows incomplete conversion reaction but with good capacity retention and lower hysteresis as negative electrode for sodium ion batteries. The electrochemical performance of these materials is comparable to that of other materials which operate through displacement reactions and is surprisingly better in sodium ion batteries in comparison with lithium ion batteries.

  18. Predicted energy densitites for nickel-hydrogen and silver-hydrogen cells embodying metallic hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Simplified design concepts were used to estimate gravimetric and volumetric energy densities for metal hydrogen battery cells for assessing the characteristics of cells containing metal hydrides as compared to gaseous storage cells, and for comparing nickel cathode and silver cathode systems. The silver cathode was found to yield superior energy densities in all cases considered. The inclusion of hydride forming materials yields cells with very high volumetric energy densities that also retain gravimetric energy densities nearly as high as those of gaseous storage cells.

  19. Utilization of household organic compost in zinc adsorption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundari, Lia; Isvaringga, Nyiayu Dita; Arinda, Yesica Maharani

    2017-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is one of the heavy metals which is polluted to the environment in an amount greater than 15 mg/L [1]. Zinc contamination caused by the disposal of industrial waste such as batteries, electroplating, paint and other industries. One of the Zinc recovery technique that is relatively inexpensive, simple, high effectiveness and efficiency, and can be regenerated is adsorption using compost. This study has been carried out the preparation of compost from organic household waste and cow manure and its application to Zinc recovery. In this research, the raw material of compost is varied. There is an organic household waste (A1) and a mixture of organic household waste and cow manure with ratio 7:6 (A2). Decomposition of A1 and A2 with addition Effective Microorganism (EM4) requires 21 days, with 3 times inversion. Zinc adsorption is done by using a compost variation of 0.5 g, 1 g, and 2 g in every 100 and 200 mg/L Zn concentration solution. The batch process is applied to analyze the capacity of adsorption. Determination of capacity of adsorption based on the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm model. Direct observation and spectrophotometry are applied in research methodology. The results show that compost A1 and A2 have fulfilled Indonesian Standart of compost and have the ability to reduce Zinc concentration to 94-96%. It indicates highly recommended biosorbent that can be applied to Zinc adsorption.

  20. Environmental assessment of batteries for photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, J.M.; Lindeijer, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on 4 types of batteries for PV systems has been performed. in order to assess the environmental impacts of the various battery types, leading to recommendations for improvements in the production and use of batteries. The different battery types are compared on the basis of a functional unit: 240 kWh electric energy from PV modules delivered for household applications by one flat-plate lead-acid battery. An important product characteristic is the performance; in the study a Ni-Cd battery is taken to deliver 4 times as much energy as a flat plate battery (Pb-flat), a rod plate battery (Pb-rod) 3.4 times as much and a tubular plate battery (Pb-tube) 2.8 times as much. Environmental data was gathered from recent primary and secondary data in a database under internal quality control. Calculations were performed with an updated version of SIMAKOZA, a programme developed by the Centre of Environmental Science (CML), University of Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. Of the types investigated, the Pb tube battery is to be preferred environmentally. Using one allocation method for recycling, the NiCd battery scores best on ozone depletion since no PVC is used (PVC production demands cooling with CFCs), on non-toxic waste and on disruption of ecosystems. The lead-bearing batteries score better on other aspects due to lower energy consumption during production and no emissions of cadmium. Using another allocation method for recycling the NiCd battery scores best on almost all environmental topics. Both allocation methods supplement each other. For resource depletion, regarding cadmium as an unavoidable by-product of zinc production renders NiCd batteries as much less problematic than lead/acid batteries, but taking account of the physical resources available would make the use of cadmium much more problematic than the use of lead. 37 figs., 20 tabs., 8 appendices, 109 refs

  1. Zinc release in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala by stimulation of the entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Imano, Sachie; Itoh, Hiromasa; Oku, Naoto

    2006-11-06

    Zinc release in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala was examined using rat brain slices. The lateral and basolateral nuclei in the amygdala were evidently stained by Timm's sulfide-silver staining method. When the amygdala including both the nuclei was stimulated with 100 mM KCl by means of in vivo microdialysis, extracellular zinc concentration was increased significantly. Zinc release in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala innervated by the entorhinal cortex was next examined in brain slices double-stained with zinc and calcium indicators. Extracellular zinc signal (ZnAF-2) in the lateral nucleus was increased with intracellular calcium signal (calcium orange) during delivery of tetanic stimuli to the entorhinal cortex. Both the increases were completely inhibited by addition of 1 micro M tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker. Furthermore, calcium signal in the lateral nucleus during delivery of tetanic stimuli to the entorhinal cortex was increased in the presence of 10 micro M CNQX, an AMPA/KA receptor antagonist, and this increase was facilitated by addition of 1 mM CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator. The present study suggested that zinc is released in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala by depolarization of the entorhinal neurons. In the lateral nucleus, zinc released may suppress the increase in presynaptic calcium signal.

  2. Improvements mineral dressing and extraction processes of gold-silver ores from San Pedro Frio Mining District, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanez Traslavina, J. J.; Vargas Avila, M. A.; Garcia Paez, I. H.; Pedraza Rosas, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    The San Pedro Frio district mining, Colombia, is a rich region production gold-silver ores. Nowadays, the extraction processes used are amalgamation, percolation cyanidation and precipitation with zinc wood. Due to the ignorance of the ore characteristics, gold and silver treatment processes are inadequate and not efficient. In addition the inappropriate use of mercury and cyanide cause environmental contamination. In this research the ore characterization was carried out obtained fundamental parameters for the technical selection of more efficient gold and silver extraction processes. Experimental work was addressed to the study of both processes the agitation cyanidation and the adsorption on activated carbon in pulp. As a final result proposed a flowsheet to improve the precious metals recovery and reduce the environment contamination. (Author)

  3. Electron-Muon Ranger: performance in the MICE Muon Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Debieux, S.; Drielsma, F.; Graulich, J.S.; Husi, C.; Karadzhov, Y.; Masciocchi, F.; Nicola, L.; Messomo, E.Noah; Rothenfusser, K.; Sandstrom, R.; Wisting, H.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.

    2015-12-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. The EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100-280 MeV/$c$.

  4. Electron-muon ranger: performance in the MICE muon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; De Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Blackmore, V.J.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Booth, C.N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. The EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100–280 MeV/c

  5. Detrimental effects of commercial zinc oxide and silver nanomaterials on bacterial populations and performance of wastewater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboyi, Anza-vhudziki; Kamika, Ilunga; Momba, MaggyN. B.

    2017-08-01

    The widespread use of commercial nanomaterials (NMs) in consumer products has raised environmental concerns as they can enter and affect the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study the effect of various concentrations of zinc oxide NMs (nZnO) and silver NMs (nAg) on the selected wastewater bacterial species (Bacillus licheniformis, Brevibacillus laterosporus and Pseudomonas putida) was ascertained at different pH levels (pH 2, 7 and 10). Lethal concentrations (LC) of NMs and parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were taken into consideration to assess the performance of a wastewater batch reactor. Bacterial isolates were susceptible to varying concentrations of both nZnO and nAg at pH 2, 7 and 10. It was found that a change in pH did not significantly affect the toxicity of test NMs towards target bacterial isolates. All bacterial species were significantly inhibited (p 0.05) in COD removal in the presence of increasing concentrations of NMs, which resulted in increasing releases of COD. Noticeably, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the decrease in DO uptake in the presence of increasing NM concentrations for all bacterial isolates. The toxic effects of the target NMs on bacterial populations in wastewater may negatively impact the performance of biological treatment processes and may thus affect the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants in producing effluent of high quality.

  6. Water management at Ranger Uranium Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carron, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The water management system at the Ranger Uranium Mine is described. Any water that may have come into contact with material containing more than 0.02% uranium must be retained within the Restricted Release zone (RRZ) from which no water may be released except under specified conditions and with the written approval of the Northern Territory supervising authority. The RRS contains the tailings dam, the mine pit and retention ponds 2 and 3. Outside the RR2, retention ponds 1 and 4 act as silt traps, allowing sediment to settle out prior to water discharge. The Office of Supervising Scientist has developed receiving waters quality standards for Magela Creek which are given in a table. There have now been established sufficient regulatory criteria to allow the release of waste water directly to Magela Creek without compromising the environment. Consideration of releases has been confined to the comparatively good quality run-off waters in the RRZ and no release of the more contaminated process and tailings water stream is contemplated

  7. Deep cleaning of a metallurgical zinc leaching residue and recovery of valuable metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Peng; Ma, Bao-zhong; Zeng, Peng; Wang, Cheng-yan; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-lu; Chen, Yong-qiang; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Qiu-yin

    2017-11-01

    Huge quantities of zinc leaching residues (ZLRs) generated from zinc production are dumped continuously around the world and pose a potential environmental threat because of their considerable amounts of entrained heavy metals (mainly lead). Most ZLRs have not been properly treated and the valuable metals in them have not yet been effectively recovered. Herein, the deep cleaning of a ZLR and recovery of valuable metals via a hydrometallurgical route were investigated. The cleaning process consists of two essential stages: acid leaching followed by calcium chloride leaching. The optimum conditions for extracting zinc, copper, and indium by acid leaching were a sulfuric acid concentration of 200 g·L-1, a liquid/solid ratio of 4:1 (mL/g), a leaching time of 2 h, and a temperature of 90°C. For lead and silver extractions, the optimum conditions were a calcium chloride concentration of 400 g·L-1, a pH value of 1.0, a leaching time of 1 h, and a temperature of 30°C. After calcium chloride leaching, silver and lead were extracted out and the lead was finally recovered as electrolytic lead by electrowinning. The anglesite phase, which poses the greatest potential environmental hazard, was removed from the ZLR after deep cleaning, thus reducing the cost of environmental management of ZLRs. The treatment of chlorine and spent electrolyte generated in the process was discussed.

  8. Power sources - Volume 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J [ed.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven papers from the major battery research and development centers of the world constitute the proceedings. The largest group of these papers is dedicated to the lithium systems which are becoming increasingly important in contemporary battery technology. Notable ones deal with rechargeable lithium systems and the propulsion of miniature aircraft for covert operational use using high energy density lithium systems. The lead acid battery industry has also contributed nine papers which again reflect the advancing front of technology. Fully-sealed units of high specific energy are now readily achievable. However, it is interesting to note that the classical tubular positive electrode is still considered sufficiently important to warrant the first paper of the Conference Proceedings. There are a few papers concerned with the zinc electrode in alkali. However, one paper from this group is devoted to the silver oxide electrode and one deals with separators for this cell. This underlines the search for new methods to operate with the zinc electrode commercially, that is, in addition to the primary applications. Only one paper contains the words fuel cell in the title and this reflects the disenchantment of the industry with the fuel cell concept. The amount of research in this area has been severely restricted although it is clear that spin-off applications such as a paper devoted to the storage of hydrogen using the silver-hydrogen system still continue to benefit from the technique established during what might be called the fuel-cell dream period. A final paper describes the only thermal battery contribution.

  9. Optimization of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, resonance light scattering (RLS) properties of a silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell, based on quasi-static approach and plasmon hybridization theory, are investigated. Scattering spectrum of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell has two intense and clearly separated RLS peaks and provides a potential for biosensing based on surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The two RLS peaks in silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell are optimized by tuning the geometrical dimensions. In addition, the optimal geometry is discussed to obtain the high sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. As the silver core radius increases, the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell decreases whereas increasing the middle dielectric thickness increases the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell

  10. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, George

    2017-05-01

    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  11. Assessment of gold and silver in assorted mobile phone printed circuit boards (PCBs): Original article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, M C; Singh, S K

    2015-11-01

    Demand for gold and silver has been escalating with increasing usage of electronic equipment globally. Around 267.3 MT of gold and 7275 MT of silver are being consumed annually for manufacturing mobile phones, laptops and other electronic equipment. However, only 15% is recuperated from these equipment; the remainder lies in the storage yards or landfills. The waste comprise glass, plastics, wires, batteries, PCBs, metal casing, etc. The PCB is composed of precious metals, which creates immense purpose for recycling and recovery. This paper characterises and assesses the recoverable metallic fraction of gold and silver from PCBs of mobile phones. The methodology is based on dismantling of the mobile handset and subjecting the PCBs to roasting and acid digestion. The digested samples were analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and the content of gold and silver in the PCBs was to be found in the range of 0.009-0.017% and 0.25-0.79% by weight respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 76689 - Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling AGENCY... proposed action is to approve two Plans of Operations for exploratory uranium drilling on the Cibola... San Mateo. In total, there are up to 279 drill holes that would be drilled over a period not to exceed...

  13. Excellent electrochemical performance of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids prepared using a microwave spark assistance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugharaj, A.M.; Ryu, Sung Hun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple synthesis route is explored in preparing graphene-metal nanoparticle hybrids using cost effective microwave radiation process. ► Electrochemical performance of the synthesized graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids have been compared with graphite and silver nanoparticle based anode materials. ► Graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrid exhibits stable charge/discharge characteristics of 714 mAh g −1 and it is significantly higher compared to natural graphite and silver based electrodes. - Abstract: A simple method is described for the synthesis of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids from graphite and silver precursors using microwave spark ignition process. Adding ecofriendly free radical initiators, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide solution leads to the expansion of graphite to graphene nanosheets. Simultaneously, silver ions intercalated between the graphene layers are reduced to silver nanocrystals leading to the development of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies reveal the successful formation of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the silver nanoparticles formed on the graphene surfaces are face centered cubic crystals. The surface composition and functional groups present on the graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids are corroborated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The lithium storage capacity of the synthesized material, when used as an anode material for rechargeable lithium secondary batteries is investigated. Its first specific discharge capacity is observed to be 580 mAh g −1 and this has been increased to 827 mAh g −1 , by incorporating the silver nanoparticles between the graphene platelets. The reversible capacity of the graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids is observed to be 714 mAh g −1 , which is significantly higher compared to that of graphene (420 mAh g −1

  14. Silver vanadium diphosphate Ag2VP2O8: Electrochemistry and characterization of reduced material providing mechanistic insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Esther S.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Cheng, Po-Jen; Menard, Melissa C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Silver vanadium phosphorous oxides (Ag w V x P y O z ) are notable battery cathode materials due to their high energy density and demonstrated ability to form in-situ Ag metal nanostructured electrically conductive networks within the cathode. While analogous silver vanadium diphosphate materials have been prepared, electrochemical evaluations of these diphosphate based materials have been limited. We report here the first electrochemical study of a silver vanadium diphosphate, Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 , where the structural differences associated with phosphorous oxides versus diphosphates profoundly affect the associated electrochemistry. Reminiscent of Ag 2 VO 2 PO 4 reduction, in-situ formation of silver metal nanoparticles was observed with reduction of Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 . However, counter to Ag 2 VO 2 PO 4 reduction, Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 demonstrates a significant decrease in conductivity upon continued electrochemical reduction. Structural analysis contrasting the crystallography of the parent Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 with that of the proposed Li 2 VP 2 O 8 reduction product is employed to gain insight into the observed electrochemical reduction behavior, where the structural rigidity associated with the diphosphate anion may be associated with the observed particle fracturing upon deep electrochemical reduction. Further, the diphosphate anion structure may be associated with the high thermal stability of the partially reduced Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 materials, which bodes well for enhanced safety of batteries incorporating this material. - Graphical abstract: Structure and galvanostatic intermittent titration-type test data for silver vanadium diphosphate, Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 . Highlights: ► First electrochemical study of a silver vanadium diphosphate, Ag 2 VP 2 O 8 . ► In-situ formation of Ag 0 nanoparticles was observed upon electrochemical reduction. ► Structural analysis used to provide insight of the electrochemical behavior

  15. Electron transfer number control of the oxygen reduction reaction on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides for the air electrodes of zinc-air batteries and organic degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Sheng-Hui; Li, Po-Chieh; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The mean electron transfer number (n) of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is controlled by nitrogen doping for the air electrodes of Zn-air batteries and electrochemical organic degradation. Melamine and pyrrole are employed as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-doped rGO (N-rGO) by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MAHS). The n value of the ORR is determined by the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) voltammetry and is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. The N-doped structures are examined by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. The morphology and the defect degree of N-rGOs are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. N-rGOs with high and low n values are employed as the air electrode catalysts of zinc-air batteries and in-situ hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) generation, respectively. The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery is obtained at 2 mA cm"−"2 meanwhile the current efficiency of H_2O_2 generation in 1-h electrolysis at 0 V (vs. RHE) reaches 43%. The electrocatalytic degradation of orange G (OG), analyzed by UV-VIS absorption spectra, reveals a high decoloration degree from the relative absorbance of 0.38 for the azo π-conjugation structure of OG. - Highlights: • The mean electron transfer number (n) is controlled by nitrogen doping. • Melamine and pyrrole are used as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-rGO. • The n value is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. • The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery. • The current efficiency of H_2O_2 generation 1-h electrolysis reaches 43%.

  16. Investigation of tailings water leak at the Ranger uranium mine. Supervising Scientist report 153

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report has been to investigate and report on the leak of water from the Tailings Water Return Pipe at the Ranger uranium mine during the 1999/2000 Wet season with specific reference to: the origin of the leak and the adequacy of remediation measures taken to prevent similar occurrences in the future; the extent to which the people and the environment of Kakadu National Park have been adversely affected by the leak and the extent to which Energy Resources of Australia has complied with the reporting requirements specified in the Environmental Requirements. It describes the outcomes of the investigation and makes recommendations to address deficiencies identified in the environmental management systems at Ranger and in the supervisory and regulatory regimes applied to Ranger by the Supervising Scientist and NTDME. It has been established that the volume of water that leaked from the tailings water return pipeline was about 2000 cubic metres during the 1999/2000 Wet season. Of this, only a small fraction, about 85 cubic metres, entered the culvert which flows to thc Corridor Creek Wetlands. The remainder was collected in the tailings corridor sump and returned to the water management system. The failure of the pipeline to contain tailings water would not on itself normally have resulted in the discharge of this water to the external environment. That the leaked water did reach the external environment is due to a failure of the bunded corridor system to fully contain any spilled water. The cause of this failure was that the engineered structure between the roadway and a culvert that drains water from the nearby waste rock dump was not impermeable.The statutory monitoring program has been found to be deficient in two ways. First, other than visual inspection, it has not been designed to include monitoring locations within secondary containment systems that would indicate the failure of primary containment systems. In the present case, no statutory

  17. Radioactive dust concentration around the Ranger uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasnicka, Jiri.

    1988-07-01

    Environmental dust sampling and wind direction/velocity monitory were carried out between July and November 1987 at five points around the Ranger Uranium Mines project near Jabiru, Northern Territory. The measured radioactive dust alpha activities in the air were used to calculate the radioactive dust source-term and develop a site-specific air dispersion model which takes the depletion of the dust plume into account. The above model was used to estimate the effective committed dose equivalent as 15 μSv/year to children in Jabiru East. This corresponds to an increase of 2.6 x 10 -4 Bq. m -3 in the annual average dust alpha activity above the natural background. The dose to the children in Jabiru is about 5 μSv/year, so that the critical group of the public is in Jabiru East. 12 refs., 11 tabs., 2 maps

  18. Application of a catchment evolution model to the prediction of long-term erosion on the spoil heap at Ranger uranium mine. Supervising Scientist report 132

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willgoose, G.

    1998-01-01

    There is a need to assess the long-term stability of engineered landforms associated with the rehabilitation of Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia, as it is a requirement that mill tailings must be contained for periods in excess of 1000 years. The geomorphic model, SIBERIA, is calibrated on hydrology and erosion data collected by a combination of monitoring and rainfall simulation experiments on the waste rock dumps of Ranger. Preliminary analysis of Ranger's preferred above-grade and below-grade rehabilitation options suggests that erosion of the order of 7-8 m will occur on the structure in a period of 1000 years. This depth of erosion may be sufficient to compromise the integrity of the containment. It is shown that SIBERIA has significant advantages over steady-state erosion models. Suggestions are made for the design that will enhance the stability of the structure and extend the structural life of the containment

  19. Study concerning the recovery of zinc and manganese from spent batteries by hydrometallurgical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatu, Traian; Popescu, Gabriela; Birloaga, Ionela; Săceanu, Simona

    2013-03-01

    Used batteries contain numerous metals in high concentrations and if not disposed of with proper care, they can negatively affect our environment. These metals represent 83% of all spent batteries and therefore it is important to recover metals such as Zn and Mn, and reuse them for the production of new batteries. The recovery of Zn and Mn from used batteries, in particular from Zn-C and alkaline ones has been researched using hydrometallurgical methods. After comminution and classification of elemental components, the electrode paste resulting from these processes was treated by chemical leaching. Prior to the leaching process the electrode paste has been subjected to two washing steps, in order to remove the potassium, which is an inconvenient element in this type of processes. To simultaneously extract Zn and Mn from this paste, the leaching method in alkaline medium (NaOH solution) and acid medium (sulphuric acid solution) was used. Also, to determine the efficiency of extraction of Zn and Mn from used batteries, the following variables were studied: reagents concentration, S/L ratio, temperature, time. The best results for extraction yield of Zn and Mn were obtained under acid leaching conditions (2M H2SO4, 1h, 80°C). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Silver nanoparticles in combination with acetic acid and zinc oxide quantum dots for antibacterial activities improvement—A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedira, Sofiane, E-mail: sofianebilel@gmail.com [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Ayachi, Ahmed Abdelhakim, E-mail: ayachi-med@hotmail.fr [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Lakehal, Sihem, E-mail: lakehal.lakehal@gmail.com [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Fateh, Merouane, E-mail: merouane.fateh@gmail.com [Microbiological Laboratory Engineering and Application, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Achour, Slimane, E-mail: achourslimane11@yahoo.fr [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method. • Ag NPs exert their bactericidal effect mainly by Ag{sup +} ions. • CH{sub 3}COOH addition to Ag NPs improves bactericidal effect more than ZnO Qds addition. • E. coli and P. aeruginosa are more sensitive to NPs than K. pneumonia and S. aureus. - Abstract: Due to their remarkable antibacterial/antivirus properties, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO Qds) have been widely used in the antimicrobial field. The mechanism of action of Ag NPs on bacteria was recently studied and it has been proven that Ag NPs exerts their antibacterial activities mainly by the released Ag{sup +}. In this work, Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method, respectively. It was demonstrated that Ag NPs can be oxidized easily in aqueous solution and the addition of acetic acid can increase the Ag{sup +} release which improves the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs. A comparative study between bactericidal effect of Ag NPs/acetic acid and Ag NPs/ZnO Qds on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus was undertaken using agar diffusion method. The obtained colloids were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  1. Synergistic action of cinnamaldehyde with silver nanoparticles against spore-forming bacteria: a case for judicious use of silver nanoparticles for antibacterial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh IN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Indro Neil Ghosh,1,* Supriya Deepak Patil,1,* Tarun Kumar Sharma,1,2 Santosh Kumar Srivastava,1 Ranjana Pathania,1 Naveen Kumar Navani11Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, 2Center for Biodesign and Diagnostics, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Gurgaon Haryana, India*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Silver has long been advocated as an effective antimicrobial. However, toxicity issues with silver have led to limited use of silver in nanoform, especially for food preservation. With the aim of exploring combinatorial options that could increase the antibacterial potency of silver nanoparticles and reduce the effective dosage of silver, we evaluated the extent of synergy that a combination of silver nanoparticles and an essential oil representative (cinnamaldehyde could offer. A battery of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains was utilized for antibacterial assays, and extents of synergism were calculated from fractional inhibitory concentration indices. The activity of nanoparticles was greatly enhanced when utilized in the presence of cinnamaldehyde. We observed combinatorial effects that were strongly additive against all the bacterial strains tested, and genuine synergy was found against spore forming Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens – bacterial strains associated with release of cytotoxins in contaminated food and known for their persistence. Bacterial kill curve analysis revealed a very fast bactericidal action when a combination of two agents was used. The electron and atomic force microscopy also revealed extensive damage to the bacterial cell envelop in the presence of both agents. We also performed hemolysis assays to investigate and approximate the extent of toxicity exhibited by the two agents, and observed no adverse effect at the concentrations required for synergy. This study shows that safe levels of silver in

  2. Transport Properties Of PbI2 Doped Silver Oxysalt Based Amorphous Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrisanjaykumar Jayswal, Manishkumar

    Solid electrolytes are a class of materials that conduct electricity by means of motion of ions like Ag+, Na+, Li +, Cu+, H+, F-, O -2 etc. in solid phase. The host materials include crystalline, polycrystalline, glasses, polymers and composites. Ion conducting glasses are one of the most sought after solid electrolytes that are useful in various electrochemical applications like solid state batteries, gas sensors, supercapacitors, electrochromic devices, to name a few. Since the discovery of fast silver ion transport in silver oxyhalide glasses at the end of the 1960s, many glasses showing large ionic conductivity up to 10-4 10-2 S/cm at room temperature have been developed, chiefly silver and copper ion conductors. The silver ion conducting glasses owe their high ionic conductivity mainly to stabilized alpha-AgI. AgI, as we know, undergoes a structural phase transition from wurtzite (beta phase) at room temperature to body centered cubic (alpha phase) structure at temperatures higher than 146 °C. The alpha-AgI possesses approximately six order of higher ionic conductivity than beta-AgI. The high ionic conductivity of alpha-AgI is attributed to its molten sublattice type of structure, which facilitates easy Ag+ ion migration, like a liquid. And hence, several attempts have been made to stabilize it at room temperature in crystalline as well as non-crystalline hosts like oxide and non-oxide glasses. Recently, in order to stabilize AgI in glasses, instead of directly doping it, indirect routes have also been explored. Where, a metal iodide salt along with silver oxide or silver phosphate is taken and an exchange reaction permitted by Hard and Soft, Acid and Base (HSAB) principle occurs between the two and AgI and metal oxide form in the glass forming melt. Work done in the present thesis has been organized in seven chapters as follows: Chapter 1: A review and background information of different solid electrolyte materials and their development is presented. Along

  3. Development of 2D and 3D structured textile batteries processing conductive material with Tailored Fiber Placement (TFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann, M.; Grethe, T.; Zöll, K.; Ehrmann, A.; Schwarz-Pfeiffer, A.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years smart textiles have gained a significant increase of attention. Electrotherapeutic socks, light emitting dresses or shirts with integrated sensors, having the ability to process data of vital parameters, are just a few examples and the full potential is not yet exhausted: Smart textiles are not only used for clothing purposes. Sensors for the care of the elderly, light applications for home textiles and monitoring systems in the automotive section are promising fields for the future. For all these electrical and electronic features, the supply of power is needed. The most common used power supplies, however, are not flexible, often not lightweight and therefore a huge problem for the integration into textile products. In recent projects, textile-based batteries are being developed. Metal-coated fabrics and yarns (e.g. silver, copper, nickel, zinc) as well as carbon based materials were used to create textile based energy sources. This article gives an overview of textile based electrochemical cells by combining different conductive yarns and a gel-electrolyte. The available materials will be processed by embroidering utilizing tailored fiber placement (TFP). The electrical characteristics of different embroidered patterns and material combinations are examined.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of silver and gold in toothpastes: A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junevičius, Jonas; Žilinskas, Juozas; Česaitis, Kęstutis; Česaitienė, Gabrielė; Gleiznys, Darius; Maželienė, Žaneta

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the antimicrobial activity of identical toothpastes differing only in silver or gold nanoparticles against the activity of one of the common toothpastes containing a chemical active ingredient. We also compared the active concentrations of the toothpastes. For this study, we selected "Royal Denta" toothpastes containing silver and gold particles, and the "Blend-A-Med Complete" toothpaste containing zinc citrate as the active ingredient. We used 8 standard microorganism cultures on the basis of their individual mechanisms of protection. The antimicrobial activity of each studied preparation was evaluated at 9 concentrations. Most effective against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) was the "Silver Technology" – MIC was 0.004-0.0015 g/mL. Neither "Silver Technology" nor "Orange and Gold Technology" had any effect on Escherichia coli or Proteus mirabilis. Antimicrobial activity against the motile bacterium Proteus mirabilis was observed in "Silver Technology", "Orange and Gold Technology", and "Blend-A-Med Complete" – the MIC was 0.015 g/mL or lower. No antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans fungus at the studied concentrations was observed in the "Orange and Gold Technology". The toothpaste "Blend-A-Med" demonstrated the most effective antimicrobial activity - the MIC of 0.0015 g/mL and 0.015 g/mL inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively, and the MIC of 0.15 g/mL inhibited the growth of the bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungus Candida albicans. Silver in toothpaste has a greater antimicrobial effect than gold, but its effect is still inferior to that of a chemical antimicrobial agent.

  5. Facile fabrication of silver nanoparticles with temperature-responsive sizes as highly active SERS substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Fang, Jinghuai; Cheng, Mingfei; Gong, Xiao

    2016-12-01

    In our work, large-scale silver NPs (nanoparticles) are successfully synthesized on zinc foils with controllable size by regulating the temperature of the displacement reaction. Our results show that when the temperature is 70 °C, the average size of silver NPs is approximately 88 nm in diameter, and they exhibit the strongest SERS activity. The gap between nanoparticles is simultaneously regulated as near as possible, which produces abundant "hot spots" and nanogaps. Crystal violet (CV) was used as probe molecules, and the SERS signals show that the values of relative standard deviation in the intensity of the main vibration modes are less than 10%, demonstrating excellent reproducibility of the silver NPs. Furthermore, the high surface-average enhancement factor of 3.86 × 107 is achieved even when the concentration of CV is 10-7 M, which is sufficient for single-molecule detection. We believe that this low cost and rapid route would get wide applications in chemical synthesis.

  6. Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, B.L.; Auld, D.S.; Coleman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors recognize three distinct motifs of DNA-binding zinc proteins: (i) zinc fingers, (ii) zinc clusters, and (iii) zinc twists. Until very recently, x-ray crystallographic or NMR three-dimensional structure analyses of DNA-binding zinc proteins have not been available to serve as standards of reference for the zinc binding sites of these families of proteins. Those of the DNA-binding domains of the fungal transcription factor GAL4 and the rat glucocorticoid receptor are the first to have been determined. Both proteins contain two zinc binding sites, and in both, cysteine residues are the sole zinc ligands. In GAL4, two zinc atoms are bound to six cysteine residues which form a zinc cluster akin to that of metallothionein; the distance between the two zinc atoms of GAL4 is ∼3.5 angstrom. In the glucocorticoid receptor, each zinc atom is bound to four cysteine residues; the interatomic zinc-zinc distance is ∼13 angstrom, and in this instance, a zinc twist is represented by a helical DNA recognition site located between the two zinc atoms. Zinc clusters and zinc twists are here recognized as two distinctive motifs in DNA-binding proteins containing multiple zinc atoms. For native zinc fingers, structural data do not exist as yet; consequently, the interatomic distances between zinc atoms are not known. As further structural data become available, the structural and functional significance of these different motifs in their binding to DNA and other proteins participating in the transmission of the genetic message will become apparent

  7. A primary battery-on-a-chip using monolayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iost, Rodrigo M.; Crespilho, Frank N.; Kern, Klaus; Balasubramanian, Kannan

    2016-07-01

    We present here a bottom-up approach for realizing on-chip on-demand batteries starting out with chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene. Single graphene monolayers contacted by electrode lines on a silicon chip serve as electrodes. The anode and cathode are realized by electrodeposition of zinc and copper respectively onto graphene, leading to the realization of a miniature graphene-based Daniell cell on a chip. The electrolyte is housed partly in a gel and partly in liquid form in an on-chip enclosure molded using a 3d printer or made out of poly(dimethylsiloxane). The realized batteries provide a stable voltage (∼1.1 V) for many hours and exhibit capacities as high as 15 μAh, providing enough power to operate a pocket calculator. The realized batteries show promise for deployment as on-chip power sources for autonomous systems in lab-on-a-chip or biomedical applications.

  8. Non-radiological contaminants from uranium mining and milling at Ranger, Jabiru, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noller, B N

    1991-10-01

    Protection from the hazards from radioactivity is of prime importance in the management of uranium mine and mill wastes. Such wastes also contain non-radiological contaminants (heavy metals, acids and neutralising agents) which give rise to potential long-term health and environmental hazards and short-term hazards to the aquatic ecosystem, e.g. as a result of release of waste water. This study seeks to identify non-radiological contaminants (elements) transferred to waste water at the Ranger uranium mine/mill complex at Jabiru, which are likely to hazardous to the aquatic environment.The two principal sources of contaminants are: (i) ore and waste rock mobilised from mining; and (ii) process reagents used in the milling and mineral extraction process. These substances may or may not already be present in the natural environment but may lead to deleterious effects on the aquatic environment if increased above threshold levels.Rhenium, derived from the ore body, was found to be significantly enriched in waste water from Ranger, indicating its suitability as an indicator element for water originating from the mining and milling process, but only uranium, likewise derived from the ore, and magnesium, manganese and sulfur (as sulfate) from the milling process were found to be significant environmental contaminants.

  9. Electrochemical Activity of a La0.9Ca0.1Co1−xFexO3 Catalyst for a Zinc Air Battery Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwook Eom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimum composition of cathode catalyst has been studied for rechargeable zinc air battery application. La0.9Ca0.1Co1−xFexO3  (x=0–0.4 perovskite powders were prepared using the citrate method. The substitution ratio of Co2+ with Fe3+ cations was controlled in the range of 0–0.4. The optimum substitution ratio of Fe3+ cations was determined by electrochemical measurement of the air cathode composed of the catalyst, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE binder, and Vulcan XC-72 carbon. The substitution by Fe enhanced the electrochemical performances of the catalysts. Considering oxygen reduction/evolution reactions and cyclability, we achieved optimum substitution level of x=0.1 in La0.9Ca0.1Co1−xFexO3.

  10. Recovery of metals from a mixture of various spent batteries by a hydrometallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanong, Kulchaya; Coudert, Lucie; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-Francois

    2016-10-01

    Spent batteries contain hazardous materials, including numerous metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, zinc, etc.) that are present at high concentrations. Therefore, proper treatment of these wastes is necessary to prevent their harmful effects on human health and the environment. Current recycling processes are mainly applied to treat each type of spent battery separately. In this laboratory study, a hydrometallurgical process has been developed to simultaneously and efficiently solubilize metals from spent batteries. Among the various chemical leaching agents tested, sulfuric acid was found to be the most efficient and cheapest reagent. A Box-Behnken design was used to identify the influence of several parameters (acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio, retention time and number of leaching steps) on the removal of metals from spent batteries. According to the results, the solid/liquid ratio and acid concentration seemed to be the main parameters influencing the solubilization of zinc, manganese, nickel, cadmium and cobalt from spent batteries. According to the results, the highest metal leaching removals were obtained under the optimal leaching conditions (pulp density = 180 g/L (w/v), [H2SO4] = 1 M, number of leaching step = 3 and leaching time = 30 min). Under such optimum conditions, the removal yields obtained were estimated to be 65% for Mn, 99.9% for Cd, 100% for Zn, 74% for Co and 68% for Ni. Further studies will be performed to improve the solubilization of Mn and to selectively recover the metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thallium and Silver binding to dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M. F.; Martin, L.; Simonucci, C.; Viollier, E.

    2017-12-01

    Silver (Ag) and thallium (Tl) are potential contaminants at the vicinity of mining sites and are harmful pollutants. Silver can be found in mine but also as released by the dissolution of Silver nanoparticles, a major new emerging contaminant. Tl is both lithophilic and calcophilic elements and found in sulphur ores (associated with lead, zinc, antimony…) or in rocks containing K-feldspar. Speciation of Ag and Tl is poorly known mainly due to their low concentrations in aquatic environments. Review of Ag and Tl geochemistry clearly shows a lack of quantitative information about interactions with natural organic matter. Organic ligands could play an important role in Ag or Tl bioavailability, chemical reactivity (adsorption or photo oxidation inhibition or catalysis) and hence geochemical transfers. Based on equilibrium between two solutions that are separated by a selectively permeable membrane, the so-called "Donnan membrane technique" (DMT) provides a measure of free ion concentrations. Analytes measurements are performed by HR-ICP-MS Element 2 (Thermo Scientific). Experimental setup allows the Donnan equilibrium to be reached after 100 and 120 hours for Tl. Experiments performed with purified natural organic matter allow calculating complexation constants in multiple pH conditions. With this work, we contribute new data and interpretations to an active debate on Ag and Tl geochemical modeling. In conclusion, this work brings a new view on risk assessment for mining activities.

  12. Air Force electrochemical power research and technology program for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the existing Air Force electrochemical power, battery, and fuel cell programs for space application. Present thrusts are described along with anticipated technology availability dates. Critical problems to be solved before system applications occur are highlighted. Areas of needed performance improvement of batteries and fuel cells presently used are outlined including target dates for key demonstrations of advanced technology. Anticipated performance and current schedules for present technology programs are reviewed. Programs that support conventional military satellite power systems and special high power applications are reviewed. Battery types include bipolar lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, nickel-hydrogen, sodium-sulfur, and some candidate advanced couples. Fuel cells for pulsed and transportation power applications are discussed as are some candidate advanced regenerative concepts.

  13. Potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium in electrolytes of in galvanic baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyuga, E.A.; Kalugin, A.A.; Gur'ev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method of potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium by complexone 3 in electrolytes of galvanic baths using sulphide - silver electrode for determining the finite point of titration is suggested. Copper (2) ions are proposed as indicator ions. The potentiometric determination should be performed at pH=10. The method is verified on model electrolyte solutions and on the electrolyte solutions of operating baths.The technique can be used for automatic control. The time for analysis is 10 minutes

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and silver colloidal solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Phong; Ngo Hoang Minh; Ngo Vo Ke Thanh; Dang Mau Chien

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, silver colloidal solutions have been synthesized rapidly in green conditions by using microwave irradiation and non-toxic chemistry substances (acid oxalic, silver nitrate, polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP; Mw = 55 000)). The particle size and morphology of these solutions can be controlled by altering several factors like the time, the power of microwave exposure, and the ratio of silver oxalate and PVP etc. The silver nanoparticles were fabricated by thermal decomposition of silver oxalate. The synthesized silver colloidal solutions and silver nanoparticles were characterized by several analytical techniques like UV- VIS, XRD, TEM, FESEM/EDS and ICP-AAS studies. Finally, we used the synthesized silver colloidal solutions for antibacterial purpose. The obtained results showed that the synthesized silver colloidal solutions, even at very low concentrations, have highly efficient anti-bacterial property.

  15. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Activities in a program to develop a Ni/Zn battery for electric vehicle propulsion are reported. Aspects discussed include battery design and development, nickel cathode study, and basic electrochemistry. A number of engineering drawings are supplied. 61 figures, 11 tables. (RWR)

  16. Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Larsson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the electrical hazard in a larger battery system since, by stopping the air supply, the voltage can be brought to zero while maintaining the energy capacity of the battery. Measurements of overdischarge currents and current cut-off by suffocation have been performed to assess the safety of this type of Zn–air battery. The time to get to zero battery voltage is shown to mainly be determined by the volume of air trapped in the cell.

  17. The BATENUS process for recycling mixed battery waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Siegmund; Sewing, Dirk

    The first large-scale battery recycling facility implementing the hydrometallurgical BATENUS technology is expected to go into operation by 1996. The plant will be situated in Schönebeck/Sachsen-Anhalt, and has a projected maximum capacity of 7500 tons of spent batteries per year. The engineering is being carried out by Keramchemie GmbH and the plant will be operated by Batterierecycling Schönebeck GmbH. The BATENUS process was developed by Pira GmbH, a research institute in Stühlingen, Germany, during a period of five years. This new process combines hydrometallurgical operations in a nearly closed reagent cycle that involves electrochemical and membrane techniques. Effluent emissions are minimized to the greatest possible extent. Process validity has been proven in a series of pilot plant testings. After mechanical separation of the casing materials like ferrous and nonferrous metals, paper and plastics, the subsequent hydrometallurgical recovery yields zinc, copper, nickel and cadmium. The other products are manganese carbonate and a mixture of manganese oxide with carbon black. Mercury is immobilized by absorption on a selective ion-exchange resin. The BATENUS process is a master process for the hydrometallurgical reclamation of metals from secondary raw materials. It has found its first application in the treatment of spent consumer batteries (i.e., mixtures of zinc-carbon, alkaline manganese, lithium, nickel-cadmium cells, etc.). As a result of its modular process design, the individual steps can be modified easily and adapted to accommodate variations in the contents of the secondary raw materials. Further applications of this highly flexible technology are planned for the future.

  18. Precipitation of gold and silver from cyanide solutions by hydrated electrons generated by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyak, A.S.; Zhigunov, V.A.; Shepot'ko, M.L.; Smirnov, G.I.; Dolin, P.I.; Bobrova, A.S.; Khikin, G.I.

    1981-01-01

    Redox reactions are widely used in chemistry and chemical engineering for the precipitation of noble metals, since this general class of reactions offers the possibility of selective recovery of these metals from solutions that are complex in composition. The classical method for precipitation of gold and silver from cyanide process solutions is reduction by metallic zinc. This process has certain advantages, and it is easy to carry out under plant conditions with high indices of efficiency. However, the precipitation of gold and silver is accompanied by contamination of the solutions with zinc ions, which makes it difficult to recycle the cyanide solutions; also, additional treatment of the precipitates is required before they are directed to the refining process. Hence, greater quantities of reagents are required, the process conversion becomes more complicated, and the cost of producing the metals is higher. All of these factors make it attractive to seek new methods for processing cyanide solutions that do not have these shortcomings. An interesting approach to the solution of this problem is the use of so-called ''reagentless'' precipitation methods, among which we may class the reduction of gold and silver to the metallic state in cyanide solutions by hydrated electrons generated by ionizing radiation. The significant advances that have been made in research on the hydrated electron, along with data indicating that it is feasible, at least in principle, to use the hydrated electron for industrial purposes, have been the stiumlus for setting up the studies that are reported here

  19. Contingency planning and risk analysis for water and tailings management at Ranger Uranium Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes some of the more likely risks and contingency procedures associated with the extremely variable monsoonal climate of the Alligator Rivers region in the Northern Territory in relation to the Ranger Uranium Mine. The tailings management system is basically a large storage impoundment and a reticulation system that delivers tailings sludge and recycles supernatant water. It is a closed circuit within the water management system and is dealt with as an integral part of that system

  20. Thermodynamic Considerations for a Pyrometallurgical Extraction of Indium and Silver from a Jarosite Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Steinlechner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indium and silver are technologically important, critical metals, and in the majority of cases, they are extracted as a by-product of another carrier metal. The importance of indium has seen recent growth, and for technological reasons, these metals can be found in industrial residues from primary zinc production, such as the iron precipitate—jarosite. To secure the supply of such metals in Europe, and with the idea of a circular economy and the sustainable use of raw materials, the recycling of such industrial residues is coming into focus. Due to the low value of jarosite, the focus must lie simultaneously on the recovery of valuable metals and the production of high-quality products in order to pursue an economical process. The objective of this article is to give the fundamentals for the development of a successful process to extract the minor elements from roasted jarosite. As such, we use thermodynamic calculations to show the behavior of indium and silver, leading to a recommendation for the required conditions for a successful extraction process. In summary, the formation of chlorine compounds shows high potential to meet the challenge of simultaneously recovering these metals together with zinc at the lowest possible energy input.

  1. Electrochemical reduction of oxygen on lead-silver alloys in an alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliverstov, S.D.; Arkhangel'skaya, Z.P.; Lyzlov, N.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The use of lead-silver alloys as materials for the gas-absorbing electrode in sealed silver-cadmium alkaline storage batteries is desirable primarily from the stanpoint of saving the costly silver. The authors studied reduction of oxygen with the aim of optimizing the composition of the Pb-Ag alloy and of the porous structure of the electrodes. The alloys were made in a muffle furnace in corundum crucibles under a layer of VI-2 flux. Curves are shown which represent the dependence of the ionization current of molecular oxygen on smooth partially immersed electrodes made from alloys differing in composition on the length of the part of the electrode withdrawn from the solution. It is shown that decrease of the corrosion resistance of the alloy in the porous electrode causes partial loss of its mechanical strength. Worsening of the electric contact between the particles of active material is also possible. An alloy of the composition (mass %) 60 Pb-40 Ag is the most suitable from the practical standpoint

  2. Ambient redox synthesis of vanadium-doped manganese dioxide nanoparticles and their enhanced zinc storage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaruqi, Muhammad Hilmy; Islam, Saiful; Mathew, Vinod; Song, Jinju; Kim, Sungjin; Tung, Duong Pham; Jo, Jeonggeun; Kim, Seokhun; Baboo, Joseph Paul; Xiu, Zhiliang; Kim, Jaekook, E-mail: jaekook@chonnam.ac.kr

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The V-doped MnO{sub 2} was prepared by a simple ambient redox reaction. • The V-doped MnO{sub 2} was tested as a cathode in aqueous zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs). • The doped cathode showed better zinc-storage properties than the bare cathode. • The present study facilitates the development of safe and reliable aqueous ZIBs. - Abstract: In this work, we demonstrate the first use of a V-doped MnO{sub 2} nanoparticle electrode for zinc-ion battery (ZIB) applications. The V-doped MnO{sub 2} was prepared via a simple redox reaction and the X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of pure MnO{sub 2}, accompanied by an anisotropic expansion of MnO{sub 2} lattice, suggesting the incorporation of V-ions into the MnO{sub 2} framework. V doping of MnO{sub 2} not only increased the specific surface area but also improved the electronic conductivity. When Zn-storage properties were tested, the V-doped MnO{sub 2} electrode registered a higher discharge capacity of 266 mAh g{sup −1} compared to 213 mAh g{sup −1} for the pure MnO{sub 2} electrode. On prolonged cycling, the doped electrode retained 31% higher capacity than that of the bare MnO{sub 2} electrode and thereby demonstrated superior cycling performance. This study may pave the way towards understanding the enhancement of the energy storage properties via doping in electrodes of aqueous ZIB applications and also furthers the efforts for the practical realization of a potential eco-friendly battery system.

  3. Substrates coated with silver nanoparticles as a neuronal regenerative material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Noa Alon,1,3,* Yana Miroshnikov,2,3,* Nina Perkas,2,3 Ifat Nissan,2,3 Aharon Gedanken,2,3 Orit Shefi1,31Faculty of Engineering, 2Department of Chemistry, 3Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Much effort has been devoted to the design of effective biomaterials for nerve regeneration. Here, we report the novel use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs as regenerative agents to promote neuronal growth. We grew neuroblastoma cells on surfaces coated with AgNPs and studied the effect on the development of the neurites during the initiation and the elongation growth phases. We find that the AgNPs function as favorable anchoring sites, and the growth on the AgNP-coated substrates leads to a significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth. Cells grown on substrates coated with AgNPs have initiated three times more neurites than cells grown on uncoated substrates, and two times more than cells grown on substrates sputtered with a plain homogenous layer of silver. The growth of neurites on AgNPs in the elongation phase was enhanced as well. A comparison with substrates coated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs demonstrated a clear silver material-driven promoting effect, in addition to the nanotopography. The growth on substrates coated with AgNPs has led to a significantly higher number of initiating neurites when compared to substrates coated with AuNPs or ZnONPs. All nanoparticle-coated substrates affected and promoted the elongation of neurites, with a significant positive maximal effect for the AgNPs. Our results, combined with the well-known antibacterial effect of AgNPs, suggest the use of AgNPs as an attractive nanomaterial – with dual activity – for neuronal repair studies.Keywords: nerve regeneration, nanotopography, antibacterial material, neuroblastoma, gold nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles

  4. Zinc oxide nano-rods based glucose biosensor devices fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, H. A.; Salama, A. A.; El Saeid, A. A.; Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Battisha, I. K.

    2018-06-01

    ZnO is distinguished multifunctional material that has wide applications in biochemical sensor devices. For extracellular measurements, Zinc oxide nano-rods will be deposited on conducting plastic substrate with annealing temperature 150 °C (ZNRP150) and silver wire with annealing temperature 250 °C (ZNRW250), for the extracellular glucose concentration determination with functionalized ZNR-coated biosensors. It was performed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) over the range from 1 μM to 10 mM and on human blood plasma. The prepared samples crystal structure and surface morphologies were characterized by XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope FESEM respectively.

  5. Influence of thickness and coatings morphology in the antimicrobial performance of zinc oxide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, P. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Sampaio, P. [CBMA, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4700 Braga (Portugal); Azevedo, S. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Vaz, C. [CBMA, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4700 Braga (Portugal); Espinós, J.P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-University of Sevilla, Avda. Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Teixeira, V., E-mail: vasco@fisica.uminho.pt [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Carneiro, J.O., E-mail: carneiro@fisica.uminho.pt [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    In this research work, the production of undoped and silver (Ag) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films for food-packaging applications were developed. The main goal was to determine the influence of coatings morphology and thickness on the antimicrobial performance of the produced samples. The ZnO based thin films were deposited on PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by means of DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The thin films were characterized by optical spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The antimicrobial performance of the undoped and Ag-doped ZnO thin films was also evaluated. The results attained have shown that all the deposited zinc oxide and Ag-doped ZnO coatings present columnar morphology with V-shaped columns. The increase of ZnO coatings thickness until 200 nm increases the active surface area of the columns. The thinner samples (50 and 100 nm) present a less pronounced antibacterial activity than the thickest ones (200–600 nm). Regarding Ag-doped ZnO thin films, it was verified that increasing the silver content decreases the growth rate of Escherichia coli and decreases the amount of bacteria cells present at the end of the experiment.

  6. An All-Solid-State Fiber-Shaped Aluminum-Air Battery with Flexibility, Stretchability, and High Electrochemical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Zhao, Yang; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Ye; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-07-04

    Owing to the high theoretical energy density of metal-air batteries, the aluminum-air battery has been proposed as a promising long-term power supply for electronics. However, the available energy density from the aluminum-air battery is far from that anticipated and is limited by current electrode materials. Herein we described the creation of a new family of all-solid-state fiber-shaped aluminum-air batteries with a specific capacity of 935 mAh g(-1) and an energy density of 1168 Wh kg(-1) . The synthesis of an electrode composed of cross-stacked aligned carbon-nanotube/silver-nanoparticle sheets contributes to the remarkable electrochemical performance. The fiber shape also provides the aluminum-air batteries with unique advantages; for example, they are flexible and stretchable and can be woven into a variety of textiles for large-scale applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Electron transfer number control of the oxygen reduction reaction on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides for the air electrodes of zinc-air batteries and organic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sheng-Hui; Li, Po-Chieh; Hu, Chi-Chang, E-mail: cchu@che.nthu.edu.tw

    2016-11-01

    The mean electron transfer number (n) of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is controlled by nitrogen doping for the air electrodes of Zn-air batteries and electrochemical organic degradation. Melamine and pyrrole are employed as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-doped rGO (N-rGO) by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MAHS). The n value of the ORR is determined by the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) voltammetry and is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. The N-doped structures are examined by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. The morphology and the defect degree of N-rGOs are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. N-rGOs with high and low n values are employed as the air electrode catalysts of zinc-air batteries and in-situ hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) generation, respectively. The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery is obtained at 2 mA cm{sup −2} meanwhile the current efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation in 1-h electrolysis at 0 V (vs. RHE) reaches 43%. The electrocatalytic degradation of orange G (OG), analyzed by UV-VIS absorption spectra, reveals a high decoloration degree from the relative absorbance of 0.38 for the azo π-conjugation structure of OG. - Highlights: • The mean electron transfer number (n) is controlled by nitrogen doping. • Melamine and pyrrole are used as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-rGO. • The n value is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. • The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery. • The current efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation 1-h electrolysis reaches 43%.

  8. Preconcentration of silver as silver xanthate on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadevi, P.; Naidu, U.V.; Naidu, G.R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Silver from aqueous solution was preconcentrated by adsorption on activated carbon as silver xanthate. Factors influencing the adsorption of silver were studied. Optimum conditions for the preconcentration of silver were established. (author) 9 refs.; 3 tabs

  9. Silver copper fluoride: A novel perovskite cathode for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei; Amatucci, Glenn G.

    2017-09-01

    An electrochemically active nanostructured silver copper fluoride (SCF) perovskite, AgCuF3, was synthesized via a mechanochemical reaction between AgF and CuF2 precursors. Phase composition and electrochemical properties of the SCF perovskites produced under various synthetic parameters were studied. The optimum SCF perovskite sample exhibited an appreciable electrochemical performance through the use of conductive carbon matrix in a primary lithium half cell. A high specific capacity of 270 mAh g-1 was achieved at a cutoff voltage of 2 V with 190 mAh g-1 above 3 V, leading to a total volumetric energy density of 3666 Wh L-1 at >3 V and 4848 Wh L-1 at >2 V.

  10. Self-assembly formation of Bi-functional Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs hybrid catalysts for achieving both high energy/power density and cyclic ability of rechargeable zinc-air battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nengneng; Liu, Yuyu; Zhang, Xia; Li, Xuemei; Li, Aijun; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2016-09-20

    α-MnO2 nanotubes-supported Co3O4 (Co3O4/MnO2) and its carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-hybrids (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs) have been successfully developed through a facile two-pot precipitation reaction and hydrothermal process, which exhibit the superior bi-functional catalytic activity for both ORR and OER. The high performance is believed to be induced by the hybrid effect among MnO2 nanotubes, hollow Co3O4 and CNTs, which can produce a synergetic enhancement. When integrated into the practical primary and electrochemically rechargeable Zn-air batteries, such a hybrid catalyst can give a discharge peak power density as high as 450 mW cm(-2). At 1.0 V of cell voltage, a current density of 324 mA cm(-2) is achieved. This performance is superior to all reported non-precious metal catalysts in literature for zinc-air batteries and significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art platinum-based catalyst. Particularly, the rechargeable Zn-air battery can be fabricated into all-solid-state one through a simple solid-state approach, which exhibits an excellent peak power density of 62 mW cm(-2), and the charge and discharge potentials remain virtually unchanged during the overall cycles, which is comparable to the one with liquid electrolyte.

  11. Portable diffusion battery. It's application to measuring aerosol size characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, D.

    1972-01-01

    A miniature portable cluster-tube diffusion battery for measurement of the size and size distribution of submicron aerosols (1-100 nm) is described. A series of commercially available Collimated Holes Structures are mounted in sleeves with O-rings so that aerosol penetration can be measured at a number of outlets along the series. The CHS are stainless-steel discs of several different diameters and thicknesses, containing a large number of nearly circular holes. The actual length of the apparatus is about 2 ft but the equivalent length is 3.25 mi. Calculated curves of penetration versus particle size are used to evaluate size distribution and show that the equivalent size frequently reported from one measurement with a rectangular diffusion battery is practically meaningless. The value depends as much on the characteristics and mode of the operation of the diffusion battery as on the aerosol; the longer the battery and the lower the air flow, the greater the equivalent size will appear to be. Graphical plots of the cumulative size distribution of room aerosol and silver aerosol are illustrated for large battery and miniature battery measurements and appear to be in close agreement. Measurements on radon daughters in uranium mines with the miniature batteries show activity median diameters from 0.1 to 0.17 micron, with standard deviations from 2 to 4. Two similar measurements made in the laboratory on room air tagged with about 50 pCi/l radon daughters show activity median diameters of 0.15 and 0.17 micron, with geometric standard deviations of 2.2 and 2.6, respectively

  12. Antibacterial activity and toxicity of silver - nanosilver versus ionic silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitek, L; Panacek, A; Prucek, R; Soukupova, J; Vanickova, M; Zboril, R; Kolar, M

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro study of antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (NPs), prepared via modified Tollens process, revealed high antibacterial activity even at very low concentrations around several units of mg/L. These concentrations are comparable with concentrations of ionic silver revealing same antibacterial effect. However, such low concentrations of silver NPs did not show acute cytotoxicity to mammalian cells - this occurs at concentrations higher than 60 mg/L of silver, while the cytotoxic level of ionic silver is much more lower (approx. 1 mg/L). Moreover, the silver NPs exhibit lower acute ecotoxicity against the eukaryotic organisms such as Paramecium caudatum, Monoraphidium sp. and D. melanogaster. The silver NPs are toxic to these organisms at the concentrations higher than 30 mg/L of silver. On contrary, ionic silver retains its cytoxicity and ecotoxicity even at the concentration equal to 1 mg/L. The performed experiments demonstrate significantly lower toxicity of silver NPs against the eukaryotic organisms than against the prokaryotic organisms.

  13. Antibacterial activity and toxicity of silver - nanosilver versus ionic silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvitek, L; Panacek, A; Prucek, R; Soukupova, J; Vanickova, M; Zboril, R [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kolar, M, E-mail: ales.panacek@upol.cz [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Hnevotinska 3, 77520 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-06

    The in vitro study of antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (NPs), prepared via modified Tollens process, revealed high antibacterial activity even at very low concentrations around several units of mg/L. These concentrations are comparable with concentrations of ionic silver revealing same antibacterial effect. However, such low concentrations of silver NPs did not show acute cytotoxicity to mammalian cells - this occurs at concentrations higher than 60 mg/L of silver, while the cytotoxic level of ionic silver is much more lower (approx. 1 mg/L). Moreover, the silver NPs exhibit lower acute ecotoxicity against the eukaryotic organisms such as Paramecium caudatum, Monoraphidium sp. and D. melanogaster. The silver NPs are toxic to these organisms at the concentrations higher than 30 mg/L of silver. On contrary, ionic silver retains its cytoxicity and ecotoxicity even at the concentration equal to 1 mg/L. The performed experiments demonstrate significantly lower toxicity of silver NPs against the eukaryotic organisms than against the prokaryotic organisms.

  14. Improved, low cost inorganic-organic separators for rechargeable silver-zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Several flexible, low-cost inorganic-organic separators with performance characteristics and cycle life equal to, or better than, the Lewis Research Center Astropower separator were developed. These new separators can be made on continuous-production equipment at about one-fourth the cost of the Astropower separator produced the same way. In test cells, these new separators demonstrate cycle life improvement, acceptable operating characteristics, and uniform current density. The various separator formulas, test cell construction, and data analysis are described.

  15. Recycling of battery brownstone. Recycling von Batteriebraunstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, T

    1987-02-05

    The author analyzed three processes for treating brownstone from spent, Mg-O-containing batteries. Wet chemical processing in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ resulted in a gamma-MnO/sub 2/ with an oxidation rate > 1.95 at a discharge capacity of 280 mAh/g. The Hg concentration of the product brownstone was reduced to < 0.05% by adding chlorate to the acid. Drawbacks are the low bulk weight of MnO/sub 2/ and the acid product solution which contains Fe, Hg, Zn, and K which requires further processing. In the second process, the battery mass was separated into manganese/graphite and zinc in a fluidized bed with SO/sub 2//air/gas mixtures. Mercury is expelled at reaction temperature. In the third process, slurries of battery material and water were converted in a wet chemical process by blowing SO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ (air) gas mixtures into the slurry. The products were coarse-grained and similar to the fluidized-bed products except for the lower MgO/sub 2/ oxidation rate. Here, too, an acid solution containing metal ions was obtained . (orig./MM)

  16. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkal...

  17. Radiation exposure of the public as a result of the present operations of Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperski, J

    1986-04-01

    Ranger Uranium Mines monitors ambient levels of ionising radiation in accordance with the Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores 1980. The radionuclides of interest are: U-238, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-210, Po-210 and Rn-222 daughters (RnD). The aerial pathway appears to be the critical pathway for transfer of radioactive contaminants to the local population. The average annual effective dose equivalent rate to a member of the critical group from inhalation of long-lived radioactive dust is 0.22 +- 0.10 mSv/y, about 22 times below the limit of 5 mSv/y. No experimental evidence was found for any overall increase of exposure of the public due to consumption of bush food items collected in the vicinity of the Ranger site. The average exposure of the critical group member to RnD is likely to be 2.1 +- 3.1 mWLM/y, or 200 times below the annual limit of 0.4 WLM.

  18. Lithium diffusion in silver vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, E.S.; Thiebolt, W.C. III

    1989-01-01

    Lithium/silver vanadium oxide (SVO) batteries have been developed to power implantable devices. The voltage of Li/SVO cells decreases with discharge allowing state of charge assessment by accurate determination of the cells' open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltage recovery of Li/SVO cells was monitored during intermittent high rate discharge. It was found that the voltage does not recover at the same rate or magnitude at all depths of discharge. The authors describe lithium diffusion in SVO studied by low scan rate voltammetry where utilization of SVO at various scan rates was used to determine the diffusion rate of lithium. A pulse technique was also used where the rate of lithium diffusion was measured at various depths of discharge

  19. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B. Appa; Kumar, E. Ramesh; Kumari, K. Rajani; Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-01-01

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag 2 O−[(1−x)B 2 O 3 −xTeO 2 ] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO 2 as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10 −2 S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries

  20. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ...

  1. Oral toxicity of silver ions, silver nanoparticles and colloidal silver--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrup, Niels; Lam, Henrik R

    2014-02-01

    Orally administered silver has been described to be absorbed in a range of 0.4-18% in mammals with a human value of 18%. Based on findings in animals, silver seems to be distributed to all of the organs investigated, with the highest levels being observed in the intestine and stomach. In the skin, silver induces a blue-grey discoloration termed argyria. Excretion occurs via the bile and urine. The following dose-dependent animal toxicity findings have been reported: death, weight loss, hypoactivity, altered neurotransmitter levels, altered liver enzymes, altered blood values, enlarged hearts and immunological effects. Substantial evidence exists suggesting that the effects induced by particulate silver are mediated via silver ions that are released from the particle surface. With the current data regarding toxicity and average human dietary exposure, a Margin of Safety calculation indicates at least a factor of five before a level of concern to the general population is reached. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral toxicity of silver ions, silver nanoparticles and colloidal silver – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Lam, Henrik Rye

    2014-01-01

    Orally administered silver has been described to be absorbed in a range of 0.4-18% in mammals with a human value of 18%. Based on findings in animals, silver seems to be distributed to all of the organs investigated, with the highest levels being observed in the intestine and stomach. In the skin......, silver induces a blue-grey discoloration termed argyria. Excretion occurs via the bile and urine. The following dose-dependent animal toxicity findings have been reported: death, weight loss, hypoactivity, altered neurotransmitter levels, altered liver enzymes, altered blood values, enlarged hearts...... and immunological effects. Substantial evidence exists suggesting that the effects induced by particulate silver are mediated via silver ions that are released from the particle surface. With the current data regarding toxicity and average human dietary exposure, a Margin of Safety calculation indicates at least...

  3. Highly Stable Aqueous Zinc-ion Storage Using Layered Calcium Vanadium Oxide Bronze Cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Guo, Jing; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2018-01-01

    Cost-effective aqueous rechargeable batteries are attractive alternatives to non-aqueous cells for stationary grid energy storage. Among different aqueous cells, zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs), based on Zn2+ intercalation chemistry, stand out as they can employ high-capacity Zn metal as anode material. Herein, we report a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze as cathode material for aqueous Zn batteries. For the storage of Zn2+ ions in aqueous electrolyte, we demonstrate that calcium based bronze structure can deliver a high capacity of 340 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C, good rate capability and very long cycling life (96% retention after 3000 cycles at 80 C). Further, we investigate the Zn2+ storage mechanism, and the corresponding electrochemical kinetics in this bronze cathode. Finally, we show that our Zn cell delivers an energy density of 267 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 53.4 W kg-1.

  4. Highly Stable Aqueous Zinc-ion Storage Using Layered Calcium Vanadium Oxide Bronze Cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2018-02-12

    Cost-effective aqueous rechargeable batteries are attractive alternatives to non-aqueous cells for stationary grid energy storage. Among different aqueous cells, zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs), based on Zn2+ intercalation chemistry, stand out as they can employ high-capacity Zn metal as anode material. Herein, we report a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze as cathode material for aqueous Zn batteries. For the storage of Zn2+ ions in aqueous electrolyte, we demonstrate that calcium based bronze structure can deliver a high capacity of 340 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C, good rate capability and very long cycling life (96% retention after 3000 cycles at 80 C). Further, we investigate the Zn2+ storage mechanism, and the corresponding electrochemical kinetics in this bronze cathode. Finally, we show that our Zn cell delivers an energy density of 267 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 53.4 W kg-1.

  5. Temporal trends in erosion and hydrology for a post-mining landform at Ranger mine, Northern Territory. Supervising Scientist report 165

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moliere, D.R.; Evans, K.G.; Saynor, M.J.; Willgoose, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    An important part of rehabilitation planning for mines is the design of a stable landform for waste rock dumps or spoil piles, at the completion of mining, which minimise erosion and environmental impact offsite. To successfully incorporate landform designs in planning, there is a need to be able to predict the surface stability of the final landform using erosion and landform evolution modelling techniques. In the long term, weathering, soil forming processes, ecosystem development and even climate change may affect the surface characteristics, and hence the stability, of the rehabilitated landform. In this study, changes to the surface characteristics of a landform in time can be quantified in terms of erosion parameters. Since a prediction of the stability of the rehabilitated landform is required over the long term, temporal changes in these erosion parameters are incorporated into landform evolution modelling of a post-mining landform. The landform evolution model SIBERIA was used to predict the stability of the proposed rehabilitated landform at Ranger Mine, Northern Territory. The data collection sites were considered to be representative of the hydrology and erosion characteristics that would exist on the WRD at Ranger at various stages after rehabilitation. This study uses measured site data from landforms with hydrology and erosion properties similar to those likely to develop on Ranger at various times after rehabilitation to assess the effect of temporal change on landform evolution model input parameters. Section 2 documents the process of SIBERIA input parameter derivation and landform evolution modelling using collected site rainfall, runoff and sediment loss data. This section is based on the detailed descriptions of the process given in Willgoose and Riley (1998) and Evans et al( 1998). In section 3, monitoring data, collected from sites with properties similar to those likely to develop on the proposed above-grade landform at Ranger at various

  6. Stable silver nanoclusters electrochemically deposited on nitrogen-doped graphene as efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shi; Chen, Man; Dong, Haifeng; He, Bingyu; Lu, Huiting; Su, Lei; Dai, Wenhao; Zhang, Qiaochu; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-01-01

    Metal nanoclusters exhibit unusually high catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to their small size and unique electronic structures. However, controllable synthesis of stable metal nanoclusters is a challenge, and the durability of metal clusters suffers from the deficiency of dissolution, aggregation, and sintering during catalysis reactions. Herein, silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) (diameter , which is vital in high performance fuel cells, batteries and nanodevices.

  7. Zn/gelled 6 M KOH/O 2 zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, A. A.

    The gel electrolyte for the zinc-air cell was prepared by mixing hydroponics gel with a 6 M potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The self-discharge of cells was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage. The effect of a discharge rate of 50 mA constant current on cell voltage and plateau hour, as well as the voltage-current and current density-power density were measured and analysed. The electrode degradation after discharge cycling was characterized by structural and surface methods. The oxidation of the electrode surface further blocked the utilization of the Zn anode and was identified as a cause for the failure of the cell.

  8. Recovering metal values hydrometallurgically from spent dry battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, M. A.; Barakat, M. A.; Mahrous, Y. Sh.

    1999-12-01

    A hydro-pyrometallurgical method was used to recover metal values from spent dry battery cells. Water-soluble ingredients were filtered, and solid residue was sorted by magnetic separation and water flotation. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency were also studied. Results revealed that metallic parts, carbon rods, and paper were safely recovered; pure NH4Cl, MnO2, and ZnCl2 salts were obtained. Maximum recovery efficiencies reached 93 percent for manganese and 99.5 percent for zinc and NH4.

  9. Influence of daylight on the fate of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in natural aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odzak, Niksa; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Nanoparticles, such as silver (Ag-NP) and zinc oxide (ZnO-NP), are increasingly used in many consumer products. These nanoparticles (NPs) will likely be exposed to the aquatic environment (rain, river, lake water) and to light (visible and UV) in the products where they are applied, or after those products are discharged. Dissolution of Ag-NP and ZnO-NP is an important process because the dissolved Ag + and Zn 2+ are readily available and toxic for aquatic organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of daylight (UV and visible) for the fate of engineered Ag-NP and ZnO-NPs in different types of natural waters. Ag-NP and ZnO-NP were exposed to rainwater, river Rhine, and lake waters (Greifen, Lucerne, Cristallina, Gruère) under different light conditions (no light, UV 300-400 nm and visible light 400-700 nm) for up to 8 days. Stronger agglomeration of Ag-NP was observed in the waters with higher ionic strength in comparison to those with lower ionic strength. Visible light tended to increase the dissolution of Ag-NP under most natural water conditions in comparison to dark conditions, whereas UV-light led to decreased dissolved Ag + after longer exposure time. These effects illustrate the dynamic interactions of Ag-NP with light, which may lead both to increased oxidation and to increased reduction of Ag + by organic compounds under UV-light. In the case of ZnO-NP, agglomeration occurred at higher ionic strength, but the effects of pH were predominant for dissolution, which occurred up to concentrations close to the solubility limit of ZnO(s) at pH around 8.2 and to nearly complete dissolution of ZnO-NP at lower pH (pH 4.8-6.5), with both visible and UV-light facilitating dissolution. This study thus shows that light conditions play an important role in the dissolution processes of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of silver-ion doping using ion implantation on the luminescence properties of Er–Yb silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanek, S., E-mail: stanislav.stanek@vscht.cz [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technicka 5, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic); Nekvindova, P.; Svecova, B.; Vytykacova, S.; Mika, M. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technicka 5, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic); Oswald, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 40096 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Spirkova, J. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technicka 5, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-03-15

    A set of zinc-silicate glasses with different ratios of erbium and ytterbium was fabricated. To achieve Ag-rich thin films in a sub-surface layer, ion-implantation technique at an energy of 1.2 MeV and 1.7 MeV with a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} was used. Post-implantation annealing was also applied. Changes in the spectroscopic and lasing properties of erbium ions as a function of implantation fluence of silver were studied with the aim to assess the positive effect of silver as a sensitiser of erbium luminescence. Therefore, absorption spectra in the visible range as well as luminescence spectra in the near-infrared range were measured and partially also the {sup 4}I{sub 11/2}–{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition of the erbium ion was studied. The results showed that silver positively influenced luminescence intensity at 1530 nm by increasing it almost three times. The biggest increase was achieved in glass with the highest concentration of erbium. Luminescence lifetime was not significantly influenced by the presence of silver and still remained around 10 ms.

  11. Final treatment of spent batteries by thermal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Anelise Leal Vieira; Machado, Marina de Medeiros; Machado, Marília de Medeiros; Dutra, Ana Regina de Aguiar; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Fiedler, Haidi D; Bueno, Priscila

    2015-08-15

    The growth in the use of wireless devices, notebooks and other electronic products has led to an ever increasing demand for batteries, leading to these products being commonly found in inappropriate locations, with adverse effects on the environment and human health. Due to political pressure and according to the environmental legislation which regulates the destination of spent batteries, in several countries the application of reverse logistics to hazardous waste is required. Thus, some processes have been developed with the aim of providing an appropriate destination for these products. In this context, a method for the treatment of spent batteries using thermal plasma technology is proposed herein. The efficiency of the method was tested through the determination of parameters, such as total organic carbon, moisture content and density, as well as analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence using samples before and after inertization. The value obtained for the density was 19.15%. The TOC results indicated 8.05% of C in the batteries prior to pyrolisis and according to the XRF analysis Fe, S, Mn and Zn were the most stable elements in the samples (highest peaks). The efficiency of the paste inertization was 97% for zinc and 99.74% for manganese. The results also showed that the most efficient reactor was that with the DC transferred arc plasma torch and quartzite sand positively influenced by the vitrification during the pyrolysis of the electrolyte paste obtain from batteries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkind, A.J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve-type silver-zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO/sub 2/ - and several nickel electrodes for nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities detected by XPS and SAM. After the first discharge AgNiO/sub 2/ can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic-bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)/sub 2/ largely eliminate this

  14. Pro-inflammatory responses of RAW264.7 macrophages when treated with ultralow concentrations of silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanni, Marcella; Yue, Junqi; Zhang, Lifeng; Xie, Jianping; Ong, Choon Nam; Leong, David Tai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultralow levels of common nanoparticles exist in environment and consumer products. • Common nanoparticles at ultralow levels induce mild pro-inflammation by macrophages. • The nanoparticles are cytotoxic only at high doses. - Abstract: To cellular systems, nanoparticles are considered as foreign particles. Upon particles and cells contact, innate immune system responds by activating the inflammatory pathway. However, excessive inflammation had been linked to various diseases ranging from allergic responses to cancer. Common nanoparticles, namely silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide exist in the environment as well as in consumer products at ultralow level of 10 −6 –10 −3 μg mL −1 . However, so far the risks of such low NPs concentrations remain unexplored. Therefore, we attempted to screen the pro-inflammatory responses after ultralow concentration treatments of the three nanoparticles on RAW264.7 macrophages, which are a part of the immune system, at both cellular and gene levels. Even though cytotoxicity was only observed at nanoparticles concentrations as high as 10 μg mL −1 , through the level of NF-κB and upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes, we observed activation of the induction of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines starting already at 10 −7 μg mL −1 . This calls for more thorough characterization of nanoparticles in the environment as well as in consumer products to ascertain the health and safety of the consumers and living systems in general

  15. Superficial characterization by XP S of silver nanoparticles and their hydrothermal deposit over zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras R, A.; Gutierrez W, C.; Martinez M, I.; Medina A, A. L.

    2012-10-01

    The analysis technique of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S) is sensitive exclusively to the first layers of the solids surface, which allows obtaining information about the chemical, physical and electronic properties of them. The combustible elements of the boiling water nuclear reactors (BWR) are formed by zircaloy pipes that contain in their interior pellets or uranium dioxide. In this work is studied the zircaloy surface, oxidized zircaloy under similar conditions to those of a reactor BWR type and oxidized zircaloy with a hydrothermal deposit of silver nanoparticles and zinc. The silver deposit is a proposal of the Materials Technology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in Mexico, which has the same objective that the noble metals deposit (Pt, Pd, and Rh) that is practiced in some of the reactors BWR, in order to mitigating the speed of crack growth for IGSCC in stainless steels 304 Ss. (Author)

  16. Antimicrobial effects of silver zeolite, silver zirconium phosphate silicate and silver zirconium phosphate against oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sirikamon Saengmee-anupharb; Toemsak Srikhirin; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Taweechai Amornsakchai; Surachai Dechkunakorn; Theeralaksna Suddhasthira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of silver inorganic materials, including silver zeolite (AgZ), silver zirconium phosphate silicate (AgZrPSi) and silver zirconium phosphate (AgZrP), against oral microorganisms. In line with this objective, the morphology and structure of each type of silver based powders were also investigated. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP were tested against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Candidaalbicans and Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion assay as a screening test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) were determined using the modified membrane method. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the morphology and structure of these silver materials. Results: All forms of silver inorganic materials could inhibit the growth of all test microorganisms. The MIC of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP was 10.0 g/L whereas MLC ranged between 10.0-60.0 g/L. In terms of morphology and structure, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had smaller sized particles (1.5-3.0 µm) and more uniformly shaped than AgZ. Conclusions: Silver inorganic materials in the form of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had antimicrobial effects against all test oral microorganisms and those activities may be influenced by the crystal structure of carriers. These results suggest that these silver materials may be useful metals applied to oral hygiene products to provide antimicrobial activity against oral infection.

  17. Antimicrobial effects of silver zeolite,silver zirconium phosphate silicate and silver zirconium phosphate against oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sirikamon; Saengmee-anupharb; Toemsak; Srikhirin; Boonyanit; Thaweboon; Sroisiri; Thaweboon; Taweechai; Amornsakchai; Surachai; Dechkunakorn; Theeralaksna; Suddhasthira

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of silver inorganic materials,including silver zeolite(AgZ),silver zirconium phosphate silicate(AgZrPSi)and silver zirconium phosphate(AgZrp),against oral microorganisms.In line with this objective,the morphology and structure of each type of silver based powders were also investigated.Methods:The antimicrobial activities of AgZ,AgZrPSi and AgZrP were tested against Streptococcus mutans,Lactobacillus casei,Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion assay as a screening test.The minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC)and minimum lethal concentration(MLC)were determined using the modified membrane method.Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the morphology and structure of these silver materials.Results:All forms of silver inorganic materials could inhibit the growth of all test microorganisms.The MIC of AgZ,AgZrPSi and AgZrP was 10.0 g/L whereas MLC ranged between 10.0-60.0 g/L.In terms of morphology and structure.AgZrPSi and AgZrP had smaller sized particles(1.5-3.0μm)and more uniformly shaped than AgZ.Conclusions:Silver inorganic materials in the form of AgZ,AgZrPSi and AgZrP had antimicrobial effects against all test oral microorganisms and those activities may be influenced by the crystal structure of carriers.These results suggest that these silver materials may be useful metals applied to oral hygiene products to provide antimicrobial activity against oral infection.

  18. Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber-optic hydrogen gas sensor utilizing palladium supported zinc oxide multilayers and their nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2015-02-10

    We analyze surface plasmon resonance-based fiber-optic sensor for sensing of small concentrations of hydrogen gas in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. One of the two probes considered has multilayers of zinc oxide (ZnO) and palladium (Pd) while the other has layer of their composite over a silver coated unclad core of the fiber. The analysis is carried out for different volume fractions of palladium nanoparticles dispersed in zinc oxide host material in the nanocomposite layer. For the analysis, a Maxwell-Garnett model is adopted for calculating the dielectric function of a ZnO:Pd nanocomposite having nanoparticles of dimensions smaller than the wavelength of radiation used. The effects of the volume fraction of the nanoparticles in the nanocomposite and the thickness of the nanocomposite layer on the figure of merit of the sensor have been studied. The film thickness of the layer and the volume fraction of nanoparticles in the ZnO:Pd nanocomposite layer have been optimized to achieve the maximum value of the figure of merit of the sensor. It has been found that the figure of merit of the sensing probe coated with ZnO:Pd nanocomposite is more than twofold of the sensing probe coated with multilayers of Pd and ZnO over a silver coated unclad core of the fiber; hence, the sensor with a nanocomposite layer works better than that with multilayers of zinc oxide and palladium. The sensor can be used for online monitoring and remote sensing of hydrogen gas.

  19. No evidence of the genotoxic potential of gold, silver, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the SOS chromotest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Shin Woong; An, Youn-Joo

    2013-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in cosmetic products such as preservatives, colorants and sunscreens. This study investigated the genotoxicity of Au NPs, Ag NPs, ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs using the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. The maximum exposure concentrations for each nanoparticle were 3.23 mg l(-1) for Au NPs, 32.3 mg l(-1) for Ag NPs and 100 mg l(-1) for ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs. Additionally, in order to compare the genotoxicity of nanoparticles and corresponding dissolved ions, the ions were assessed in the same way as nanoparticles. The genotoxicity of the titanium ion was not assessed because of the extremely low solubility of TiO2 NPs. Au NPs, Ag NPs, ZnO NPs, TiO2 NPs and ions of Au, Ag and Zn, in a range of tested concentrations, exerted no effects in the SOS chromotest, evidenced by maximum IF (IFmax) values of below 1.5 for all chemicals. Owing to the results, nanosized Au NPs, Ag NPs, ZnO NPs, TiO2 NPs and ions of Au, Ag and Zn are classified as non-genotoxic on the basis of the SOS chromotest used in this study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the genotoxicity of Au NPs, Ag NPs, ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs using the SOS chromotest. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Free zinc ion and dissolved orthophosphate effects on phytoplankton from Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Topping, B.R.; Woods, P.F.; Carter, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Coeur d'Alene Lake in northern Idaho is fed by two major rivers: the Coeur d'Alene River from the east and the St. Joe River from the south, with the Spokane River as its outlet to the north. This phosphorus-limited lake has been subjected to decades of mining (primarily for zinc and silver) and other anthropogenic inputs. A 32 full-factorial experimental design was used to examine the interactive effects of free (uncomplexed) zinc ion and dissolved-orthophosphate concentrations on phytoplankton that were isolated from two sites along a longitudinal zinc-concentration gradient in Coeur d'Alene Lake. The two sites displayed different dominant taxa. Chlorella minutissima, a dominant species near the southern St. Joe River inlet, exhibited greater sensitivity to free Zn ions than Asterionella formosa, collected nearer the Coeur d'Alene River mouth with elevated dissolved-zinc concentrations. Empirical phytoplankton-response models were generated to describe phytoplankton growth in response to remediation strategies in the surrounding watershed. If dissolved Zn can be reduced in the water column from >500 nM (i.e., current concentrations near and down stream of the Coeur d'Alene River plume) to management of phosphorus inputs by surrounding communities will ultimately determine the limnologic state of the lake.

  1. A glassy carbon electrode modified with a composite consisting of reduced graphene oxide, zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles in a chitosan matrix for studying the direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase and for enzymatic sensing of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Sheng, Liying; Xie, Cuicui; Meng, Alan; Zhao, Kun

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe the fabrication of a nanocomposite consisting of reduced graphene oxide, zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles by microwave-assisted synthesis. The composite was further reduced in-situ with hydrazine hydrate and then placed, along with the enzyme glucose oxidase, on a glassy carbon electrode. The synergistic effect of the materials employed in the nanocomposite result in excellent electrocatalytic activity. The Michaelis-Menten constant of the adsorbed GOx is 0.25 mM, implying a remarkable affinity of the GOx for glucose. The amperometric response of the modified GCE is linearly proportional to the concentration of glucose in 0.1 to 12.0 mM concentration range, and the detection limit is 10.6 µM. The biosensor is highly selective, well reproducible and stable. (author)

  2. Environmental Screening of Electrode Materials for a Rechargeable Aluminum Battery with an AlCl3/EMIMCl Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ager-Wick Ellingsen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, rechargeable aluminum batteries have received much attention due to their low cost, easy operation, and high safety. As the research into rechargeable aluminum batteries with a room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte is relatively new, research efforts have focused on finding suitable electrode materials. An understanding of the environmental aspects of electrode materials is essential to make informed and conscious decisions in aluminum battery development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the relative environmental performance of electrode material candidates for rechargeable aluminum batteries with an AlCl3/EMIMCl (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte. To this end, we used a lifecycle environmental screening framework to evaluate 12 candidate electrode materials. We found that all of the studied materials are associated with one or more drawbacks and therefore do not represent a “silver bullet” for the aluminum battery. Even so, some materials appeared more promising than others did. We also found that aluminum battery technology is likely to face some of the same environmental challenges as Li-ion technology but also offers an opportunity to avoid others. The insights provided here can aid aluminum battery development in an environmentally sustainable direction.

  3. Histochemical distribution of zinc in the brain of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchos myciss. I. The telencephalon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piñuela, C; Baatrup, E; Geneser, F A

    1992-01-01

    was mainly confined to the neuropil, but both moderately and intensely stained nerve cell bodies were of common occurrence. Stained fibers were never observed. The staining revealed a specific distribution pattern which could easily be correlated with the telencephalic nuclei defined on the basis......The present paper which describes the distribution of zinc in the telencephalon of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchos myciss, is the first report on the distribution of a heavy metal in the fish brain. Zinc was demonstrated histochemically by silver enhancement using the Neo-Timm method. The staining...... of cytoarchitectural features. However, the telencephalon stained much more weakly than the rest of the brain, in striking contrast to the situation in the reptilian, mammalian, and avian brain. In these classes, high staining intensities are observed almost exclusively in the telencephalon. The staining...

  4. Some design and operating aspects of the Ranger uranium mine treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baily, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental considerations were key factors in the design of the Ranger Uranium Mines treatment plant. The mine is located adjacent to the Kakadu National Park and has an average rainfall of 1.6m per annum. No contaminated water or liquid effluents are to be released from the project area and thus water management is a key design and operating fact. Particulate and gas emission criteria influenced design as did occupational hygiene factors (dust, radon, housekeeping, maintenance access). Equipment selection and engineering standards were conservative and resulted in the plant attaining design performance in less than three months from the date of commissioning. A number of mechanical and operational problems were experienced. However, none of these problems have had a significant effect on production

  5. Characterizing bread wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Abdul; Farooq, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Al-Hashmi, Khalid S; Nadeem, Faisal; Ullah, Aman

    2018-03-15

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms and its deficiency is a major issue of malnutrition in humans. This study was carried out to characterize 28 wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential, genetic diversity and relatedness. There was low genetic differentiation among the tested genotypes. However, they differed greatly in yield-related traits, grain mineral (Zn, calcium (Ca) and protein) concentrations and Zn bioavailability. Zinc application increased the concentration of Zn in wheat grain (32.1%), embryo (19.8%), aleurone (47%) and endosperm (23.7%), with an increase in bioavailable Zn (22.2%) and a reduction in phytate concentration (6.8%). Application of Zn also enhanced grain protein and Ca concentrations. Among wheat genotypes, Blue Silver had the highest concentration of Zn in grain, embryo, aleurone and endosperm, with high bioavailable Zn, while Kohinoor-83 had low phytate concentration. Wheat genotypes of Pakistan are genetically less diverse owing to continuous focus on the development of high-yielding varieties only. Therefore genetically diverse wheat genotypes with high endospermic Zn concentration and better grain yield should be used in breeding programs approaches, aiming at improving Zn bioavailability. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Electrically Conductive Silver Paste Obtained by Use of Silver Neodecanoate as Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Longguang; Liu, Jianguo; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Ren, Zhao

    2015-02-01

    An electrically conductive silver paste has been prepared from an organometallic compound, silver neodecanoate, as silver precursor. The precursor was highly soluble in organic solvents and decomposed into metallic silver at low sintering temperatures (writing process, enabling production of silver lines on a substrate. The electrical resistivity of the silver lines was 9 × 10-6 Ω cm after sintering at 115°C for 60 min, 5.8 × 10-6 Ω cm when sintered at 150°C for 60 min, and 3 × 10-6 Ω cm when sintered above 300°C, values which are similar to those of bulk silver. Hence, the prepared paste can be successfully used on flexible substrates such as polymers.

  7. Leaching of Silver from Silver-Impregnated Food Storage Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Niece, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of silver in commercial products has proliferated in recent years owing to its antibacterial properties. Food containers impregnated with micro-sized silver promise long food life, but there is some concern because silver can leach out of the plastic and into the stored food. This laboratory experiment gives students the opportunity to…

  8. Silver niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanirbergenov, B.; Rozhenko, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    By means of determination of residual concentrations and pH measurements investigated are the AgNO 3 -KNbO 3 -H 2 O, AgNO 3 -K 3 NbO 4 -H 2 O, AgNO 3 -K 8 Nb 16 O 19 -H 2 O systems and established is formation of meta-, ortho-and hexaniobates of silver. AgNbO 3 x H 2 O, Ag 8 Nb 6 O 19 x 6H 2 O and Ag 3 NbO 3 x 2.5H 2 O are separated from aqueous solution. Using the methods of differential-thermal, thermogravimetric and X-ray-phase analyses it is shown that silver metaniobate transforms into the crystal state at 530 deg C. Ortho- and hexaniobate of silver decompose at 500 deg C with formation of silver metaniobate and metal silver

  9. Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles by silver mirror reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yongzheng; Li, Yajing; Zhang, Jianfeng; Yu, Zhongzhen; Yang, Dongzhi

    2015-01-01

    The silver mirror reaction (SMR) method was selected in this paper to modify electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, and these nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles showed excellent antibacterial properties. PAN nanofibers were first pretreated in AgNO 3 aqueous solution before the SMR process so that the silver nanoparticles were distributed evenly on the outer surface of the nanofibers. The final PAN nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TEM-selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM, TEM micrographs and SAED patterns confirmed homogeneous dispersion of the silver nanoparticles which were composed of monocrystals with diameters 20–30 nm. EDS and XRD results showed that these monocrystals tended to form face-centered cubic single silver. TGA test indicated that the nanoparticles loaded on the nanofibers reached above 50 wt.%. This material was also evaluated by the viable cell-counting method. The results indicated that PAN nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles exhibited excellent antimicrobial activities against gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and the fungus Monilia albicans. Thus, this material had many potential applications in biomedical fields. - Highlights: • Silver mirror reaction was used to prepare nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles. • The SAED patterns demonstrated the monocrystallinity of silver nanocrystals. • The XRD results showed nanoparticles tended to be face-centered cubic single silver. • The material showed excellent antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi

  10. High rate capacity nanocomposite lanthanum oxide coated lithium zinc titanate anode for rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Haoqing; Zan, Lingxing; Zhu, Jiangtao; Ma, Yiheng; Zhao, Naiqin; Tang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Lithium zinc titanate (Li_2ZnTi_3O_8) is an important titanium material of promising candidates for anode materials with superior electrochemical performance and thus has attracted extensive attention. Herein, high capacity, stable Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 nanocomposite for lithium-ion battery anode is prepared by a facile strategy. Compared to unmodified Li_2ZnTi_3O_8, the Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 electrode display a high specific capacity of 188.6 mAh g"−"1 and remain as high as 147.7 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles at 2.0 A g"−"1. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 76.3 mAh g"−"1 can be obtained after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g"−"1 and the retention is 42.7% for Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3, which is much higher than un-coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8. The superior lithium storage performances of the Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 can be ascribed to the stable layer of protection, small particle size and large surface area. Cyclic voltammograms result reveals that the La_2O_3 coating layer reduces the polarization and improves the electrochemical activity of anode. - Highlights: • Nano layer La_2O_3 coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8 particles have been prepared via a suspension mixing process followed by heat treatment. • Coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8 has enhanced high rate capability, cyclic stability and long lifespan performance. • Electrochemical properties were tested in a charge/discharge voltage range of 3.0–0.05 V (vs. Li/Li"+).

  11. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.

  12. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  13. Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles by silver mirror reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yongzheng; Li, Yajing; Zhang, Jianfeng; Yu, Zhongzhen; Yang, Dongzhi, E-mail: yangdz@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2015-06-01

    The silver mirror reaction (SMR) method was selected in this paper to modify electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, and these nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles showed excellent antibacterial properties. PAN nanofibers were first pretreated in AgNO{sub 3} aqueous solution before the SMR process so that the silver nanoparticles were distributed evenly on the outer surface of the nanofibers. The final PAN nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TEM-selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM, TEM micrographs and SAED patterns confirmed homogeneous dispersion of the silver nanoparticles which were composed of monocrystals with diameters 20–30 nm. EDS and XRD results showed that these monocrystals tended to form face-centered cubic single silver. TGA test indicated that the nanoparticles loaded on the nanofibers reached above 50 wt.%. This material was also evaluated by the viable cell-counting method. The results indicated that PAN nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles exhibited excellent antimicrobial activities against gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and the fungus Monilia albicans. Thus, this material had many potential applications in biomedical fields. - Highlights: • Silver mirror reaction was used to prepare nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles. • The SAED patterns demonstrated the monocrystallinity of silver nanocrystals. • The XRD results showed nanoparticles tended to be face-centered cubic single silver. • The material showed excellent antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi.

  14. Magneli phase Ti4O7 electrode for oxygen reduction reaction and its implication for zinc-air rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoxia; Zhu, Aaron Li; Qu Wei; Wang Haijiang; Hui, Rob; Zhang Lei; Zhang Jiujun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Magneli phase Ti 4 O 7 was successfully synthesized using a TiO 2 reduction method, and characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrode coated with this Ti 4 O 7 material showed activities for both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). For the ORR, several parameters, including overall electron transfer number, kinetic constants, electron transfer coefficient, and percentage H 2 O 2 production, were obtained using the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) technique and the Koutecky-Levich theory. The overall electron transfer number was found to be between 2.3 and 2.9 in 1, 4, and 6 M KOH electrolytes, suggesting that the ORR process on the Ti 4 O 7 electrode was a mixed process of 2- and 4-electron transfer pathways. Electrochemical durability tests, carried out in highly concentrated KOH electrolyte, confirmed that this Ti 4 O 7 is a stable electrode material, suggesting that it should be a feasible candidate for the air-cathodes of zinc-air batteries. To understand the stability of this material, Raman and XPS spectra were also collected for the Ti 4 O 7 samples before and after the stability tests. The results and analysis revealed that a thin layer of TiO 2 formed on the Ti 4 O 7 surface, which may have prevented further oxidation into the bulk of the Ti 4 O 7 electrode.

  15. Development kinetics of silver clusters on silver halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzesiak, S.; Belloni, J.; Marignier, J.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Silver nuclei are produced by pulse radiolysis at the surface of AgCl nanocrystallites in the presence of an electron donor, the methyl viologen, which induces the growth of silver nuclei. The experimental results observed on the increase of the silver atom concentration and on the decay of the donor concentration during this process, which is similar to the photographic development by an electron donor, are compared with the kinetics obtained from numerical simulation. The model assumes that the formation of silver clusters with a supercritical nuclearity is required before the start of an electron transfer reaction from the two reduced forms of the donor methyl viologen to the silver clusters. The reaction is controlled by the access of the donor to the surface sites of the AgCl crystallite. The rate constant values of the successive steps of the mechanism are derived from the adjustment of calculated kinetics to experimental signals under various conditions, using a single set of parameters which are fairly suitable under all conditions studied

  16. Correlación de protoporfirina zinc y plomo en sangre en trabajadores de fábricas de baterías, de Bogotá, Colombia Correlation of zinc protoporphyrin with blood lead levels in car battery industry workers in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omayda Cárdenas-Bustamante

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la utilidad de la protoporfirina zinc en sangre (PPz como indicador de exposición a plomo en trabajadores de fábricas de baterías. Material y métodos. Se hizo un estudio transversal en 116 trabajadores de fábricas de baterías del sector informal en Bogotá, Colombia. La información sobre variables generales, ocupacionales y de salud fue obtenida por medio de una entrevista con los trabajadores. Se establecieron dos categorías para los valores de PPz: aquellos por debajo del valor límite de (70 µg/dl, y aquellos por arriba de este valor. Se empleó análisis de regresión lineal para medir la correlación entre los valores logarítmicos de PPz (>70 µg/dl y plomo en sangre (PbS (>38 µg/dl. Resultados. Se encontró un coeficiente de correlación semilogarítmica r=0.54, además de posibles asociaciones estadísticamente significativas entre los niveles elevados de PPz y el oficio actual de exposición directa (RM:3.35, IC 95% 1.02-11.91; p:0.02, emplear plomo como materia prima (RM:7.80, IC 95% 2.96-21.03; phttp://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To determine the usefulness of zinc protoporphyrin in blood (PPz as an indicator of lead exposure in workers of the homemade car battery industry. Material and methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in 116 workers of the car battery industry in Bogotá, Colombia. Data on general, occupational, and health variables were collected by interview. Two categories of PPz values were established: Those below the cutoff value (70 µg/dL and those above it. A linear regression analysis was performed to measure the correlation between logarithm values of PPz (>70 µg/dL and lead in blood (PbB (>38 µg/dL. Results. A semi-logarithmic correlation coefficient of r=0.54 was found, and statistically significant associations between high levels of PPz and direct exposure to lead were observed (OR:3.35, 95% IC 1.02-11.91; p:0.02; for workers who often use lead as a raw material

  17. Russell-Silver syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver-Russell syndrome; Silver syndrome; RSS; Russell-Silver syndrome ... One in 10 children with this syndrome has a problem involving chromosome 7. In other people with the syndrome, it may affect chromosome 11. Most of the time, it ...

  18. Distribution of silver in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure to silver nanoparticles or silver acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Hadrup, Niels; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Background: The study investigated the distribution of silver after 28 days repeated oral administration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver acetate (AgAc) to rats. Oral administration is a relevant route of exposure because of the use of silver nanoparticles in products related to food...... and food contact materials. Results: AgNPs were synthesized with a size distribution of 14 ± 4 nm in diameter (90% of the nanoparticle volume) and stabilized in aqueous suspension by the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The AgNPs remained stable throughout the duration of the 28-day oral toxicity study...... in rats. The organ distribution pattern of silver following administration of AgNPs and AgAc was similar. However the absolute silver concentrations in tissues were lower following oral exposure to AgNPs. This was in agreement with an indication of a higher fecal excretion following administration of Ag...

  19. Pro-inflammatory responses of RAW264.7 macrophages when treated with ultralow concentrations of silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanni, Marcella [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117585 (Singapore); Yue, Junqi; Zhang, Lifeng [PUB, 40 Scotts Road, Singapore 228231 (Singapore); Xie, Jianping [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117585 (Singapore); Ong, Choon Nam [Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, 12 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117549 (Singapore); NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Leong, David Tai, E-mail: cheltwd@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117585 (Singapore)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Ultralow levels of common nanoparticles exist in environment and consumer products. • Common nanoparticles at ultralow levels induce mild pro-inflammation by macrophages. • The nanoparticles are cytotoxic only at high doses. - Abstract: To cellular systems, nanoparticles are considered as foreign particles. Upon particles and cells contact, innate immune system responds by activating the inflammatory pathway. However, excessive inflammation had been linked to various diseases ranging from allergic responses to cancer. Common nanoparticles, namely silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide exist in the environment as well as in consumer products at ultralow level of 10{sup −6}–10{sup −3} μg mL{sup −1}. However, so far the risks of such low NPs concentrations remain unexplored. Therefore, we attempted to screen the pro-inflammatory responses after ultralow concentration treatments of the three nanoparticles on RAW264.7 macrophages, which are a part of the immune system, at both cellular and gene levels. Even though cytotoxicity was only observed at nanoparticles concentrations as high as 10 μg mL{sup −1}, through the level of NF-κB and upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes, we observed activation of the induction of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines starting already at 10{sup −7} μg mL{sup −1}. This calls for more thorough characterization of nanoparticles in the environment as well as in consumer products to ascertain the health and safety of the consumers and living systems in general.

  20. Zn/gelled 6M KOH/O{sub 2} zinc-air battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad, A.A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2006-09-13

    The gel electrolyte for the zinc-air cell was prepared by mixing hydroponics gel with a 6M potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The self-discharge of cells was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage. The effect of a discharge rate of 50mA constant current on cell voltage and plateau hour, as well as the voltage-current and current density-power density were measured and analysed. The electrode degradation after discharge cycling was characterized by structural and surface methods. The oxidation of the electrode surface further blocked the utilization of the Zn anode and was identified as a cause for the failure of the cell. (author)

  1. Silver matrix composites reinforced with galvanically silvered particles

    OpenAIRE

    J. Śleziona; J. Wieczorek,

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents the possibility of the application of metalic layers drifted with the use of the galvanic methods on the ceramic particles surface. The application of the layers was aimed at obtaining the rewetting of the reinforcing particles with the liquid silver in the course of the producing of silver matrix composites with the use of mechanical stirring method. To enable introducing of the iron powder and glass carbon powder to liquid silver the solution of covering the powd...

  2. Photochemical Study of Silver Nanoparticles Formed from the Reduction of Silver Ions by Humic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Renee M.

    This study focuses on the ability of silver ions and humic acid to form silver nanoparticles in the presence of UV and visible light. Silver nanoparticles have a number of industrial applications due primarily to their antimicrobial properties, but these properties pose an environmental threat. Silver nanoparticles can directly disrupt sensitive ecosystems by harming bacteria. Consumption of silver nanoparticles results in silver ions and silver nanoparticles entering waterways; the presence of silver ions raises the question of whether nanoparticles can reform in environmental waters. As our data show, silver nanoparticles can form from the reduction of silver ions by humic acid after irradiation with UV and visible light. In order to better understand the mechanism of these naturally synthesized silver nanoparticles, we investigated the effects of reactant concentration, experimental conditions and presence of ions/reactive species. We monitored silver nanoparticle growth with UV-visible spectroscopy. The evolution in time of nanoparticle size was monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS).

  3. Effect of bismuth and silver on the corrosion behavior of Sn-9Zn alloy in NaCl 3 wt.% solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmido, A. [Laboratory of Chimie Physique General, Faculty of Sciences, University Med V Agdal, Av. Ibn Battouta, B.P. 1014, M-10000 Rabat (Morocco); Laboratory of Spectroscopy Infra Rouge, Faculty of Sciences, University Med V Agdal, Av. Ibn Battouta, B.P. 1014, M-10000 Rabat (Morocco); Sabbar, A. [Laboratory of Chimie Physique General, Faculty of Sciences, University Med V Agdal, Av. Ibn Battouta, B.P. 1014, M-10000 Rabat (Morocco); Zouihri, H.; Dakhsi, K. [UATRS, CNRST, Angle Allal Fassi, FAR, BP 8027, Hay Riad, Rabat (Morocco); Guedira, F. [Laboratory of Chimie Physique General, Faculty of Sciences, University Med V Agdal, Av. Ibn Battouta, B.P. 1014, M-10000 Rabat (Morocco); Serghini-Idrissi, M. [Laboratory of Spectroscopy Infra Rouge, Faculty of Sciences, University Med V Agdal, Av. Ibn Battouta, B.P. 1014, M-10000 Rabat (Morocco); El Hajjaji, S., E-mail: selhajjaji@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Spectroscopy Infra Rouge, Faculty of Sciences, University Med V Agdal, Av. Ibn Battouta, B.P. 1014, M-10000 Rabat (Morocco)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Sn-9Zn-xAg-yBi as alternative for Sn-Pb solder. > Effect of silver (Ag) and bismuth (Bi) on the corrosion resistance of Sn-9Zn alloy in NaCl 3 wt%. > Bi and Ag lead to the increase of corrosion rate. > EDS and XRD analyses confirmed the oxide of zinc (ZnO and Zn5(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}H{sub 2}O) as the major corrosion product. - Abstract: The effect of silver (Ag) and bismuth (Bi) on the corrosion resistance of Sn-9Zn alloy in NaCl 3 wt.% solution was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The results showed that the addition of Bi and Ag lead to the increase of corrosion rate and the corrosion potential E{sub corr} is shifted towards less noble values. After immersion, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive of spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the corroded alloy surface revealed the nature of corrosion products. EDS and XRD analyses confirmed the oxide of zinc (ZnO and Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}H{sub 2}O) as the major corrosion product formed on the outer surface of in the tested three solder alloys.

  4. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi /sup 65/ZnCl/sub 2/ and a non-absorbed marker, /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with /sup 65/Zn and /sup 51/Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption.

  5. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi 65 ZnCl 2 and a non-absorbed marker, 51 CrCl 3 , dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with 65 Zn and 51 Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption

  6. Autonomous Navigation with Constrained Consistency for C-Ranger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs have become the most widely used tools for undertaking complex exploration tasks in marine environments. Their synthetic ability to carry out localization autonomously and build an environmental map concurrently, in other words, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, are considered to be pivotal requirements for AUVs to have truly autonomous navigation. However, the consistency problem of the SLAM system has been greatly ignored during the past decades. In this paper, a consistency constrained extended Kalman filter (EKF SLAM algorithm, applying the idea of local consistency, is proposed and applied to the autonomous navigation of the C-Ranger AUV, which is developed as our experimental platform. The concept of local consistency (LC is introduced after an explicit theoretical derivation of the EKF-SLAM system. Then, we present a locally consistency-constrained EKF-SLAM design, LC-EKF, in which the landmark estimates used for linearization are fixed at the beginning of each local time period, rather than evaluated at the latest landmark estimates. Finally, our proposed LC-EKF algorithm is experimentally verified, both in simulations and sea trials. The experimental results show that the LC-EKF performs well with regard to consistency, accuracy and computational efficiency.

  7. Characterization of Ag-doped vanadium oxide (AgxV2O5) thin film for cathode of thin film battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.S.; Oh, S.H.; Kim, H.S.; Cho, W.I.; Cho, B.W.; Lee, D.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of silver co-sputtering on the characteristics of amorphous V 2 O 5 films, grown by dc reactive sputtering, is investigated. The co-sputtering process influences the growth mechanism as well as the characteristics of the V 2 O 5 films. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) results indicate that the microstructure of the V 2 O 5 films is affected by the rf power of the co-sputtered silver. In addition, an all-solid-state thin film battery with full cell structure of Li/LiPON/Ag x V 2 O 5 /Pt has been fabricated. It is found that the silver co-sputtered V 2 O 5 cathode film exhibits better cycle performance than an undoped one

  8. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Selenium-induced autometallographic demonstration of endogenous zinc in organs of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E

    1989-01-01

    of selenium obtained by each organ was determined by gamma-spectrometry, and compared with the autometallographic deposition of silver grains. The relative accumulation of selenium in the organs was: liver greater than spleen greater than kidney greater than intestine greater than gills greater than brain......, the intestine, and the gills, whereas, no such grains were found in preparations from fish having received 1 ppm Se. The use of selenium for the histochemical demonstration of endogenous zinc versus exogenous metals is discussed. Also, consideration is given to the question of which part of the total tissue...

  10. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  11. Nickel - iron battery. Nikkel - jern batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H. A.

    1989-03-15

    A newer type of nickel-iron battery, (SAFT 6v 230 Ah monobloc), which could possibly be used in relation to electrically driven light road vehicles, was tested. The same test methods used for lead batteries were utilized and results compared favourably with those reached during other testings carried out, abroad, on a SAFT nickle-iron battery and a SAB-NIFE nickel-iron battery. Description (in English) of the latter-named tests are included in the publication as is also a presentation of the SAFT battery. Testing showed that this type of battery did not last as long as had been expected, but the density of energy and effect was superior to lead batteries. However energy efficiency was rather poor in comparison to lead batteries and it was concluded that nickel-iron batteries are not suitable for stationary systems where recharging under a constant voltage is necessary. (AB).

  12. Development of new positive-grid alloy and its application to long-life batteries for automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Jun; Nehyo, Y.; Shiga, S.

    Positive-grid corrosion and its resulting creep or growth is one of the major causes of the failure of automotive lead-acid batteries. The importance of grid corrosion and growth is increasing given the tendency for rising temperatures in the engine compartments of modern vehicles. In order to cope with this situation, a new lead alloy has been developed for positive-grids by utilizing an optimized combination of lead-calcium-tin and barium. In addition to enhanced mechanical strength at high temperature, the corrosion-resistance of the grid is improved by as much as two-fold so that the high temperature durability of batteries using such grids has been demonstrated in both hot SAE J240 tests and in field trials in Japan and Thailand. A further advantage of the alloy is its recycleability compared with alloys containing silver. The new alloy gives superior performance in both 12-V flooded and 36-V valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries.

  13. Measurement of the isotope effect of the diffusion of silver and gold in gold and of silver in silver-gold alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, D.

    1974-01-01

    The silver isotopes Ag 105 and Agsup(110m) and the gold isotopes Au 195 and Au 199 were used for isotope effect measurements. The isotope effect of the gold self-diffusion was measured on four monocrystals samples at about 850 0 C, that of silver in gold monocrystals at five different temperatures between 731 0 C and 1050 0 C. Furthermore, the isotope effect for silver at 904 0 C was measured on seven silver-gold alloys of varying silver concentration. The correlation factor was determined from the measurements. (HPOE/LH) [de

  14. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van, J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  15. Autometallographic silver enhancement of zinc sulfide crystals created in cryostat sections from human brain biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Juhl, S; Stoltenberg, M

    1997-01-01

    samples containing zinc-enriched (ZEN) cells, are frozen in liquid nitrogen or by CO2 gas immediately after removal. The tissue blocks are cut in a cryostat and the sections placed on glass slides. The slides are transferred to an H2S exposure chamber placed in a -15 C freezer. After 1-24 hr of gas...

  16. Cathode Composition in a Saltwater Metal-Air Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-air batteries consist of a solid metal anode and an oxygen cathode of ambient air, typically separated by an aqueous electrolyte. Here, simple saltwater-based models of aluminum-air and zinc-air cells are used to determine the differences between theoretical cell electric potentials and experimental electric potentials. A substantial difference is observed. It is also found that the metal cathode material is crucial to cell electric potential, despite the cathode not participating in the net reaction. Finally, the material composition of the cathode appears to have a more significant impact on cell potential than the submerged surface area of the cathode.

  17. Highly efficient silver patterning without photo-resist using simple silver precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Younghun; Hwang, Eoc-Chae; Lee, Sang-Yun; Lyu, Yi-Yeol; Yim, Jin-Heong; Kim, Jin-Young; Chang, Seok; Pu, Lyong Sun; Kim, Ji Man

    2005-01-01

    Highly efficient method for silver patterning without photo-resist was developed by using high photosensitive organo-silver precursors, which were prepared by a simple reaction of silver salts and excess of amines. The FT-IR and GC-MS spectra were recorded depending on UV exposure time, for (n-PrNH 2 )Ag(NO 3 ).0.5MeCN and (n-PrNH 2 )Ag(NO 2 ).0.5MeCN, to understand the photolysis mechanism. The results indicate not only dissociation of coordinated amine and acetonitrile, but also decomposition of corresponding anion upon UV irradiation. When a precursor thin film was exposed to broadband UV irradiation, a partially reduced and insoluble silver species were formed within several minutes. After development, the irradiated areas were treated with a reducing agent to obtain pure metallic patterns. Subsequently, annealing step was followed at 100-350 deg. C to increase the adhesion of interface and cohesion of silver particles. The line resolution of 5 μm was obtained by the present silver precursors. Film thickness was also controllable from 50 to 250 nm by repetition of the above procedure. The average electrical conductivity was in the range of 3-43 Ω cm, measured by four-point probe technique. AES depth profile of the silver pattern thus obtained showed carbon and oxygen contents are less than 1% through the whole range. Even though sulfur contaminant exists on the surface, it was believed that nearly pure silver pattern was generated

  18. Direct Inkjet Printing of Silver Source/Drain Electrodes on an Amorphous InGaZnO Layer for Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Honglong; Chen, Jianqiu; Fang, Zhiqiang; Tao, Ruiqiang; Cai, Wei; Yao, Rihui; Hu, Shiben; Zhu, Zhennan; Zhou, Yicong; Yang, Caigui; Peng, Junbiao

    2017-01-10

    Printing technologies for thin-film transistors (TFTs) have recently attracted much interest owing to their eco-friendliness, direct patterning, low cost, and roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. Lower production costs could result if electrodes fabricated by vacuum processes could be replaced by inkjet printing. However, poor interfacial contacts and/or serious diffusion between the active layer and the silver electrodes are still problematic for achieving amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs with good electrical performance. In this paper, silver (Ag) source/drain electrodes were directly inkjet-printed on an amorphous a-IGZO layer to fabricate TFTs that exhibited a mobility of 0.29 cm²·V -1 ·s -1 and an on/off current ratio of over 10⁵. To the best of our knowledge, this is a major improvement for bottom-gate top-contact a-IGZO TFTs with directly printed silver electrodes on a substrate with no pretreatment. This study presents a promising alternative method of fabricating electrodes of a-IGZO TFTs with desirable device performance.

  19. Application of silver vanadate solid electrolyte mixed with Al2O3 in Ag/I2 batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Karim bin Arof.

    1993-01-01

    The glassy silver vanadate electrolyte of the composition 70AgI-20Ag20-10V205 was added with Al2O3 in varying percentages to form several physical mixtures that will be used to fabricate several solid stare electrochemical cells in order to study the influence of the dispersoid on the silver vanadate cells internal resistance and lifetime of the silver vanadate cells. The internal resistance of the cells increased on addition of Al2O3 but the cell with the mixture of Al2O3 and electrolyte in the weight ratio 2:3 has the lowest internal resistance. The increase in the internal resistance of the cell is attributed to the insulating nature of Al2O3. Although the internal resistance of the cell increased, it was observed that the time needed for the cell potential to drop to 400 mV at a constant discharge current of 30 uA increase in discharge lifetime was also observed when a second cell of the same mixed electrolyte constituents was discharged at 40 uA current drain. We have attempted to explain the increase in discharge lifetime in terms of the space charge layer developed between the insulator and the ionic conductor which results in a dipole region across which a potential difference is developed. This potential difference is responsible in prolonging the discharge lifetime of the cells

  20. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles from (bis)alkylamine silver carboxylate precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uznanski, Pawel, E-mail: puznansk@cbmm.lodz.pl; Zakrzewska, Joanna [Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, PAS (Poland); Favier, Frederic, E-mail: fredf@univ-montp2.fr [Université Montpellier II, ICGM - UMR5253- Equipe AIME (France); Kazmierski, Slawomir; Bryszewska, Ewa [Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, PAS (Poland)

    2017-03-15

    A comparative study of amine and silver carboxylate adducts [R{sub 1}COOAg-2(R{sub 2}NH{sub 2})] (R{sub 1} = 1, 7, 11; R{sub 2} = 8, 12) as a key intermediate in NPs synthesis is carried out via differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state FT-infrared spectroscopy, {sup 13}C CP MAS NMR, powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and various solution NMR spectroscopies ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, pulsed field gradient spin-echo NMR, and ROESY). It is proposed that carboxyl moieties in the presence of amine ligands are bound to silver ions via chelating bidentate type of coordination as opposed to bridging bidentate coordination of pure silver carboxylates resulting from the formation of dimeric units. All complexes are packed as lamellar bilayer structures. Silver carboxylate/amine complexes show one first-order melting transition. The evidence presented in this study shows that phase behavior of monovalent metal carboxylates are controlled, mainly, by head group bonding. In solution, insoluble silver salt is stabilized by amine molecules which exist in dynamic equilibrium. Using (bis)amine-silver carboxylate complex as precursor, silver nanoparticles were fabricated. During high-temperature thermolysis, the (bis)amine-carboxylate adduct decomposes to produce silver nanoparticles of small size. NPs are stabilized by strongly interacting carboxylate and trace amounts of amine derived from the silver precursor interacting with carboxylic acid. A corresponding aliphatic amide obtained from silver precursor at high-temperature reaction conditions is not taking part in the stabilization. Combining NMR techniques with FTIR, it was possible to follow an original stabilization mechanism.

  1. A comparison of portable XRF and ICP-OES analysis for lead on air filter samples from a lead ore concentrator mill and a lead-acid battery recycler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    Personal and area samples for airborne lead were taken at a lead mine concentrator mill, and at a lead-acid battery recycler. Lead is mined as its sulfidic ore, galena, which is often associated with zinc and silver. The ore typically is concentrated, and partially separated, on site by crushing and differential froth flotation of the ore minerals before being sent to a primary smelter. Besides lead, zinc and iron are also present in the airborne dusts, together with insignificant levels of copper and silver, and, in one area, manganese. The disposal of used lead-acid batteries presents environmental issues, and is also a waste of recoverable materials. Recycling operations allow for the recovery of lead, which can then be sold back to battery manufacturers to form a closed loop. At the recycling facility lead is the chief airborne metal, together with minor antimony and tin, but several other metals are generally present in much smaller quantities, including copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Samplers used in these studies included the closed-face 37 mm filter cassette (the current US standard method for lead sampling), the 37 mm GSP or "cone" sampler, the 25 mm Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable sampler, the 25 mm Button sampler, and the open-face 25 mm cassette. Mixed cellulose-ester filters were used in all samplers. The filters were analyzed after sampling for their content of the various metals, particularly lead, that could be analyzed by the specific portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer under study, and then were extracted with acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The 25 mm filters were analyzed using a single XRF reading, while three readings on different parts of the filter were taken from the 37 mm filters. For lead at the mine concentrate mill, all five samplers gave good correlations (r2 > 0.96) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass

  2. Silver distribution and release from an antimicrobial denture base resin containing silver colloidal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Gorup, Luiz Fernando; Takamiya, Aline Satie; de Camargo, Emerson Rodrigues; Filho, Adhemar Colla Ruvolo; Barbosa, Debora Barros

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a denture base resin containing silver colloidal nanoparticles through morphological analysis to check the distribution and dispersion of these particles in the polymer and by testing the silver release in deionized water at different time periods. A Lucitone 550 denture resin was used, and silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate with sodium citrate. The acrylic resin was prepared in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions, and silver nanoparticle suspension was added to the acrylic resin monomer in different concentrations (0.05, 0.5, and 5 vol% silver colloidal). Controls devoid of silver nanoparticles were included. The specimens were stored in deionized water at 37°C for 7, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days, and each solution was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Silver was not detected in deionized water regardless of the silver nanoparticles added to the resin and of the storage period. Micrographs showed that with lower concentrations, the distribution of silver nanoparticles was reduced, whereas their dispersion was improved in the polymer. Moreover, after 120 days of storage, nanoparticles were mainly located on the surface of the nanocomposite specimens. Incorporation of silver nanoparticles in the acrylic resin was evidenced. Moreover, silver was not detected by the detection limit of the atomic absorption spectrophotometer used in this study, even after 120 days of storage in deionized water. Silver nanoparticles are incorporated in the PMMA denture resin to attain an effective antimicrobial material to help control common infections involving oral mucosal tissues in complete denture wearers. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Groundwater regimes and isotopic studies, Ranger mine area, Northern Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M; Green, D C

    1986-12-01

    Three types of groundwater occur in the area of the Ranger mine. Type A groundwater occurs in the loose sands and gravels occupying the present day stream channels, Type B in the weathering profile and Type C occurs in relatively fresh fractured bedrock occupying open fractures and other cavities. The three types of groundwater can be distinguished both chemically and isotopically. Light stable isotope data suggest that most early rains are lost by evapotranspiration and have no imprint on the groundwater. Later in the wet season, the ground is saturated and groundwater recharge occurs on a regional scale. This younger groundwater sits on the older waters. Mixing is probably minimal as before any large scale mixing could occur, most younger waters are lost by evapotranspiration. Stable isotope data suggest that Type B groundwater in certain areas has some connection with evaporated surface water bodies. Stable isotope measurements for the pollution monitoring bores around the tailings dam do not indicate any connection with the polluted pond waters at the time of sample collection.

  4. Highly stable aqueous zinc-ion storage using a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chuan; Guo, Jing; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N. [Materials Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2018-04-03

    Cost-effective aqueous rechargeable batteries are attractive alternatives to non-aqueous cells for stationary grid energy storage. Among different aqueous cells, zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs), based on Zn{sup 2+} intercalation chemistry, stand out as they can employ high-capacity Zn metal as the anode material. Herein, we report a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze as the cathode material for aqueous Zn batteries. For the storage of the Zn{sup 2+} ions in the aqueous electrolyte, we demonstrate that the calcium-based bronze structure can deliver a high capacity of 340 mA h g{sup -1} at 0.2 C, good rate capability, and very long cycling life (96 % retention after 3000 cycles at 80 C). Further, we investigate the Zn{sup 2+} storage mechanism, and the corresponding electrochemical kinetics in this bronze cathode. Finally, we show that our Zn cell delivers an energy density of 267 W h kg{sup -1} at a power density of 53.4 W kg{sup -1}. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Combinatorial electrochemical cell array for high throughput screening of micro-fuel-cells and metal/air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhong

    2007-07-01

    An electrochemical cell array was designed that contains a common air electrode and 16 microanodes for high throughput screening of both fuel cells (based on polymer electrolyte membrane) and metal/air batteries (based on liquid electrolyte). Electrode materials can easily be coated on the anodes of the electrochemical cell array and screened by switching a graphite probe from one cell to the others. The electrochemical cell array was used to study direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including high throughput screening of electrode catalysts and determination of optimum operating conditions. For screening of DMFCs, there is about 6% relative standard deviation (percentage of standard deviation versus mean value) for discharge current from 10 to 20 mAcm(2). The electrochemical cell array was also used to study tin/air batteries. The effect of Cu content in the anode electrode on the discharge performance of the tin/air battery was investigated. The relative standard deviations for screening of metal/air battery (based on zinc/air) are 2.4%, 3.6%, and 5.1% for discharge current at 50, 100, and 150 mAcm(2), respectively.

  6. Life cycle assessment of five batteries for electric vehicles under different charging regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantik, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Transportation and Logistics

    1999-12-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used in this study to assess the environmental impact of five candidate batteries for electric vehicles under different conditions of charging. The entire lifetime of a passenger electric vehicle is considered as the basis for all batteries. Five different battery systems are considered. The four of them are electrically recharged - Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal hydride and Sodium-Nickel chloride whereas one system comprises batteries that are recharged mechanically (Zinc-Air). One specific battery from these five systems is selected. The results are representative of these particular batteries and not of the battery systems to which they belong. The study includes three scenarios, the basic scenario and two fast charging scenarios. The difference between the scenarios is in the phase of the battery's use and involves the charging regimes. Consequently, the other stages of the battery's life are identical in all three scenarios. The basic scenario implies normal overnight charging is used during the entire lifetime of an electric vehicle. In the first fast charging scenario, fast charging is combined with normal charging. The second fast charging scenario involves the exclusive use of fast charging. In both fast charging scenarios the user's behaviour is considered. In this study, it is believed that it is the violation of fast charging rules, set by the battery manufacturer rather than the fast charging technique, that will be critical for the cycle life of the battery. Due to low energy efficiency of the batteries and losses in the charging procedure, the use of energy for operating the electric vehicle seems to be a major contributor to the total environmental impact of the system. Significant resource constraints may prevent mass production of certain batteries or lead to increased prices of others. Use of fast charging increases the number of batteries used during the lifetime of the electric

  7. Gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and the produced silver nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is, along with gold and the platinum-group metals, one of the so called precious metals. Because of its comparative scarcity, brilliant white color, malleability and resistance to atmospheric oxidation, silver has been used in the manufacture of coins and jewelry for a long time. Silver has the highest known electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals and is used in fabricating printed electrical circuits, and also as a coating for electronic conductors. It is also alloyed with other elements such as nickel or palladium for use in electrical contacts. The most useful silver salt is silver nitrate, a caustic chemical reagent, significant as an antiseptic and as a reagent in analytical chemistry. Pure silver nitrate is an intermediate in the industrial preparation of other silver salts, including the colloidal silver compounds used in medicine and the silver halides incorporated into photographic emulsions. Silver halides become increasingly insoluble in the series: AgCl, AgBr, AgI. All silver salts are sensitive to light and are used in photographic coatings on film and paper. The ZORKA-PHARMA company (Sabac, Serbia specializes in the production of pharmaceutical remedies and lab chemicals. One of its products is chemical silver nitrate (argentum-nitricum (l. Silver nitrate is generally produced by dissolving pure electrolytically refined silver in hot 48% nitric acid. Since the purity of silver nitrate, produced in 2002, was not in compliance with the p.a. level of purity, there was doubt that the electrolytically refined silver was pure. The aim of this research was the gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and silver nitrate, produced industrially and in a laboratory. The purity determination was carried out gravimetrically, by the sedimentation of silver(I ions in the form of insoluble silver salts: AgCl, AgBr and Agi, and volumetrically, according to Mohr and Volhardt. The

  8. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Jörg; Ristig, Simon; Greulich, Christina; Li, Zi-An; Farle, Michael; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 μg mL-1 induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  9. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR

  10. In vitro percutaneous penetration and characterization of silver from silver-containing textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Carlotta Bianco,1 Sanja Kezic,2 Matteo Crosera,1 Vesna Svetličić,3 Suzana Šegota,3 Giovanni Maina,4 Canzio Romano,5 Francesca Larese,6,7 Gianpiero Adami11Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy; 2Academic Medical Center, Coronel Institute, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Laboratory for Bioelectrochemistry and Surface Imaging, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruder Boškovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; 4Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 5Department of Public and Pediatric Health Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 6Unit of Occupational Medicine, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy; 7Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, ItalyAbstract: The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro percutaneous penetration of silver and characterize the silver species released from textiles in different layers of full thickness human skin. For this purpose, two different wound dressings and a garment soaked in artificial sweat were placed in the donor compartments of Franz cells for 24 hours. The concentration of silver in the donor phase and in the skin was determined by an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ET-AAS and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS. The characterization of silver species in the textiles and in the skin layers was made by scanning electron microscopy with integrated energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. Additionally, the size distribution of silver nanoparticles in the textiles was performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM. On the surface of all investigated materials, silver nanoparticles of different size and morphology were found. Released silver concentrations in the soaking solutions (ie, exposure concentration ranged from 0.7 to 4.7 µg/mL (0.6–4.0 µg/cm2, fitting the bactericidal range. Silver and silver

  11. Plasmonic characterization of photo-induced silver nanoparticles extracted from silver halide based TEM film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudheer,, E-mail: sudheer@rrcat.gov.in; Tiwari, P.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Varshney, G. K. [Laser Bio-medical Applications & Instrumentation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The plasmonic responses of silver nanoparticles extracted from silver halide based electron microscope film are investigated. Photo-reduction process is carried out to convert the silver halide grains into the metallic silver. The centrifuge technique is used for separating the silver nanoparticles from the residual solution. Morphological study performed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) shows that all the nanoparticles have an average diameter of ~120 nm with a high degree of mono dispersion in size. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak at ~537 nm confirms the presence of large size silver nanoparticles.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles by sol-gel route from silver nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Jorge; Moran, Jose; Quintana, Maria; Estrada, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles colloids have been synthesized by sol-gel method. This synthesis consists in silver nitrate reduction by ethylene glycol in a process called polyol. The growth of the nanoparticles have been controlled by the steric stabilization of the colloid with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, M w = 40 000). The silver nanoparticle size and structure was depending on the control of parameters such as: molar concentrations ratio of silver nitrate and PVP, temperature of reaction and the reflux time. Colloids have been characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy in the range from 300 to 1000 nm. The results show that the typical peak of surface plasmon resonance is formed at 400-450 nm indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles. The presences of silver nanoparticles of spherical shape with size among 20-40 nm were observed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Electron diffraction patterns confirmed that synthesized colloids contain metallic silver with a crystal structure face centered cubic FCC. (author)

  13. Use of a silver ion selective electrode to assess mechanisms responsible for biological effects of silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Marcus; Kiefer, Silke; Cavelius, Christian; Kraegeloh, Annette

    2012-01-01

    For a detailed analysis of the biological effects of silver nanoparticles, discrimination between effects related to the nano-scale size of the particles and effects of released silver ions is required. Silver ions are either present in the initial particle dispersion or released by the nanoparticles over time. The aim of this study is to monitor the free silver ion activity {Ag + } in the presence of silver nanoparticles using a silver ion selective electrode. Therefore, silver in the form of silver nanoparticles, 4.2 ± 1.4 nm and 2–30 nm in size, or silver nitrate was added to cell culture media in the absence or presence of A549 cells as a model for human type II alveolar epithelial cells. The free silver ion activity measured after the addition of silver nanoparticles was determined by the initial ionic silver content. The p {Ag + } values indicated that the cell culture media decrease the free silver ion activity due to binding of silver ions by constituents of the media. In the presence of A549 cells, the free silver ion activity was further reduced. The morphology of A549 cells, cultivated in DME medium containing 9.1% (v/v) FBS, was affected by adding AgNO 3 at concentrations of ≥30 μM after 24 h. In comparison, silver nanoparticles up to a concentration of 200 μM Ag did not affect cellular morphology. Our experiments indicate that the effect of silver nanoparticles is mainly mediated by silver ions. An effect of silver on cellular morphology was observed at p {Ag + } ≤ 9.2.

  14. Flexible and transparent gastric battery: energy harvesting from gastric acid for endoscopy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafalu, Pooria; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we present the potential to harvest energy directly from the digestive system for powering a future wireless endoscopy capsule. A microfabricated electrochemical cell on flexible parylene film is proposed as a gastric battery. This electrochemical cell uses gastric juice as a source of unlimited electrolyte. Planar fabricated zinc [Zn] and palladium [Pd] electrodes serve as anode and cathode respectively. Due to planar geometry, no separator is needed. Moreover the annular structure of the electrodes provides lower distance between cathode and anode reducing the internal resistance. Both electrodes are biocompatible and parylene provides flexibility to the system. For a surface area of 15 mm(2), 1.25 mW is generated which is sufficient for most implantable endoscopy applications. Open circuit output voltage of this battery is 0.75 V. Since this gastric battery does not require any external electrolyte, it has low intrinsic weight, and since it is flexible and is made of biocompatible materials, it offers a promising solution for power in implantable applications. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Joerg; Ristig, Simon [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Greulich, Christina [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Li Zian; Farle, Michael [University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Physics, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Koeller, Manfred [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Epple, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.epple@uni-due.de [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 {mu}g mL{sup -1} induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  16. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Metal Values From Spent Dry Battery Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, M.A.; Barakat, M.A.; Mahrous, Y.Sh.

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the recovery of metal values from spent dry battery cells (DBC) applying a hydro-pyrometallurgical method. A process flow sheet was followed up starting with cutting the DBC with toothed cutter disc followed by water soaking and rinsing. Water soluble ingredients were filtered. Solid residue was assorted with the help of magnetic separation and water flotation.The method utilizes hydrogen peroxide to enhance dissolution of these metals in acidic or alkaline leachants. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency such as stoichiometric ratio, solid: liquid ratio, temperature, time and ph of the system were investigated. In this concern, experiments were executed with a battery sample weighing up to 15 kg. Atomic absorption analysis showed that the input DBC contain appreciable amounts of metal zinc, zinc chloride and manganese that are recoverable.Results obtained revealed that metallic parts, carbon rods and paper were safely separated for recycling. From the water-soluble salts, pure NH 4 CI, MnO 2 and ZnCI 2 salts are obtained meeting the standard specifications. Temperature up to 55 degree enhances the recovery process. Under the optimum conditions, maximum recovery efficiency obtained amounts to 93% for Mn, and 99.5% for Zn and NH 4 CI. A model for explaining the obtained results was also given. Dissolution of metals concerned increases in the order nitric> hydrochloric acid. Results were explained in the premise of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the reactions involved. Cost estimate of the products shows that the prices of the products are competitive to those of the market prices

  17. Effect of consuming zinc-fortified bread on serum zinc and iron status of zinc-deficient women: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Badii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1 a non-fortified bread, (2 a high-zinc bread, and (3 a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05. Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p < 0.01. It was concluded that fortification of flour with 50-100 ppm zinc was an effective way to achieve adequate zinc intake and absorption in zinc-deficient people. It also appeared that consuming zinc-fortified bread improved iron absorption.

  18. Room temperature synthesis of silver nanowires from tabular silver bromide crystals in the presence of gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suwen; Wehmschulte, Rudolf J.; Lian, Guoda; Burba, Christopher M.

    2006-03-01

    Long silver nanowires were synthesized at room temperature by a simple and fast process derived from the development of photographic films. A film consisting of an emulsion of tabular silver bromide grains in gelatin was treated with a photographic developer (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate (metol), citric acid) in the presence of additional aqueous silver nitrate. The silver nanowires have lengths of more than 50 μm, some even more than 100 μm, and average diameters of about 80 nm. Approximately, 70% of the metallic silver formed in the reduction consists of silver nanowires. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results indicate that the silver nanowires grow along the [111] direction. It was found that the presence of gelatin, tabular silver bromide crystals and silver ions in solution are essential for the formation of the silver nanowires. The nanowires appear to originate from the edges of the silver bromide crystals. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SAED, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  19. Room temperature synthesis of silver nanowires from tabular silver bromide crystals in the presence of gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suwen; Wehmschulte, Rudolf J.; Lian Guoda; Burba, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Long silver nanowires were synthesized at room temperature by a simple and fast process derived from the development of photographic films. A film consisting of an emulsion of tabular silver bromide grains in gelatin was treated with a photographic developer (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate (metol), citric acid) in the presence of additional aqueous silver nitrate. The silver nanowires have lengths of more than 50 μm, some even more than 100 μm, and average diameters of about 80 nm. Approximately, 70% of the metallic silver formed in the reduction consists of silver nanowires. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results indicate that the silver nanowires grow along the [111] direction. It was found that the presence of gelatin, tabular silver bromide crystals and silver ions in solution are essential for the formation of the silver nanowires. The nanowires appear to originate from the edges of the silver bromide crystals. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SAED, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  20. In situ visualization of Li/Ag2VP2O8 batteries revealing rate-dependent discharge mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshenbaum, Kevin; Bock, David C.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Zhong, Zhong; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2015-01-01

    The functional capacity of a battery is observed to decrease, often quite dramatically, as discharge rate demands increase. These capacity losses have been attributed to limited ion access and low electrical conductivity, resulting in incomplete electrode use. A strategy to improve electronic conductivity is the design of bimetallic materials that generate a silver matrix in situ during cathode reduction. Ex situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements on intact lithium/silver vanadium diphosphate (Li/Ag2VP2O8) electrochemical cells demonstrate that the metal center preferentially reduced and its location in the bimetallic cathode are rate-dependent, affecting cell impedance. This work illustrates that spatial imaging as a function of discharge rate can provide needed insights toward improving realizable capacity of bimetallic cathode systems.