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Sample records for silver nitrate agno3

  1. Effects of ethylene inhibitors, silver nitrate (AgNO3), cobalt chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant increase in shoot regeneration, leaf chlorophyll content and rooting occurred when silver nitrate (AgNO3), cobalt chloride (CoCl2) or aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) were added to banana culture medium. The highest numbers of shoots per explants shoot length and leaf surface area was obtained when media were ...

  2. Differential Phytotoxic Impact of Plant Mediated Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) and Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) on Brassica sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Kanchan; Shweta; Upadhyay, Neha; Singh, Jaspreet; Liu, Shiliang; Singh, Vijay P; Prasad, Sheo M; Chauhan, Devendra K; Tripathi, Durgesh K; Sharma, Shivesh

    2017-01-01

    Continuous formation and utilization of nanoparticles (NPs) have resulted into significant discharge of nanosized particles into the environment. NPs find applications in numerous products and agriculture sector, and gaining importance in recent years. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) by green synthesis approach using Aloe vera extract. Mustard ( Brassica sp.) seedlings were grown hydroponically and toxicity of both AgNP and AgNO 3 (as ionic Ag + ) was assessed at various concentrations (1 and 3 mM) by analyzing shoot and root length, fresh mass, protein content, photosynthetic pigments and performance, cell viability, oxidative damage, DNA degradation and enzyme activities. The results revealed that both AgNPs and AgNO 3 declined growth of Brassica seedlings due to enhanced accumulation of AgNPs and AgNO 3 that subsequently caused severe inhibition in photosynthesis. Further, the results showed that both AgNPs and AgNO 3 induced oxidative stress as indicated by histochemical staining of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide that was manifested in terms of DNA degradation and cell death. Activities of antioxidants, i.e., ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) were inhibited by AgNPs and AgNO 3. Interestingly, damaging impact of AgNPs was lesser than AgNO 3 on Brassica seedlings which was due to lesser accumulation of AgNPs and better activities of APX and CAT, which resulted in lesser oxidative stress, DNA degradation and cell death. The results of the present study showed differential impact of AgNPs and AgNO 3 on Brassica seedlings, their mode of action, and reasons for their differential impact. The results of the present study could be implied in toxicological research for designing strategies to reduce adverse impact of AgNPs and AgNO 3 on crop plants.

  3. Differential Phytotoxic Impact of Plant Mediated Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs and Silver Nitrate (AgNO3 on Brassica sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Vishwakarma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous formation and utilization of nanoparticles (NPs have resulted into significant discharge of nanosized particles into the environment. NPs find applications in numerous products and agriculture sector, and gaining importance in recent years. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were biosynthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO3 by green synthesis approach using Aloe vera extract. Mustard (Brassica sp. seedlings were grown hydroponically and toxicity of both AgNP and AgNO3 (as ionic Ag+ was assessed at various concentrations (1 and 3 mM by analyzing shoot and root length, fresh mass, protein content, photosynthetic pigments and performance, cell viability, oxidative damage, DNA degradation and enzyme activities. The results revealed that both AgNPs and AgNO3 declined growth of Brassica seedlings due to enhanced accumulation of AgNPs and AgNO3 that subsequently caused severe inhibition in photosynthesis. Further, the results showed that both AgNPs and AgNO3 induced oxidative stress as indicated by histochemical staining of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide that was manifested in terms of DNA degradation and cell death. Activities of antioxidants, i.e., ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT were inhibited by AgNPs and AgNO3. Interestingly, damaging impact of AgNPs was lesser than AgNO3 on Brassica seedlings which was due to lesser accumulation of AgNPs and better activities of APX and CAT, which resulted in lesser oxidative stress, DNA degradation and cell death. The results of the present study showed differential impact of AgNPs and AgNO3 on Brassica seedlings, their mode of action, and reasons for their differential impact. The results of the present study could be implied in toxicological research for designing strategies to reduce adverse impact of AgNPs and AgNO3 on crop plants.

  4. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by radiolysis, photolysis and chemical reduction of AgNO3 in Hibiscus sabdariffa infusion (karkade)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, Franco; Ursini, Ornella; Angelini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles of different average diameters were synthesized by γ-radiolysis, UV-photolysis and chemical reduction of AgNO 3 solutions in Hibiscus sabdariffa infusion commonly known as 'karkade'. The UV-photolysis was performed either by using a conventional Hg low pressure lamp emitting at 254 nm and also by using a new compact UV-LED source emitting at 360 nm. The kinetics rate constant of silver nanoparticles synthesis produced by γ-radiolysis and UV photolysis were determined and the average diameter of the resulting nanoparticles was estimated. (author)

  5. Chromatographic analysis of phytochemicals components present in mangifera indica leaves for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by AgNO3 reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Bernett, D; Silva-Granados, A; Herrera, A; Correa-Torres, S N

    2016-01-01

    It was studied the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the reduction of a silver nitrate solution (1 and 10mM) in the presence of an extract of mangifera indica leaves. Phytochemicals components present in extracts of mango leaves were determined using a GC-MS chromatograph. The results showed the presence of the phenolic compound pyrogallol (26.9% wt/5mL of extract) and oleic acid (29.1% wt/5mL of extract), which are useful for the reduction of the metallic salt AgNO 3 and the stabilization of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), evidencing absorbances at wavelengths of 417nm (AgNPs-1) and 414nm (AgNPs- 10), which are characteristic peaks of this metallic nanoparticles. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the size of the synthesized nanoparticles. A particle size of about 28±7nm was observed for the AgNPs-1 sample and 26±5nm for the AgNPs-10. This suggests the advantages of green chemistry to obtain silver nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. (paper)

  6. Chromatographic analysis of phytochemicals components present in mangifera indica leaves for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by AgNO3 reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bernett, D.; Silva-Granados, A.; Correa-Torres, S. N.; Herrera, A.

    2016-02-01

    It was studied the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the reduction of a silver nitrate solution (1 and 10mM) in the presence of an extract of mangifera indica leaves. Phytochemicals components present in extracts of mango leaves were determined using a GC-MS chromatograph. The results showed the presence of the phenolic compound pyrogallol (26.9% wt/5mL of extract) and oleic acid (29.1% wt/5mL of extract), which are useful for the reduction of the metallic salt AgNO3 and the stabilization of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), evidencing absorbances at wavelengths of 417nm (AgNPs-1) and 414nm (AgNPs- 10), which are characteristic peaks of this metallic nanoparticles. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the size of the synthesized nanoparticles. A particle size of about 28±7nm was observed for the AgNPs-1 sample and 26±5nm for the AgNPs-10. This suggests the advantages of green chemistry to obtain silver nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution.

  7. Formation process of silver-polypyrrole coaxial nanocables synthesized by redox reaction between AgNO3 and pyrrole in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aihua; Kamata, Kaori; Nakagawa, Masaru; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Haiqiao Wang, Haiqiao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2005-10-06

    We have recently demonstrated a one-step process to fabricate silver-polypyrrole (PPy) coaxial nanocables (Chen, A.; Wang, H.; Li, X. Chem. Commun. 2005, 14, 1863). The formation process of silver-PPy coaxial nanocables is discussed in this article. It was found from the results of TEM and SEM images that large numbers of silver atoms were formed when AgNO3 was added to a pyrrole solution. Then silver atoms transform to silver-PPy nanosheets with regular morphology, which will connect together to be more stable. Silver-PPy nanocables will be able to grow at the expense of the silver-PPy nanosheets. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) plays crucial roles in this process: as a capping agent to form silver nanowires, and as a dispersant of pyrrole monomers, which can influence the site at which pyrrole monomer exists. On the basis of experimental analysis, the possible mechanism was proposed. Because of the effect of PVP, silver ions and pyrrole monomers are apt to be adsorbed at the [111] and [100] facets of silver nanosheets, respectively. Obvious polymerization will take place on the boundary of the [111] and [100] facets. The PPy layer stays stable on the [100] facets. Meanwhile, newly formed silver atoms and silver nanosheets will further ripen and grow on the [111] facets. In a word, the morphology of final products and the formation process are determined by the reaction site between AgNO3 and the pyrrole monomer, which is influenced by PVP.

  8. Sponge-like silver obtained by decomposition of silver nitrate hexamethylenetetramine complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiev, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Silver nitrate hexamethylenetetramine [Ag(NO 3 )·N 4 (CH 2 ) 6 ] coordination compound has been prepared via aqueous route and characterized by chemical analysis, XRD and electron microscopy. Decomposition of [Ag(NO 3 )·N 4 (CH 2 ) 6 ] under hydrogen and under inert has been studied by thermal analysis and mass spectrometry. Thermal decomposition of [Ag(NO 3 )·N 4 (CH 2 ) 6 ] proceeds in the range 200–250 °C as a self-propagating rapid redox process accompanied with the release of multiple gases. The decomposition leads to formation of sponge-like silver having hierarchical open pore system with pore size spanning from 10 µm to 10 nm. The as-obtained silver sponges exhibited favorable activity toward H 2 O 2 electrochemical reduction, making them potentially interesting as non-enzyme hydrogen peroxide sensors. - Graphical abstract: Thermal decomposition of silver nitrate hexamethylenetetramine coordination compound [Ag(NO 3 )·N 4 (CH 2 ) 6 ] leads to sponge like silver that possesses open porous structure and demonstrates interesting properties as an electrochemical hydrogen peroxide sensor. Display Omitted - Highlights: • [Ag(NO 3 )·N 4 (CH 2 ) 6 ] orthorhombic phase prepared and characterized. • Decomposition of [Ag(NO 3 )·N 4 (CH 2 ) 6 ] leads to metallic silver sponge with opened porosity. • Ag sponge showed promising properties as a material for hydrogen peroxide sensors.

  9. Effect of Silver Nitrate DuringEx vitro Acclimatization of Micropropagated Ginger Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate (AgNO3 was used under in vitro conditions to study the response of ginger cultivars ‘Nadia’ and ‘Baishey’ under ex vitro. Micropropagated plants treated with AgNO3 showed significant difference (p<0.05 compared to those plantlets without AgNO3 and control type in almost all the different quantitative traits analyzed. Significant difference in number of finger per plant and minirhizome yield indicated the repercussion of AgNO3 during acclimatization.

  10. [Effects of silver nitrate on the phase state of model multibilayer membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashchenko, O V; Iermak, Yu L; Krasnikova, A O; Lisetski, L N

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effects caused by silver nitrate (AgNO3) on model lipid membranes, we studied multibilayer membranes based on L-α-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and AgNO3 aqueous soluitions in a wide concentration range (up to 30 wt%) by means of differential scanning calorimetry. It has been shown that the presence of AgNO3 leads both to an increase in the main phase transition temperature (T(m)) and appearance of an additional phase transition peak (T(m)), suggesting increasing of both density and heterogeneity of the lipid membrane. The effect of nitrate ions (NO ) was shown to be of the opposite nature (bilayer fluidizing), so the integral densifying effect of AgNO3 can be referred solely to the action of silver ions (Ag(+)). With increasing AgNO3 concentration, the tendency was observed to opposite changes in T(m) and T'(m) peaks intensity, thereby at about 26. wt% of AgNO3 the initial peak (T(m)) disappeared. In the range of Ag+ therapeutic concentrations (up to 2 wt%) no significant changes in the DPPC membrane were revealed. This can be one of the reasons of the absence of a damaging effect of silver drugs on a host organism with simultaneous pronounced bactericidal effect.

  11. Chelating effect of silver nitrate by chitosan on its toxicity and growth performance in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemdjie Mane Divine Doriane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the chelating effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3 by chitosan on growth performances, hematological and biochemical parameters, and the histopathological structure of the liver and the kidney in broiler chicken. Materials and methods: A total of 192 day-old Cobb 500 strain chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 64 chicks each. Control group was fed on basal diet without supplement (R0 and the two others groups were fed on rations supplemented with 10 mg of unchelated (RAg or chelated (RCs-Ag AgNO3 per Kg of feed, respectively. Parameters that have been studied consisted of feed intake, weight gain, blood and serum biochemical, and histopathological analyses of liver and kidney. Results: Results revealed that chelation of AgNO3 by chitosan did not have any effect on growth performances and hematological parameters in chicken. However, chelated and unchelated AgNO3 increased the serum content in triglyceride, and cholesterol and decreased the serum content in creatinin, albumin and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT. Chelating AgNO3 with chitosan prevented and corrected the toxicity induced on the histological structure of liver and kidney. Conclusion: Chitosan can be used as a chelating agent to alleviate the harmful effects of AgNO3 as silver ion for poultry. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(2.000: 187-193

  12. OBTAINING AND ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BASED ON THE EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE OF DIAZOTROPHIC STRAIN Bradyrhizobium japonicum 36 AND AgNO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Rasulov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to obtain silver nanoparticles and to study of its antibacterial activity against pathogenic cultures Escherichia coli ATCC11229 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538. Obtained complex was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Colloid solutions of the complex absorbed radiation in the visible regions of 420–460 nm, which confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles. The size of synthesized SNP varied from 6 to 50 nm. There has been confirmed presence in them of atomic silver. Obtained compound possessed antibacterial activity against pathogens, such as Escherichia coli ATCC11229 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538.

  13. Silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate induce high toxicity to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna and Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fabianne; Gallego-Urrea, Julián Alberto; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Crossley, Alison; Hassellöv, Martin; Taylor, Cameron; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Loureiro, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have gained attention over the years due to the antimicrobial function of silver, which has been exploited industrially to produce consumer goods that vary in type and application. Undoubtedly the increase of production and consumption of these silver-containing products will lead to the entry of silver compounds into the environment. In this study we have used Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna and Danio rerio as model organisms to investigate the toxicity of AgNP and AgNO 3 by assessing different biological endpoints and exposure periods. Organisms were exposed following specific and standardized protocols for each species/endpoints, with modifications when necessary. AgNP were characterized in each test-media by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and experiments were performed by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) to investigate the aggregation and agglomeration behavior of AgNP under different media chemical composition and test-period. TEM images of AgNP in the different test-media showed dissimilar patterns of agglomeration, with some agglomerates inside an organic layer, some loosely associated particles and also the presence of some individual particles. The toxicity of both AgNO 3 and AgNP differ significantly based on the test species: we found no differences in toxicity for algae, a small difference for zebrafish and a major difference in toxicity for Daphnia magna. - Highlights: •Effects of silver nanoparticles and nitrate were compared in three aquatic species. •The presence of food on the immobilization assay for Daphnia magna significantly decreased AgNP toxicity. •AgNP and AgNO 3 differ in toxicity according to the test species and endpoint. •AgNP and AgNO 3 induced dissimilar abnormalities on zebrafish embryos' development. •AgNP behavior in the test media will rule its bioavailability and uptake and therefore toxicity

  14. Formation of nanoparticles and nanorods via UV irradiation of AgNO3 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanska-Chargot, M.; Gruszecka, A.; Smolira, A.; Bederski, K.; Gluch, K.; Cytawa, J.; Michalak, L.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles via UV irradiation of AgNO 3 solutions was controlled by using UV-vis absorption spectra and TEM (transmission electron microscope) images. The UV-vis absorption method is good enough for the general control of synthesis process, and TEM images give us information about size of formed species. For investigated solutions of silver nitrate in ethanol and water, we observed formation of large nanoparticles (size about 100 nm) and nanorods (100 nm in length). Moreover, there was effort to confirm evidence of formation of these particles by using TOF mass spectrometer. Due to laser desorption/ionization process there is only evidence of small silver nanoparticles Ag x , x ≤ 4 (clusters), and variety of silver compounds Ag x N y O z (x ≤ 5, y ≤ 2, z ≤ 3).

  15. Comparative synthesis and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosselhy, Dina A.; El-Aziz, Mohamed Abd; Hanna, Magdy; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Husien, Mona M.; Feng, Qingling

    2015-12-01

    The high wave of antibiotic bacterial resistance has addressed an importance for administration of different antibacterial agents, as silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, many investigators still suffer conflict in the mechanistic antimicrobial action of Ag NPs and Ag+ ions. In this regard, our study investigated the comparative antimicrobial action of different sizes of Ag NPs as 8 (nAg1) and 29 (nAg2) nm, in comparison with silver nitrate (AgNO3) against five different bacterial species; Aeromonas hydrophila ( A. hydrophila), Pseudomonas putida ( Ps. putida), Escherichia coli ( E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), and Bacillus subtilis ( B. subtilis) using agar diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The key role of the size of nanomaterials was detected, as the smaller Ag NPs (nAg1) showed more antimicrobial action than the larger particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies demonstrated the different mechanistic antibacterial actions of Ag NPs and AgNO3. The effect of combining Ag NPs with antibiotics was also investigated. Synergistic effect of combining Ag NPs with ampicillin was detected against S. aureus, in a size-dependent manner as well. To summarize, our results point towards the major role played by the size of Ag NPs in their antimicrobial effects and the different toxic mechanisms of actions induced by Ag NPs and AgNO3.

  16. Comparative synthesis and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosselhy, Dina A.; El-Aziz, Mohamed Abd; Hanna, Magdy; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Husien, Mona M.; Feng, Qingling

    2015-01-01

    The high wave of antibiotic bacterial resistance has addressed an importance for administration of different antibacterial agents, as silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, many investigators still suffer conflict in the mechanistic antimicrobial action of Ag NPs and Ag + ions. In this regard, our study investigated the comparative antimicrobial action of different sizes of Ag NPs as 8 (nAg1) and 29 (nAg2) nm, in comparison with silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) against five different bacterial species; Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila), Pseudomonas putida (Ps. putida), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) using agar diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The key role of the size of nanomaterials was detected, as the smaller Ag NPs (nAg1) showed more antimicrobial action than the larger particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies demonstrated the different mechanistic antibacterial actions of Ag NPs and AgNO 3 . The effect of combining Ag NPs with antibiotics was also investigated. Synergistic effect of combining Ag NPs with ampicillin was detected against S. aureus, in a size-dependent manner as well. To summarize, our results point towards the major role played by the size of Ag NPs in their antimicrobial effects and the different toxic mechanisms of actions induced by Ag NPs and AgNO 3

  17. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Cellulose based Fabrics treated with Silver Nitrate Solution using Plasma Processes

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    Jelena Peran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain antibacterial properties, the possibility of deposition of silver particles from silver nitrate (AgNO3 solutions by plasma deposition process using argon as a carrier gas (PDP-Ar was explored. Hexamethyldisiloxane and acrylic acid were used as precursors and were deposited by plasma enhanced-chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD. The processes were carried out on lyocell and modal fbrics and antimicrobial efficacy was determined on E. coli and S. aureus using time kill assay method. The results of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC show that higher antimicrobial efficacy on E. coli is exhibited by the solution of (AgNO3 in ethylene-glycol (0.066 μg/ml rather than in absolute ethanol (0.265 μg/ml. For S. aureus, minimal inhibitory concentrations of AgNO3 solutions in both absolute ethanol and ethylene-glycol as solvents are obtained at the same value (0.132 μg/ml. Overall, the best antibacterial eff ect for both modal and lyocell samples has been achieved against E. coli using treatments with precursors (AAC and HMDSO and Ag-NO3 in ethylene-glycol as solvent, with prolonged incubation time.

  18. Characterization of aqueous silver nitrate solutions for leakage tests

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    José Ferreira Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the pH over a period of 168 h and the ionic silver content in various concentrations and post-preparation times of aqueous silver nitrate solutions. Also, the possible effects of these factors on microleakage test in adhesive/resin restorations in primary and permanent teeth were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A digital pHmeter was used for measuring the pH of the solutions prepared with three types of water (purified, deionized or distilled and three brands of silver nitrate salt (Merck, Synth or Cennabras at 0, 1, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 h after preparation, and storage in transparent or dark bottles. Ionic silver was assayed according to the post-preparation times (2, 24, 48, 72, 96, 168 h and concentrations (1, 5, 25, 50% of solutions by atomic emission spectrometry. For each sample of each condition, three readings were obtained for calculating the mean value. Class V cavities were prepared with enamel margins on primary and permanent teeth and restored with the adhesive systems OptiBond FL or OptiBond SOLO Plus SE and the composite resin Filtek Z-250. After nail polish coverage, the permanent teeth were immersed in 25% or 50% AgNO3 solution and the primary teeth in 5% or 50% AgNO3 solutions for microleakage evaluation. ANOVA and the Tukey's test were used for data analyses (α=5%. RESULTS: The mean pH of the solutions ranged from neutral to alkaline (7.9±2.2 to 11.8±0.9. Mean ionic silver content differed depending on the concentration of the solution (4.75±0.5 to 293±15.3 ppm. In the microleakage test, significant difference was only observed for the adhesive system factor (p=0.000. CONCLUSIONS: Under the tested experimental conditions and based on the obtained results, it may be concluded that the aqueous AgNO3 solutions: have neutral/alkaline pH and service life of up to 168 h; the level of ionic silver is proportional to the concentration of the solution; even at 5% concentration, the solutions were

  19. A multinuclear solid-state magnetic resonance study of silver nitrate triphenylphosphine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.-W.; Bernard, G.M.; Wasylishen, R.E.; McDonald, R.; Ferguson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Variable-temperature solid-state 31 P, 15 N, and 2 H NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry studies of the 1:1 adduct of silver nitrate and triphenylphosphine (AgNO 3 ·PPh 3 ) reveal a solid-solid phase transition at 300 K. The principal components of the phosphorus and nitrogen chemical shift tensors for both phases are determined from NMR spectra of MAS and stationary samples. In addition, the indirect spin-spin coupling between phosphorus and the naturally occurring isotopes of silver ( 107 Ag and 109 Ag) are resolved. Experimental 2 H NMR line shapes for silver nitrate perdeuterated triphenylphosphine are those characteristic of rigid phenyl groups at temperatures above and below the phase-transition temperature. Powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data for AgNO 3 ·PPh 3 obtained at 193, 295, and 313 K are reported; data obtained at 193 and 295 K are almost identical, but are significantly different from those obtained at 313 K and from an earlier single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation performed at 298 K. All X-ray studies found that AgNO 3 ·PPh 3 crystallizes in the monoclinic form, space group P2 1 lc. (author)

  20. The toxicity of silver to soil organisms exposed to silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in biosolids-amended field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmer, Alexander H; Velicogna, Jessica R; Schwertfeger, Dina M; Scroggins, Richard P; Princz, Juliska I

    2017-10-01

    The use of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is widespread, with expected release to the terrestrial environment through the application of biosolids onto agricultural lands. The toxicity of AgNPs and silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ; as ionic Ag + ) to plant (Elymus lanceolatus and Trifolium pratense) and soil invertebrate (Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida) species was assessed using Ag-amended biosolids applied to a natural sandy loam soil. Bioavailable Ag + in soil samples was estimated using an ion-exchange technique applied to KNO 3 soil extracts, whereas exposure to dispersible AgNPs was verified by single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Greater toxicity to plant growth and earthworm reproduction was observed in AgNP exposures relative to those of AgNO 3 , whereas no difference in toxicity was observed for F. candida reproduction. Transformation products in the AgNP-biosolids exposures resulted in larger pools of extractable Ag + than those from AgNO 3 -biosolids exposures, at similar total Ag soil concentrations. The results of the present study reveal intrinsic differences in the behavior and bioavailability of the 2 different forms of Ag within the biosolids-soils pathway. The present study demonstrates how analytical methods that target biologically relevant fractions can be used to advance the understanding of AgNP behavior and toxicity in terrestrial environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2756-2765. © 2017 Crown in the Right of Canada. Published Wiley Periodicals Inc., on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 Crown in the Right of Canada. Published Wiley Periodicals Inc., on behalf of SETAC.

  1. Short-term soil bioassays may not reveal the full toxicity potential for nanomaterials; bioavailability and toxicity of silver ions (AgNO3) and silver nanoparticles to earthworm Eisenia fetida in long-term aged soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez-Ortiz, Maria; Lahive, Elma; George, Suzanne; Ter Schure, Anneke; Van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if standard risk assessment hazard tests are long enough to adequately provide the worst case exposure for nanomaterials. This study therefore determined the comparative effects of the aging on the bioavailability and toxicity to earthworms of soils dosed with silver ions and silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) for 1, 9, 30 & 52 weeks, and related this to the total Ag in the soil, Ag in soil pore water and earthworm tissue Ag concentrations. For ionic Ag, a classical pattern of reduced bioavailability and toxicity with time aged in the soil was observed. For the Ag NP, toxicity increased with time apparently driven by Ag ion dissolution from the added Ag NPs. Internal Ag in the earthworms did not always explain toxicity and suggested the presence of an internalised, low-toxicity Ag fraction (as intact or transformed NPs) after shorter aging times. Our results indicate that short-term exposures, without long-term soil aging, are not able to properly assess the environmental risk of Ag NPs and that ultimately, with aging time, Ag ion and Ag NP effect will merge to a common value. - Highlights: • Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in soils increased with time. • Standard tests do not adequately assess toxicity of silver NPs to earthworms. • Internal Ag in earthworms did not always explain toxicity after shorter aging times. • With aging time, Ag ion and Ag NP effect in soils will merge to a common value. - Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in soils increased with time with the result that commonly applied tests of 28 days exposure with freshly spiked soils do not adequately assess the environmental hazard of silver nanoparticles

  2. Short-term soil bioassays may not reveal the full toxicity potential for nanomaterials; bioavailability and toxicity of silver ions (AgNO3) and silver nanoparticles to earthworm Eisenia fetida in long-term aged soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diez-Ortiz, M.; Lahive, E.; George, S.; Ter Schure, A.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Jurkschat, K.; Svendsen, C.; Spurgeon, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if standard risk assessment hazard tests are long enough to adequately provide the worst case exposure for nanomaterials. This study therefore determined the comparative effects of the aging on the bioavailability and toxicity to earthworms of soils dosed with silver ions and

  3. Silver nitrate based gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, D; Samuel, E J J; Srinivasan, K; Roopan, S M; Madhu, C S

    2017-01-01

    A new radiochromic gel dosimeter based on silver nitrate and a normoxic gel dosimeter was investigated using UV-Visible spectrophotometry in the clinical dose range. Gamma radiation induced the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the gel and is confirmed from the UV-Visible spectrum which shows an absorbance peak at around 450 nm. The dose response function of the dosimeter is found to be linear upto12Gy. In addition, the gel samples were found to be stable which were kept under refrigeration. (paper)

  4. Introduction to the determination of the Ag(NO3)+ complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitfour, B.; Rahier, A.

    1996-08-01

    The Ag(NO 3 ) + species is particularly useful to mineralize organic nuclear wastes at room temperature. The process produces no ashes and allows to confine the contaminants in a nitric acid solution. A successful analytical method for the determination of the speciation of silver in nitric acid solutions was studied. Since no suitable analytical standard for Ag 2+ is available, an indirect method was used. First, Ag(NO 3 ) + was reduced by an excess of Ce 3+ . Next, the resulting Ce 4+ was measured spectrophotometricaly at 343 nm. Finally, Ag(NO 3 ) + was determined directly by spectrophotometry by measuring the absorbance at 390 nm and by associating the latter to the concentrations obtained by the cerium method. The stability of the Ce 4+ solutions in nitric acid has also been studied as a function of time. It was observed that the absorbance measured for these solutions decrease with time when the solutions are exposed to light. Conserving the standards in a dark environment allows to maintain a long term reproducibility

  5. INVESTIGATIONS THE EFFECT OF EOSIN B DYE ON X- RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERN OF SILVER NITRATE DOPED PVP FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasin F. Hadi Al-Kadhemy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, X-ray diffraction of the powder (PVP polymer, Eosin B dye, and silver nitrate and (EB/PVP, AgNO3/PVP, EB/AgNO3/PVP films have been studied. Casting method is used to prepare homogeneous films on plastic petri dishes. All parameters accounted for the X-ray diffraction; full width half maximum (FWHM, Miller indices (hkl, size of crystalline (D, Specific Surface Area (S and Dislocation Density (δ.The nature of the structural of materials and films will be investigated. The XRD pattern of PVP polymer was amorphous structure with two broader peaks and the Eosin B dye and silver nitrate have crystalline structure. While the mixture between these materials led to appearing some crystalline peaks into XRD pattern of PVP polymer.

  6. The effectiveness of the biannual application of silver nitrate solution followed by sodium fluoride varnish in arresting early childhood caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Li, Samantha Ky; Wong, May Cm; Lo, Edward Cm

    2015-09-25

    The application of 38 % silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has been shown to be effective in arresting early childhood caries (ECC). Since SDF is not available in certain countries, some dentists use adjunctive application of 25 % silver nitrate (AgNO3) and 5 % sodium fluoride (NaF) to arrest ECC. This randomised controlled trial will systematically compare the efficacy of a 25 % AgNO3 solution followed by 5 % NaF varnish with that of a 38 % SDF solution in arresting ECC when applied at half-yearly intervals over a 30-month period. This study is a randomised, double-blinded, non-inferiority clinical trial. The hypothesis tested is that adjunctive application of 25 % AgNO3 followed by 5 % NaF is at least not appreciably worse than a 38 % SDF in arresting ECC. Approximately 3100 kindergarten children aged 3-4 years will be screened and at least 1070 children with caries will be recruited. This sample size is sufficient for an appropriate statistical analysis (power at 90 % (β = 0.10) with a 2-sided type-I error of α = 0.05), allowing for an overall 20 % drop-out rate. The children will be randomly allocated into 2 groups to treat their caries over a 30-month period: Group A - biannual adjunctive application of a 25 % AgNO3 solution and a 5 % NaF varnish, and Group B - biannual adjunctive application of a 38 % SDF solution followed by a placebo varnish. Clinical examinations will be conducted at 6-month intervals. Primary outcome measured is the number of active caries surfaces which are arrested. Information on confounding factors such as oral hygiene habits will be collected through a parental questionnaire. We expect that adjunctive application of 25 % AgNO3 solution and 5 % NaF varnish and of 38 % SDF solution can both effectively arrest ECC. Lower concentrations of silver and fluoride are contained in 25 % AgNO3 and 5 % NaF, respectively, than in 38 % SDF; therefore, AgNO3/NaF are more favourable for use in young children. Because its use for caries management is

  7. Revitalising Silver Nitrate for Caries Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Shiqian Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate has been adopted for medical use as a disinfectant for eye disease and burned wounds. In dentistry, it is an active ingredient of Howe’s solution used to prevent and arrest dental caries. While medical use of silver nitrate as a disinfectant became subsidiary with the discovery of antibiotics, its use in caries treatment also diminished with the use of fluoride in caries prevention. Since then, fluoride agents, particularly sodium fluoride, have gained popularity in caries prevention. However, caries is an infection caused by cariogenic bacteria, which demineralise enamel and dentine. Caries can progress and cause pulpal infection, but its progression can be halted through remineralisation. Sodium fluoride promotes remineralisation and silver nitrate has a profound antimicrobial effect. Hence, silver nitrate solution has been reintroduced for use with sodium fluoride varnish to arrest caries as a medical model strategy of caries management. Although the treatment permanently stains caries lesions black, this treatment protocol is simple, painless, non-invasive, and low-cost. It is well accepted by many clinicians and patients and therefore appears to be a promising strategy for caries control, particularly for young children, the elderly, and patients with severe caries risk or special needs.

  8. Generation of Hybrid Peptide-Silver Nanoparticles for Antibacterial and Antifouling Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Seferji, Kholoud

    2018-01-01

    and antifouling agents. Our innovative antibacterial agents are hybrid peptide silver nanoparticles (CH-01-AgNPs) that are created de novo and in situ from a silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) in the presence of ultrashort self-assembling peptides compounds

  9. The influence of particle size and AgNO3 concentration in the ionic exchange process on the fungicidal action of antimicrobial glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, E.; Piletti, R.; Barichello, T.; Oliveira, C.M.; Kniess, C.T.; Angioletto, E.; Riella, H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial materials have long been used as an effective means of reducing the risks posed to humans by fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms. These materials are essential in environments where cleanliness, comfort and hygiene are the predominate concerns. This work presents preliminary results for the development of a fungicidal vitreous material that is produced by the incorporation of a silver ionic specimen through ionic exchange reactions. Silver ions were incorporated into powdered glass via ionic exchange in an ionic medium containing silver species with different concentrations of AgNO 3 . The fungicidal efficiency of the samples was studied as a function of the AgNO 3 concentration and the particle size of the glass using the agar diffusion test for the microbiological analysis of the fungus species Candida albicans. The samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results showed that the fungicidal effect was dependent on the AgNO 3 concentration in the ionic exchange medium but was not dependent on the particle size of the glass. - Highlights: ► The fungicidal powder glass presents high potential for application as polymeric additive and others application in the medical area. ► The fungicidal effect was dependent on AgNO3 concentration, but was not dependent on the particle size of the glass. ► The XRD results show that the ionic exchange process promotes the formation of silver crystalline phases with cubic cells.

  10. Structural modification in the formation of starch – silver nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, S. N. Suraiya; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal; Aswal, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer based nanocomposites have gained wide applications in field of battery technology. Starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide with sustainable properties such as biodegradable, non toxic, excellent film forming capacity and it also act as reducing agent for the metal nanoparticles. In our research various concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO_3) was added to the starch solution and films were obtained using solution casting method. Surface electron microscope (SEM) of the films shows modifications depending upon the concentration of AgNO_3. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis showed that addition of silver nitrate modifies the starch to disc like structures and with increasing the AgNO_3 concentration leads to the formation of fractals. This research could benefit battery technology where solid polymer membranes using starch is used.

  11. Structural modification in the formation of starch - silver nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, S. N. Suraiya; Aswal, V. K.; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal

    2016-05-01

    Polymer based nanocomposites have gained wide applications in field of battery technology. Starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide with sustainable properties such as biodegradable, non toxic, excellent film forming capacity and it also act as reducing agent for the metal nanoparticles. In our research various concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO3) was added to the starch solution and films were obtained using solution casting method. Surface electron microscope (SEM) of the films shows modifications depending upon the concentration of AgNO3. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis showed that addition of silver nitrate modifies the starch to disc like structures and with increasing the AgNO3 concentration leads to the formation of fractals. This research could benefit battery technology where solid polymer membranes using starch is used.

  12. Toxicological evaluation of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangqiu; Tang, Song; Li, Shibin; Lu, Haoliang; Wang, Yanwu; Zhao, Peng; Li, Bin; Zhang, Jiehong; Peng, Liang

    2017-02-01

    The increasing application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been raising concerns about their potential adverse effects to human and the environment. However, the knowledge on the systemic toxicity of AgNPs in mammalian systems is still limited. The present study investigated the toxicity of PVP-coated AgNPs in rats treated with repeated oral administration, and compared that with equivalent dose of AgNO 3 . Specifically, one hundred male and female rats were orally administrated with particulate or ionic forms of silver (Ag) separately at doses of 0.5 and 1 mg kg -1 body weight daily for 28 days. The results reveal no significant toxic effects of AgNPs and AgNO 3 up to 1 mg kg -1 body weight, with respect to the body weight, organ weight, food intake, and histopathological examination. Ag distribution pattern in organs of rats treated with AgNPs was similar to that of AgNO 3 treated rats, showing liver and kidneys are the main target organs followed by testis and spleen. The total Ag contents in organs were significantly lower in the AgNPs treated rats than those in the AgNO 3 treated rats. However, the comparisons between AgNPs and AgNO 3 treatments further indicated more potent of AgNPs in biochemical and hematological parameters in rats, including red blood cell count (RBC), platelet count (PLT), white blood cell count (WBC) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Results of this study suggested that particulate Ag at least partially contributed to the observed toxicity of AgNPs, and both ionic and particulate Ag should be taken into consideration in toxicological evaluation of AgNPs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 609-618, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of differently coated silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in Enchytraeus crypticus upon aqueous exposure in an inert sand medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Emel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Enchytraeus crypticus, applying a combined toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics approach to understand the relationship between survival and the development of internal Ag concentrations in the animals over time. Toxicity tests were conducted in medium composed of well-defined aqueous solutions added to inert quartz sand to avoid the complexity of soil conditions. Citrate-coated AgNPs (AgNP-Cit) and polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs (AgNP-PVP) were tested and compared with silver nitrate (AgNO3), which was used as a positive control for Ag ion effects. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values based on Ag concentrations in the solution phase of the test medium decreased over time and reached steady state after 7 d, with AgNO3 and AgNP-PVP being more toxic than AgNP-Cit. Slow dissolution may explain the low uptake kinetics and lower toxicity of AgNP-Cit compared with the other 2 Ag forms. The LC50 values based on internal Ag concentrations in the animals were almost stable over time, highlighting the importance of integrating toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and relating survival with internal Ag concentrations. Neither survival-based elimination rates nor internal LC50s in the organisms showed any significant evidence of nano-specific effects for both AgNPs, although they suggested some uptake of particulate Ag for AgNP-Cit. The authors conclude that the toxicity of both types of AgNP probably is mainly attributable to the release of Ag ions. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Synthesis of Silver-Chitosan Nanocomposites Colloidal by Glucose as Reducing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Susilowati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver-chitosan nanocomposites colloidal was successfully performed by chemical reduction method at room temperature using glucose as reducing agent, sodium hydroxide (NaOH as accelerator reagent, silver nitrate (AgNO3 as metal precursor and chitosan as stabilizing agent. Compared to other synthetic methods, this work is green and simple. The effect of the amount of NaOH, molar ratio of AgNO3 to glucose and AgNO3 concentration towards Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR absorption band of silver nanoparticles was investigated using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The stability of the colloid was also studied for the first 16 weeks of storage at ambient temperature. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by the appearance of LSPR absorption peak at 402.4–414.5 nm. It is also shown that the absorption peak of LSPR were affected by NaOH amount, ratio molar AgNO3/glucose and concentration of AgNO3. The produced silver nanoparticles were spherical with dominant size range of 6 to 18 nm as shown by TEM images. All colloidals were stable without any aggregation for 16 weeks after preparation. The newly prepared silver-chitosan nanocomposites colloidal may have potential for antibacterial applications.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Containing Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Lim; Park, Won Ho

    2014-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in formic acid aqueous solutions through chemical reduction. Formic acid was used for a reducing agent of Ag precursor and solvent of gelatin. Silver acetate, silver tetrafluoroborate, silver nitrate, and silver phosphate were used as Ag precursors. Ag+ ions were reduced into Ag NPs by formic acid. The formation of Ag NPs was characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Ag NPs were quickly generated within a few minutes in silver nitrate (AgNO3)/formic acid solution. As the water content of formic acid aqueous solution increased, more Ag NPs were generated, at a higher rate and with greater size. When gelatin was added to the AgNO3/formic acid solution, the Ag NPs were stabilized, resulting in smaller particles. Moreover, gelatin limits further aggregation of Ag NPs, which were effectively dispersed in solution. The amount of Ag NPs formed increased with increasing concentration of AgNO3 and aging time. Gelatin nanofibers containing Ag NPs were fabricated by electrospinning. The average diameters of gelatin nanofibers were 166.52 ± 32.72 nm, but these decreased with the addition of AgNO3. The average diameters of the Ag NPs in gelatin nanofibers ranged between 13 and 25 nm, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PMID:24758929

  16. Antibacterial activities of PHU - AgNO3 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzaru, Carmen; Danciu, M; Mihailovici, Maria-Sultana; Ciobanu, C

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to characterize the antibacterial action for six combination of PHU-AgNO 3 synthesized in 'Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi, Romania. The advantages of Ag nanoparticles are durability, heat resistant, low toxicity. Silver is known for its antibacterial qualities for a long time and has been used in medicine in topical treatment.

  17. Gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and the produced silver nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is, along with gold and the platinum-group metals, one of the so called precious metals. Because of its comparative scarcity, brilliant white color, malleability and resistance to atmospheric oxidation, silver has been used in the manufacture of coins and jewelry for a long time. Silver has the highest known electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals and is used in fabricating printed electrical circuits, and also as a coating for electronic conductors. It is also alloyed with other elements such as nickel or palladium for use in electrical contacts. The most useful silver salt is silver nitrate, a caustic chemical reagent, significant as an antiseptic and as a reagent in analytical chemistry. Pure silver nitrate is an intermediate in the industrial preparation of other silver salts, including the colloidal silver compounds used in medicine and the silver halides incorporated into photographic emulsions. Silver halides become increasingly insoluble in the series: AgCl, AgBr, AgI. All silver salts are sensitive to light and are used in photographic coatings on film and paper. The ZORKA-PHARMA company (Sabac, Serbia specializes in the production of pharmaceutical remedies and lab chemicals. One of its products is chemical silver nitrate (argentum-nitricum (l. Silver nitrate is generally produced by dissolving pure electrolytically refined silver in hot 48% nitric acid. Since the purity of silver nitrate, produced in 2002, was not in compliance with the p.a. level of purity, there was doubt that the electrolytically refined silver was pure. The aim of this research was the gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and silver nitrate, produced industrially and in a laboratory. The purity determination was carried out gravimetrically, by the sedimentation of silver(I ions in the form of insoluble silver salts: AgCl, AgBr and Agi, and volumetrically, according to Mohr and Volhardt. The

  18. Separation and preparation of xanthochymol and guttiferone E by high performance liquid chromatography and high speed counter-current chromatography combined with silver nitrate coordination reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Gao, Ruixi; Zhao, Dan; Huang, Xianju; Chen, Yu; Gan, Fei; Liu, Hui; Yang, Guangzhong

    2017-08-18

    Xanthochymol (XCM) and guttiferone E (GFE), a pair of π bond benzophenone isomers from Garcinia xanthochymus, were once reported to be difficult or impossible to separate. The present study reports the successful separation of these two isomers through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as their effective isolation using high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) based on the silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) coordination reaction. First, an effective HPLC separation system was developed, achieving a successful baseline separation with resolution of 2.0. Based on the partition coefficient (K) resolved by HPLC, the two-phase solvent system was determined as n-hexane, methanol and water with the uncommon volume ratio of 4:6:1. A crude extract of Garcinia xanthochymus (0.2g) was purified by normal HSCCC and refined with AgNO 3 -HSCCC. Monomers of XCM and GFE were identified by HPLC, mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results demonstrate the separation and isolation of π bond benzophenone isomers using ordinary octadecyl silane (C 18 ) columns and HSCCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Avena sativa L. Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Amini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nowadays, nanoparticles bio production, considering their performance in medicine and biological science, is increasing. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles The objectives of this study were the production of silver nanoparticles using Avena sativa L. extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of substrate (silver nitrate (AgNo3 and temperature on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. Methods: In this work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from an extract of Avena sativa L. at different temperatures (30° C, 60° C, 90° C  and AgNo3 concentrations( 1 mM, 2mM, 4mM . The morphology and size of the nanoparticles were determined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. Results: SEM images showed that by increasing temperature nanoparticles size were decreased and by increasing concentrations of AgNo3 the number of nanoparticles was increased. Conclusions: The results indicated that by increasing the reaction temperature, the size of the nanoparticles would decrease. Also by increasing the concentrations of AgNo3, the amount of produced nanoparticles would be increased, but won't have a significant effect on its size. The preparation of nano- structured silver particles using Avena sativa L. extract provides an environmentally friendly option as compared to currently available chemical/ physical methods.

  20. Effects of silver nitrate and silver nanoparticles on a planktonic community: general trends after short-term exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Boenigk

    Full Text Available Among metal pollutants silver ions are one of the most toxic forms, and have thus been assigned to the highest toxicity class. Its toxicity to a wide range of microorganisms combined with its low toxicity to humans lead to the development of a wealth of silver-based products in many bactericidal applications accounting to more than 1000 nano-technology-based consumer products. Accordingly, silver is a widely distributed metal in the environment originating from its different forms of application as metal, salt and nanoparticle. A realistic assessment of silver nanoparticle toxicity in natural waters is, however, problematic and needs to be linked to experimental approaches. Here we apply metatranscriptome sequencing allowing for elucidating reactions of whole communities present in a water sample to stressors. We compared the toxicity of ionic silver and ligand-free silver nanoparticles by short term exposure on a natural community of aquatic microorganisms. We analyzed the effects of the treatments on metabolic pathways and species composition on the eukaryote metatranscriptome level in order to describe immediate molecular responses of organisms using a community approach. We found significant differences between the samples treated with 5 µg/L AgNO3 compared to the controls, but no significant differences in the samples treated with AgNP compared to the control samples. Statistical analysis yielded 126 genes (KO-IDs with significant differential expression with a false discovery rate (FDR <0.05 between the control (KO and AgNO3 (NO3 groups. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed significant results with a FDR below 0.05 for pathways related to photosynthesis. Our study therefore supports the view that ionic silver rather than silver nanoparticles are responsible for silver toxicity. Nevertheless, our results highlight the strength of metatranscriptome approaches for assessing metal toxicity on aquatic communities.

  1. An efficient way to prepare silver nanorods in high concentration by polyol method without adding other metal or salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Guan Jianguo; Xie Hongquan

    2012-01-01

    Using ethylene glycol as solvent and reductant, polyvinyl pyrrolidone(PVP) as capping agent under the action of appropriately preformed silver crystal seeds and controlled addition rates of silver nitrate and PVP solution, silver nanorods with length of 2–15 μm and diameter of 200–880 nm can be obtained in high concentration of AgNO 3 as 0.50 M. In the absence of the preformed seeds, nanorods cannot be obtained as the main product, if the AgNO 3 concentration is over 0.10 M. It is necessary to use the appropriately preformed silver crystal seeds for the high concentration preparation of silver nanorods. Transmission Electron Microscopy images showed that Ag seeds preformed at appropriate silver nitrate concentrations exhibited the multiply twinned particles of decahedral shape(MTPs), which formed Ag nanorods in the presence of PVP. Through study of the effects of various factors on the nanostructure of silver, the favorable conditions are: appropriately preformed seeds concentration at 6.54–9.81 mM, addition rate of AgNO 3 solution at 0.30–0.43 mL min −1 and molar ratio of PVP/AgNO 3 at 1.1–1.4, in order to control the crystal growth rate of silver matching the reduction rate of AgNO 3 by ethylene glycol. The nanorods obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, EDX, XRD, Raman spectrometry, Infrared Spectrophotometry and Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry. On the base of the above results, the mechanism of rates matching for obtaining silver nanorods was briefly discussed. This method is a simple, facile and economical method using high concentration with high yield without using other metal or salt to massively synthesize silver nanorods through adding preformed silver seeds to control the reduction rate of silver nitrate and the crystal growth rate of silver nanorods. As compared to the conventional polyol method using lower silver nitrate concentration, this method can save ethylene glycol used and time of operation and the as

  2. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles by sol-gel route from silver nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Jorge; Moran, Jose; Quintana, Maria; Estrada, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles colloids have been synthesized by sol-gel method. This synthesis consists in silver nitrate reduction by ethylene glycol in a process called polyol. The growth of the nanoparticles have been controlled by the steric stabilization of the colloid with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, M w = 40 000). The silver nanoparticle size and structure was depending on the control of parameters such as: molar concentrations ratio of silver nitrate and PVP, temperature of reaction and the reflux time. Colloids have been characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy in the range from 300 to 1000 nm. The results show that the typical peak of surface plasmon resonance is formed at 400-450 nm indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles. The presences of silver nanoparticles of spherical shape with size among 20-40 nm were observed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Electron diffraction patterns confirmed that synthesized colloids contain metallic silver with a crystal structure face centered cubic FCC. (author)

  3. In vitro cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of silver-coated electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatine nanofibrous scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Mim Mim; Sultana, Naznin

    2016-01-01

    The development of nano-sized scaffolds with antibacterial properties that mimic the architecture of tissue is one of the challenges in tissue engineering. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL/gelatine (Ge) (70:30) nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated using a less toxic and common solvent, formic acid and an electrospinning technique. Nanofibrous scaffolds were coated with silver (Ag) in different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3) aqueous solution (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10?%) by ...

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of BiVO_4 in aqueous AgNO_3 solution under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chien-Kai; Wu, Tsunghsueh; Huang, Chang-Wei; Lai, Chi-Yung; Wu, Mei-Yao; Lin, Yang-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ag"+ ions enhanced photocatalytic activity of BiVO_4 under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • The presence of Ag"+ ions enhanced the photodegradation activity of BiVO_4. • Photoreduction of Ag deposited on the BiVO_4 surface was obtained. • Luminescence and electrochemical results elucidated the photocatalytic mechanism. • Holes and oxygen radicals were the main reactive species generated by BiVO_4/Ag"+. • Used BiVO_4/Ag"+ exhibited photocatalytic antibacterial activity toward E. coli. - Abstract: Monoclinic-phase bismuth vanadate (BiVO_4) with a 2.468 eV band gap exhibited enhanced synergic photodegradation activity toward methylene blue (MB) when combined with silver ions (Ag"+) in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The mass ratio of AgNO_3 to BiVO_4 and the calcination temperature were discovered to considerably affect the degradation activity of BiVO_4/Ag"+. Superior photocatalytic performance was obtained when BiVO_4 was mixed with 0.01%(w/v) AgNO_3 solution, and complete degradation of MB was achieved after 25 min visible light irradiation, outperforming BiVO_4 or AgNO_3 solution alone. The enhanced photodegradation was investigated using systematic luminescence measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scavenger addition, after which a photocatalytic mechanism for MB degradation under visible light irradiation was identified that involved oxygen radicals and holes. This study also discovered the two dominating processes involved in enhancing the electron–hole separation efficiency and reducing their recombination rate, namely photoreduction of Ag"+ and the formation of a BiVO_4/Ag heterojunction. The synergic effect between BiVO_4 and Ag"+ was discovered to be unique. BiVO_4/Ag"+ was successfully used to degrade two other dyes and disinfect Escherichia Coli. A unique fluorescent technique using BiVO_4 and a R6G solution to detect Ag"+ ions in water was discovered.

  5. Reversion of hyperhydricity in pink (Dianthus chinensis L.) plantlets by AgNO3 and its associated mechanism during in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongyang; Xia, Xiuying; An, Lijia; Xin, Xin; Liang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhydricity occurs frequently in plant tissue culture and can severely affect commercial micropropagation and genetic improvement of the cultured plantlets. Hyperhydric shoots are charaterzized by high water content, but how this occurs is still a subject of investigation. Silver ion (Ag + ) can reduce the extent of hyperhydricity in plants, but its effect on the reversion of hyperhydric plantlets and the underlying mechanism of reversion has not been clarified. In this study, about 67% of the hyperhydric Dianthus chinensis L. plantlets were found to revert to normal condition when the plantlets were cultured in medium supplemented with 29.4μmolL -1 AgNO 3 . Water content and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content in the guard cells of these plantlets were reduced, while stomatal aperture and water loss rate were increased. AgNO 3 also reduced the content of endogenous ethylene and expression of ethylene synthesis and ethylene signal transduction-associated genes. Reduced accumulation of ethylene consequently led to an increase in stomatal aperture mediated by decreased H 2 O 2 content in the guard cells. These results adequately verified the role of AgNO 3 in the reversion of hyperhydricity in D. chinensis L. and also provided clues for exploring the cause of excessive water accumulation in hyperhydric plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of silver nanoparticles (NM-300K) on Lumbricus rubellus earthworms and particle characterization in relevant test matrices including soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.J.C. van der; Handy, R.D.; Waalewijn-Kool, P.L.; Berg, J.H.J. van den; Herrera Rivera, Z.E.; Bovenschen, J.; Molleman, B.; Baveco, J.M.; Tromp, P.; Peters, R.J.B.; Koopmans, G.F.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Brink, N.W. van den

    2014-01-01

    The impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNP; at 0mg Ag/kg, 1.5mg Ag/kg, 15.4mg Ag/kg, and 154mg Ag/kg soil) and silver nitrate (AgNO3; 15.4mg Ag/kg soil) on earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus, was assessed. A 4-wk exposure to the highest AgNP treatment reduced growth and reproduction compared with the

  7. Synthesis and characterization of monodispersed silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatha Christy, A.; Umadevi, M.

    2012-09-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (NPs) has become a fascinating and important field of applied chemical research. In this paper silver NPs were prepared using silver nitrate (AgNO3), gelatin, and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The prepared silver NPs were exposed under the laser ablation. In our photochemical procedure, gelatin acts as a biopolymer and CTAB acts as a reducing agent. The appearance of surface plasmon band around 410 nm indicates the formation of silver NPs. The nature of the prepared silver NPs in the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are confirmed by the peaks in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. Monodispersed, stable, spherical silver NPs with diameter about 10 nm were obtained and confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM).

  8. Synthesis and characterization of monodispersed silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, A Jegatha; Umadevi, M

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (NPs) has become a fascinating and important field of applied chemical research. In this paper silver NPs were prepared using silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ), gelatin, and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The prepared silver NPs were exposed under the laser ablation. In our photochemical procedure, gelatin acts as a biopolymer and CTAB acts as a reducing agent. The appearance of surface plasmon band around 410 nm indicates the formation of silver NPs. The nature of the prepared silver NPs in the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are confirmed by the peaks in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. Monodispersed, stable, spherical silver NPs with diameter about 10 nm were obtained and confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). (paper)

  9. Silver niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanirbergenov, B.; Rozhenko, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    By means of determination of residual concentrations and pH measurements investigated are the AgNO 3 -KNbO 3 -H 2 O, AgNO 3 -K 3 NbO 4 -H 2 O, AgNO 3 -K 8 Nb 16 O 19 -H 2 O systems and established is formation of meta-, ortho-and hexaniobates of silver. AgNbO 3 x H 2 O, Ag 8 Nb 6 O 19 x 6H 2 O and Ag 3 NbO 3 x 2.5H 2 O are separated from aqueous solution. Using the methods of differential-thermal, thermogravimetric and X-ray-phase analyses it is shown that silver metaniobate transforms into the crystal state at 530 deg C. Ortho- and hexaniobate of silver decompose at 500 deg C with formation of silver metaniobate and metal silver

  10. Oxygen isotope exchange with quartz during pyrolysis of silver sulfate and silver nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Andrew J; Kunasek, Shelley A; Sofen, Eric D; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel; Johnson, Ben W; Amos, Helen M; Shaheen, Robina; Abaunza, Mariana; Jackson, Terri L; Thiemens, Mark H; Alexander, Becky

    2012-09-30

    Triple oxygen isotopes of sulfate and nitrate are useful metrics for the chemistry of their formation. Existing measurement methods, however, do not account for oxygen atom exchange with quartz during the thermal decomposition of sulfate. We present evidence for oxygen atom exchange, a simple modification to prevent exchange, and a correction for previous measurements. Silver sulfates and silver nitrates with excess (17)O were thermally decomposed in quartz and gold (for sulfate) and quartz and silver (for nitrate) sample containers to O(2) and byproducts in a modified Temperature Conversion/Elemental Analyzer (TC/EA). Helium carries O(2) through purification for isotope-ratio analysis of the three isotopes of oxygen in a Finnigan MAT253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The Δ(17)O results show clear oxygen atom exchange from non-zero (17)O-excess reference materials to zero (17)O-excess quartz cup sample containers. Quartz sample containers lower the Δ(17)O values of designer sulfate reference materials and USGS35 nitrate by 15% relative to gold or silver sample containers for quantities of 2-10 µmol O(2). Previous Δ(17)O measurements of sulfate that rely on pyrolysis in a quartz cup have been affected by oxygen exchange. These previous results can be corrected using a simple linear equation (Δ(17)O(gold) = Δ(17)O(quartz) * 1.14 + 0.06). Future pyrolysis of silver sulfate should be conducted in gold capsules or corrected to data obtained from gold capsules to avoid obtaining oxygen isotope exchange-affected data. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Assessment of silver nitrate on callus induction and in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato (solanum lycopersicum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.H.; Ali, S.; Jan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro morphogenesis is greatly influenced by a gaseous plant growth regulator (ethylene). The effect of silver nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) and different plant growth regulators were assessed on callus induction, In vitro shoot regeneration and multiple primordial shoots per explant in tomato. The maximum callus induction frequency was recorded culturing hypocotyls, while In vitro shoot regeneration frequency and the number of primordial shoots per explant were significantly higher when leaf discs were used as explants. The callus induction frequency was improved by the supplementation of 10-15 mg/l AgNO/sub 3/ in MS basal media along with 2.0 mg/l IAA, 2.5 mg/l BAP and yielded the highest callus induction frequency (91.33%) in cv. Rio Grande, followed by Roma (88.33%) and Moneymaker (82.66%). Similarly, the highest In vitro shoot regeneration frequency (96.66, 92.66 and 90%) was recorded in Rio Grande, Roma and Moneymaker on MS media fortified with 0.1 mg/l IAA, 1.0 mg/l ZEA and 2.0 mg/l BAP along with 8-10 mg/l AgNO/sub 3/. AgNO/sub 3/ also had promotive effect on induction of multiple shoots per explant. These findings indicate that ethylene is linked with the suppression of In vitro morphogenesis in tomato and AgNO3 interacts with ethylene and enhances callus induction and In vitro shoot regeneration in tomato. (author)

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by XRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, B. K.; Chhajlani, Meenal; Shrivastava, B. D.

    2017-05-01

    A cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been reported. Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using ethanol extract of fruits of Santalum album (Family Santalaceae), commonly known as East Indian sandalwood. Fruits of S.album were collected and crushed. Ethanol was added to the crushed fruits and mixture was exposed to microwave for few minutes. Extract was concentrated by Buchi rotavaporator. To this extract, 1mM aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) was added. After about 24 hr incubation Ag+ ions in AgNO3 solution were reduced to Ag atoms by the extract. Silver nanoparticles were obtained in powder form. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the prepared sample of silver nanoparticles was recorded The diffractogram has been compared with the standard powder diffraction card of JCPDS silver file. Four peaks have been identified corresponding to (hkl) values of silver. The XRD study confirms that the resultant particles are silver nanoparticles having FCC structure. The average crystalline size D, the value of the interplanar spacing between the atoms, d, lattice constant and cell volume have been estimated. Thus, silver nanoparticles with well-defined dimensions could be synthesized by reduction of metal ions due to fruit extract of S.album.

  13. Sponge-like silver obtained by decomposition of silver nitrate hexamethylenetetramine complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasiev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.afanasiev@ircelyon.univ-lyon.fr

    2016-07-15

    Silver nitrate hexamethylenetetramine [Ag(NO{sub 3})·N{sub 4}(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}] coordination compound has been prepared via aqueous route and characterized by chemical analysis, XRD and electron microscopy. Decomposition of [Ag(NO{sub 3})·N{sub 4}(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}] under hydrogen and under inert has been studied by thermal analysis and mass spectrometry. Thermal decomposition of [Ag(NO{sub 3})·N{sub 4}(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}] proceeds in the range 200–250 °C as a self-propagating rapid redox process accompanied with the release of multiple gases. The decomposition leads to formation of sponge-like silver having hierarchical open pore system with pore size spanning from 10 µm to 10 nm. The as-obtained silver sponges exhibited favorable activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrochemical reduction, making them potentially interesting as non-enzyme hydrogen peroxide sensors. - Graphical abstract: Thermal decomposition of silver nitrate hexamethylenetetramine coordination compound [Ag(NO{sub 3})·N{sub 4}(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}] leads to sponge like silver that possesses open porous structure and demonstrates interesting properties as an electrochemical hydrogen peroxide sensor. Display Omitted - Highlights: • [Ag(NO{sub 3})·N{sub 4}(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}] orthorhombic phase prepared and characterized. • Decomposition of [Ag(NO{sub 3})·N{sub 4}(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}] leads to metallic silver sponge with opened porosity. • Ag sponge showed promising properties as a material for hydrogen peroxide sensors.

  14. The Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Produced by Chemical Reduction of Silver Salt Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Budi Harmani; Dewi Sondari; Agus Haryono

    2008-01-01

    Described in this research are the synthesis of silver nanoparticle produced by chemical reduction of silver salt (silver nitrate AgNO 3 ) solution. As a reducer, sodium citrate (C 6 H 5 O 7 Na 3 ) was used. Preparation of silver colloid is done by using chemical reduction method. In typical experiment 150 ml of 1.10 -3 M AgNO 3 solution was heated with temperature variation such as 90, 100, 110 degree of Celsius. To this solution 15 ml of 1 % trisodium citrate was added into solution drop by drop during heating. During the process, solution was mixed vigorously. Solution was heated until colour's change is evident (pale yellow solution is formed). Then it was removed from the heating element and stirred until cooled to room temperature. Experimental result showed that diameter of silver nanoparticles in colloid solution is about 28.3 nm (Ag colloid, 90 o C); 19.9 nm (Ag colloid, 100 o C)and 26.4 nm (Ag colloid, 110 o C). Characterization of the silver nanoparticle colloid conducted by using UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Particles Size Analyzer (PSA) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) indicate the produced structures of silver nanoparticles. (author)

  15. A simple conductometric method for trace level determination of brilliant green in water based on β-cyclodextrin and silver nitrate and determination of their thermodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Mohammad Zadeh Kakhki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gravimetric and complexometric titration method based on conductometric technique is presented for the quantitative determination of brilliant green (BG in water. The equilibrium constants and the thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD with brilliant green (BG and precipitation of silver nitrate with BG have been determined by conductivity measurements in water. The results suggest that stable 1:1 complex is formed between BG and β-cyclodextrin and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔHc°,ΔSc° for this complexation reaction have been determined from temperature dependence of the stability constant using the van’t Hoff plots. Based on the obtained results, the conductometric method for the determination of BG in the presence of β-CD at 25 °C was developed in the range of 10−8–10−3 molL−1 and with AgNO3 is 10−3–10−5 molL−1.

  16. Density and electrical conductivity of molten salts. Comparative study of binary mixtures of alkali nitrates with silver nitrate and with thallium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillant, S.

    1968-01-01

    The choice of methods and the number of measurements made enable us to give results on the density and electrical conductivity of molten binary mixtures, alkali nitrate and silver nitrate, and alkali nitrate and thallium nitrate, in the form of equations. The deviations from linearity of the volume and the molar conductivity are determined by calculating the corresponding excess values whose variations are analyzed as a function of the Tobolsky parameter. The absence of any relationship in the sign of the entropy and the excess volume is justified. It is shown that the silver and thallium nitrates, in contrast to the thermodynamic properties, behave as the alkali nitrates in so far as the excess conductivity is concerned. This result is confirmed by the study of changes in the activation enthalpy for the partial molar conductivity; this study also shows the particular behaviour of lithium nitrate. (author) [fr

  17. Absorption of radioiodine in silver nitrate molecular sieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, C.A.; Molinari, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Obtainment method and control techniques of materials for the retention of radioiodine in gaseous effluents of nuclear installations. The experimental section is referred to the following processes: preparation of absorbents using, as basis, a molecular sieve and zeolite; impregnation with AgNO 3 ; efficiency determination; efficiency study as a function of the specific charge and bed length; optimization of Ag-consumption; resistance to the gas flux, bed temperature, specific surface, and nitrogen oxides effects. With the described impregnation method, materials, whose properties made them suitable for use in filters for the radioiodine retention and comparable to the imported manufactured materials, may be obtained. (R.J.S.) [es

  18. Immobilization of nitrate reductase onto epoxy affixed silver nanoparticles for determination of soil nitrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Veena; Hooda, Vinita

    2015-08-01

    Epoxy glued silver nanoparticles were used as immobilization support for nitrate reductase (NR). The resulting epoxy/AgNPs/NR conjugates were characterized at successive stages of fabrication by scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The immobilized enzyme system exhibited reasonably high conjugation yield (37.6±0.01 μg/cm(2)), with 93.54±0.88% retention of specific activity. Most favorable working conditions of pH, temperature and substrate concentration were ascertained to optimize the performance of epoxy/AgNPs/NR conjugates for soil nitrate quantification. The analytical results for soil nitrate determination were consistent, reliable and reproducible. Minimum detection limit of the method was 0.05 mM with linearity from 0.1 to 11.0 mM. The % recoveries of added nitrates (0.1 and 0.2 mM) were<95.0% and within-day and between-day coefficients of variations were 0.556% and 1.63% respectively. The method showed good correlation (R(2)=0.998) with the popular Griess reaction method. Epoxy/AgNPs bound NR had a half-life of 18 days at 4 °C and retained 50% activity after 15 reuses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Parsimonious Hydrologic and Nitrate Response Models For Silver Springs, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Harald; Yaquian-Luna, Jose Antonio; Jawitz, James W.; Annable, Michael D.; Hatfield, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    Silver Springs with an approximate discharge of 25 m3/sec is one of Florida's first magnitude springs and among the largest springs worldwide. Its 2500-km2 springshed overlies the mostly unconfined Upper Floridan Aquifer. The aquifer is approximately 100 m thick and predominantly consists of porous, fractured and cavernous limestone, which leads to excellent surface drainage properties (no major stream network other than Silver Springs run) and complex groundwater flow patterns through both rock matrix and fast conduits. Over the past few decades, discharge from Silver Springs has been observed to slowly but continuously decline, while nitrate concentrations in the spring water have enormously increased from a background level of 0.05 mg/l to over 1 mg/l. In combination with concurrent increases in algae growth and turbidity, for example, and despite an otherwise relatively stable water quality, this has given rise to concerns about the ecological equilibrium in and near the spring run as well as possible impacts on tourism. The purpose of the present work is to elaborate parsimonious lumped parameter models that may be used by resource managers for evaluating the springshed's hydrologic and nitrate transport responses. Instead of attempting to explicitly consider the complex hydrogeologic features of the aquifer in a typically numerical and / or stochastic approach, we use a transfer function approach wherein input signals (i.e., time series of groundwater recharge and nitrate loading) are transformed into output signals (i.e., time series of spring discharge and spring nitrate concentrations) by some linear and time-invariant law. The dynamic response types and parameters are inferred from comparing input and output time series in frequency domain (e.g., after Fourier transformation). Results are converted into impulse (or step) response functions, which describe at what time and to what magnitude a unitary change in input manifests at the output. For the

  20. Comparison of nanostructured silver-modified silver and carbon ultramicroelectrodes for electrochemical detection of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi Zadeh Zhad, Hamid R; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2015-09-10

    We report the use of silver (Ag)-modified carbon and Ag ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) for electrochemical detection of nitrate. We investigated several methods for electrodeposition of Ag; our results show that the addition of a complexation agent (ammonium sulfate) in the Ag deposition solution is necessary for electrodeposition of nanostructured Ag that adheres well to the electrode. The electrodeposited Ag on both types of electrodes has branch-like structures that are well-suited for electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate. The use of UMEs is advantageous; the sigmoidal-shaped cyclic voltammogram allows for sensitive detection of nitrate by reducing the capacitive current, as well as enabling easy quantification of the nitrate reduction current. Both cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to characterize the electrodes; and independent of the electrochemical interrogation technique, both UMEs were found to have a wide linear dynamic range (4-1000 μM) and a low limit of detection (3.2-5.1 μM). More importantly, they are reusable up to ∼100 interrogation cycles and are selective enough to be used for direct detection of nitrate in a synthetic aquifer sample without any sample pretreatment and/or pH adjustment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of Nanofibrous Silver/Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Composite Membrane with Enhanced Infrared Extinction and Controllable Wetting Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Da-Ming; Huang, Hua-Kun; Yu, Yun; Li, Zeng-Tian; Jiang, Li-Wang; Chen, Shui-Mei; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Lin, Bo; Shi, Bo; He, Fu-An; Wu, Hui-Jun

    2018-05-01

    Nanofibrous silver (Ag)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite membranes were obtained from a two-step preparation method. In the first step, the electrospun silver nitrate (AgNO3)/PVDF membranes were prepared and the influence of the AgNO3 content on the electrospinning process was studied. According to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results, when the electrospinning solution contained AgNO3 in the range between 3 to 7 wt.%, the nanofiber morphologies can be obtained. In the second step, the electrospun AgNO3/PVDF membranes were reduced by sodium borohydride to form the nanofibrous Ag/PVDF composite membranes. The resultant composite membranes were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier-transform infrared. The XRD, XPS, and EDS characterizations proved the existence of Ag in the nanofibrous Ag/PVDF composite membranes. The crystallinity degree of PVDF for composite membranes declined with the increase in Ag content. More importantly, the nanofibrous Ag/PVDF composite membranes had obviously higher Rosseland extinction coefficients and lower thermal radiative conductivities in comparison with electrospun PVDF membrane, which demonstrates that such composite membranes with high porosity, low density, and good water vapor permeability are promising thermal insulating materials to block the heat transfer resulting from thermal radiation. In addition, three different methods for surface modification have been used to successfully improve the hydrophobicity of nanofibrous Ag/PVDF composite membranes.

  2. Mechanical properties and in vitro characterization of polyvinyl alcohol-nano-silver hydrogel wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R N; Rouzé, R; Quilty, B; Alves, G G; Soares, G D A; Thiré, R M S M; McGuinness, G B

    2014-02-06

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels are materials for potential use in burn healing. Silver nanoparticles can be synthesized within PVA hydrogels giving antimicrobial hydrogels. Hydrogels have to be swollen prior to their application, and the common medium available for that in hospitals is saline solution, but the hydrogel could also take up some of the wound's fluid. This work developed gamma-irradiated PVA/nano-Ag hydrogels for potential use in burn dressing applications. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as nano-Ag precursor agent. Saline solution, phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) pH 7.4 and solution pH 4.0 were used as swelling media. Microstructural evaluation revealed an effect of the nanoparticles on PVA crystallization. The swelling of the PVA-Ag samples in solution pH 4.0 was low, as was their silver delivery, compared with the equivalent samples swollen in the other media. The highest swelling and silver delivery were related to samples prepared with 0.50% AgNO3, and they also presented lower strength in PBS pH 7.4 and solution pH 4.0. Both PVA-Ag samples were also non-toxic and presented antimicrobial activity, confirming that 0.25% AgNO3 concentration is sufficient to establish an antimicrobial effect. Both PVA-Ag samples presented suitable mechanical and swelling properties in all media, representative of potential burn site conditions.

  3. Aging and soil organic matter content affect the fate of silver nanoparticles in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutris, Claire; Joner, Erik Jautris; Oughton, Deborah Helen

    2012-01-01

    Sewage sludge application on soils represents an important potential source of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to terrestrial ecosystems, and it is thus important to understand the fate of Ag NPs once in contact with soil components. Our aim was to compare the behavior of three different forms of silver, namely silver nitrate, citrate stabilized Ag NPs (5 nm) and uncoated Ag NPs (19 nm), in two soils with contrasting organic matter content, and to follow changes in binding strength over time. Soil samples were spiked with silver and left to age for 2 h, 2 days, 5 weeks or 10 weeks before they were submitted to sequential extraction. The ionic silver solution and the two Ag NP types were radiolabeled so that silver could be quantified by gamma spectrometry by measuring the 110m Ag tracer in the different sequential extraction fractions. Different patterns of partitioning of silver were observed for the three forms of silver. All types of silver were more mobile in the mineral soil than in the soil rich in organic matter, although the fractionation patterns were very different for the three silver forms in both cases. Over 20% of citrate stabilized Ag NPs was extractible with water in both soils the first two days after spiking (compared to 1–3% for AgNO 3 and uncoated Ag NPs), but the fraction decreased to trace levels thereafter. Regarding the 19 nm uncoated Ag NPs, 80% was not extractible at all, but contrary to AgNO 3 and citrate stabilized Ag NPs, the bioaccessible fraction increased over time, and by day 70 was between 8 and 9 times greater than that seen in the other two treatments. This new and unexpected finding demonstrates that some Ag NPs can act as a continuous source of bioaccessible Ag, while AgNO 3 is rapidly immobilized in soil. - Highlights: ► We compared the behavior of AgNO 3 and two types of Ag NPs in soil over time. ► AgNO 3 is rapidly immobilized in soil. ► Larger Ag NPs can act as a continuous source of bioaccessible Ag, which calls for

  4. Silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate induce high toxicity to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna and Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fabianne, E-mail: ribeiro.f@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro. Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193. Aveiro (Portugal); Gallego-Urrea, Julián Alberto [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biologyx, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 4, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jurkschat, Kerstin; Crossley, Alison [Department of Materials, Oxford University Begbroke Science Park OX5 1PF (United Kingdom); Hassellöv, Martin [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biologyx, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 4, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Taylor, Cameron [Department of Materials, Oxford University Begbroke Science Park OX5 1PF (United Kingdom); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Loureiro, Susana [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro. Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193. Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have gained attention over the years due to the antimicrobial function of silver, which has been exploited industrially to produce consumer goods that vary in type and application. Undoubtedly the increase of production and consumption of these silver-containing products will lead to the entry of silver compounds into the environment. In this study we have used Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna and Danio rerio as model organisms to investigate the toxicity of AgNP and AgNO{sub 3} by assessing different biological endpoints and exposure periods. Organisms were exposed following specific and standardized protocols for each species/endpoints, with modifications when necessary. AgNP were characterized in each test-media by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and experiments were performed by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) to investigate the aggregation and agglomeration behavior of AgNP under different media chemical composition and test-period. TEM images of AgNP in the different test-media showed dissimilar patterns of agglomeration, with some agglomerates inside an organic layer, some loosely associated particles and also the presence of some individual particles. The toxicity of both AgNO{sub 3} and AgNP differ significantly based on the test species: we found no differences in toxicity for algae, a small difference for zebrafish and a major difference in toxicity for Daphnia magna. - Highlights: •Effects of silver nanoparticles and nitrate were compared in three aquatic species. •The presence of food on the immobilization assay for Daphnia magna significantly decreased AgNP toxicity. •AgNP and AgNO{sub 3} differ in toxicity according to the test species and endpoint. •AgNP and AgNO{sub 3} induced dissimilar abnormalities on zebrafish embryos' development. •AgNP behavior in the test media will rule its bioavailability and uptake and therefore toxicity.

  5. Synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo Gloria, E.; Ederley, Vélez; Gladis, Morales; César, Hincapié; Jaime, Osorio; Oscar, Arnache; Uribe José, Ignacio; Franklin, Jaramillo

    2017-06-01

    The synthesis of nanomaterials is currently one of the most active in nanoscience branches; especially those help improve the human quality life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an example of this as it is known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects. In this work, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction method of silver nitrate (AgNO3) from aqueous solution, using a mix of polivinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) - Aloe Vera as reducing agent and for stabilization and control of particle size. Silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy and measurements using Zetasizer Nano ZS were applied to size estimation. The existence of surface plasmon resonance peak at λmax ~ 420 nm is evidence of silver nanoparticles formation. It was possible to standardize an appropriate protocol for the evaluation of bactericidal activity of the nanoparticles, for mesophilic microorganisms. Bactericidal activity above 90% against these kinds of bacteria was demonstrated.

  6. Synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with Antibacterial Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloria, E. Campillo; Ederley, Vélez; César, Hincapié; Gladis, Morales; Jaime, Osorio; Oscar, Arnache; José, Ignacio Uribe; Franklin, Jaramillo

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of nanomaterials is currently one of the most active in nanoscience branches; especially those help improve the human quality life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an example of this as it is known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects. In this work, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction method of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) from aqueous solution, using a mix of polivinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) – Aloe Vera as reducing agent and for stabilization and control of particle size. Silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV–visible spectroscopy and measurements using Zetasizer Nano ZS were applied to size estimation. The existence of surface plasmon resonance peak at λ max ∼ 420 nm is evidence of silver nanoparticles formation. It was possible to standardize an appropriate protocol for the evaluation of bactericidal activity of the nanoparticles, for mesophilic microorganisms. Bactericidal activity above 90% against these kinds of bacteria was demonstrated. (paper)

  7. 21 CFR 172.167 - Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.167 Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution... intended to be filtered through a silver-containing water filter. (g) Bottled water must meet the quality...

  8. Size-dependent surface plasmon resonance in silver silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Senoy; Nair, Saritha K; Jamal, E Muhammad Abdul; Anantharaman, M R; Al-Harthi, S H; Varma, Manoj Raama

    2008-01-01

    Silver silica nanocomposites were obtained by the sol-gel technique using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) as precursors. The silver nitrate concentration was varied for obtaining composites with different nanoparticle sizes. The structural and microstructural properties were determined by x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies were done for determining the chemical states of silver in the silica matrix. For the lowest AgNO 3 concentration, monodispersed and spherical Ag crystallites, with an average diameter of 5 nm, were obtained. Grain growth and an increase in size distribution was observed for higher concentrations. The occurrence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands and their evolution in the size range 5-10 nm is studied. For decreasing nanoparticle size, a redshift and broadening of the plasmon-related absorption peak was observed. The observed redshift and broadening of the SPR band was explained using modified Mie scattering theory

  9. Rapid Fabrication of Silver Nanowires through Photoreduction of Silver Nitrate from an Anodic-Aluminum-Oxide Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Kun-Tso; Ho, Jeng-Rong

    2011-06-01

    A method for rapidly fabricating dense and high-aspect-ratio silver nanowires, with wire diameter of 200 nm and wire length more than 30 µm, is reported. The fabrication process simply involves filling the silver nitrate solution into the pores of an anodic-aluminum-oxide (AAO) membrane through capillary attraction and irradiating the dried template AAO membrane using a pulsed ArF excimer laser. Through varying the thickness and pore diameter of the employed AAO membrane, the primary dimensions of the targeted silver nanowires can be plainly specified; and, by amending the initial concentration of the silver nitrate solution and adjusting the laser operation parameters, laser fluence and number of laser pulses, the surface morphology and size of the resulting nanowires can be finely regulated. The wire formation mechanism is considered through two stages: the period of precipitation of silver particles from the dried silver nitrate film through the laser-induced photoreduction; and, the phase of clustering, merging and fusing of the reduced particles to form nanowires in the template pores by the thermal energy owing to photothermal effect. This approach is straightforward and takes the advantage that all the fabrication processes can be executed in an ambient environment and at room temperature. In addition, by the excellence in local processing that the laser possesses, this method is suitable for precisely growing nanowires.

  10. Murmanite and lomonosovite as Ag-selective ionites: kinetics and products of ion exchange in aqueous AgNO3 solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykova, Inna S.; Chukanov, Nikita V.; Kazakov, Anatoliy I.; Tarasov, Viktor P.; Pekov, Igor V.; Yapaskurt, Vasiliy O.; Chervonnaya, Nadezhda A.

    2013-09-01

    Products and kinetics of ion exchange of heterophyllosilicate minerals lomonosovite and murmanite with aqueous AgNO3 solutions under low-temperature conditions have been studied using scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and dynamic calorimetry. Both minerals show strong affinity for silver in cation exchange. Simplified formulae of Ag-exchanged forms of murmanite and lomonosovite are (Ag3.0Ca0.5Na0.5) (Ti,Nb,Mn,Fe)3.7-4 (Si2O7)2O4·4(H2O,OH) and (Ag8.2Na1.2Ca0.3) (Ti,Nb,Mn,Fe)3.9-4 (Si2O7)2 (PO4)1.9O4· xH2O, respectively. The reaction of ion exchange for murmanite follows the first-order kinetic model up to ca. 70-80 % conversion. The rate of the process is described by the equation k(h-1) = 107.64±0.60 exp[-(12.2 ± 0.9)·103/RT]. The average heat release value in the temperature range 39.4-72 °C is 230 J g-1. The cation exchange is limited by processes in solid state, most probably binding of silver.

  11. Comparative synthesis and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosselhy, Dina A. [Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); El-Aziz, Mohamed Abd; Hanna, Magdy [Cairo University, Department of Fish Diseases and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Egypt); Ahmed, Mohamed A. [Cairo University, Material Science Laboratory (1), Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Egypt); Husien, Mona M. [Animal Health Research Institute, Microbiological Unit, Fish Diseases Department (Egypt); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2015-12-15

    The high wave of antibiotic bacterial resistance has addressed an importance for administration of different antibacterial agents, as silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, many investigators still suffer conflict in the mechanistic antimicrobial action of Ag NPs and Ag{sup +} ions. In this regard, our study investigated the comparative antimicrobial action of different sizes of Ag NPs as 8 (nAg1) and 29 (nAg2) nm, in comparison with silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) against five different bacterial species; Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila), Pseudomonas putida (Ps. putida), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) using agar diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The key role of the size of nanomaterials was detected, as the smaller Ag NPs (nAg1) showed more antimicrobial action than the larger particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies demonstrated the different mechanistic antibacterial actions of Ag NPs and AgNO{sub 3}. The effect of combining Ag NPs with antibiotics was also investigated. Synergistic effect of combining Ag NPs with ampicillin was detected against S. aureus, in a size-dependent manner as well. To summarize, our results point towards the major role played by the size of Ag NPs in their antimicrobial effects and the different toxic mechanisms of actions induced by Ag NPs and AgNO{sub 3}.

  12. Preparation of AgBr Nanoparticles in Microemulsions Via Reaction of AgNO3 with CTAB Counterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husein, Maen M.; Rodil, Eva; Vera, Juan H.

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles of AgBr were prepared by precipitating AgBr in the water pools of microemulsions consisting of CTAB, n-butanol, isooctane and water. An aqueous solution of AgNO 3 added to the microemulsion was the source of Ag + ions. The formation of AgBr nanoparticles in microemulsions through direct reaction with the surfactant counterion is a novel approach aimed at decreasing the role of intermicellar nucleation on nanoparticle formation for rapid reactions. The availability of the surfactant counterion in every reverse micelle and the rapidity of the reaction with the counterion trigger nucleation within individual reverse micelles. The effect of the following variables on the particle size and size distribution was investigated: the surfactant and cosurfactant concentrations, moles of AgNO 3 added, and water to surfactant mole ratio, R. High concentration of the surfactant or cosurfactant, or high water content of the microemulsion favored intermicellar nucleation and resulted in the formation of large particles with broad size distribution, while high amounts of AgNO 3 favored nucleation within individual micelles and resulted in small nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. A blue shift in the UV absorption threshold corresponding to a decrease in the particle size was generally observed. Notably, the variation of the absorption peak size with the nanoparticle size was opposite to those reported by us in previous studies using different surfactants

  13. Silver nanoparticles: in vivo toxicity in zebrafish embryos and a comparison to silver nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosselhy, Dina A.; He, Wei [Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Li, Dan [Tsinghua University, MOE Key Lab of Bioinformatics, Department of Biological Science and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences (China); Meng, Yaping [Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-08-15

    The wide antimicrobial administration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has raised the risks associated with their exposure. However, there is lack of robust toxicological data for the applied AgNPs to be in line with their wide antimicrobial applications. This study therefore set out to assess the in vivo toxicity of two different sizes of AgNPs using zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) as a brilliant in vivo model. The pivotal role of size of AgNPs in the toxicity was highlighted, wherein the smaller AgNPs (Ag-9 nm) exhibited more embryo toxicities than the larger particles (Ag-30 nm). Much uncertainty still exists about whether the cause of in vivo toxicity of AgNPs is the physicochemical properties of AgNPs or the released silver ions (Ag{sup +}). Therefore, another purpose of this study is to compare the toxicity of AgNPs with silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) in terms of mortality, hatchability and cardiac rates, and a series of phenotypic endpoints of zebrafish embryos. Collectively, the present results point towards the remarkable size-dependent toxicity of AgNPs. Wherein, the smaller AgNPs (9 ± 2 nm) induce increased mortality rates and decreased hatchability rates than the larger particles (30 ± 5 nm) in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, AgNPs and AgNO{sub 3} induce holistic different toxic mortality and hatchability rates. We have also found striking discrepancies in the phenotypic defects that were induced by AgNPs and AgNO{sub 3}. The significant phenotypic defect induced by AgNPs is the axial deformity, while it is the deposition of Ag{sup +} on the embryonic chorion for AgNO{sub 3}. Therefore, it is proposed that AgNPs and AgNO{sub 3} induce different in vivo toxicities.

  14. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO(3) contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO(3) concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biosynthesis of silver fine particles and particles decorated with nanoparticles using the extract of Illicium verum (star anise) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos; Chávez, V H G; Barriga-Castro, Enrique Díaz; Núñez, Nuria O; Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel

    2015-04-15

    Given the upsurge of new technologies based on nanomaterials, the development of sustainable methods to obtain functional nanostructures has become an imperative task. In this matter, several recent researches have shown that the biodegradable natural antioxidants of several plant extracts can be used simultaneously as reducing and stabilizing agents in the wet chemical synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, opening new opportunities to design greener synthesis. However, the challenge of these new techniques is to produce stable colloidal nanoparticles with controlled particle uniformity, size, shape and aggregation state, in similar manner than the well-established synthetic methods. In the present work, colloidal metallic silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using silver nitrate and extracts of Illicium verum (star anise) seeds at room temperature in a facile one-step procedure. The resulting products were colloidal suspensions of two populations of silver nanoparticles, one of them with particle sizes of few nanometers and the other with particles of tens of nm. Strikingly, the variation of the AgNO3/extract weight ratio in the reaction medium yielded to the variation of the spatial distribution of the nanoparticles: high AgNO3/extract concentration ratios yielded to randomly dispersed particles, whereas for lower AgNO3/extract ratios, the biggest particles appeared coated with the finest nanoparticles. This biosynthesized colloidal system, with controlled particle aggregation states, presents plasmonic and SERS properties with potential applications in molecular sensors and nanophotonic devices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Spin-Coated Silver Nanoparticles/Zinc Oxide Thin Films to Improve the Efficiency of GaInP/(InGaAs/Ge Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsun Lei

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized a silver nanoparticle/zinc oxide (Ag NP/ZnO thin film by using spin-coating technology. The treatment solution for Ag NP/ZnO thin film deposition contained zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO2, sodium hydroxide (NaOH, and silver nitrate (AgNO3 aqueous solutions. The crystalline characteristics, surface morphology, content of elements, and reflectivity of the Ag NPs/ZnO thin film at various concentrations of the AgNO3 aqueous solution were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ultraviolet–visible–near infrared spectrophotometry. The results indicated that the crystalline structure, Ag content, and reflectance of Ag NP/ZnO thin films depended on the AgNO3 concentration. Hybrid antireflection coatings (ARCs composed of SiNx and Ag NPs/ZnO thin films with various AgNO3 concentrations were deposited on GaInP/(InGaAs/Ge solar cells. We propose that the optimal ARC consists of SiNx and Ag NP/ZnO thin films prepared using a treatment solution of 0.0008 M AgNO3, 0.007 M Zn(CH3COO2, and 1 M NaOH, followed by post-annealing at 200 °C. GaInP/(AlGaAs/Ge solar cells with the optimal hybrid ARC and SiNx ARC exhibit a conversion efficiency of 34.1% and 30.2% with Voc = 2.39 and 2.4 V, Jsc = 16.63 and 15.37 mA/cm2, and fill factor = 86.1% and 78.8%.

  17. Silver and Nitrate Oppositely Modulate Antimony Susceptibility through Aquaglyceroporin 1 in Leishmania (Viannia) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Juvana M; Baba, Elio H; Machado-de-Avila, Ricardo A; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Demicheli, Cynthia P; Frézard, Frédéric; Monte-Neto, Rubens L; Murta, Silvane M F

    2016-08-01

    Antimony (Sb) resistance in leishmaniasis chemotherapy has become one of the major challenges to the control of this spreading worldwide public health problem. Since the plasma membrane pore-forming protein aquaglyceroporin 1 (AQP1) is the major route of Sb uptake in Leishmania, functional studies are relevant to characterize drug transport pathways in the parasite. We generated AQP1-overexpressing Leishmania guyanensis and L. braziliensis mutants and investigated their susceptibility to the trivalent form of Sb (Sb(III)) in the presence of silver and nitrate salts. Both AQP1-overexpressing lines presented 3- to 4-fold increased AQP1 expression levels compared with those of their untransfected counterparts, leading to an increased Sb(III) susceptibility of about 2-fold. Competition assays using silver nitrate, silver sulfadiazine, or silver acetate prior to Sb(III) exposure increased parasite growth, especially in AQP1-overexpressing mutants. Surprisingly, Sb(III)-sodium nitrate or Sb(III)-potassium nitrate combinations showed significantly enhanced antileishmanial activities compared to those of Sb(III) alone, especially against AQP1-overexpressing mutants, suggesting a putative nitrate-dependent modulation of AQP1 activity. The intracellular level of antimony quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry showed that the concomitant exposure to Sb(III) and nitrate favors antimony accumulation in the parasite, increasing the toxicity of the drug and culminating with parasite death. This is the first report showing evidence of AQP1-mediated Sb(III) susceptibility modulation by silver in Leishmania and suggests the potential antileishmanial activity of the combination of nitrate salts and Sb(III). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Responses to silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in a battery of biomarkers measured in coelomocytes and in target tissues of Eisenia fetida earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia, Curieses Silvana; Nerea, García-Velasco; Erik, Urionabarrenetxea; Elena, Sáenz María; Eider, Bilbao; Darío, Di Marzio Walter; Manu, Soto

    2017-07-01

    The current use and development of applications with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) could lead to potential inputs of these NPs to soils. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the ecotoxicological risks posed by Ag NPs in the terrestrial compartment. In the present investigation, the effects produced by PVP-PEI coated Ag NPs were assessed in Eisenia fetida earthworms in comparison with the soluble form (AgNO 3 ). Earthworms were exposed for 1, 3 and 14 days to a range of sublethal concentrations of Ag (0, 0.05 and 50mg/kg) and at each exposure time, apart from mortality and weight loss of individuals, metallothionein (MT) protein concentration and catalase (CAT) activity were quantified in earthworm tissues. In addition, cellular and molecular level endpoints (cell viability, absolute and relative trophic indices and transcription levels of catalase-cat- and metallothionein-mt-) were measured in coelomocytes extruded from exposed earthworms. Despite the lack of effects in traditional endpoints (mortality and weight loss), Ag NPs and AgNO 3 posed changes at lower levels of biological complexity (biochemical, cellular and molecular levels). Both Ag forms induced similar changes in the metal detoxification mechanism (MT, mt) and in the antioxidant response system (CAT, cat) of E. fetida. In contrast, Ag form dependant cytotoxicity and subpopulation ratio alterations (eleocytes/amoebocytes) were recorded in extruded coelomocytes. Complementarily, the use of coelomocytes to assess molecular level endpoints represented a relevant alternative for development of non-invasive biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxicogenomic responses of nanotoxicity in Daphnia magna exposed to silver nitrate and coated silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for silver nanomaterials in consumer products are rapidly expanding, creating an urgent need for toxicological examination of the exposure potential and ecological effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The integration of genomic techniques into environmental toxic...

  20. 75 FR 28488 - Silver Nitrate; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... ( regulations.gov ) under the docket number EPA-HQ-OPP- 2009-0663. Silver nitrate is a water soluble inorganic... polymers and fatty acids; carriers such as clay and diatomaceous earth; thickeners such as carrageenan and... for which there is reliable information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in...

  1. Mechanism of bactericidal activity of Silver Nitrate - a concentration dependent bi-functional molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureshbabu Ram Kumar Pandian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate imparts different functions on bacteria depending upon its concentration. At lower concentration it induced synthesis of nanoparticles, whereas at higher concentrations it induced cell death. Bacillus licheniformis was used as model system. The MIC was 5 mM, and it induced catalase production, apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation.

  2. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia absinthium aqueous extract — A comprehensive study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D.; Norman, David; Brennan, Mary; Ali, Gul Shad

    2016-01-01

    Unlike chemical synthesis, biological synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining tremendous interest, and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources due to their ample availability and wide array of reducing metabolites. In this project, we investigated the reducing potential of aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium L. for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Optimal synthesis of AgNPs with desirable physical and biological properties was investigated using ultra violet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). To determine their appropriate concentrations for AgNP synthesis, two-fold dilutions of silver nitrate (20 to 0.62 mM) and aqueous plant extract (100 to 0.79 mg ml"−"1) were reacted. The results showed that silver nitrate (2 mM) and plant extract (10 mg ml"−"1) mixed in different ratios significantly affected size, stability and yield of AgNPs. Extract to AgNO_3 ratio of 6:4 v/v resulted in the highest conversion efficiency of AgNO_3 to AgNPs, with the particles in average size range of less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the direct imaging of synthesized AgNPs by TEM revealed polydispersed particles in the size range of 5 to 20 nm. Similarly, nanoparticles with the characteristic peak of silver were observed with EDX. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the differential behavior of plant extract and AgNO_3 to synthesize biologically stable AgNPs. - Graphical abstract: Aqueous extract from Artemisia absinthium when used in appropriate ratio (shown in Eppendorf tubes and microtiter plate) is highly active in reducing elemental silver to colloidal silver nanoparticles in the 5–20 nm size range (shown in TEM image, bottom left panel; DLS histogram, upper left panel; EDX analysis, bottom right panel). - Highlights: • Artemisia absinthium extract provides excellent reducing potential for biosynthesis of silver

  3. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia absinthium aqueous extract--A comprehensive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D; Norman, David; Brennan, Mary; Ali, Gul Shad

    2016-01-01

    Unlike chemical synthesis, biological synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining tremendous interest, and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources due to their ample availability and wide array of reducing metabolites. In this project, we investigated the reducing potential of aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium L. for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Optimal synthesis of AgNPs with desirable physical and biological properties was investigated using ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). To determine their appropriate concentrations for AgNP synthesis, two-fold dilutions of silver nitrate (20 to 0.62 mM) and aqueous plant extract (100 to 0.79 mg ml(-1)) were reacted. The results showed that silver nitrate (2mM) and plant extract (10 mg ml(-1)) mixed in different ratios significantly affected size, stability and yield of AgNPs. Extract to AgNO3 ratio of 6:4v/v resulted in the highest conversion efficiency of AgNO3 to AgNPs, with the particles in average size range of less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the direct imaging of synthesized AgNPs by TEM revealed polydispersed particles in the size range of 5 to 20 nm. Similarly, nanoparticles with the characteristic peak of silver were observed with EDX. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the differential behavior of plant extract and AgNO3 to synthesize biologically stable AgNPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of a silver ion selective electrode to assess mechanisms responsible for biological effects of silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Marcus; Kiefer, Silke; Cavelius, Christian; Kraegeloh, Annette

    2012-01-01

    For a detailed analysis of the biological effects of silver nanoparticles, discrimination between effects related to the nano-scale size of the particles and effects of released silver ions is required. Silver ions are either present in the initial particle dispersion or released by the nanoparticles over time. The aim of this study is to monitor the free silver ion activity {Ag + } in the presence of silver nanoparticles using a silver ion selective electrode. Therefore, silver in the form of silver nanoparticles, 4.2 ± 1.4 nm and 2–30 nm in size, or silver nitrate was added to cell culture media in the absence or presence of A549 cells as a model for human type II alveolar epithelial cells. The free silver ion activity measured after the addition of silver nanoparticles was determined by the initial ionic silver content. The p {Ag + } values indicated that the cell culture media decrease the free silver ion activity due to binding of silver ions by constituents of the media. In the presence of A549 cells, the free silver ion activity was further reduced. The morphology of A549 cells, cultivated in DME medium containing 9.1% (v/v) FBS, was affected by adding AgNO 3 at concentrations of ≥30 μM after 24 h. In comparison, silver nanoparticles up to a concentration of 200 μM Ag did not affect cellular morphology. Our experiments indicate that the effect of silver nanoparticles is mainly mediated by silver ions. An effect of silver on cellular morphology was observed at p {Ag + } ≤ 9.2.

  5. Effect of different physicochemical conditions on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using fungal cell filtrate of Aspergillus oryzae (MTCC No. 1846) and their antibacterial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanjom, Probin; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2017-12-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under different physicochemical conditions like concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO3), pH and temperature, using fungal cell filtrate of Aspergillus oryzae (MTCC No. 1846) and its antibacterial properties were demonstrated. When fungal cell filtrate having neutral pH was exposed to different concentrations of aqueous solution AgNO3 (1-10 mM), formation of stable AgNPs of different sizes was observed. The size of the AgNPs decreased with the increase of AgNO3 concentration from 1 mM to 8 mM, however, the particles size increased with the increase of AgNO3 concentration from 9 mM to 10 mM. When fungal cell filtrate exposed to aqueous solution of 1 mM AgNO3 at different pH (4-10), the silver ions (Ag+) were reduced leading to the formation of stable AgNPs of different sizes. The size of the AgNPs decreased with the increase of alkaline conditions. When aqueous solution of 1mM AgNO3 with fungal cell filtrate, having neutral pH, was exposed to different temperatures (10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 °С), formation of stable AgNPs having different sizes were obtained. The size of the AgNPs decreased with the increase of temperature. Synergetic effect with antibiotics and size dependent antibacterial activities were also demonstrated against Escherichia coli (MTCC 1687), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441) and Klebseilla pneumoniae (MTCC 4030). The formation AgNPs was characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) confirmed the sizes of the obtained nanoparticles. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) spectrum confirmed the formation of metallic silver. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of protein as stabilizing agent around AgNPs. Scanning electron microscope (TEM) confirmed the morphological changes in the treated bacterial organisms.

  6. Studying Of Preparation Silver Nano-Particles Using Spinning Disc Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Van Duc; Nguyen Thanh Chung; Tran Ngoc Ha; Ho Minh Quang; Nguyen Thi Thuc Phuong

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of silver nano-particles using spinning disc reactor has been investigated. The effects of technological factors and experimental conditions such as: concentrations of AgNO 3 , glucose, PVP, spinning speed, ect. on quality of nano-silver particles have been studied. With experimental conditions: rotation speed of 2000 rpm, weight rate of m PVP :m AgNO 3 = 1, AgNO 3 concentration of 0.01 M, glucose concentration of 0.02 M, silver particles of about 12 nm were obtained and the nano-silver solution were stable for more than 40 days. (author)

  7. Density and electrical conductivity of molten salts. Comparative study of binary mixtures of alkali nitrates with silver nitrate and with thallium nitrate; Densite et conductibilite de sels fondus. Etude comparative des melanges binaires nitrates alcalins-nitrate d'argent et nitrates alcalins-nitrate de thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-01

    The choice of methods and the number of measurements made enable us to give results on the density and electrical conductivity of molten binary mixtures, alkali nitrate and silver nitrate, and alkali nitrate and thallium nitrate, in the form of equations. The deviations from linearity of the volume and the molar conductivity are determined by calculating the corresponding excess values whose variations are analyzed as a function of the Tobolsky parameter. The absence of any relationship in the sign of the entropy and the excess volume is justified. It is shown that the silver and thallium nitrates, in contrast to the thermodynamic properties, behave as the alkali nitrates in so far as the excess conductivity is concerned. This result is confirmed by the study of changes in the activation enthalpy for the partial molar conductivity; this study also shows the particular behaviour of lithium nitrate. (author) [French] Le choix des methodes et le nombre de mesures effectuees nous permettent de donner les resultats de densite et de conductibilite electrique des melanges fondus binaires nitrate alcalin-nitrate d'argent et nitrate alcalin-nitrate de thallium sous forme d'equations. Les ecarts a la linearite des isothermes de volume et de conductibilite molaire sont precises en calculant les grandeurs d'exces correspondantes dont les variations sont analysees en fonction du parametre de Tobolsky. Nous justifions l'absence de relation de signe entre l'entropie et le volume d'exces. Nous montrons que les nitrates d'argent et de thallium, vis-a-vis de la conductibilite d'exces, contrairement aux proprietes thermodynamiques, se conduisent comme les nitrates alcalins. Ce resultat est confirme par l'etude des variations des enthalpies d'activation de conductibilite partielle molaire qui met d'autre part en evidence le comportement particulier du nitrate de lithium. (auteur)

  8. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles against bacteria, yeast, and algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorobantu, Loredana S.; Fallone, Clara; Noble, Adam J.; Veinot, Jonathan; Ma, Guibin; Goss, Greg G.; Burrell, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity mechanism employed by silver nanoparticles against microorganisms has captivated scientists for nearly a decade and remains a debatable issue. The question most frequently asked is whether silver nanoparticles exert specific effects on microorganisms beyond the well-documented antimicrobial activity of Ag + . Here, we study the effects of citrate- (d = 17.5 ± 9.4 nm) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (d = 38.8 ± 3.6 nm)-capped silver nanoparticles on microorganisms belonging to various genera. The antimicrobial effect of Ag + was distinguished from that of nanosilver by monitoring microbial growth in the presence and absence of nanoparticles and by careful comparison of the responses of equimolar silver nitrate solution. The results show that when using equimolar silver solutions, silver nitrate has higher toxic potential on all microorganisms than both nanoparticles tested. Furthermore, some microorganisms are more susceptible to silver than others and the choice of capping agent is relevant in the toxicity. Atomic force microscopy disclosed that AgNO 3 had a destructive effect on algae. The antimicrobial activity of nanosilver could be exploited to prevent microbial colonization of medical devices and to determine the fate of nanoparticles in the environment

  9. Treatment with silver nitrate versus topical steroid treatment for umbilical granuloma: A non-inferiority randomized control trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikako Ogawa

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial was to compare the efficacy of silver nitrate cauterization against that of topical steroid ointment in the treatment of neonatal umbilical granuloma.An open-label, non-inferiority randomized controlled trial was conducted from January 2013 to January 2016. The primary endpoint for the silver nitrate cauterization and topical steroid ointment groups was the healing rate after 2 weeks of treatment, applying a non-inferiority margin of 10%. The healing rate was evaluated until completion of 3 weeks of treatment.Participants comprised 207 neonates with newly diagnosed umbilical granuloma, randomized to receive silver nitrate cauterization (n = 104 or topical steroid ointment (n = 103. Healing rates after 2 weeks of treatment were 87.5% (91/104 in the silver nitrate cauterization and 82% (82/100 in the topical steroid ointment group group. The difference between groups was -5.5% (95% confidence interval, -19.1%, 8.4%, indicating that the non-inferiority criterion was not met. After 3 weeks of treatment, the healing rate with topical steroid ointment treatment was almost identical to that of silver nitrate cauterization (94/104 [90.4%] vs. 91/100 [91.0%]; 0.6% [-13.2 to 14.3]. No major complications occurred in either group.This study did not establish non-inferiority of topical steroid ointment treatment relative to silver nitrate cauterization, presumably due to lower healing rates than expected leading to an underpowered trial. However, considering that silver nitrate cauterization carries a distinct risk of chemical burns and that the overall efficacy of topical steroid ointment treatment is similar to that of silver nitrate cauterization, topical steroid ointment might be considered as a good alternative in the treatment of neonatal umbilical granuloma due to its safety and simplicity. To clarify non-inferiority, a larger study is needed.

  10. Determination of silver and cerium in the liver and the kidney from a severely burned infant treated with silver sulfadiazine and cerium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Keiko

    1983-01-01

    Silver and cerium in the liver and the kidney from severely burned infant were analyzed by neutron activation method. The patient was treated topically with cerium nitrate/silver sulfadiazine cream and cerium nitrate solution for 3 months. Then, the treatment with these drugs was stopped because o f abdominal distention. The patient died 1 month after the cessation of the treatment with these drugs. The tissue specimens, blank liver sample and reference standards were irradiated with TRIGA MARK II Reactor of Rikkyo University. About 1 month after the irradiation, the activities were measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a 4096 channel pulse height analyzer. A large amount of silver was detected both in the liver and in the kidney and a trace of cerium only in the liver. A considerable amount of silver was detected in the liver and its quantity was about 1600 times more than that of normal livers reported by Hamilton, Minski and Cleary (1972 -- 73). Neither silver nor cerium were detected in the blank liver. These results suggest that prolonged topical chemotherapy of cerium nitrate/silver sulfadiazine cream and cerium nitrate solution for the extensive burn injuries causes considerable absorption of silver and cerium into the liver and the kidney. (author)

  11. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

  12. Effect of the application of silver nitrate on antioxidant status in watermelon plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente, M.C.D.L.; Rangel, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment we studied the absorption of silver by watermelon plants of the variety Jubilee, as well as the effect on the lycopene content and antioxidant status. The treatments were based on a silver nitrate solution of different concentrations: 0, 30, 60, 90 and 200 mg L-1, applied at intervals of 8 days throughout the crop cycle. The determination of silver content was performed by atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), whereas the detection of the silver particles inside plant tissues was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By analyzing the data obtained in the experiment, a statistically significant difference was detected between treatments and between different plant organs. There was a greater accumulation of silver in the roots of plants and the content was positively related to the rate of application of AgNO/sub 3/. The antioxidant status analyzed in the fruits increased three times in the plants exposed to 30 mg L-1 AgNO/sub 3/ concentration. Meanwhile, lycopene content decreased with increased concentration of silver in solution and showed the highest content with 30 mg L-1 AgNO/sub 3/. (author)

  13. Effectiveness of Cerium Nitrate-Silver Sulfadiazine in the Treatment of Facial Burns: A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oen, I.M.M.H.; van Baar, M.E.; Middelkoop, E.; Nieuwenhuis, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The face is a very frequent site of burn injuries. This multicenter, randomized, controlled trial thus investigates the effectiveness of cerium nitrate-silver sulfadiazine in the treatment of facial burns compared with silver sulfadiazine. Methods: Adult patients with acute facial burns

  14. Performance of some silver sorbents for control of radioiodine from nuclear fuel operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Halko, B.T.; Waters, E.D.; Orme, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Process Facility Modification (PFM) proposed for the Hanford PUREX plant includes control of gaseous radioiodine. In support of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) design effort for the PFM, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has evaluated caustic scrubbing and the use of silver-containing solid sorbents to remove iodine from the dissolver offgas (DOG) stream. The present report describes the behavior of several silver-containing zeolites and silver nitrate-impregnated silicic acid tested under conditions simulating normal and standby operation of the PFM. These studies found that the silver zeolites, Norton silver mordenite (NAgZ), Linde silver mordenite (LAgZ), and partially silver-exchanged Linde silver faujasite (PAgX), can routinely reduce the gaseous iodine concentration in a simulated PFM DOG to -5 μmol I/L, while a commercially produced silver nitrate-impregnated silicic acid (AgNO 3 Si) could not at these test conditions. Tests simulating standby operation of beds loaded up to 0.25 μmol I/g sorbent indicate that standby operation will not result in effluent concentrations above 10 -5 μmol I/L. At higher loadings standby operation initially caused iodine to migrate from NAgZ. There were indications that the iodine tends to stabilize with time, but insufficient information is available to fully characterize these reactions

  15. Facile and Scalable Preparation of Solid Silver Nanoparticles (<10 nm) for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Yang, ZG

    2015-01-01

    Metal conductive ink for flexible electroncs has exhibited a promising future recently. Here, an innovative strategy was reported to synthesize silver nanocolloid (2.5 ± 0.5 nm) and separate solid silver nanoparticles (<10 nm) effectively. Specifically, silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as silver precursor, sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as reducing agent, fatty acid (CnH2n+1COOH) as dispersant agent, ammonia (NH3•H2O) and hydrochloride (HCl) as pH regulator and complexing agent in aqueous. The main mechanism is the solubility changes of fatty acid salts (CnH2n+1 COO-NH4+) and fatty acid (CnH2n+1 COOH) coated on the synthesized silver nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous. This change determinates the suspension and precipitation of silver NPs directly. The results show that when n in dispersant is 12, and molar ratio (C12H24O2/AgNO3) is 1.0, the separation yield of silver NPs is up to 94.8 %. After sintered at 125 ℃ for 20 minutes, the as-prepared conductive silver nanoink (20 wt. %) presents a satisfactory resistivity (as low as 6.6 μΩ.cm on polyester-PET substrate), about 4 times the bulk silver. In addition, the efficacy of the as-prepared conductive ink was verified with the construction of radio frequency antenna by inkjet printing and conductive character pattern (Fudan-Fudan) by direct wiring, showing with excellent electrical performance.

  16. Facile and Scalable Preparation of Solid Silver Nanoparticles (<10 nm) for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2015-07-02

    Metal conductive ink for flexible electroncs has exhibited a promising future recently. Here, an innovative strategy was reported to synthesize silver nanocolloid (2.5 ± 0.5 nm) and separate solid silver nanoparticles (<10 nm) effectively. Specifically, silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as silver precursor, sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as reducing agent, fatty acid (CnH2n+1COOH) as dispersant agent, ammonia (NH3•H2O) and hydrochloride (HCl) as pH regulator and complexing agent in aqueous. The main mechanism is the solubility changes of fatty acid salts (CnH2n+1 COO-NH4+) and fatty acid (CnH2n+1 COOH) coated on the synthesized silver nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous. This change determinates the suspension and precipitation of silver NPs directly. The results show that when n in dispersant is 12, and molar ratio (C12H24O2/AgNO3) is 1.0, the separation yield of silver NPs is up to 94.8 %. After sintered at 125 ℃ for 20 minutes, the as-prepared conductive silver nanoink (20 wt. %) presents a satisfactory resistivity (as low as 6.6 μΩ.cm on polyester-PET substrate), about 4 times the bulk silver. In addition, the efficacy of the as-prepared conductive ink was verified with the construction of radio frequency antenna by inkjet printing and conductive character pattern (Fudan-Fudan) by direct wiring, showing with excellent electrical performance.

  17. Silver as antibacterial towards Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eBelluco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen that can contaminate food during processing and can grow during food shelf-life. New types of safe and effective food contact materials embedding antimicrobial agents, like silver, can play an important role in the food industry. The present work aimed at evaluating the in vitro growth kinetics of different strains of L. monocytogenes in the presence of silver, both in its ionic and nano form. The antimicrobial effect was determined by assaying the number of culturable bacterial cells, which formed colonies after incubation in the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs or silver nitrate (AgNO3. Ionic release experiments were performed in parallel. A different reduction of bacterial viability between silver ionic and nano forms was observed, with a time delayed effect exerted by AgNPs. An association between antimicrobial activity and ions concentration was shown by both silver chemical forms, suggesting the major role of ions in the antimicrobial mode of action.

  18. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Sodium Alginate and Lignosulphonic Acid Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Amrita; Reddy, Giridhar

    2017-08-01

    A simple method based on the principles of green chemistry has been developed to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles (AgNP) for possible biomedical applications. Blend of sodium alginate (SA) and lignosulphonic acid (LS) prepared in the ratio of 80/20 mass percent respectively was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. This blend is biocompatible and has shown drug release ability under physiological conditions. Use of blend has an added advantage as LS has the ability to reduce silver while the blend matrix acts as a stabilizing agent. Effect of precursor concentration (AgNO3) and temperature was investigated. Progress of synthesis was monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Higher temperature and lower silver nitrate concentration showed better synthesis of AgNP.

  19. Biosythesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Putri Malu (Mimosa pudica Leaves Extract and Microwave Irradiation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Is Fatimah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Mimosa pudica extract is discussed. Mimosa pudica leaves extract using water as solvent was used as bio-reductor to an aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3 and in order to accelerate the reduction, microwave irradiation method was applied. The AgNPs obtained were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR spectrophotometry, XRD, SEM-EDX, and particle size analysis based on dynamic scattering method. Effect of preparation method to the formation of AgNPs is also evaluated in antibacterial activity towards E.coli and P. aeruginosa. Rapid and ecofriendly biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles was observed in this study. The characterization results and antibacterial assay indicated the uniform and smaller particle size of AgNPs obtained by using microwave method and positively enhance the antibacterial activity against tested bacteria.

  20. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanorods using Piper nigrum extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Bandita; Kuriakose, Sini; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver nanorods were synthesized by photoreduction using Piper nigrum extract. • The morphological and structural properties were studied by XRD and AFM. • Silver nanoparticles were formed at lower AgNO 3 concentration. • Increase in AgNO 3 concentration resulted in formation of silver nanorods. - Abstract: We report sun light driven rapid green synthesis of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods at room temperature using photoreduction of silver ions with Piper nigrum extract. Silver nanoparticles were formed within 3 min of sun light irradiation following addition of Piper nigrum extract to the AgNO 3 solution. The effects of AgNO 3 concentration and irradiation time on the formation and plasmonic properties of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were studied using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles were well characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size of Ag nanoparticles increased with increase in irradiation time, leading to the formation of anisotropic nanostructures. Increasing the AgNO 3 concentration resulted in the formation of Ag nanorods. UV–visible absorption studies revealed the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks which red shift and broaden with increasing AgNO 3 concentration. We have demonstrated a facile, energy efficient and rapid green synthetic route to synthesize stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles and nanorods

  1. A multinuclear solid-state magnetic resonance study of silver nitrate triphenylphosphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S.-W.; Bernard, G.M.; Wasylishen, R.E. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Chemistry, Gunning/Lemieux Chemistry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: roderick.wasylishen@ualberta.ca; McDonald, R.; Ferguson, M.J. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography Lab., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2005-10-15

    Variable-temperature solid-state {sup 31}P, {sup 15}N, and {sup 2}H NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry studies of the 1:1 adduct of silver nitrate and triphenylphosphine (AgNO{sub 3}{center_dot}PPh{sub 3}) reveal a solid-solid phase transition at 300 K. The principal components of the phosphorus and nitrogen chemical shift tensors for both phases are determined from NMR spectra of MAS and stationary samples. In addition, the indirect spin-spin coupling between phosphorus and the naturally occurring isotopes of silver ({sup 107}Ag and {sup 109}Ag) are resolved. Experimental {sup 2}H NMR line shapes for silver nitrate perdeuterated triphenylphosphine are those characteristic of rigid phenyl groups at temperatures above and below the phase-transition temperature. Powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data for AgNO{sub 3}{center_dot}PPh{sub 3} obtained at 193, 295, and 313 K are reported; data obtained at 193 and 295 K are almost identical, but are significantly different from those obtained at 313 K and from an earlier single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation performed at 298 K. All X-ray studies found that AgNO{sub 3}{center_dot}PPh{sub 3} crystallizes in the monoclinic form, space group P2{sub 1}lc. (author)

  2. Antimicrobial, Mechanical and Thermal Studies of Silver Particle-Loaded Polyurethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepen Paul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Silver-particle-incorporated polyurethane films were evaluated for antimicrobial activity towards two different bacteria: Escherichia coli (E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Distributed silver particles sourced from silver nitrate, silver lactate and preformed silver nanoparticles were mixed with polyurethane (PU and variously characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, fourier transform infra-red (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and contact angle measurement. Antibacterial activity against E.coli was confirmed for films loaded with 10% (w/w AgNO3, 1% and 10% (w/w Ag lactate and preformed Ag nanoparticles. All were active against S. aureus, but Ag nanoparticles loaded with PU had a minor effect. The apparent antibacterial performance of Ag lactate-loaded PU is better than other Ag ion-loaded films, revealed from the zone of inhibition study. The better performance of silver lactate-loaded PU was the likely result of a porous PU structure. FESEM and FTIR indicated direct interaction of silver with the PU backbone, and XRD patterns confirmed that face-centred cubic-type silver, representative of Ag metal, was present. Young’s modulus, tensile strength and the hardness of silver containing PU films were not adversely affected and possibly marginally increased with silver incorporation. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA indicated greater thermal stability.

  3. Antimicrobial activity and physical characterization of silver nanoparticles green synthesized using nitrate reductase from Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami-Shabani, Mohammadhassan; Akbarzadeh, Azim; Norouzian, Dariush; Amini, Abdolhossein; Gholami-Shabani, Zeynab; Imani, Afshin; Chiani, Mohsen; Riazi, Gholamhossein; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructures from natural sources have received major attention due to wide array of biological activities and less toxicity for humans, animals, and the environment. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a fungal nitrate reductase, and their biological activity was assessed against human pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The enzyme was isolated from Fusarium oxysporum IRAN 31C after culturing on malt extract-glucose-yeast extract-peptone (MGYP) medium. The enzyme was purified by a combination of ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE Sephadex and its molecular weight was estimated by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. The purified enzyme had a maximum yield of 50.84 % with a final purification of 70 folds. With a molecular weight of 214 KDa, it is composed of three subunits of 125, 60, and 25 KDa. The purified enzyme was successfully used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles in a way dependent upon NADPH using gelatin as a capping agent. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering spectroscopy, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. These stable nonaggregating nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average size of 50 nm and a zeta potential of -34.3. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effects of synthesized nanoparticles by disk diffusion method showed strong growth inhibitory activity against all tested human pathogenic fungi and bacteria as evident from inhibition zones that ranged from 14 to 25 mm. Successful green synthesis of biologically active silver nanoparticles by a nitrate reductase from F. oxysporum in the present work not only reduces laborious downstream steps such as purification of nanoparticle from interfering cellular components, but also provides a constant source of safe biologically-active nanomaterials with potential application in agriculture and medicine.

  4. A fast method for the determination of lead in honey samples using stabilizer-free silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Dayana Borges; Catelani, Tiago Augusto; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2018-01-01

    A sensitive, rapid and robust method based on the use of stabilizer-free silver nanoparticles was developed for lead detection in honey. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized without the presence of any stabilizers using silver nitrate and sodium borohydride as precursors where the latter was applied as reducing agent. The optimization of the experimental variables (AgNO3 and NaBH4) for the formation of the nanoparticles was carried out using varying volumes of these solutions. Spectrophotometric measurements at 393 nm showed a linear working range between 0.0500 and 0.167 mg L- 1 lead (R = 0.994), with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.0135 and 0.0451 mg L- 1, respectively. The proposed method proved to be a significantly sensitive mechanism for lead detection in honey samples.

  5. Measurement of Nitrate Concentration in Aqueous Media Using an Electrochemical Nanosensor Based on Silver Nanoparticles-Nanocellulose/Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shadfar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate pollution is at the forefront of groundwater contamination which poses serious environmental and public health hazards.  Nitrate is usually released in solution from agricultural activities and finds its way into groundwater resources. The objective of the present study was to determine, accurately concentrations of nitrate ions in water samples from the environment using sensitive electrochemical methods. For this purpose, a modified glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanocomposite consisting of silver nanoparticles, nanocellulose, and graphene oxide (Ag/NC/GO-GCE was used. The characterization of the nanocomposite was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The modified Ag/NC/GO-GCE electrode was used as nanosensor for the electrocatalytic determination of nitrate using the voltammetric method. The effects of the parameters of scan rate, pH, and different nitrate concentrations were studied and the optimum conditions were obtained. A limit of detection of 0.016 µM (S/N=3 was found in the linear range of 0.005 to 10 mM nitrate. The Ag/NC/GO-GCE electrode exhibited a synergistic effect toward voltammetric determination of nitrate in the presence of graphene oxide, nanocellulose, and silver nanocatalyst. The nanosensor developed here showed excellent sensitivity, selectivity, and stability toward nitrate determination in aqueous solutions without any significant interference.

  6. The effect of AgNO3 on the bioenergetic processes and the ultrastructure of Chlorella and Dunaliella cells exposed to different saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loseva, N.L.; Alyabyev, A.Ju.; Gordon, L.Kh.; Andreyeva, I.N.; Kolesnikov, O.P.; Ponomareva, A.A.; Kemp, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of AgNO 3 , an inhibitor of the H + pump in the plasma membrane, on the bioenergetic processes and on the ultrastructure of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (salt sensitive) and Dunaliella maritima (salt resistant) was examined under varying salt concentrations. Differences between them were observed in changes of the cellular energy metabolism depending on their salt sensitivity and the inhibition of the H + pump activity. A decrease was observed in the rates of heat production (about 45%), O 2 uptake (greater than 40-50% of the control) and particularly photosynthesis (more than 80%) in Chlorella cells under the simultaneous action of NaCl and AgNO 3 . Dunaliella cells showed small to moderate rate increases for heat production (less than 7%), O 2 uptake (10-15%) and O 2 evolution (40%) in higher salt concentrations and under the action of AgNO 3 . The production of active oxygen species was studied as an early unspecific response of microalgal cells to possible unfavorable conditions, including salt stress. The amount of superoxide formed by the Dunaliella cells was higher than that by the Chlorella cells. However, Ag + ions increased the generation rate of superoxide radicals considerably in both Chlorella and Dunaliella cells. The electron microscopy showed that changes of the algal ultrastructure of cells exposed to the action of Ag + ions were connected with the observed physiological changes and to a large extent with the alteration of the bioenergetic processes in them

  7. Antibacterial and hemolysis activity of polypyrrole nanotubes decorated with silver nanoparticles by an in-situ reduction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, J; Kumar, A; Gogoi, B; Buragohain, A K

    2015-09-01

    Polypyrrole nanotube-silver nanoparticle nanocomposites (PPy-NTs:Ag-NPs) have been synthesized by in-situ reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) to suppress the agglomeration of Ag-NPs. The morphology and chemical structure of the nanocomposites have been studied by HRTEM, SEM, XRD, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The average diameter of the polypyrrole nanotubes (PPy-NTs) is measured to be 130.59±5.5 nm with their length in the micrometer range, while the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) exhibit spherical shape with an average diameter of 23.12±3.23 nm. In-vitro blood compatibility of the nanocomposites has been carried out via hemolysis assay. Antimicrobial activity of the nanocomposites has been investigated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. The results depict that the hemolysis and antimicrobial activities of the nanocomposites increase with increasing Ag-NP concentration that can be controlled by the AgNO3 precursor concentration in the in-situ process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on electrodeposited silver sulphide thin films by double exposure holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhune, V.B.; Shinde, N.S.; Fulari, V.J.

    2008-01-01

    Silver sulphide (Ag 2 S) thin films have been deposited on to stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by the electrodeposition process, in potentiostatic mode using silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ), sodium thiosulphate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ) as a precursor sources and Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) was used as a complexing agent. The deposition potential of the compound was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The structural and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical absorption techniques, respectively. XRD studies reveal that the films are polycrystalline with monoclinic crystal structure. Optical absorption study shows the presence of direct transition with bandgap energy 1.1 eV. The determination of thickness and stress of the Ag 2 S thin films was carried out by Double Exposure Holographic Interferometry (DEHI) technique.

  9. The effect of silver nitrate, chloroformic garlic extract and normal saline in induction of sclerosing cholangitis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseni, Seyed V.; Mohebzadeh, J.; Mehrabani, D.; Amini, M.; Kumar, Perikala V.; Bagheri, Mohammad H.; Sadjjadi, Seyed M.; Amini, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to the effects of 0.5% silver nitrate, 20% chloroformic garlic extract and 0.9% normal saline in induction of sclerosing cholangitis in the bile ducts of rabbits. During a 6-months period from April to September 2006 in Shiraz University Laboratory Animal Research Center, we selected 3 equal groups of rabbits. We injected 0.5% silver nitrate, 20% chloroformic garlic extract and 0.9% normal saline into the bile ducts of each group. The animals were euthanized and autopsied after 4 months and the liver and bile ducts were removed and studied histopathologically. Cholangiography was undertaken to evaluate the presence and extent of any sclerosing cholangitis. Animals showed sclerosing cholangitis in silver nitrate group (7 [58%]), one (8%) in chloroformic garlic extract group and one (7%) in normal saline group. The difference between silver nitrate and chloroformic garlic extract groups were statistically significant and similar results were noticed between chloroformic garlic extract and normal saline groups. Twenty percent of chloroformic garlic extract had fewer complications such as sclerosing cholangitis, compared to other materials. (author)

  10. Mitochondrial electron transport is inhibited by disappearance of metallothionein in human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to silver nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Arai, Yuta; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Hirano, Seishiro

    2013-03-08

    Silver (Ag) possesses antibacterial activity and has been used in wound dressings and deodorant powders worldwide. However, the metabolic behavior and biological roles of Ag in mammals have not been well characterized. In the present study, we exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to AgNO3 and investigated uptake and intracellular distribution of Ag, expression of metallothionein (MT), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and changes in mitochondrial respiration. The culture medium concentration of Ag decreased with time and stabilized at 12h. The concentration of both Ag and MT in the soluble cellular fraction increased up to 3h and then decreased, indicating that cytosolic Ag relocated to the insoluble fraction of the cells. The levels of mRNAs for the major human MT isoforms MT-I and MT-II paralleled with the protein levels of Ag-MT. The intensity of fluorescence derived from ROS was elevated in the mitochondrial region at 24h. Ag decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption in a dose-dependent manner and the activity of mitochondrial complex I-IV enzymes was significantly inhibited following exposure to Ag. In a separate experiment, we found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at concentrations as low as 0.001% (equivalent to the concentration of H2O2 in Ag-exposed cells) removed Ag from MT. These results suggest MT was decomposed by cytosolic H2O2, and then Ag released from MT relocated to insoluble cellular fractions and inhibited electron chain transfer of mitochondrial complexes, which eventually led to cell damage. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan-yu; Yang, Hui; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    2016-11-01

    Various parts of plants can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is eco-friendly way and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this project, Ginkgo biloba leaf, an abundantly available medicinal plant in China, was for the first time adopted as a reducing and stabilizing agent to synthesize smaller sized and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To improve the quality of AgNPs, the reduction was accelerated by changing the concentrations of initial Ag+ (0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol/L) of the reaction mixture consisting of silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. At pH = 8 and lower AgNO3 concentration (0.02 mol/L), a colloid consisting of well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles was obtained. The synthesized nanocrystals were successfully characterized by UV-vis and XRD. TEM images revealed the size of the spherical AgNPs ranged between 10-16 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activities against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. Compared to traditional chemical methods, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract provides an easy green synthetical way. It is anticipated that the biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications.

  12. A comparative study of propranolol versus silver nitrate cautery in the treatment of recurrent primary epistaxis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed E; Abo El-Magd, Essam A; Hasan, Gamal M; El-Asheer, Osama M

    2015-01-01

    Background Epistaxis is a common medical problem in pediatric population. Although in most cases it is mild and self-limiting, a proportion of childhood epistaxis is massive, recurrent, or resistant to conventional management. Objective To compare effectiveness of propranolol as a treatment option for childhood epistaxis versus conventional silver nitrate cautery. Study design and methodology This is a prospective interventional comparative study that was carried out during a period of 1 year (January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013) at Qena University Hospital and Assiut University Children’s Hospital. One hundred children aged 6–12 years who presented with epistaxis to Qena University Hospital and Assiut University Children’s Hospital during the study period and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. They were randomly assigned into one of two interventional groups, where 50 children were treated with oral propranolol (propranolol treatment group) and another 50 children were treated with conventional silver nitrate cautery (cauterization treatment group) for their epistaxis. Propranolol was given at a dose of 1.5–2 mg/kg/day (divided into three doses). Patients were followed for 6 months after their discharge for recurrence of epistaxis. Results Both groups of patients showed minimal recurrent epistaxis with rates of 14% for propranolol treated group and 12% for cauterization group, with no statistically significant difference between both groups. Local pain was found to be more in patients treated with silver nitrate cauterization. Conclusion Treatment of primary epistaxis with propranolol or silver nitrate cautery showed equal rates of recurrence, and local nasal pain was slightly more among silver nitrate cauterization treated group. Propranolol could be a favorable treatment option for patients with primary epistaxis. Further studies that include multiple centers and larger number of patients are recommended for more clarification

  13. Chemistry of ground water in the Silver Springs basin, Florida, with an emphasis on nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.

    2004-01-01

    The Silver Springs group, in central Marion County, Florida, has a combined average discharge rate of 796 cubic feet per second and forms the headwaters of the Silver River. The springs support a diverse ecosystem and are an important cultural and economic resource. Concentrations of nitrite-plus-nitrate (nitrate-N) in water from the Main Spring increased from less than 0.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in the 1960s to about 1.0 mg/L in 2003. The Upper Floridan aquifer supplies the ground water to support spring discharge. This aquifer is at or near land surface in much of the ground-water basin; nutrients leached at land surface can easily percolate downward into the aquifer. Sources of nitrogen in ground water in the Silver Springs basin include atmospheric deposition, fertilizers used by agricultural and urban activities, and human and animal wastes. During 2000-2001, 56 wells in the area contributing recharge to Silver Springs were sampled for major ions, nutrients, and some trace constituents. Selected wells also were sampled for a suite of organic constituents commonly found in domestic and industrial wastewater and for the ratio of nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N) to better understand the sources of nitrate. Wells were selected to be representative of both confined and unconfined conditions of the Upper Floridan aquifer, as well as a variety of land-use types. Data from this study were compared to data collected from 25 wells in 1989-90. Concentrations of nitrate-N in ground water during this study ranged from less than the detection limit of 0.02 to 12 mg/L, with a median of 1.2 mg/L. For data from 1989-90, the range was from less than 0.02 to 3.6 mg/L, with a median of 1.04 mg/L. Water from wells in agricultural land-use areas had the highest median nitrate-N concentration (1.7 mg/L), although it is uncertain if the 12 mg/L maximum concentration was influenced by land-use activities or proximity to a septic tank. The median value for all urban land-use areas was

  14. Electroless silver plating on PET fabric initiated by in situ reduction of polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Shipeng; Xie, Huayang; Wang, Wei; Yu, Dan

    2015-10-01

    Novel electroless silver plating poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric was prepared by a two-step procedure. In the first step, the in situ polymerized polyaniline (PANI) occurred on the fabric surface in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS). Then, Ag(0) species reduced from silver nitrate (AgNO3) by in situ reduction of PANI were used as catalyst to initiate electroless silver plating. Hence, this composite material was prepared by conductive polymer combined with electroless plating. The silver layer on PET fabric surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the silver layer was plated uniformly and compactly with surface resistance about 0.1 Ω/sq on average. The shielding effectiveness (SE) of silver-plated PET fabric was around 50-90 dB, which was considered to have potential applications in electromagnetic shielding materials. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis was carried out to study thermal stability. The antibacterial tests demonstrated that the silver-plated fabric exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli both with 100%.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of dextran stabilized silver nanoparticles in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankura, K P; Maity, D; Mollick, M M R; Mondal, D; Bhowmick, B; Bain, M K; Chakraborty, A; Sarkar, J; Acharya, K; Chattopadhyay, D

    2012-08-01

    A simple one-step rapid synthetic route is described for the preparation of silver nanoparticles by reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) using aqueous dextran solution which acts as both reducing and capping agent. The formation of silver nanoparticles is assured by characterization with UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The absorbance of the silver nanoparticles is observed at 423 nm. The AFM image clearly shows the surface morphology of the well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with size range of 10-60 nm. TEM images show that the nanoparticles are spherical in shape with ∼5-10 nm dimensions. The crystallinity of Ag nanoparticles is assured by XRD analysis. The antimicrobial activity of as synthesized silver nanoparticles is tested against the bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial growth is inhibited by gradual reduction of the concentration of the silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using Extracts of Hedera helix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Abbasifar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are one of the most widely applicable particles whose application is increasing in Nano world daily. Silver nanoparticles have expressed significant advances owing to wide range of applications in the field of bio-medical, sensors, antimicrobials, catalysts, electronics, optical fibers, agricultural, bio-labeling and the other areas. Green synthesis is the safe and easiest method of producing silver nanoparticles. Because of the production of the silver ions, silver nanoparticles are found to have the antibacterial activity. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by using extracts of Hedera helix against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods In this experimental study AgNPs were prepared by the reaction of 1mM silver nitrate and extracts of Hedera helix. Antibacterial activity of AgNPs was assessed by using disc diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible (vis spectrophotometer, particle size analyzer by dynamic light scattering (DLS method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Results AgNPs obtained showed significantly higher antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis and K. pneumonia in comparison to both AgNO3 and raw plant extracts. Conclusions Biological methods are a good competent for the chemical procedures, which are environment friendly and convenient.

  17. Interaction between the surface of the silver nanoparticles prepared by γ-irradiation and organic molecules containing thiol group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S.-H.; Lee, S.-H.; Hwang, Y.-M.; Lee, K.-P.; Kang, H.-D.

    2003-01-01

    The colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared by the γ-irradiation of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) in a mixture solution of water and 2-propanol in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a colloidal stabilizer. The Ag colloids obtained by γ-irradiation were characterized by use of XRD and TEM. The surface of the Ag colloids were modified by use of mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), (D)-cysteine (Cys), and (L)-Cys, respectively. The MSA and (L)-Cys-capped Ag colloids were aggregated because of hydrogen bonding of the carboxylic acid and amino acid group, respectively. From the analysis by CD spectroscopy, it was shown that chiral-enhanced phenomena were obtained in (L)- and (D)-Cys-capped Ag colloids

  18. Influence of hardness on the bioavailability of silver to a freshwater snail after waterborne exposure to silver nitrate and silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, Tasha L.; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Romer, Isabella; Tejamaya, Mila; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    The release of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) into the aquatic environment is likely, but the influence of water chemistry on their impacts and fate remains unclear. Here, we characterize the bioavailability of Ag from AgNO3 and from AgNPs capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP AgNP) and thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG AgNP) in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, after short waterborne exposures. Results showed that water hardness, AgNP capping agents, and metal speciation affected the uptake rate of Ag from AgNPs. Comparison of the results from organisms of similar weight showed that water hardness affected the uptake of Ag from AgNPs, but not that from AgNO3. Transformation (dissolution and aggregation) of the AgNPs was also influenced by water hardness and the capping agent. Bioavailability of Ag from AgNPs was, in turn, correlated to these physical changes. Water hardness increased the aggregation of AgNPs, especially for PEG AgNPs, reducing the bioavailability of Ag from PEG AgNPs to a greater degree than from PVP AgNPs. Higher dissolved Ag concentrations were measured for the PVP AgNPs (15%) compared to PEG AgNPs (3%) in moderately hard water, enhancing Ag bioavailability of the former. Multiple drivers of bioavailability yielded differences in Ag influx between very hard and deionized water where the uptake rate constants (kuw, l g-1 d-1 ± SE) varied from 3.1 ± 0.7 to 0.2 ± 0.01 for PEG AgNPs and from 2.3 ± 0.02 to 1.3 ± 0.01 for PVP AgNPs. Modeling bioavailability of Ag from NPs revealed that Ag influx into L. stagnalis comprised uptake from the NPs themselves and from newly dissolved Ag.

  19. Kinetic and analytical study on precipitation reactions with 110AgNO3 of some di(β-chloroethyl)amine derivatives and hydrochlorides with esters of N-(p-aminobenzoyl)-L-aspartic acid as carriers from dimethylformamide - water solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Al.; Sunel, V.; Ghimiciu, L.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of precipitation reactions with 110 AgNO 3 of some di(β-chloroethyl) amine derivates and hydrochlorides with esters of N-(p-aminobenzoyl)-L-aspartic acid as carriers in dimethylformamide-water mixture, were studied. The rate constants of these reactions were of the order of 10 -4 lxmol -1 xmin -1 . The concentrations of the corresponding hydrochloride solutions were measured by radiometric titration with 110 AgNO 3 solution of given concentration. (author)

  20. Silver Nitrate and Different Culture Vessels Influence High Frequency Microrhizome Induction In Vitro and Enhancement Growth of Turmeric Plantlet During Ex Vitro Acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cultivars of C. longa var. Lakadong were collected from Manipur having different topography. Curcumin content in different cultivars has been analyzed by using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (100 Bio-Carry Spectrophotometer. The curcuminoids content were analyzed and quantified for identification of best quality cultivar. Thoubal Cultivar with highest curcumin content (9.44% was subjected for tissue culture technique using different culture vessels and silver nitrate for rapid multiplication and scaling up of microrhizome production. High multiplication rate of 27.400.47 were obtained in Murashige and Skoogs medium supplemented with 3% sucrose + 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate. Effect of different culture vessels and silver nitrate were studied for microrhizome and multiple shoots formation. Relatively higher rate of shoots along with microrhizome (17.50.32 can be seen in Growtek which was grown without any plant growth regulator. Growtek was used for scaling up of microrhizome production in vitro and utmost microrhizome was produced in liquid Murashige and Skoogs medium supplemented with 8% sucrose, 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate (36.250.27. Addition of silver nitrate in the medium resulted in improvement of microrhizome induction in vitro. Higher concentration of silver nitrate (33, 44, 66, 88 ?M negatively affected the microrhizome and shoot multiplication and shows inhibition of tissue response completely. Analysis of in vitro derived plantlets during acclimatization shows that the exogenous applied of silver nitrate shows superior growth as compared to control. 90-95% of plantlets with and 75-80% plantlets without silver nitrate treatment were successfully established under ex vitro acclimatization. The protocol could be utilized for large scale production of true-to-type plantlets and as alternative method to step

  1. VITAMINE C EFFECT ON SILVER NITRATE INDUCED METHEMOGLOBINEMIA:ANIMAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A RAJABI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Methemoglobinemia is a condition characterized by increased quantities of hemoglobin in which the iron of heme is oxidized to the ferric(Fe3+ form. Methemoglobin is useless as an oxygen carrier and thus causes a varying degree of cyanosis. The condition may arise as a result of a genetic defect in red blood cell metabolism or hemoglobin structure, or it may be acquired following exposure to various axidant drugs or toxins. The most common cause of methemoglobinemia, as in this clinical case, is ingestion of or exposure of skin or mucous membranes to oxidizing agents (such as anesthetics and silver nitrate. Methods. In an experimental animal study, 30 rabbits with the same weight and sex are devided in two groups (A and B.-Vitamine C is administered to group B (200 mg/kg intraperitoneal. One houre after that, laparotomy was done. Then silver nitrate was injected intraperitoneal (1000 mg/kg in both groups. Blood samples were examined 30 and 60 minutes after injection. Results. Methemoglobin before and after intervention in group A was 0.38±0.13, 1.63±0.02 (30 min and 2.21 ± 0.4 (60 min percent respectively. Methemoglobin before and after intervention in group B was 0.39±0.13, 0.82 ± 0.19 (30 min and 0.41 ± 0.1.7 (60 min percent, respectively. Methemoglobin concentration was greater in group A in 30th and 60th minute after intervention (P < 0.0l Discussion. Ascorbic acid penetrate the erythrocyte membrane. Under physiological conditions ascorbic acid induced methemoglobin reduction is far less important than reduction by the NADH dependent methemoglobin reductase system. In methemoglobinemic conditions caused by toxic effects or by congenital methemoglobin reductase deficiency treatment with ascorbic acid is possible. However, critically increased methemoglobin content of the blood higher than 30% makes therapy with methylene blue necessary. So, vitamine C is recommended for methemoglobinemia therapy.

  2. Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles to Green Algae – Towards a Biotic Ligand Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laruelle, Sacha; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Cupi, Denisa

    with the freshwater green algae Pseudokirschneriella subcapitata were carried out to falsify the hypothesis: “The toxicity of silver nanoparticles towards algae is solely caused by the monovalent silver ion”. These experiments were based on PHREEQC modeling of silver ion behavior (added as AgNO3) in 72h OECD algal...

  3. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Leishmania tropica | Rahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel biosynthesis route for Silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) was attempted in the present study using Leishmania tropica the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in different countries, particularly in Mediterranean region in Iraq. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from AgNO3 by reduction of ...

  4. A micro-Raman study of live, single red blood cells (RBCs treated with AgNO3 nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseefhali Bankapur

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are known to exhibit broad antimicrobial activity. However, such activity continues to raise concerns in the context of the interaction of such NPs with biomolecules. In a physiological environment NPs interact with individual biological cells either by penetrating through the cell membrane or by adhering to the membrane. We have explored the interaction of Ag NPs with single optically-trapped, live erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs using Raman Tweezers spectroscopy. Our experiments reveal that Ag NPs induce modifications within an RBC that appear to be irreversible. In particular we are able to identify that the heme conformation in an RBC transforms from the usual R-state (oxy-state to the T-state (deoxy-state. We rationalize our observations by proposing a model for the nanoparticle cytotoxicity pathway when the NP size is larger than the membrane pore size. We propose that the interaction of Ag NPs with the cell surface induces damage brought about by alteration of intracellular pH caused by the blockage of the cell membrane transport.

  5. Study of the electrochemical oxidation of Am with lacunary heteropolyanions and silver nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, D.

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of Am(III) with certain lacunary heteropolyanions (LHPA α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 10- or αSiW 11 O 39 8- ) and silver nitrate is an efficient way to prepare Am(VI). This document presents bibliographic data and an experimental study of the process. Thus, it has been established that Am(IV) is an intermediate species in the reaction and occurs in 1:1 (Amt IV LHPA) or 1:2 (Am IV (LHAP) 2 ) complexes with the relevant LHPA. These 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) have been identified and isolated in this work whereas 1:2 complexes were known from previous studies. The reactivity of these complexes in oxidation shows that 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) are oxidised much more quickly than 1:2 complexes. Apparent stability constants of Am(III) and Am(IV) complexes with the relevant LHPA have been measured for a 1 M nitric acid medium. Thermodynamic data of the reaction are then assessed: redox potentials of Am pairs are computed for a 1 M nitric acid medium containing various amount of LHPA ligands. Those results show that the role of LHPA is to stabilize the intermediate species Am(IV) by lowering the Am(IV)/Am(III) pair potential of about 1 Volt. Nevertheless, if this stabilisation is too strong (i.e. of tungsto-silicate), the oxidation of Am(IV) requires high anodic potential (more than 2 V/ENH). Then, the faradic yield of the oxidation of americium is poor because of water oxidation. This study has also shown that the main role of silver is to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of Am IV (LHPA) X complexes. Indeed, these oxidations without silver are extremely slow. An oxygen tracer experiment has been performed during the oxidation of Am(III) in Am(VI). It has been shown that the oxygen atoms of Am(VI) (AMO 2 2+ ) come from water molecules of the solvent and not from the complexing oxygen atoms of the ligands. (author)

  6. Nonlinear-Optical and Fluorescent Properties of Ag Aqueous Colloid Prepared by Silver Nitrate Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear-optical properties of metal Ag colloidal solutions, which were prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate, were investigated using Z-scan method. Under picosecond 532 nm excitation, the Ag colloidal solution exhibited negative nonlinear refractive index (n2=−5.17×10−4 cm2/W and reverse saturable absorption coefficient (β=4.32 cm/GW. The data fitting result of optical limiting (OL response of metal Ag colloidal solution indicated that the nonlinear absorption was attributed to two-photon absorption effect at 532 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence emission spectra of Ag colloidal solution were recorded under excitations at both 280 nm and 350 nm. Two fluorescence peaks, 336 nm and 543 nm for 280 nm excitation, while 544 nm and 694 nm for 350 nm excitation, were observed.

  7. THE EFFECT OF VOLUME VARIATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLE SOLUTION TOWARDS THE POROSITY AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MORTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.S.B. Dwandaru

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As the world is growing rapidly, people need better building materials such as mortar. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of adding silver nanoparticle solution towards the porosity and compressive strength of mortar. This research was started by making silver nanoparticle solution from nitrate silver (AgNO3. The solution is then characterized using Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. 5 mM silver nanoparticle is added in the process of mortar production with volume variation of the silver nanoparticle solution. The porosity, compressive strength, and the content of mortar were determined by digital scale, universal testing machine, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. For silver nanoparticle solution volumes of (in mL 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 the porosity obtained are (in % 20.38, 19.48, 19.42, 18.9, 17.8, and 17.5, respectively. The best increase in compressive strength is obtained for (in MPa 29,068, 29,308, and 31,385, with nanoparticle solution volumes of (in mL 5, 10, and 15   Keywords: mortar, silver nanoparticle, compressive strength

  8. Synthesis and characterization of silver molybdate nanowires ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    UV-visible spectrum of silver molybdate nanorods/nanowires shows maximum absorbance at 408 nm. Photo- .... trometer using Xe lamp with an excitation wavelength of. 330 nm. 3. ... ment of (NH4)6Mo7O24 with AgNO3 led to the formation.

  9. Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activity of Silver/Polystyrene Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal A. Awad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, nontoxic, simple, cost-effective and ecofriendly technique was used to synthesize green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. The AgNPs were synthesized using orange peel extract as a reducing agent for silver nitrate salt (AgNO3. The particle size distribution of AgNPs was determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. The average size of silver nanoparticles was 98.43 nm. The stable dispersion of silver nanoparticles was added slowly to polystyrene solution in toluene maintaining the temperature at 70°C. The AgNPs/polystyrene (PS nanocomposite solution was cast in a petri dish. The silver nanoparticles encapsulated within polymer chains were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS in addition to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The green AgNPs/PS nanocomposite film exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella, and Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, the key findings of the work include the use of a safe and simple AgNPs/PS nanocomposite which had a marked antibacterial activity which has a potential application in food packaging.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of silver colloidal nanoparticles with different coatings for SERS application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikac, L.; Ivanda, M.; Gotić, M.; Mihelj, T.; Horvat, L.

    2014-01-01

    Silver colloids were produced by chemical reduction of silver salt (silver nitrate, AgNO 3 ) solution. As reducing agents, trisodium citrate, sodium borohydride, ascorbic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and glucose were used. The colloids were characterized by UV–Vis, DLS, zeta potential measurements, and SEM. The colloids were stabilized with negative groups or large molecules attached to their surface. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect of stabilized nanoparticles was measured by using pyridine and rhodamine 6G molecules as analytes and NaNO 3 , KCl, and KBr at different concentrations as aggregating agents. The best Raman signal enhancement was achieved using silver nanoparticles of 40 nm size reduced and stabilized with citrate. The SERS signal of analyte molecules was further enhanced with the addition of sodium borohydride as an alternative aggregating agent. The borohydride had the strongest impact on the SERS effect of the colloid consistent of large (0.5 µm) silver nanoparticles stabilized with aminodextran. The mixture colloid-borohydride-pyridine was stable for hours. The mechanism of borohydride in the colloids is discussed

  11. The silver nanowires synthesized using different molecule weight of polyvinyl pyrrolidone for controlling diameter and length by one-pot polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaidi; Triyana, K.; Suharyadi, E.; Harsojo; Hui, H.; Wu, L. Y. L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report our investigation on the effect of the molecular weight and molar ratio of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) for controlling diameter and length of the silver nanowires synthesized with a high-aspect-ratio. The silver nanowires synthesized by one-pot polyol method at a constant temperature oil bath of 130°C. Different molecule weights of PVP, i.e. 55 K, 360 K, and 1300 K were used combined with different molar ratios of [PVP:Ag]. The UV–vis spectrophotometry and Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were employed to characterize the silver nanowires. The results show that the molecular weight and molar ratio of [PVP:Ag] are very important for controlling growth and properties of the silver nanowires. The diameter and length of silver nanowires are obtained 80 to 140 nm and 30 to 70 µm, respectively. The higher molecular weight of PVP, the greater diameter and length of silver nanowires.

  12. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yan-yu; Yang, Hui; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Various parts of plants can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is eco-friendly way and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this project, Ginkgo biloba leaf, an abundantly available medicinal plant in China, was for the first time adopted as a reducing and stabilizing agent to synthesize smaller sized and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To improve the quality of AgNPs, the reduction was accelerated by changing the concentrations of initial Ag + (0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol/L) of the reaction mixture consisting of silver nitrate solution (AgNO 3 ) and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. At pH = 8 and lower AgNO 3 concentration (0.02 mol/L), a colloid consisting of well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles was obtained. The synthesized nanocrystals were successfully characterized by UV–vis and XRD. TEM images revealed the size of the spherical AgNPs ranged between 10–16 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of −NH 2 , −OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activities against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. Compared to traditional chemical methods, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract provides an easy green synthetical way. It is anticipated that the biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications. - Highlights: • Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were first prepared by a green synthetical way through Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract. • The synthesized AgNPs is of high crystallinity, stable and good dispersion with smaller sizes between 10–16 nm. • The achieved AgNPs exhibits good antibacterial activities. • The biosynthesis method is advantageous for its cost effectiveness, availability, portability, nontoxic and environmentally benign.

  13. A Novel Photosynthesis of Carboxymethyl Starch-Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The water soluble photoinitiator (PI) 4-(trimethyl ammonium methyl) benzophenone chloride is used for the first time in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). A new green synthesis method involves using PI/UV system, carboxymethyl starch (CMS), silver nitrate, and water. A mechanism of the reduction of silver ions to AgNPs by PI/UV system as well as by the newly born aldehydic groups was proposed. The synthesis process was assessed by UV-vis spectra and TEM of AgNPs colloidal solution. The highest absorbance was obtained using CMS, PI and AgNO3 concentrations of 10 g/L, 1 g/L, and 1 g/L, respectively; 40°C; 60 min; pH 7; and a material : liquor ratio 1 : 20. AgNPs so-obtained were stable in aqueous solution over a period of three weeks at room temperature (~25°C) and have round shape morphology. The sizes of synthesized AgNPs were in the range of 1–21 nm and the highest counts % of these particles were for particles of 6–10 and 1–3 nm, respectively. PMID:24672325

  14. A Novel Photosynthesis of Carboxymethyl Starch-Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. El-Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water soluble photoinitiator (PI 4-(trimethyl ammonium methyl benzophenone chloride is used for the first time in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. A new green synthesis method involves using PI/UV system, carboxymethyl starch (CMS, silver nitrate, and water. A mechanism of the reduction of silver ions to AgNPs by PI/UV system as well as by the newly born aldehydic groups was proposed. The synthesis process was assessed by UV-vis spectra and TEM of AgNPs colloidal solution. The highest absorbance was obtained using CMS, PI and AgNO3 concentrations of 10 g/L, 1 g/L, and 1 g/L, respectively; 40°C; 60 min; pH 7; and a material : liquor ratio 1 : 20. AgNPs so-obtained were stable in aqueous solution over a period of three weeks at room temperature (~25°C and have round shape morphology. The sizes of synthesized AgNPs were in the range of 1–21 nm and the highest counts % of these particles were for particles of 6–10 and 1–3 nm, respectively.

  15. Fabrication of porous silicon nanowires by MACE method in HF/H2O2/AgNO3 system at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the moderately and lightly doped porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) were fabricated by the ‘one-pot procedure’ metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) method in the HF/H2O2/AgNO3 system at room temperature. The effects of H2O2 concentration on the nanostructure of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were investigated. The experimental results indicate that porous structure can be introduced by the addition of H2O2 and the pore structure could be controlled by adjusting the concentration of H2O2. The H2O2 species replaces Ag+ as the oxidant and the Ag nanoparticles work as catalyst during the etching. And the concentration of H2O2 influences the nucleation and motility of Ag particles, which leads to formation of different porous structure within the nanowires. A mechanism based on the lateral etching which is catalyzed by Ag particles under the motivation by H2O2 reduction is proposed to explain the PSiNWs formation. PMID:24910568

  16. Silver Nitrate and Different Culture Vessels Influence High Frequency Microrhizome Induction In Vitro and Enhancement Growth of Turmeric Plantlet During Ex Vitro Acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cultivars of C. longa var. Lakadong were collected from Manipur having different topography. Curcumin content in different cultivars has been analyzed by using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (100 Bio-Carry Spectrophotometer. The curcuminoids content were analyzed and quantified for identification of best quality cultivar. Thoubal Cultivar with highest curcumin content (9.44% was subjected for tissue culture technique using different culture vessels and silver nitrate for rapid multiplication and scaling up of microrhizome production. High multiplication rate of 27.40�0.47 were obtained in Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with 3% sucrose + 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate. Effect of different culture vessels and silver nitrate were studied for microrhizome and multiple shoots formation. Relatively higher rate of shoots along with microrhizome (17.5�0.32 can be seen in Growtek which was grown without any plant growth regulator. Growtek was used for scaling up of microrhizome production in vitro and utmost microrhizome was produced in liquid Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with 8% sucrose, 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate (36.25�0.27. Addition of silver nitrate in the medium resulted in improvement of microrhizome induction in vitro. Higher concentration of silver nitrate (33, 44, 66, 88 ?M negatively affected the microrhizome and shoot multiplication and shows inhibition of tissue response completely. Analysis of in vitro derived plantlets during acclimatization shows that the exogenous applied of silver nitrate shows superior growth as compared to control. 90-95% of plantlets with and 75-80% plantlets without silver nitrate treatment were successfully established under ex vitro acclimatization. The protocol could be utilized for large scale production of true-to-type plantlets and as alternative

  17. Generation of Hybrid Peptide-Silver Nanoparticles for Antibacterial and Antifouling Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Seferji, Kholoud

    2018-05-01

    An alarming increase of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has made the demand for novel antibacterial agents, for example, more effective antibiotics, highly crucial. One of the oldest antimicrobial agents is elementary silver which has been used for thousands of years. Even in our days, elementary silver is used for medical purposes, such as for burns, wounds, and microbial infections. We have taken the effectiveness of elementary silver into consideration to generate novel antibacterial and antifouling agents. Our innovative antibacterial agents are hybrid peptide silver nanoparticles (CH-01-AgNPs) that are created de novo and in situ from a silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) in the presence of ultrashort self-assembling peptides compounds. The nucleation of CH-01-AgNPs is initiated by irradiating the peptide solution mixed with the AgNO3 solution using ultraviolet (UV) light at a wavelength of 254 nm, in the absence of any reducing or capping agents. Obviously, the peptide itself serves as the reducing agent. The ultrashort peptides are four amino acids in length with an innate ability to self-assemble into nanofibrous scaffolds. Using these ultrashort peptides CH-01 we were able to create hybrid peptide silver nanoparticles CH-01-AgNPs with a diameter of 4-6 nm. The synthesized CH-01-AgNPs were further characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The antibacterial and antifouling activity of CH-01-AgNPs were then investigated using either gram-negative bacteria, such as antibiotic-resistant Top10 Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PDO300, or gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976. The hybrid nanoparticles demonstrated very promising antibacterial and antifouling activity with higher antibacterial and antifouling activity as commercial silver nanoparticles. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) results showed

  18. Liquid radiation detectors based on nano-silver surface plasmon resonance phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puiso, J.; Laurikaitiene, J.; Adliene, D.; Prosycevas, I.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of micro- and nano-structures containing silver nano-particles is based on their unique physical properties. Despite the new applications of silver nano-particles in nano-medicine are under heavy discussions, silver nano-particles could be used in liquid radiation detectors thanks to the irradiation-induced surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomena observed in the colloidal solutions. Silver nitrate (1 mM AgNO 3 ) and sodium citrate (1 wt% and 5 wt% C 6 H 5 O 7 Na 3 ) were used as precursors for the fabrication of colloidal solutions. Prepared solutions were exposed to gamma-rays from a 60 Co gamma therapy unit 'Rokus-M' to varying absorbed doses, from 2 to 250 Gy. A UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer (Avantes-2048) was used for the measurement of the optical properties (absorbance) of the silver solutions. It was found that an initial absorbed dose of 2 Gy induced the formation of spherical silver nano-particles as it was indicated in the absorbance spectrum of the solution, which had a well-pronounced absorption maximum at the wavelength of 410 nm. There is a potential to measure absorbed doses down to around 20 mGy. The SPR peaks at the wavelengths of 500-700 nm were found at the highest investigated doses > 100 Gy, indicating the presence of silver nano-rods. The colour of colloidal solutions ranged from pale yellow to green and was dependent on the absorbed dose. The investigation has shown that density, size and shape of synthesised silver nano-particles are dependent on the absorbed dose and that shape transformations of the particles due to irradiation are possible. Application of colloidal solutions containing silver nano-particles for dosimetric purposes is discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (authors)

  19. Polyaniline–silver composites prepared by the oxidation of aniline with silver nitrate in solutions of sulfonic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.; Varga, M.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 10 (2011), s. 3580-3585 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA AV ČR IAA100500902; GA ČR GA203/08/0686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conductivity * polyaniline * silver Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.832, year: 2011

  20. The Analysis of Silver Nanoparticles After the Manipulation of Synthesis Parameters and with the Addition of Potassium 2-(9-Carboxy-1-Octylnonylsulfanyl)-Malonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, S.Y.; Hakam, M.A.O.; Goh, S.C.; Yarmo, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This research aimed to synthesize and characterize silver nanoparticles by manipulating the parameters involved in stabilizing the particles. The silver nanoparticles in this research were synthesized by reduction process of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) with sodium borohydrate (NaBH 4 ) as the reducing agent. The addition of potassium 2- (9-carboxy-1-octylnonylsulfanyl)-malonate into silver nanoparticles solution functioned as a stabilizing agent. The parameters involved in this research were the effect of time towards stability of silver nanoparticles, the effect of addition of potassium 2-(9-carboxy-1-octylnonylsulfanyl)- malonate and the pH level effect towards the synthesized silver nanoparticles. Based on the results obtained from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), we have observed that the incorporation of potassium 2-(9-carboxy-1- octyl-nonanesulfonyl)-malonate as the stabilizing agent can prevent the agglomeration of silver nanoparticles within 16 days which is a breakthrough for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using sodium borohydride. The micrograph showed that the size of silver nanoparticles synthesized were within the range of 1.5 nm to 8.3 nm. In addition to that, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) technique was used in this research to measure the average size of the silver nanoparticles which stabilized with potassium 2-(9-carboxy-1-octyl-nonanesulfonyl)-malonate. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out to view the effect of manipulated pH level on crystalline silver nanoparticles structure. The XRD diffractogram showed the diffraction peaks which can be indexed to planes of face- centered cubic (fcc) of pure silver. (author)

  1. A photochemical approach designed to improve the coating of nanoscale silver films onto food plastic wrappings intended to control bacterial hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustatea, Gabriel; Vidal, Loïc; Calinescu, Ioan; Dobre, Alina; Ionescu, Mariana; Balan, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic silver film was directly generated on a variety of substrates through a facile and environmentally friendly method, which involves a UV-photoreduction process without any reducing or stabilizing agent and requiring no thermal step. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles (3–11 nm) were generated from hydroalcoholic AgNO 3 solution and directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps, low density polyethylene film, and polyvinyl chloride. The natural antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated. The correlation between silver migration and antimicrobial activity of silver-functionalized substrates against pure strains of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) was demonstrated. By way of illustration, food plastic wraps top-coated in this way exhibited a high antibacterial activity. The metal nanoparticle film obtained in this way was characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver nitrate concentration, and nature of the free radicals generator) on their formation was studied. Moreover, by shaping the actinic beam with an appropriate device, it is very easy to pattern the brown yellow silver nanofilm or to print messages in plain text

  2. A photochemical approach designed to improve the coating of nanoscale silver films onto food plastic wrappings intended to control bacterial hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustatea, Gabriel; Vidal, Loïc; Calinescu, Ioan; Dobre, Alina; Ionescu, Mariana; Balan, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic silver film was directly generated on a variety of substrates through a facile and environmentally friendly method, which involves a UV-photoreduction process without any reducing or stabilizing agent and requiring no thermal step. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles (3-11 nm) were generated from hydroalcoholic AgNO3 solution and directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps, low density polyethylene film, and polyvinyl chloride. The natural antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated. The correlation between silver migration and antimicrobial activity of silver-functionalized substrates against pure strains of gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus) was demonstrated. By way of illustration, food plastic wraps top-coated in this way exhibited a high antibacterial activity. The metal nanoparticle film obtained in this way was characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver nitrate concentration, and nature of the free radicals generator) on their formation was studied. Moreover, by shaping the actinic beam with an appropriate device, it is very easy to pattern the brown yellow silver nanofilm or to print messages in plain text.

  3. Study on the synthesis of antibacterial plastic by using silver nanoparticles doped in zeolite framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Anh Quoc; Dang Van Phu; Nguyen Ngoc Duy; Nguyen Thi Kim Lan; Vo Thi Kim Lang; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) doped in the zeolite framework (AgNPs/Z) were successfully synthesized by gamma irradiation in ethanol solution of silver ion-zeolite (Ag"+/Z) prepared by ion exchange reaction between silver nitrate (AgNO_3) and zeolite 4A. The effect of the Ag"+ concentration and irradiation dose on the formation of AgNPs/Z were also investigated. AgNPs/Z with the silver content of about 10,000 ppm and AgNPs size of about 27 nm was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Firstly, AgNPs/Z was added into PP resins for creation of PP-AgNPs/Z masterbatch (Ag content of ~1.000 ppm) and then PP-AgNPs/Z plastics were prepared by mixing masterbatch with PP resins. The antibacterial activity of the PP-AgNPs/Z plastics was investigated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli). The results showed that PP-AgNPs/Z plastic contained 100 ppm of Ag possessed a high antibacterial property, namely the bactericidal effect was more than 96% on the plastic surface. In conclusion, possessing many advantages such as: vigorously antimicrobial effect and good dispersion in plastic matrix, AgNPs/Z is promising to be applied as bactericidal agent for plastic industry. (author)

  4. Study on the synthesis of antibacterial plastic by using silver nanoparticles doped in zeolite framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Anh Quoc; Dang Van Phu; Nguyen Ngoc Duy; Nguyen Thi Kim Lan; Vo Thi Kim Lang; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) doped in the zeolite framework (AgNPs/Z) were successfully synthesized by γ-irradiation in ethanol solution of silver ion-zeolite (Ag"+/Z) prepared by ion exchange reaction between silver nitrate (AgNO_3) and zeolite 4A. The effects of the Ag"+ concentration and irradiation dose on the formation of AgNPs/Z were also investigated. AgNPs/Z with the silver content of about 10,000 ppm and the average particle size of AgNPs of about 27 nm was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Firstly, AgNPs/Z was added into PP resins for creation of PP-AgNPs/Z masterbatch (Ag content of ~10.000 ppm) and then PP-AgNPs/Z plastics were prepared by mixing masterbatch with PP resins. The antibacterial activity of the PP-AgNPs/Z plastics was investigated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli). The results showed that PPAgNPs/Z plastic contained 100 ppm of Ag possessed a high antibacterial property, namely the bactericidal effect was more than 96 % on the plastic surface. In conclusion, possessing many advantages such as: vigorously antibacterial effect and good dispersion in plastic matrix, AgNPs/Z is promising to be applied as bactericidal agent for plastic industry. (author)

  5. ROOM TEMPERATURE BULK SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOCABLES WRAPPED WITH POLYPYRROLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet chemical synthesis of silver cables wrapped with polypyrrole is reported in aqueous media without use of any surfactant/capping agent and/or template. The method employs direct polymerization of pyrrole of an aqueous solution with AgNO3 as an oxidizing agent. The four probe c...

  6. Comparison of methenamine silver nitrate and Giemsa stain for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from HIV infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, W; Kolmos, H J

    1989-01-01

    Seventy-seven bronchoalveolar lavages from human immunosuppressive virus infected patients with pulmonary symptoms were examined routinely for the presence of Pneumocystis carinii, using Giemsa stain to detect trophozoites and methenamine silver nitrate to detect cysts. Thirty-seven samples were...

  7. The silver(I nitrate complex of the ligand N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylpyrazine-2-carboxamide: a metal–organic framework (MOF structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilovan S. Cati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of silver(I nitrate with the mono-substituted pyrazine carboxamide ligand, N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (L, led to the formation of the title compound with a metal–organic framework (MOF structure, [Ag(C11H10N4O(NO3]n, poly[μ-nitrato-[μ-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl-κNpyrazine-2-carboxamide-κN4]silver(I]. The silver(I atom is coordinated by a pyrazine N atom, a pyridine N atom, and two O atoms of two symmetry-related nitrate anions. It has a fourfold N2O2 coordination sphere, which can be described as distorted trigonal–pyramidal. The ligands are bridged by the silver atoms forming –Ag–L–Ag–L– zigzag chains along the a-axis direction. The chains are arranged in pairs related by a twofold screw axis. They are linked via the nitrate anions, which bridge the silver(I atoms in a μ2 fashion, forming the MOF structure. Within the framework there are N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds present.

  8. One-pot silver nanoring synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Drogat , Nicolas; Granet , Robert; Sol , Vincent; Krausz , Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Silver colloidal nanorings have been synthesized by reducing silver ions with NaBH4 in trisodium citrate buffers. pH increase, by addition of NaOH, was used to speed up reduction reaction. The UV–vis absorption spectra of resulting silver nanorings showed two peaks accounting for transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon resonance, at ≈400 nm, and between 600 and 700 nm, respectively. The shapes of these silver nanoparticles (nanorings) depended on AgNO3/NaBH4 ratio, pH...

  9. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using bark extracts of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. and study of their antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manoja; Smita, Soumya Shuvra

    2018-03-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved using bark extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub., a native plant of Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia. The plant parts are familiar for ailment of different diseases. The bioactive compounds present in bark of the plant were extracted with Soxhlet extractor. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as a raw material for preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The ratio of bark extract and silver nitrate solution for synthesis of AgNPs was standardized as 3:5. The change in colour of the solution from pale yellow to deep brown can be correlated to reduction reaction catalyzed by plant bioactive compounds. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) maxima, λmax, were recorded at 452 nm. SPR indicates the nature and type of particles present in the solution. The suitable concentration of AgNO3 was found to be 10 mM to carry out reduction reaction with the bark extract. Alkaline environment (pH 9) suitably promotes the reaction. FTIR graph of synthesized AgNPs shows the shifting peak of 3265.0 wavelength/cm and 1635.40 wavelength/cm indicates that AgNPs were coated with plant biomolecules, which is attributed to the stabilization of AgNPs. XRD and SEM photograph of the AgNPs showed that they were spherical in shape and capped with bioactive compounds. Thus, the synthesized AgNPs are more stable, less toxic and homogenous in shape. The average diameter of the nanoparticles was 81 nm. The synthesized AgNPs had efficacy against a Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), a Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), and a mold (Aspergillus niger). The maximum conversion was 66%. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that the bioactive compounds present in the bark of Butea have the capacity to reduce silver ion into silver nanoparticles in aqueous condition and the synthesized AgNPs are stabilized and loss toxic. Moreover, they also possess

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of charge transfer complex formation between Silver Nitrate and Benzylcyanide in Solvent Ethylene Glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarress, H.; Shekaari, H.

    2003-01-01

    The formation constant for charge transfer complexes between electron acceptor (AgNo 3 ) and electron donor benzylcyanide (C 6 H 5 -CH 2 -C≡N) in solvent ethyleneglycol [(CH 2 OH) 2 ] has been evaluated by using the nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of aromatic group of benzylcyanide measured against external references, tetramethylsilane, hexamethyldisilane and cyclohexane at 20 d ig C . The external referencing procedure eliminated the interference of internal reference in the course of complexation. The necessary bulk magnetic susceptibility corrections on the measured chemical shifts have been made. The solution nationalised and their effects on the formation constant have been considered and a new equation has been suggested to obtain the main ionic activity coefficient of AgNO 3 from nuclear magnetic resonance results. The mean ionic activity coefficient has been taken into account in the formation constant calculations. The results indicated that the appropriate formation constant should be expressed in terms of activities. Also an equation have been derived to eliminate the undesirable effects on the nuclear magnetic resonance measured chemical shifts in calculating the constant. The selection of concentration domains and its effect on the calculated formation constant has been discussed and the new equation is modified to be independent of the concentration domains. In this equation the solution nationalised, by considering coefficients, have been taken in to account

  11. Polyacrylonitrile nanofibers coated with silver nanoparticles using a modified coaxial electrospinning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu DG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deng-Guang Yu,1 Jie Zhou,2 Nicholas P Chatterton,3 Ying Li,1 Jing Huang,2 Xia Wang11School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Faculty of Life Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London, United KingdomBackground: The objective of this investigation was to develop a new class of antibacterial material in the form of nanofibers coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using a modified coaxial electrospinning approach. Through manipulation of the distribution on the surface of nanofibers, the antibacterial effect of Ag can be improved substantially.Methods: Using polyacrylonitrile (PAN as the filament-forming polymer matrix, an electrospinnable PAN solution was prepared as the core fluid. A silver nitrate (AgNO3 solution was exploited as sheath fluid to carry out the modified coaxial electrospinning process under varied sheath-to-core flow rate ratios.Results: Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the sheath AgNO3 solution can take a role in reducing the nanofibers' diameters significantly, a sheath-to-core flow rate ratio of 0.1 and 0.2 resulting in PAN nanofibers with diameters of 380 ± 110 nm and 230 ± 70 nm respectively. AgNPs are well distributed on the surface of PAN nanofibers. The antibacterial experiments demonstrated that these nanofibers show strong antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis Wb800, and Escherichia coli dh5α.Conclusion: Coaxial electrospinning with AgNO3 solution as sheath fluid not only facilitates the electrospinning process, providing nanofibers with reduced diameters, but also allows functionalization of the nanofibers through coating with functional ingredients, effectively ensuring that the active antibacterial component is on the surface of the material, which leads to

  12. silver nanoparticles on liver cancer cells (HepG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. El-Batal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates a novel approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs against human liver cancer cell line (HepG2 using prodigiosin pigment isolated from Serratia marcescens. It further investigates the influence of various parameters such as initial pH, temperature, silver nitrate (AgNO 3 concentration, and prodigiosin concentration on stability and optical properties of synthesized prodigiosin AgNPs. Highly stable, spherical prodigiosin-conjugated AgNPs were synthesized with a mean diameter of 9.98 nm using a rapid one-step method. The cytotoxic activity investigated in the present study indicated that prodigiosin and prodigiosin-conjugated AgNPs possessed a strong cytotoxic potency against human liver cancer. The In silico molecular docking results of prodigiosin and prodigiosin-conjugated AgNPs are congruent with the In vitro studies and these AgNPs can be considered as good inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MEK kinases. The study opened the possibility of using prodigiosin-conjugated AgNPs to increase the efficiency of liver cancer treatment.

  13. Eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles with enhanced bactericidal activity and study of silver catalyzed reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Sivakumar, A

    2014-07-15

    The present study reports a simple and robust method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. Stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanopoarticles (AuNPs) were formed on treatment of an aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solutions with the root extract. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). UV-Vis and TEM analysis indicate that with higher quantities of root extract, the interaction is enhanced leading to size reduction of spherical metal nanoparticles. XRD confirms face-centered cubic phase and the diffraction peaks can be attributed to (111), (200), (222) and (311) planes for these nanoparticles. These synthesized Ag and Au nanoparticles were found to exhibit excellent bactericidal activity against clinically isolated selected pathogens such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The synthesized AgNPs were also found to function as an efficient green catalyst in the reduction of anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by sodium borohydride, which was apparent from the periodical color change from bright yellow to colorless, after the addition of AgNPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyaniline-silver composites prepared by the oxidation of aniline with mixed oxidants, silver nitrate and ammonium peroxydisulfate: the control of silver content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 26 (2011), s. 5947-5952 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA AV ČR IAA100500902; GA MŠk LA09028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * silver Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.438, year: 2011

  15. Sintering of nanoscale silver coated textiles, a new approach to attain conductive fabrics for electromagnetic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardarian, Kasra; Busani, Tito; Osório, Inês; Domingos, Helena; Igreja, Rui; Franco, Ricardo; Cortez, João

    2014-01-01

    The demand for conductive textiles is increasing, owing to the need for lightweight and flexible conductive materials for a variety of applications, including electromagnetic shielding of electronic equipment. Herein we propose a process that combines the in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles at the textile fibre surface followed by sintering of the nanoparticles to obtain highly conductive fabrics. The formation of silver particles at the nanoscale allowed for sintering to be performed efficiently, at reduced temperature and time, bestowing fabrics with high conductivity and capability of shielding electromagnetic radiation. The nanoparticle synthesis method entailed the precipitation of 2.0 g L −1 silver nitrate and further reduction with citrate, with the formation of a deposit of silver nanoparticles at the fabric surface. The amount of silver deposited (up to 195 mg of silver per g of fabric) resulted in moderate electrical conductivity with sheet resistance of 803 Ω/sq. Upon sintering, this value decreased dramatically to 5.2 Ω/sq. The sintering process was monitored by SEM, which showed that sintering at 200 °C for 30 min resulted in maximal electrical conductivity with the lowest amount of silver deposited, while forming a homogenous surface. Fabrics submitted to these sintering conditions maintained their sheet resistance and shielding effectiveness values, even after eight washing cycles. - Highlights: • Assembly of highly conductive textiles capable of shielding electromagnetic radiation. • Procedure combines in situ synthesis of AgNPs at the textile surface and sintering. • AgNPs formed by precipitation of AgNO 3 and reduction with citrate, as observed by SEM. • Sintering increased dramatically conductivity and shielding effectiveness. • Treated fabrics maintained conductivity and shielding effectiveness after 8 washes

  16. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.

    2002-01-01

    -specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above...... hypothesis. Therefore, sensitivity to AgNO3, in terms of either total measured silver or free Ag+, was reliably predicted from the whole body Na+ uptake rate in animals with body mass ranging over 6 orders of magnitude (from micrograms to grams). A positive log-log correlation between acute AgNO3 toxicity...

  17. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakić, Milorad; Glišić, Slobodan; Nikolić, Goran; Nikolić, Goran M.; Cakić, Katarina; Cvetinov, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs - DS) were synthesized from aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and dextran sulphate sodium salt (DS). The characterization of AgNPs - DS was performed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and antimicrobial activity. The formation of AgNPs - DS was monitored by colour changes of the reaction mixture from yellowish to brown and by measuring the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak in UV-VIS spectra at 420 nm. The SEM analysis was used for size and shape determination of AgNPs - DS. The presence of elemental silver and its crystalline structure in AgNPs - DS were confirmed by EDX and XRD analyses. The possible functional groups of DS responsible for the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs were determinated by FTIR spectroscopy. The AgNPs - DS showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Bacillus luteus in haus strain, Bacillus subtilis ATTC 6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Escherichia coli ATTC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATTC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATTC 700603, Proteus vulgaris ATTC 8427, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATTC 2091.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of lithium fluoride nano crystals doped with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario M, B. R.; Ramirez C, G.; Encarnacion E, E. K.; Sosa A, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Thermoluminescence (Tl) is the emission of light by certain materials to be heated below its incandescence temperature, having previously been exposed to an exciting agent such as ionizing radiation. Lithium fluoride (LiF) is the thermoluminescent material used in the manufacture of Tl-100 dosimeters. What morphological characteristics (size, crystallinity) do the nano crystals of pure lithium fluoride (LiF) have when doped with silver (Ag) by the precipitation method? The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize the LiF nano crystals doped with silver (Ag) in concentrations of 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1 and 0.2%. The samples were synthesized using as reagents; distilled water, ammonium fluoride (NH 4 F), lithium chloride (LiCl), silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ); and materials such as: 0.1 mg precision balance, spatulas, test piece, magnetic stirrer, beaker, volumetric flask, burette, burette clamp, key and magnetic stirring wand. In the characterization process we used and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) with which we obtained the X-ray diffraction spectrum with well-defined peaks that are characteristic of LiF. Using the Scherrer equation we calculate the sizes of nano crystals. This study demonstrates that is possible to synthesize LiF using new dopant materials. (Author)

  19. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and the Study of Optical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Vasireddy, Ramakrishna; Paul, Rima; Mitra, Apurba Krishna

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles of varying size has been achieved using different molar concentrations of NaOH while the effect of changing the temperature has been studied. AgNO3, gelatine, glucose and NaOH are used as a silver precursor, stabilizer, reducing agent and accelerator respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by a FESEM study, X‐ray diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy and UV‐vis spectroscopy. The colloidal sols of the silver nanoparticles in a biop...

  20. Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae submitted at the flooding and the "Ethrel" and silver nitrate application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane M. Davanso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-month-old Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae plants cultivated in the greenhouse were submitted to 56 days of flooding and to "Ethrel" and silver nitrate applications to find out it’s capacity for morphological and physiological modifications to survive under flooding conditions and at which degree such responses were correlated with alterations in the ethylene level. Flooding and the "Ethrel" application caused growth reduction and epinasty in T. avellanedae and the application of silver nitrate lessened some these symptoms. Certain symptoms shown during flooding by this species and its ability to develop structures which lessen hypoxia effects, such as stem fissures and hypertrophied lenticels in the roots, modifications which enable the species to adapt to short flooding periods, could be related to increases in the ethylene concentration in the plant tissues.Plantas de Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae com três meses de idade e cultivadas em casa de vegetação, foram submetidas a 56 dias alagamento e à aplicação de "Ethrel" e de nitrato de prata. Objetivou-se verificar qual a capacidade desta espécie apresentar modificações morfológicas e fisiológicas para sobreviver durante períodos de inundação e em que grau tais respostas podem estar relacionadas com alterações nos níveis de etileno. O alagamento e a aplicação de "Ethrel" provocaram redução do crescimento e epinastia em T. avellanedae e a aplicação de nitrato prata amenizou em certos aspectos estes efeitos. Alguns sintomas apresentados por esta espécie durante a inundação e sua capacidade de desenvolver estruturas que amenizam os efeitosda hipoxia, como rachaduras corticaise hipertrofia de lenticelas nas raízes (modificações que possibilitaram a adaptação a curtos períodos de inundação podem estar relacionados a aumentos na concentração de etileno nos tecidos da planta.

  1. Silver modified platinum surface/H{sup +} conducting Nafion membrane for cathodic reduction of nitrate ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnat, M.A., E-mail: mahtazim@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Physical Sciences, Shahajalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Ahamad, N.; Nizam Uddin, S.M. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Physical Sciences, Shahajalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Mohamed, Norita [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-01-15

    Electrocatalytic reduction of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was performed at an Ag modified Pt electrodes supported on a H{sup +} conducting Nafion-117 polymer electrolyte. The cyclic voltammetric and electrolysis experiments showed that the reduction process was a two-electron transfer reaction. The conversion of nitrate to nitrite follows first order kinetics. Controlled potential electrolysis experiments revealed that the highest reduction rate (k{sub 1}; 95.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} min{sup -1}) could be obtained at -1.3 V versus Ag/AgCl (std. KCl) reference electrode. Meanwhile, substantial nitrate removal (ca. 89%) could be attained by a flow system when the flow rate is as low as 0.1 ml min{sup -1}. The Ag particles on the Pt film were a in polycrystalline state having roughness value of 0.45 {mu}m, which was reduced to 0.30 {mu}m after 270 min of undergoing electrolysis.

  2. Eco-friendly biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb. Miers and evaluate its antibacterial, antioxidant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Selvam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports an eco-friendly, rapid and easy method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Tinospora cordifolia as a reducing and capping agent. The different factor such as silver nitrate (AgNO3 concentration, fresh weight of T. cordifolia leaf, incubation time, and pH affecting silver reduction was investigated using Response surface methodology based Box–Behnken design (BBD. The optimum conditions were AgNO3 (1.25 mM, incubation time (15 h, Temperature (45 °C and pH (4.5. T. cordifolia leaf extract can reduces silver ions into AgNPs within 30 min after heating the reaction mixture (60 °C as indicated by the developed reddish brown color. The UV-Vis spectrum of AgNPs revealed a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR peak at 430 nm. AgNPs were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed their crystalline nature and their average size of nanoparticles was 30 nm as determined by using Scherrer's equation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy affirmed the role of T. cordifolia leaf extract as a reducing and capping agent of silver ions. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS showed spherical shaped and confirming presence of elemental silver. The synthesized AgNPs was found higher antioxidant activity than plant extract by dot plot assay. In addition, antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus sp. (NCBI-Accession: KC688883.1 and Klebsiella sp. (NCBI-Accession: KF649832.1, showed maximum zone of inhibition of 13 mm and 12.3 mm, respectively, at 10 μg/mL of AgNPs. From the results it is suggested that the synthesized AgNPs showed higher antioxidant and antibacterial activity than the plant extract, thus signification of the present study is the production of biomedical products.

  3. Photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of a TiO2/nylon-6 electrospun nanocomposite mat containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Hem Raj; Pandeya, Dipendra Raj; Nam, Ki Taek; Baek, Woo-il; Hong, Seong Tshool; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-01-01

    Silver-impregnated TiO 2 /nylon-6 nanocomposite mats exhibit excellent characteristics as a filter media with good photocatalytic and antibacterial properties and durability for repeated use. Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully embedded in electrospun TiO 2 /nylon-6 composite nanofibers through the photocatalytic reduction of silver nitrate solution under UV-light irradiation. TiO 2 NPs present in nylon-6 solution were able to cause the formation of a high aspect ratio spider-wave-like structure during electrospinning and facilitated the UV photoreduction of AgNO 3 to Ag. TEM images, UV-visible and XRD spectra confirmed that monodisperse Ag NPs (approximately 4 nm in size) were deposited selectively upon the TiO 2 NPs of the prepared nanocomposite mat. The antibacterial property of a TiO 2 /nylon-6 composite mat loaded with Ag NPs was tested against Escherichia coli, and the photoactive property was tested against methylene blue. All of the results showed that TiO 2 /nylon-6 nanocomposite mats loaded with Ag NPs are more effective than composite mats without Ag NPs. The prepared material has potential as an economically friendly photocatalyst and water filter media because it allows the NPs to be reused.

  4. Nanowires of silver-polyaniline nanocomposite synthesized via in situ polymerization and its novel functionality as an antibacterial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Mohaseen S; Kulkarni, Milind V; Patil, Rajendra H; Gade, Wasudev N; Navale, Shalaka C; Kale, Bharat B

    2012-04-01

    Silver-polyaniline (Ag-PANI) nanocomposite was synthesized by in situ polymerization method using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an oxidizing agent in the presence of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) and silver nitrate (AgNO(3)). The as synthesized Ag-PANI nanocomposite was characterized by using different analytical techniques such as UV-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV-visible spectra of the synthesized nanocomposite showed a sharp peak at ~420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded in the polymer matrix which is overlapped by the polaronic peak of polyaniline appearing at that wavelength. Nanowires of Ag-PANI nanocomposite with diameter 50-70 nm were observed in FE-SEM and TEM. TGA has indicated an enhanced thermal stability of nanocomposite as compared to that of pure polymer. The Ag-PANI nanocomposite has shown an antibacterial activity against model organisms, a gram positive Bacillus subtilis NCIM 6633 in Mueller-Hinton (MH) medium, which is hitherto unattempted. The Ag-PANI nanocomposite with monodispersed AgNPs is considered to have potential applications in sensors, catalysis, batteries and electronic devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Green chemistry focus on optimization of silver nanoparticles using response surface methodology (RSM) and mosquitocidal activity: Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondari Nyakundi, Erick; Padmanabhan, M Nalini

    2015-01-01

    There is an exigent necessity for development of environmental friendly bio-control agent(s) for elimination of mosquito due to increased resistance resurgence against synthetic control agents. Mosquito control strategy will lay a strong foundation to malaria exclusion or it can be curbed to certain level especially in the developing nations. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Tridax procumbens leaf extract as a reducing agent. The reaction medium involved in the synthesis process was optimized by statistical experimental design using response surface methodology to obtain better yield, uniform size, shape and stability. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed through UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, PSA and SEM Subsequently, the bioefficacy of these particles were investigated on Anopheles stephensi for larvicidal and pupicidal activity. Interestingly, time period of 90 min, temperature of 76±2 °C, pH 7.2±2, 2 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3), 3mM PEG and 2mM PVP showed excellent parameters for bioprocess design for large scale production of stabilized nanoparticles. A concentration of 5 ppm of PVP stabilized nanoparticles exhibited 100% mortality. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles stabilized by PEG and PVP may have important function as stabilizers, dispersants as well as larvicides for mosquito control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sida acuta extract for antimicrobial actions and corrosion inhibition potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Muhammad; Batool, Saima; Kalsoom, Tanzila; Raina, Sadaf; Sharif, Hafiz Muhammad Adeel; Yasmeen, Summera

    2018-02-12

    Nanotechnology exhibits a multidisciplinary area and gained interests for researchers. Nanoparticles produced via physical and chemical methods affects ecosystem drastically. Green synthesis is the charming technique that is inexpensive and safe for the environment. This study aimed to explore the antibacterial actions of as-synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. Also, the anti-corrosion actions confirmed that the Ag-NPs proved as good inhibitors. In this way, Ag-NPs were prepared via biosynthesis technique by consuming the ground leaves and stem of 'Sida acuta' as a capping agent. The Ag-NPs were formed by irradiation of the aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) with extract of S. acuta stem and leaves. The as-synthesized reaction mixture of Ag-NPs was found to exhibit an absorbance band at 446-447 nm, by an UV/VIS spectrophotometer, which is a characteristic of Ag-NPs due to the surface plasmon resonance absorption band. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for the confirmation of Ag-NPs' variety dimension, morphology and dispersion. The infrared spectra confirmed the bio-fabrication of the Ag-NPs displayed the existence of conceivable functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction and capping. The antimicrobial actions were measured and the zone of inhibition was compared with standard antibiotics.

  7. One pot light assisted green synthesis, storage and antimicrobial activity of dextran stabilized silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Shah, Abdullah; Jantan, Ibrahim; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ahmed, Riaz; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2014-12-03

    Green synthesis of nanomaterials finds the edge over chemical methods due to its environmental compatibility. Herein, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) mediated with dextran. Dextran was used as a stabilizer and capping agent to synthesize Ag NPs using silver nitrate (AgNO3) under diffused sunlight conditions. UV-vis spectra of as synthesized Ag nanoparticles showed characteristic surface plasmon band in the range from ~405-452 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies showed spherical Ag NPs in the size regime of ~50-70 nm. Face centered cubic lattice of Ag NPs was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed that dextran not only acts as reducing agent but also functionalizes the surfaces of Ag NPs to make very stable dispersions. Moreover, on drying, the solution of dextran stabilized Ag NPs resulted in the formation of thin films which were found stable over months with no change in the plasmon band of pristine Ag NPs. The antimicrobial assay of the as synthesized Ag NPs showed remarkable activity. Being significantly active against microbes, the Ag NPs can be explored for antimicrobial medical devices.

  8. In vitro cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of silver-coated electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatine nanofibrous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mim Mim; Sultana, Naznin

    2016-12-01

    The development of nano-sized scaffolds with antibacterial properties that mimic the architecture of tissue is one of the challenges in tissue engineering. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL/gelatine (Ge) (70:30) nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated using a less toxic and common solvent, formic acid and an electrospinning technique. Nanofibrous scaffolds were coated with silver (Ag) in different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) aqueous solution (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 %) by using dipping method, drying and followed by ultraviolet (UV) photoreduction. The PCL/Ge (70:30) nanofibrous scaffold had an average fibre diameter of 155.60 ± 41.13 nm. Characterization showed that Ag was physically entrapped in both the PCL and PCL/Ge (70:30) nanofibrous scaffolds. Ag + ions release study was performed and showed much lesser release amount than the maximum toxic concentration of Ag + ions in human cells. Both scaffolds were non-toxic to cells and demonstrated antibacterial effects towards Gram-positive Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli). The Ag/PCL/Ge (70:30) nanofibrous scaffold has potential for tissue engineering as it can protect wounds from bacterial infection and promote tissue regeneration.

  9. Improvement of date palm plant lets during rooting stage by silver ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf, M.M.; Khamis, M.A.; El Bana, A.; Abd El Galeil, L.M.; Zaid, Z.E.

    2012-01-01

    This study aim to promote growth plant lets of date palm cv. Zaghlool by decreasing ethylene production inside the containers during rooting stage. Data obtained declared that three silver thiosulphate (STS) levels added to one half strength MS rooting medium improved significantly three rooting measurements (rooting percentage; number and length of developed root lets). However, the lightest STS level (0.25 ml/L of 4 mM STS solution) was the superior, while highest one (1.0 ml/L) was the inferior from statistical point of view. Data obtained displayed that providing MS rooting medium with silver nitrate improved 3 rooting measurements (rooting %; number of root lets and their length) for Zaghloul date palm shoot lets proliferated from somatic embryos. However, the 0.50 mg/L AgNO 3 provided MS medium was the most preferable in this concern. Plant lets were transferred to capped tubes contained 1/4 liquid MS medium through 3 weeks in the growth chamber (under aseptic condition). Ventilation was allowed gradually by punching holes in aluminum foil caps during first five days of 2 nd week. After then, the plant lets were transplanted in acclimatization green house on mixture from (peat moss + perlite + vermiculite at 1:1:1) and survival percentage was 75% after three months.

  10. Time-course profiling of molecular stress responses to silver nanoparticles in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Simonsen, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    ) with reference to dissolved silver salt (AgNO3). Principal component analysis of selected gene and enzyme response profiles revealed dissimilar patterns between AgNO3 and AgNP treatments and also over time. Despite the observed difference in molecular profiles, the body burdens of total Ag were within the same...... range (10–40 mg/kg dry weight worm) for both treatments with apparent correlation to the induction pattern of metallothionein. AgNO3 induced the genes and enzymes related to oxidative stress at day 1, after which markers of energy metabolism were all suppressed at day 2. Exposure to AgNPs likewise led...... to induction of oxidative stress genes at day 2, but with a temporal pattern shift to immune genes at day 14 following metabolic upregulation at day 7. The involvement of oxidative stress and subsequent alterations in immune gene regulation were as predicted by our in vitro study reported previously...

  11. 'Chocolate' silver nanoparticles: Synthesis, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Neelika Roy; MacGregor-Ramiasa, Melanie; Zilm, Peter; Majewski, Peter; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2016-11-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a powerful weapon against antibiotic resistant microorganisms. However, most conventional AgNPs syntheses require the use of hazardous chemicals and generate toxic organic waste. Hence, in recent year's, plant derived and biomolecule based synthetics have has gained much attention. Cacao has been used for years for its medicinal benefits and contains a powerful reducing agent - oxalic acid. We hypothesized that, due to the presence of oxalic acid, cacao extract is capable of reducing silver nitrate (AgNO3) to produce AgNPs. In this study, AgNPs were synthesized by using natural cacao extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The reaction temperature, time and reactant molarity were varied to optimize the synthesis yield. UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AgNPs were spherical particles ranging in size from 35 to 42.5nm. The synthesized AgNPs showed significant antibacterial activity against clinically relevant pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Importantly, these green AgNPs are not cytotoxic to human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) at concentrations below 32μg/ml. We conclude that cacao-based synthesis is a reproducible and sustainable method for the generation of stable antimicrobial silver nanoparticles with low cytotoxicity to human cells. The AgNPs synthesized in this work have promising properties for applications in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibacterial and cytotoxic efficacy of extracellular silver nanoparticles biofabricated from chromium reducing novel OS4 strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Oves

    Full Text Available Biofabricated metal nanoparticles are generally biocompatible, inexpensive, and ecofriendly, therefore, are used preferably in industries, medical and material science research. Considering the importance of biofabricated materials, we isolated, characterized and identified a novel bacterial strain OS4 of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (GenBank: JN247637.1. At neutral pH, this Gram negative bacterial strain significantly reduced hexavalent chromium, an important heavy metal contaminant found in the tannery effluents and minings. Subsequently, even at room temperature the supernatant of log phase grown culture of strain OS4 also reduced silver nitrate (AgNO3 to generate nanoparticles (AgNPs. These AgNPs were further characterized by UV-visible, Nanophox particle size analyzer, XRD, SEM and FTIR. As evident from the FTIR data, plausibly the protein components of supernatant caused the reduction of AgNO3. The cuboid and homogenous AgNPs showed a characteristic UV-visible peak at 428 nm with average size of ~93 nm. The XRD spectra exhibited the characteristic Bragg peaks of 111, 200, 220 and 311 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. From the nanoparticle release kinetics data, the rapid release of AgNPs was correlated with the particle size and increasing surface area of the nanoparticles. A highly significant antimicrobial activity against medically important bacteria by the biofabricated AgNPs was also revealed as decline in growth of Staphylococcus aureus (91%, Escherichia coli (69% and Serratia marcescens (66% substantially. Additionally, different cytotoxic assays showed no toxicity of AgNPs to liver function, RBCs, splenocytes and HeLa cells, hence these particles were safe to use. Therefore, this novel bacterial strain OS4 is likely to provide broad spectrum benefits for curing chromium polluted sites, for biofabrication of AgNPs and ultimately in the

  13. Branchial versus intestinal silver toxicity and uptake in the marine teleost Parophrys vetulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Wood, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to elevated waterborne silver as AgNO3 (4.07 µM=448 µg l-1) in seawater resulted in osmoregulatory disturbance in the lemon sole (Parophrys vetulus). The main effects were increased plasma Na+ and Cl- concentrations which translated into increased plasma osmolality. Plasma Mg2+ levels were...

  14. Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of a thin silver layer deposited onto PET film via atmospheric pressure plasma reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyo-Jun; Dao, Van-Duong; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the first use of a plasma reduction reaction under atmospheric pressure to fabricate a thin silver layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film without the use of toxic chemicals, high voltages, or an expensive vacuum apparatus. The developed film is applied to electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. After repeatedly depositing a silver layer through a plasma reduction reaction on PET, we can successfully fabricate a uniformly deposited thin silver layer. It was found that both the particle size and film thickness of thin silver layers fabricated at different AgNO3 concentrations increase with an increase in the concentration of AgNO3. However, the roughness of the thin silver layer decreases when increasing the concentration of AgNO3 from 100 to 500 mM, and the roughness increases with a further increase in the concentration of AgNO3. The EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) of the film is measured in the frequency range of 0.045 to 1 GHz. As a result of optimizing the electrical conductivity by measuring sheet resistance of the thin silver layer, the film fabricated from 500 mM AgNO3 exhibits the highest EMI SE among all fabricated films. The maximum values of the EMI SE are 60.490 dB at 0.1 GHz and 54.721 dB at 1.0 GHz with minimum sheet resistance of 0.244 Ω/□. Given that the proposed strategy is simple and effective, it is promising for fabricating various low-cost metal films with high EMI SE.

  15. Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Prunus japonica (Rosaceae) leaf extract and their antibacterial, antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Arthanari; Peng, Mei Mei; Ganesh, Mani; Jayaprakash, Jayabalan; Mohankumar, Murugan; Jang, Hyun Tae

    2017-09-01

    Low cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) using Prunus japonica leaves extract as reducing agent by a simple method at room temperature. The biosynthesized nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by UV-Vis, tunneling electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In UV-Vis spectroscopy results, the λ max was observed at 441 nm. The AgNPs synthesized were spherical, hexagonal, and irregular in shapes. The EDAX and XRD spectrum confirmed the presence of silver ions and crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs. FTIR showed the functional groups such as C = O, N-H and C-N groups involved in the reduction of Ag +  to Ag. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was performed and it showed the percentage inhibition in concentration-dependent manner. The synthesized AgNPs showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus to different extents and the higher activity was observed in Proteus vulgaris.

  16. A comparative study of the effect of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins as stabilizing agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a green chemistry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Cerda, Javier; Nuñez, Gabriel Alonso; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Flores-López, Lucía Z

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the effect of different types of cyclodextrins (CDs) in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), using an easy green chemistry method. The Ag-NPs were obtained using an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) with α-, β-, or γ-CDs (aqueous solutions) as stabilizing agents, employing the chemical reduction method with citric acid as a reducing agent. A comparative study was done to determine which cyclodextrin (CD) was the best stabilizing agent, and we found out that β-CD was the best due to the number of glucopyranose units in its structure. The formation of the Ag-NPs was demonstrated by analysis of UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM-EDS showed the formation of a cluster with a significant amount of silver, for β-CD-Ag-NPs, spherical agglomerates can be observed. However, for α-, γ-CD, the agglomerates do not have a specific form, but their appearance is porous. TEM analysis shows spherical nanoparticles in shape and size between ~0.5 to 7 nm. The clear lattice fringes in TEM images and the typical selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, showed that the Ag-NPs obtained were highly crystalline with a face cubic center structure (FCC). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Bambusa arundinacea leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Bharat; Shyam, Vasvani; Kaushik, Babiya; Vasoya, Jaydeep; Joseph, Joyce; Savaliya, Chirag; Kumar, Sumit; Parikh, Sachin P.; Thakar, C. M.; Pandya, D. D.; Ravalia, A. B.; Markna, J. H.; Shah, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles using ecofriendly way is an interesting area in advance nanotechnology. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles are usually synthesized by chemicals route, which are quite flammable and toxic in nature. This study deals with a biosynthesis process (environment friendly) of silver nanoparticles using Bambusa arundinacea leaves for its antibacterial activity. The formation and characterization of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from AgNO3 through a simple green route using the latex of Bambusa arundinacea leaves as reducing as well as capping agent. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study indicates the formation of grains (particles) with different size and shape.

  18. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Extracts of Mexican Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. L.; Baltazar, C.; Torres, M.; Ruız, A.; Esparza, R.; Rosas, G.

    The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of Agastache mexicana and Tecoma stans was carried out. The AgNO3 concentration and extract concentration was varied to evaluate their influence on the nanoparticles characteristics such as size and shape. Several characterization techniques were employed. UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the surface plasmon resonance in the range of 400-500 nm. The X-Ray diffraction results showed that the nanoparticles have a face-centered cubic structure. SEM results confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles with spherical morphologies. Finally, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Escherichia coli bacteria.

  19. Characterization and electrocatalytic application of silver modified polypyrrole electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    A. DEKANSKI; S. TERZIC; V. M. JOVANOVIC

    2005-01-01

    Silver modified polypyrrole electrodeswere preparedwith the aim of testing them for the electrooxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline solution. The modification of polypyrrole by immersion in aqueous AgNO3 solution was studied by cyclic voltammetry and vacuum techniques (AES and XPS). The influence of time of immersion and the thickness of the polypyrrole film, prepared by electrochemical polymerization, on the modification of the polymer were examined. The results acquired from both electroch...

  20. One-Pot Silver Nanoring Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drogat Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silver colloidal nanorings have been synthesized by reducing silver ions with NaBH4 in trisodium citrate buffers. pH increase, by addition of NaOH, was used to speed up reduction reaction. The UV–vis absorption spectra of resulting silver nanorings showed two peaks accounting for transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon resonance, at ≈400 nm, and between 600 and 700 nm, respectively. The shapes of these silver nanoparticles (nanorings depended on AgNO3/NaBH4 ratio, pH and reaction temperature. Particles were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. A reaction pathway is proposed to explain silver nanoring formation.

  1. One-Pot Silver Nanoring Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogat, Nicolas; Granet, Robert; Sol, Vincent; Krausz, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    Silver colloidal nanorings have been synthesized by reducing silver ions with NaBH4 in trisodium citrate buffers. pH increase, by addition of NaOH, was used to speed up reduction reaction. The UV-vis absorption spectra of resulting silver nanorings showed two peaks accounting for transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon resonance, at ≈400 nm, and between 600 and 700 nm, respectively. The shapes of these silver nanoparticles (nanorings) depended on AgNO3/NaBH4 ratio, pH and reaction temperature. Particles were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. A reaction pathway is proposed to explain silver nanoring formation.

  2. Collagen-based silver nanoparticles: Study on cell viability, skin permeation, and swelling inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saura Cardoso, Vinicius; Carvalho Filgueiras, Marcelo de; Medeiros Dutra, Yago; Gomes Teles, Ramon Handerson; Rodrigues de Araújo, Alyne; Primo, Fernando Lucas; Mafud, Ana Carolina; Batista, Larissa Fernandes; Mascarenhas, Yvonne Primerano

    2017-01-01

    Collagen is considered the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom, comprising 30% of the total amount of proteins and 6% of the human body by weight. Studies that examine the interaction between silver nanoparticles and proteins have been highlighted in the literature in order to understand the stability of the nanoparticle system, the effects observed in biological systems, and the appearance of new chemical pharmaceutical products. The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of silver nanoparticles stabilized with collagen (AgNPcol) and to check the skin permeation capacity and action in paw edema induced by carrageenan. AgNPcol synthesis was carried out using solutions of reducing agent sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ), silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) and collagen. Characterization was done by using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and AFM. Cellular viability testing was performed by using flow cytometry in human melanoma cancer (MV3) and murine fibroblast (L929) cells. The skin permeation study was conducted using a Franz diffusion cell, and the efficiency of AgNPcol against the formation of paw edema in mice was evaluated. The hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential of AgNPcol were 140.7 ± 7.8 nm and 20.1 ± 0.7 mV, respectively. AgNPcol failed to induce early apoptosis, late apoptosis, and necrosis in L929 cells; however, it exhibited enhanced toxicity in cancer cells (MV3) compared to normal cells (L929). AgNPcol demonstrated increased toxicological effects in cancer MV3 cells, promoting skin permeation, and preventing paw edema. - Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were synthesized with type I collagen (AgNPcol). • AgNPcol which was characterized by XRD and DLS. • AgNPcol exhibited enhanced toxicity in cancer cells. • The efficiency of the AgNPcol against the paw edema was evaluated.

  3. Synthesis of different-sized silver nanoparticles by simply varying reaction conditions with leaf extracts of Bauhinia variegata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Yadav, S K

    2012-03-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the crucial requirements in today's climate change scenario all over the world. In view of this, leaf extract (LE) of Bauhinia variegata L. possessing strong antidiabetic and antibacterial properties has been used to synthesise silver nanoparticles (SNP) in a controlled manner. Various-sized SNP (20-120 nm) were synthesised by varying incubation temperature, silver nitrate and LE concentrations. The rate of SNP synthesis and their size increased with increase in AgNO(3) concentration up to 4 mM. With increase in LE concentration, size and aggregation of SNP was increased. The size and aggregation of SNP were also increased at temperatures above and below 40°C. This has suggested that size and dispersion of SNP can be controlled by varying reaction components and conditions. Polarity-based fractionation of B. variegata LE has suggested that only water-soluble fraction is responsible for SNP synthesis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the attachment of polyphenolic and carbohydrate moieties to SNP. The synthesised SNPs were found stable in double distilled water, BSA and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). On the contrary, incubation of SNP with NaCl induced aggregation. This suggests the safe use of SNP for various in vivo applications.

  4. One-step synthesis and characterization of polyaniline nanofiber/silver nanoparticle composite networks as antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyraz, Selcuk; Cerkez, Idris; Huang, Tung Shi; Liu, Zhen; Kang, Litao; Luo, Jujie; Zhang, Xinyu

    2014-11-26

    Through a facile and effective seeding polymerization reaction via a one-step redox/complexation process, which took place in aqueous medium at ambient temperature, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) embedded polyaniline nanofiber (PANI NF) networks were synthesized as antibacterial agents. During the reaction, not only NF morphology formation of the resulting conducting polymers (CPs) but also amplification of the aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) solutions' oxidative potentials were managed by vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) sol-gel nanofibers, which acted as well-known nanofibrous seeding agents and the auxiliary oxidative agent at the same time. The PANI/Ag nanocomposites were proven to exhibit excellent antibacterial property against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial property performance and average life span of the nanocomposite network were optimized through the homogeneous distribution/embedment of Ag NPs within one-dimensional (1-D) PANI NF matrix. The antibacterial efficacy tests and nanocomposite material characterization results further indicated that the sole components of PANI/Ag have a synergistic effect to each other in terms of antibacterial property. Thus, this well-known catalytic seeding approach via a one-step oxidative polymerization reaction can be considered as a general methodology and a substantial fabrication tool to synthesize Ag NP decorated nanofibrillar PANI networks as advanced antibacterial agents.

  5. A comparative study of the effect of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins as stabilizing agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a green chemistry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez-Cerda, Javier; Nuñez, Gabriel Alonso; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Flores-López, Lucía Z.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of different types of cyclodextrins (CDs) in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), using an easy green chemistry method. The Ag-NPs were obtained using an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO 3 ) with α-, β-, or γ-CDs (aqueous solutions) as stabilizing agents, employing the chemical reduction method with citric acid as a reducing agent. A comparative study was done to determine which cyclodextrin (CD) was the best stabilizing agent, and we found out that β-CD was the best due to the number of glucopyranose units in its structure. The formation of the Ag-NPs was demonstrated by analysis of UV–vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM–EDS showed the formation of a cluster with a significant amount of silver, for β-CD-Ag-NPs, spherical agglomerates can be observed. However, for α-, γ-CD, the agglomerates do not have a specific form, but their appearance is porous. TEM analysis shows spherical nanoparticles in shape and size between ∼ 0.5 to 7 nm. The clear lattice fringes in TEM images and the typical selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, showed that the Ag-NPs obtained were highly crystalline with a face cubic center structure (FCC). - Highlights: • We report a green chemistry method for silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) synthesis. • We study the effect of cyclodextrin type on the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) synthesis. • The silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) characterization were done by UV–vis, AFM, SEM–EDS, and TEM. • The Ag-NPs obtained have a face cubic center structure (FCC). • The nanoparticles obtained are spherical in shape and between ∼ 0.5 and 7 nm in size

  6. Single Silver Nanoparticle Instillation Induced Early and Persisting Moderate Cortical Damage in Rat Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Roda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, administered by a single intratracheal instillation (i.t, was assessed in a rat model using commercial physico-chemical characterized nanosilver. Histopathological changes, overall toxic response and oxidative stress (kidney and plasma protein carbonylation, paralleled by ultrastructural observations (TEM, were evaluated to examine renal responses 7 and 28 days after i.t. application of a low AgNP dose (50 µg/rat, compared to an equivalent dose of ionic silver (7 µg AgNO3/rat. The AgNPs caused moderate renal histopathological and ultrastructural alteration, in a region-specific manner, being the cortex the most affected area. Notably, the bulk AgNO3, caused similar adverse effects with a slightly more marked extent, also triggering apoptotic phenomena. Specifically, 7 days after exposure to both AgNPs and AgNO3, dilatation of the intercapillary and peripheral Bowman’s space was observed, together with glomerular shrinkage. At day 28, these effects still persisted after both treatments, accompanied by an additional injury involving the vascular component of the mesangium, with interstitial micro-hemorrhages. Neither AgNPs nor AgNO3 induced oxidative stress effects in kidneys and plasma, at either time point. The AgNP-induced moderate renal effects indicate that, despite their benefits, novel AgNPs employed in consumer products need exhaustive investigation to ensure public health safety.

  7. Towards Environmentally-benign Nanoengineering: Antimicrobial Nanoparticles Based on Silver-infused Lignin Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Alexander Philipp

    Engineered nanomaterials are capable of solving challenges in industries important to society such as energy, agriculture, and health care. Antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most widely used nanoparticles by number of commercial products in commerce today. However, the increased introduction of AgNPs in industrial applications may lead to discharge of persistent nanoparticles in the environment and undesired impacts on living organisms. This dissertation will present a new class of antimicrobial environmentallybenign nanoparticles (EbNPs) designed with green chemistry principles, which can serve as highly efficient microbicide substitutes of the AgNPs. The EbNP core is made of biodegradable lignin, and is infused with an optimal amount of silver ions. We report on the fabrication of environmentally benign nanoparticles (EbNPs) using two types of lignin precursors with simple, inexpensive, and non-toxic processes, (i) by employing a solvent exchange precipitation method at room temperature and (ii) by applying an environmentally friendly water-based acid precipitation method. The synthesis of Organosolv (High Purity Lignin) nanoparticles via antisolvent flash precipitation method in water resulted in particles in the size range of 45 to 250 nm in diameter. We investigate the synthesis parameters of Kraft (Indulin AT) lignin nanoparticles by flash precipitation induced by pH drop in ethylene glycol. Furthermore, we evaluate the ionic strength and pH stability of both lignin nanoparticle suspensions and highlight differences in the systems. After silver ion infusion of Indulin AT nanoparticles followed by surface modification, we show that the EbNPs exhibit higher antimicrobial activity towards Gram-negative human pathogens Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive human pathogens Staphylococcus epidermidis in direct comparison with silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate solution, and that the particles are effective against

  8. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)–flavin containing monooxygenase-2 (FMO-2) signaling acts in silver nanoparticles and silver ion toxicity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Hyun-Jeong; Ahn, Jeong-Min; Kim, Younghun; Choi, Jinhee

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, nanotoxicity mechanism associated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) exposure was investigated on the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans focusing on the hypoxia response pathway. In order to test whether AgNPs-induced hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activation was due to hypoxia or to oxidative stress, depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the test media and a rescue effect using an antioxidant were investigated, respectively. The results suggested that oxidative stress was involved in activation of the HIF-1 pathway. We then investigated the toxicological implications of HIF-1 activation by examining the HIF-1 mediated transcriptional response. Of the genes tested, increased expression of the flavin containing monooxygenase-2 (FMO-2) gene was found to be the most significant as induced by AgNPs exposure. We found that AgNPs exposure induced FMO-2 activation in a HIF-1 and p38 MAPK PMK-1 dependent manner, and oxidative stress was involved in it. We conducted all experiments to include comparison of AgNPs and AgNO 3 in order to evaluate whether any observed toxicity was due to dissolution or particle specific. The AgNPs and AgNO 3 did not produce any qualitative differences in terms of exerting toxicity in the pathways observed in this study, however, considering equal amount of silver mass, in every endpoint tested the AgNPs were found to be more toxic than AgNO 3 . These results suggest that Ag nanotoxicity is dependent not only on dissolution of Ag ion but also on particle specific effects and HIF-1–FMO-2 pathway seems to be involved in it. - Highlights: • HIF-1 signaling was investigated in C. elegans exposed to AgNPs and AgNO 3 . • HIF-1 and PMK-1 were needed for AgNPs- and AgNO 3 -induced fmo-2 gene expression. • PMK-1–HIF-1–FMO-2 pathway was dependent on oxidative stress. • AgNPs and AgNO 3 did not produce any qualitative differences in HIF-1 signaling. • AgNPs were more toxic than an equal amount of silver mass contained

  9. Facile Precursor for Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Alkali Treated Maize Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rafie, M. H.; Ahmed, Hanan B.; Zahran, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were prepared by using alkali treated maize starch which plays a dual role as reducer for AgNO3 and stabilizer for the produced AgNPs. The redox reaction which takes a place between AgNO3 and alkali treated starch was followed up and controlled in order to obtain spherical shaped silver nanoparticles with mean size 4–6 nm. The redox potentials confirmed the principle role of alkali treatment in increasing the reducibility of starch macromolecules. The measurements of reducing sugars at the end of reaction using dinitrosalicylic acid reagent (DNS) were carried out in order to control the chemical reduction reaction. The UV/Vis spectra show that an absorption peak, occurring due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR), exists at 410 nm, which is characteristic to yellow color of silver nanoparticles solution. The samples have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which reveal the nanonature of the particles. PMID:27433508

  10. PREPARATION OF TITANIA SOL-GEL COATINGS CONTAINING SILVER IN VARIOUS FORMS AND MEASURING OF THEIR BACTERICIDAL EFFECTS AGAINST E. COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Horkavcova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The work describes titania coatings containing various forms of silver applied on a titanium substrate by a dip-coating sol-gel technique. Silver was added into the basic titania sol in form of colloid particles of Ag, crystals of AgNO3, particles of AgI, particles of Ag3PO4 and Ag3PO4 developed in situ (in the sol by reaction of AgNO3 with added calcium phosphate (brushite or monetite. Mechanically and chemically treated titanium substrates were dipped at a constant rate into individual types of sols. Subsequently, they were slowly fired. The fired coatings contained microcracks. All over the surface there were evenly distributed spherical nanoparticles of silver (Ag, AgNO3 or microcrystals of AgI and Ag3PO4. The prepared coatings were tested under static conditions for their bactericidal effects against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli. The coated substrates were immersed into a suspension of E. coli in physiological solution for 24 and 4 hours. The basic titania coatings with no silver demonstrated no bactericidal properties. Very good bactericidal effect against E. coli in both types of bactericidal test showed the titania coatings with AgNO3, Ag3PO4 crystals and Ag3PO4 developed in situ.

  11. Artificial Intelligence in Numerical Modeling of Silver Nanoparticles Prepared in Montmorillonite Interlayer Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Shabanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural network (ANN models have the capacity to eliminate the need for expensive experimental investigation in various areas of manufacturing processes, including the casting methods. An understanding of the interrelationships between input variables is essential for interpreting the sensitivity data and optimizing the design parameters. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs have attracted considerable attention for chemical, physical, and medical applications due to their exceptional properties. The nanocrystal silver was synthesized into an interlamellar space of montmorillonite by using the chemical reduction technique. The method has an advantage of size control which is essential in nanometals synthesis. Silver nanoparticles with nanosize and devoid of aggregation are favorable for several properties. In this investigation, the accuracy of artificial neural network training algorithm was applied in studying the effects of different parameters on the particles, including the AgNO3 concentration, reaction temperature, UV-visible wavelength, and montmorillonite (MMT d-spacing on the prediction of size of silver nanoparticles. Analysis of the variance showed that the AgNO3 concentration and temperature were the most significant factors affecting the size of silver nanoparticles. Using the best performing artificial neural network, the optimum conditions predicted were a concentration of AgNO3 of 1.0 (M, MMT d-spacing of 1.27 nm, reaction temperature of 27°C, and wavelength of 397.50 nm.

  12. Electrochemical deposition of silver nanostructures from aqueous solutions in the presence of sodium polyacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Topchak, Roman; Okhremchuk, Yevhen; Kuntyi, Orest

    2013-01-01

    The silver nanostructures obtaining was investigated by electrochemical deposition from aqueous solutions ((1?10) mM AgNO3 + 50 m? NaPA) onto graphite substrate. The influence of the concentration of silver ions and cathodic potential values in the range E = -0,2 ... -1,0 V on surface filling degree and geometry of silver particles was (had been) studied. It is shown, the discrete silver particles ranging in size from 50 to 400 nm with a uniform distribution on the surface of the substrate...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, Mohamad M.; Zaki, Eman

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO 3 . Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO 3 solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamad. M.; Zaki, Eman

    2009-11-01

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO 3. Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO 3 solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  15. Flexo-green Polypyrrole – Silver nanocomposite films for thermoelectric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Meetu; Singh, Ajay; Samanta, Soumen; Debnath, A.K.; Aswal, D.K.; Muthe, K.P.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Flexible PPy-Ag films prepared via environment friendly photo-polymerization in aqueous medium exhibited a record figure-of-merit of ∼7.4 × 10 −3 at 335 K among reported PPy based composites due to unique combination of high electrical and low thermal conductivity with increasing content of Ag nanoparticles. A proto-type thermoelectric power generator exhibiting output voltage of 6 mV has been demonstrated using these flexible PPy-Ag films. - Highlights: • Polypyrrole-silver (PPy-Ag) nanocomposites films were prepared on flexible BOPET sheet. • Ag particles anchored between PPy chains improve electrical transport but suppress thermal transport. • This work demonstrates highest figure-of-merit (∼7.4 × 10 −3 at 335 K) among PPy based materials. • A prototype thermoelectric power generator exhibiting output voltage of 6 mV has been fabricated using PPy-Ag films. - Abstract: Conducting polymers offer various advantages over inorganic thermoelectric materials such as eco-friendliness, a reduced manufacturing cost, flexibility, low thermal conductivity and amenability to tuning of electrical properties through doping; have recently drawn much attention for conversion of low temperature waste heat (≤150 °C) into electricity. In this study, we investigated the thermoelectric properties of hybrid films of polypyrrole and silver (PPy-Ag). These films were prepared on biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) flexible substrates by eco-friendly one pot photo-polymerization method using aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) as photo initiator. Detailed characterization of the samples revealed that morphology of composite films reorganized with the change in AgNO 3 concentration during synthesis. Increasing AgNO 3 concentrations resulted in PPy films containing Ag nanoparticles, nanoclusters as well as macroclusters. With alteration in concentration and size of Ag particles in PPy matrix, it has been observed that the

  16. Green synthesis of dimension-controlled silver nanoparticle–graphene oxide with in situ ultrasonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, K.S.; Hui, K.N.; Dinh, D.A.; Tsang, C.H.; Cho, Y.R.; Zhou, Wei; Hong, Xiaoting; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: A green chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide (AgNP–GO) composites was proposed by in situ ultrasonication of a mixture of AgNO 3 and GO solution with the assistance of vitamin C acting as an environmentally friendly reducing agent at room temperature. The AgNP–GO composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra. The results demonstrated that Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of ∼15 nm were uniformly dispersed on the surface of GO nanosheets by in situ ultrasonication of 1 min with vitamin C. Increasing the ultrasonication times resulted in Ag nanoparticles with tunable dimensions ranging from 15 to 55 nm being formed on the surface of GO nanosheets. The amount of silver nitrate and the ultrasonication time play a key role in the control of the dimension of Ag nanoparticles on GO, and a formation mechanism of the as-prepared AgNP–GO composites is proposed. This study provides a guide to controlling the dimensions of AgNP–GO composites, which may hold promise as advanced materials for various analytical applications such as catalysis, sensors and microchips

  17. Silver-Loaded Cellulose Acetate-g-Poly(ε-caprolactone) Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuburan, CR; Dela Rosa, LE; Reyes, LQ

    2017-06-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) was grafted with poly(ε-caprolactone) PCL oligomers via the ring-opening of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) monomer initiated by the hydroxyl functionality of CA. The incorporation of short PCL oligomers in CA’s structure caused the transformation of it crystalline domains into amorphous phases (internal plasticization) as observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Another evidence of plasticization induced by grafting was the significant reduction of the degradation temperature and stiffness of the copolymers. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopies and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) verified success the grafting as suggested by the attachment of PCL on the glucose ring and increase in polymer molecular weights after the reaction. Due to the good films forming ability of the synthesized CA grafted with PCL (CA-g-PCL) material, it was loaded with silver nitrate (AgNO3) and the composite was observed to be have bactericidal against a gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, and a gram positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis.

  18. Microwave assisted facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-silver (RGO-Ag) nanocomposite and their application as active SERS substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, Heena; Kumar, Devender; Mahendia, Suman; Kumar, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    The present paper represents the facile and rapid synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-silver (RGO-Ag) nanocomposite with the help of microwave irradiation. The graphene oxide (GO) solution has been prepared in bulk using Hummer's method followed by microwave assisted in-situ reduction of GO and silver nitrate (AgNO_3) by hydrazine hydrate in a short spam of 5 min. The prepared nanocomposite has been characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and UV–Visible spectroscopy. TEM analysis shows that Ag nanoparticles with average size 32 nm are uniformly entangled with in RGO layers. The UV–Visible absorption spectrum of nanocomposite depicts the reduction of GO to RGO along with the formation of Ag nanoparticles with the presence of characteristic surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of Ag nanoparticles at 422 nm. The performance of prepared nanocomposite has been tested as the active Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate for Rhodamine 6G with detection limit 0.1 μM. - Highlights: • The RGO and RGO-Ag nanocomposite were synthesized with microwave irradiation. • Ag nanoparticles of average size 32 nm are uniformly entangled within RGO layers. • RGO itself is a florescence quencher with SERS detection limit 1 μM for R6G. • RGO-Ag nanocomposite show good SERS activity for R6G with detection limit 0.1 μM.

  19. Separation/preconcentration of silver(I) and lead(II) in environmental samples on cellulose nitrate membrane filter prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylak, Mustafa; Cay, Rukiye Sungur

    2007-01-01

    An enrichment method for trace amounts of Ag(I) and Pb(II) has been established prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The preconcentration/separation procedure is based on chelate formation of Ag(I) and Pb(II) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) and on retention of the chelates on cellulose nitrate membrane filter. The influences of some analytical parameters including pH and amounts of reagent, etc. on the recoveries of analytes were investigated. The effects of interferic ions on the quantitative recoveries of analytes were also examined. The detection limits (k = 3, N = 11) were 4.6 μg L -1 for silver(I) and 15.3 μg L -1 for lead(II). The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) of the determinations for analyte ions were below 3%. The method was applied to environmental samples for the determination of analyte ions with satisfactory results (recoveries >95%)

  20. Sunlight-assisted synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using chitosan as reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, E.; Maryani; Ashadi

    2018-04-01

    The present study we explore an environmentally friendly colloidal silver nanoparticles preparation using chitosan as reducing agent and stabilizer. It develops a new strategy on preparation of silver nanoparticles through the gel phase using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as accelerator reagent. Sunlight irradiation was employed to assisted reducing process of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomenon of silver nanoparticles was investigated using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The shape and size of silver particles were analyzed using TEM. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by the appearance of LSPR absorption peak at 396.0–412.0 nm. The absorption peak of LSPR were affected by NaOH amount, time of sulight irradiation and concentration of AgNO3. The produced silver nanoparticles were spherical with dominant size range of 5 to 8 nm as shown by TEM images. All colloidals were stable without any aggregation for 30 days after preparation.

  1. Effects of silver nanoparticles to soil invertebrates: Oxidative stress biomarkers in Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Susana I.L.; Hansen, Ditte; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; Amorim, Mónica J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are among the most produced NPs worldwide having several applications in consumer products. Ag-NPs are known to cause oxidative stress in several organisms and cell lines, however comparatively less information is available regarding their effects on soil living invertebrates. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Ag-NPs cause oxidative stress on soil invertebrates. The model soil species Eisenia fetida was used. Our results showed that total glutathione (TG) is the first mechanism triggered by Ag-NPs, followed by glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), however oxidative damage was observed for higher doses and exposure time (increased lipid peroxidation, LPO). AgNO 3 exposure caused impairment in GPx and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), probably as result of the higher bioavailability of Ag in the salt-form. The current results indicate that effects are partly caused by Ag ions released from Ag-NPs, but specific particle effects cannot be excluded. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress of Ag-NPs and AgNO 3 was assessed in Eisenia fetida. • Both Ag forms induced oxidative damage (LPO) via different mechanisms. • Ag-NPs activated total glutathione, followed by GPx and GR. • AgNO 3 impaired GPx and GST. • Overall results indicated effects from Ag ionization and NPs specific effects. - Oxidative stress to Ag in Eisenia fetida occurs via different mechanisms for Ag nanoparticles and AgNO 3

  2. Oxidation of aniline with silver nitrate accelerated by p-phenylenediamine: A new route to conducting composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.; Sapurina, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 24 (2010), s. 10406-10413 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA AV ČR IAA100500902; GA ČR GA203/08/0686; GA MŠk ME 847 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * p-phenylenediamine * silver Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.838, year: 2010

  3. Microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces glaucus and Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibakhashvili, N.Ya.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Pataraya, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in Georgia a novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD isolated from a soy rhizosphere has been used for microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images revealed that most of the particles produced by these microorganisms from AgNO 3 are spherical-like in shape with an average size of 13 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) allowed one to observe extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles, which has many advantages from the point of view of applications. Production of silver nanoparticles proceeds extracellularly with the participation of another microorganism, blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis. It is shown that the production rate of the nanoparticles depends not only on the initial concentration of AgNO 3 but also varies with time in a no monotonic way

  4. Direct determination of beryllium, cadmium, lithium, lead and silver in thorium nitrate solution by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thulasidas, S.K.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Porwal, N.K.; Page, A.G.; Sastry, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    An electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometric (ET-AAS) method is developed for the direct determination of Ag, Be, Cd, Li and Pb in thorium nitrate solution. The method offers detection of sub-nanogram amounts of these analytes in 100-microgram thorium samples with a precision of around 10%. A number of spiked samples and pre-analyzed ThO 2 samples have been analyzed to evaluate the performance of the analytical methods developed here

  5. Characterization and electrocatalytic application of silver modified polypyrrole electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. DEKANSKI

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver modified polypyrrole electrodeswere preparedwith the aim of testing them for the electrooxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline solution. The modification of polypyrrole by immersion in aqueous AgNO3 solution was studied by cyclic voltammetry and vacuum techniques (AES and XPS. The influence of time of immersion and the thickness of the polypyrrole film, prepared by electrochemical polymerization, on the modification of the polymer were examined. The results acquired from both electrochemical and spectroscopic examinations show that immersion of a polypyrrole electrode in a AgNO3 solution results in its modificationwith silver, which is deposited in the elemental state on the surface. The quantity of silver deposited depends not only on the immersion time but also on the thickness of the polymer film. A modified PPy/Ag electrode exhibits catalytic activity for the electrooxidation of CH2O in NaOH. In spite of the low quantity of silver, the activity of the electrode for this reaction is comparable to that of a polycrystalline silver electrode.

  6. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticle by using secondary metabolites from Pseudomonas aeruginosa DM1 and its anti-algal effect on Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rima; Barsainya, Manjari; Singh, Devendra Pratap

    2017-02-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using extracellular metabolites from the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa DM1 offers an eco-friendly and sustainable way of metal nanoparticle synthesis. The present work highlights the biotransformation of silver nitrate solution into AgNP, mediated by extracellular secondary metabolite pyoverdine, a siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa. The bioreduction of silver ions into AgNPs by using pyoverdine was recorded in terms of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis and color change in the reaction mixture (AgNO 3 + pyoverdine) from pale yellow to dark brown with absorption maxima at 415 nm. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of AgNPs showed its crystalline face-centered cubic structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) pictures of AgNPs showed spherical morphology of AgNP in the range of 45-100 nm, with tendency of agglomerations. The energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of particles provided strong signal of elemental silver with few minor peaks of other impurities. The present approach offers a unique in vitro method of metal nanoparticle synthesis by exogenously produced bacterial secondary metabolites, where direct contact between the toxic metal and biological resource material can be avoided. The biologically synthesized AgNPs are found to have anti-algal effects against two species of Chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyenoidosa), as indicated by zone of growth inhibition on algal culture plates. Further results exhibit concentration-dependent progressive inhibition of chlorophyll content in the algal cells by AgNPs, confirming the algicidal effect of AgNPs.

  7. Silver chloride as a heterogeneous nucleant for the growth of silver nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, Waynie M; Buhro, William E

    2013-05-28

    Various additives are employed in the polyol synthesis of silver nanowires (Ag NWs), which are typically halide salts such as NaCl. A variety of mechanistic roles have been suggested for these additives. We now show that the early addition of NaCl in the polyol synthesis of Ag NWs from AgNO3 in ethylene glycol results in the rapid formation of AgCl nanocubes, which induce the heterogeneous nucleation of metallic Ag upon their surfaces. Ag NWs subsequently grow from these nucleation sites. The conclusions are supported by studies using ex situ generated AgCl nanocubes.

  8. Studies on extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by the fungus aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    An eco-friendly process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been attempted, using the culture filtrate of various microorganisms, included bacteria, fungi and yeast. Only fungi, especially aspergillus niger, were capable of synthesizing silver nanoparticles. The culture filtrate treated with AgNo 3 (1 mM) turned dark brown after 72 h of incubation, indicating reduction of silver ions into silver nanoparticles. This observation was confirmed with UV-vis spectroscopy analysis;a large broad band with long tail was detected at 430 nm,this band is characteristic of several metal nanoparticles.X ray diffraction revealed the crystalline nature of obtained nanoparticles. The TEM and SEM analysis showed particles spherical in shape. The average particles size determined by DLS analysis was 94.2 nm.EDX analysis indicated the presence of silver element in the nanoparticles. FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of protein associated with the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The maximum biosynthesis of nanoparticles was achieved when the culture filtrate was treated with 4.0 mM of AgNo 3 , adjusted to ph 8.0, and incubated at 50 degree C for 96 h. Silver nanoparticles showed antibiotic activity exceeding that of silver ions against various microorganisms

  9. Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles by silver mirror reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yongzheng; Li, Yajing; Zhang, Jianfeng; Yu, Zhongzhen; Yang, Dongzhi

    2015-01-01

    The silver mirror reaction (SMR) method was selected in this paper to modify electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, and these nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles showed excellent antibacterial properties. PAN nanofibers were first pretreated in AgNO 3 aqueous solution before the SMR process so that the silver nanoparticles were distributed evenly on the outer surface of the nanofibers. The final PAN nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TEM-selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM, TEM micrographs and SAED patterns confirmed homogeneous dispersion of the silver nanoparticles which were composed of monocrystals with diameters 20–30 nm. EDS and XRD results showed that these monocrystals tended to form face-centered cubic single silver. TGA test indicated that the nanoparticles loaded on the nanofibers reached above 50 wt.%. This material was also evaluated by the viable cell-counting method. The results indicated that PAN nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles exhibited excellent antimicrobial activities against gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and the fungus Monilia albicans. Thus, this material had many potential applications in biomedical fields. - Highlights: • Silver mirror reaction was used to prepare nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles. • The SAED patterns demonstrated the monocrystallinity of silver nanocrystals. • The XRD results showed nanoparticles tended to be face-centered cubic single silver. • The material showed excellent antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi

  10. Biogenic synthesis and spatial distribution of silver nanoparticles in the legume mungbean plant (Vigna radiata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rima; Singh, Jay Shankar; Singh, Devendra Pratap

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study the in vivo synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the legume Vigna radiata. The level of plant metabolites such as total phenolics, lipid, terpenoids, alkaloids and amino acid increased by 65%, 133%, 19%, 67% and 35%, respectively, in AgNO 3 (100 mg L -1 ) treated plants compared to control. Whereas protein and sugar contents in the treated plants were reduced by 38% and 27%, respectively. FTIR analysis of AgNO 3 (20-100 mg L -1 ) treated plants exhibited changes in the IR regions between 3297 and 3363 cm -1 , 1635-1619 cm -1 , 1249-1266 cm -1 and that corresponded to alterations in OH groups of carbohydrates, OH and NH groups of amide I and II regions of protein, when compared with the control. Transmission electron micrographs showed the spatial distribution of AgNPs in the chloroplast, cytoplasmic spaces, vacuolar and nucleolar plant regions. Metal quantification in different tissues of plants exposed to 20-100 mg L -1 AgNO 3 showed about a 22 fold accumulation of Ag in roots as compared to shoots. The phytotoxic parameters such as percent seed germination and shoot elongation remained almost unaltered at low AgNO 3 doses (20-50 mg L -1 ). However, at higher levels of exposure (100 mg L -1 ), the percent seed germination as well as root and shoot elongation exhibited concentration dependent decline. In conclusion, synthesis of AgNPs in V. radiata particularly at lower doses of AgNO 3 , could be used as a sustainable and environmentally safe technology for large scale production of metal nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential bioaccumulation patterns of nanosized and dissolved silver in a land snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanzhen; Si, Youbin; Zhou, Dongmei; Dang, Fei

    2017-03-01

    With the increasing application in antimicrobial products, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are inevitably released into the terrestrial environment, and pose potential risks to invertebrates such as land snails Achatina fulica, which take up AgNP from food and water. Here we differentiate Ag uptake biodynamic between Ag forms (i.e., PVP-AgNP vs. AgNO 3 ) and between exposure pathways. Snails assimilated Ag efficiently from lettuce leaves pre-exposed to AgNP, with assimilation efficiencies (AEs) averaging 62-85% and food ingestion rates of 0.11 ± 0.03 g g -1  d -1 . Dietary Ag bioavailability was independent on Ag forms, as revealed by comparable AEs between AgNP and AgNO 3 . However, the uptake rate constant from water was much lower for AgNP relative to AgNO 3 (2 × 10 -4 vs. 0.12 L g -1  d -1 ). The elimination rate constants were 0.0093 ± 0.0037 d -1 for AgNP and 0.019 ± 0.0077 d -1 for AgNO 3 . Biodynamic modeling further showed that dietary exposure was the dominant uptake pathway for AgNP in most circumstances, while for AgNO 3 the relative importance of waterborne and dietary exposure depended on Ag concentrations in food and water. Our findings highlight the importance of dietary uptake of AgNP during bioaccumulation, which should be considered in the risk assessment of these nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct patterning of silver particles on porous silicon by inkjet printing of a silver salt via in-situ reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro; Virga, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Paolo; Martino, Paola; Rivolo, Paola; Geobaldo, Francesco; Giorgis, Fabrizio

    2012-09-06

    We have developed a method for obtaining a direct pattern of silver nanoparticles (NPs) on porous silicon (p-Si) by means of inkjet printing (IjP) of a silver salt. Silver NPs were obtained by p-Si mediated in-situ reduction of Ag+ cations using solutions based on AgNO3 which were directly printed on p-Si according to specific geometries and process parameters. The main difference with respect to existing literature is that normally, inkjet printing is applied to silver (metal) NP suspensions, while in our experiment the NPs are formed after jetting the solution on the reactive substrate. We performed both optical and scanning electron microscopes on the NPs traces, correlating the morphology features with the IjP parameters, giving an insight on the synthesis kinetics. The patterned NPs show good performances as SERS substrates.

  13. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in montmorillonite and their antibacterial behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameli K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kamyar Shameli1, Mansor Bin Ahmad1, Mohsen Zargar2, Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus1, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan3, Nor Azowa Ibrahim11Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Qom Branch, Qom, Iran; 3Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IranAbstract: Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs were synthesized by the chemical reducing method in the external and interlamellar space of montmorillonite (MMT as a solid support at room temperature. AgNO3 and NaBH4 were used as a silver precursor and reducing agent, respectively. The most favorable experimental conditions for synthesizing Ag NPs in the MMT are described in terms of the initial concentration of AgNO3. The interlamellar space limits changed little (d-spacing = 1.24–1.47 nm; therefore, Ag NPs formed on the MMT suspension with d-average = 4.19–8.53 nm diameter. The Ag/MMT nanocomposites (NCs, formed from AgNO3/MMT suspension, were characterizations with different instruments, for example UV-visible, PXRD, TEM, SEM, EDXRF, FT-IR, and ICP-OES analyzer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of Ag NPs in MMT were investigated against Gram-positive, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and Gram-negative bacteria, ie, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, by the disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA. The smaller Ag NPs were found to have significantly higher antibacterial activity. These results showed that Ag NPs can be used as effective growth inhibitors in different biological systems, making them applicable to medical applications.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, nanoparticles, montmorillonite, antibacterial activity, Mueller-Hinton agar 

  14. In situ green synthesis of antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan-nanosilver hybrids with controlled silver release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siqi; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng

    2017-01-01

    In order to fabricate antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan-nanosilver (CMC-Ag) hybrids with controlled silver release, this study demonstrated comparable formation via three synthetic protocols: 1) carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and glucose (adding glucose after AgNO 3 ), 2) CMC and glucose (adding glucose before AgNO 3 ), and 3) CMC only. Under principles of green chemistry, the synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 10 minutes with nontoxic chemicals. The structure and formation mechanisms of the three CMC-Ag hybrids were explored using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. Additionally, antimicrobial activity and in vitro silver release of the three synthesized hybrids were investigated in detail. The results revealed that a large number of stable, uniform, and small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on CMC chains via protocol 1. AgNPs were well dispersed with narrow size distribution in the range of 6-20 nm, with mean diameter only 12.22±2.57 nm. The addition of glucose resulted in greater AgNP synthesis. The order of addition of glucose and AgNO 3 significantly affected particle size and size distribution of AgNPs. Compared to CMC alone and commercially available AgNPs, the antimicrobial activities of three hybrids were significantly improved. Of the three hybrids, CMC-Ag1 synthesized via protocol 1 exhibited better antimicrobial activity than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3, and showed more effective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli . Due to strong coordination and electrostatic interactions between CMC and silver and good steric protection provided by CMC, CMC-Ag1 displayed stable and continuous silver release and better performance in retaining silver for prolonged periods than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3.

  15. In situ green synthesis of antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan–nanosilver hybrids with controlled silver release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siqi; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng

    2017-01-01

    In order to fabricate antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan–nanosilver (CMC-Ag) hybrids with controlled silver release, this study demonstrated comparable formation via three synthetic protocols: 1) carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and glucose (adding glucose after AgNO3), 2) CMC and glucose (adding glucose before AgNO3), and 3) CMC only. Under principles of green chemistry, the synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 10 minutes with nontoxic chemicals. The structure and formation mechanisms of the three CMC-Ag hybrids were explored using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. Additionally, antimicrobial activity and in vitro silver release of the three synthesized hybrids were investigated in detail. The results revealed that a large number of stable, uniform, and small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on CMC chains via protocol 1. AgNPs were well dispersed with narrow size distribution in the range of 6–20 nm, with mean diameter only 12.22±2.57 nm. The addition of glucose resulted in greater AgNP synthesis. The order of addition of glucose and AgNO3 significantly affected particle size and size distribution of AgNPs. Compared to CMC alone and commercially available AgNPs, the antimicrobial activities of three hybrids were significantly improved. Of the three hybrids, CMC-Ag1 synthesized via protocol 1 exhibited better antimicrobial activity than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3, and showed more effective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. Due to strong coordination and electrostatic interactions between CMC and silver and good steric protection provided by CMC, CMC-Ag1 displayed stable and continuous silver release and better performance in retaining silver for prolonged periods than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3. PMID:28458539

  16. Deposition and Characterization of Silver Oxide from Solution of Silver, Cassava and Sugarcane Juice Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uche E. Ekpunobi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver oxide was deposited on metallic substrates (zinc and lead from silver solution with different additives at a pH of 5, dc current of 0.2A, 4V for 20seconds at 25°C. The additives were cassava solution and sugarcane juice. The metallic substrates served as cathode while a copper electrode serves as the anode. Compositions of the electrolytes were 50ml AgNO3, 50ml AgNO3 and 50ml of cassava solution or 50ml of sugarcane juice. Structural and textural characterizations were carried out on the deposits. The result showed that deposition using zinc substrate gave a better result than that of lead in that the deposits were pure without impurities. Using cassava solution as additive, a pure Ag2O3 deposit was obtained while sugarcane juice gave a pure intergrowth of Ag2O3 and Ag3O4 deposits both on zinc substrates.

  17. Unraveling the reaction mechanism of silver ions reduction by chitosan from so far neglected spectroscopic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapeto, Ana Patrícia; Ferraria, Ana Maria; do Rego, Ana Maria Botelho

    2017-10-15

    Metallic silver nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution using chitosan, as both reducing and stabilizing agent, and AgNO 3 as silver precursor aiming the production of solid ultra-thin films. A systematic characterization of the resulting system as a function of the initial concentrations was performed. The combination of UV-vis absorption - and its quantitative analysis - with X-ray photoelectron spectra, light scattering measurements and atomic force microscopy allowed obtaining a rational picture of silver reduction mechanism through the identification of the nature of the formed reduced/oxidized species. Nanoparticle mean sizes and sizes distributions were rather independent from the precursors initial absolute and relative concentrations ([AgNO 3 ]/[chitosan]). This work clarifies some points of the mechanism involved showing experimental evidence of the early stages of the very fast silver reduction in chitosan aqueous solutions through the spectral signature of the smallest silver aggregate (Ag 2 + ) even at room temperature. The characterized system is believed to be useful for research fields where silver nanoparticles completely exempt of harmful traces of inorganic ions, coming from additional reducing agents, are needed, especially to be used in biocompatible in films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles encapsulated in poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-based polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Muhammad; Udomluck, Nopphadol; Chang, Jihyun; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Kyobum

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial activities of poly- N -isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAM)-based polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Three sizes of AgNP-encapsulating pNIPAM- and pNIPAM-NH 2 -based polymeric nanoparticles were fabricated. Highly stable and uniformly distributed AgNPs were encapsulated within polymeric nanoparticles via in situ reduction of AgNO 3 using NaBH 4 as the reducing agent. The formation and distribution of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, respectively. Both polymeric nanoparticles showed significant bacteriostatic activities against Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli ) and Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus ) bacteria depending on the nanoparticle size and amount of AgNO 3 used during fabrication.

  19. The Use of Silver Solid Amalgam Electrodes for Voltammetric and Amperometric Determination of Nitrated Polyaromatic Compounds Used as Markers of Incomplete Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Yosypchuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs are formed during incomplete combustion processes by reaction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs with atmospheric nitrogen oxides. 1-Nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, and 3-nitrofluoranthene as the dominating substances are used as markers of NPAHs formation by these processes. In the presented study, voltammetric properties and quantification of these compounds and of 5-nitroquinoline (as a representative of environmentally important genotoxic heterocyclic compounds have been investigated using a mercury meniscus modified silver solid amalgam electrode (m-AgSAE, which represent a nontoxic alternative to traditional mercury electrodes. Linear calibration curves over three orders of magnitude and limits of determination mostly in the 10−7 mol L−1 concentration range were obtained using direct current and differential pulse voltammetry. Further, satisfactory HPLC separation of studied analytes in fifteen minutes was achieved using 0.01 mol L−1 phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 : methanol (15 : 85, v/v mobile phase, and C18 reversed stationary phase. Limits of detection of around 1 · 10−5 mol L−1 were achieved using amperometric detection at m-AgSAE in wall-jet arrangement for all studied analytes. Practical applicability of this technique was demonstrated on the determination of 1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, and 5-nitroquinoline in drinking water after their preliminary separation and preconcentration using solid phase extraction with the limits of detection around 1 · 10−6 mol L−1.

  20. Egg white-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with excellent biocompatibility and enhanced radiation effects on cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu RQ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Renquan Lu1, Dapeng Yang2, Daxiang Cui2, Zhongyang Wang3, Lin Guo11Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 2Department of Bio-Nano-Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 3College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yantai University, Shan Dong Province, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: A simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach to the aqueous-phase synthesis of silver (Ag nanoparticles was demonstrated using silver nitrate (AgNO3 and freshly extracted egg white. The bio-conjugates were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering. These results indicated that biomolecule-coated Ag nanoparticles are predominantly spherical in shape with an average size of 20 nm. The proteins of egg white, which have different functional groups, played important roles in reducing Ag+ and maintaining product attributes such as stability and dispersity. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that these Ag-protein bio-conjugates showed good biocompatibility with mouse fibroblast cell lines 3T3. Furthermore, X-ray irradiation tests on 231 tumor cells suggested that the biocompatible Ag-protein bio-conjugates enhanced the efficacy of irradiation, and thus may be promising candidates for use during cancer radiation therapy.Keywords: green chemistry, biosynthesis, egg white, Ag nanoparticles, X-ray irradiation

  1. Self-organized synthesis of silver dendritic nanostructures via an electroless metal deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, T.; Wu, X. L.; Mei, Y. F.; Chu, P. K.; Siu, G. G.

    2005-09-01

    Unique silver dendritic nanostructures, with stems, branches, and leaves, were synthesized with self-organization via a simple electroless metal deposition method in a conventional autoclave containing aqueous HF and AgNO3 solution. Their growth mechanisms are discussed in detail on the basis of a self-assembled localized microscopic electrochemical cell model. A process of diffusion-limited aggregation is suggested for the formation of the silver dendritic nanostructures. This nanostructured material is of great potential to be building blocks for assembling mini-functional devices of the next generation.

  2. A light-assisted in situ embedment of silver nanoparticles to prepare functionalized fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh HS

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Her Shuang Toh,1 Roxanne Line Faure,2 Liyana Bte Mohd Amin,1 Crystal Yu Fang Hay,1 Saji George1,3 1Centre of Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore, Singapore; 2DUT Analyses Biologiques et Biochimiques, IUT Génie Biologique, Dijon, France; 3Department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada Abstract: This article presents a simple, one-step, in situ generation of silver nanoparticle-functionalized fabrics with antibacterial properties, circumventing the conventional, multistep, time-consuming methods. Silver nanoparticle formation was studied with a library of capping agents (branched polyethylenimine [BPEI] of molecular weight [Mw] 10,000 and 25,000, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol, polyvinylalcohol and citrate mixed with silver nitrate. The mixture was then exposed to an assortment of light wavelengths (ultraviolet, infrared and simulated solar light for studying the light-assisted synthesis of nanoparticles. The formation of nanoparticles corresponded with the reducing capabilities of the polymers wherein BPEI gave the best response. Notably, the irradiation wavelengths had little effect on the formation of the nanoparticle when the total irradiation energy was kept constant. The feasibility of utilizing this method for in situ nanoparticle synthesis on textile fabrics (towel [100% cotton], gauze [100% cotton], rayon, felt [100% polyester] and microfiber [15% nylon, 85% polyester] was verified by exposing the fabrics soaked in an aqueous solution of 1% (w/v AgNO3 and 1% (w/v BPEI (Mw 25,000 to light. The formation of nanoparticles on fabrics and their retention after washing was verified using scanning electron microscopy and quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The functional property of the fabric as an antibacterial surface was successfully demonstrated using

  3. Production of silver ions from colloidal silver by nanoparticle iontophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Liao, Chih-Yu

    2011-03-01

    Metal ions, especially the silver ion, were used to treat infection before the initiation of antibiotic therapy. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on the metallic nanoparticle suspension as a reservoir for metal ion release application. For medical purposes, conversion of colloidal silver into an ionic form is necessary, but not using silver salts (e.g., AgNO3, Ag2SO4), due to the fact that the counter-ion of silver salts may cause problems to the body as the silver ion (Ag+) is consumed. The goal of this research is to develop a silver nanoparticle iontophoresis system (NIS) which can provide a relatively safe bactericidal silver ion solution with a controllable electric field. In this study, ion-selective electrodes were used to identify and observe details of the system's activity. Both qualitative and quantitative data analyses were performed. The experimental results show that the ion releasing peak time (R(PT)) has an inversely proportional relationship with the applied current and voltage. The ion releasing maximum level (R(ML)) and dosage (R(D)) are proportional to the current density and inversely proportional to the voltage, respectively. These results reveal that the nanoparticle iontophoresis system (NIS) is an alternative method for the controlled release of a metal ion and the ion's concentration profile, by controlling the magnitude of current density (1 microA/cm2 equal to 1 ppm/hour) and applied voltage.

  4. Determinação condutométrica de cloridrato de metformina em formulações farmacêuticas empregando nitrato de prata como titulante Conductometric determination of metformin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations using silver nitrate as titrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Romão Sartori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise, rapid and low-cost conductometric titration method for the determination of metformin hydrochloride (MET in pharmaceuticals using silver nitrate as titrant is proposed. The method was based on the chemical reaction between the chloride of metformin hydrochloride molecule and Ag(I ions, yielding the precipitate AgCl(s. The method was applied for MET determination in three pharmaceuticals and the obtained results with proposed method were in close agreement with those results obtained using an official method of the British Pharmacopoeia, at a 95% confidence level.

  5. Rapid efficient synthesis and characterization of silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles from the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica and their application in biofilm control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salunke GR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gayatri R Salunke,1 Sougata Ghosh,1 RJ Santosh Kumar,2 Samiksha Khade,1 Priya Vashisth,3 Trupti Kale,4 Snehal Chopade,5 Vikas Pruthi,3 Gopal Kundu,4 Jayesh R Bellare,6 Balu A Chopade1,5 1Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, University of Pune, 2National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, 3Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, 4National Centre for Cell Science, Pune University Complex, 5Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, 6Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, India Background: Nanoparticles (NPs have gained significance in medical fields due to their high surface-area-to-volume ratio. In this study, we synthesized NPs from a medicinally important plant – Plumbago zeylanica. Materials and methods: Aqueous root extract of P. zeylanica (PZRE was analyzed for the presence of flavonoids, sugars, and organic acids using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC, gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS, and biochemical methods. The silver NPs (AgNPs, gold NPs (AuNPs, and bimetallic NPs (AgAuNPs were synthesized from root extract and characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The effects of these NPs on Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli biofilms were studied using quantitative biofilm inhibition and disruption assays, as well as using fluorescence, ­scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Results: PZRE showed the presence of phenolics, such as plumbagin, and flavonoids, in addition to citric acid, sucrose, glucose, fructose, and starch, using HPTLC, GC-TOF-MS, and quantitative analysis. Bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3 and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4 were confirmed at absorbances of 440 nm (AgNPs, 570 nm (AuNPs, and 540

  6. Templated green synthesis of plasmonic silver nanoparticles in onion epidermal cells suitable for surface-enhanced Raman and hyper-Raman scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palanco, Marta Espina; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Guehlke, Marina

    2016-01-01

    We report fast and simple green synthesis of plasmonic silver nanoparticles in the epidermal cells of onions after incubation with AgNO3 solution. The biological environment supports the generation of silver nanostructures in two ways. The plant tissue delivers reducing chemicals for the initial...... for one-and two-photon-excited spectroscopy such as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface enhanced hyper-Raman scattering (SEHRS). Our studies demonstrate a templated green preparation of enhancing plasmonic nanoparticles and suggest a new route to deliver silver nanoparticles as basic...... building blocks of plasmonic nanosensors to plants by the uptake of solutions of metal salts....

  7. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of gelatin doped with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, K. H.; Abbo, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction of silver salt (AgNO3) solution. Formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectrometry. The surface plasmon resonance peak is located at 430 nm. Doping of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with gelatin biopolymer was studied. The silver content in the polymer matrix was in the range of 0.4-1 wt%. The formation of nanoparticles disappeared for silver content higher than 1 wt%. The morphology and interaction of gelatin doped with Ag NPs was examined by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The content of Ag NPs has a pronounced effect on optical and structural properties of gelatin. Optical parameters such as refractive index, complex dielectric constant were calculated. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of the single - oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico model. Color properties of the prepared samples were discussed in the framework of CIE L*u*v* color space.

  8. A Study of Antibioactivity of Nanosilver Colloid and Silver Ion Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiung Tseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The colloidal silver solution was successfully prepared in dielectric fluid by using electrical spark discharge (ESD without any surfactants. It does not require the toxic chemical agents in the process, which may affect the effectiveness of nanosilver colloid as an antibacterial agent. Nanocolloidal silver produced by ESD is characterized as low cost, zero environmental pollution, continuous, and rapid mass production process. In order to test the effect of antibioactivity, nanosilver dough was tested; the silver nanofluid was prepared by ESD machine, made into dough at different concentrations, and fermented for three hours in order to observe changes in the diameter of the dough. The results showed that the effect of effectiveness of nanosilver at the concentration of 100 ppm was weak, whereas the effect of 60 ppm silver ion (100 ppm AgNO3 was significant, as the dissociation rate of silver ion concentration correlates to the antibioactivity.

  9. Green synthesis of highly concentrated aqueous colloidal solutions of large starch-stabilised silver nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Betts, Jonathan W; Kelly, Stephen M; Hector, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly and cost-effective method has been developed to prepare a range of aqueous silver colloidal solutions, using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent, water-soluble starch as a combined crystallising, stabilising and solubilising agent, and water as the solvent. The diameter of silver nanoplatelets increases with higher concentrations of AgNO3 and starch. The silver nanoparticles are also more uniform in shape the greater the diameter of the nanoparticles. Colloidal solutions with a very high concentration of large, flat, hexagonal silver nanoplatelets (~230 nm in breadth) have been used to deposit and fix an antibacterial coating of these large starch-stabilised silver nanoplates on commercial cotton fibres, using a simple dip-coating process using water as the solvent, in order to study the dependence of the antibacterial properties of these nanoplatelets on their size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mutation of environmental mycobacteria to resist silver nanoparticles also confers resistance to a common antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Curtis; Islam, Mohammad Shyful; Ojha, Anil; Nettleship, Ian

    2014-08-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are a threat to human health, gaining entry to the body through contaminated water systems, where they form persistent biofilms despite extensive attempts at disinfection. Silver is a natural antibacterial agent and in nanoparticle form activity is increased by a high surface area. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as alternative disinfectants in circulating water systems, washing machines and even clothing. However, nanoparticles, like any other antibiotic that has a pervasive durable presence, carry the risk of creating a resistant population. In this study Mycobacterium smegmatis strain mc(2)155 was cultured in AgNP enriched agar such that only a small population survived. Surviving cultures were isolated and re-exposed to AgNPs and AgNO3 and resistance to silver was compared to a negative control. After only a single exposure, mutant M. smegmatis populations were resistant to AgNPs and AgNO3. Further, the silver resistant mutants were exposed to antibiotics to determine if general resistance had been conferred. The minimum inhibitory concentration of isoniazid was four times higher for silver resistant mutants than for strain mc(2)155. However, core resistance was not conferred to other toxic metal ions. The mutants had lower resistance to CuSO4 and ZnSO4 than the mc(2)155 strain.

  11. Shoot regeneration of limau purut (citrus hystrix) using shoot tip: assessment of calcium gluconate and silver nitrate in overcoming premature leaf senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, W.H.; Aziz, M.A.; Sinniah, U.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish an optimum In vitro shoot multiplication system using shoot tip explants derived from 7 week-old seedlings of Citrus hystrix. In the first experiment, shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0-13.33 mu M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) for 8 weeks. Shoot tips cultured on 2.22 mu M BAP produced the highest mean number of shoots (3.42 shoots) but the shoots had low number of leaves (1.14 leaves) due to the occurrence of premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Meanwhile, the medium devoid of BAP produced the lowest mean number of shoots (1.50 shoots) but highest mean number of leaves (5.41 leaves) indicating that BAP was likely responsible for the premature leaf senescence. In order to overcome the occurrence of premature leaf senescence on medium with BAP, a second experiment was carried out whereby shoot tips were cultured on medium containing 2.22 micro M BAP fortified with 2.00, 4.00 and 6.00 mM calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) and a control treatment with 2.22 mu M BAP. The shoot and leaf numbers were increased with the addition of 4.00 and 6.00 mM Ca-glu. The presence of Ca-glu reduced premature leaf senescence and callus formation to some extent. In the third experiment, the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) at 10-80 micro M in media with 2.22 micro M BAP and 2.22 micro M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu could totally overcome premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Media supplemented with 2.22 mirco M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu + 20 micro M AgNOsub 3/ significantly induced among the highest mean number of shoots and highest mean number of leaves per shoot. (author)

  12. Detection and characterization of silver nanoparticles and dissolved species of silver in culture medium and cells by AsFlFFF-UV-Vis-ICPMS: application to nanotoxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, E; Jiménez-Lamana, J; Laborda, F; Abad-Álvaro, I; Bladé, C; Arola, L; Castillo, J R

    2014-03-07

    A methodology based on Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AsFlFFF) coupled with UV-Vis absorption spectrometry and ICP mass spectrometry (ICPMS) has been developed and applied to the study of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and dissolved species of silver in culture media and cells used in cytotoxicity tests. The effect of a nano-silver based product (protein stabilized silver nanoparticles ca. 15 nm average diameter) on human hepatoma (HepG2) cell viability has been studied. UV-Vis absorption spectrometry provided information about the nature (organic vs. nanoparticle) of the eluted species, whereas the silver was monitored by ICPMS. A shift towards larger hydrodynamic diameters was observed in the AgNPs after a 24 hour incubation period in the culture medium, which suggests a "protein corona" effect. Silver(I) associated with proteins present in the culture medium has also been detected, as a consequence of the oxidation process experimented by the AgNPs. However, the Ag(I) released into the culture medium did not justify the toxicity levels observed. AgNPs associated with the cultured HepG2 cells were also identified by AsFlFFF, after applying a solubilisation process based on the use of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and Triton X-100. These results have been confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) analysis of the fractions collected from the AsFlFFF. The effect of AgNPs on HepG2 cells has been compared to that caused by silver(I) as AgNO3 under the same conditions. The determination of the total content of silver in the cells confirms that a much larger mass of silver as AgNPs with respect to AgNO3 (16 to 1) is needed to observe a similar toxicity.

  13. Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Petrášek, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of intracellular calcium levels and ion homeostasis. The action of silver ions at the plant plasma membrane is largely connected with the inhibition of ethylene signalling thanks to the ability of silver ion to replace the copper cofactor in the ethylene receptor. A link coupling the action of silver ions and cellular auxin efflux has been suggested earlier by their possible direct interaction with auxin efflux carriers or by influencing plasma membrane permeability. Using tobacco BY-2 cells, we demonstrate here that besides a dramatic increase of efflux of synthetic auxins 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), treatment with AgNO 3 resulted in enhanced efflux of the cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) as well as the auxin structural analogues tryptophan (Trp) and benzoic acid (BA). The application of AgNO 3 was accompanied by gradual water loss and plasmolysis. The observed effects were dependent on the availability of extracellular calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) as shown by comparison of transport assays in Ca 2+ -rich and Ca 2+ -free buffers and upon treatment with inhibitors of plasma membrane Ca 2+ -permeable channels Al 3+ and ruthenium red, both abolishing the effect of AgNO 3 . Confocal microscopy of Ca 2+ -sensitive fluorescence indicator Fluo-4FF, acetoxymethyl (AM) ester suggested that the extracellular Ca 2+ availability is necessary to trigger the response to silver ions and that the intracellular Ca 2+ pool alone is not sufficient for this effect. Altogether, our data suggest that in plant cells the effects of silver ions originate from the primal modification of the internal calcium levels, possibly by their interaction with Ca 2+ -permeable channels at the plasma membrane.

  14. In situ SU-8 silver nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren V. Fischer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials containing metal nanoparticles are of considerable interest in photonics and optoelectronics applications. However, device fabrication of such materials always encounters the challenge of incorporation of preformed nanoparticles into photoresist materials. As a solution to this problem, an easy new method of fabricating silver nanocomposites by an in situ reduction of precursors within the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 has been developed. AgNO3 dissolved in acetonitrile and mixed with the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 forms silver nanoparticles primarily during the pre- and post-exposure soft bake steps at 95 °C. A further high-temperature treatment at 300 °C resulted in the formation of densely homogeneously distributed silver nanoparticles in the photoresist matrix. No particle growth or agglomeration of nanoparticles is observed at this point. The reported new in situ silver nanocomposite materials can be spin coated as homogeneous thin films and structured by using UV lithography. A resolution of 5 µm is achieved in the lithographic process. The UV exposure time is found to be independent of the nanoparticle concentration. The fabricated silver nanocomposites exhibit high plasmonic responses suitable for the development of new optoelectronic and optical sensing devices.

  15. Electron beam synthesis of silica/nano silver composite and its application in controlling microorganisms in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramnani, S.P.; Biswal, Jayashree; Sabharwal, S.; Rama Rao, K.C.; Sai Prasad, P.

    2008-01-01

    Silica/nano silver composites were prepared by electron beam (EB) irradiation technique. The solution containing silica nanoparticles and AgNO 3 in various proportion were subjected to EB irradiation. The EB dose delivered was such that all the Ag + is converted into metallic silver. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM analysis. The composites were tested for their anti microbial activity in water samples. The results indicated that there is an optimum size of Ag nanoparticles that shows better antimicrobial activity. (author)

  16. Silver Cation Coordination Study to AsW9 Ligand – A Trilacunar Arsenotungstate Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Lavinia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this research is to find the coordination ratio between AsW9 and Ag+, as a preliminary study for synthesizing a new silver-arsenotungstate complex. Material and method: The ligand:cation molar ratio in complexes was determined by conductometric and potentiometric titrations of AsW9 with silver salts: CH3COOAg, AgNO3. Results: The ratio was obtained from the inflexion points of the curves when molar ratio was plotted versus conductivity, or from the equivalence point when silver added volume was plotted versus pH value. Each graphic shows one point of inflexion corresponding to 1:1.54 ratio of AsW9:Ag+. In the same manner, the equivalent volumes determined by graphical method gave the ratio 1:1.53. The spectral results confirmed that a AsW9:Ag+ complex was formed since the ligand absorption maxima values have been changed from 190 nm to 197 nm in the case of using AgNO3 and 196 nm for CH3COOAg corresponding to the W=Od bond, and from 246.5 nm to 274 nm (AgNO3 and 270 nm (CH3COO-Ag+ for the W-Ob,c-W bond. Conclusions: Silver cation exhibit a preference for AsW9 in a ratio of 3 to 2. This ratio can be associated to a sandwich type arrangement, with two trilacunary Keggin building blocks incorporating 3 metal cations in a tetrahedral geometry.

  17. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and silver colloidal solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Phong; Ngo Hoang Minh; Ngo Vo Ke Thanh; Dang Mau Chien

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, silver colloidal solutions have been synthesized rapidly in green conditions by using microwave irradiation and non-toxic chemistry substances (acid oxalic, silver nitrate, polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP; Mw = 55 000)). The particle size and morphology of these solutions can be controlled by altering several factors like the time, the power of microwave exposure, and the ratio of silver oxalate and PVP etc. The silver nanoparticles were fabricated by thermal decomposition of silver oxalate. The synthesized silver colloidal solutions and silver nanoparticles were characterized by several analytical techniques like UV- VIS, XRD, TEM, FESEM/EDS and ICP-AAS studies. Finally, we used the synthesized silver colloidal solutions for antibacterial purpose. The obtained results showed that the synthesized silver colloidal solutions, even at very low concentrations, have highly efficient anti-bacterial property.

  18. Poly[mu2-(N-hydroxypyridine-2-carboxamidine)-mu2-nitrato-silver(I)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ai-Li; Han, Peng; Yang, Hui-Juan; Wang, Ru-Ji; Kou, Hui-Zhong

    2007-12-01

    In the title complex, [Ag(NO3)(C6H7N3O)]n or [Ag(NO3)(pyaoxH2)] (pyaoxH2 is N-hydroxypyridine-2-carboxamidine), the Ag+ ion is bridged by the pyaoxH2 ligands and nitrate anions, giving rise to a two-dimensional molecular structure. Each pyaoxH2 ligand coordinates to two Ag+ ions using its pyridyl and carboxamidine N atoms, and the OH and the NH2 groups are uncoordinated. Each nitrate anion uses two O atoms to coordinate to two Ag+ ions. The Ag...Ag separation via the pyaoxH2 bridge is 2.869 (1) A, markedly shorter than that of 6.452 (1) A via the nitrate bridge. The two-dimensional structure is fishscale-like, and can be described as pyaoxH2-bridged Ag2 nodes that are further linked by nitrate anions. Hydrogen bonding between the amidine groups and the nitrate O atoms connects adjacent layers into a three-dimensional network.

  19. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agasti, Nityananda; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO 3 with NaBH 4 in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility

  20. Effect of media composition on bioavailability and toxicity of silver and silver nanoparticles in fish intestinal cells (RTgutGC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghetti, Matteo; Schirmer, Kristin

    2016-12-01

    To understand conditions affecting bioavailability and toxicity of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (cit-AgNP) and dissolved silver at the luminal enterocyte interface, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gut cells (RTgutGC) in media of contrasting composition: two amino acid-containing media, one of which was supplemented with proteins, as can be expected during digestion; and two protein and amino acid-free media contrasting low and high chloride content, as can be expected in the lumen of fish adapting to freshwater or seawater, respectively. Dose-response curves were generated measuring cell metabolic activity, membrane and lysosome integrity over a period of 72 hours. Then, nontoxic doses were applied and total silver accumulation, metallothionein and glutathione reductase mRNA levels were determined. The presence of proteins stabilized cit-AgNP keeping them in suspension. Conversely, in protein-free media, cit-AgNP agglomerated and settled, resulting in higher cellular accumulation of silver and toxicity. Chloride concentrations in exposure media modulated the toxicity of AgNO 3 but not of cit-AgNP. Moreover, while amino acid-containing media are protective against AgNO 3 , likely due to the formation of thiolate complexes, they are only partially protective against cit-AgNP. Viability assays indicated that lysosomes are targets of cit-AgNP, supporting the hypothesis that cit-AgNP exert toxicity intracellularly. Metallothionein, a sensor of metal bioavailability, was induced by cit-AgNP in high chloride medium but not in low chloride medium, indicating that chloride might have a role in mobilizing silver from intercellular vesicles. Overall, this study shows that AgNP bioavailability and toxicity in the intestine is linked to its luminal content.

  1. Colorimetric Detection Based on Localised Surface Plasmon Resonance Optical Characteristics for the Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide Using Acacia Gum–Stabilised Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Alzahrani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles in sensing is attracting the interest of many researchers. The aim of this work was to fabricate Acacia gum–stabilised silver nanoparticles (SNPs using green chemistry to use them as a highly sensitive and cost-effective localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR colorimeter sensor for the determination of reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 . Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by the reduction of an inorganic precursor silver nitrate solution (AgNO 3 using white sugar as the reducing reagent and Acacia gum as the stabilising reagent and a sonication bath to form uniform silver nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were characterised by visual observation, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The TEM micrographs of the synthesised nanoparticles showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles with sizes of approximately 10 nm. The EDAX spectrum result confirmed the presence of silver (58%, carbon (30%, and oxygen (12%. Plasmon colorimetric sensing of H 2 O 2 solution was investigated by introducing H 2 O 2 solution into Acacia gum–capped SNP dispersion, and the change in the LSPR band in the UV-Vis region of spectra was monitored. In this study, it was found that the yellow colour of Acacia gum–stabilised SNPs gradually changed to transparent, and moreover, a remarkable change in the LSPR absorbance strength was observed. The calibration curve was linear over 0.1–0.00001 M H 2 O 2 , with a correlation estimation ( R 2 of .953. This was due to the aggregation of SNPs following introduction of the H 2 O 2 solution. Furthermore, the fabricated SNPs were successfully used to detect H 2 O 2 solution in a liquid milk sample, thereby demonstrating the ability of the fabricated SNPs to detect H 2 O 2

  2. Characterization of a silver-incorporated calcium phosphate film by RBS and its antimicrobial effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, I-H; Lee, I-S; Song, J-H; Lee, M-H; Park, J-C; Lee, G-H; Sun, X-D; Chung, S-M

    2007-01-01

    A thin calcium phosphate film was synthesized on both commercially pure Ti and Si wafers by electron beam evaporation of hydroxyapatite as an evaporant with simultaneous Ar ion beam bombardments. Silver was introduced into an ion-beam-assisted deposition of a calcium phosphate thin film for antimicrobial effect. The amount of incorporated silver ions was controlled by immersing calcium-phosphate-coated samples in different AgNO 3 concentrations, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was employed to measure the amounts of substituted silver. The higher concentration of silver in the calcium phosphate film was more effective in reducing the bacteria of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Streptococcus mutans OMZ 65 on contact with respect to controls

  3. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and the Study of Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna Vasireddy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of silver nanoparticles of varying size has been achieved using different molar concentrations of NaOH while the effect of changing the temperature has been studied. AgNO3, gelatine, glucose and NaOH are used as a silver precursor, stabilizer, reducing agent and accelerator respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by a FESEM study, X‐ray diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy and UV‐vis spectroscopy. The colloidal sols of the silver nanoparticles in a biopolymer gelatine show strong surface plasmon resonance absorption peaks. The visible photoluminescence emission from the synthesized silver nanocrystals has been recorded within the wavelength range of 400‐600 nm under UV excitation. The synthesized nanoparticles may be extremely useful in making biosensor devices as well as for other applications.

  4. (Nitrato-κ2O,O′bis[(E-N-(pyridin-4-ylmethylidene-κNhydroxyamine]silver(I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Gao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the mononuclear title compound, [Ag(NO3(C6H6N2O2], the AgI atom is located on a twofold rotation axis and the nitrate-chelated AgI atom is further coordinated by two aromatic N atoms of hydroxylamine ligands in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal, the nitrate ion has 2 symmetry with the N atom and one O atom located on the twofold rotation axis, and is linked to hydroxy groups of the hydroxylamine ligands by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a chain running along the b axis.

  5. Binding and movement of silver in the intestinal epithelium of a marine teleost fish, the European flounder (Platichthys flesus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogstrand, C.; Wood, C. M.; Bury, N.R.

    2002-01-01

    The intestine has been indicated as a site of waterborne silver toxicity in marine fish and chronic effects at the intestine have been observed at concentrations far below acutely toxic level. Thus, models of silver toxicity to marine fish need to consider the intestine as a biotic ligand....... The present study characterises binding of silver to the intestine of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). Everted intestinal sacks were prepared and submersed in a solution mimicking the intestinal fluid of the fish at the acclimation salinity (21‰). Silver was added as 110mAgNO3 or 110mAgNO3/AgNO3...... mixtures at concentrations ranging from 1.6 to 950 nM total silver. Appearance of 110mAg was analysed in mucosal scrapings, muscle layers, and in the plasma saline on the serosal side of the intestine. The latter represented uptake into blood and other extra-intestinal compartments. Mucosal scrapings...

  6. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the effects of potassium nitrate were higher than sodium nitrate, which was due to the positive effects of potassium on the enzyme activity, sugars transport, water and nutrient transport, protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. In conclusion, potassium nitrate has better effect on the nitrate assimilatory ...

  7. In Vivo Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Ions in Zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine Bilberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of water chemistry on characterised polyvinyl pyrrolidone- (PVP- coated silver nanoparticles (81 nm was investigated. NaCl solution series of 100–800 mg L−1 lead to initial and temporal increase in nanoparticles size, but agglomeration was limited. pH variation (5–8 had only minor influence on the hydrodynamic particle size. Acute toxicity of nanosivler to zebrafish (Danio rerio was investigated in a 48-hour static renewal study and compared with the toxicity of silver ions (AgNO3. The nanosilver and silver ion 48-hour median lethal concentration (LC50 values were 84 μg L−1 and 25 μg L−1, respectively. To investigate exposure-related stress, the fish behaviour was observed visually after 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 27, 30, and 48 hours of both nanosilver and ionic silver treatments. These observations revealed increased rate of operculum movement and surface respiration after nanosilver exposure, suggesting respiratory toxicity. The present study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles are lethal to zebrafish.

  8. Formation of novel assembled silver nanostructures from polyglycol solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Liu Ke; Dai Zhihui; Feng Yuying; Bao Jianchun; Mo Xiangyin

    2006-01-01

    This paper described a simple and mild chemical reduction approach to prepare novel silver nanostructures with different morphologies. Dendritic silver nanostructure was obtained by a fast reduction reaction using hydrazine as a reducing agent in aqueous solution of polyglycol, while both the zigzag and linear Ag nanostructures were slowly assembled using polyglycol as a reducing agent. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were used to characterize the obtained silver nanostructures. Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR) spectra were recorded to show that there exists a certain coordination of the oxygen atoms in the polyglycol with Ag + ions in aqueous solution of the AgNO 3 /polyglycol. Furthermore, the examination of the morphologies of the products obtained at different stages of the reaction of Ag + ions with polyglycol revealed that such a coordination is of utmost importance for the formation of the silver nanostructures, namely polyglycol provided lots of active sites for the coordination, nucleation, growth and serves as backbones for directing the assembly of the metal particles formed. The formation mechanism of the dendritic silver nanostructure was called a coordination-reduction-nucleation-growth-fractal growth process. The strong surface plasmon absorption bands at 470 nm for the zigzag silver and at 405 nm for the dendritic silver were found

  9. Eco-friendly microwave-assisted green and rapid synthesis of well-stabilized gold and core-shell silver-gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Mehrez E; Shaheen, Tharwat I; Fouda, Moustafa M G; Hebeish, Ali A

    2016-01-20

    Herein, we present a new approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) individually and as bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles (AgNPs-AuNPs). The novelty of the approach is further maximized by using curdlan (CRD) biopolymer to perform the dual role of reducing and capping agents and microwave-aided technology for affecting the said nanoparticles with varying concentrations in addition to those affected by precursor concentrations. Thus, for preparation of AuNPs, curdlan was solubilized in alkali solution followed by an addition of tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4). The curdlan solution containing HAuCl4 was then subjected to microwave radiation for up to 10 min. The optimum conditions obtained with the synthesis of AuNPs were employed for preparation of core-shell silver-gold nanoparticles by replacing definite portion of HAuCl4 with an equivalent portion of silver nitrate (AgNO3). The portion of AgNO3 was added initially and allowed to be reduced by virtue of the dual role of curdlan under microwave radiation. The corresponding portion of HAuCl4 was then added and allowed to complete the reaction. Characterization of AuNPs and AgNPs-AuNPs core-shell were made using UV-vis spectra, TEM, FTIR, XRD, zeta potential, and AFM analysis. Accordingly, strong peaks of the colloidal particles show surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at maximum wavelength of 540 nm, proving the formation of well-stabilized gold nanoparticles. TEM investigations reveal that the major size of AuNPs formed at different Au(+3)concentration lie below 20 nm with narrow size distribution. Whilst, the SPR bands of AgNPs-AuNPs core-shell differ than those obtained from original AgNPs (420 nm) and AuNPs (540 nm). Such shifting due to SPR of Au nanoshell deposited onto AgNPs core was significantly affected by the variation of bimetallic ratios applied. TEM micrographs show variation in contrast between dark silver core and the lighter gold shell. Increasing the ratio of silver ions leads to

  10. Synthesis and characterization of silver/diatomite nanocomposite by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanh, Truong Thi; Thu, Nguyen Thi; Quoc, Le Anh; Hien, Nguyen Quoc

    2017-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with diameter about 9 nm were deposited on diatomite by irradiation under electron beam of diatomite suspension containing 10 mM AgNO3 in 1% chitosan solution, at the dose of 20.2 kGy. The AgNPs/diatomite nanocomposite was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM image and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The antibacterial activity of the AgNPs/diatomite against E. coli and S. aureus was evaluated by reduction of bacterial colonies on spread plates and inhibition zone diameter on diffusion disks.

  11. Physiological Responses of Two Varieties of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Foliar Application of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ibrahim El-Batal

    2016-02-01

    The foliar application of GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 signifi‐ cantly increased plant height, root length, number of leaves/plant, the leaves’ area, total fresh and dry weights/ plant and yield (i.e., number, fresh and dry weights of pods/ plant and 100-seed weight. It also altered protein patterns in the two varieties and changed the phytohormone balance in the Nebraska variety by increasing the levels of growth-regulating substances, which explains the increase in both growth parameters and yield in GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 treated plants. An Atomic Absorption Spectrosco‐ py (AAS study unveiled the movement and residual accumulation of both forms of silver in different parts of the two bean varieties. The results indicate the successful use of GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 in enhancing the growth and yield of the Bronco and Nebraska varieties under pot experiment conditions, and present a viable alternative to genetically modified (GM crops for ensuring food security.

  12. Highly efficient silver patterning without photo-resist using simple silver precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Younghun; Hwang, Eoc-Chae; Lee, Sang-Yun; Lyu, Yi-Yeol; Yim, Jin-Heong; Kim, Jin-Young; Chang, Seok; Pu, Lyong Sun; Kim, Ji Man

    2005-01-01

    Highly efficient method for silver patterning without photo-resist was developed by using high photosensitive organo-silver precursors, which were prepared by a simple reaction of silver salts and excess of amines. The FT-IR and GC-MS spectra were recorded depending on UV exposure time, for (n-PrNH 2 )Ag(NO 3 ).0.5MeCN and (n-PrNH 2 )Ag(NO 2 ).0.5MeCN, to understand the photolysis mechanism. The results indicate not only dissociation of coordinated amine and acetonitrile, but also decomposition of corresponding anion upon UV irradiation. When a precursor thin film was exposed to broadband UV irradiation, a partially reduced and insoluble silver species were formed within several minutes. After development, the irradiated areas were treated with a reducing agent to obtain pure metallic patterns. Subsequently, annealing step was followed at 100-350 deg. C to increase the adhesion of interface and cohesion of silver particles. The line resolution of 5 μm was obtained by the present silver precursors. Film thickness was also controllable from 50 to 250 nm by repetition of the above procedure. The average electrical conductivity was in the range of 3-43 Ω cm, measured by four-point probe technique. AES depth profile of the silver pattern thus obtained showed carbon and oxygen contents are less than 1% through the whole range. Even though sulfur contaminant exists on the surface, it was believed that nearly pure silver pattern was generated

  13. Transformation-Dissolution Reactions Partially Explain Adverse Effects of Metallic Silver Nanoparticles to Soil Nitrification in Different Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollyn, Jessica; Willaert, Bernd; Kerré, Bart; Moens, Claudia; Arijs, Katrien; Mertens, Jelle; Leverett, Dean; Oorts, Koen; Smolders, Erik

    2018-04-25

    Risk assessment of metallic nanoparticles (NP) is critically affected by the concern that toxicity goes beyond that of the metallic ion. This study addressed this concern for soils with silver (Ag)-NP using the Ag-sensitive nitrification assay. Three agricultural soils (A,B,C) were spiked with equivalent Ag doses of either Ag-NP (d = 13 nm) or AgNO 3 . Soil solution was isolated and monitored over 97 days with due attention to accurate Ag fractionation at low (∼10 µg L -1 ) Ag concentrations. Truly dissolved (soils decreased with reaction half-lives of 4 to 22 days depending on the soil, denoting important Ag-ageing reactions. In contrast, truly dissolved Ag in Ag-NP-amended soils first increased by dissolution and subsequently decreased by ageing; the concentration never exceeding that in the AgNO 3 -amended soils. The half-lives of Ag-NP transformation-dissolution were about 4 days (soils A&B) and 36 days (soil C). The Ag toxic thresholds (EC10, mg Ag kg -1 soil) of nitrification, either evaluated at 21 or 35 days after spiking, were similar between the two Ag forms (soils A&B) but were factors 3 to 8 lower for AgNO 3 than for Ag-NP (soil C), largely corroborating with dissolution differences. This fate and bio-assay showed that Ag-NPs are not more toxic than AgNO 3 at equivalent total soil Ag concentrations and that differences in Ag-dissolution at least partially explain toxicity differences between the forms and among soils. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticles coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Ilisei, Simona; Luca, Constantin

    2014-02-01

    The present paper is focused on a study regarding the possibility of obtaining hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticle coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold. The method applied is based on a combined strategy involving hydroxyapatite biomimetic deposition on polyurethane surface using a Supersaturated Calcification Solution (SCS), combined with silver ions reduction and in-situ crystallization processes on hydroxyapatite-polyurethane surface by sample immersing in AgNO3 solution. The morphology, composition and phase structure of the prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The data obtained show that a layer of hydroxyapatite was deposited on porous polyurethane support and the silver nanoparticles (average size 34.71 nm) were dispersed among and even on the hydroxyapatite crystals. Hydroxyapatite/polyurethane surface acts as a reducer and a stabilizing agent for silver ions. The surface plasmon resonance peak in UV-Vis absorption spectra showed an absorption maximum at 415 nm, indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. The hydroxyapatite-silver polyurethane scaffolds were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the obtained data were indicative of good antibacterial properties of the materials. © 2013.

  15. X-ray diffraction analysis of LiCu2O2 crystals with additives of silver atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirotinkin, V. P.; Bush, A. A.; Kamentsev, K. E.; Dau, H. S.; Yakovlev, K. A.; Tishchenko, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Silver-containing LiCu 2 O 2 crystals up to 4 × 8 × 8 mm in size were grown by the crystallization of 80(1-x)CuO · 20 x AgNO 3 · 20Li 2 CO 3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) mixture melt. According to the X-ray spectral and Rietveld X-ray diffraction data, the maximum amount of silver incorporated in the LiCu 2 O 2 structure is about 4 at % relative to the copper content. It was established that silver atoms occupy statistically crystallographic positions of lithium atoms. The incorporation of silver atoms is accompanied by a noticeable increase in parameter c of the LiCu 2 O 2 rhombic unit cell, a slight increase in parameter a, and a slight decrease in parameter b

  16. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  17. Fabrication of biogenic antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102 as eco-friendly nanofactory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A M; Darwesh, Osama M M

    2014-04-01

    The current research was focused on the extracellular biosynthesis of bactericidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using cell-free supernatant of a local isolate previously identified as a novel Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102 was quite fast and required far less time than previously published strains. The produced particles showed a single surface plasmon resonance peak at 400 nm by UV-Vis spectroscopy, which confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Response surface methodology was chosen to evaluate the effects of four process variables (AgNO3 concentration, incubation period, pH levels, and inoculum size) on the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the linear and quadratic effects of incubation period, initial pH, and inoculum size had a significant effect (p silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102. The maximum silver nanoparticles biosynthesis (2.5 OD, at 400 nm ) was achieved in runs number 5 and 14 under the conditions of 1 mM AgNO3 (1-1.5% (v/v)), incubation period (72-96 h), initial pH (9-10), and inoculum size (2-4% (v/v)). An overall 4-fold increase in AgNPs biosynthesis was obtained as compared with that of unoptimized conditions. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-VIS spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, in addition to antimicrobial properties. The biosynthesized AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of medically important pathogenic gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and yeast (Candida albicans).

  18. Speciation Matters: Bioavailability of Silver and Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles to Alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, John P; Schwab, Fabienne; Colman, Benjamin P; Webb, Samuel M; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Winkler, Christopher; Wiesner, Mark R; Lowry, Gregory V

    2015-07-21

    Terrestrial crops are directly exposed to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their environmentally transformed analog silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S-NPs) when wastewater treatment biosolids are applied as fertilizer to agricultural soils. This leads to a need to understand their bioavailability to plants. In the present study, the mechanisms of uptake and distribution of silver in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were quantified and visualized upon hydroponic exposure to Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and AgNO3 at 3 mg total Ag/L. Total silver uptake was measured in dried roots and shoots, and the spatial distribution of elements was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based X-ray imaging techniques. Despite large differences in release of Ag(+) ions from the particles, Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and Ag(+) became associated with plant roots to a similar degree, and exhibited similarly limited (<1%) amounts of translocation of silver into the shoot system. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping revealed differences in the distribution of Ag into roots for each treatment. Silver nanoparticles mainly accumulated in the (columella) border cells and elongation zone, whereas Ag(+) accumulated more uniformly throughout the root. In contrast, Ag2S-NPs remained largely adhered to the root exterior, and the presence of cytoplasmic nano-SixOy aggregates was observed. Exclusively in roots exposed to particulate silver, NPs smaller than the originally dosed NPs were identified by TEM in the cell walls. The apparent accumulation of Ag in the root apoplast determined by XRF, and the presence of small NPs in root cell walls suggests uptake of partially dissolved NPs and translocation along the apoplast.

  19. Associated equilibria with participatian of single and mixed silver, lead and cadmium halide complexes in mixtures of molten alkali and alkaline earth metal nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouk, Kh.S.; Gupta, R.K.; Vekma, K.V.

    1983-01-01

    Associated equilibria in the systems, which contain single and mixed silver, cadmium and lead halide complexes in the KNO 3 -Ba(N0 3 ) 2 (87.6:12.4 and 89:11 mol.%) and NaNO 3 -Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (94.2-5.8 mol%) melts in the temperature range from 568.2 up to 698.2 K are investigated. Applicability of equations derivated on the base of quasi-lattice model to description of temperature coefficients of association constants is analized

  20. Silver-activated radiophotoluminescence dosemeter glass with high sensitivity and good corrosion resistance, method of production and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaes, H.H.; Staaden, H.

    1976-01-01

    Hitherto known radiophotoluminescent dosimeter glasses have an interfering maximum of energy dependence in the γ-energy region of 40-60 KeV. The glas according to the invention does not have this disadvantage as the metaphophate group has been replaced by fluorine. The glass is melted from a mixture which besides a silver compound (AgPO 3 , AgNO 3 , Ag 2 CO 3 or LiAg[PO 3 ] 2 ) consists of at least one fluoride. Detailed examples clarify the method and give the limits of possible deviations in the composition. (UWI) [de

  1. Highly bacterial resistant silver nanoparticles: synthesis and antibacterial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra; Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi; Mehta, R. V.; Upadhyay, R. V.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe a simple one-pot rapid synthesis route to produce uniform silver nanoparticles by thermal reduction of AgNO 3 using oleylamine as reducing and capping agent. To enhance the dispersal ability of as-synthesized hydrophobic silver nanoparticles in water, while maintaining their unique properties, a facile phase transfer mechanism has been developed using biocompatible block co-polymer pluronic F-127. Formation of silver nanoparticles is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Hydrodynamic size and its distribution are obtained from dynamic light scattering (DLS). Hydrodynamic size and size distribution of as-synthesized and phase transferred silver nanoparticles are 8.2 ± 1.5 nm (σ = 18.3%) and 31.1 ± 4.5 nm (σ = 14.5%), respectively. Antimicrobial activities of hydrophilic silver nanoparticles is tested against two Gram positive (Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus), and three Gram negative (Escherichiacoli, Proteusvulgaris and Shigellasonnei) bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values obtained in the present study for the tested microorganisms are found much better than those reported for commercially available antibacterial agents.

  2. Uncaria gambir Roxb. mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using diethanolamine as capping agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanni, A.; Zulhadjri; Handayani, D.; Arief, S.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of silver nanoparticles preparation has been developed increasingly due to the wide application in various areas and field, such as medicine, energy, catalysis, and electronic. An environmental-friendly method is needed to fabricate biocompatible silver nanoparticles without producing hazardous materials to the environment. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles by green synthesis method, using leaf extract of gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb.) as bioreducing agent and aqueous diethanolamine (DEA) solution as capping agents. The AgNO3/DEA molar ratio was varied to investigate the effect of DEA concentration to the properties of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles was indicated by colour changes to yellowish brown and confirmed by result of UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis which shown absorption band at 400 to 410 nm. The absorbance was increased to the reaction time of 24 hours, and was decrease by the increasing of DEA concentration in reaction. TEM analysis showed that prepared silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with diameter of 3,5 - 45,5 nm. The diameter of DEA capped silver nanoparticles was 13 nm, smaller than uncapped silver nanoparticles which was 26 nm It exhibited good stability to time reaction of one month which was potential to be developed in some fields.

  3. Stable and Controllable Synthesis of Silver Nanowires for Transparent Conducting Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bitao; Yan, Hengqing; Chen, Shanyong; Guan, Youwei; Wu, Guoguo; Jin, Rong; Li, Lu

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanowires without particles are synthesized by a solvothermal method at temperature 150 °C. Silver nanowires are prepared via a reducing agent of glycerol and a capping agent of polyvinylpyrrolidone ( M w ≈ 1,300,000). Both of them can improve the purity of the as-prepared silver nanowires. With controllable shapes and sizes, silver nanowires are grown continuously up to 10-20 μm in length with 40-50 nm in diameter. To improve the yield of silver nanowires, the different concentrations of AgNO3 synthesis silver nanowires are discussed. The characterizations of the synthesized silver nanowires are analyzed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM), and silver nanowires are pumped on the cellulose membrane and heated stress on the PET. Then, the cellulose membrane is dissolved by the steam of acetone to prepare flexible transparent conducting thin film, which is detected 89.9 of transmittance and 58 Ω/□. Additionally, there is a close loop connected by the thin film, a blue LED, a pair of batteries, and a number of wires, to determinate directly the film if conductive or not.

  4. Silver-zinc electrodeposition from a thiourea solution with added EDTA or HEDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.M. de; Carlos, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows the study of silver-zinc electrodeposition from a thiourea solution with added (ethylenedinitrilo)tetraacetic acid (EDTA), disodium salt and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), trisodium salt. Voltammetric results indicated that silver-zinc alloy can be obtained applying overpotential higher than 0.495 V, in Tu solution containing 1.0 x 10 -1 mol L -1 Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + 2.5 x 10 -2 mol L -1 AgNO 3 . This was due to silver(I) ion complexation with thiourea, which shifted the silver deposition potential to more negative value and due to silver-zinc alloy deposition, which occurred at potentials more positive than the potential to zinc deposition alone. EDTA or HEDTA did not significantly affect the silver and zinc deposition potentials, but decreased the current density for silver-zinc deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of the silver-zinc deposits showed that the morphology and composition changed as a function of the conditions of deposition, viz, deposition potential (E d ), deposition charge density (q d ) and solution composition (silver, EDTA and HEDTA concentrations). EDS analysis of the deposits showed sulphur (S) incorporated into the silver-zinc deposit, while SEM images showed that this sulphur content seemed to improve the silver-zinc morphology, as did the presence of EDTA and HEDTA in the solution, which enhanced the sulphur incorporation into the silver-zinc deposit. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the silver-zinc deposit showed that it was amorphous, irrespective of its composition and morphology

  5. Preparative separation of α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols using silver nitrate-impregnated silica gel medium pressure liquid chromatography and analysis of sandalwood oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daramwar, Pankaj P; Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Priyadarshini, Balaraman; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V

    2012-10-07

    The major sesquiterpene constituents of East-Indian sandalwood oil (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols have shown to be responsible for most of the biological activities and organoleptic properties of sandalwood oil. The work reported here describes the strategic use of medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) for the separation of both α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols. Silver nitrate impregnated silica gel was used as the stationary phase in MPLC for quantitative separation of α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols with mobile phases hexane and dichloromethane, respectively. The purities of α-santalene and (Z)-α-santalol obtained were >96%; however, β-santalene and (Z)-β-santalol were obtained with their respective inseparable epi-isomers. Limits of quantification (LoQ) relative to the FID detector were measured for important sesquiterpene alcohols of heartwood oil of S. album using serial dilutions of the standard stock solutions and demonstrated that the quality of the commercial sandalwood oil can be assessed for the content of individual sesquiterpene alcohols regulated by Australian Standard (AS2112-2003), International Organization for Standardization ISO 3518:2002 (E) and European Union (E. U.).

  6. Self-organization of mesoscopic silver wires by electrochemical deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long, straight mesoscale silver wires have been fabricated from AgNO3 electrolyte via electrodeposition without the help of templates, additives, and surfactants. Although the wire growth speed is very fast due to growth under non-equilibrium conditions, the wire morphology is regular and uniform in diameter. Structural studies reveal that the wires are single-crystalline, with the [112] direction as the growth direction. A possible growth mechanism is suggested. Auger depth profile measurements show that the wires are stable against oxidation under ambient conditions. This unique system provides a convenient way for the study of self-organization in electrochemical environments as well as for the fabrication of highly-ordered, single-crystalline metal nanowires.

  7. Application of the atomic absorption technical to available the concentration of silver ions incorporated in glass matrix by ionic exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, E.; Silva, K.F.; Teixeira, A.; Silva, L.; Paula, M.M.S.; Angioletto, E.; Riella, H.G.; Fiori, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Ion specimens can be incorporated in glasses or natural clays by ionic exchange process with different concentrations dependent of matrix's type and of the ionic exchange parameters. In particular, the incorporation of silver ions presents high interest by its biocidal properties. A compound contending ion silver specimens presents bactericidal and fungicidal properties with effect proportional to ion concentration. This work presents results about application of the atomic absorption technical to determine the silver ion concentration incorporated in a glass matrix by ionic exchange process. The ionic exchange experiments were realized with different AgNO 3 concentration and constant temperature. After ionic exchange process, the glass samples were submitted to characterization by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy and Atomic Absorption Techniques. The comparative results between different techniques showed that atomic absorption technical is adequate to determine ion silver concentration incorporated in the glass matrix after ionic exchange process. (author)

  8. Characterisation of bioaccumulation dynamics of three differently coated silver nanoparticles and aqueous silver in a simple freshwater food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalman, Judit; Paul, Kai B.; Khan, Farhan R.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the bioaccumulation dynamics of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with different coatings (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol and citrate), in comparison with aqueous Ag (added as AgNO3), in a simplified freshwater food chain comprising the green alga Chlorella vulgaris...... and the crustacean Daphnia magna. Algal uptake rate constants (ku) and membrane transport characteristics (binding site density, transporter affinity and strength of binding) were determined after exposing algae to a range of either aqueous Ag or Ag NP concentrations. In general, higher ku values were related......). Ag NPs were only visualised in algal cells exposed to high Ag NP concentrations. To establish D. magna biodynamic model constants, organisms were fed Ag-contaminated algae and depurated for 96 h. Assimilation efficiencies ranged from 10 to 25 % and the elimination of accumulated Ag followed a two...

  9. Hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticles coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Ilisei, Simona; Luca, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is focused on a study regarding the possibility of obtaining hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticle coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold. The method applied is based on a combined strategy involving hydroxyapatite biomimetic deposition on polyurethane surface using a Supersaturated Calcification Solution (SCS), combined with silver ions reduction and in-situ crystallization processes on hydroxyapatite-polyurethane surface by sample immersing in AgNO 3 solution. The morphology, composition and phase structure of the prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The data obtained show that a layer of hydroxyapatite was deposited on porous polyurethane support and the silver nanoparticles (average size 34.71 nm) were dispersed among and even on the hydroxyapatite crystals. Hydroxyapatite/polyurethane surface acts as a reducer and a stabilizing agent for silver ions. The surface plasmon resonance peak in UV-Vis absorption spectra showed an absorption maximum at 415 nm, indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. The hydroxyapatite-silver polyurethane scaffolds were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the obtained data were indicative of good antibacterial properties of the materials. - Highlights: • The hydroxyapatite and silver nanoparticles were grown on the polyurethane scaffold • The hydroxyapatite/polyurethane acts as reducing agent, stabilizer and matrix for Ag • The samples were well characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD, XPS, UV-visible spectroscopy • The hydroxyapatite/silver polyurethane scaffold shows antibacterial property

  10. Effects of silver nanoparticles on survival, biomass change and avoidance behaviour of the endogeic earthworm Allolobophora chlorotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brami, C; Glover, A R; Butt, K R; Lowe, C N

    2017-07-01

    Increasing commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) and subsequent presence in wastewater and sewage sludge has raised concerns regarding their effects in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Several studies have employed standardised acute and chronic earthworm-based tests to establish the toxicological effects of Ag NP within soil. These studies have relied heavily on the use of epigiec earthworm species which may have limited ecological relevance in mineral soil. This study assessed the influence of Ag NP (uncoated 80nm powder) and AgNO 3 on survival, change in biomass and avoidance behaviour in a soil dwelling (endogiec) species, Allolobophora chlorotica. Earthworms were exposed for 14 days to soils spiked with Ag NP or AgNO 3 at 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100mgkg -1 either separately for survival and biomass measurement, or combined within a linear gradient to assess avoidance. Avoidance behaviour was shown to provide the most sensitive endpoint with an observable effect at an Ag NP/AgNO 3 concentration of 12.5mgkg -1 compared with 50mgkg -1 for biomass change and 100mgkg -1 for survival. Greater mortality was observed in AgNO 3 (66.7%) compared with Ag NP-spiked soils (12.5%) at 100mgkg -1 , attributed to increased presence of silver ions. Although comparison of results with studies employing Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei suggest that the A. chlorotica response to Ag NP is more sensitive, further research employing both epigeic and endogeic earthworms under similar experimental conditions is required to confirm this observation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fabrication Of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Using Agricultural Crop Plant Leaf Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, P.; SriSindhura, K.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Hussain, O. M.; Sudhakar, P.; Latha, P.; Balakrishna, M.; Kambala, V.; Reddy, K. Raja

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are being viewed as fundamental building blocks of nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Use of agricultural crop plant extracts for synthesis of metal nanoparticles would add a new dimension to the agricultural sector in the utilization of crop waste. Silver has long been recognized as having an inhibitory effect towards many bacterial strains and microorganisms commonly present in medical and industrial processes. Four pulse crop plants and three cereal crop plants (Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Zea mays, Pennisetum glaucum, Sorghum vulgare) were used and compared for their extra cellular synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles were formed by treating aqueous solution of AgNO3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent at temperatures 50 °C-95 °C. UV-Visible spectroscopy was utilized to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles. XRD analysis of formed silver nanoparticles revealed face centered cubic structure with (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. SEM and EDAX analysis confirm the size of the formed silver nanoparticles to be in the range of 50-200 nm. Our proposed work offers a enviro-friendly method for biogenic silver nanoparticles production. This could provide a faster synthesis rate comparable to those of chemical methods and potentially be used in areas such as cosmetics, food and medical applications.

  12. The process chemistry of the extraction and electrowinning of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional processing of Ag-bearing materials containing Au and Pt group metals involves smelting the material to bullion and purification of the Ag by electrorefining (ER). Au and Pt-group metals are recovered from the slimes generated by the Ag ER process. An alternative process that allows extraction of Ag from such feed materials using a combination of sulfate and nitrate chemistry is presented. The AgNO 3 solution produced is purified hydrolytically, and Ag is recovered as high purity crystals by electrowinning (EW). Advantages of the process include: production of high purity Ag, separation of precious metals from Ag at the head of the process, and elimination of the classical pyrometallurgical treatment processes with their attendant generation of recycle slags and challenging emission problems. This paper discusses the process chemistry and engineering of the process and provides information on its commercial application. (author)

  13. Kinetic formation of silver-copper nanoparticles and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkafi, Nurul Hikmah; Idrus, Nor Faeqah; Jai, Junaidah; Hadi, Abdul

    2017-12-01

    A study of the kinetic formation of silver-copper nanoparticles in aqueous medium on the basis of size distribution and its characterization has been carried out and reported in this paper. The Ag-Cu nanoparticles were synthesized through polyol method that using Ethylene Glycol (H2C6O12) as a reduction agent and solvent and Polyoxyethylene-(80)-Sorbitan Monooleate (Tween 80) as a stabilizer. The kinetic formation of Ag-Cu nanoparticles was observed using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and characterized by using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The XRD analysis results confirmed that size distribution was strongly dependent on molarity of precursors of silver (AgNO3) and copper (Cu(NO3)2.3H2O). The FESEM and TEM analysis indicated the existence of Ag and Cu nanoparticles in the core-shell shape. The silver-copper nanoparticles were spherical and uniform particles size with the average size of about 28 nm and 38 nm for silver and copper, respectively. DLS observation showed the growth of nanoparticles at the temperature of 140°C as the effect of reaction time at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours.

  14. Silsesquioxane organofunctionalized with 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole: Preparation and subsequent reaction with silver and potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) for detection of L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, Devaney R. do; Silvestrini, Daniela R.; Silveira, Tayla F.S. da; Cumba, Loanda R.; Dias Filho, Newton L.; Soares, Layciane A.

    2015-01-01

    The octakis(3-chloropropyl)octasilsesquioxane (SS) was organofunctionalized with 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (Purpald). The functionalized silsesquioxane with Purpald (SP) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After functionalized, silsesquioxane can interact with silver nitrate and subsequently with potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) (AgHSP). The novel hybrid composite formed (AgHSP) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). AgHSP was electrochemically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using graphite paste electrode. The AgHSP incorporated into a graphite paste electrode (20% w/w) was tested for detection of L-cysteine. The modified electrode showed a linear response from 9.0 × 10 −5 to 5.0 × 10 −3 mol L −1 with the corresponding equation Y(A) = 0.01315 + 1.865 [L-cysteine], and a correlation coefficient of r 2 = 0.9995. The method showed a detection limit of 1.76 × 10 −4 mol L −1 with a relative standard deviation of ± 2% (n = 3) and amperometric sensitivity of 1.865 A/mol L −1 . - Highlights: • Functionalization of silsesquioxane with Purpald compound • Characterization of silsesquioxane was done with FT-IR, NMR, SEM, EDX and VC. • The modified silsesquioxane was interacted with AgNO 3 and K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]. • The composite was tested by cyclic voltammetry for detection of L-cysteine

  15. Study of the electrochemical oxidation of Am with lacunary heteropolyanions and silver nitrate; Etude de l'oxydation electrochimique de l'americium en presence d'heteropolyanions lacunaires et de nitrate d'argent en milieu aqueux acide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, D

    1999-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of Am(III) with certain lacunary heteropolyanions (LHPA {alpha}{sub 2}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}{sup 10-} or {alpha}SiW{sub 11}O{sub 39}{sup 8-}) and silver nitrate is an efficient way to prepare Am(VI). This document presents bibliographic data and an experimental study of the process. Thus, it has been established that Am(IV) is an intermediate species in the reaction and occurs in 1:1 (Amt{sup IV}LHPA) or 1:2 (Am {sup IV}(LHAP){sub 2}) complexes with the relevant LHPA. These 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) have been identified and isolated in this work whereas 1:2 complexes were known from previous studies. The reactivity of these complexes in oxidation shows that 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) are oxidised much more quickly than 1:2 complexes. Apparent stability constants of Am(III) and Am(IV) complexes with the relevant LHPA have been measured for a 1 M nitric acid medium. Thermodynamic data of the reaction are then assessed: redox potentials of Am pairs are computed for a 1 M nitric acid medium containing various amount of LHPA ligands. Those results show that the role of LHPA is to stabilize the intermediate species Am(IV) by lowering the Am(IV)/Am(III) pair potential of about 1 Volt. Nevertheless, if this stabilisation is too strong (i.e. of tungsto-silicate), the oxidation of Am(IV) requires high anodic potential (more than 2 V/ENH). Then, the faradic yield of the oxidation of americium is poor because of water oxidation. This study has also shown that the main role of silver is to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of Am{sup IV}(LHPA){sub X} complexes. Indeed, these oxidations without silver are extremely slow. An oxygen tracer experiment has been performed during the oxidation of Am(III) in Am(VI). It has been shown that the oxygen atoms of Am(VI) (AMO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) come from water molecules of the solvent and not from the complexing oxygen atoms of the ligands. (author)

  16. 109Ag nuclear magnetic resonance studies of organic and inorganic silver complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jucker, K.; Sahm, W.; Schwenk, A.

    1976-01-01

    The NMR lines of 109 Ag have been investigated in solutions of several silver salts in acetonitrile, propionitrile, pyridine, and ethylenediamine, and also in aqueous solutions of Na 2 S 2 O 3 and ethylamine. In these solvents the Ag + -ions form one or several complexes. In any case a single NMR line was to be detected, i.e.a. rapid chemical exchange between different complexes in a sample may be assumed. In two samples of AgNO 3 dissolved in organic solvents, the ratio ν ( 109 Ag)/ν ( 107 Ag) = 1.149640 (1) was measured in good agreement with the value from silver salts in aqueous solutions; i.e. no primary isotopic effect was to be detected within these limits of error (0.9 ppm). (orig./WBU) [de

  17. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of γ-irradiated silver nanoparticles in aqueous gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Hakimi, Mohammad; Zamiri, Reza; Zak, Ali Khorsand; Hosseini, Hasan Ali; Zargar, Mohsen

    2013-04-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were obtained through γ-irradiation of aqueous solutions containing AgNO3 and gelatin as a silver source and stabilizer, respectively. The absorbed dose of γ-irradiation influences the particle diameter of the Ag-NPs, as evidenced from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. When the γ-irradiation dose was increased (from 2 to 50 kGy), the mean particle size was decreased continuously as a result of γ-induced Ag-NPs fragmentation. The antibacterial properties of the Ag-NPs were tested against Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a) (Gram-negative) bacteria. This approach reveals that the γ-irradiation-mediated method is a promising simple route for synthesizing highly stable Ag-NPs in aqueous solutions with good antibacterial properties for different applications.

  18. SERS studies on the interaction between UO22+ and PVP-stabilized silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.; Tyagi, A.K.; Kumar, Rakesh; Pandey, A.K.; Goswami, A.

    2010-01-01

    Interaction between uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) ions and silver nanoparticles (Ag-nps) stabilized by suitable polymeric capping agents has been studied in aqueous phase using surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy technique (SERS). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized Ag-nps were synthesized by dissolving in water appropriate amount of PVP and AgNO 3 along with a suitable reducing agent in the form of either formamide or sodium borohydride. The solution was vigorously stirred for 5h and finally nanoparticle sols were obtained. A series of analyte samples was prepared by adding an appropriate amount of silver sol to different volumes of uranyl stock solution prepared at pH=3. The solutions were then drop cast on glass slides and dried in air. Preliminary results on drop-cast samples are presented here

  19. Low temperature fabrication of conductive silver lines and dots via transfer-printing and nanoimprinting lithography techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Chang; Hsu, Steve Lien-Chung; Chiu, Ching-Wei; Wu, Jung-Tang

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have developed novel methods to fabricate conductive silver tracks and dots directly from silver nitrate solution by transfer-printing and nanoimprinting lithography techniques, which are inexpensive and can be scaled down to the nanometer scale. The silver nitrate precursor can be reduced in ethylene glycol vapor to form silver at low temperatures. Energy dispersive spectrometric analysis results indicate that the silver nitrate has been converted to silver completely. In order to obtain smooth and continuous conductive patterned silver features with high resolution, the silver lines with widths of a few tens of micrometers to nanometers were patterned by using a spin-coating approach. Using a 14 M silver nitrate solution, continuous silver conductive lines with a resistivity of 8.45 × 10 −5 Ω cm has been produced. (paper)

  20. Synthesis of nanosized silver colloids by microwave dielectric heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silver nanosized crystallites have been synthesized in aqueous and polyols viz., ethylene glycol and glycerol, using a microwave technique. Dispersions of colloidal silver have been prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate both in the presence and absence of stabilizer poly(vinylpyrolidone) (PVP). It was observed that ...

  1. Two-stage DNA compaction induced by silver ions suggests a cooperative binding mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Yan; Ran, Shi-Yong

    2018-05-01

    The interaction between silver ions and DNA plays an important role in the therapeutic use of silver ions and in related technologies such as DNA sensors. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. In this study, the dynamics of Ag+-DNA interaction at a single-molecule level was studied using magnetic tweezers. AgNO3 solutions with concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 20 μM led to a 1.4-1.8 μm decrease in length of a single λ-DNA molecule, indicating that Ag+ has a strong binding with DNA, causing the DNA conformational change. The compaction process comprises one linear declining stage and another sigmoid-shaped stage, which can be attributed to the interaction mechanism. Considering the cooperative effect, the sigmoid trend was well explained using a phenomenological model. By contrast, addition of silver nanoparticle solution induced no detectable transition of DNA. The dependence of the interaction on ionic strength and DNA concentration was examined via morphology characterization and particle size distribution measurement. The size of the Ag+-DNA complex decreased with an increase in Ag+ ionic strength ranging from 1 μM to 1 mM. Morphology characterization confirmed that silver ions induced DNA to adopt a compacted globular conformation. At a fixed [AgNO3]:[DNA base pairs] ratio, increasing DNA concentration led to increased sizes of the complexes. Intermolecular interaction is believed to affect the Ag+-DNA complex formation to a large extent.

  2. Silver Nanoparticles Modification of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene in Non-Aqueous Medium

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Glushko; L. I. Blokhina; E. E. Anisimova; M. V. Bogdanovskaya; V. I. Kozhukhov; T. A. Cherdyntseva

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments for obtaining modified with silver nanoparticles ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is done. Optimal precursors are silver trifluoroacetate, silver nitrate and silver methanesulfonate. Three variants of UHMWPE modification is studied: 1) the polyol synthesis, 2) polymer processing silver nanoparticle colloid and 3) reduction of silver salt solution in the UHMWPE polymer matrix. It is found that the last method is optimal. The specific surface of obtained...

  3. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Stevia rebaudiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, M.; Turkdemir, H.; Kilic, M. Akif; Bayram, E.; Cicek, A.; Mete, A.; Ulug, B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Stevia Rebaudiana. → Spherical and polydispersed nanoparticles with diameters below 50 nm. → Interplay of nanoparticle formation and aggregation over time. → Capping reagents similar to those in gold synthesis via the same biomass. → Ketones to play active roles in the reduction of silver ions. - Abstract: The synthesis of silver nanoparticles employing a shadow-dried Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract in AgNO 3 solution is reported. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction inspections indicate that nanoparticles are spherical and polydispersed with diameters ranging between 2 and 50 nm with a maximum at 15 nm. Ultraviolet-visible spectra recorded against the reaction time confirms the reduction of silver nanoparticles indicating that the formation and the aggregation of nanoparticles take place shortly after the mixing, as they persist concurrently with characteristic times of 48.5 min and 454.5 min, respectively. Aggregation is found to be the dominant mechanism after the first 73 min. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the silver nanoparticles reveals the existence of aliphatic, alcoholic and olefinic CH 2 and CH 3 groups, as well as some aromatic compounds but no sign of aldehydes or carboxylic acids. Infrared absorption of the silver nanoparticles suggests that the capping reagents of silver and gold nanoparticles reduced in plant extracts/broths are of the same chemical composition of different ratios. Ketones are shown to play a somehow active role for the formation of nanoparticles in plant extracts/broths.

  4. Stabilization of Gold Nanorods (GNRs) in Aqueous and Organic Environments by Select Surface Functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    for up to 1 month (the solution was brought to room temperature prior to use). Stock solutions of silver nitrate (AgNO3) were kept at 4 °C and...Qian W, El-Sayed MA. Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128(6...distribution is unlimited. 16 List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms AgNO3 silver nitrate λLSPR wavelength ARL US Army Research Laboratory Au

  5. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the presence of diethylaminoethyl-dextran hydrochloride polymer and their SERS activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikac, L.; Jurkin, T.; Štefanić, G.; Ivanda, Mile; Gotić, Marijan

    2017-09-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized upon γ-irradiation of AgNO3 precursor suspensions in the presence of diethylaminoethyl-dextran hydrochloride (DEAE-dextran) cationic polymer as a stabilizer. The dose rate of γ-irradiation was 32 kGy h-1, and absorbed doses were 30 and 60 kGy. The γ-irradiation of the precursor suspension at acidic or neutral pH conditions produced predominantly the silver(I) chloride (AgCl) particles, because of the poor solubility of AgCl already present in the precursor suspension. The origin of AgCl in the precursor suspension was due to the presence of chloride ions in DEAE-dextran hydrochloride polymer. The addition of ammonia to the precursor suspension dissolved the AgCl precipitate, and the γ-irradiation of such colourless suspension at alkali pH produced a stable aqueous suspension with rather uniform spherical AgNPs of approximately 30 nm in size. The size of AgNPs was controlled by varying the AgNO3/DEAE-dextran concentration in the suspensions. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities of synthesized AgNPs were examined using organic molecules rhodamine 6G, pyridine and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA). The NaBH4 was used as SERS aggregation agent. The SERS results have shown that in the presence of synthesized AgNPs, it was possible to detect low concentration of tested compounds.

  6. Colloidosome-based synthesis of a multifunctional nanostructure of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Jinhao; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Xixiang; Xu, Bing

    2010-01-01

    nitrate, and iron oxide exposed to the aqueous phase catalyzes the reduction of silver ions to afford a heterodimer of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X

  7. Synthesize, characterization, and anti-Parkinson activity of silver-Indonesian velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) seed extract nanoparticles (AgMPn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardjono, R. E.; Khoerunnisa, F.; Musthopa, I.; Akasum, N. S. M. M.; Rachmawati, R.

    2018-05-01

    Parkinson is one of the progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Various efforts are made in handling this disease, one of them is the utilization of plant extracts that have anti-Parkinson activity, for example, velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L.). Changing the particle size of the extract into nanoscale particle is expected to increase its anti-parkinson activity. The research was conducted to synthesize silver-velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L.) seed extract nanoparticles (AgMPn) and to evaluate its antiparkinson activity through the catalepsy test in mice. The research consisted of several stages i.e. extraction of velvet bean seed powder, synthesis and characterization of AgMPn, and catalepsy test of AgMPn. Velvet bean seed powder was extracted by maceration method using ethanol-water (1:1) at pH 3 adjusted with citric acid. AgMPn was synthesized by reacting the silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution with the extract of velvet bean seed for 40 min, dispersibility of solution during the reaction was controlled by using sonication and ultrasonic processor homogenizer. Characterization of AgMPn was done by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Catalepsy test was conducted on AgMpn at the doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/kg body weight. The results of SEM-EDX and TEM showed that AgMPn formed aggregates with several shapes such as rectangle, oval, and spherical, with the average particle diameter was 36.5 nm. FT-IR spectra showed a band at 464.8 cm-1 absorbance area which is typical band indicated the interaction of Ag-O of AgMPn. Catalepsy test demonstrated that AgMPn at the doses of 5, 15, and 20 mg/kg body weight lowered the catalepsy symptoms in mice significantly, with the best dose was 5 mg/kg body weight.

  8. Carbohydrate source affects the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Lactobacillus plantarum 1449 and Lactobacillus ruminis 1313.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Escogido, María de Lourdes; Meneses-Rodríguez, David; Guardado-Mendoza, Rodolfo

    2017-12-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus have been used for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Since the carbohydrate source could influence the yield and size of the synthesised nanoparticles, the authors evaluated the potential of Lactobacillus plantarum 1449 and Lactobacillus ruminis 1313 to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using three carbohydrate sources and AgNO 3 . The presence of AgNO 3 in the medium extended the duration of the acceleration and logarithmic phases of the two strains independently of the carbohydrate source used but did not inhibit their growth. The synthesis of AgNPs started at the second day of culture. In general, the size of the AgNPsranged from 10 to 150 nm; they were smaller and more homogeneous in lactose. In the medium supplemented with glucose, there was a lower production of nanoparticles for both strains. The AgNPs synthesised by L. ruminis 1313 remained enclosed in an extracellular polymeric substance, which probably played an important role in the synthesis of the nanoparticles. The carbohydrate source influenced the yield and size of the AgNPssynthesised by L. plantarum 1449 and L. ruminis 1313; the pH was also important for obtaining nanoparticles of uniform size.

  9. Silver nanoparticle biosynthesis from newly isolated streptomyces genus from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman Adiguzel, Ali; Könen Adiguzel, Serpil; Mazmanci, Birgül; Tunçer, Münir; Mazmanci, Mehmet Ali

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by cell lysates of actinobacterial strains isolated from Mersin soils. Also, free-radical scavenging potential, the inhibitory effect, and genotoxicity of synthesized AgNPs were investigated. As a result of the screening study, it was detected that cell lysate from isolate AOA21, which were classified in Streptomyces genus according to 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison, showed higher potential for AgNPs synthesis. The optimum pH, AgNO3 and cell lysate concentration for AgNPs synthesis were found to be pH 9.0, 1 mM AgNO3 and 2-fold diluted cell lysate, respectively. The FESEM analysis revealed that the size and shape of AgNPs were 35–60 nm and spherical. The x-ray diffraction patterns displayed typical peaks of crystalline AgNPs at 34.07°, 44.04°, 64.45°, 77.40° and 81.36°. The size of cubic crystalline AgNPs was found to be 9.35 nm. The FTIR analysis showed that the especially protein, peptide and amino acid component in the cell lysates of Streptomyces sp. AOA21 may be responsible in reduction of AgNO3 and stabilization of synthesized AgNPs. The MIC values of synthesized AgNPs for Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were found to be 8 μg ml‑1, 16 μg ml‑1, 16 μg ml‑1 and 32 μg ml‑1, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity of synthesized AgNPs was 8.54%–55.58% at a concentration range of 800–2000 μg ml‑1. Furthermore, comet assay showed that synthesized AgNPs did not cause significant DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a concentration of 12.5 μg ml‑1 and 25 μg ml‑1.

  10. Biosynthesis of Silver and Gold Crystals Using Grapefruit Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Long; Wang Jianli; Wang Hongfeng; Qi Zhaopeng; Zheng Yuchuan; Wang Junbo; Pan Le; Chang Guanru; Yang Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, biological synthesis of silver and gold crystals using grapefruit extract is reported. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with grapefruit extract, the formation of stable silver and gold particles at high concentrations is observed to occur. The silver particles formed are quasi-spherical or irregular with sizes ranging from several hundred nanometers to several microns. The gold quasi-spheres with holes on surfaces and with diameters rangi...

  11. Antibacterial Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride on Cariogenic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yali; Darvell, Brain W; Botelho, Michael G

    2018-05-01

    To screen the possible antimicrobial activity of a range of clinically used, silver-based compounds on cariogenic organisms: silver diamine fluoride (SDF), silver fluoride, and silver nitrate. Preliminary screening disk-diffusion susceptibility tests were conducted on Mueller-Hinton agar plates inoculated with Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Actinomyces naeslundii, organisms known to be cariogenic. In order to identify which component of the silver compounds was responsible for any antibacterial (AB) effect, and to provide controls, the following were also investigated at high and low concentrations: sodium fluoride, ammonium fluoride, ammonium chloride, sodium fluoride, sodium chloride, and sodium nitrate, as well as deionized water as control. A volume of 10 pL of a test solution was dispensed onto a paper disk resting on the inoculated agar surface, and the plate incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 48 hours. The zones of inhibition were then measured. Silver diamine fluoride, silver fluoride, silver nitrate, and ammonium fluoride had significant AB effect (p effect at low concentration; the remaining other compounds had no effect. Silver ions appear to be the principal AB agent at both high and low concentration; fluoride ions only have an AB effect at high concentration, while ammonium, nitrate, chloride and sodium ions have none. The anticaries effect of topical silver solutions appears restricted to that of the silver ions. Silver compounds, such as SDF, silver fluoride, and silver nitrate have AB effect against cariogenic organisms and these may have clinical impact in arresting or preventing dental decay. Sodium fluoride did not have AB effect under the conditions tested.

  12. Analysis of impurities in silver matrix by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.; Ishaque, M.; Mohammad, D.

    1999-01-01

    A procedure for the analysis of aluminium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc mainly using flame lens atomic absorption spectrophotometry has been described. The results depict that the presence of silver does not introduce any significant interference, when standards are prepared in matching silver matrix solutions. The calibration curves obey the straight-line equations passing through the origin. Thus the separation of silver matrix from the analyte solutions is not necessary. The method has successfully been applied for the analysis of silver foils, wires, battery grade silver oxides and silver nitrate samples containing analyte elements in the concentration range 2 to 40 ppm. (author)

  13. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Rhizopus stolonifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid AbdelRahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs has become a necessary field of applied science. Biological method for synthesis of AgNPs by Rhizopus stolonifer aqueous mycelial extract was used. The AgNPs were identified by UV–visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR. The presence of surface plasmon band around 420 nm indicates AgNPs formation. The characteristic of the AgNPs within the face-centered cubic (fcc structure are indicated by the peaks of the X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern corresponding to (111, (200 and (220 planes. Spherical, mono-dispersed and stable AgNPs with diameter around 9.47 nm were prepared and affirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR shows peaks at 1426 and 1684 cm−1 that affirm the presence of coat covering protein the AgNPs which is known as capping proteins. Parameter optimization showed the smallest size of AgNPs (2.86 ± 0.3 nm was obtained with 10−2 M AgNO3 at 40 °C. The present study provides the proof that the molecules within aqueous mycelial extract of R. stolonifer facilitate synthesis of AgNPs and highlight on value-added from R. stolonifer for cost effectiveness. Also, eco-friendly medical and nanotechnology-based industries could also be provided. Size of prepared AgNPs could be controlled by temperature and AgNO3 concentration. Further studies are required to study effect of more parameters on size and morphology of AgNPs as this will help in the control of large scale production of biogenic AgNPs.

  14. Preparing of Highly Conductive Patterns on Flexible Substrates by Screen Printing of Silver Nanoparticles with Different Size Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jin; Liu, Jun; Tian, Qingyong; Wu, Zhaohui; Yao, Weijing; Dai, Zhigao; Liu, Li; Wu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    A facile one-step polyol method is employed to synthesize the Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in large scale. The Ag NPs with different average diameter (from 52 to 120 nm) and particle size distribution are prepared by changing the mass ratio of AgNO3 and PVP. Furthermore, the as-obtained Ag NPs are prepared as conductive inks, which could be screen printed on various flexible substrates and formed as conductive patterns after sintering treatment. During the reaction process, PVP is used as the capping reagent for preventing the agglomeration of Ag NPs, and the influence of the mass ratio of AgNO3 and PVP to the size distribution of Ag NPs is investigated. The results of electronic properties reveal that the conductivity of printed patterns is highly dependent on the size distribution of as-obtained Ag NPs. Among all the samples, the optimal conductivity is obtained when the mass ratio of AgNO3 and PVP is 1:0.4. Subsequently, the sintering time and temperature are further investigated for obtaining the best conductivity; the optimal electrical resistivity value of 3.83 μΩ · cm is achieved at 160 °C for 75 min, which is close to the resistivity value of the bulk silver (1.58 μΩ · cm). Significantly, there are many potential advantages in printed electronics applications because of the as-synthesized Ag NPs with a low sintering temperature and low electrical resistivity.

  15. Preparation of counterion stabilized concentrated silver sols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Sylas; Halaciuga, Ionel; Goia, Dan V

    2011-07-01

    A strategy for obtaining stable concentrated silver dispersions without dedicated stabilizing agents is presented. This approach consists of rapidly mixing aqueous solutions of silver salicylate and ascorbic acid. By using salicylate as Ag(+) counterion, it is possible to prepare stable sols with metal concentrations up to two orders of magnitude higher than with silver nitrate. The stabilizing effect of the counterion is the result of a decreased ionic strength due to salicylate protonation and its adsorption on the surface of silver. Both effects increase the range of the electrostatic repulsive forces by expanding the electrical double layer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Shape memory of polyurethanes with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Fernanda M.A.; Souza, Patterson P. de; Pereira, Iaci M.; Silva, Livio B.J. da; Orefice, Rodrigo L.

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradable polyurethane nano composites were synthesized in an aqueous environment and have their shape memory properties investigated. The matrix based in isopharane diisocyanate and poly(caprolactone diol) (Mn=1250, 2000 g.mol -1 ) was prepared by the prepolymer mixing process. The silver nanoparticles were produced by mixing AgNO 3 and tannic acid. The shape memory properties were measured using universal testing machine (DL3000, EMIC). The shape memory cycle consisted of the following steps: samples were deformed at room temperature; the mechanical constraints on the polymers were removed; samples were cooled down to 0 deg C and to retain the deformed shape; three processes were tested to recover the shape: (a) samples were heated up to 80 deg C in an oven, (b) immersed in pH 4.0 and (c) immersed in pH 7.0. To study the shape memory effect on the nanostructure, small angle X-ray scattering, wide angle X-ray scattering, infrared spectroscopy experiments were carried on. (author)

  17. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles, biosynthesized using Bacillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiuță, I.; Cristea, D.; Croitoru, C.; Kost, J.; Wenkert, R.; Vyrides, I.; Anayiotos, A.; Munteanu, D.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, using AgNO3 as a precursor, by two Bacillus species, namely Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtillis, is reported. After the synthesis stages, the absorbance of the brown nanoparticle colloidal solutions was assessed by UV-vis spectrophotometry, which showed the peak absorbance values at 418 nm and 414 nm, corresponding to surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The EDX, SEM and DLS analyses confirmed the formation of spherical silver nanoparticles with an average diameter smaller than 140 nm. XRD confirmed the presence of face-centered cubic silver crystals, with the highest intensity peak at 2θ = 38.12°, which corresponds to the (111) diffraction planes. The antibacterial activity after 24 h of incubation was observed against gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella, as well as gram positive: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes. Furthermore, the antifungal activity was assessed against Candida albicans. The inhibition zone was clearly observed on the plates containing silver nanoparticles, either standalone or in combination with antibiotics, thus showing their potentiating antibacterial effect.

  18. Nitrate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilenko, I.A.; Vinogradov, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental evidence on behaviour of nitrate glasses is reviewed in terms of relationships between the presence of water in vitrescent nitrate systems and the properties of the systems. The glasses considered belong to systems of Mg(NO 3 ) 2 - Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; Hg(NO 3 ) 2 -Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; NaNO 3 -Mg(NO 3 ) 2 -Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; M-Zn(NO 3 ) 3 , where M is a mixture of 20% mass NaNO 3 and 80% mass Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , and Zn is a rare earth ion. Nitrate glass is shown to be a product of dehydration. Vitrification may be regarded as a resusl of formation of molecular complexes in the chain due to hydrogen bonds of two types, i.e. water-water, or water-nicrate group. Chain formation, along with low melting points of the nitrates, hinder crystallization of nitrate melts. Provided there is enough water, this results in vitrification

  19. Sensitivity of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) to waterborne silver exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, G; Grosell, M; Wood, C

    2001-10-01

    The physiological effects of waterborne silver exposure (added as AgNO(3)) on spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, were evaluated at 30, 200 and 685 microg silver per l in 30 per thousand seawater. These concentrations cover the toxic range observed for freshwater teleosts, where silver is extremely toxic, to seawater teleosts which tolerate higher silver concentrations. However, these levels are considerably higher than those that occur in the normal environment. At 685 microg l(-1), dogfish died within 24 h. Causes of death were respiratory as well as osmoregulatory failure. Arterial P(a)O(2) rapidly declined below 20 Torr, and blood acidosis (both respiratory and metabolic) occurred. Urea excretion increased dramatically and plasma urea dropped from 340 to 225 mM. There were pronounced increases in plasma Na(+), Cl(-), and Mg(2+), indicative of ionoregulatory failure due to increased diffusive permeability as well as inhibited NaCl excretion. At 200 microg l(-1), fish died between 24 and 72 h of silver exposure. The same physiological events occurred with a small time delay. At 30 microg l(-1), effects were much less severe, although slight mortality (12.5%) still occurred. Respiratory alkalosis occurred, together with moderate elevations in plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) levels. Silver accumulated to the highest concentrations on gills, with only low levels in the intestine, in accord with the virtual absence of drinking. Na(+)/K(+)-ATP-ase activities of gill and rectal gland tissue were impaired at the highest silver concentration. Normal gill function was impaired due to swelling and fusion of lamellae, lamellar aneurism and lifting of the lamellar epithelium. Our results clearly indicate that this elasmobranch is much more sensitive (about 10-fold) to silver than marine teleosts, with silver's toxic action exerted on the gill rather than on the intestine, in contrast to the latter.

  20. Pleurodesis induced by intrapleural injection of silver nitrate or talc in rabbits: can it be used in humans? Pleurodese induzida pela injeção intrapleural de nitrato de prata ou talco em coelhos: há perspectivas para o uso em humanos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S. Vargas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pleuropulmonary alterations caused by intrapleural injection of silver nitrate or talc in an experimental model, in order to consider its use in human beings. METHOD: 112 rabbits were randomly selected to receive intrapleural 0.5% silver nitrate or 400 mg/kg talc slurry in 2 ml saline. Eight rabbits of each group were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 months. Regarding the pleural cavity, the degree of macroscopic pleurodesis (adherences and microscopic alterations, represented by inflammation and pleural fibrosis, were analyzed. The parenchyma was evaluated regarding the degree of alveolar collapse, intra-alveolar septum edema, and cellularity, on a 0 to 4 scale. RESULTS: Intrapleural injection of silver nitrate produced earlier and more intense pleurodesis than talc slurry injection. The parenchymal damage was more evident with silver nitrate, considered as moderate, and limited to the first evaluation (after one month. From the second month on and throughout the entire one-year follow-up, the parenchymal damage was similar with both substances, only the pleural adherences were more intense with silver nitrate. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapleural silver nitrate produces better and longer-lasting than intrapleural talc injection. The parenchymal alterations, although discreet, are more pronounced when silver nitrate is used, but minimal after two months, and similar to those produced by talc injection during the entire one-year observation period. These effects on the pulmonary parenchyma do not contraindicate the use in humans. Thus, the use of intrapleural silver nitrate to produce fast and effective pleurodesis can be considered in patients in which pleural cavity symphysis is desired.OBJETIVO DE ESTUDO: Avaliar as alterações pleuropulmonares causadas pela injeção intrapleural de talco ou nitrato de prata em modelo experimental, com o intuito de considerar sua utilização em humanos. MÉTODO: 112 coelhos foram

  1. Efficient syntheses of climate relevant isoprene nitrates and (1R,5S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bew, Sean P; Hiatt-Gipson, Glyn D; Mills, Graham P; Reeves, Claire E

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the chemoselective synthesis of several important, climate relevant isoprene nitrates using silver nitrate to mediate a 'halide for nitrate' substitution. Employing readily available starting materials, reagents and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons chemistry the synthesis of easily separable, synthetically versatile 'key building blocks' (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-chlorobut-2-en-1-ol as well as (E)- and (Z)-1-((2-methyl-4-bromobut-2-enyloxy)methyl)-4-methoxybenzene has been achieved using cheap, 'off the shelf' materials. Exploiting their reactivity we have studied their ability to undergo an 'allylic halide for allylic nitrate' substitution reaction which we demonstrate generates (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrate, and (E)- and (Z)-2-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrates ('isoprene nitrates') in 66-80% overall yields. Using NOESY experiments the elucidation of the carbon-carbon double bond configuration within the purified isoprene nitrates has been established. Further exemplifying our 'halide for nitrate' substitution chemistry we outline the straightforward transformation of (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol bromide into the previously unknown monoterpene nitrate (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate.

  2. Accuracy, precision, usability, and cost of portable silver test methods for ceramic filter factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Rhiana D; Murray, Anna L; Mittelman, Anjuliee M; Rayner, Justine; Lantagne, Daniele S

    2017-02-01

    Locally manufactured ceramic water filters are one effective household drinking water treatment technology. During manufacturing, silver nanoparticles or silver nitrate are applied to prevent microbiological growth within the filter and increase bacterial removal efficacy. Currently, there is no recommendation for manufacturers to test silver concentrations of application solutions or filtered water. We identified six commercially available silver test strips, kits, and meters, and evaluated them by: (1) measuring in quintuplicate six samples from 100 to 1,000 mg/L (application range) and six samples from 0.0 to 1.0 mg/L (effluent range) of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate to determine accuracy and precision; (2) conducting volunteer testing to assess ease-of-use; and (3) comparing costs. We found no method accurately detected silver nanoparticles, and accuracy ranged from 4 to 91% measurement error for silver nitrate samples. Most methods were precise, but only one method could test both application and effluent concentration ranges of silver nitrate. Volunteers considered test strip methods easiest. The cost for 100 tests ranged from 36 to 1,600 USD. We found no currently available method accurately and precisely measured both silver types at reasonable cost and ease-of-use, thus these methods are not recommended to manufacturers. We recommend development of field-appropriate methods that accurately and precisely measure silver nanoparticle and silver nitrate concentrations.

  3. Development of nanostructured silver vanadates decorated with silver nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtz, R D; Souza Filho, A G; Alves, O L [Laboratorio de Quimica do Estado Solido (LQES), Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13081-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Brocchi, M; Martins, D [Departamento de Genetica, Evolucao and Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Duran, N, E-mail: rholtz@iqm.unicamp.br, E-mail: agsf@fisica.ufc.br, E-mail: oalves@iqm.unicamp.br [Laboratorio de Quimica Biologica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2010-05-07

    In this work we report the synthesis, characterization and application of silver vanadate nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial agent. These hybrid materials were synthesized by a precipitation reaction of ammonium vanadate and silver nitrate followed by hydrothermal treatment. The silver vanadate nanowires have lengths of the order of microns and diameters around 60 nm. The silver nanoparticles decorating the nanowires present a diameter distribution varying from 1 to 20 nm. The influence of the pH of the reaction medium on the chemical structure and morphology of silver vanadates was studied and we found that synthesis performed at pH 5.5-6.0 led to silver vanadate nanowires with a higher morphological yield. The antimicrobial activity of these materials was evaluated against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus and very promising results were found. The minimum growth inhibiting concentration value against a MRSA strain was found to be ten folds lower than for the antibiotic oxacillin.

  4. A novel cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide complex and silver bromide nanoparticles obtained by the surfactant counterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Hao; Luo, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Jing-Chang; Cao, Wei-Liang

    2007-03-01

    A novel cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide (CTASB) complex has been prepared simply through the reaction of silver nitrate with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in aqueous solution at room temperature by controlling the concentration of CTAB and the molar ratio of CTAB to silver nitrate in the reaction solution, in which halogen in CTAB is used as surfactant counterion. The structure and thermal behavior of cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV/vis spectroscopy, thermal analysis (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the complex possesses a metastable layered structure. Upon heating the CTASB aqueous dispersion to above 80 degrees C, the structure change of the complex took place and CTAB-capped nanosized silver bromide particles further formed.

  5. Ignition, Combustion and Tuning of Nanocomposite Thermites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    silver nitrate and potassium 165 iodate or sodium iodate, using a modification of a literature method156. A solution of 30.97 g of AgNO3 in 125...Center Weapons Division (NAWCWD) by precipitation from aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and potassium iodate or sodium iodate, using a modification...adjustable wrench to tighten 1/2 turn past finger tight). -Attach one banana wire to the very top, other to the base. -Test for continuity. If you increase

  6. Structural and Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited Silver Oxide Thin Films: Role of Deposition Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nwanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of 50°C by chemical bath deposition technique under different deposition times using pure AgNO3 precursor and triethanolamine as the complexing agent. The chemical analysis based on EDX technique shows the presence of Ag and O at the appropriate energy levels. The morphological features obtained from SEM showed that the AgxO structures varied as the deposition time changes. The X-ray diffraction showed the peaks of Ag2O and AgO in the structure. The direct band gap and the refractive index increased as the deposition time increased and was in the range of 1.64–1.95 eV and 1.02–2.07, respectively. The values of the band gap and refractive index obtained indicate possible applications in photovoltaic and photothermal systems.

  7. Electron beam assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticle in chitosan stabilizer: Preparation, stability and inhibition of building fungi studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannoo, Kanokwan; Teerapatsakul, Churapa; Punyanut, Adisak; Pasanphan, Wanvimol

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in chitosan (CS) stabilizer were successfully synthesized using electron beam irradiation. The effects of irradiation dose, molecular weight (MW) of CS stabilizer, concentration of AgNO3 precursor and addition of tert-butanol on AgNPs production were studied. The stability of the AgNPs under different temperatures and storage times were also investigated. The AgNPs formation in CS was observed using UV-vis, FT-IR and XRD. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the obtained AgNPs was around 418 nm. The CS stabilizer and its MW, AgNO3 precursor and irradiation doses are important parameters for the synthesis of AgNPs. The optimum addition of 20% v/v tert-butanol could assist the formation of AgNPs. The AgNPs in CS stabilizer were stable over a period of one year when the samples were kept at 5 °C. The AgNPs observed from TEM images were spherical with an average particle size in the range of 5-20 nm depending on the irradiation doses. The AgNPs in CS solution effectively inhibited the growth of several fungi, i.e., Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma sp., Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger, which commonly found on the building surface.

  8. Direct nucleation of silver nanoparticles on graphene sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manoj K; Titus, E; Krishna, R; Hawaldar, R R; Goncalves, G; Marques, P A A P; Gracio, J

    2012-08-01

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles were synthesized on the surface of graphene sheet by the simultaneous reduction of Ag+ and graphene oxide (GO) in the presence of simple reducing agent, hydrazine hydrate (N2H4 x H2O). Both the Ag+ and GO were reduced and Ag+ was nucleated onto graphene. GO flakes were prepared by conventional chemical exfoliation method and in the presence of strong acidic medium of potassium chlorate. Silver nanoparticles were prepared using 0.01 M AgNO3 solution. The reduced GO sheet decorated with Ag is referred as G-Ag sample. G-Ag was characterized by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy using GO as standard. An explicit alkene peak appeared around 1625 cm(-1) was observed in G-Ag sample. Besides, the characteristic carbonyl and hydroxyl peaks shows well reduction of GO. The FTIR therefore confirms the direct interaction of Ag into Graphene. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) analysis were performed for morphological probing. The average size of Ag nanoparticles was confirmed by around 5-10 nm by the high-resolution TEM (HRTEM). The Ag quantum dots incorporated nanocomposite material could become prominent candidate for diverse applications including photovoltaic, catalysis, and biosensors etc.

  9. Silver nano fabrication using leaf disc of Passiflora foetida Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Bipin D.; Patil, Anita S.

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of the experiment is to develop a greener low cost SNP fabrication steps using factories of secondary metabolites from Passiflora leaf extract. Here, the leaf extraction process is omitted, and instead a leaf disc was used for stable SNP fabricated by optimizing parameters such as a circular leaf disc of 2 cm (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) instead of leaf extract and grade of pH (7, 8, 9, 11). The SNP synthesis reaction is tried under room temperature, sun, UV and dark condition. The leaf disc preparation steps are also discussed in details. The SNP obtained using (1 mM: 100 ml AgNO3+ singular leaf disc: pH 9, 11) is applied against featured room temperature and sun condition. The UV spectroscopic analysis confirms that sun rays synthesized SNP yields stable nano particles. The FTIR analysis confirms a large number of functional groups such as alkanes, alkyne, amines, aliphatic amine, carboxylic acid; nitro-compound, alcohol, saturated aldehyde and phenols involved in reduction of silver salt to zero valent ions. The leaf disc mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles, minimizes leaf extract preparation step and eligible for stable SNP synthesis. The methods sun and room temperature based nano particles synthesized within 10 min would be use certainly for antimicrobial activity.

  10. Effects of uredine and two flavonoids on nodulation and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samih Tamimi

    2015-08-12

    Aug 12, 2015 ... Significant increase in shoot regeneration, leaf chlorophyll content and rooting occurred when silver nitrate (AgNO3), cobalt chloride (CoCl2) or aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) were added to banana culture medium. The highest numbers of shoots per explants shoot length and leaf surface area was obtained.

  11. Conjunctivitis neonatalis efter ophør med obligatorisk Credé-profylakse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadeberg, O V; Bollerup, A C; Kolmos, H J

    1991-01-01

    The prescript requiring application of silver nitrate eye drops (0.66% AgNO3) to the conjunctivae of the newborn within two hours after delivery was revoked in March 1985. The present study comprises a prospective investigation of the occurrence of microorganisms in specimens of eye secretion fro...

  12. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Dioscorea bulbifera tuber extract and evaluation of its synergistic potential in combination with antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sougata; Patil, Sumersing; Ahire, Mehul; Kitture, Rohini; Kale, Sangeeta; Pardesi, Karishma; Cameotra, Swaranjit S; Bellare, Jayesh; Dhavale, Dilip D; Jabgunde, Amit; Chopade, Balu A

    2012-01-01

    Development of an environmentally benign process for the synthesis of silver nanomaterials is an important aspect of current nanotechnology research. Among the 600 species of the genus Dioscorea, Dioscorea bulbifera has profound therapeutic applications due to its unique phytochemistry. In this paper, we report on the rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles by reduction of aqueous Ag(+) ions using D. bulbifera tuber extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed that D. bulbifera tuber extract is rich in flavonoid, phenolics, reducing sugars, starch, diosgenin, ascorbic acid, and citric acid. The biosynthesis process was quite fast, and silver nanoparticles were formed within 5 hours. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction confirmed reduction of the Ag(+) ions. Varied morphology of the bioreduced silver nanoparticles included spheres, triangles, and hexagons. Optimization studies revealed that the maximum rate of synthesis could be achieved with 0.7 mM AgNO(3) solution at 50°C in 5 hours. The resulting silver nanoparticles were found to possess potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Beta-lactam (piperacillin) and macrolide (eryth-romycin) antibiotics showed a 3.6-fold and 3-fold increase, respectively, in combination with silver nanoparticles selectively against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Notable synergy was seen between silver nanoparticles and chloramphenicol or vancomycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and was supported by a 4.9-fold and 4.2-fold increase in zone diameter, respectively. Similarly, we found a maximum 11.8-fold increase in zone diameter of streptomycin when combined with silver nanoparticles against E. coli, providing strong evidence for the synergistic action of a combination of antibiotics and silver nanoparticles. This is the first report on

  13. Research on metal-plated cellulose nitrate flakes and their infrared / millimeter wave characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shu-qin; Zhu, Chen-guang; Wang, Li-hong; Ou'yang, De-hua; Pan, Gong-pei

    2016-10-01

    Copper-plated and silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes, which were prepared by using chemical plating technology, were used to jam infrared detector and millimeter-wave radar. It was tested for the conductivity and infrared jamming performance of plating and also the RCS (Radar Cross Section) performance of millimeter-wave radar. Test results showed that the prepared metal-plated cellulose nitrate flakes have obvious conductivity, and infrared total radiation energy of silver plating and copper plating had approximately increased 32% and 21% respectively. Through determination, the millimeter-wave reflecting property and RCS of silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes were higher than that of copper-plated cellulose nitrate flakes. Therefore, silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes can be used as an effective infrared / millimeter wave composite jamming material.

  14. Green production of microalgae-based silver chloride nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Ferreira, Veronica; ConzFerreira, Mateus Eugenio; Lima, Luís Maurício T R; Frasés, Susana; de Souza, Wanderley; Sant'Anna, Celso

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles are powerful antimicrobial agents. Here, the synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs) was consistently evidenced from a commercially valuable microalgae species, Chlorella vulgaris. Incubation of C. vulgaris conditioned medium with AgNO 3 resulted in a medium color change to yellow/brown (with UV-vis absorbance at 415nm), indicative of silver nanoparticle formation. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of purified nanoparticles confirmed the presence of both silver and chlorine atoms, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the typical pattern of cubic crystalline AgCl-NPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that most particles (65%) were spherical, with average diameter of 9.8±5.7nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of purified nanoparticle fractions suggested that proteins are the main molecular entities involved in AgCl-NP formation and stabilization. AgCl-NPs (from 10μg/mL) decreased by 98% the growth of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial pathogens, and had a dose-dependent effect on cell viability, which was measured by automated image-based high content screening (HCS). Ultrastructural analysis of treated bacteria by TEM revealed the abnormal arrangement of the chromosomal DNA. Our findings strongly indicated that the AgCl-NPs from C. vulgaris conditioned medium is a promising 'green' alternative for biomedical application as antimicrobials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide sensor: Uniformly decorated silver nanoparticles on polypyrrole for wide detection range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nia, Pooria Moozarm; Meng, Woi Pei; Alias, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemical method was used for depositing silver nanoparticles and polypyrrole. • Silver nanoparticles (25 nm) were uniformly decorated on electrodeposited polypyrrole. • (Ag(NH 3 ) 2 OH) precursor showed better electrochemical performance than (AgNO 3 ). • The sensor showed superior performance toward H 2 O 2 . - Abstract: Electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was prepared and used as a nonenzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) detection. Polypyrrole was fabricated through electrodeposition, while silver nanoparticles were deposited on polypyrrole by the same technique. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the electrodeposited AgNPs were aligned along the PPy uniformly and the mean particle size of AgNPs is around 25 nm. The electrocatalytic activity of AgNPs-PPy-GCE toward H 2 O 2 was studied using chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry. The first linear section was in the range of 0.1–5 mM with a limit of detection of 0.115 μmol l −1 and the second linear section was raised to 120 mM with a correlation factor of 0.256 μmol l −1 (S/N of 3). Moreover, the sensor presented excellent stability, selectivity, repeatability and reproducibility. These excellent performances make AgNPs-PPy/GCE an ideal nonenzymatic H 2 O 2 sensor.

  16. Characterisation of biosynthesised silver nanoparticles by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistel, Dario; Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Faleri, Claudia; Daniele, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesised by a Klebsiella oxytoca strain BAS-10, which, during its growth, is known to produce a branched exopolysaccharide (EPS). Klebsiella oxytoca cultures, treated with AgNO3 and grown under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, produced silver nanoparticles embedded in EPS (AgNPs-EPS) containing different amounts of Ag(0) and Ag(I) forms. The average size of the AgNPs-EPS was determined by transmission electron microscopy, while the relative abundance of Ag(0)- or Ag(I)-containing AgNPs-EPS was established by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). Moreover, the release of silver(I) species from the various types of AgNPs-EPS was investigated by combining SECM with anodic stripping voltammetry. These measurements allowed obtaining information on the kinetic of silver ions release from AgNPs-EPS and their concentration profiles at the substrate/water interface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation of Crosslinked Amphiphilic Silver Nanogel as Thin Film Corrosion Protective Layer for Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were synthesized by a new developed method via reaction of AgNO3 and oleic acid with the addition of a trace amount of Fe3+ ions. Emulsion polymerization at room temperature was employed to prepare a core-shell silver nanoparticle with controllable particle size. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA and potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS were used as a crosslinker, and as redox initiator system, respectively for crosslinking polymerization. The structure and morphology of the silver nanogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM. The effectiveness of the synthesized compounds as corrosion inhibitors for steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by various electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Monolayers of silver nanoparticle were self-assembled on the fresh active surface of the steel electrode and have been tested as a corrosion inhibitor for steel in 1 M HCl solution. The results of polarization measurements showed that nanogel particles act as a mixed type inhibitor.

  18. Silver nanoparticle–carbon nanotube hybrid films: Preparation and electrochemical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Aimin; Wang, Qingxia; Yong, Jiawey; Mahon, Peter J.; Malherbe, Francois; Wang Feng; Zhang Haili; Wang, James

    2012-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) multilayer thin films with controlled thickness were pre-assembled on electrodes by alternatively depositing MWCNT and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) via a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were then electro-deposited on the MWCNT surface from AgNO 3 solution using a potentiostatic double pulse technique. The size, density and morphology of silver nanoparticles that electrodeposited on MWCNT were controlled by the pulse parameters. When a voltage pulse of −600 mV was used to nucleate silver nanoparticles and a growth pulse of −105 mV was applied to grow the particles, silver particles of 10–500 nm with varied density could be electro-generated on MWCNT surface. The formation of Ag NPs and the morphology of the MWCNT/Ag NP composite films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The MWCNT/Ag NP composite films exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide which was also shown to be slightly affected by the size and density of Ag NPs on the film.

  19. Facile and large-scale synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube/silver nanocrystal nanohybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chao; Li Wenwen; Jin Yizheng; Kong Hao

    2006-01-01

    A facile and efficient aqueous phase-based strategy to synthesize carbon nanotube (CNT)/silver nanocrystal nanohybrids at room temperature is reported. In the presence of carboxyl group functionalized or poly(acrylic acid)- (PAA-) grafted CNTs, silver nanoparticles were in situ generated from AgNO 3 aqueous solution, without any additional reducing agent or irradiation treatment, and readily attached to the CNT convex surfaces, leading to the CNT/Ag nanohybrids. The produced silver nanoparticles were determined to be face-centred cubic silver nanocrystals by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron diffraction (ED) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. Detailed experiments showed that this strategy can also be applied to different CNTs, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), and polymer-functionalized CNTs. The nanoparticle sizes can be controlled from 2 nm to 10-20 nm and the amount of metal deposited on CNT surfaces can be as high as 82 wt%. Furthermore, large-scale (10 g or more) CNT/Ag nanohybrids can be prepared via this approach without the decrease of efficiency and quality. This approach can also be extended to prepare Au single crystals by CNTs. The facile, efficient and large-scale availability of the nanohybrids makes their tremendous potential realizable and developable

  20. The facile synthesis of chitosan-based silver nano-biocomposites via a solution plasma process and their potential antimicrobial efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodbasha, MubarakAli; Kim, Seong-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Yul; Kim, Jung-Wan

    2016-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in a chitosan matrix with varying AgNO3 (1, 3, 5 mM) and chitosan (1, 3%) concentrations via the one-step solution plasma process (SPP). Plasma was discharged for 3 min in the AgNO3 and chitosan solutions using unipolar power at 800 V with a frequency of 30 kHz. Fibrous 3D scaffolds were prepared by lyophilizing the nano-biocomposite solutions, and they were stabilized via cross-linking with UV irradiation. UV-Vis spectroscopy showed strong peaks with maximal absorbance at 415-440 nm, indicating the formation of AgNPs in the chitosan with an increase in peak height as the concentration of the precursor, AgNO3, increased. The chemical association between AgNPs and chitosan was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The scaffolds had a micro-porous structure with pore diameters in the range of 5.8-157.0 μm, and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that spherical shaped AgNPs with diameters in the range of 2.5-27.6 nm were well-dispersed in the biocomposites. The nano-biocomposites had a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against various pathogens with minimal inhibition concentrations of 0.68-2.71 and 2.71-10.80 μg mL(-1) for bacteria and fungi, respectively. These are the lowest concentrations achieved by nano-biocomposites reported thus far. The SPP was shown to be a facile, effective, and eco-friendly method of synthesizing nano-biocomposites for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrochemical investigation of the surface energy: Effect of the HF concentration on electroless silver deposition onto p-Si (1 1 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weichun; Chang Yanlong; Ma Chuanli; Jia Bingyu; Cao Guiyan; Wang Chunming

    2007-01-01

    Electroless silver deposition onto p-silicon (1 1 1) from 0.005 mol l -1 AgNO 3 solutions with different HF concentration was investigated by using an electrochemical direct current polarization method and open circuit potential-time (Ocp-t) technique. The fact that three-dimensional (3D) growth of silver onto silicon is favored with increasing the HF concentration was ascribed to the drop of the surface energy and approved by electrochemical direct current polarization, Ocp-t technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The drop slope of open-circuit potential, K -ΔE(OCP)/t , was educed from the mixed-potential theory. K -ΔE(OCP)/t as well as the deposition rate determined by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), increased with the HF concentration, yet was not a linear function. Results were explained by the stress generation and relaxation mechanisms

  2. Enhancing the stability of colloidal silver nanoparticles using polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from Bacillus circulans (MTCC 8167) isolated from crude oil contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukon, Pinkee; Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Konwar, Bolin Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) was produced by growing Bacillus circulans (MTCC 8167) in the specific detection medium. The identification of the polymer as PHA was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. The PHA was purified and characterized using FT-IR. The silver nanoparticles (SNP) were synthesized from AgNO3 in the dispersed colloids of PHA (0.085%) using NaBH4 (sodium borohydrate as reducing agent). The stability was tested using wave length scanning with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and finally with transmission electron microscopy. The PHA stabilized solution was found to be stable for 30 days as against the low stability of silver nanoparticles (SNP) solution alone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    A portion of the binary phase diagram for the system ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate has been determined from -55/sup 0/C to 185/sup 0/C. Results are presented for the ammonium-nitrate-rich end of the system up to 30 wt% potassium nitrate.

  4. Defect modes in silver-doped photonic crystals made by holography using dichromated gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rui; Chen, Shujing; Ren, Zhi; Wang, Zhaona; Liu, Dahe

    2012-10-01

    The defect mode in silver-doped photonic crystals is investigated. 1D and 3D photonic crystals were made by holography using dichromated gelatin mixed with silver nitrate. By controlling the concentration of the silver nitrate, the defect mode was observed in the bandgaps of the holographic photonic crystals. The numerical simulations were made, and the results showed the consistency with the experimental observations.

  5. Estimation of silver in Ag-meta kaolinite by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, E.A.; Rao, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    The present work is based on the neutron activation of Ag-meta kaolinite for the determination of its silver content from the β-activity of the compound using standard tables which showed the percentage of silver in mixtures of silver nitrate and meta kaolinite of known composition against β-activity of the mixture activated under identical conditions. (author)

  6. Synthesis and antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S kheybari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study:The most prominent nanoparticles for medical uses are nanosilver particles which are famous for their high anti-microbial activity. Silver ion has been known as a metal ion that exhibit anti-mold, anti-microbial and anti-algal properties for a long time. In particular, it is widely used as silver nitrate aqueous solution which has disinfecting and sterilizing actions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity as well as physical properties of the silver nanoparticles prepared by chemical reduction method. "nMethods:Silver nanoparticles (NPs were prepared by reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of a reducing agent and also poly [N-vinylpyrolidone] (PVP as a stabilizer. Two kinds of NPs were synthesized by ethylene glycol (EG and glucose as reducing agent. The nanostructure and particle size of silver NPs were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and laser particle analyzer (LPA. The formations of the silver NPs were monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The anti-bacterial activity of silver NPs were assessed by determination of their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC against the Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. "nResults and Conclusion:The silver nanoparticles were spherical with particle size between 10 to 250 nm. Analysis of the theoretical (Mie light scattering theory and experimental results showed that the silver NPs in colloidal solution had a diameter of approximately 50 nm. "nBoth colloidal silver NPs showed high anti-bacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Glucose nanosilver colloids showed a shorter killing time against most of the tested bacteria which could be due to their nanostructures and uniform size distribution patterns.

  7. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by marine bacterium, Idiomarina

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    UV-visible absorption scan of a 48 h culture exposed to 5mM silver nitrate revealed a broad peak at 450nm indicative of the surface plasmon resonance of SNPs. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of elemental silver and the crystallite size was calculated to be 25nm using Scherrer formula. The average particle size as ...

  8. Green Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Aqueous Urginea Indica Bulbs Extract and Their Catalytic Activity Towards 4-NP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manigandan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, green method is described for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by reaction of the aqueous solution of Urginea indica (U. I. bulbs extract and AgNO3. In this process, colloidal metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag0 Nps were of a particular interest due to its haunting physicochemical properties. The formation of Ag0 Nps nanoparticles was proved by the significant color change during the preparation. The formation process and color variations by the impact of pH and concentration of extract were analyzed by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Functional groups present in the extract and Ag0 NPs was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The crystal structure, lattice parameter and crystallite size of synthesized silver NPs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the sample showed the formation of nanoparticles with cubic silver structure. Elemental composition and morphology of the metallic silver was widely investigated by FESEM-EDX.

  9. Porous Silicon Covered with Silver Nanoparticles as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Substrate for Ultra-Low Concentration Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosović, Marin; Balarin, Maja; Ivanda, Mile; Đerek, Vedran; Marciuš, Marijan; Ristić, Mira; Gamulin, Ozren

    2015-12-01

    Microporous and macro-mesoporous silicon templates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were produced by anodization of low doped p-type silicon wafers. By immersion plating in AgNO3, the templates were covered with silver metallic film consisting of different silver nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of these SERS substrates showed diverse morphology with significant difference in an average size and size distribution of silver nanoparticles. Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) reflection spectroscopy showed plasmonic absorption at 398 and 469 nm, which is in accordance with the SEM findings. The activity of the SERS substrates was tested using rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye molecules and 514.5 nm laser excitation. Contrary to the microporous silicon template, the SERS substrate prepared from macro-mesoporous silicon template showed significantly broader size distribution of irregular silver nanoparticles as well as localized surface plasmon resonance closer to excitation laser wavelength. Such silver morphology has high SERS sensitivity that enables ultralow concentration detection of R6G dye molecules up to 10(-15) M. To our knowledge, this is the lowest concentration detected of R6G dye molecules on porous silicon-based SERS substrates, which might even indicate possible single molecule detection.

  10. Room temperature synthesis of silver nanowires from tabular silver bromide crystals in the presence of gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suwen; Wehmschulte, Rudolf J.; Lian, Guoda; Burba, Christopher M.

    2006-03-01

    Long silver nanowires were synthesized at room temperature by a simple and fast process derived from the development of photographic films. A film consisting of an emulsion of tabular silver bromide grains in gelatin was treated with a photographic developer (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate (metol), citric acid) in the presence of additional aqueous silver nitrate. The silver nanowires have lengths of more than 50 μm, some even more than 100 μm, and average diameters of about 80 nm. Approximately, 70% of the metallic silver formed in the reduction consists of silver nanowires. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results indicate that the silver nanowires grow along the [111] direction. It was found that the presence of gelatin, tabular silver bromide crystals and silver ions in solution are essential for the formation of the silver nanowires. The nanowires appear to originate from the edges of the silver bromide crystals. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SAED, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  11. Room temperature synthesis of silver nanowires from tabular silver bromide crystals in the presence of gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suwen; Wehmschulte, Rudolf J.; Lian Guoda; Burba, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Long silver nanowires were synthesized at room temperature by a simple and fast process derived from the development of photographic films. A film consisting of an emulsion of tabular silver bromide grains in gelatin was treated with a photographic developer (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate (metol), citric acid) in the presence of additional aqueous silver nitrate. The silver nanowires have lengths of more than 50 μm, some even more than 100 μm, and average diameters of about 80 nm. Approximately, 70% of the metallic silver formed in the reduction consists of silver nanowires. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results indicate that the silver nanowires grow along the [111] direction. It was found that the presence of gelatin, tabular silver bromide crystals and silver ions in solution are essential for the formation of the silver nanowires. The nanowires appear to originate from the edges of the silver bromide crystals. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SAED, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  12. Silver Flakes and Silver Dendrites for Hybrid Electrically Conductive Adhesives with Enhanced Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongru; Li, Zhuo; Tian, Xun; Yan, Shaocun; Li, Zhe; Guo, Xuhong; Ma, Yanqing; Ma, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Silver dendrites were prepared by a facile replacement reaction between silver nitrate and zinc microparticles of 20 μm in size. The influence of reactant molar ratio, reaction solution volume, silver nitrate concentration, and reaction time on the morphology of dendrites was investigated systematically. It was found that uniform tree-like silver structures are synthesized under the optimal conditions. Their structure can be described as a trunk, symmetrical branches, and leaves, which length scales of 5-10, 1-2 μm, and 100-300 nm, respectively. All features were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and x-ray powder diffraction. A hybrid fillers system using silver flakes and dendrites as electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) exhibited excellent overall performance. This good conductivity can be attributed mainly to the synergy between the silver microflakes (5-20 μm sized irregular sheet structures) and dendrites, allowing more conductive pathways to be formed between the fillers. In order to further optimize the overall electrical conductivity, various mixtures of silver microflakes and silver dendrites were tested in ECAs, with results indicating that the highest conductivity was shown when the amounts of silver microflakes, silver dendrites and the polymer matrix were 69.4 wt.% (20.82 vol.%), 0.6 wt.% (0.18 vol.%), and 30.0 wt.% (79.00 vol.%), respectively. The corresponding mass ratio of silver flakes to silver dendrites was 347:3. The resistivity of ECAs reached as low as 1.7 × 10-4 Ω cm.

  13. Aminoethyl nitrate – the novel super nitrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauersachs, Johann

    2009-01-01

    Long-term use of most organic nitrates is limited by development of tolerance, induction of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. In this issue of the BJP, Schuhmacher et al. characterized a novel class of organic nitrates with amino moieties (aminoalkyl nitrates). Aminoethyl nitrate was identified as a novel organic mononitrate with high potency but devoid of induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Cross-tolerance to nitroglycerin or the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine after in vivo treatment was not observed. Like all nitrates, aminoethyl nitrate induced vasorelaxation by activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. Thus, in contrast to the prevailing view, high potency in an organic nitrate is not necessarily accompanied by induction of oxidative stress or endothelial dysfunction. This work from Daiber's group is an important step forward in the understanding of nitrate bioactivation, tolerance phenomena and towards the development of better organic nitrates for clinical use. PMID:19732062

  14. Bioavailability of silver and its relationship to ionoregulation and silver speciation across a range of salinities in the gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, M. Danielle; Walker, Paul; Grosell, Martin; Barimo, John F.; Playle, Richard C.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    Silver is taken up as a Na + analog (Ag + ) by freshwater organisms, but little is known about its bioavailability in relation to salinity. Adult Opsanus beta were acclimated to 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% seawater (Cl - = 545 mM) and exposed for 24 h to 2.18 μg L -1 silver as 110m Ag-labelled AgNO 3 , a concentration close to the U.S. EPA marine criterion and less than 0.1% of the acute 96-h LC50 in seawater. Plasma osmolality, Na + , and Cl - remained approximately constant from 100% down to 20-40% seawater, thereafter declining to 89% (osmolality) and 82% (Na + , Cl - ) of seawater values at the lowest salinity (2.5% seawater), while plasma Mg 2+ was invariant. Ionic measurements in intestinal fluids and urine supported the view that above the isosmotic point (about 32% seawater), toadfish drink the medium, absorb Na + , Cl - , and water across the gastrointestinal tract, actively excrete Na + and Cl - across the gills, and secrete Mg 2+ into the urine. Below this point, toadfish appear to stop drinking, actively take up Na + and Cl - at the gills, and retain ions at the kidney. Silver accumulation varied greatly with salinity, by nine-fold (whole body), 26-fold (gill tissue), and 18-fold (liver), with the maxima occurring in 2.5% seawater, the minima in 40% seawater (close to the isosmotic point), and slightly greater values at higher salinities. Highest silver concentrations occurred in liver, second highest in gills, intermediate concentrations in kidney, spleen, and gastrointestinal tissues, and lowest in swim bladder and white muscle, though patterns changed with salinity. There were substantial biliary but minimal urinary levels of silver. The salinity-dependent pattern of silver accumulation best correlated with the abundance of the neutral complex AgCl 0 , though the presence of small amounts of Ag + at the lowest salinities may also have been important. In contrast, silver accumulation in the esophagus-stomach was greatest in 100% seawater and

  15. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshahid, Seyedmohammad; Mehryar, Pouyan; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Arabi Monfared, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity. PMID:27652264

  16. Colloidal silver nanoparticles prepared by UV-light induced citrate reduction technique for the quantitative detection of uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Anupam; Panda, Sovan Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Reddish-yellow color colloid consisting of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has been synthesized by reducing aqueous AgNO3 solution by photo-induced citrate reduction technique under UV light. As prepared colloid exhibits single and intense plasmonic absorption peak in the violet region of the visible spectra with the peak centered at 405 nm. The NPs are fine and spherical with diameter ranging from 5 to 10 nm. These colloidal NPs have been used for the quantitative detection of uric acid by UV-VIS spectroscopy. A linear red shifting of the characteristics Plasmonic absorption peak of Ag NPs is observed with uric acid concentration. Uric acid can be detected by UV-VIS spectroscopy down to 5 nM limit using the prepared colloid.

  17. Effects of silver nanoparticles and ions on a co-culture model for the gastrointestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Serchi, Tommaso; Cambier, Sébastien; Leclercq, Céline C; Renaut, Jenny; Shao, Jia; Kruszewski, Marcin; Lentzen, Esther; Grysan, Patrick; Eswara, Santhana; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Contal, Servane; Ziebel, Johanna; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Murk, AlberTinka J; Gutleb, Arno C

    2016-02-17

    The increased incorporation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) into consumer products makes the characterization of potential risk for humans and other organisms essential. The oral route is an important uptake route for NPs, therefore the study of the gastrointestinal tract in respect to NP uptake and toxicity is very timely. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Ag NPs and ions on a Caco-2/TC7:HT29-MTX intestinal co-culture model with mucus secretion, which constitutes an important protective barrier to exogenous agents in vivo and may strongly influence particle uptake. The presence of the mucus layer was confirmed with staining techniques (alcian blue and toluidine blue). Mono and co-cultures of Caco-2/TC7 and HT29-MTX cells were exposed to Ag NPs (Ag 20 and 200 nm) and AgNO3 and viability (alamar blue), ROS induction (DCFH-DA assay) and IL-8 release (ELISA) were measured. The particle agglomeration in the media was evaluated with DLS and the ion release with ultrafiltration and ICP-MS. The effects of the Ag NPs and AgNO3 on cells in co-culture were studied at a proteome level with two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) followed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time Of Flight/ Time Of Flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Intracellular localization was assessed with NanoSIMS and TEM. The presence of mucus layer led to protection against ROS and decrease in IL-8 release. Both Ag 20 and 200 nm NPs were taken up by the cells and Ag NPs 20 nm were mainly localized in organelles with high sulfur content. A dose- and size-dependent increase in IL-8 release was observed with a lack of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Sixty one differentially abundant proteins were identified involved in cytoskeleton arrangement and cell cycle, oxidative stress, apoptosis, metabolism/detoxification and stress. The presence of mucus layer had an impact on modulating the induced toxicity of NPs. NP-specific effects were

  18. Silver nanoparticles: Influence of the temperature synthesis on the particles’ morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piñero, S; Camero, S; Blanco, S

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in the medical field, textile and food industries. These and other applications can be found due to the relation between its size and morphology. In this study the influence of bath temperature on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles are evaluated, which are obtained by chemical reduction of AgNO 3 using three reducing agents: sodium borohydride, ascorbic acid and sodium citrate. The evaluation carried out by the traditional UV-vis Spectrophotometric analysis and with High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. The UV-vis spectrum of the silver colloids obtained by chemical reduction using three different reducing agents shows the effect of the temperature change on the growing and aggregative process. The final effect on the morphology, size and aggregation of the particles was confirmed by TEM. The result suggests a change in the growing mechanism, conducted by aggregation of atoms at 5 and 20°C degrees and aggregation of clusters at higher temperatures. Moreover in this work the main synthesis methods of nanomaterials are described. (paper)

  19. Mangifera Indica leaf-assisted biosynthesis of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Daizy

    2011-01-01

    The use of various parts of plants for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered as a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The present study reports a facile and rapid biosynthesis of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles. The method developed is environmentally friendly and allows the reduction to be accelerated by changing the temperature and pH of the reaction mixture consisting of aqueous AgNO 3 and Mangifera Indica leaf extract. At a pH of 8, the colloid consists of well-dispersed triangular, hexagonal and nearly spherical nanoparticles having size ˜20 nm. The UV-vis spectrum of silver nanoparticles gave surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 439 nm. The synthesized nanocrystals were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Water soluble organics present in the leaf are responsible for the reduction of silver ions. This green method provides faster synthesis comparable to chemical methods and can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications.

  20. Preparation and antibacterial properties of hybrid-zirconia films with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azócar, Ignacio; Vargas, Esteban; Duran, Nicole; Arrieta, Abel; González, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of incorporating silver nanoparticles (AgNps) into zirconia matrix–polyether glycol was studied. AgNps of 4–6 nm in size were synthesized using the inverse micelles method, and different doses of metallic nanoparticles were incorporated into zirconia–polyether glycol mixtures during the ageing procedure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the modified hybrid film showed a homogenous distribution of 20–80 nm diameter AgNps, indicating agglomeration of these structures during film modification; such agglomerations were greater when increasing the dosage of the colloidal system. The AgNps-hybrid films showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than for Gram-negative bacteria. Hybrid films prepared with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) stabilized AgNps presented enhanced antibacterial activity compared to that obtained through the addition of a high AgNO 3 concentration (0.3 wt%). -- Graphical abstract: Atomic Force Micrographs, top and cross section view, showing silver nanoparticles embedded in a zirconia–polyether glycol hybrid film. Highlights: ► Antibacterial activity of films (zirconia–polyether glycol) modified with silver nanoparticles. ► Biofilm formation is prevented. ► High sensibility against gram positive bacteria.

  1. Preparation of silver colloid and enhancement of dispersion stability in organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Young; Choi, Young Tai; Seo, Dae Jong; Park, Seung Bin

    2004-01-01

    Silver colloid of nanometer size was prepared in liquid phase by a reduction method. AgNO 3 , FeSO 4 .7H 2 O, and Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 .2H 2 O were used as silver precursor, reducing agent and dispersing agent, respectively. As precursor concentration was decreased or the concentration of dispersing agent was increased, the prepared particle size was decreased from 180 nm to 20 nm. Apparently, the particle size seemed to be decreased with the increase of stirring rate, but it was confirmed by TEM that the size of primary particle remained the same. This result indicates that the uniformity of precursor concentration in the reactor affects the particle size and the stirring rate should be kept higher than the critical value to prevent the agglomeration of particles. In order to make the dispersion stability of the prepared silver colloid maintained even in non-polar organic solvent, electrodialysis technique was applied. As ionic species in colloidal solution were removed by electrodialysis, the dispersability of the colloid in the organic solvent of long carbon chain was confirmed to be increased

  2. Orange pectin mediated growth and stability of aqueous gold and silver nanocolloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigoghossian, Karina; dos Santos, Molíria V.; Barud, Hernane S.; da Silva, Robson R.; Rocha, Lucas A.; Caiut, José M. A.; de Assunção, Rosana M. N.; Spanhel, Lubomir; Poulain, Marcel; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.

    2015-06-01

    The role of orange based pectin in the nucleation and growth of silver and gold nanoparticles is addressed. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in fruits such as oranges, lemons, passion fruits or apples. It displays smooth and hairy chain regions containing hydroxyl-, ester-, carboxylate- and eventually amine groups that can act as surface ligands interacting under various pH conditions more or less efficiently with growing nanometals. Here, a high methoxy pectin (>50% esterified) was used as a stabilizer/reducing agent in the preparation of gold, silver and silver-gold nanoparticles. Commercial pectin (CP) and pectin extracted from orange bagasse (OP) were used. Optionally, trisodium citrate or oxalic acid we used to reduce AgNO3 and HAuCl4 in aqueous environment. Characterization methods included UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that under different pH conditions, pectin and reducing agents allow producing various nanostructures shapes (triangles, spheres, rods, octahedrons and decahedrons) often with high polydispersity and sizes ranging between 5 nm and 30 nm. In addition, depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH, the surface plasmon bands can be continuously shifted between 410 nm and 600 nm. Finally, pectin seems to be a highly efficient stabilizer of the colloidal systems that show a remarkable stability and unchanged optical spectral response even after five years.

  3. Synthesis of Silver Particle onto Bamboo Charcoal by Tripropylene Glycol and the Composites Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu Hsuan Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tripropylene glycol was used as a reducting agent in the polyol process to reduce silver nitrate to the form of silver particles deposited onto the surface of bamboo charcoal (BC. The reduction temperature and time were critical parameters as they control the size of the silver particles formed as well as their distribution onto the surface of the BC. The reduction of silver nitrate by the tripropylene glycol occurred at a temperature of 120 °C for 3 h, and the silver particles, which had a face-centered cubic lattice structure, were distributed onto the surface of the BC. These synthesis conditions should work well with tripropylene glycol as reducing agent that can be helpful in the convenient preparation of Ag/BC particles. When Ag/BC powders were manufactured using 3 g of silver nitrate content, the prepared composites had the largest thermal conductivity at 0.2490 W/(m·K.

  4. One-step synthesis and antibacterial property of water-soluble silver nanoparticles by CGJ bio-template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zichun; Wu Qingsheng; Chen Ping; Yang Xiaohong

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a new synthetic method of nanoparticles with fresh Chinese gooseberry juice (CGJ) as bio-template was developed. One-step synthesis of highly water-soluble silver nanoparticles at room temperature without using any harmful reducing agents and special capping agent was fulfilled with this method. In the process, the products were obtained by adding AgNO 3 to CGJ, which was used as reducing agent, capping agent, and the bio-template. The products of silver nanoparticles with diameter of 10–30 nm have strong water solubility and excellent antibiotic function. With the same concentration 0.047 μg mL −1 , the antibacterial effect of water-soluble silver particles by fresh CGJ was 53%, whereas only 27% for silver nanoparticles synthesized using the template method of fresh onion inner squama coat (OISC). The excellent water solubility of the products would enable them have better applications in the bio-medical field. The synthetic method would also have potential application in preparing other highly water-soluble particles, because of its simple apparatus, high yield, mild conditions, and facile operation.

  5. Microalgae associated Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 as the nano particle synthesizing unit to produce antimicrobial silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, Karthic; Sudha, S S; Francis, Mebin; Sowmya, T; Rengaramanujam, J; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy

    2013-09-01

    The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antimicrobial property was studied using bacteria isolated from Spirulina products. Isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus sp. MSK 1 (JX495945), Staphylococcus sp. MSK 2 (JX495946), Bacillus sp. MSK 3 (JX495947) and Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 (JX495948). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using bacterial culture filtrate with AgNO3. The initial syntheses of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer (by measuring the color change to intense brown). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed evidence that proteins are possible reducing agents and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) study showing the metal silver as major signal. The structure of AgNPs was determined by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Synthesized Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 40-65 nm have antimicrobial property against human pathogens like Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Streptococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Among the isolates Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 alone showed good activity in both synthesis of AgNPs and antimicrobial activity. This work demonstrates the possible use of biological synthesized silver nanoparticles to combat the drug resistant problem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Green synthesis of highly stabilized nanocrystalline silver particles by a non-pathogenic and agriculturally important fungus T. asperellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, P; Mukherjee, P K; Kale, S P; Roy, M; Mandal, B P; Tyagi, A K; Dey, G K; Ghatak, J

    2008-01-01

    A controlled and up-scalable biosynthetic route to nanocrystalline silver particles with well-defined morphology using cell-free aqueous filtrate of a non-pathogenic and commercially viable biocontrol agent Trichoderma asperellum is being reported for the first time. A transparent solution of the cell-free filtrate of Trichoderma asperellum containing 1 mM AgNO 3 turns progressively dark brown within 5 d of incubation at 25 deg. C. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-vis spectroscopy. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ∼410 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The size of the silver particles using TEM and XRD studies is found to be in the range 13-18 nm. These nanoparticles are found to be highly stable and even after prolonged storage for over 6 months they do not show significant aggregation. A plausible mechanism behind the formation of silver nanoparticles and their stabilization via capping has been investigated using FTIR and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy

  7. Fabrication of silver nanowires via a β-cyclodextrin-derived soft template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Liu

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecular β-cyclodextrin (β-CD was used as a soft template for the fabrication of long silver nanowires. A novel design using self-assembled β-CD for the reduction of silver ions was studied. The concentrations of iron chloride, silver nitrate, and the template were controlling factors for the growth of the silver nanowires. Iron chloride was used to accelerate and facilitate the formation of the silver nanowires and inhibit oxidative etching. However, an excessive concentration of Fe+3 resulted in etching of the silver nanostructures. Furthermore, the silver concentration was another controlling factor. The length of the silver nanowires increased as the concentration of silver cations increased. Nevertheless, an excess concentration of silver cations formed various silver crystalline structures. In this study, the optimal ratio between iron chloride and silver nitrate was determined to be 1:13.3. A maximum length of 20 µm was achieved using a concentration of 0.23 M for the soft template. Moreover, the junction of two growing silver nanowires was observed, forming a long fused nanowire, and some significant boundaries were observed. The observed results were further confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses. X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS analyses were used to indicate the presence of silver and the formation of crystalline materials.

  8. A facile synthesis method of hydroxyethyl cellulose-silver nanoparticle scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Farah Hanani; Hussain, Fathima Shahitha Jahir; Zeyohannes, Senait Sileshi; Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari Abdull; Yusuff, Mashitah M

    2017-10-01

    Green porous and ecofriendly scaffolds have been considered as one of the potent candidates for tissue engineering substitutes. The objective of this study is to investigate the biocompatibility of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), prepared by the green synthesis method as a potential host material for skin tissue applications. The substrates which contained varied concentrations of AgNO 3 (0.4%-1.6%) were formed in the presence of HEC, were dissolved in a single step in water. The presence of AgNPs was confirmed visually by the change of color from colorless to dark brown, and was fabricated via freeze-drying technique. The outcomes exhibited significant porosity of >80%, moderate degradation rate, and tremendous value of water absorption up to 1163% in all samples. These scaffolds of HEC/AgNPs were further characterized by SEM, UV-Vis, ATR-FTIR, TGA, and DSC. All scaffolds possessed open interconnected pore size in the range of 50-150μm. The characteristic peaks of Ag in the UV-Vis spectra (417-421nm) revealed the formation of AgNPs in the blend composite. ATR-FTIR curve showed new existing peak, which implies the oxidation of HEC in the cellulose derivatives. The DSC thermogram showed augmentation in T g with increased AgNO 3 concentration. Preliminary studies of cytotoxicity were carried out in vitro by implementation of the hFB cells on the scaffolds. The results substantiated low toxicity of HEC/AgNPs scaffolds, thus exhibiting an ideal characteristic in skin tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Silver distribution and release from an antimicrobial denture base resin containing silver colloidal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Gorup, Luiz Fernando; Takamiya, Aline Satie; de Camargo, Emerson Rodrigues; Filho, Adhemar Colla Ruvolo; Barbosa, Debora Barros

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a denture base resin containing silver colloidal nanoparticles through morphological analysis to check the distribution and dispersion of these particles in the polymer and by testing the silver release in deionized water at different time periods. A Lucitone 550 denture resin was used, and silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate with sodium citrate. The acrylic resin was prepared in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions, and silver nanoparticle suspension was added to the acrylic resin monomer in different concentrations (0.05, 0.5, and 5 vol% silver colloidal). Controls devoid of silver nanoparticles were included. The specimens were stored in deionized water at 37°C for 7, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days, and each solution was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Silver was not detected in deionized water regardless of the silver nanoparticles added to the resin and of the storage period. Micrographs showed that with lower concentrations, the distribution of silver nanoparticles was reduced, whereas their dispersion was improved in the polymer. Moreover, after 120 days of storage, nanoparticles were mainly located on the surface of the nanocomposite specimens. Incorporation of silver nanoparticles in the acrylic resin was evidenced. Moreover, silver was not detected by the detection limit of the atomic absorption spectrophotometer used in this study, even after 120 days of storage in deionized water. Silver nanoparticles are incorporated in the PMMA denture resin to attain an effective antimicrobial material to help control common infections involving oral mucosal tissues in complete denture wearers. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by using Ganoderma-mushroom extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekar, S. U.; Khollam, Y. B.; Koinkar, P. M.; Mirji, S. A.; Mane, R. S.; Naushad, M.; Jadhav, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    Present study reports the biochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from aqueous medium by using the extract of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma, as a reducing and stabilizing agents. The Ag-NPs are prepared at room temperature by the reduction of Ag+ to Ag in aqueous solution of AgNO3. The resultant particles are characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement techniques. The formation of Ag-NPs is confirmed by recording the UV-visible absorption spectra for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) where peak around 427 nm. The prominent changes observed in FTIR spectra supported the reduction of Ag+ to Ag. The morphological features of Ag-NPs are evaluated from HRTEM. The spherical Ag-NPs are observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The particle size distribution is found to be nearly uniform with average particle size of 2 nm. The Ag-NPs aged for 15, 30, 60 and 120 days showed no profound effect on the position of SPR peak in UV-visible studies, indicating the protecting/capping ability of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma in the synthesis of Ag-NPs.

  11. Nitrates of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Pushkina, L.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    The systematization of experimental data with account of the last achievements in the field of studying the RE nitrate properties is realized. The methods of production, solubility in aqueous solutions structure, thermodynamic characteristics and thermal stability of nitrate hydrates, RE anhydrous and basic nitrates are considered. The data on RE nirtrate complexing in aqueous solutions are given. Binary nitrates, nitrate solvates and RE nitrate adducts with organic compounds are described. The use of RE nitrates in the course of RE production, in the processes of separation and fine cleaning of RE preparations is considered

  12. An in vitro biotic ligand model (BLM) for silver binding to cultured gill epithelia of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bingsheng; Nichols, Joel; Playle, Richard C.; Wood, Chris M.

    2005-01-01

    'Reconstructed' gill epithelia on filter supports were grown in primary culture from dispersed gill cells of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This preparation contains both pavement cells and chloride cells, and after 7-9 days in culture, permits exposure of the apical surface to true freshwater while maintaining blood-like culture media on the basolateral surface, and exhibits a stable transepithelial resistance (TER) and transepithelial potential (TEP) under these conditions. These epithelia were used to develop a possible in vitro version of the biotic ligand model (BLM) for silver; the in vivo BLM uses short-term gill binding of the metal to predict acute silver toxicity as a function of freshwater chemistry. Radio-labeled silver ( 110m Ag as AgNO 3 ) was placed on the apical side (freshwater), and the appearance of 110m Ag in the epithelia (binding) and in the basolateral media (flux) over 3 h were monitored. Silver binding (greater than the approximate range 0-100 μg l -1 ) and silver flux were concentration-dependent with a 50% saturation point (apparent K d ) value of about 10 μg l -1 or 10 -7 M, very close to the 96-h LC50 in vivo in the same water chemistry. There were no adverse effects of silver on TER, TEP, or Na + , K + -ATPase activity, though the latter declined over longer exposures, as in vivo. Silver flux over 3 h was small ( + and dissolved organic carbon (humic acid) concentrations, increased by elevations in freshwater Cl - and reductions in pH, and insensitive to elevations in Ca 2+ . With the exception of the pH response, these effects were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to in vivo BLM responses. The results suggest that an in vitro BLM approach may provide a simple and cost-effective way for evaluating the protective effects of site-specific waters

  13. The direct effect in the gamma radiolysis of frozen aqueous solutions of nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalecinski, J.

    1974-01-01

    The gamma radiolysis of frozen at 77 and 195 K solutions of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, strontium and silver nitrates was examined. The yields of the direct effect G(NO 2 - ) were shown to depend on the type of the nitrate and to correlate with the free volumes of the solutions. (author)

  14. Tolerance to silver of an Aspergillus fumigatus strain able to grow on cyanide containing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatini, L.; Battistelli, M.; Giorgi, L.; Iacobucci, M.; Gobbi, L.; Andreozzi, E.; Pianetti, A.; Franchi, R.; Bruscolini, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aspergillus fumigatus strain able to grow on metal cyanide complexes. • Tolerance test revealed that Ag(I) Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was 6 mM. • The fungus reduced and sequestrated intracellularly silver forming nanoparticles. • Best culture conditions for Ag(I) absorption were pH 8.5 at temperatures of 20–30 °C. - Abstract: We studied the strategy of an Aspergillus fumigatus strain able to grow on metal cyanide wastes to cope with silver. The tolerance test revealed that the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Ag(I) was 6 mM. In 1 mM AgNO 3 aqueous solution the fungus was able to reduce and sequestrate silver into the cell in the form of nanoparticles as evidenced by the change in color of the biomass and Electron Microscopy observations. Extracellular silver nanoparticle production also occurred in the filtrate solution after previous incubation of the fungus in sterile, double-distilled water for 72 h, therefore evidencing that culture conditions may influence nanoparticle formation. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and Energy Dispersion X-ray analysis. Atomic absorption spectrometry revealed that the optimum culture conditions for silver absorption were at pH 8.5.The research is part of a polyphasic study concerning the behavior of the fungal strain in presence of metal cyanides; the results provide better understanding for further research targeted at a rationale use of the microorganism in bioremediation plans, also in view of possible metal recovery. Studies will be performed to verify if the fungus maintains its ability to produce nanoparticles using KAg(CN) 2 .

  15. Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Ghassan Mohammad; Mohammed, Wasnaa Hatif; Marzoog, Thorria Radam; Al-Amiery, Ahmed Abdul Amir; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana (E. chapmaniana) and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria, yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line. Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h. A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line (HL-60). UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50° and 44.76°. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. It has been demonstrated that the extract of E. chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.

  16. Green synthesis,antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghassan; Mohammad; Sulaiman; Wasnaa; Hatif; Mohammed; Thorria; Radam; Marzoog; Ahmed; Abdul; Amir; Al-Amiery; Abdul; Amir; H.Kadhum; Abu; Bakar; Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana(E.chapmaniana)and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria,yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia(HL-60)cell line.Methods:Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h.A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed.Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed.Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide,a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line(HL-60).Results:UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm.X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50°and 44.76°.The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusions:It has been demonstrated that the extract of E.chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution.Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.

  17. Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghassan Mohammad Sulaiman; Wasnaa Hatif Mohammed; Thorria Radam Marzoog; Ahmed Abdul Amir Al-Amiery; Abdul Amir H Kadhum; Abu Bakar Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana (E. chapmaniana) and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria, yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line.Methods:Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h. A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line (HL-60). Results: UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50 ° and 44.76 °. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: It has been demonstrated that the extract of E. chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.

  18. Tetra­kis[bis­(pyridin-2-yl)amine-κN 2](nitrato-κO)silver(I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashchenko, Yuliia; Pavlishchuk, Anna; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Haukka, Matti

    2014-01-01

    In the title complex, [Ag(NO3)(C10H9N3)4], the nitrate ligand is found to be disordered over two sets of positions, with occupancy factors of 0.473 (5) and 0.527 (5). The AgI ion is located in a square-pyramidal coordination environment formed by four N atoms from four bis­(pyridin-2-yl)amine ligands and one O atom from a nitrate ligand. Weak inter­actions between the AgI ions and the nitrate anions acting in a monodentate mode [Ag⋯O = 2.791 (13) and 2.816 (9) Å for the major component of the nitrate ligand, and 2.865 (8) and 2.837 (8) Å for the minor component] link the complex mol­ecules into a chain along [001]. N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed. PMID:24764824

  19. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles in AOT microemulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanzhong; Qiao Xueliang; Chen Jianguo

    2006-01-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles have been synthesized in water-in-oil microemulsion using silver nitrate solubilized in the water core of one microemulsion as source of silver ions, hydrazine hydrate solubilized in the water core of another microemulsion as reducing agent, dodecane as the oil phase, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) as the surfactant. The UV-vis absorption spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to trace the growth process and elucidate the structure of the silver nanoparticles. UV-vis spectra show that the Ag 4 + intermediates formed at early stages of the reaction and then the clusters grow or aggregate to larger nanoparticles. TEM micrographs confirm that the silver nanoparticles are all spherical. The resulting particles have a very narrow size distribution. Meanwhile, the diameter size of the particles is so small that the smallest mean diameter is only 1.6nm. IR results show that the surfactant molecules are strongly adsorbed on the surface of silver particles through a coordination bond between the silver atom and the sulfonic group of AOT molecules, which endows the particles with a good stability in oil solvents. As dodecane is used as oil solvent to prepare silver nanoparticles, the formed nano-silver sol is almost nontoxic. As a result, the silver nanoparticles need not be separated from the reaction solution and the silver sol may be directly used in antibacterial fields

  20. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of nanosized silver colloids by microwave dielectric heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,. Mumbai 400 085 ... wave heating is well known in the food industry and of late has ... AgNO3 (BDH), ethylene glycol (UV spectroscopy grade, Spectro-.

  2. Preparación de nanopartículas de plata en ausencia de polimeros estabilizantes Preparation of silver nanoparticles in the absence of polymer stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela B. Sifontes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were prepared by means of the polyol method in the absence of stabilizing polymers. To accomplish this objective, AgNO3 was added to ethylene glycol in the presence of NaOH (1 mol.L-1, the suspension formed was irradiated with a microwave source for 60 seconds at a power of 465 watts. It was found that under these conditions AgNPs of sizes between 4-18 nm are formed. Also the results indicate that part of the ethylene glycol is oxidized to carbonyl compounds that reduce the Ag+. These organic compounds are adsorbed on the surfaces of AgNPs, forming a protective film that prevents their aggregation.

  3. Reduction of silver nanoparticles onto graphene oxide nanosheets with N,N-dimethylformamide and SERS activities of GO/Ag composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yingkui; He Chengen; He Wenjie; Yu Linjuan; Peng Rengui; Xie Xiaolin; Wang Xianbao; Mai Yiuwing

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been homogeneously deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets by an optimal method, in which N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as a co-dispersant of GO and reductant of sliver ions is added to an aqueous suspension of GO and AgNO 3 . GO nanosheets are uniformly covered by Ag NPs with a narrow size distribution and inter-particle gap. Raman signals of GO are greatly enhanced after deposition owing to the charge transfer interaction of GO with Ag NPs. The GO/Ag composite can be further utilized as an effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate. Several new Raman bands and frequency shifts are clearly observed in using 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) as a Raman probe on GO/Ag compared to the normal Raman spectrum of solid 4-ATP. The Raman enhancement arises from a major electromagnetic effect and a minor chemical effect.

  4. Streptomyces somaliensis mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Soltani Nejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The development of reliable and ecofriendly process for the synthesis of nano-metals is an important aspect in the field of nanotechnology. Nano-metals are a special group of materials with broad area of applications. Materials and Methods: In this study, extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs performed by use of the gram positive soil Streptomycetes. Streptomycetes isolated from rice fields of Guilan Province, Iran (5 isolates. Initial characterization of SNPs was performed by visual change color. To determine the bacterium taxonomical identity, its colonies characterized morphologically by use of scanning electron microscope. The PCR molecular analysis of active isolate represented its identity partially. In this regard, 16S rDNA of isolate G was amplified using universal bacterial primers FD1 and RP2. The PCR products were purified and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA was then conducted using NCBI GenBank database using BLAST. Also SNPs were characterized by, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD. Results: From all 5 collected Streptomyces somaliensis isolates, isolate G showed highest extracellular synthesis of SNPs via in vitro. SNPs were formed immediately by the addition of (AgNO3 solution (1 mM. UV-visible spectrophotometry for measuring surface plasmon resonance showed a single absorption peak at 450 nm, which confirmed the presence of SNPs. TEM revealed the extracellular formation of spherical silver nanoparticles in the size range of 5-35 nm. Conclusions: The biological approach for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles offers an environmentally benign alternative to the traditional chemical and physical synthesis methods. So, a simple, environmentally friendly and cost-effective method has been developed to synthesize AgNPs using Streptomycetes.

  5. Investigations of UV photolysis of PVP-capped silver nanoparticles in the presence and absence of dissolved organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poda, Aimee R.; Kennedy, Alan J.; Cuddy, Michael F.; Bednar, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of UV irradiation on the characteristics and toxicity of 50 nm (nominal diameter) polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the presence and absence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The photolysis resulted in a decrease in average particle size as measured by field flow fractionation interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The decrease in size was attributed to the photo-induced oxidation of the PVP and dissolution of metallic silver. Moreover, photolysis of the AgNPs in solutions containing DOC appeared to give rise to small nanoparticles (∼5 nm) formed via reduction of dissolved silver ions. These results were consistent with photolysis of AgNO 3 solutions initially devoid of nanoparticles. Thus, the carbon-containing constituents of DOC serve as reducing agents for Ag + , primarily under conditions of UV irradiation. The standard zooplankton model, Daphnia magna, indicated that the toxicity of nanosilver was significantly reduced when the AgNPs have been exposed to UV light. Observed toxicity was further reduced when AgNPs in DOC-containing solutions were exposed to UV. These results suggest that environmentally relevant conditions such as DOC and UV light are important mitigating factors that mediate the aquatic toxicity of AgNPs.

  6. Multifunctional silver nanoparticle-doped silica for solid-phase extraction and surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markina, Natalia E.; Markin, Alexey V.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.; Gorin, Dmitry A.; Rusanova, Tatiana Yu.; Goryacheva, Irina Yu.

    2016-12-01

    Multifunctional silica gel with embedded silver nanoparticles (SiO2-AgNP) is proposed for application as sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and simultaneously as substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) due to their high sorption properties and ability to enhance Raman signal (SERS-active sorbents). SiO2-AgNP was synthesized via alkaline hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate with simultaneous reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles (AgNP) within the SiO2 bulk. Synthesis of AgNP directly to the SiO2 matrix enables to exclude any additional stabilizers for the nanoparticles that educes signal-to-noise ratio during SERS measurement. Apart from Raman spectroscopy, obtained sorbents were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The influence of AgNO3 concentration used during the SiO2-AgNP synthesis on its gelling time, color, diffuse reflectance spectra, and enhancement of Raman signal was investigated. A Raman enhancement factor of SiO2-AgNP with optimal composition was around 105. Finally, the sorbents were applied for SPE and subsequent SERS detection of model compounds (rhodamine 6G and folic acid). It was found that SPE enables to decrease detectable concentrations by two orders. Therefore, SPE combined with SERS has high potential for further analytical investigations.

  7. Effect of Different Mediated Agents on Morphology and Crystallinity of Synthesized Silver Nanowires Prepared by Polyol Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Satoungar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of multiple crystalline silver nanowires (NWs with uniform diameters were carried out by using 1,2-propandiol and ethylene glycol (EG as comediated solvents and FeCl3 as mediated agent in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP. Experimental data and structural characterizations revealed that AgNWs have evolved from the multiple crystalline seeds initially generated by reduction of AgNO3 with EG and 1,2-propandiol followed by reducing Fe(III to Fe(II which in turn reacts with and removes adsorbed atomic oxygen from the surfaces of silver seeds. In addition, uniform silver nanowires were obtained by using FeCl2 and AlCl3 as mediated agents in EG solution. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed uniform nanowires in both diameter and length. UV-Vis spectra showed adsorption peaks confirming the formation of nanowires. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns displayed the final product with high crystallinity and purity. In this study, a growth mechanism for forming AgNWs was proposed and a comparison between different mediated agents was carried out.

  8. Structure and spectral properties of the silver-containing high-silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girsova, M A; Golovina, G F; Anfimova, I N; Antropova, T V; Arsent'ev, M Yu

    2016-01-01

    Silver-containing high-silica glasses were synthesized by an impregnation of the silica porous glasses (PGs) first with AgNO 3 aqueous solution (with or without the presence of the sensitizers, such as Cu(NO 3 ) 2 or Ce(NO 3 ) 3 ), next in the mixed halide salt (NH 4 Cl, KBr, KI) solution. Then some part of the samples was sintered at the temperatures from 850 to 900°C up to closing of the pores. The structure of glasses was studied by UV-VIS-NIR and IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. According to XRD data the silver-containing high-silica glasses contain the AgBr, AgI, Ag 3 PO 4 , (CuBr) 0.75 (CuI) 0.25 phases. IR spectra confirmed B-O-B, Si- O-Si, P-O-P, O-P-O, O-B-O bonds, (PO 4 ) 3- and P-O - groups in glasses. (paper)

  9. Eco-Friendly Phyto-Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Jatropha Seedcake Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Anjali; Keharia, Haresh; Deshpande, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Phytosynthesis of metal nanoparticles is gaining importance due to their biocompatibility, low toxicity and eco-friendly nature. In the present study, an aqueous extract of Jatropha seedcake (JSC) is assessed as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The maximum reduction of silver ions occur when 1 mM AgNO 3 solution is treated with 0.1 volume fraction of JSC extract in boiling water bath for 10 min. The synthesis of AgNPs is monitored by the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using UV-vis spectrophotometry. The AgNPs are found to be mono-dispersed, spherical with average particle size of 10.48 ± 74 nm when analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) ring pattern indicated the polycrystalline nature of the AgNPs. The x-ray diffraction data further confirm the presence of characteristic (111), (200), (220), (311) and (222) diffraction planes of face centered cubic structure, and the calculated lattice parameter comes out to be 4.083 Å. FTIR analysis reveals the involvement of proteins and phenols in reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNPs have significant antibacterial action on both the Gram positive and negative bacteria

  10. Polyol Synthesis of Silver Nanowires by Heterogeneous Nucleation and Mechanistic Aspects Influencing its Length and Diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, Waynie Mark

    Various additives are employed in the polyol synthesis of silver nanowires (Ag NWs), which are typically halide salts such as NaCl. A variety of mechanistic roles have been suggested for these additives. My research showed that the early addition of NaCl in the polyol synthesis of Ag NWs from AgNO3 in ethylene glycol results in the rapid formation of AgCl nanocubes, which induce the heterogeneous nucleation of metallic Ag upon their surfaces. Ag NWs subsequently grow from these nucleation sites. The conclusions are supported by studies using ex-situ generated AgCl nanocubes. Additionally, the final mean silver nanowire diameter is found to be independent of the size of the heterogeneous nucleant, showing that the diameter is not significantly influenced by the nucleation event. Kinetics studies determine that nanowire diameter, length, and aspect ratio grow in parallel to one another and with the extent of the Ag+ reduction reaction, demonstrating that growth is reduction-rate limited. The results are interpreted to support nanowire growth by a surface-catalyzed reduction process occurring on all nanowire surfaces, and to exclude nanoparticle aggregation or Ostwald ripening as primary components of the growth mechanism.

  11. Mechanistic antimicrobial approach of extracellularly synthesized silver nanoparticles against gram positive and gram negative bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamboli, Dhawal P.; Lee, Dae Sung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Bacterial extracelluar enzymes stabilized the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). • AgNPs formation was characterized by analytical techniques such as UV–vis, TEM, and FTIR. • AgNPs showed obvious antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative microorganisms. • A mechanism of AgNPs’ antimicrobial activity was proposed. -- Abstract: The development of eco-friendly and reliable processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest in nanotechnology. In this study, an extracellular enzyme system of a newly isolated microorganism, Exiguobacterium sp. KNU1, was used for the reduction of AgNO 3 solutions to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNPs were approximately 30 nm (range 5–50 nm) in size, well-dispersed and spherical. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on different gram negative and gram positive bacteria using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Reasonable antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed. The morphological changes occurred in all the microorganisms tested. In particular, E. coli exhibited DNA fragmentation after being treated with the AgNPs. Finally, the mechanism for their bactericidal activity was proposed according to the results of scanning electron microscopy and single cell gel electrophoresis

  12. Tuning the thermal diffusivity of silver based nanofluids by controlling nanoparticle aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agresti, Filippo; Barison, Simona; Battiston, Simone; Pagura, Cesare; Fabrizio, Monica; Colla, Laura; Fedele, Laura

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of preparing stable nanofluids for heat exchange applications and to study the effect of surfactant on the aggregation of nanoparticles and thermal diffusivity, stable silver colloids were synthesized in water by a green method, reducing AgNO 3 with fructose in the presence of poly-vinylpyrollidone (PVP) of various molecular weights. A silver nanopowder was precipitated from the colloids and re-dispersed at 4 vol% in deionized water. The Ag colloids were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, combined dynamic light scattering and ζ-potential measurements, and laser flash thermal diffusivity. The Ag nanopowders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. It was found that the molecular weight of PVP strongly affects the ζ-potential and the aggregation of nanoparticles, thereby affecting the thermal diffusivity of the obtained colloids. In particular, it was observed that on increasing the molecular weight of PVP the absolute value of the ζ-potential is reduced, leading to increased aggregation of nanoparticles. A clear relation was identified between thermal diffusivity and aggregation, showing higher thermal diffusivity for nanofluids having higher aggregation. A maximum improvement of thermal diffusivity by about 12% was found for nanofluids prepared with PVP having higher molecular weight. (paper)

  13. Antimicrobial activity of cream incorporated with silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marslin G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Marslin,1 Rajendran K Selvakesavan,1 Gregory Franklin,1 Bruno Sarmento,2,3 Alberto CP Dias11Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences (CITAB-UM, AgroBioPlant Group, Department of Biology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; 2Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica (INEB, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 3CESPU, Instituto Universitário de Ciências da Saúde, Gandra, PortugalAbstract: We report on the antimicrobial activity of a cream formulation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, biosynthesized using Withania somnifera extract. Aqueous extracts of leaves promoted efficient green synthesis of AgNPs compared to fruits and root extracts of W. somnifera. Biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized for their size and shape by physical-chemical techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. After confirming the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs, they were incorporated into a cream. Cream formulations of AgNPs and AgNO3 were prepared and compared for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans and a plant pathogen (Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Our results show that AgNP creams possess significantly higher antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.Keywords: Withania somnifera, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles cream, antimicrobial activity

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Prosopis juliflora bark extract: reaction optimization, antimicrobial and catalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Geeta; Kumari, R Mankamna; Gupta, Nidhi; Kumar, Ajeet; Chandra, Ramesh; Nimesh, Surendra

    2017-07-18

    In the present study, silver nanoparticles (PJB-AgNPs) have been biosynthesized employing Prosopis juliflora bark extract. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was monitored on UV-vis spectrophotometer. The size, charge and polydispersity index (PDI) of PJB-AgNPs were determined using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Different parameters dictating the size of PJB-AgNPs were explored. Nanoparticles biosynthesis optimization studies suggested efficient synthesis of highly dispersed PJB-AgNPs at 25 °C when 9.5 ml of 1 mM AgNO 3 was reduced with 0.5 ml of bark extract for 40 min. Characterization of PJB-AgNPs by SEM showed spherical-shaped nanoparticles with a size range ∼10-50 nm along with a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼55 nm as evaluated by DLS. Further, characterizations were done by FTIR and EDS to evaluate the functional groups and purity of PJB-AgNPs. The antibacterial potential of PJB-AgNPs was tested against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The PJB-AgNPs remarkably exhibited anticancer activity against A549 cell line as evidenced by Alamar blue assay. The dye degradation activity was also evaluated against 4-nitrophenol that has carcinogenic effect. The results thus obtained suggest application of PJB-AgNPs as antimicrobial, anticancer and catalytic agents.

  15. In vitro study of the antibacterial and anticancer activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Penicillium brevicompactum (MTCC-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Majeed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the most promising nanomaterials, metallic nanoparticles with antibacterial and antitumor properties are expected to open new avenues to fight and prevent various tumours and infectious diseases. The study of bactericidal nanomaterial is particularly timely considering the recent increase in new resistant strains of bacteria to the most potent antibiotics and the potential role of bactericidal nanomaterial as anticancer agents. This has promoted the research of the well-known activity of silver ions and silver-based compounds, including silver nanoparticles. The present work is the study of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Penicillium brevicompactum (MTCC-1999. The colour of the cell filtrate changes to dark brown upon addition of 1 mM AgNO3, suggesting the formation of silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were characterized and analyzed by UV–vis spectrophotometric analysis, which showed a peak of absorbance at 420 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis showed amines and amides that are responsible for the stabilization of AgNPs. To determine the particle size, atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis was used, which showed that the nanoparticles are spherical and are 30–50 nm in size. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM showed that AgNPs were well dispersed, spherical, and well within the range of 40–50 nm. These nanoparticles displayed good antibacterial activity and also increased the antibiotic activity of gatifloxacin, tetracycline, and vancomycin. These nanoparticles were further studied for their anticancer activity and showed high toxicity towards the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  16. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposites by chemical reduction method and their antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Shameli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kamyar Shameli1, Mansor Bin Ahmad1, Mohsen Zargar3, Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus1, Nor Azowa Ibrahim1, Parvaneh Shabanzadeh2, Mansour Ghaffari Moghaddam41Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Institute for Mathematical Research, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Qum, Iran; 4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zabol, Zabol, IranAbstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs of a small size were successfully synthesized using the wet chemical reduction method into the lamellar space layer of montmorillonite/chitosan (MMT/Cts as an organomodified mineral solid support in the absence of any heat treatment. AgNO3, MMT, Cts, and NaBH4 were used as the silver precursor, the solid support, the natural polymeric stabilizer, and the chemical reduction agent, respectively. MMT was suspended in aqueous AgNO3/Cts solution. The interlamellar space limits were changed (d-spacing = 1.24–1.54 nm; therefore, AgNPs formed on the interlayer and external surface of MMT/Cts with d-average = 6.28–9.84 nm diameter. Characterizations were done using different methods, ie, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposite (Ag/MMT/Cts BNC systems were examined. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs in MMT/Cts was investigated against Gram-positive bacteria, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria, ie, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the disc diffusion method using Mueller Hinton agar at different sizes of AgNPs. All of the synthesized Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs were found to have high antibacterial activity. These results show that Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs can be useful in different biological research and biomedical

  18. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  19. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using a probiotic Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 and their antibiofilm activity and toxicity effects in Ceriodaphnia cornuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, Sathappan; Jayaseelan, Barbanas David; Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Chih, Cheng Ta; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, we synthesized and characterized a probiotic Bacillus licheniformis cell free extract (BLCFE) coated silver nanoparticles (BLCFE-AgNPs). These BLCFE-AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometer, XRD, EDX, FTIR, TEM and AFM. A strong surface plasmon resonance centered at 422 nm in UV-visible spectrum indicates the formation of AgNPs. The XRD spectrum of silver nanoparticles exhibited 2θ values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal. TEM and AFM showed the AgNPs were spherical in shape within the range of 18.69-63.42 nm and the presence of silver was confirmed by EDX analysis. Light and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) images showed a weak adherence and disintegrated biofilm formation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dav1 treated with BLCFE-AgNPs compared to control. This result suggests that BLCFE-AgNps may be used for the control of biofilm forming bacterial populations in the biomedical field. In addition, acute toxicity results concluded that BLCFE-AgNPs were less toxic to the fresh water crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta (50 μg/ml) when compared to AgNO3 (22 μg/ml). This study also reports a short term analysis (24 h) of uptake and depuration of BLCFE-AgNPs in C. cornuta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrate accumulation in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingröver, Eveliene Geertruda

    1986-01-01

    Leafy vegetables, like spinach, may contain high concentrations of nitrate. In the Netherlands, about 75% of mean daily intake of nitrate orginates from the consumption of vegatables. Hazards to human health are associated with the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Acute nitrite poisoning causes

  1. Silver diamine fluoride: a caries "silver-fluoride bullet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, A; Stamford, T C M; Niederman, R

    2009-02-01

    The antimicrobial use of silver compounds pivots on the 100-year-old application of silver nitrate, silver foil, and silver sutures for the prevention and treatment of ocular, surgical, and dental infections. Ag(+) kills pathogenic organisms at concentrations of linings, water purification systems, hospital gowns, and caries prevention. To distill the current best evidence relative to caries, this systematic review asked: Will silver diamine fluoride (SDF) more effectively prevent caries than fluoride varnish? A five-database search, reference review, and hand search identified 99 human clinical trials in three languages published between 1966 and 2006. Dual review for controlled clinical trials with the patient as the unit of observation, and excluding cross-sectional, animal, in vitro studies, and opinions, identified 2 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The trials indicated that SDF's lowest prevented fractions for caries arrest and caries prevention were 96.1% and 70.3%, respectively. In contrast, fluoride varnish's highest prevented fractions for caries arrest and caries prevention were 21.3% and 55.7%, respectively. Similarly, SDF's highest numbers needed to treat for caries arrest and caries prevention were 0.8 (95% CI=0.5-1.0) and 0.9 (95% CI=0.4-1.1), respectively. For fluoride varnish, the lowest numbers needed to treat for caries arrest and prevention were 3.7 (95% CI=3.4-3.9) and 1.1 (95% CI=0.7-1.4), respectively. Adverse events were monitored, with no significant differences between control and experimental groups. These promising results suggest that SDF is more effective than fluoride varnish, and may be a valuable caries-preventive intervention. As well, the availability of a safe, effective, efficient, and equitable caries-preventive agent appears to meet the criteria of both the WHO Millennium Goals and the US Institute of Medicine's criteria for 21st century medical care.

  2. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: The reasons for and against Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moazeni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective(s: The enzymatic activity of fungi has recently inspired the scientists with re-explore the fungi as potential biofactories rather than the causing agents of humans and plants infections. In very recent years, fungi are considered as worthy, applicable and available candidates for synthesis of smaller gold, silver and other nano-sized particles. Materials and Methods: A standard strain of Aspergillus parasiticus was grown on a liquid medium containing mineral salt. The cell-free filtrate of the culture was then obtained and subjected to synthesize SNPs while expose with 1mM of AgNO 3. Further characterization of synthesized SNPs was performed afterward. In addition, antifungal activity of synthesized SNPs was evaluated against a standard strain of Candida albicans. The reduction of Ag+ ions to metal nanoparticles was investigated virtually by tracing the color of the solution which turned into reddish-brown after 72h. Results: The UV-vis spectra demonstrated a broad peak centering at 400nm which corresponds to the particle size much less than 70nm. The results of TEM demonstrated that the particles were formed fairly uniform, spherical, and small in size with almost 90% in 5-30nm range. The zeta potential of silver nanoparticles was negative and equal to -15.0 which meets the quality and suggested that there was not much aggression. Silver nanoparticles synthesized by A. parasiticus showed antifungal activity against yeast strain tested an d exhibited MIC value of 4 μg/mL. Conclusion: The filamentous fungus, A. parasiticus has successfully demonstrated potential for extra cellular synthesis of fairly monodispersed, tiny silver nanoparticles.

  3. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Dioscorea bulbifera tuber extract and evaluation of its synergistic potential in combination with antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sougata Ghosh1, Sumersing Patil1, Mehul Ahire1, Rohini Kitture2, Sangeeta Kale3, Karishma Pardesi4, Swaranjit S Cameotra5, Jayesh Bellare6, Dilip D Dhavale7, Amit Jabgunde7, Balu A Chopade11Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, University of Pune, Pune, 2Department of Electronic Science, Fergusson College, Pune, 3Department of Applied Physics, Defense Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar, Pune, 4Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, 5Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, 6Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, 7Garware Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune, IndiaBackground: Development of an environmentally benign process for the synthesis of silver nanomaterials is an important aspect of current nanotechnology research. Among the 600 species of the genus Dioscorea, Dioscorea bulbifera has profound therapeutic applications due to its unique phytochemistry. In this paper, we report on the rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles by reduction of aqueous Ag+ ions using D. bulbifera tuber extract.Methods and results: Phytochemical analysis revealed that D. bulbifera tuber extract is rich in flavonoid, phenolics, reducing sugars, starch, diosgenin, ascorbic acid, and citric acid. The biosynthesis process was quite fast, and silver nanoparticles were formed within 5 hours. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction confirmed reduction of the Ag+ ions. Varied morphology of the bioreduced silver nanoparticles included spheres, triangles, and hexagons. Optimization studies revealed that the maximum rate of synthesis could be achieved with 0.7 mM AgNO3 solution at 50°C in 5 hours. The resulting silver nanoparticles were found to possess potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram

  4. Russell-Silver syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver-Russell syndrome; Silver syndrome; RSS; Russell-Silver syndrome ... One in 10 children with this syndrome has a problem involving chromosome 7. In other people with the syndrome, it may affect chromosome 11. Most of the time, it ...

  5. Do nitrates differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, H.-L.

    1992-01-01

    1 The organic nitrates all share a common biochemical and physiological mechanism of action. 2 The organic nitrates differ substantially in their pharmacologic potency and pharmacokinetics. In vitro potency differences appear larger than the corresponding in vivo activities. 3 The duration of action of organic nitrates, after a single immediate-release dose, is governed by the pharmacokinetics of the drug. However, the duration of action of available sustained-release preparations, whatever the nitrate or formulation, is limited to about 12 h, due to the development of pharmacologic tolerance. 4 Nitrates do not appear to differ in their production of undesirable effects. PMID:1633079

  6. Nitrate pollution of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Concern about the possible health risks associated with the consumption of nitrate has led many countries, including South Africa, to propose that 10mg of nitrogen (as nitrate or nitrite) per liter should be the maximum allowable limit for domestic water supplies. Groundwater in certain parts of South Africa and Namibia contains nitrate in concentrations which exceed this limit. The CSIR's Natural Isotope Division has been studying the nitrogen isotope composition of the nitrate as an aid to investigation into the sources of this nitrate contamination

  7. Endophytic synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles from Penicillium sp. of Calophyllum apetalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrappa, C. P.; Govindappa, M.; Chandrasekar, N.; Sarkar, Sonia; Ooha, Sepuri; Channabasava, R.

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, Penicillium species extract isolated from Calophyllum apetalum was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and it was confirmed by changing the color of the silver nitrate UV-Vis spectrum. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by biophysical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction.

  8. Sweet Nanochemistry: A Fast, Reliable Alternative Synthesis of Yellow Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles Using Benign Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jason; Hebert, Dominique; Kelly, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a convenient and reliable laboratory experiment in nanochemistry that is flexible and adaptable to a wide range of educational settings. The rapid preparation of yellow colloidal silver nanoparticles is achieved by glucose reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of starch and sodium citrate in gently boiling water, using…

  9. Biological synthesis of very small silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia: The effects of visible-light irradiation and the liquid mixing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Narges; Daneshpajouh, Shahram; Seyedbagheri, Seyedali; Atashdehghan, Reza; Abdi, Khosro; Sarkar, Saeed; Minaian, Sara; Shahverdi, Hamid Reza; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2009-01-01

    This study has investigated different visible-light irradiation's effect on the formation of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate using the culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia. Our study shows that visible-light emission can significantly prompt the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Also, the study experimentally investigated the liquid mixing process effect on silver nanoparticle synthesis by visible-light irradiation. This study successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed silver nanoparticles with a uniform size and shape in the range of 1-6 nm with an average size of 3 nm. Furthermore, the study investigated the mechanism of the reduction of silver ions by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia, and used X-ray diffraction to characterize silver chloride as an intermediate compound. Silver chloride was prepared synthetically and used as a substrate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia. The silver nanoparticles have been prepared from silver chloride during this investigation for the first time.

  10. Biological synthesis of very small silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia: The effects of visible-light irradiation and the liquid mixing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Narges [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daneshpajouh, Shahram; Seyedbagheri, Seyedali; Atashdehghan, Reza [Hydrometallurgy Research Unit, Research and Development Center, National Iranian Copper Industries Company, Sarcheshmeh, Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Khosro [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarkar, Saeed [Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Minaian, Sara [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Hamid Reza [Department of Material Science, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza, E-mail: shahverd@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-06-03

    This study has investigated different visible-light irradiation's effect on the formation of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate using the culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia. Our study shows that visible-light emission can significantly prompt the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Also, the study experimentally investigated the liquid mixing process effect on silver nanoparticle synthesis by visible-light irradiation. This study successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed silver nanoparticles with a uniform size and shape in the range of 1-6 nm with an average size of 3 nm. Furthermore, the study investigated the mechanism of the reduction of silver ions by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia, and used X-ray diffraction to characterize silver chloride as an intermediate compound. Silver chloride was prepared synthetically and used as a substrate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia. The silver nanoparticles have been prepared from silver chloride during this investigation for the first time.

  11. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  12. Synthesis of silver nanowires using hydrothermal technique for flexible transparent electrode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijila, C. V. Mary; Rahman, K. K. Arsina; Parvathy, N. S.; Jayaraj, M. K., E-mail: mkj@cusat.ac.in [Nanophotonic and Optoelectronic Division, Dept. of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala (India)

    2016-05-23

    Transparent conducting films are becoming increasingly interesting because of their applications in electronics industry such as their use in solar energy applications. In this work silver nanowires were synthesized using solvothermal method by reducing silver nitrate and adding sodium chloride for assembling silver into nanowires. Absorption spectra of nanowires in the form of a dispersion in deionized water, AFM and SEM images confirm the nanowire formation. Solution of nanowire was coated over PET films to obtain transparent conducting films.

  13. Towards conducting inks: Polypyrrole–silver colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omastová, Mária; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Peřinka, Nikola; Kaplanová, Marie; Syrový, Tomáš; Hromádková, Jiřina; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Composite colloidal particles combining conducting polymer and metal have been prepared. • Conducting colloids are suitable for printing applications. • Polypyrrole/silver colloids are prepared in a single reaction step. • The conductivity control is discussed and still needs improvement. - Abstract: The oxidation of pyrrole with silver nitrate in the presence of suitable water-soluble polymers yields composite polypyrrole–silver colloids. The polypyrrole–silver nanoparticles stabilized with poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) have a typical size around 350 nm and polydispersity index 0.20, i.e. a moderate polydispersity in size. Similar results have been obtained with poly(vinyl alcohol) as stabilizer. The effect of stabilizer concentration on the particle size is marginal. In the present study, several types of stabilizers have been tested in addition to currently used poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). Transmission electron microscopy and optical microscopy revealed the gemini morphology of polypyrrole and silver colloidal nanoparticles and confirmed their size and size-distribution determined by dynamic light scattering. The use of colloidal dispersions provides an efficient tool for the UV–vis and FT Raman spectroscopic characterization of polypyrrole, including the transition between polypyrrole salt and corresponding polypyrrole base. The dispersions were used for the preparation of coatings on polyethylene terephthalate foils, and the properties for polypyrrole–silver composites have been compared with those produced from polypyrrole colloids alone

  14. Extracellular Production of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Three Common Species of Dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazeni, M.; Rashidi, N.; Shahverdi, Ahmad R.; Noorbakhsh, F.; Rezaie, S.

    2012-01-01

    To develop a new green approach for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, myconanotechnology has been represented as a novel field of study in nano technology. In this study, we have reported the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using three species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Methods: Clinical strains of these species were grown in a liquid medium containing mineral salt and incubated at 25 d egree C for 5-7 days. The cell-free filtrate of each culture was obtained and subjected to synthesize silver nanoparticles in the presence of 1 m M AgNO 3 . Results: The reduction of Ag + ions in metal nanoparticles was investigated virtually by tracing the solution color which was switched into reddish-light brown after 72 h. For T. mentagrophytes, a UV-visible spectra demonstrating a strong, quite narrow peak located between 422 and 425 nm was obtained. For M. canis, a fairly wide peak centering at 441 nm and for T. rubrum, a weak spectrum to decipher were observed. According to transmission electron microscopy results, fairly uniform, spherical, and small in size with almost less than 50 nm particles were forms in case of T. mentagrophytes. For the other two species, transmission electron microscopy images showed existence of small spherical nano silvers but not as small as nanoparticles synthesized by T. mentagrophytes. Conclusion: We observed that species belong to a single genus of the fungi have variable ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles extracellulary with different efficiency. Furthermore, the extracellular synthesis may make the process simpler and easier for following processes.

  15. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles against bacteria, yeast, and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorobantu, Loredana S., E-mail: loredana@ualberta.ca; Fallone, Clara [University of Alberta, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (Canada); Noble, Adam J. [Trent University, Department of Biology (Canada); Veinot, Jonathan; Ma, Guibin [University of Alberta, Department of Chemistry (Canada); Goss, Greg G. [University of Alberta, Department of Biological Sciences (Canada); Burrell, Robert E. [University of Alberta, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    The toxicity mechanism employed by silver nanoparticles against microorganisms has captivated scientists for nearly a decade and remains a debatable issue. The question most frequently asked is whether silver nanoparticles exert specific effects on microorganisms beyond the well-documented antimicrobial activity of Ag{sup +}. Here, we study the effects of citrate- (d = 17.5 ± 9.4 nm) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (d = 38.8 ± 3.6 nm)-capped silver nanoparticles on microorganisms belonging to various genera. The antimicrobial effect of Ag{sup +} was distinguished from that of nanosilver by monitoring microbial growth in the presence and absence of nanoparticles and by careful comparison of the responses of equimolar silver nitrate solution. The results show that when using equimolar silver solutions, silver nitrate has higher toxic potential on all microorganisms than both nanoparticles tested. Furthermore, some microorganisms are more susceptible to silver than others and the choice of capping agent is relevant in the toxicity. Atomic force microscopy disclosed that AgNO{sub 3} had a destructive effect on algae. The antimicrobial activity of nanosilver could be exploited to prevent microbial colonization of medical devices and to determine the fate of nanoparticles in the environment.

  16. Antimicrobial Bacterial Cellulose-Silver Nanoparticles Composite Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernane S. Barud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial bacterial cellulose-silver nanoparticles composite membranes have been obtained by “in situ” preparation of Ag nanoparticles from hydrolytic decomposition of silver nitrate solution using triethanolamine as reducing and complexing agent. The formation of silver nanoparticles was evidenced by the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and absorption in the UV-Visible (350 nm to 600 nm. Thermal and mechanical properties together with swelling behavior for water were considered. TEA concentration was observed to be important in order to obtain only Ag particles and not a mixture of silver oxides. It was also observed to control particle size and amount of silver contents in bacterial cellulose. The composite membranes exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  17. Hyaluronan- and heparin-reduced silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Melissa M; Kumar, Ashavani; Clement, Dylan; Ajayan, Pulickel; Mousa, Shaker

    2009-01-01

    Aims Silver nanoparticles exhibit unique antibacterial properties that make these ideal candidates for biological and medical applications. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare silver nanoparticles that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Materials & methods These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate with diaminopyridinylated heparin (DAPHP) and hyaluronan (HA) polysaccharides and tested for their efficacy in inhibiting microbial growth. Results & discussion The resulting silver nanoparticles exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and modest activity against Escherichia coli. Silver–HA showed greater antimicrobial activity than silver–DAPHP, while silver–glucose nanoparticles exhibited very weak antimicrobial activity. Neither HA nor DAPHP showed activity against S. aureus or E. coli. Conclusion These results suggest that DAPHP and HA silver nanoparticles have potential in antimicrobial therapeutic applications. PMID:19505245

  18. Microstructural, spectroscopic, and antibacterial properties of silver-based hybrid nanostructures biosynthesized using extracts of coriander leaves and seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Luna,1 Enrique Díaz Barriga-Castro,2 Alberto Gómez-Treviño,3 Nuria O Núñez,4 Raquel Mendoza-Reséndez1 1Research Center of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; 2Central Laboratory of Analytical Instrumentation, Research Center for Applied Chemistry, Coahuila, Mexico; 3Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; 4Colloidal Materials Research Group, Institute of Materials Science of Seville, Spanish National Research Council, University of Seville, Seville, Spain Abstract: Coriander leaves and seeds have been highly appreciated since ancient times, not only due to their pleasant flavors but also due to their inhibitory activity on food degradation and their beneficial properties for health, both ascribed to their strong antioxidant activity. Recently, it has been shown that coriander leaf extracts can mediate the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles through oxidation/reduction reactions. In the present study, extracts of coriander leaves and seeds have been used as reaction media for the wet chemical synthesis of ultrafine silver nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters, with urchin- and tree-like shapes, coated by biomolecules (mainly, proteins and polyphenols. In this greener route of nanostructure preparation, the active biocompounds of coriander simultaneously play the roles of reducing and stabilizing agents. The morphological and microstructural studies of the resulting biosynthesized silver nanostructures revealed that the nanostructures prepared with a small concentration of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =5 mM exhibit an ultrafine size and a narrow size distribution, whereas particles synthesized with high concentrations of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =0.5 M are polydisperse and formation of supramolecular structures occurs. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy

  19. Antimicrobial potentials of silver colloidal (nanorods) on clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries has long been an issue of major concern. Nanotechnology has become an eye opener for the intervention on multiple drug resistance organisms. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial potentials of Silver Nitrate (nanorods) solution used in managing infectious ...

  20. Antibacterial Behavior of Additively Manufactured Porous Titanium with Nanotubular Surfaces Releasing Silver Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Yavari, S; Loozen, L; Paganelli, F L; Bakhshandeh, S; Lietaert, K; Groot, J A; Fluit, A C; Boel, C H E; Alblas, J; Vogely, H C; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-07-13

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has enabled fabrication of geometrically complex and fully interconnected porous biomaterials with huge surface areas that could be used for biofunctionalization to achieve multifunctional biomaterials. Covering the huge surface area of such porous titanium with nanotubes has been already shown to result in improved bone regeneration performance and implant fixation. In this study, we loaded TiO2 nanotubes with silver antimicrobial agents to equip them with an additional biofunctionality, i.e., antimicrobial behavior. An optimized anodizing protocol was used to create nanotubes on the entire surface area of direct metal printed porous titanium scaffolds. The nanotubes were then loaded by soaking them in three different concentrations (i.e., 0.02, 0.1, and 0.5 M) of AgNO3 solution. The antimicrobial behavior and cell viability of the developed biomaterials were assessed. As far as the early time points (i.e., up to 1 day) are concerned, the biomaterials were found to be extremely effective in preventing biofilm formation and decreasing the number of planktonic bacteria particularly for the middle and high concentrations of silver ions. Interestingly, nanotubes not loaded with antimicrobial agents also showed significantly smaller numbers of adherent bacteria at day 1, which may be attributed to the bactericidal effect of high aspect ratio nanotopographies. The specimens with the highest concentrations of antimicrobial agents adversely affected cell viability at day 1, but this effect is expected to decrease or disappear in the following days as the rate of release of silver ions was observed to markedly decrease within the next few days. The antimicrobial effects of the biomaterials, particularly the ones with the middle and high concentrations of antimicrobial agents, continued until 2 weeks. The potency of the developed biomaterials in decreasing the number of planktonic bacteria and hindering the formation of biofilms make

  1. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pimpinella anisum L. Seed Aqueous Extract and Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Akhlaghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum was used for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by bio reduction of an aqueous solution of silver nitrate. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX. The increase in absorption at 420 nm was used for recording the formation of a colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles. The binding properties of the capped Ag nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extract of P. anisum were analyzed by FTIR. XRD studies revealed that most of the nanoparticles were cubic and face centered cubic in shape. SEM analysis showed the size and shape of silver nanoparticles and EDAX confirmed the presence of silver. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed DPPH free radical scavenging activity.

  2. Ammonium ion interaction with conditioned natural zeolite with silver and its effect on the disinfection of polluted water in front of a consortium of gram (+) and gram (-) microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga G, V. E.

    2013-01-01

    Clinoptilolite zeolite material is a relative abundance in Mexico, which has ion exchange properties, therefore, has the ability to retain metal ions giving it an application in the process of disinfecting of water contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. In this research, we conducted a study of disinfection of water contaminated with a microbial consortium, from a zeolite rock clinoptilolite from a deposit located in the State of Guerrero. Initially, the zeolite prepared by the grinding and sieving, for conditioning with NaCl and subsequently with AgNO 3 , finally to be characterized using the techniques of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Tests using columns packed with zeolite material, the effect of zeolite bactericidal conditioned with silver (ZGAg) against a microbial consortium consisting of Escherichia coli and Sthapyloccocus aureus in aqueous solution in the presence of ammonium ions used to increase the ion exchange with zeolite fitted with silver. To describe curves disinfecting a continuous flow system is adapted Gu pta model, which describes the kinetics and equilibrium adsorption process, considering the microorganisms as the adsorbate and the sanitizing agent (conditioned with silver zeolite) as the adsorbent. Characterization results show that in the scanning electron microscopy (Sem), no changes were obtained on the morphology of typical clinoptilolite crystals before and after that was modified with sodium and then with silver, it is worth mentioning however that fitted with silver zeolite (ZGAg), small particles are seen on the zeolite material which when analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), we found a high concentration of Ag +. The disinfection period is increased as the concentration increased ammonium ions, this behavior is attributed to the ion exchange that occurs between the ammonium ions and silver ions. A lower percentage of inactivation is due, therefore, to a lesser amount of money available to be

  3. Structural behaviour of AgNO3 at low temperatures by neutron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [4] F El-Kabbany, Y Badr, G Said and S Taha, Appl. Phys. A43, 65 (1987). [5] Z Shen, W F Sherman and G R Wilkinson, J. Mol. Struct. 175, 395 (1988). [6] R Rodriguez-Carvajal, FULLPROF: A Program for Rietveld Refinement, profile matching and integrated intensity, version 3.1 (LLB, France) (1995). [7] R Feyerherm, M F ...

  4. Biofabrication of gold and silver nanoparticles for pharmaceutical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Barabadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofabrication by using fungi is an exciting recent interest to develop an eco-friendly production of metallic nanoparticles (NPs for pharmaceutical applications. This study aimed to synthesize and characterize gold (Au and silver (Ag NPs by using Penicillium simplisimum. The fungus was grown in fluid czapek dox broth on shaker at 28 ºC and 200 rpm for ten days. Then the supernatant was separated from the mycelia to convert HAuCl4 and AgNO3 solution into Au and Ag NPs separately. After 24 hours, synthesized Au and Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-Visible Spectroscopy as well as Photon Correlation spectroscopy (PCS involves Polydispersity Index (PDI and zeta potential. The UV-Visible Spectroscopy analysis revealed a plasmon bond peak around 533 nm and 400 nm suggesting formation of Au and Ag NPs, respectively. Furthermore, the PCS analysis showed an average diameter of 68 nm and 76 nm with PDI value of 0.2 and 0.23 for Au and Ag NPs, successively, which demonstrated that the nanoparticles formed with fairly well-defined dimensions and good monodispersity. Besides, a negative zeta potential were found for nanoparticles indicating their stability in the solution. The current approach suggests that the rapid synthesis of nanoparticles would be suitable for developing a green process for mass scale production. Besides, we believe that development of eco-friendly process for the formulation of metallic NPs is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology and its optimization may make it a potential procedure for industrial production of NPs.

  5. Cloning and nitrate induction of nitrate reductase mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Dewdney, Julia; Kleinhofs, Andris; Goodman, Howard M.

    1986-01-01

    Nitrate is the major source of nitrogen taken from the soil by higher plants but requires reduction to ammonia prior to incorporation into amino acids. The first enzyme in the reducing pathway is a nitrate-inducible enzyme, nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1). A specific polyclonal antiserum raised against purified barley nitrate reductase has been used to immunoprecipitate in vivo labeled protein and in vitro translation products, demonstrating that nitrate induction increases nitrate reductase p...

  6. A historical review of the use of silver in the treatment of burns. II. Renewed interest for silver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klasen, HJ

    In 1965, Moyer revived interest in silver nitrate solution. He concluded on the basis on in vitro and in vivo studies that a 0.5% solution represented the lowest concentration at which antibacterial action (against Staphylococcus aureus, haemolytic streptococci and generally against Pseudomonas

  7. Preconcentration of silver as silver xanthate on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadevi, P.; Naidu, U.V.; Naidu, G.R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Silver from aqueous solution was preconcentrated by adsorption on activated carbon as silver xanthate. Factors influencing the adsorption of silver were studied. Optimum conditions for the preconcentration of silver were established. (author) 9 refs.; 3 tabs

  8. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  9. Nitrate leaching index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  10. Effets of Silver Salt Concentrations on Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using the Plant Nigella Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Saeri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of a novel method, using leaves of the plant Nigella sativa. After drying the leaves in air, they were first sweltered in boiling distilled water and the liquid was filtered subsequently. The result was the brothused to reduce solutions including various concentrations of silver nitrate in a proper amount of pH. The displayed UV–visible spectra identified formation of silver nanoparticles whenever the colorless initial acclimated mixture turned brown. The centrifuged powder samples were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction analysis (EDX methods. The results clearly revealed that the final particles of precipitated powder are high purity agglomerates of silver nanoparticles. Besides, the effects of various amounts of the silver salt on particle size of nano silver were studied, using a particle size analyzer. FTIR results also indicated the role of different functional groups in the synthetic process.

  11. Accumulation of silver from drinking water into cerebellum and musculus soleus in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelkonen, Kai H.O.; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Haenninen, Osmo O.P.

    2003-01-01

    In spite of the general toxicity, ecotoxicity and sparsely known metabolism of silver, WHO allows silver ions (Ag) up to 0.1 mg/l in drinking water disinfection. In order to determine the accumulation and distribution of silver in a mammalian body, mice were given for 1 and 2 weeks drinking water containing a 3-fold lower concentration, namely 0.03 mg/l silver ions as silver nitrate labelled with 110m Ag. The silver concentrations in different tissues were analysed by gamma radioactivity. The saturation of tissues with silver seems to occur quickly, as there were no statistical differences between silver contents of mice tissues in spite of the study design that mice were administered silver for 1 or 2 weeks. The highest concentrations were found in musculus soleus (m. soleus), cerebellum, spleen, duodenum, and myocardial muscle in the rank order. Concentrations of silver in musculus gastrocnemius (m. gastrocnemius) were found to correlate negatively with cerebrum and positively with blood and kidneys. The accumulation of silver into organs and tissues important in motor functions may be of relevance especially in emergency and catastrophe situations in which accurate motor functions may be critical. A re-evaluation of the present recommendations on the use of silver salts for disinfection of drinking water might be necessary

  12. Optimization of Parameters for Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Aegle marmelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JohnSamuel Godwin Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to optimize the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves ofAegle marmelos as the primary source. The optimal reaction medium comprised 2:1 concentration of leaf extract and 6mM concentration of silver nitrate solution (pH 7. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy at 420 nm, XRD and FTIR analysis. The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles were confirmed withBacillus subtilis andPseudomonas aeruginosa.

  13. Facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by polyacrylamide-reduction approach to antibacterial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaheldin, Hosam I; Almalki, Meshal H K; Hezma, Abd Elhameed M; Osman, Gamal E H

    2017-06-01

    The current time increase in the prevalence of antibiotic resistant 'super-bugs' and the risks associated with food safety have become global issues. Therefore, further research is warranted to identify new and effective antimicrobial substances. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized by autoclaving technique using, different concentrations of Ag salt (AgNO 3 ) solution (1, 5, 10, and 25 mM). Their presence was confirmed by a surface plasmon resonance band at ∼435 nm using UV-Vis absorption spectra. The morphology of the synthesized Ag-NPs stabilized by polyacrylamide (PAM) was examined by TEM, SAED, and EDS. TEM images revealed that the synthesized Ag-NPs had an average diameter of 2.98±0.08 nm and SAED and EDS results confirmed the formation of Ag-NPs. In addition, FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that a PAM polymer matrix stabilized the Ag-NPs. The well diffusion method, was used to test, Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were examined. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were studied against Ag-NPs. The Ag-NPs exhibited strong inhibitory activity, MIC and MBC against the tested clinical bacterial isolates. These results suggest that Ag-NPs stabilized in PAM are highly effective against clinical bacterial isolates can be applied in medical fields.

  14. Tip-Selective Growth of Silver on Gold Nanostars for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqing; Liu, Jie; Niu, Wenxin; Yan, Heng; Lu, Xianmao; Liu, Bin

    2018-04-19

    Nanogaps as "hot spots" with highly localized surface plasmon can generate ultrastrong electromagnetic fields. Superior to the exterior nanogaps obtained via aggregation and self-assembly, interior nanogaps within Au and Ag nanostructures give stable and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. However, the synthesis of nanostructures with interior hot spots is still challenging because of the lack of high-yield strategies and clear design principles. Herein, gold-silver nanoclusters (Au-Ag NCs) with multiple interior hot spots were fabricated as SERS platforms via selective growth of Ag nanoparticles on the tips of Au nanostars (Au NSs). Furthermore, the interior gap sizes of Au-Ag NCs can be facilely tuned by changing the amount of AgNO 3 used. Upon 785 nm excitation, single Au-Ag NC 350 exhibits 43-fold larger SERS enhancement factor and the optimal signal reproducibility relative to single Au NS. The SERS enhancement factors and signal reproducibility of Au-Ag NCs increase with the decrease of gap sizes. Collectively, the Au-Ag NCs could serve as a flexible, reproducible, and active platform for SERS investigation.

  15. Linseed hydrogel-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial and wound-dressing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Muhammad Tahir; Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Abbas, Khawar; Youssif, Bahaa Gm; Bashir, Sajid; Yuk, Soon Hong; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Polysaccharides are being extensively employed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) having diverse morphology and applications. Herein, we present a novel and green synthesis of Ag NPs without using any physical reaction conditions. Linseed hydrogel (LSH) was used as a template to reduce Ag + to Ag 0 . AgNO 3 (10, 20, and 30 mmol) solutions were mixed with LSH suspension in deionized water and exposed to diffused sunlight. Reaction was monitored by noting the change in the color of reaction mixture up to 10 h. Ag NPs showed characteristic ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) absorptions from 410 to 437 nm in the case of sunlight and 397-410 nm in the case of temperature study. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed the formation of spherical Ag NPs in the range of 10-35 nm. Face-centered cubic array of Ag NPs was confirmed by characteristic diffraction peaks in powder X-ray diffraction spectrum. Ag NPs were stored in LSH thin films, and UV/Vis spectra recorded after 6 months indicated that Ag NPs retained their texture over the storage period. Significant antimicrobial activity was observed when microbial cultures (bacteria and fungi) were exposed to the synthesized Ag NPs. Wound-healing studies revealed that Ag NP-impregnated LSH thin films could have potential applications as an antimicrobial dressing in wound management procedures.

  16. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitha, B; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y; Sreedhara Reddy, P

    2014-07-15

    This study reports the simple green synthesis method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract. The pathway of nanoparticles formation is by means of reduction of AgNO3 by leaf extract, which acts as both reducing and capping agents. Synthesized Ag NPs were subjected to different characterizations for studying the structural, chemical, morphological, optical and antimicrobial properties. The bright circular fringes in SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile reveals high crystalline nature of biosynthesized Ag NPs. Morphological studies shows the formation of nearly spherical nanoparticles. FTIR spectrum confirms the existence of various functional groups of biomolecules capping the nanoparticles. UV-visible spectrum displays single SPR band at 428 nm indicating the absence of anisotropic particles. The synthesized Ag NPs exhibited better antimicrobial property towards gram negative Escherichia coli and towards tested Penicillium spp. than other tested microorganisms using disc diffusion method. Finally it has proven that the synthesized bio-inspired Ag NPs have potent antimicrobial effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optical properties and extinction spectroscopy to characterize the synthesis of amine capped silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan, Maria Virginia; Scaffardi, Lucia B.; Sanctis, Oscar de; Pellegri, Nora

    2008-01-01

    The present work describes a method for preparation of Ag nanoparticles from chemical reduction of AgNO 3 in ethanol with ATS [N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] diethylenetriamine] as surface modifier. We study the influence of different parameters such as concentration, time, temperature and reductor agents on the size and shape of the nanoparticles. We present the morphologic and structural characterization of samples by UV-vis extinction spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particularly, using optical extinction spectroscopy, the present work shows the analysis of size evolution in the fabrication process of spherical silver nanoparticles. This evolution is studied as a function of the time elapsed between the beginning of the reaction and the extraction of the sample (temporal delayed synthesis), and as a function of the temperature during the chemical reaction. In both the cases, we propose the study of the plasmon width as a useful, simple and inexpensive method for analysis of the mean radius, specially, for values below 6 nm

  18. Controlling silver nanoparticle exposure in algal toxicity testing - A matter of timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    ) in a standard algal growth inhibition test (ISO 8692:2004) for 48 h and a short-term (2 h) 14C-assimilation test. For AgNO3, similar responses were obtained in the two tests, whereas freshly prepared suspensions of citrate stabilized AgNPs were less toxic in the 2-h tests compared to the 48-h tests. The 2-h...... test was found applicable for dissolved silver, but yielded non-monotonous concentration–response relationships and poor reproducibility for freshly prepared AgNP suspensions. However, when aging AgNPs in algal medium 24 h prior to testing, clear concentration–response patterns emerged...... and reproducibility increased. Prolonged aging to 48 h increased toxicity in the 2-h tests whereas aging beyond 48 h reduced toxicity. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of algal toxicity testing of AgNPs is highly influenced not only by the test duration, but also by the time passed from the moment Ag...

  19. Impacts of select organic ligands on the colloidal stability, dissolution dynamics, and toxicity of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Lok R; Dubey, Brajesh; Scheuerman, Phillip R

    2013-11-19

    Key understanding of potential transformations that may occur on silver nanoparticle (AgNP) surface upon interaction with naturally ubiquitous organic ligands (e.g., -SH (thoil), humic acid, or -COO (carboxylate)) is limited. Herein we investigated how dissolved organic carbon (DOC), -SH (in cysteine, a well-known Ag(+) chelating agent), and -COO (in trolox, a well-known antioxidant) could alter the colloidal stability, dissolution rate, and toxicity of citrate-functionalized AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs) against a keystone crustacean Daphnia magna. Cysteine, DOC, or trolox amendment of citrate-AgNPs differentially modified particle size, surface properties (charge, plasmonic spectra), and ion release dynamics, thereby attenuating (with cysteine or trolox) or promoting (with DOC) AgNP toxicity. Except with DOC amendment, the combined toxicity of AgNPs and released Ag under cysteine or trolox amendment was lower than of AgNO3 alone. The results of this study show that citrate-AgNP toxicity can be associated with oxidative stress, ion release, and the organism biology. Our evidence suggests that specific organic ligands available in the receiving waters can differentially surface modify AgNPs and alter their environmental persistence (changing dissolution dynamics) and subsequently the toxicity; hence, we caveat to generalize that surface modified nanoparticles upon environmental release may not be toxic to receptor organisms.

  20. Fabrication and evolution of multilayer silver nanofilms for surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensing of arsenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS has recently been investigated extensively for chemical and biomolecular sensing. Multilayer silver (Ag nanofilms deposited on glass slides by a simple electroless deposition process have been fabricated as active substrates (Ag/GL substrates for arsenate SERS sensing. The nanostructures and layer characteristics of the multilayer Ag films could be tuned by varying the concentrations of reactants (AgNO3/BuNH2 and reaction time. A Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs double-layer was formed by directly reducing Ag+ ions on the glass surfaces, while a top layer (3rd-layer of Ag dendrites was deposited on the double-layer by self-assembling AgNPs or AgNPs aggregates which had already formed in the suspension. The SERS spectra of arsenate showed that characteristic SERS bands of arsenate appear at approximately 780 and 420 cm-1, and the former possesses higher SERS intensity. By comparing the peak heights of the approximately 780 cm-1 band of the SERS spectra, the optimal Ag/GL substrate has been obtained for the most sensitive SERS sensing of arsenate. Using this optimal substrate, the limit of detection (LOD of arsenate was determined to be approximately 5 μg·l-1.

  1. Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their catalytic activity towards degradation of methyl orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjari Mishra, Pravat; Bihari Pani, Khirod

    2017-11-01

    This paper described the significant effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, substrate concentration, reaction pH and reaction temperature on the size, morphology and yield of the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of a medicinal plant Momordica charantia (Bitter guard). By means of UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD analysis, TEM analysis and Fluorescence analysis, it is observed that the reaction solution containing 10-3 M of AgNO3 of pH 5.3  +  10 ml of aqueous leaf extract at normal room temperature, was optimum for synthesis of stable, polydisperse, predominantly spherical AgNPs with average size of 12.15 nm. FT-IR and TEM studies confirmed the stability of AgNPs was due to the capping of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract. The aqueous solution of leaf extract containing AgNPs showed remarkable catalytic activity towards degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous medium.

  2. Escherichia coli under Ionic Silver Stress: An Integrative Approach to Explore Transcriptional, Physiological and Biochemical Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Saulou-Bérion

    Full Text Available For a better understanding of the systemic effect of sub-lethal micromolar concentrations of ionic silver on Escherichia coli, we performed a multi-level characterization of cells under Ag+-mediated stress using an integrative biology approach combining physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic data. Physiological parameters, namely bacterial growth and survival after Ag+ exposure, were first quantified and related to the accumulation of intracellular silver, probed for the first time by nano secondary ion mass spectroscopy at sub-micrometer lateral resolution. Modifications in E. coli biochemical composition were evaluated under Ag+-mediated stress by in situ synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and a comprehensive transcriptome response was also determined. Using multivariate statistics, correlations between the physiological parameters, the extracellular concentration of AgNO3 and the intracellular silver content, gene expression profiles and micro-spectroscopic data were investigated. We identified Ag+-dependent regulation of gene expression required for growth (e.g. transporter genes, transcriptional regulators, ribosomal proteins, for ionic silver transport and detoxification (e.g. copA, cueO, mgtA, nhaR and for coping with various types of stress (dnaK, pspA, metA,R, oxidoreductase genes. The silver-induced shortening of the acyl chain of fatty acids, mostly encountered in cell membrane, was highlighted by microspectroscopy and correlated with the down-regulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport (fadL and synthesis/modification of lipid A (lpxA and arnA. The increase in the disordered secondary structure of proteins in the presence of Ag+ was assessed through the conformational shift shown for amides I and II, and further correlated with the up-regulated expression of peptidase (hfq and chaperone (dnaJ, and regulation of transpeptidase expression (ycfS and ycbB. Interestingly, as these

  3. Sterilization of African Violet in the in Vitro Culture Using Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles by Two Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Solgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major advantages of in vitro culture of African violet (Saintpaulha ionantha is production of new cultivars and propagation of their chimera which might not be propagated by the other methods. In this study, we tested the effects of silver nanoparticles on the sterilization rate (antifungal and antibacterial activity, regeneration and shoot formation of African violet "Pink Amiss" explants. These nanoparticles were synthesized from pomegranate peels and Damask rose petals extracts. We used a completely randomized design test with factorial arrangement to investigate various volumetric ratios of plant extracts to silver nitrate (1:20, 1:10, 1:5 and 1:1 on the culture contaminations. Using silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts, especially Damask rose petals extract resulted in no fungal and bacterial contamination in the African violet explants after 1 and 3 weeks as compared to the control, and silver nitrate (1mM. All tested concentrations of the silver nanoparticles significantly (P &le 0.05 controlled both bacterial and fungal contaminations. The 1:20 ratio of plant extracts to silver nitrate showed the best control. In addition, the highest regeneration (%52 and shoot regeneration (%38 was observed in this treatment. In conclusion, we suggest using silver nanoparticles synthesized by plant extracts for sterilization of in Vitro Culture for African Violet rather than using other chemicals such as silver nitrate.

  4. In vitro cytotoxity of silver: implication for clinical wound care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Vincent K M; Burd, Andrew

    2004-03-01

    In this study, we look at the cytotoxic effects of silver on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. We have assessed the viability of monolayer cultures using the MTT and BrdU assays. The composition of the culture medium and also the culture technique were modified to assess the effects of culture 'environment' on the susceptibility of the cells to the toxic action of silver. Further in vitro, experiments were performed using tissue culture models to allow cellular behavior in three dimensional planes which more closely simulated in vivo behavior. The silver source was both silver released from silver nitrate solution but also nanocrystalline silver released from a commercially available dressing. The results show that silver is highly toxic to both keratinocytes and fibroblasts in monolayer culture. When using optimized and individualized culture the fibroblasts appear to be more sensitive to silver than keratinocytes. However, when both cell types were grown in the same medium their viability was the same. Using tissue culture models again indicated an 'environmental effect' with decreased sensitivity of the cells to the cytotoxic effects of the silver. Nevertheless in these studies the toxic dose of skin cells ranging from 7 x 10(-4) to 55 x 10(-4)% was similar to that of bacteria. These results suggest that consideration of the cytotoxic effects of silver and silver-based products should be taken when deciding on dressings for specific wound care strategies. This is important when using keratinocyte culture, in situ, which is playing an increasing role in contemporary wound and burn care.

  5. Mid-IR and far-IR investigation of AgI-doped silver diborate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudgens, J.J.; Martin, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    The structures of xAgI+(1-x)Ag 2 O·2B 2 O 3 glasses, where 0.2≤x≤0.6, have been investigated using mid- and far-infrared spectroscopy. The mid-IR spectra revealed that in those glasses prepared using AgNO 3 as the starting material for Ag 2 O, the BO 4 - /BO 3 ratio is constant with increasing amounts of AgI as would be expected form the proposed behavior of AgI in these glasses. However, a survey of the literature revealed those glasses prepared from pure Ag 2 O show a strong linear dependence of the BO 4 - /BO 3 ratio on AgI content. Most probably, in those glasses prepared with Ag 2 O the Ag 2 O/B 2 O 3 ratio changes with AgI content due to the decomposition of Ag 2 O during melting. This different behavior is associated with AgNO 3 decomposing to Ag 2 O with heating followed by incorporation into the glassy network. For Ag 2 O used directly, it is proposed that it decomposes to Ag metal and O 2 (gas) with heating before it can be incorporated into the borate network. This latter behavior decreases with increasing AgI in the batch composition because AgI lowers the liquidus temperature of the melt considerably. The far-IR analysis of the AgI-doped silver diborate glasses suggests that there are three coordination environments for the Ag + ions; one with iodide anions and the other two with oxygen ions. It is proposed that the separate oxygen coordination environments for the Ag + ions arise from one with bridging oxygens of BO 4 - units, and the other with nonbridging oxygens on BO 3 - units. Furthermore, it is proposed that the Ag + ions in the iodide-ion environments progressively agglomerate into disordered regions of AgI, but do not form structures similar to α-AgI. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. One pot synthesis of polypyrrole silver nanocomposite on cotton fabrics for multifunctional property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz Babu, K; Dhandapani, P; Maruthamuthu, S; Anbu Kulandainathan, M

    2012-11-06

    Polymer-silver nanocomposites modified cotton fabrics were prepared by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization using pyrrole and silver nitrate. In a redox reaction between pyrrole and silver nitrate, silver ions oxidize the pyrrole monomer and get reduced. This reduced silver as nanoparticles deposited on/into the polypyrrole/cotton matrix layer and the interaction between silver and polypyrrole was by adsorption or electrostatic interaction. The structure and composite formation on cotton fiber was investigated using SEM, FT-IR, XPS and XRD. The results showed that a strong interaction existing between silver nanoparticles with polypyrrole/cotton matrix. FT-IR studies clearly indicated that the interaction between polypyrrole (-N-H) and cellulose (>C-OH) was by hydrogen bonding. It is observed that the conductivity of the composite coated fabrics has been increased by the incorporation of silver nanoparticles. In the synthesized composites, silver content plays an important role in the conductivity and antimicrobial activity rate of the fabrics against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative Escherichia coli bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

    2014-10-01

    Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Portulaca oleracea L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi Nafeseh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To evaluate the influences of aqueous extracts of plant parts (stem, leaves, and root of Portulaca oleracea L. on bioformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs.   Materials and Methods: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by different plant part extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. was carried out and formation of nanoparticles were confirmed and evaluated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and AFM. Results: The plant extracts exposed with silver nitrate showed gradual change in color of the extract from yellow to dark brown. Different silver nanoperticles were formed using extracts of different plant parts. Conclusion: It seems that the plant parts differ in their ability to act as a reducing and capping agent.

  9. Thermochemical nitrate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with ∼3 wt% NO 3 - solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200 degrees C to 350 degrees C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia ∼ methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics

  10. Influence of surfactant on the preparation of silver nanoparticles by polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung Dang, Thi My; Tuyet Le, Thi Thu; Dang, Mau Chien; Fribourg-Blanc, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from silver nitrate via a polyol method in ambient atmosphere. In our synthesis route, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is used as both size controller and capping agent, ethylene glycol acts both as solvent and reducing agent. The obtained silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry which indicated the formation of nanoparticles. Investigation of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy clearly demonstrated the coordination between silver nanoparticles and PVP. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) contributed to the particle size analysis. The surface plasmon resonance peak in absorption spectra of silver colloidal solution showed absorption from 406 to 409 nm. The average size of the resulting silver nanoparticles was below 10 nm with a dependency on the PVP concentration. (paper)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles: effect on phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloesporioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Méndez, Miguel A.; San Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Ortega-Arroyo, Lesli; Cobián-Portillo, Georgina; Sánchez-Espíndola, Esther

    2011-06-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing silver nitrate solutions with glucose, in the presence of gelatin as capping agent. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The response surface methodology (RSM) was also used to determine the influence of the variables on the size of the nanoparticles. The antifungal activity of the silver nanoparticles was evaluated on the phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloesporioides, which causes anthracnose in a wide range of fruits. The UV-Vis spectra indicated the formation of silver nanoparticles preferably spherical and of relatively small size (silver nanoparticles. By means of FTIR spectroscopy it was determined that gelatin, through their amide and hydroxyl groups, interacts with nanoparticles preventing their agglomeration. The growth of C. gloesporioides in the presence of silver nanoparticles was significantly delayed in a dose dependent manner.

  12. Optimization of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, resonance light scattering (RLS) properties of a silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell, based on quasi-static approach and plasmon hybridization theory, are investigated. Scattering spectrum of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell has two intense and clearly separated RLS peaks and provides a potential for biosensing based on surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The two RLS peaks in silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell are optimized by tuning the geometrical dimensions. In addition, the optimal geometry is discussed to obtain the high sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. As the silver core radius increases, the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell decreases whereas increasing the middle dielectric thickness increases the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell

  13. Orange pectin mediated growth and stability of aqueous gold and silver nanocolloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigoghossian, Karina; Santos, Molíria V. dos; Barud, Hernane S.; Silva, Robson R. da; Rocha, Lucas A.; Caiut, José M.A.; Assunção, Rosana M.N. de; Spanhel, Lubomir; Poulain, Marcel; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pectin from orange was used as stabilizer of Ag, Au and Ag–Au nanoparticles. • Sodium citrate, oxalic acid or pectin were used as reducing agents. • Colloids spanning all visible region were obtained depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH. • Pectin is a highly efficient stabilizer of nanocolloidal solutions for years. - Abstract: The role of orange based pectin in the nucleation and growth of silver and gold nanoparticles is addressed. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in fruits such as oranges, lemons, passion fruits or apples. It displays smooth and hairy chain regions containing hydroxyl-, ester-, carboxylate- and eventually amine groups that can act as surface ligands interacting under various pH conditions more or less efficiently with growing nanometals. Here, a high methoxy pectin (>50% esterified) was used as a stabilizer/reducing agent in the preparation of gold, silver and silver–gold nanoparticles. Commercial pectin (CP) and pectin extracted from orange bagasse (OP) were used. Optionally, trisodium citrate or oxalic acid we used to reduce AgNO 3 and HAuCl 4 in aqueous environment. Characterization methods included UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that under different pH conditions, pectin and reducing agents allow producing various nanostructures shapes (triangles, spheres, rods, octahedrons and decahedrons) often with high polydispersity and sizes ranging between 5 nm and 30 nm. In addition, depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH, the surface plasmon bands can be continuously shifted between 410 nm and 600 nm. Finally, pectin seems to be a highly efficient stabilizer of the colloidal systems that show a remarkable stability and unchanged optical spectral response even after five years

  14. In situ reduction of antibacterial silver ions to metallic silver nanoparticles on bioactive glasses functionalized with polyphenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, S., E-mail: sara.ferraris@polito.it [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Torino (Italy); Miola, M. [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Torino (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale UPO, Via Solaroli 17, 28100, Novara (Italy); Cochis, A.; Azzimonti, B.; Rimondini, L. [Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale UPO, Via Solaroli 17, 28100, Novara (Italy); Prenesti, E. [Department of Chemistry, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 7, Torino, 10125 (Italy); Vernè, E. [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Torino (Italy)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Gallic acid and natural polyphenols were grafted onto bioactive glasses. • Grafting ability was dependent on glass reactivity. • In situ reduction of silver nanoparticles was performed onto functionalized glasses. • Bioactive glasses decorated with silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity. - Abstract: The realization of surfaces with antibacterial properties due to silver nanoparticles loaded through a green approach is a promising research challenge of the biomaterial field. In this research work, two bioactive glasses have been doubly surface functionalized with polyphenols (gallic acid or natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves) and silver nanoparticles deposited by in situ reduction from a silver nitrate aqueous solution. The presence of biomolecules – showing reducing ability to directly obtain in situ metallic silver – and silver nanoparticles was investigated by means of UV–vis spectroscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The antibacterial activity of the modified surfaces was tested against a multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strain.

  15. Characterization and Comparison of Photocatalytic Activity Silver Ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and Silver Ion doped on Black TiO2(Black TiO2/Ag+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Yi; Sim, Ho Hyung; Song, Sinae; Noh, Yeoung Ah; Lee, Hong Woon; Taik Kim, Hee

    2018-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the representative ceramic materials containing photocatalyst, optic and antibacterial activity. The hydroxyl radical in TiO2 applies to the intensive oxidizing agent, hence TiO2 is suitable to use photocatalytic materials. Black TiO2was prepared through reduction of amorphous TiO2 conducting under H2 which leads to color changes. Its black color is proven that absorbs 100% light across the whole-visible light, drawing enhancement of photocatalytic property. In this study, we aimed to compare the photocatalytic activity of silver ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and silver ion doped on black TiO2(black TiO2/Ag+) under visible light range. TiO2/Ag+ was fabricated following steps. 1) TiO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel method from Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). 2) Then AgNO3 was added during an aging process step for silver ion doping on the surface of TiO2. Moreover, Black TiO2/Ag+ was obtained same as TiO2/Ag+ except for calcination under H2. The samples were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible reflectance (UV-vis DRS), and Methylene Blue degradation test. XRD analysis confirmed morphology of TiO2. The band gap of black TiO2/Ag+ was confirmed (2.6 eV) through UV-vis DRS, which was lower than TiO2/Ag+ (2.9 eV). The photocatalytic effect was conducted by methylene blue degradation test. It demonstrated that black TiO2/Ag+ had a photocatalytic effect under UV light also visible light.

  16. Comparative Cytotoxicity Study of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs in a Variety of Rainbow Trout Cell Lines (RTL-W1, RTH-149, RTG-2 and Primary Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Connolly

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among all classes of nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have potentially an important ecotoxicological impact, especially in freshwater environments. Fish are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of silver ions and, with knowledge gaps regarding the contribution of dissolution and unique particle effects to AgNP toxicity, they represent a group of vulnerable organisms. Using cell lines (RTL-W1, RTH-149, RTG-2 and primary hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss as in vitro test systems, we assessed the cytotoxicity of the representative AgNP, NM-300K, and AgNO3 as an Ag+ ion source. Lack of AgNP interference with the cytotoxicity assays (AlamarBlue, CFDA-AM, NRU assay and their simultaneous application point to the compatibility and usefulness of such a battery of assays. The RTH-149 and RTL-W1 liver cell lines exhibited similar sensitivity as primary hepatocytes towards AgNP toxicity. Leibovitz’s L-15 culture medium composition (high amino acid content had an important influence on the behaviour and toxicity of AgNPs towards the RTL-W1 cell line. The obtained results demonstrate that, with careful consideration, such an in vitro approach can provide valuable toxicological data to be used in an integrated testing strategy for NM-300K risk assessment.

  17. High Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Amplification Factor Obtained with Silver Printed Circuit Boards and the Influence of Phenolic Resins for the Characterization of the Pesticide Thiram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Almeida, Francylaine; Bussler, Larissa; Marcio Lima, Sandro; Fiorucci, Antonio Rogério; da Cunha Andrade, Luis Humberto

    2016-07-01

    In this work, low-cost substrates with rough silver surfaces were prepared from commercial copper foil-covered phenolic board (CPB) and an aqueous solution of AgNO3, and were used for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) measurements. A maximum SERS amplification factor of 1.2 × 10(7) was obtained for Rhodamine 6G (R6G), and use of the CPB resulted in a detection limit for Thiram pesticide of 0.5 µmol L(-1) The minimum detection level was limited by residual traces of phenolic groups that originated from the substrate resin, which became solubilized in the aqueous Ag(+) solution. It was found that the bands corresponding to the impurities had less influence in the Thiram analysis, which could be explained by the high affinity of sulfur for Ag surfaces. The influence of impurities in the SERS analyses therefore depended on the linkage between the rough silver surface and the analyte. The findings demonstrated the ease and effectiveness of using CPB to prepare a nanostructured surface for SERS. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Environmental effects of nanosilver: impact on castor seed germination, seedling growth, and plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasur, Jyothsna; Rani, Pathipati Usha

    2013-12-01

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in daily products is of great concern today, especially when their positive and negative impact on environment is not known. Hence, in current research, we have studied the impact of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) application on seed germination, root, and shoot length of castor bean, Ricinus communis L. plant. Silver nanoparticles had no significant effects on seedling growth even at higher concentration of 4,000 mg L(-1), while the silver in bulk form as AgNO3 applied on the castor bean seeds inhibited the seed germination. Silver uptake in seedlings of the castor seeds on treatment with both the forms of silver was confirmed through atomic absorption spectroscopy studies. The silver nanoparticle and silver nitrate application to castor seeds also caused an enhanced enzymatic activity of ROS enzymes and phenolic content in castor seedlings. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of individual phenols indicated enhanced content of parahydroxy benzoic acid. These kinds of studies are of great interest in order to unveil the movement and accumulation of nanoparticles in plant tissues for assessing future applications in the field or laboratory.

  19. Use of 5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)rhodanine in quantitating silver grains eluted from autoradiograms of biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, J.W.; Guikema, J.A.; Consigli, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    5-(4-Dimethylaminobenzylidene)rhodanine, a silver-specific dye, was used in a colorimetric assay to quantitate the autoradiographic deposition of silver onto X-ray film after exposure to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels of radiolabeled biological material. Silver grains were eluted from autoradiograms with 5 N potassium hydroxide, dissolved in nitric acid, and neutralized with 1 M Trizma Base. The concentration of silver was measured spectrophotometrically owing to the chelation properties of the dye. After corrections for background exposure were made, the silver contents of excised bands were then determined by comparison to a standard curve generated with silver nitrate. We have used this silver assay to quantitate the relative amount of each polypeptide band comprising the polyomavirus structural protein VP2 doublet. The method reported here has proven useful when densitometry is inconvenient (i.e., short distance between bands, irregular shape of bands, very faint bands) in addition to being inexpensive and simple to perform

  20. Laser-Direct Writing of Silver Metal Electrodes on Transparent Flexible Substrates with High-Bonding Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Bai, Shi; Ma, Ying; Ma, Delong; Hou, Tingxiu; Shi, Xiaomin; Hu, Anming

    2016-09-21

    We demonstrate a novel approach to rapidly fabricate conductive silver electrodes on transparent flexible substrates with high-bonding strength by laser-direct writing. A new type of silver ink composed of silver nitrate, sodium citrate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared in this work. The role of PVP was elucidated for improving the quality of silver electrodes. Silver nanoparticles and sintered microstructures were simultaneously synthesized and patterned on a substrate using a focused 405 nm continuous wave laser. The writing was completed through the transparent flexible substrate with a programmed 2D scanning sample stage. Silver electrodes fabricated by this approach exhibit a remarkable bonding strength, which can withstand an adhesive tape test at least 50 times. After a 1500 time bending test, the resistance only increased 5.2%. With laser-induced in-situ synthesis, sintering, and simultaneous patterning of silver nanoparticles, this technology is promising for the facile fabrication of conducting electronic devices on flexible substrates.

  1. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  2. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by using Eucalyptus Globulus Leaf Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Madheswaran; Saravanan, Shanmugam

    2017-12-01

    A single step eco-friendly, energy efficient and economically scalable green method was employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles. In this work, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract as reducing and capping agent along with water as solvent at normal room temperature is described. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from aqueous silver nitrate solution by adding the leaf extract. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible Spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscope (FTIS). X-ray diffraction studies brought to light the crystalline nature and the face centered cubic structure of the silver nanoparticles. Using HR-TEM. the nano sizes and morphology of the particles were studied. The mean sizes of the prepared silver nanoparticles ranged from 30 to 36 nm. The density of the particles was tuned by varying the molar ratio of silver nitrate. FTIS studies showed the functional group of organic molecules which were located on the surface of the silver nanoparticles. Originating from the leaf extracts, these organic molecules reduced and capped the particles.

  3. An evidence-based environmental perspective of manufactured silver nanoparticle in syntheses and applications: A systematic review and critical appraisal of peer-reviewed scientific papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolaymat, Thabet M.; El Badawy, Amro M.; Genaidy, Ash; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Luxton, Todd P.; Suidan, Makram

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most recently, renewed interest has arisen in manufactured silver nanomaterials because of their unusually enhanced physicochemical properties and biological activities compared to the bulk parent materials. A wide range of applications has emerged in consumer products ranging from disinfecting medical devices and home appliances to water treatment. Because the hypothesized mechanisms that govern the fate and transport of bulk materials may not directly apply to materials at the nanoscale, there are great concerns in the regulatory and research communities about potential environmental impacts associated with the use of silver nanoparticles. In particular, the unlimited combinations of properties emerging from the syntheses and applications of silver nanoparticles are presenting an urgent need to document the predominant salt precursors, reducing agents and stabilizing agents utilized in the synthesis processes of silver nanoparticles to guide the massive efforts required for environmental risk assessment and management. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to present an evidence-based environmental perspective of silver nanoparticle properties in syntheses and applications. The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objective: Aim 1 - to document the salt precursors and agents utilized in synthesizing silver nanoparticles; Aim 2 - to determine the characteristics of silver nanoparticles currently in use in the scientific literature when integrated in polymer matrices to form nanocomposites and combined with other metal nanoparticles to form bimetallic nanoparticles; Aim 3 - to provide a summary of the morphology of silver nanoparticles; and (4) Aim 4 - to provide an environmental perspective of the evidence presented in Aims 1 to 3. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search of scientific databases was conducted in support of the study objectives. Specific inclusion criteria were applied to gather the most pertinent

  4. Reactivity of Metal Nitrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-20

    02NOCuOH Any mechanism suggested for the nitration of aromatic systems by titanium(IV) nitrate must take into account the observed similarity, in...occurs. -26- References 1. For recent reviews see (a) R. B. Moodie and K. Schofield, Accounts Chem. Res., 1976, 9, 287; (b) G. A. Olah and S. J. Kuhn...Ithaca, N.Y., 1969, Chapter VI; L. M. Stock, Prog. Phys. Org. Chem., 1976, 12, 21; J. G. Hoggett , R. B. Moodie, J. R. Penton, and K. Schofield

  5. Novel method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their application on wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroumand, Majid Nasiri [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Montazer, Majid [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simon, Frank [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Dresden (Germany); Liesiene, Jolanta [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas (Lithuania); Šaponjic, Zoran [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Dutschk, Victoria, E-mail: v.dutschk@utwente.nl [Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Tentative mechanism for reduction of Ag{sup +} by polyphenols having two hydroxy groups in ortho-position – the use of silver nanoparticles and an aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel as a reducing agent for synthesis silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate. - Highlights: • A new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles suitable to impart antibacterial properties of wool fabric proposed. • Silver nanopartilces were synthesized by a biochemical reduction method. • An aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel was used as a reducing agent for synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate. - Abstract: In this study, a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) suitable to impart antibacterial properties of wool fabric is proposed. AgNPs were synthesized by a biochemical reduction method. An aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel was used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of AgNPs from silver nitrate. The ratio of dye to silver nitrate concentration (R{sub Dye}/{sub Ag} = [Dye]/[AgNO{sub 3}]) is the influencing factor in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles formation was followed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. The size and shape of AgNPs were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size distribution and Zetapotential of nanoparticles were evaluated using diffraction light scattering (DLS) measurements. The antibacterial potential of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was examined qualitatively and quantitatively. Kinetic analysis of the bacteria reduction using AgNPs synthesized in different way was performed. AgNPs were applied on wool fabrics by exhaustion. The changes in surface morphology of wool fibers after AgNPs loading were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The amounts of silver deposited on wool fabrics at different pH and temperature were compared applying

  6. Novel method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their application on wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroumand, Majid Nasiri; Montazer, Majid; Simon, Frank; Liesiene, Jolanta; Šaponjic, Zoran; Dutschk, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Tentative mechanism for reduction of Ag + by polyphenols having two hydroxy groups in ortho-position – the use of silver nanoparticles and an aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel as a reducing agent for synthesis silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate. - Highlights: • A new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles suitable to impart antibacterial properties of wool fabric proposed. • Silver nanopartilces were synthesized by a biochemical reduction method. • An aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel was used as a reducing agent for synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate. - Abstract: In this study, a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) suitable to impart antibacterial properties of wool fabric is proposed. AgNPs were synthesized by a biochemical reduction method. An aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel was used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of AgNPs from silver nitrate. The ratio of dye to silver nitrate concentration (R Dye / Ag = [Dye]/[AgNO 3 ]) is the influencing factor in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles formation was followed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. The size and shape of AgNPs were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size distribution and Zetapotential of nanoparticles were evaluated using diffraction light scattering (DLS) measurements. The antibacterial potential of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was examined qualitatively and quantitatively. Kinetic analysis of the bacteria reduction using AgNPs synthesized in different way was performed. AgNPs were applied on wool fabrics by exhaustion. The changes in surface morphology of wool fibers after AgNPs loading were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The amounts of silver deposited on wool fabrics at different pH and temperature were compared applying energy

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Silver Liquid Thin Films for Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianchao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver liquid thin film, formed by silver nanoparticles stacking and spreading on the surface of the liquid, is one of the important parts of magnetic fluid deformable mirror. First, silver nanoparticles were prepared by liquid phase chemical reduction method using sodium citrate as reducing agent and stabilizer and silver nitrate as precursor. Characterization of silver nanoparticles was studied using X-ray diffractometer, UV-vis spectrophotometer, and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The results showed that silver nanoparticles are spherical and have a good monodispersity. Additionally, the effect of the reaction conditions on the particle size of silver is obvious. And then silver liquid thin films were prepared by oil-water two-phase interface technology using as-synthesized silver nanoparticles. Properties of the film were investigated using different technology. The results showed that the film has good reflectivity and the particle size has a great influence on the reflectivity of the films. SEM photos showed that the liquid film is composed of multilayer silver nanoparticles. In addition, stability of the film was studied. The results showed that after being stored for 8 days under natural conditions, the gloss and reflectivity of the film start to decrease.

  8. Phase extraction equilibria in systems rare earth (3) nitrates-ammonium nitrate-water-trialkylmethylammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyartman, A.K.; Kopyrin, A.A.; Puzikov, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of rare earth metals (3) between aqueous and organic phases in the systems rare earth metal (3) (praseodymium-lutetium (3), yttrium (3)) nitrate-ammonium nitrate-water-trialkylmethylammonium (kerosene diluent nitrate has been studied. It is shown that in organic phase di- and trisolvates of metals (3) with tralkylmethylammonium nitrate are formed. The influence of concentration of rare earth metal (3) nitrate and ammonium nitrate on the values of extraction concentrational constants has been ascertained: they decrease with increase in the ordinal number of lanthanide (3). 11 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab

  9. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  10. Synthesis and electrical properties of silver nanoplates for electronic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Nana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, silver nanoplates of 100 to 500 nm size were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate with N,Ndimethylformamide, using poly(vinylpyrolidone as a surfactant and ferric chloride as a controlling agent, at 120 to 160 °C for 5 to 24 hours. The influence of the concentration of ferric chloride, the reaction temperature and reaction time on the morphology of the product has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results indicated that the products obtained at the low reaction temperature and short reaction time in the presence of FeCl3 in the reaction solution were in the form of silver nanoplates, whose morphology was mainly triangular and hexagonal. In addition, the size and thickness of the nanoplates increased with increasing of the FeCl3 concentration. At a high reaction temperature and long reaction time, the truncated triangle and hexagonal nanoplates were mainly produced. Furthermore, the sintering behavior of nanoplates was studied and the results showed that sintering of the silver nanoplates started at 180 °C, and a typical sintering behavior was observed at higher temperatures. The incorporation of the silver nanoplates into the polymer matrix with micro-sized silver flakes led to an increase in the matrix resistivity in almost all cases, especially at high fractions and low curing temperatures. The curing temperature had an influence on the resistivity of the conductive adhesives filled with micro-sized silver flakes and silver nanoplates due to sintering of the silver nanoplates.

  11. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes, E-mail: rayssasouza.net@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  12. Nitrate Leaching Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate (NO3) leaching is a significant nitrogen (N) loss process for agriculture that must be managed to minimize NO3 enrichment of groundwater and surface waters. Managing NO3 leaching should involve the application of basic principles of understanding the site’s hydrologic cycle, avoiding excess ...

  13. Electrically conductive nanostructured silver doped zinc oxide (Ag:ZnO) prepared by solution-immersion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afaah, A. N.; Asib, N. A. M.; Aadila, A.; Khusaimi, Z.; Mohamed, R.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    p-type ZnO films have been fabricated on ZnO-seeded glass substrate, using AgNO_3 as a source of silver dopant by facile solution-immersion. Cleaned glass substrate were seeded with ZnO by mist-atomisation, and next the seeded substrates were immersed in Ag:ZnO solution. The effects of Ag doping concentration on the Ag-doped ZnO have been investigated. The substrates were immersed in different concentrations of Ag dopant with variation of 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 at. %. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). In order to investigate the electrical properties, the films were characterized by Current-Voltage (I-V) measurement. FESEM micrographs showed uniform distribution of nanostructured ZnO and Ag:ZnO. Besides, the electrical properties of Ag-doped ZnO were also dependent on the doping concentration. The I-V measurement result indicated the electrical properties of 1 at. % Ag:ZnO thin film owned highest electrical conductivity.

  14. Seed-mediated synthesis of silver nanocrystals with controlled sizes and shapes in droplet microreactors separated by air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan

    2013-12-17

    Silver nanocrystals with uniform sizes were synthesized in droplet microreactors through seed-mediated growth. The key to the success of this synthesis is the use of air as a carrier phase to generate the droplets. The air not only separates the reaction solution into droplets but also provides O2 for the generation of reducing agent (glycolaldehyde). It also serves as a buffer space for the diffusion of NO, which is formed in situ due to the oxidative etching of Ag nanocrystals with twin defects. For the first time, we were able to generate Ag nanocrystals with controlled sizes and shapes in continuous production by using droplet microreactors. For Ag nanocubes, their edge lengths could be readily controlled in the range of 30-100 nm by varying the reaction time, the amount of seeds, and the concentration of AgNO3 in the droplets. Furthermore, we demonstrated the synthesis of Ag octahedra in the droplet microreactors. We believe that the air-driven droplet generation device can be extended to other noble metals for the production of nanocrystals with controlled sizes and shapes.

  15. Highly Stretchable and Conductive Silver Nanoparticle Embedded Graphene Flake Electrode Prepared by In situ Dual Reduction Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeoheung; Samanta, Khokan; Lee, Hanleem; Lee, Keunsik; Tiwari, Anand P.; Lee, Jihun; Yang, Junghee; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-09-01

    The emergence of stretchable devices that combine with conductive properties offers new exciting opportunities for wearable applications. Here, a novel, convenient and inexpensive solution process was demonstrated to prepare in situ silver (Ag) or platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs)-embedded rGO hybrid materials using formic acid duality in the presence of AgNO3 or H2PtCl6 at low temperature. The reduction duality of the formic acid can convert graphene oxide (GO) to rGO and simultaneously deposit the positively charged metal ion to metal NP on rGO while the formic acid itself is converted to a CO2 evolving gas that is eco-friendly. The AgNP-embedded rGO hybrid electrode on an elastomeric substrate exhibited superior stretchable properties including a maximum conductivity of 3012 S cm-1 (at 0 % strain) and 322.8 S cm-1 (at 35 % strain). Its fabrication process using a printing method is scalable. Surprisingly, the electrode can survive even in continuous stretching cycles.

  16. Reduced Silver Nanoparticle Phytotoxicity in Crambe abyssinica with Enhanced Glutathione Production by Overexpressing Bacterial γ-Glutamylcysteine Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuanxin; Chhikara, Sudesh; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2015-08-18

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are widely used in consumer products, and their release has raised serious concerns about the risk of their exposure to the environment and to human health. However, biochemical mechanisms by which plants counteract NP toxicity are largely unknown. We have previously engineered Crambe abyssinica plants expressing the bacterial γ-glutamylecysteine synthase (γ-ECS) for enhancing glutathione (GSH) levels. In this study, we investigated if enhanced levels of GSH and its derivatives can protect plants from Ag NPs and AgNO3 (Ag(+) ions). Our results showed that transgenic lines, when exposed to Ag NPs and Ag(+) ions, were significantly more tolerant, attaining a 28%-46% higher biomass and 34-49% more chlorophyll content, as well as maintaining 35-46% higher transpiration rates as compared to those of wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic γ-ECS lines showed 2-6-fold Ag accumulation in shoot tissue and slightly lower or no difference in root tissue relative to levels in WT plants. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in γ-ECS lines were also 27.3-32.5% lower than those in WT Crambe. These results indicate that GSH and related peptides protect plants from Ag nanotoxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first direct report of Ag NP detoxification by GSH in transgenic plants, and these results will be highly useful in developing strategies to counteract the phytotoxicty of metal-based nanoparticles in crop plants.

  17. Controllable fabrication of large-scale hierarchical silver nanostructures for long-term stable and ultrasensitive SERS substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Fang, Jinghuai; Cheng, Mingfei; Gong, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we aim to prepare effective and long-term stable hierarchical silver nanostructures serving as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates simply via displacement reaction on Aluminum foils. In our experiments, Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is used as cationic surfactant to control the velocity of displacement reaction as well as the hierarchical morphology of the resultant. We find that the volume ratio of CTAB to AgNO3 plays a dominant role in regulating the hierarchical structures besides the influence of displacement reaction time. These as-prepared hierarchical morphologies demonstrate excellent SERS sensitivity, structural stability and reproducibility with low values of relative standard deviation less than 20 %. The high SERS analytical enhancement factor of ~6.7 × 108 is achieved even at the concentration of Crystal Violet (CV) as low as 10-7 M, which is sufficient for single-molecule detection. The detection limit of CV is 10-9 M in this study. We believe that this simple and rapid approach integrating advantages of low-cost production and high reproducibility would be a promising way to facilitate routine SERS detection and will get wide applications in chemical synthesis.

  18. Durable flame retardant and antibacterial finishing on cotton fabrics with cyclotriphosphazene/polydopamine/silver nanoparticles hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingzhan; Wang, Bijia; Sui, Xiaofeng; Xie, Ruyi; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Linping; Zhong, Yi; Mao, Zhiping

    2018-03-01

    Durable flame retardant and antibacterial hybrid coatings were developed for cotton fabrics via simultaneous polymerization of dopamine and hydrolytic condensation of N3P3[NH(CH2)3Si(OC2H5)3]6. Silver nanoparticles were also introduced to the coatings by in situ reaction of AgNO3 with catechol moieties on polydopamine (PDA) in the absence of any external reducing agents. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to study the morphology and constitution of the coatings. Thermal stability and combustion behaviors were characterized with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and vertical flammability tests. Considerable flame retardancy was obtained for the modified cotton fabrics, which also exhibited decent antibacterial activities (99.99%) against Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli. The modification was durable with largely intact flame retardancy and antimicrobial properties after 30 washing cycles.

  19. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) extract and their antimicrobial, antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraimathi, K L; Sudha, V; Lavanya, R; Brindha, P

    2013-02-01

    The present work focuses the use of the aqueous extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. (Amaranthaceae) in producing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate aqueous. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannins, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates and proteins and they serve as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were also tested for proteins and ascorbic acid. Its pH was also determined (5.63). The AgNPs obtained was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, Zeta sizer and TG-DSC. SEM images which revealed the presence of various shapes and sizes. FT-IR spectrum showed the AgNPs having a coating of proteins indicating a dual role of bio-molecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. Presence of impurities and melting point profile were screened by TG-DSC analyzer. AgNPs were synthesized from the silver nitrate through the reducing power of ascorbic acid present in A. sessilis leaves. In this study, we also investigated antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of green synthesized AgNPs. The antimicrobial activity is investigated by Bauer et al.'s method. Antioxidant activity was done by DPPH method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High frequency of silver resistance genes in invasive isolates of Enterobacter and Klebsiella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, S; Dahlö, M; Tellgren-Roth, C; Schaal, W; Melhus, Å

    2017-07-01

    Silver-based products have been marketed as an alternative to antibiotics, and their consumption has increased. Bacteria may, however, develop resistance to silver. To study the presence of genes encoding silver resistance (silE, silP, silS) over time in three clinically important Enterobacteriaceae genera. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 752 bloodstream isolates from the years 1990-2010 were investigated. Age, gender, and ward of patients were registered, and the susceptibility to antibiotics and silver nitrate was tested. Clonality and single nucleotide polymorphism were assessed with repetitive element sequence-based PCR, multi-locus sequence typing, and whole-genome sequencing. Genes encoding silver resistance were detected most frequently in Enterobacter spp. (48%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (41%) and Escherichia coli 4%. Phenotypical resistance to silver nitrate was found in Enterobacter (13%) and Klebsiella (3%) isolates. The lowest carriage rate of sil genes was observed in blood isolates from the neonatology ward (24%), and the highest in blood isolates from the oncology/haematology wards (66%). Presence of sil genes was observed in international high-risk clones. Sequences of the sil and pco clusters indicated that a single mutational event in the silS gene could have caused the phenotypic resistance. Despite a restricted consumption of silver-based products in Swedish health care, silver resistance genes are widely represented in clinical isolates of Enterobacter and Klebsiella species. To avoid further selection and spread of silver-resistant bacteria with a high potential for healthcare-associated infections, the use of silver-based products needs to be controlled and the silver resistance monitored. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influences of impurities on iodine removal efficiency of silver alumina adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Funabashi, Kiyomi [Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Kondo, Yoshikazu [Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Silver impregnated alumina adsorbent (AgA), which was developed for iodine removal from off-gas of nuclear power and reprocessing plants has been tested laying emphasis on investigation of the influences gaseous impurities have on adsorbent chemical stability and iodine removal efficiency. The influences of the major impurities such as nitrogen oxides and water vapor were checked on the chemical state of impregnated silver compound (AgNO{sub 3}) and decontamination factor (DF) value. At 150{degrees}C, a forced air flow with 1.5% nitrogen oxide (NO/NO{sub 2}=1/1) reduced silver nitrate to metallic silver, whereas pure air and air with 1.5% NO{sub 2} had no effect on the chemical state of silver. Metallic silver showed a lower DF value for methyl iodide in pure air (without impurities) than silver nitrate and the lower DF of metallic silver was improved when impurities were added. At 40{degrees}C, a forced air flow with 1.5% nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) increased the AgA weight by about 20%, which was caused by the adsorption of nitric acid solution on the AgA surface. AgA with l0wt% silver showed higher weight increase than that with 24wt% silver which had lower porosity. Adsorption of acid solution lowered the DF value, which would be due to the hindrance of contact between methyl iodide and silver. The influences of other gaseous impurities were also investigated and AgA showed superior characteristics at high temperatures. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Waterproofing Materials for Ammonium Nitrate

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Damse

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of overcoming the problem of hygroscopicity of ammonium nitrate by coating the particles with selected waterproofing materials. Gravimetric analysis ofthe samples of ammonium nitrate coated with eight different waterproofing materials, vis-a-vis, uncoated ammonium nitrate, were conducted at different relative humidity and exposuretime. The results indicate that mineral jelly is the promising waterproofing material for ammonium nitrate among the materials te...

  3. Structural modification in the formation of starch – silver nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, S. N. Suraiya; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal, E-mail: perumal.ramasamy@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science and Technology, A.C.Tech. Campus, Anna University, Chennai – 600 025 (India); Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polymer based nanocomposites have gained wide applications in field of battery technology. Starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide with sustainable properties such as biodegradable, non toxic, excellent film forming capacity and it also act as reducing agent for the metal nanoparticles. In our research various concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) was added to the starch solution and films were obtained using solution casting method. Surface electron microscope (SEM) of the films shows modifications depending upon the concentration of AgNO{sub 3}. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis showed that addition of silver nitrate modifies the starch to disc like structures and with increasing the AgNO{sub 3} concentration leads to the formation of fractals. This research could benefit battery technology where solid polymer membranes using starch is used.

  4. Detection of colloidal silver chloride near solubility limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, K. Y.; Adawiah, R.

    2018-03-01

    Detection of nanoparticles in solution has been made possible by several means; one of them is laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD). LIBD is able to distinguish colloids of various sizes and concentrations. This technique has been used in several solubility studies. In this study, the formation of colloids in a mixed system of silver nitrate and sodium chloride was observed by acoustic LIBD. Silver chloride has low solubility limit, therefore LIBD measurement is appropriate. Silver and chloride solutions with equal concentrations, set at below and above the solubility of silver chloride as the expected solid product, were mixed and the resulting colloids were observed. The result of LIBD measurement showed that larger particles were present as more silver and chloride introduced. However, once the concentrations exceeded the solubility limit of silver chloride, the detected particle size seemed to be decreasing, hence suggested the occurrence of coprecipitation process. This phenomenon indicated that the ability of LIBD to detect even small changes in colloid amounts might be a useful tool in study on formation and stability of colloids, i.e. to confirm whether nanoparticles synthesis has been successfully performed and whether the system is stable or not.

  5. Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Souza Gabriel IH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extracellular production of metal nanoparticles by several strains of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum was carried out. It was found that aqueous silver ions when exposed to several Fusarium oxysporum strains are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of silver hydrosol. The silver nanoparticles were in the range of 20–50 nm in dimensions. The reduction of the metal ions occurs by a nitrate-dependent reductase and a shuttle quinone extracellular process. The potentialities of this nanotechnological design based in fugal biosynthesis of nanoparticles for several technical applications are important, including their high potential as antibacterial material.

  6. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shibin [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shi Gaoquan [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: gshi@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2007-04-15

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles.

  7. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shibin; Shi Gaoquan

    2007-01-01

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles

  8. Electrochemistry of silver iodide the capacity of the double layer at the silver iodide-water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.; Overbeek, J.Th.G.

    1961-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining differential double layer capacities on silver iodide. Especially the influence of the nature and concentration of indifferent electrolytes was investigated, viz., the nitrates of Li·, K·, Rb·, NH4·, H·, Tl·, Mg··, Ba··, Co··, Cd··, Pb··, La···, Th····, the

  9. Characteristics of MOX dissolution with silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Miki; Nakazaki, Masato; Kida, Takashi; Sato, Kenji; Kato, Tadahito; Kihara, Takehiro; Sugikawa, Susumu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    MOX dissolution with silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method is to be applied to the preparation of plutonium nitrate solution to be used for criticality safety experiments at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF). Silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method uses the strong oxidisation ability of Ag(II) ion. This method is though to be effective for the dissolution of MOX, which is difficult to be dissolved with nitric acid. In this paper, the results of experiments on dissolution with 100 g of MOX are described. It was confirmed from the results that the MOX powder to be used at NUCEF was completely dissolved by silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method and that Pu(VI) ion in the obtained solution was reduced to tetravalent by means of NO{sub 2} purging. (author)

  10. Effect of Accelerator in Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Shameli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized in the natural polymeric matrix. Silver nitrate, gelatin, glucose, and sodium hydroxide have been used as silver precursor, stabilizer, reducing agent, and accelerator reagent, respectively. This study investigated the role of NaOH as the accelerator. The resultant products have been confirmed to be Ag-NPs using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The colloidal sols of Ag-NPs obtained at different volumes of NaOH show strong and different surface plasmon resonance (SPR peaks, which can be explained from the TEM images of Ag-NPs and their particle size distribution. Compared with other synthetic methods, this work is green, rapid, and simple to use. The newly prepared Ag-NPs may have many potential applications in chemical and biological industries.

  11. Characterization of polypyrrole-silver nanocomposites prepared in the presence of different dopants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintér, Enikõ; Patakfalvi, Rita; Fülei, Tamas; Gingl, Zoltan; Dékany, Imre; Visy, Csaba

    2005-09-22

    Conducting polypyrrole (PPy) powder synthesized by using FeCl3 x 6 H2O and/or Fe(NO3)3 oxidants was impregnated in silver salt solutions. The stability and decomposition of the material was followed by thermogravimetric measurements. The total silver content was determined by atom absorption spectroscopy (ICP-AAS). The heat and electric conductivities of the composites were measured and correlated with the silver content. The incorporated silver was speciated and measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The spectra proved that the chemical state of the silver incorporated into the composite depends on the anion used in the polymerization process. In the case of the polymerization in a nitrate ion containing solution, the impregnation leads exclusively to the formation of metallic silver. The size distribution of the AgCl and Ag nanoparticles, determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) pictures in the different composites, proves the formation of a rather uniform species below 10 and 7 nm, respectively. The observations can be correlated with the different interactions in the PPy-chloride/nitrate-silver systems. The redox type interaction based conclusions can be considered as a guide during the preparation of other metal-conducting polymer composites.

  12. A concetration-dependent model for silver colloids in nanostructured sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Macedo, Jorge A.; Franco, Alfredo; Renteria, Victor; Valverde-Aguilar, Guadalupe

    2005-08-01

    We report on the physical modelling of the photoconductive response of nanostructured sol-gel films in function of the silver nitrate concentration (ions and colloids). This model considers several factors as the silver nitrate concentration and the transport parameters obtained. The model is compared with others commonly used. 2d-hexagonal nanostructured sol-gel thin films were prepared by dip-coating method using a non-ionic diblock copolymer Brij58 (surfactant) to produce channels into the film. Silver colloids (metallic Ag0 nanoparticles ) were obtained by spontaneous reduction process of Ag+ ions to Ag0. These nanoparticles were deposited into the channels formed by the surfactant. The structure was identified by X-ray diffraction and TEM. An absorption band located at 430 nm was detected by optical absorption; it corresponds to the plasmon surface. Fit to this band with modified Gans theory is presented. Photoconductivity studies were performed on films with silver ions and films with silver colloids to characterized their mechanisms of charge transport in the darkness and under illumination at 420, 633 nm wavelengths. Transport parameters were calculated. The films with silver colloids exhibit a photovoltaic effect stronger than the films with silver ions. While, the last ones possesses a photoconductivity behaviour.

  13. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  14. Gold and silver nanoparticles conjugated with heparin derivative possess anti-angiogenesis properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Melissa M; Linhardt, Robert J; Kumar, Ashavani; Ajayan, Pulickel; Mousa, Shaymaa; Dyskin, Evgeny; Yalcin, Murat; Mousa, Shaker A

    2009-01-01

    Silver and gold nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties that have been extensively studied for biological and medical applications. Typically, gold and silver nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reductants that utilize excess toxic reactants, which need to be removed for biological purposes. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare metal nanoparticles for evaluating potential effects on angiogenesis modulation. These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate and gold chloride with diaminopyridinyl (DAP)-derivatized heparin (HP) polysaccharides. Both gold and silver nanoparticles reduced with DAPHP exhibited effective inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis, with an enhanced anti-angiogenesis efficacy with the conjugation to DAPHP (P<0.01) as compared to glucose conjugation. These results suggest that DAPHP-reduced silver nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles have potential in pathological angiogenesis accelerated disorders such as cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  15. Gold and silver nanoparticles conjugated with heparin derivative possess anti-angiogenesis properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Melissa M; Linhardt, Robert J [Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Kumar, Ashavani; Ajayan, Pulickel [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Mousa, Shaymaa; Dyskin, Evgeny; Yalcin, Murat; Mousa, Shaker A, E-mail: Shaker.mousa@acphs.ed [Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY 12208 (United States)

    2009-11-11

    Silver and gold nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties that have been extensively studied for biological and medical applications. Typically, gold and silver nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reductants that utilize excess toxic reactants, which need to be removed for biological purposes. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare metal nanoparticles for evaluating potential effects on angiogenesis modulation. These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate and gold chloride with diaminopyridinyl (DAP)-derivatized heparin (HP) polysaccharides. Both gold and silver nanoparticles reduced with DAPHP exhibited effective inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis, with an enhanced anti-angiogenesis efficacy with the conjugation to DAPHP (P<0.01) as compared to glucose conjugation. These results suggest that DAPHP-reduced silver nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles have potential in pathological angiogenesis accelerated disorders such as cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  16. Radiation Synthesis of PVA/ Chitosan Membranes Containing Silver Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbarbary, A.M.; El-Sawy, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by γ-rays of polyvinyl alcohol/ chitosan (PVA/ CS) membranes containing silver nitrate (AgNO ) with promising antimicrobial and biomedical applications. The synthesized silver nanoparticles characterized by Ultra Violet spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV studies showed a strong peak around λmax at 420 nm. A uniform distribution of silver nanoparticles inside PVA/ CS membranes was achieved by TEM investigation. The prepared silver nanoparticles showed good antimicrobial activity. The membranes containing AgNPs showed non-thrombogenicity effect and slightly haemolytic potential. The prepared membranes containing AgNPs had promising use in biomedical applications.

  17. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg

    is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  18. Copper and silver halates

    CERN Document Server

    Woolley, EM; Salomon, M

    2013-01-01

    Copper and Silver Halates is the third in a series of four volumes on inorganic metal halates. This volume presents critical evaluations and compilations for halate solubilities of the Group II metals. The solubility data included in this volume are those for the five compounds, copper chlorate and iodate, and silver chlorate, bromate and iodate.

  19. Nitrates and nitrites intoxications’ management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Trif

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study pointed out the major sources for clinical and subclinical intoxications with nitrates/nitrites (drinking water and nitrates containing fertilizers, circumstances that determine fertilizers to became sources of intoxication (excessive fertilization/consecutive high level of nitrates in fodders, free access of animals to the fertilizers, administration into the diet instead of natrium chloride, factors that determine high nitrates accumulation in fodders despite optimal fertilization (factors related to the plants, soil, clime, harvest methods, storage, agrotechnical measures, nitrates/nitrites toxicity (over 45 ppm nitrates in drinking water, over 0.5 g nitrate/100 g D.M fodder/diet, the factors that influence nitrates/nitrites toxicity ( species, age, rate of feeding, diet balance especially energetically, pathological effects and symptoms (irritation and congestions on digestive tract, resulting diarrhoea, transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin determining severe respiratory insufficiency, vascular collapse, low blood pressure inthe acute nitrates intoxication; hypotiroidism, hypovitaminosis A, reproductive disturbances(abortion, low rate of fertility, dead born offspring, diarrhoea and/or respiratory insufficiency in new born e.g. calves, immunosuppression, decrease of milk production in chronic intoxication. There were presented some suggestions concerning management practices to limit nitrate intoxication (analyze of nitrates/nitrites in water and fodders, good management of the situation of risk ,e .g. dilution of the diet with low nitrate content fodders, feeding with balanced diet in energy, protein, minerals and vitamins, accommodation to high nitrate level diet, avoid grazing one week after a frost period, avoid feeding chop green fodders stored a couple of days, monitoring of health status of animals fed with fodders containing nitrates at risk level, a.o..

  20. Electroless silver plating on PET fabric initiated by in situ reduction of polyaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Shipeng; Xie, Huayang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Wei [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Lab of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Yu, Dan, E-mail: yudan@dhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Lab of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We propose a method to initiate electroless plating by reduction of PANI. • The shielding effective of the silver-plated fabric reaches 50–90 dB. • The silver-plated fabric has good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Novel electroless silver plating poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric was prepared by a two-step procedure. In the first step, the in situ polymerized polyaniline (PANI) occurred on the fabric surface in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS). Then, Ag(0) species reduced from silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) by in situ reduction of PANI were used as catalyst to initiate electroless silver plating. Hence, this composite material was prepared by conductive polymer combined with electroless plating. The silver layer on PET fabric surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the silver layer was plated uniformly and compactly with surface resistance about 0.1 Ω/sq on average. The shielding effectiveness (SE) of silver-plated PET fabric was around 50–90 dB, which was considered to have potential applications in electromagnetic shielding materials. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis was carried out to study thermal stability. The antibacterial tests demonstrated that the silver-plated fabric exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli both with 100%.

  1. Inactivation of the antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of silver ions by biologically relevant compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Mulley

    Full Text Available There has been a recent surge in the use of silver as an antimicrobial agent in a wide range of domestic and clinical products, intended to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce bacterial colonization of surfaces. It has been reported that the antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of silver are affected by the assay conditions, particularly the type of growth media used in vitro. The toxicity of Ag+ to bacterial cells is comparable to that of human cells. We demonstrate that biologically relevant compounds such as glutathione, cysteine and human blood components significantly reduce the toxicity of silver ions to clinically relevant pathogenic bacteria and primary human dermal fibroblasts (skin cells. Bacteria are able to grow normally in the presence of silver nitrate at >20-fold the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC if Ag+ and thiols are added in a 1:1 ratio because the reaction of Ag+ with extracellular thiols prevents silver ions from interacting with cells. Extracellular thiols and human serum also significantly reduce the antimicrobial activity of silver wound dressings Aquacel-Ag (Convatec and Acticoat (Smith & Nephew to Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli in vitro. These results have important implications for the deployment of silver as an antimicrobial agent in environments exposed to biological tissue or secretions. Significant amounts of money and effort have been directed at the development of silver-coated medical devices (e.g. dressings, catheters, implants. We believe our findings are essential for the effective design and testing of antimicrobial silver coatings.

  2. Anticancer and enhanced antimicrobial activity of biosynthesizd silver nanoparticles against clinical pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Vanaja, Mahendran; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2016-07-01

    The present investigation shows the biosynthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles using culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and study the effect of enhanced antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity against pathogenic bacteria, fungi and cancer cell lines. Silver nanoparticles was synthesized by adding 1 mM silver nitrate into the 100 ml of 24 h freshly prepared culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Selected Area Diffraction X-Ray (SAED), Energy Dispersive X Ray (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infra red Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were impregnated with commercial antibiotics for evaluation of enhanced antimicrobial activity. Further these synthesized silver nanoparticles were assessed for its anticancer activity against cancer cell lines. In this study crystalline structured nanoparticles with spherical in the size ranges from 10 to 80 nm and it shows excellent enhanced antimicrobial activity than the commercial antibiotics. The in vitro assay of silver nanoparticles on anticancer have great potential to inhibit the cell viability. Amide linkages and carboxylate groups of proteins from Enterococcus sp. may bind with silver ions and convert into nanoparticles. The activities of commercial antibiotics were enhanced by coating silver nanoparticles shows significant improved antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles have the great potential to inhibit the cell viability of liver cancer cells lines (HepG2) and lung cancer cell lines (A549).

  3. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Tribulus terrestris and its antimicrobial activity: a novel biological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, V; MubarakAli, D; Priyadarshini, S; Priyadharsshini, N Meera; Thajuddin, N; Velusamy, P

    2012-08-01

    In the recent decades, increased development of green synthesis of nanoparticles is inevitable because of its incredible applications in all fields of science. There were numerous work have been produced based on the plant and its extract mediated synthesis of nanoparticles, in this present study to explore that the novel approaches for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant fruit bodies. The plant, Tribulus terrestris L. fruit bodies are used in this study, where the dried fruit body extract was mixed with silver nitrate in order to synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The active phytochemicals present in the plant were responsible for the quick reduction of silver ion (Ag(+)) to metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag(0)). The reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), XRD, FTIR, UV-vis spectroscopy. The spherical shaped silver nanoparticles were observed and it was found to be 16-28 nm range of sizes. The diffraction pattern also confirmed that the higher percentage of silver with fine particles size. The antibacterial property of synthesized nanoparticles was observed by Kirby-Bauer method with clinically isolated multi-drug resistant bacteria such as Streptococcus pyogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The plant materials mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles have comparatively rapid and less expensive and wide application to antibacterial therapy in modern medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application for mosquito control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize and characterize silver nanoparticles from aqueous root extract of Parthenium hysterophorus (P. hysterophorus and also to evaluate the potentiality of synthesized silver nanoparticles as larvacidal agent against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: The silver nano particles were generated using root extract of P. hysterophorus. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was done by visual color change, UV-Vis spectrum, scanning electron micrograph, fluorescent microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results: It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous root extract of P. hysterophorus to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in aqueous medium. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts, aqueous silver nitrate solution and synthesized silver nanoparticles for 0, 24 and 48 h separately. Aqueous root extract showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the maximum efficacy (60.18% was observed with the synthesized silver nanoparticles against the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusions: These results suggest that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friently approach for the control of the Cx. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the nano particle synthesized by P. hysterophorus.

  5. Green synthesis of monodisperse silver nanoparticles using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chunfa; Zhang, Xianglin, E-mail: hust_zxl@mail.hust.edu.cn; Cai, Hao

    2014-01-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose is reported. • HPMC and glucose are used as capping agent and reducing agent respectively. • It is the first time to use HPMC for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. • The small, spherical and well-dispersed particle is observed in the range of 3–17 nm. • The green method can be extended to other noble metals. -- Abstract: A simple and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of highly stable and small sized silver nanoparticles with narrow distribution from 3 nm to 17 nm is reported. Silver nitrate, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and glucose, were used as silver precursor, capping agents and reducing agents respectively. The formation of silver nanoparticles was observed by change of color from colorless to wine red. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results demonstrated that the obtained metallic nanoparticles were single crystalline silver nanoparticles capped with HPMC. The effects of the reaction time, reaction temperature and the concentration of silver ion and reducing agents on the particle size were investigated. A possible formation mechanism was proposed. The method may be extended to other noble metal for other technological applications such as additional medicinal, industrial applications.

  6. Green synthesis of monodisperse silver nanoparticles using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Chunfa; Zhang, Xianglin; Cai, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose is reported. • HPMC and glucose are used as capping agent and reducing agent respectively. • It is the first time to use HPMC for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. • The small, spherical and well-dispersed particle is observed in the range of 3–17 nm. • The green method can be extended to other noble metals. -- Abstract: A simple and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of highly stable and small sized silver nanoparticles with narrow distribution from 3 nm to 17 nm is reported. Silver nitrate, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and glucose, were used as silver precursor, capping agents and reducing agents respectively. The formation of silver nanoparticles was observed by change of color from colorless to wine red. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results demonstrated that the obtained metallic nanoparticles were single crystalline silver nanoparticles capped with HPMC. The effects of the reaction time, reaction temperature and the concentration of silver ion and reducing agents on the particle size were investigated. A possible formation mechanism was proposed. The method may be extended to other noble metal for other technological applications such as additional medicinal, industrial applications

  7. Preparation of Silver Nanostructures from Bicontinuous Microemulsions

    Directory of Open Access