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Sample records for silt loam designated

  1. Transport of atrazine and dicamba through silt and loam soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Friedel, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the role of preferential flow paths in the transport of atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) and dicamba (3-6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) through silt and loam soils overlying the High Plains aquifer in Nebraska. In a previous study, 3 of 6 study areas demonstrated high percentages of macropores; those three areas were used in this study for analysis of chemical transport. As a subsequent part of the study, 12 intact soil cores (30-cm diameter by 40-cm height), were excavated sequentially, two from each of the following depths: 0-40cm and 40-80cm. These cores were used to study preferential flow characteristics using dye staining and to determine hydraulic properties. Two undisturbed experimental field plots, each with a 3-m2 surface area, were installed in three study areas in Nebraska. Each was instrumented with suction lysimeters and tensiometers at depths of 10cm to 80cm in 10-cm increments. Additionally, each plot was planted with corn (Zea mays). A neutron probe access tube was installed in each plot to determine soil w ater content at 15-cm intervals. All plots were enclosed w ith a raised frame (of 8-cm height) to prevent surface runoff. All suction lysimeters were purged monthly for three months and were sampled immediately prior to pre-plant herbicide application to obtain background chemical concentrations. Atrazine and dicamba moved rapidly through the soil, but only after a heavy rainfall event, probably owing to the presence of preferential flow paths and lack of microbial degradation in these soil areas. Staining of laboratory cores showed a positive correlation between the percent area stained by depth and the subsequent breakthrough of Br- in the laboratory and leaching of field-applied herbicides owing to large rainfall events. Suction lysimeter samples in the field showed increases in concentrations of herbicides at depths where laboratory data indicated greater

  2. Advance of Wetting Front in Silt Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahmood

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Under drip irrigation , the plant's root is concentrated inside the wetted bulb (region. Thus, the development of these roots and the plant production are greatly affected by the wetting pattern. Therefore, the wetting pattern of soil under drip irrigation must be taken into consideration in the design of drip irrigation system for both single dripping source or multi-overlapping wetting patterns of dripping water sources.2The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of initial water content of the soil and spacing between two adjacent dripping sources with different flow rate on the movement of the wetting front.This study included 16 tests for monitoring the advancement of the wetting front with time during and after the water application phase. The water advance and water distribution measurement are carried out for two cases of the soil profile: for the first case with initial volumetric water content of 4.08% and for the second case with initial volumetric water content of 12.24%. Two spacing between the emitter were tested 25cm and 50 cm using application flow rates of 0.606, 1.212, 1.818, and 2.424 cm3 /min/cm to show the combined effect of spacing and flow rate on the performance of two adjacent emitter.The study proposed a method for determining the spacing between the two emitting sources , the water application rate and watering time. The proposed method depends on a wetted zone whose depth is equal to the root zone depth with a values equals to the maximum vertical advance of the wetting front underneath the drip line at time when this depth is equal to the depth of wetting at mid­point between the drip line. the study revealed that both the vertical water advance in soil underneath the emitter and the horizontal advance of the wetting front is larger than those in the case of single emitter.Furthermore, the vertical water advance increases with the decrease spacing between the two drip lines. Also, the horizontal advance of the

  3. Degradation of roxarsone in a silt loam soil and its toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tengfang; Ke, Zhengchen; Chen, Qing; Liu, Li; Chen, Guowei

    2014-10-01

    The land application of poultry or swine litter, containing large amounts of roxarsone, causes serious arsenic pollution in soil. Understanding biotransformation process of roxarsone and its potential risks favors proper disposal of roxarsone-contaminated animal litter, yet remains not achieved. We report an experimental study of biotransformation process of roxarsone in a silt loam soil under various soil moisture and temperature conditions, and the toxicity of roxarsone and its products from degradation. Results showed that soil moisture and higher temperature promoted roxarsone degradation, associating with emergent pentavalent arsenic. Analysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis activity revealed that roxarsone does not exert acute toxic on soil microbes. With the release of inorganic arsenic, FDA hydrolysis activity was inhibited gradually, as evidenced by ecotoxicological assessment using Photobacterium leiognathi. The results shade new lights on the dynamic roxarsone biotransformation processes in soil, which is important for guiding appropriate disposal of poultry or swine litter in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Soil nitrogen dynamics and Capsicum Annuum sp. plant response to biochar amendment in silt loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, Agota; Gelybo, Gyorgyi; Dencso, Marton; Toth, Eszter; Farkas, Csilla; Kasa, Ilona; Pokovai, Klara

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the growth of Capsicum Annuum sp. (pepper) in small-scale experiment to observe changes in plant growth and health as reflected by leaf area, plant height, yield, root density, and nitrogen usage. Based on field conditions, part of the study aimed to examine the photosynthetic and photochemical responses of plants to treatments resulting from different plant growth rates. During the 12.5 week long study, four treatments were investigated with biochar amount of 0, 0.5%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (by weight) added to silt loam soil. The plants were placed under natural environmental conditions, such that photosynthetic activities from photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the plants photochemical reflectance index (PRI) could be continuously measured after exposure to sunlight. In this study we found that benefits from biochar addition to silt loam soil most distinguishable occurred in the BC2.5 treatments, where the highest plant yield, highest root density, and highest leaf areas were observed compared to other treatments. Furthermore, data showed that too low (0.5%) or too high (5.0%) biochar addition to the soil had diminishing effects on Capsicum Annuum sp. growth and yield over time. At the end of the 12th week, BC2.5 had 22.2%, while BC0.5 and BC5.0 showed 17.4% and 15.7% increase in yield dry weight respectively compared to controls. The collected data also showed that the PRI values of plants growing on biochar treated soils were generally lower compared to control treatments, which could relate to leaf nitrogen levels. Total nitrogen amount showed marginal changes over time in all treatments. The total nitrogen concentration showed 28.6% and 17.7% increase after the 6th week of the experiment for BC2.5 and BC5.0, respectively, while inorganic nutrients of NO3-N and NH4+-N showed a continuous decrease during the course of the study, with a substantial drop during the first few weeks. The present study provides evidence for impact

  5. Combined mild soil washing and compost-assisted phytoremediation in treatment of silt loams contaminated with copper, nickel, and chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Menghau; Lee, Chi-Yi; Lee, Suen-Zone

    2011-06-15

    A new soil remediation option, combining the soil washing process using pure water followed by the compost-assisted phytoextraction, is evaluated using silt loams contaminated with plating wastewater containing Cu, Ni, and Cr. Plants utilized in this study are the rapeseeds, sunflowers, tomatoes, and soapworts. Phytoextraction operation was carried out in pot experiments over a period of 4 months. Metal concentrations in roots and shoots of plants were analyzed upon completion of each pot experiment. Hypothesis testing was employed in assessing the significance of difference in the experimental data. Results indicated that the rapeseed, a hyperaccumulator, is most effective in extracting metals from the compost-amended silt loams. The fast-growing sunflowers and tomatoes are comparable to rapeseeds in accumulating metals despite their relatively low metal concentrations in tissues. Bioaccumulation coefficients obtained for all plants are less than one, indicating that phytostabilization rather than phytoextraction is the dominant mechanism at this simulated final-phase condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial functional diversity responses to 2 years since biochar application in silt-loam soils on the Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Xia; Xiao, Qian; Shen, Yu-Fang; Li, Shi-Qing

    2017-10-01

    The structure and function of soil microbial communities have been widely used as indicators of soil quality and fertility. The effect of biochar application on carbon sequestration has been studied, but the effect on soil microbial functional diversity has received little attention. We evaluated effects of biochar application on the functional diversities of microbes in a loam soil. The effects of biochar on microbial activities and related processes in the 0-10 and 10-20cm soil layers were determined in a two-year experiment in maize field on the Loess Plateau in China. Low-pyrolysis biochar produced from maize straw was applied into soils at rates of 0 (BC0), 10 (BC10) and 30 (BC30)tha -1 . Chemical analysis indicated that the biochar did not change the pH, significantly increased the amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen, and decreased the amount of mineral nitrogen and the microbial quotient. The biochar significantly decreased average well colour development (AWCD) values in Biolog EcoPlates™ for both layers, particularly for the rate of 10tha -1 . Biochar addition significantly decreased substrate richness (S) except for BC30 in the 0-10cm layer. Effects of biochar on the Shannon-Wiener index (H) and Simpson's dominance (D) were not significant, except for a significant increase in evenness index (E) in BC10 in the 10-20cm layer. A principal component analysis clearly differentiated the treatments, and microbial use of six categories of substrates significantly decreased in both layers after biochar addition, although the use of amines and amides did not differ amongst the three treatments in the deeper layer. Maize above ground dry biomass and height did not differ significantly amongst the treatments, and biochar had no significant effect on nitrogen uptake by maize seedlings. H was positively correlated with AWCD, and negatively with pH. AWCD was positively correlated with mineral N and negatively with pH. Our results indicated that shifts in soil

  7. Cultivos de cobertura: efectos sobre la macroporosidad y la estabilidad estructural de un suelo franco-limoso Cover crops: effects on soil macroporosity and soil structural stability in a silt loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Varela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos franco-limosos manejados con siembra directa a menudo poseen porosidad estructural baja e inestable. Con el objetivo de determinar la capacidad de los cultivos de cobertura (CC de mejorar la porosidad y estabilidad estructural de estos suelos se llevaron a cabo experimentos de campo y de invernáculo. Ambos tuvieron tratamientos con y sin CC (avena, Avena sativa L., en rotación con soja (Glicine max L. Merr.. Luego de los CC se midieron densidad aparente (DA, el índice de inestabilidad estructural (IE y en el ensayo de invernáculo además, se midió la evolución de la distribución de tamaño de poros (DTP. En ambos ensayos la introducción de CC no disminuyó la DA, aunque incrementó la estabilidad del suelo (PNo- till (NT silt loam topsoils have often a low and unstable structural porosity. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of cover crops (CC of improving the structural porosity and stability of silt loam soils under NT. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out on a silt loam soil (Typic Argiudoll with and without CC (oat, Avena sativa L. in crop sequences with soybean (Glicine max L. Merr.. Soil bulk density (DA and aggregate instability index (IE were measured after the CC in both experiments. In the greenhouse experiment, soil pore size distribution (DTP was measured. The use of CC did not change DA, but soil IE was significantly lower in crop sequences with CC (P < 0.05 both under field and greenhouse conditions. Stability increases were likely due to the effect of CC residues and root mass. No differences in DTP were found between treatments, although a significant effect of sampling date was observed (P<0.05. Changes in DTP were due to significant increases in mesopore (517.5% and macropore (52.7% volumes. Such changes occurred in all the treatments, probably due to the soil wetting-drying cycles. The results found in this study agree with other studies carried out on silt loams in the

  8. Enhanced isoproturon mineralisation in a clay silt loam agricultural soil

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sebai , T.; Lagacherie , B.; Cooper , J.F.; Soulas , G.; Martin-Laurent , F.

    2005-01-01

    International audience; 14C-ring-labelled isoproturon mineralisation was investigated in a French agricultural soil previously exposed to isoproturon. 50 different soil samples collected every 2 m along a transect of 100 m in length were treated one or two times with isoproturon under laboratory conditions and analysed by radiorespirometry. 94% of the soil samples showed a high ability to mineralise isoproturon with a relatively low variability in the cumulative percentage of mineralisation r...

  9. Clinoptilolite zeolite influence on inorganic nitrogen in silt loam and sandy agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of best management practices can help improve inorganic nitrogen (N) availability to plants and reduce nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching in soils. This study was conducted to determine the influence of the zeolite mineral Clinoptilolite (CL) additions on NO3-N and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4...

  10. Estimating Infiltration Rates for a Loessal Silt Loam Using Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Dean Knighton

    1978-01-01

    Soil properties were related to infiltration rates as measured by single-ringsteady-head infiltometers. The properties showing strong simple correlations were identified. Regression models were developed to estimate infiltration rate from several soil properties. The best model gave fair agreement to measured rates at another location.

  11. Soil structure and earthworm activity in an marine silt loam under pasture versus arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, A.G.; Pulleman, M.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural management influences soil organic matter (SOM) and earthworm activity which interact with soil structure. We aimed to describe the change in earthworm activity and related soil (micro)structure and SOM in a loamy Eutrodept as affected by permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable

  12. Interaction of radionuclides with diluvium loams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyanov, V.V.; Guskov, A.V.; Tkachenko, A.V.; Prozorov, L.B.; Karlina, O.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Primary goal of this research was to study the interaction of radioactive liquid waste with diluvium loams. A geology-hydro-geological characterisation of the RADON-site facility, located in the Southern Region of Russia, is given. According to the results of laboratory and field studies, the hydro-geological parameters of diluvium loams were designed, and their mineral and grain structures were investigated. It was established, that loams have low filtration properties. Definition of filtration coefficients (Kf) under laboratory conditions has shown low values (hydraulic gradient J=10, Kf = 8.10 -4 m/day). But the field experiment has shown, that Kf values vary from 0.1 up to 0.04 m/day with a gradient of J=1! (It is important to point at the selection of the initial data for modelling migration). Mineral structure: quartz - 43 %, montmorillonite - 28 %, hydro-micas - 17 %, iron hydroxides - 5 %, feldspar - 3,7 %, kaolinite - 2 %, carbonates - 1 %, organics - 0,3 %. The content of minerals known as good sorbents, makes up to 52 %. Laboratory experiments dedicated to the determination of sorption isotherms for various radionuclides were carried out. As a result, distribution coefficients (Kd) for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 238 Pu were determined. Geology-hydro-geological and radiochemical data were used for the schematization of the system. Then, the mathematical modelling and forecasting of radionuclide migration was carried out. Two conservative scenarios were considered - full destruction of the waste matrices + water flow (lateral and vertical direction). As migrating components 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 238 Pu were considered. 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 238 Pu have different mobility due to their Kd ranging from tens and hundreds up to thousand ml/g depending on the properties of the diluvium loams. Initial radionuclide concentrations were as follow: 137 Cs -1.32.10 8 Bq/l, 60 Co - 2.52.10 7 Bq/l, 90 Sr - 1.81.10 7 Bq/l, 238 Pu - 7.78.10 6

  13. EFFECTS OF ALKALINE SANDY LOAM ON SULFURIC SOIL ACIDITY AND SULFIDIC SOIL OXIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Michael

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  In poor soils, addition of alkaline sandy loam containing an adequate proportion of sand, silt and clay would add value by improving the texture, structure and organic matter (OM for general use of the soils. In acid sulfate soils (ASS, addition of alkaline sandy would improve the texture and leach out salts as well as add a sufficient proportion of OM for vegetation establishment. In this study, addition of alkaline sandy loam into sulfuric soil effectively increased the pH, lowered the redox and reduced the sulfate content, the magnitude of the effects dependent on moisture content. Addition of alkaline sandy loam in combination with OM was highly effective than the effects of the lone alkaline sandy loam. When alkaline sandy was added alone or in combination with OM into sulfidic soil, the effects on pH and the redox were similar as in the sulfuric soil but the effect on sulfate content was variable. The effects under aerobic conditions were higher than under anaerobic conditions. The findings of this study have important implications for the general management of ASS where lime availability is a concern and its application is limited.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 42-54

  14. Silt fences: An economical technique for measuring hillslope soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; Robert E. Brown

    2002-01-01

    Measuring hillslope erosion has historically been a costly, time-consuming practice. An easy to install low-cost technique using silt fences (geotextile fabric) and tipping bucket rain gauges to measure onsite hillslope erosion was developed and tested. Equipment requirements, installation procedures, statistical design, and analysis methods for measuring hillslope...

  15. Silt-clay aggregates on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeley, R.

    1979-01-01

    Viking observations suggest abundant silt and clay particles on Mars. It is proposed that some of these particles agglomerate to form sand size aggregates that are redeposited as sandlike features such as drifts and dunes. Although the binding for the aggregates could include salt cementation or other mechanisms, electrostatic bonding is considered to be a primary force holding the aggregates together. Various laboratory experiments conducted since the 19th century, and as reported here for simulated Martian conditions, show that both the magnitude and sign of electrical charges on windblown particles are functions of particle velocity, shape and composition, atmospheric pressure, atmospheric composition, and other factors. Electrical charges have been measured for saltating particles in the wind tunnel and in the field, on the surfaces of sand dunes, and within dust clouds on earth. Similar, and perhaps even greater, charges are proposed to occur on Mars, which could form aggregates of silt and clay size particles. Electrification is proposed to occur within Martian dust clouds, generating silt-clay aggregates which would settle to the surface where they may be deposited in the form of sandlike structures. By analog, silt-clay dunes are known in many parts of the earth where silt-clay aggregated were transported by saltation and deposited as 'sand.' In these structures the binding forces were later destroyed, and the particles reassumed the physical properties of silt and clay, but the sandlike bedding structure within the 'dunes' was preserved. The bedding observed in drifts at the Viking landing site is suggested to result from a similar process involving silt-clay aggregates on Mars

  16. Impact of macropores and gravel outcrops on phosphorus leaching at the plot scale in silt loam soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to increased nutrient loads in surface waters, scientists and engineers need to identify critical nutrient source areas and transport mechanisms within a catchment to protect beneficial uses of aquatic systems in a cost effective manner. It was hypothesized that hydrologic heterogeneitie...

  17. Linear Shrinkage Behaviour of Compacted Loam Masonry Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAWAB ALI LAKHO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Walls of wet loam, used in earthen houses, generally experience more shrinkage which results in cracks and less compressive strength. This paper presents a technique of producing loam masonry blocks that are compacted in drained state during casting process in order to minimize shrinkage. For this purpose, loam masonry blocks were cast and compacted at a pressure of 6 MPa and then dried in shade by covering them in plastic sheet. The results show that linear shrinkage of 2% occurred which is smaller when compared to un-compacted wet loam walls. This implies that the loam masonry blocks compacted in drained state is expected to perform better than un-compacted wet loam walls.

  18. Migration of Co and Cs radionuclides through a loam soil column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Hakimi Sakuma bin Syed Ahmad; Shimooka, K.

    1990-01-01

    A soil column experiment was conducted to determine the migration of Co and Cs radionuclides through a loam soil. The different migration rates of the radionuclides at low and high concentrations were determined at pH 7. Retardation factor (Rf) both the radionuclides at low and high concentrations were determined by fitting adsorbed concentration distribution equations to observed values. The calculation shows that the Rf1=500 and Rf2=3 for Co at high and low concentrations, respectively. For Cs, the Rf1=600 and Rf2=5 at high and low concentrations, respectively. The results shows that major portions of both the radionuclides were adsorbed onto the soil layer at the top by ion exchange mechanism which resulted in the high retardation factor values. Minor portions had migrated downwards as insoluble cations, pseudocolloids and very fine silt particles resulting in the low retardation factor

  19. Water retention properties of stiff silt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Likar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research into the behaviour of soils has shown that it is in fact much more complex than can be described by the mechanics of saturated soils. Nowadays the trend of investigations has shifted towards the unsaturated state. Despite the signifiant progress that has been made so far, there are still a lot of unanswered questions related to the behaviour of unsaturated soils. For this reason, in the fild of geotechnics some new concepts are developed, which include the study of soil suction. Most research into soil suction has involved clayey and silty material, whereas up until recently no data have been available about measurements in very stiff preconsolidated sandy silt. Very stiff preconsolidated sandy silt is typical of the Krško Basin, where it is planned that some very important geotechnical structures will be built, so that knowledge about the behaviour of such soils at increased or decreased water content is essential. Several different methods can be used for soil suction measurements. In the paper the results of measurements carried out on very stiff preconsolidated sandy silt in a Bishop - Wesley double-walled triaxial cell are presented and compared with the results of soil suction measurements performed by means of a potentiometer (WP4C. All the measurement results were evaluated taking into account already known results given in the literature, using the three most commonly used mathematical models. Until now a lot of papers dealing with suction measurements in normal consolidated and preconsolidated clay have been published. Measurements on very stiff preconsolidated sandy silt, as presented in this paper were not supported before.

  20. Assessment of structural stability of a degraded sandy clay loam soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of bare, two legumes and four grasses cover treatments on the structural stability of a sandy clay loam Ultisol were studied within a two year period. The experiment was of a randomised complete block design with seven treatments. The legume treatments were Centrosema pubescens (Ce) and Pueraria ...

  1. Impact of tillage intensity on clay loam soil structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraghmeh, Omar; Petersen, Carsten; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    Soil structure and structural stability are key parameters in sustainable soil management and optimum cropping practices. Locally and temporally adapted precision tillage may improve crop performance while at the same time reduce environmental impacts. The main objective of this study...... was to improve the knowledge of precision tillage practices through characterizing the effect of varied tillage intensities on structural properties of a clay loam soil. A field experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with two main factors, i.e. operational speed (OS, 2 levels......) and rotovating speed (RS, 3 levels). The tillage was conducted using a PTO-driven rotovator equipped to measure angular velocity. The effect of traffic compaction, made directly after tillage, was measured on soil taken from wheel track (WT) compared with soil outside wheel track (NWT). Soil samples from 0-3 cm...

  2. Investigation on the cohesive silt/clay-particle sediment via the coupled CFD-DEM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S.; Sun, H.; Sun, R.

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentation of silt/clay particles happens ubiquitously in nature and engineering field. There have been abundant studies focusing on the settling velocity of the cohesive particles, while studies on the sediment deposited from silt/clay irregular particles, including the vertical concentration profile of sediment and the various forces among the deposited particles are still lacking. This paper aims to investigate the above topics by employing the CFD-DEM (Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method) simulations. In this work, we simulate the settling of the mono- and poly- dispersed silt/clay particles and mainly study the characteristics of the deposited cohesive sediment. We use the bonded particles to simulate the irregular silt/clay aggregates at the initial state and utilize the van der Waals force for all micro-particles to consider the cohesive force among silt/clay particles. The interparticle collision force and the fluid-particle interaction forces are also considered in our numerical model. The value of the mean structural density of cohesive sediment obtained from simulations is in good agreement with the previous research, and it is obviously smaller than no-cohesive sediment because of the existence of the silt/clay flocs. Moreover, the solid concentration of sediment increases with the growth of the depth. It is because the silt/clay flocs are more easily to break up due to the gradually increased submerged gravity of the deposited particles along the depth. We also obtain the noncontacted cohesive force and contact force profiles during the sedimentation and the self-weight consolidation process. The study of the concentration profile and the forces among silt/clay sediment will help to give an accurate initial condition for calculating the speed of the reconsolidation process by employing the artificial loads, which is necessary for practical designs of the land reclamation projects.

  3. Researches on the Constitutive Models of Artificial Frozen Silt in Underground Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugui Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The researches on the mechanical characteristic and constitutive models of frozen soil have important meanings in structural design of deep frozen soil wall. In the present study, the triaxial compression and creep tests have been carried out, and the mechanical characteristic of frozen silt is obtained. The experiment results show that the deformation characteristic of frozen silt is related to confining pressure under conventional triaxial compression condition. The frozen silt presents strain softening in shear process; with increase of confining pressure, the strain softening characteristic gradually decreases. The creep curves of frozen silt present the decaying and the stable creep stages under low stress level; however, under high stress level, once the strain increases to a critical value, the creep strain velocity gradually increases and the specimen quickly happens to destroy. To reproduce the deformation behavior, the disturbed state elastoplastic and new creep constitutive models of frozen silt are developed. The comparisons between experimental results and calculated results from constitutive models show that the proposed constitutive models could describe the conventional triaxial compression and creep deformation behaviors of frozen silt.

  4. effect of tractor forward speed on sandy loam soil physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Ilorin on a sandy loam soil to evaluate the effect of the imposition of different .... of the blade is 10.5cm. ... arranged in an inverted cone shape with ... replicates were taken for each speed run. The ..... Thakur, T. C; A. Yadav; B. P. Varshney and.

  5. Evaluation of filter fabrics for use in silt fences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The study reported was initiated to develop tests simulating field conditions that could be used to develop information for the formulation of specifications for use in purchasing filter fabrics to be used to construct silt fences. Fifteen fabrics we...

  6. Silt: 2 62 μm, 9 4φ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assallay, A. M.; Rogers, C. D. F.; Smalley, I. J.; Jefferson, I. F.

    1998-11-01

    The particles in finer-grained detrital sediments are usually composed of quartz. They fall into two size grades: sand (2 mm-62 μm) and silt (62 μm-2 μm). These size gradings conceal important geological processes since there are geological controls on both the quartz sand and silt populations. Sand nature is largely controlled by geochemical reactions, for example in cooling granite from which it is eventually released by weathering action. The quartz is among the last part of the rock system to solidify and the eutectic-like reaction which occurs ensures that the quartz exists as small crystalline units, each suffering considerable cooling and recrystallisation stresses. Silt is broken quartz, and has traditionally been considered to lack a specific geological control. The situation is confused by the large range of materials that fall into the size category, but there do seem to be distinguishable modes and possibly comminution limits within the 60 μm span. The controls operating in this size range are probably the critical concentration of `Moss' defects in the quartz particles. Moss postulated the formation of specific crystal defects in the quartz formed in granites. These affect sand formation and it is possible that they also control the mode size of silt particles. Within the silt range there may be several usefully definable populations, as Moss proposed for sand. The Quaternary appears to be a silt-rich period due to tectonic and glacial activity, but silt production is apparent throughout the sedimentary record. Very long-term silt producing processes are required. To produce silt in nature, on a large scale, very energetic processes are required. Many processes that are believed to generate silt particles have been listed. However, large-scale production is essentially due to glacial grinding, or to intense weathering processes in high, cold, tectonically active mountain regions. The region of High Asia (of crustal overlap) is a major generator of

  7. Shear strength of clay and silt embankments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Highway embankment is one of the most common large-scale geotechnical facilities constructed in Ohio. In the past, the design of these embankments was largely based on soil shear strength properties that had been estimated from previously published e...

  8. The art of screening : Effectiveness of silt screens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radermacher, M.; Van der Goot, F.; Rijks, D.C.; De Wit, L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the potential environmental issues associated with dredging in the marine environment is the increase of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) by generation and dispersion of sediment plumes. This can be mitigated by source control or by the installation of containment barriers like silt

  9. [Monitoring of water and salt transport in silt and sandy soil during the leaching process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Teng-Fei; Jia, Yong-Gang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Lei

    2012-11-01

    Water and salt transport in soil and its mechanism is the key point of the saline soil research. The dynamic rule of water and transport in soil during the leaching process is the theoretical basis of formation, flush, drainage and improvement of saline soil. In this study, a vertical infiltration experiment was conducted to monitor the variation in the resistivity of silt and sandy soil during the leaching process by the self-designed automatic monitoring device. The experimental results showed that the peaks in the resistivity of the two soils went down and faded away in the course of leaching. It took about 30 minutes for sandy soil to reach the water-salt balance, whereas the silt took about 70 minutes. With the increasing leaching times, the desalination depth remained basically the same, being 35 cm for sandy soil and 10 cm for the silt from the top to bottom of soil column. Therefore, 3 and 7 leaching processes were required respectively for the complete desalination of the soil column. The temporal and spatial resolution of this monitoring device can be adjusted according to the practical demand. This device can not only achieve the remote, in situ and dynamic monitoring data of water and salt transport, but also provide an effective method in monitoring, assessment and early warning of salinization.

  10. Strontium 90 in silts of the Dnieper cascade water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, V.D.; Kuz'menko, M.I.; Matvienko, L.P.; Klenus, V.G.; Nasvit, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    The change of strontium-90 content in water and silts of the Dnieper cascade water reservoirs was analyzed. It was shown, that decrease of strontium-90 content in water in time connected basically with ion exchange adsorption of strontium-90 by residues. A high sorption ability of residues made it possible for radioisotopes to reduce sharply their concentration along depth of soils. The highest concentration of radioisotopes was in the upper layers, enriched by silt. It was ascertained, that strontium-90 migration along depth of residues took place rapidly in the Kiev's water reservoir. Down the cascade strontium-90 content reduced in lower layers of residues as well as in upper layers. 4 tabs

  11. Methodological spot of establishing silt deposit concentration in Serbian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Slavoljub

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent methodology of sampling and establishing silt deposit concentration in Serbian rivers is associated to numerous deficiencies. Daily concentrations of this type of river deposit on the most of the hydrological gauges were obtained on the base of only one measurement, which takes into consideration the matter of representative ness of those samples. Taking the samples of deposit in one point on the profile is little bit problematic because of dispersion of the obtained results. Very important matter is the question of choice of the sampling location. This analyses of data may lead to serious spots in calculating total carried deposit. From the above mentioned reasons, we decided to take precise measurements of silt deposit concentration as well as to establish methodological spots of measurements. The results of these measurements are analyzed and presented in this paper.

  12. Method of treatment of radioactive silts and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlakov, A.P.; Sobolev, I.A.; Barinov, A.S.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Karlin, S.V.; Flit, V.U.

    1997-01-01

    To solve the problem of silts and soils that are contaminated with radioactive and toxic substances, the following method has been developed at SIA RADON. The material is mixed with limestone and other components, including up to 70% (mass) of dried residue of liquid radioactive waste. The mixture is heated at 800 to 1,000 C, shredded, and used to form cement. This cementation process may be used to treat radioactive or other chemical waste. The work demonstrated that in the case of silts, for example, the product volume is reduced by a factor of 1.5 to 3 compared to the initial silts volume. A fast hardening, durable product is obtained, the quality of which is not inferior to that obtained by using the traditional binders. For some parameters, e.g., hardening rate and macroelement leaching, the current method is significantly better than the traditional cementation process. It has also been demonstrated that, over a wide range of parameters, when dry residue of liquid radioactive waste is used in the initial mixture, the part of NO x can be reduced to nitrogen, thereby reducing NO x emissions

  13. Processing Uranium-Bearing Materials Containing Coal and Loam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civin, V; Prochazka, J [Research and Development Laboratory No. 3 of the Uranium Industry, Prague, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1967-06-15

    Among the ores which are classified as low-grade in the CSSR are mixtures of coal and bentonitic loam of tertiary origin, containing approximately 0.1% U and with a moisture content at times well above 20-30%. The uranium is held mainly by the carbonaceous component. Conventional processing of these materials presents various difficulties which are not easily overcome. During leaching the pulp thickens and frequently becomes pasty, due to the presence of montmorillonites. Further complications arise from the high sorption capacity of the materials (again primarily due to montmorillonites) and poor sedimentation of the viscous pulps. In addition, the materials are highly refractory to the leaching agents. The paper presents experience gained in solving the problems of processing these ores. The following basic routes were explored: (1) separation of the carbonaceous and loamy components: The organic component appears to be the main activity carrier. Processing the concentrated material upon separation of the inactive or less active loam may not only remove the thixotropic behaviour but also substantially reduce the cost of the ore treatment; (2) 'liquifying' the pulps or preventing the thickening of the pulp by addition of suitable agents; (3) joint acid or carbonate processing of the materials in question with current ore types; (4) removal or suppression of thixotropic behaviour by thermal pretreatment of the material; and (5) application of the 'acid cure' method. The first method appears to be the most effective, but it presents considerable difficulties due to the extreme dispersion of the carbonaceous phase and further research is being carried out. Methods 2 and 3 proved to be unacceptable. Method 4, which includes roasting at 300-400{sup o}C, is now being operated on an industrial scale. The final method has also shown definite advantages for particular deposits of high montmorillonite content material. (author)

  14. Performance Evaluations of Three Silt Fence Practices Using a Full-Scale Testing Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alan Bugg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Erosion and sediment controls on construction sites minimize environmental impacts from sediment-laden stormwater runoff. Silt fence, a widely specified perimeter control practice on construction projects used to retain sediment on-site, has limited performance-based testing data. Silt fence failures and resultant sediment losses are often the result of structural failure. To better understand silt fence performance, researchers at the Auburn University-Erosion and Sediment Control Testing Facility (AU-ESCTF have evaluated three silt fence options to determine possible shortcomings using standardized full-scale testing methods. These methods subject silt fence practices to simulated, in-field conditions typically experienced on-site without the variability of field testing or the limited application of small-scale testing. Three different silt fence practices were tested to evaluate performance, which included: (1 Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT Trenched Silt Fence, (2 ALDOT Sliced Silt Fence, and (3 Alabama Soil and Water Conservation Committee (AL-SWCC Trenched Silt Fence. This study indicates that the structural performance of a silt fence perimeter control is the most important performance factor in retaining sediment. The sediment retention performance of these silt fence practices was 82.7%, 66.9% and 90.5%, respectively. When exposed to large impoundment conditions, both ALDOT Trench and Sliced Silt Fence practices failed structurally, while the AL-SWCC Trenched Silt Fence did not experience structural failure.

  15. Suspended silt concentrations in the lower Olifants River (Mpumalanga and the impact of silt releases from the Phalaborwa Barrage on water quality and fish survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Buermann

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Silt loads in the Olifants and Sabie river systems inside the Kruger National Park, were monitored by collecting water samples every consecutive week for a period of 20 months. The variation in silt concentration, changes in selected physico-chemical water quality variables and fish mortalities during flushing (i.e. release of silt, by sluicing of the Phalaborwa Barrage, were also monitored. The Olifants River inside the Kruger National Park carried high silt loads in summer; in the dry season the suspensoid load was greatly reduced. A similar pattern was observed in the Sabie River, but the silt loads were generally lower. It was apparent that silt loads released from the Phalaborwa Barrage led to large variations in the natural silt loads of the Olifants River. These increased amounts of silt (25 000 mg/1 to >70 000 mg/1 caused drastic reductions in the dissolved oxygen concentration of the water, ranging from >6 mg/1 to 0 mg/1. Depending on the severity and duration of the flushing, fish succumb to such silt loads. These findings, as well as published information, indicate that the management strategy of flushing to improve storage capacity is ecological unacceptable. It is therefore suggested that the use of the Phalaborwa Barrage as a future reservoir should be critically re-evaluated.

  16. Thermal conductivity tests on buffermasses of bentonite/silt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, S.

    1977-09-01

    The investigation concerns the thermal conductivity of the bentonite/quartz buffer mass suggested as embedding substance for radioactive canisters. The first part presents the theoretical relationships associated with the various heat transfer mechanisms in moist granular materials. Chapter 3 describes the author's experimental determination of the thermal conductivity of the buffer mass. The tested mass consisted of 10 percent (by weight) bentonite and 90 percent natural silt. Four tests were made with different water content values and degree of water saturation. A comparison between the measured and calculated thermal conductivities is given. It is shown that the conductivity can be calculated with an accuracy of +-20 percent. (author)

  17. Treatment of radioactive silts and soils with organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Barinov, A.S.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Varlakov, A.P.; Karlin, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Moscow SIA RADON is developing the ''Clinker'' method to treat radioactive silts and grounds. The ''Clinker'' method consists of radioactive silt (ground) mixed with lime and other components. This mixture is calcined at 800 to 1000 o C. The product is ground to a surface area size of 2500 to 4500 cm 2 /g, mixed with water at a water-to-cement ratio not less than 0.25, and aged to form a solid monolith. The ''Clinker'' method was compared to the traditional cementation methods. The ''Clinker'' method reduces the final volume and enhance the strength characteristics of the final product. The ''Clinker'' cement compound has higher hardening rate. Preliminary data show that it has higher cold resistance, sulfate and leaching corrosion durability in comparison to one prepared by the traditional cementation method. The range of applicability of the ''Clinker'' method is increased by the possibility of treating materials containing up to 80% (mass) of organic materials, such as turf, flora and fauna decomposition products, and manmade material, including natural materials, such as petroleum products and polymers. In addition, the ''Clinker'' method does not require expensive waste binders, i.e., cement. The ''Clinker'' cement can be used for cementation of other radioactive waste. (author)

  18. Non-cohesive silt turbidity current flow processes; insights from proximal sandy-silt and silty-sand turbidites, Fiordland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Lorna J.; Bostock, Helen C.; Barnes, Philip M.; Neil, Helen L.; Gosling, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Silt-rich turbidites are commonly interpreted as distal marine deposits. They are associated with interlaminated clay and silt deposition from the upper and rear portions of turbidity currents. Here, multibeam bathymetry and shallow sediment core data from the intra-slope Secretary Basin, Fiordland, New Zealand, located laminar) flows that have undergone a variety of up-dip flow transformations. Most flows were initially erosive followed by deposition of partitioned 2- or 3- phase mixed mode flows that include high-density transitional and laminar flows that can be fore- or after-runners to low-density turbulent flow sections. Turbulence is inferred to have been suppressed in high-density flows by increasing flow concentration of both sands and silts. The very fine and fine sand modal grain sizes of sandy-silt and silty-sand turbidites are significantly coarser than classical abyssal plain silt turbidites and are generally coarser than overbank silt turbidites. While the low percentage of clays within Secretary Basin sandy-silt and silty-sand turbidites represents a fundamental difference between these and other silt and mud turbidites, we suggest these beds represent a previously undescribed suite of proximal continental slope deposits.

  19. Migration of cesium-137 through sandy soil layer effect of fine silt on migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1983-01-01

    The migration of 137 Cs through sandy soil layer was studied with consideration of the migration of fine silt by column method. It was found that a portion of fine silt migrated through the soil layer accompanying with 137 Cs. The mathematical migration model of 137 Cs involved the migration of fine silt through such soil layer was presented. This model gave a good accordance between calculated concentration distribution curve in sandy soil layer and effluent curve and observed those. So, this model seems to be advanced one for evaluating migration of 137 Cs in sandy soil layer with silt. (author)

  20. Experimental testing of a SAG digital SILT application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, J.

    1995-10-01

    A prototype dynamic testing harness for programmable automation systems has been specified and implemented at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). In order to get experience on the methodology and equipment for the testing of systems important to the safety of nuclear power plants, where the safety and reliability requirements often are very high, two different pilot systems have been tested. One system was an ABB Master application, which was loaned for testing from ABB Atom by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Another system, loaned from Siemens AG(SAG) by IVO International Oy (IVO), was an application realized with SAG's digital SILT technology. The report describes the testing of the SAG application. The purpose of the testing was not to assess the pilot system, but to get experience in the testing methodology and find out the further development needs and potentials of the test methodology and equipment. The experience show that dynamic testing is one feasible way to get more confidence about the safety and reliability of a programmable system that would be hard to achieve by other means. It also shows that more development of the test harness is still needed, especially concerning the comparison of the obtained test response to the expected response provided by the logical model of the system. Also the user interface of the on-line part of the test harness needs development. Methods for generation of the test cases also need further development eg. for achieving statistical significance for the reliability estimates. (10 refs., 90 figs., 9 tabs.)

  1. Effect of biochar amendment on nitrate retention in a silty clay loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Libutti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochar incorporation into agricultural soils has been proposed as a strategy to decrease nutrient leaching. The present study was designed to assess the effect of biochar on nitrate retention in a silty clay loam soil. Biochar obtained from the pyrogasification of fir wood chips was applied to soil and tested in a range of laboratory sorption experiments. Four soil treatments were considered: soil only (control, soil with 2, 4 and 8% of biochar by mass. The Freundlich sorption isotherm model was used to fit the adsorbed amount of nitrate in the soil-biochar mixtures. The model performed very well in interpreting the experimental data according to a general linear regression (analysis of co-variance statistical approach. Nitrate retention in the soilbiochar mixtures was always higher than control, regardless the NO3 – concentration in the range of 0-400 mg L–1. Different sorption capacities and intensities were detected depending on the biochar application rate. The highest adsorption capacity was observed in the soils added with 2 and 4% of biochar, respectively. From the results obtained is possible to infer that nitrate retention is higher at lower biochar addition rate to soil (2 and 4% and at lower nitrate concentration in the soil water solution. These preliminary laboratory results suggest that biochar addition to a typical Mediterranean agricultural soil could be an effective management option to mitigate nitrate leaching.

  2. Interpretation of Piezocones in Silt, Using Cavity Expansion and Critical State Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Randolph, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    was simulated using cylindrical cavity expansion in conjunction with a plasticity model formulated within the framework of critical state soil mechanics. The results readily explain the low cone tip resistance measured in silt sediments; this is a derived effect of the silt having a large slope of the critical...... state line, resulting in rather weak and compressible behaviour at high mean effective stresses....

  3. Identification and stabilization methods for problematic silt soils : a laboratory evaluation of modification and stabilization additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The instability and pumping response of non-plastic, high silt (and fine sand) soils was investigated. Common reagents, i.e., lime, lime-fly ash, Portland cement, and slag cement were included as admixtures with three high silt (and fine sand) soils....

  4. [Effect of suspended silt from dredging at Yangtze estuary on Brachionus plicatilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinqui; Xu, Zhaoli; Shi, Chun; Chen, Yaqu

    2002-07-01

    The effect of suspended silt from dredging at Yangtze estuary on Brachionus plicatilis was investigated by clonal culture (to construct life table) and population accumulative culture. The intrinsic increasing rate of the rotifer population was greatly reduced under different concentrations (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 mg.ml-1) of silt, from 29.6% to 64.1%, and to a maximum of 130.0%. The suspended silt affected population survival rate, rather than its reproduction rate. In accumulative culture, the densities of female, males, parthenogenetic eggs, and resting eggs in the population were not affected by silt. It was concluded that the presence of suspended silt should have a certain negative influence on the rotifer population in dredging Yangtze estuary.

  5. Geopolymerisation of silt generated from construction and demolition waste washing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampris, C; Lupo, R; Cheeseman, C R

    2009-01-01

    Recycling plants that size, sort and wash construction and demolition waste can produce high quality aggregate. However, they also produce up to 80ton per hour of filter cake waste containing fine (waste and normally landfilled. This research investigated the potential to form geopolymers containing silt, which would allow this problematic waste to be beneficially reused as aggregate. This would significantly improve the economic viability of recycling plants that wash wastes. Silt filter cakes have been collected from a number of aggregate washing plants operating in the UK. These were found to contain similar aluminosilicate crystalline phases. Geopolymer samples were produced using silt and silt mixed with either metakaolin or pulverised fuel ash (PFA). Silt geopolymers cured at room temperature had average 7-day compressive strengths of 18.7MPa, while partial substitution of silt by metakaolin or PFA increased average compressive strengths to 30.5 and 21.9MPa, respectively. Curing specimens for 24h at 105 degrees C resulted in a compressive strength of 39.7MPa and microstructural analysis confirmed the formation of dense materials. These strengths are in excess of those required for materials to be used as aggregate, particularly in unbound applications. The implications of this research for the management of waste silt at construction and demolition waste washing plants are discussed.

  6. influence of tillage practices on physical properties of a sandy loam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    many regions of the world if the mechanics of tillage effects on soil physical properties is to be well understood. Thus, the ... tillage systems on water storage of a sandy loam soil after 22 years of ..... Soil infiltration ... and processes. Academy ...

  7. Pore structure characteristics after two years biochar application to a sandy loam field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Arthur, Emmanuel; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2015-01-01

    the effects of birch wood biochar (20, 40, and 100 Mg ha−1) applied to a sandy loam on soil total porosity and pore structure indices. Bulk and intact soil samples were collected for physicochemical analyses and water retention and gas diffusivity measurements between pF 1.0 and pF 3.0. Biochar application...

  8. Investigating the settling dynamics of cohesive silt particles with particle-resolving simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Xiao, Heng; Sun, Honglei

    2018-01-01

    The settling of cohesive sediment is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, and the study of the settling process is important for both engineering and environmental reasons. In the settling process, the silt particles show behaviors that are different from non-cohesive particles due to the influence of inter-particle cohesive force. For instance, the flocs formed in the settling process of cohesive silt can loosen the packing, and thus the structural densities of cohesive silt beds are much smaller than that of non-cohesive sand beds. While there is a consensus that cohesive behaviors depend on the characteristics of sediment particles (e.g., Bond number, particle size distribution), little is known about the exact influence of these characteristics on the cohesive behaviors. In addition, since the cohesive behaviors of the silt are caused by the inter-particle cohesive forces, the motions of and the contacts among silt particles should be resolved to study these cohesive behaviors in the settling process. However, studies of the cohesive behaviors of silt particles in the settling process based on particle-resolving approach are still lacking. In the present work, three-dimensional settling process is investigated numerically by using CFD-DEM (Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method). The inter-particle collision force, the van der Waals force, and the fluid-particle interaction forces are considered. The numerical model is used to simulate the hindered settling process of silt based on the experimental setup in the literature. The results obtained in the simulations, including the structural densities of the beds, the characteristic lines, and the particle terminal velocity, are in good agreement with the experimental observations in the literature. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that the influences of non-dimensional Bond number and particle polydispersity on the structural densities of silt beds have been investigated separately

  9. Shear strength of clay and silt embankments : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Highway embankments constitute some of the most common geotechnical facilities being constructed by highway and transportation agencies. The design, construction, and field performance of these embankments are great importance to federal and state tr...

  10. Determination of Selenium Toxicity for Survival and Reproduction of Enchytraeid Worms in a Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    LOAM SOIL ECBC-TR-1388 Roman G. Kuperman Ronald T. Checkai Michael Simini Carlton T. Phillips RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE Richard M...plastic wrap was stretched over the top of each container and secured with a rubber band. Three pinholes were made in the plastic wrap to 6...172–178. Glover, J.; Levander, O.; Parizek, J.; Vouk, V. Selenium. In Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals; Friberg, L., Norberg, G.F., Vouk, V.B

  11. Model assessment of protective barrier designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Conbere, W.; Heller, P.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1985-11-01

    A protective barrier is being considered for use at the Hanford site to enhance the isolation of previously disposed radioactive wastes from infiltrating water, and plant and animal intrusion. This study is part of a research and development effort to design barriers and evaluate their performance in preventing drainage. A fine-textured soil (the Composite) was located on the Hanford site in sufficient quantity for use as the top layer of the protective barrier. A number of simulations were performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to analyze different designs of the barrier using the Composite soil as well as the finer-textured Ritzville silt loam and a slightly coarser soil (Coarse). Design variations included two rainfall rates (16.0 and 30.1 cm/y), the presence of plants, gravel mixed into the surface of the topsoil, an impermeable boundary under the topsoil, and moving the waste form from 10 to 20 m from the barrier edge. The final decision to use barriers for enhanced isolation of previously disposed wastes will be subject to decisions resulting from the completion of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement, which addresses disposal of Hanford defense high-level and transuranic wastes. The one-dimensional simulation results indicate that each of the three soils, when used as the top layer of the protective barrier, can prevent drainage provided plants are present. Gravel amendments to the upper 30 cm of soil (without plants) reduced evaporation and allowed more water to drain

  12. Turnover of intra- and extra-aggregate organic matter at the silt-size scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Virto; C. Moni; C. Swanston; C. Chenu

    2010-01-01

    Temperate silty soils are especially sensitive to organic matter losses associated to some agricultural management systems. Long-term preservation of organic C in these soils has been demonstrated to occur mainly in the silt- and clay-size fractions, although our knowledge about the mechanisms through which it happens remains unclear. Although organic matter in such...

  13. Studies for determining drain solid flow in bed silt, using radioisotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, W.

    1976-01-01

    A process for measuring solid flow in silt bed using isotopic technique is studied. Comparative studies for initial movement of grinded glass grains and sand grains is done. The development for determining the minimum mass of radioative grains of sand, used for flow evaluation is also studied. Further experiments in the field of reference confirm technological conditions for the method [pt

  14. Fault creep and stress drops in saturated silt-clay gouge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombolakis, E.G.; Hepburn, J.C.; Roy, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of physicochemical processes in saturated silt-clay gouge indicates that this type of fault zone material can account for for the following phenomena: (1) the nonlinear mechanical behavior indicated by certain geophysical measurements along the San Andreas fault zone, (2) the low stress drops associated with earthquakes to several kilometers' depth, and (3) the recurrence of creep-induced instabilities at shallow depths along fault zones. A rheological model is described for a gouge consisting of colloidal size clay platelets with absorbed water, brittle silt size particles, and 'free' pore water. Recurrence of shallow earthquakes or accelerated creep is explained in the model by thixotropic hardening of the colloidal phase following shear deformation, i.e., by electrochemical reorientation of clay platelets from a dispersed structure to a face-to-edge type of structure during a quiescent period. The silt phase must support part of the effective mean stress for thixotropic hardening to occur at several kilometers' depth. The peak shear strength of the gouge in this case is expressed in functional form by S/sub p/=f[kappaP/sub e/+sigma-bar/sub c/ tan psi/sub e/; sigma-bar/sub s/ tan psi/sub s/], where kappa, P/sub e/, and psi/sub e/ are Hvorslev parameters; sigma-bar/sub c/ is the effective stress in the colloidal phase, acting normal to the shear zone; sigma-bar/sub s/ is the effective stress in the silt phase, acting normal to the shear zone; and psi/sub s/ is the 'friction angle' of the silt phase. The peak shear strength is time dependent owing to viscous type contacts between absorbed water layers surrounding the colloidal platelets. The time-dependent nature of S/sub p/ may be responsible for certain nonlinear behavior noted in fault zones and for the small stress drops associated with earthquakes occurring at several kilometers' depth

  15. Interaction of the Bored Sand and Gravel Drain Pile with the Surrounding Compacted Loam Soil and Foundation Raft Taking into Account Rheological Properties of the Loam Soil and Non-Linear Properties of the Drain Pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Martirosyan, Z. G.; Ter-Martirosyan, A. Z.; Anzhelo, G. O.; Buslov, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    The task of the interaction of the sand and gravel drain pile with the surrounding loam soil after its preliminary deep compaction and formation of the composite ground cylinder from the drain pile and surrounding compacted loam soil (cells) is considered in the article. It is seen that the subsidence and carrying capacity of such cell considerably depends on physical and mechanical properties of the compacted drain piles and surrounding loam soil as well as their diameter and intercellular distance. The strain-stress state of the cell is considered not taking into account its component elements, but taking into account linear and elastic-plastic properties of the drain pile and creep flow of the surrounding loam soil. It is stated that depending on these properties the distribution and redistribution of the load on a cell takes place from the foundation raft between the drain pile and surrounding soil. Based on the results of task solving the formulas and charts are given demonstrating the ratio of the load between the drain pile and surrounding loam soil in time.

  16. Mineralogia, química e estabilidade de agregados do tamanho de silte de solos da Região Sudeste do Brasil Mineralogy, chemistry and stability of silt-size aggregates of soils from the Southeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Tadeu Vitorino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a relação da composição mineralógica e química do solo com a estabilidade de agregados do tamanho de silte, foram realizados estudos utilizando-se amostras de horizontes A e B de diversos solos da Região Sudeste do Brasil. Amostras de TFSA foram dispersas a 12.000 rpm por 20 minutos e a fração silte foi separada por esgotamento da fração argila, constituindo-se na fração denominada pseudo-silte, a qual foi sonificada, separando-se a fração argila desagregada (por sifonamento da fração silte propriamente dita. Estudos de correlação mostraram que as composições mineralógica e química dos solos têm efeito marcante na dispersão de argila, com reflexos na fração silte. Maiores teores de gibbsita refletem em maior estabilidade dos agregados do tamanho de silte ao passo que a caulinita proporciona efeito inverso. As formas de Al determinadas na fração pseudo-silte estão associadas à maior dificuldade de dispersão da fração argila dos solos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship of soil mineralogical and chemical composition with stability of silt-size aggregates. The studies were carried out using samples of A and B horizons of some soils from the Southeast Region of Brazil. Fine-earth samples were dispersed at 12,000 rpm during 20 minutes and the silt fraction was separated through clay fraction drain, constituting the fraction named pseudo-silt, which was sonificated, separating the desegregated clay fraction (by sonication from the properly named silt fraction. Correlation analyses showed that the soil mineralogical and chemical compositions have marked influence upon clay dispersion, with reflections on the silt fraction. Higher amounts of gibbsite reflect in higher stability of silt-size aggregates, while the kaolinite promotes inverse effect. The Al forms determined on the pseudo-silt fraction are associated with higher difficult of dispersion of clay fraction of

  17. Cadmium phytoextraction from loam soil in tropical southern China by Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Chen, Can; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-06-03

    The cadmium (Cd) uptake characteristics by Sorghum bicolor cv. Nengsi 2# and Cowley from the acidic sandy loam soil (pH = 6.1) during the entire growth period (100 days) were investigated in pot outdoors in a tropical district of southern China, Hainan Island. The Cd-spiked levels in soil were set as 3 and 15 mg/kg. Correspondingly, the available Cd levels in soil extracted by Mehlich III solution were 2.71 and 9.41 mg/kg, respectively. Basically, two varieties in a full growth period (100 days) did not show a significant difference in their growth and Cd uptake. Under high Cd stress, the plant growth was inhibited and its biomass weight and height decreased by 38.7-51.5% and 27.6-28.5%, respectively. However, S. bicolor showed higher bioaccumulation capability of Cd from soil to plant [bioconcentration factor (BCF)>4], and higher transfer capability of Cd from roots to shoots [translocation factor (TF)>1] under high Cd stress; Cd contents in the roots, stems, and leaves of S. bicolor reached 43.79-46.07, 63.28-70.60, and 63.10-66.06 mg/kg, respectively. S. bicolor exhibited the potential phytoextraction capability for low or moderate Cd-contamination in acidic sandy loam soil.

  18. Effect of size and concentration of silt particles on erosion of Pelton turbine buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhy, M.K.; Saini, R.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)

    2009-10-15

    Erosive wear of hydro turbine runners depends upon different parameters such as size, hardness and concentration of silt particles, velocity of flow, properties of the base material of the turbine components and operating hours of the turbine. Various researchers have conducted experiments to study the effect of these parameters on erosive wear. Most of these experiments were on small-size samples at different types of test rigs to simulate the flow conditions in turbines, however actual flow conditions and the phenomenon of erosive wear are too complex to simulate. Under the present study, effect of these parameters on erosion in actual conditions has been investigated experimentally. An extensive experimental study has been carried out on a small scale Pelton turbine. Based on the experimental data collected for different parameters, correlations have been developed for wear rate of Pelton turbine buckets as a function of critical parameters, i.e., size and concentration of silt particles and jet velocity. (author)

  19. IMPACT OF A USED STABILISER ON THE CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO OF THE CLAYEY-SANDY SILT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kamińska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed at the determination of the California Bearing Ratio of a stabilised and unstabilised fine-grained mineral soil. A clayey-sandy silt with the addition of 3, 6 and 10% of road stabilisers Solidex and Solidex A was used for the tests. The tests were carried out in the press Tritech 50 at the loading of 22 and 44 N. The stabilised samples were subjected to 7-days treatment, whereas unstabilised 4-days treatment. Stabilization with the applied road binders brought positive effects, there occurred a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the clayey-sandy silt. The better binder, which significantly increased the value of the CBR ratio, was Solidex A. The use of hydraulic binders is of a great importance in road building, because their addition improves the mechanical properties of weaker mineral soils.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF VARIABILITY IN PERMEABILITY OF SANDY SILT SOIL MIXED WITH FLY ASH IN PROPORTIONATE

    OpenAIRE

    Rasna Sharma*, Dr. M.K. Trivedi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental determination of variability in permeability of sandy silt soil by blending with fly ash. The grain size, porosity, structure of the soil, specific gravity of the soil, viscosity and temperature are important factors in varying the permeability of the soil. Permeability is the flow conduction property of the soil. The void ratio with in the soil plays a vital role in varying the permeability. By blending with finer grains like fly ash in the soil with sand...

  1. IMPACT OF SAND DREDGING AND SILT EXTRACTION ACTIVITY ON RIVER AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS : A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal S. Gholap

    2016-01-01

    The present research work highlights the influences of sand dredging and extensive silt quarrying activity on rivers. The sand dredging activity and its impact on the river processes and other river environment have discussed in the present review paper. It has seen that most of the rivers and their processes are highly degraded and altered due to these activities. In India and almost in the regions of Maharashtra, the ground water is decreasing and such activities also invited the problems ...

  2. Carbon saturation in the silt and clay particles in soils with contrasting mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Matus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The silt and clay particles play a key role as stabilizing agents of soil organic carbon (SOC. Several lines of evidence indicate a theoretical maximum or C saturation in individual particles. In the present study, we hypothesized that a C fraction displaying linear accumulation relative to the SOC is not influenced by C saturation, while a fraction displaying an asymptotic relationship is regarded as saturated (Stewart et al., 2008. The aim of the present study was to compare the amount of C in the silt and clay sized fractions in temperate and subtropical cropping soils across a range of textures with different mineralogy. Twenty-one and 18 soil samples containing 1:1 and 2:1 clay of temperate soil from Chile under monoculture of maize (Zea maiz L. for at least 30 years and 9 subtropical soils from Mexico under maize and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cropping for 9 years having mixed clay were collected at 0-0.1 m. The SOC of 2:1 soils was significantly higher (14±0.5 g kg-1 dry soil than 1:1 soils (10±0.7 g kg-1. However, subtropical soils showed the highest values (59±0.5 g kg-1. A positive (P < 0.01 relationship was observed between the SOC and the C in the silt fraction (R2 0.80-0.97, P < 0.01. In contrast, the clay fraction remained constant or showed asymptotic behavior. We conclude that the silt fraction, unlike clay, showed no evidence of C saturation, while clay accumulates C to a maximum. On average, the 2:1 clay was saturated at 1-2 g C kg-1 and 1:1 at 1 g C kg-1, and subtropical soils at 14 g C kg-1.

  3. Frequency distribution of ABO and Rh (D) blood group alleles in Silte Zone, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kassahun Tesfaye; Yohannes Petros; Mebeaselassie Andargie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Frequency distribution of blood groups is important as it is used in modern medicine, genetic research, anthropology, and tracing ancestral relations of humans. The ABO and Rh blood groups are the most important blood groups despite the long list of several other blood groups discovered so far. Aim of the study: To study and document the frequency of ABO and Rh (D) blood groups in three ethnic groups of Silte Zone, Ethiopia. Subjects and methods: ABO and Rh (D) typing was ca...

  4. Effect of biochar on aerobic processes, enzyme activity, and crop yields in two sandy loam soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Bruun, Esben; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Biochar added to agricultural soils may sequester carbon and improve physico-chemical conditions for crop growth, due to effects such as increased water and nutrient retention in the root zone. The effects of biochar on soil microbiological properties are less certain. We addressed the effects...... of wood-based biochar on soil respiration, water contents, potential ammonia oxidation (PAO), arylsulfatase activity (ASA), and crop yields at two temperate sandy loam soils under realistic field conditions. In situ soil respiration, PAO, and ASA were not significantly different in quadruplicate field...... plots with or without biochar (20 Mg ha−1); however, in the same plots, volumetric water contents increased by 7.5 % due to biochar (P = 0.007). Crop yields (oat) were not significantly different in the first year after biochar application, but in the second year, total yields of spring barley increased...

  5. A Visual Basic program to classify sediments based on gravel-sand-silt-clay ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Eliason, A.H.; Hastings, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    Nomenclature describing size distributions is important to geologists because grain size is the most basic attribute of sediments. Traditionally, geologists have divided sediments into four size fractions that include gravel, sand, silt, and clay, and classified these sediments based on ratios of the various proportions of the fractions. Definitions of these fractions have long been standardized to the grade scale described by Wentworth (1922), and two main classification schemes have been adopted to describe the approximate relationship between the size fractions.Specifically, according to the Wentworth grade scale gravel-sized particles have a nominal diameter of ⩾2.0 mm; sand-sized particles have nominal diameters from <2.0 mm to ⩾62.5 μm; silt-sized particles have nominal diameters from <62.5 to ⩾4.0 μm; and clay is <4.0 μm. As for sediment classification, most sedimentologists use one of the systems described either by Shepard (1954) or Folk (1954, 1974). The original scheme devised by Shepard (1954) utilized a single ternary diagram with sand, silt, and clay in the corners to graphically show the relative proportions among these three grades within a sample. This scheme, however, does not allow for sediments with significant amounts of gravel. Therefore, Shepard's classification scheme (Fig. 1) was subsequently modified by the addition of a second ternary diagram to account for the gravel fraction (Schlee, 1973). The system devised by Folk (1954, 1974) is also based on two triangular diagrams (Fig. 2), but it has 23 major categories, and uses the term mud (defined as silt plus clay). The patterns within the triangles of both systems differ, as does the emphasis placed on gravel. For example, in the system described by Shepard, gravelly sediments have more than 10% gravel; in Folk's system, slightly gravelly sediments have as little as 0.01% gravel. Folk's classification scheme stresses gravel because its concentration is a function of

  6. Neutron Gauge Calibration Curve as Affected by Chloride Concentration and Bulk Density of Loam Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Hasani, A.A.; Fahad, A.A.; Shihab, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    chloride concentration and bulk density are considered among important factors affecting calibration curve of neutron gauge in the soil.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chloride concentration and bulk density of a loam soil on neutron gauge calibration curve.Sufficient amount of loam soil was air dried screened through a 2 mm sieve,and divided into three equal portions.Sodium chloride of 2.5 and 6.6g kg'-1 soil was added to the first and second portions,respectively.The third portion was left as a control.The soil then moistened and mixed well to make volumetric water content within the range of 0.01 to 0.24 cm 3 cm - 3. The moist soil was packed into an iron drum 0.80 m diameter and 1.00 m height to obtain bulk densities of 1.10 and 1.30 to 1.60 Mg m - 3 for uncompacted soil,respectively.Access tube 0.05 m inner diameter was installed in the center of the drum.Three readings from CPN 503 neutron gauge were taken at each 0.15,0.30, 0.45,and 0.75 m depth.Results indicated that the count (counts/standard count) for an aqueous solution decreased with the increase in chloride concentration.Similarly, the slope of the linear calibration curves of the investigated soil decreased with the increase in chloride concentration.Shifting of the curves was 9 to 10%for the uncompacted soil, whereas it was 12 to 14 % for the compacted of low and high concentration of chloride, respectively . Results of changing bulk density always reduced the slope value as compared with the uncorrected count ratio.

  7. Improvement in the water retention characteristics of sandy loam soil using a newly synthesized poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/AlZnFe2O4 superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaukat Ali; Qidwai, Ansar Ahmad; Anwar, Farooq; Ullah, Inam; Rashid, Umer

    2012-08-03

    The use of some novel and efficient crop nutrient-based superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposites (SHNCs), is currently becoming increasingly important to improve the crop yield and productivity, due to their water retention properties. In the present study a poly(Acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/AlZnFe2O4 superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposite was synthesized and its physical properties characterized using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), FE-SEM and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The effects of different levels of SHNC were studied to evaluate the moisture retention properties of sandy loam soil (sand 59%, silt 21%, clay 19%, pH 7.4, EC 1.92 dS/m). The soil amendment with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 w/w% of SHNC enhanced the moisture retention significantly at field capacity compared to the untreated soil. Besides, in a separate experiment, seed germination and seedling growth of wheat was found to be notably improved with the application of SHNC. A delay in wilting of seedlings by 5-8 days was observed for SHNC-amended soil, thereby improving wheat plant growth and establishment.

  8. Post-cyclic behavior of low plasticity silt under full and limited liquefaction using triaxial compression testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    During an earthquake, liquefaction does not happen all the time. It depends on the duration and magnitude of the earthquake and the properties (with relationship to resistance of liquefaction) of the low plasticity silt. Under low duration or magnitu...

  9. Effects of anthropogenic silt on aquatic macroinvertebrates and abiotic variables in streams in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Forsberg, Bruce Rider [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Ecologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padovesi-Fonseca, Claudia [Univ. de Brasilia, Dept. de Ecologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: While environmental risks associated with petroleum extraction such as oil spills or leaks are relatively well known, little attention has been given to the impacts of silt. The increase in petroleum exploitation in Amazonia has resulted in sediment input to aquatic systems, with impacts on their biodiversity. Here we use a combination of field measurements and statistical analyses to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic silt derived from the construction of roads, borrow pits, and wells during the terrestrial development of gas and oil, on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the Urucu Petroleum Province in the Central Brazilian Amazon. Material and methods: Ten impacted and nine non-impacted streams were sampled in January, April, and November of 2007. Macroinvertebrates were sampled along a 100-m continuous reach in each stream at 10-m intervals using a dip net. Abiotic variables including, a siltation index (SI), suspended inorganic sediment (SIS), sediment color index (SCI), suspend organic sediment (SOS), pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, water velocity, channel width, and depth, were measured at three equidistant points in each stream ({proportional_to}30-m intervals). Results and discussion: SI did not differ between impacted and undisturbed streams. SIS was higher and SCI lower (more reddish) in impacted than in non-impacted streams. SCI had a positive and SIS a negative effect on both macroinvertebrate richness and density. SIS and SCI also influenced macrophyte taxonomic composition. In impacted streams, taxonomic richness and density were 1.5 times lower than in non-impacted streams. No taxon was significantly associated with impacted streams. SIS was positively correlated with SOS and electrical conductivity while SCI was negatively correlated with SOS, electrical conductivity, and pH. The lack of difference in SI between impacted and nonimpacted streams suggests that anthropogenic sediment does not accumulate

  10. Development of a radioisotope based silt density gauge for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Anant; Walinjkar, P.B.; Kumar, Umesh; Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Silt density gauge (SDG) is a conventional equipment to gauge the specific gravity or fraction of solids in slurries, oils, food products and process fluids flowing through a pipe. SDG can also be used for measuring density of sediment during dredging operations in Ports. The gauge consists of three major components i.e. radiation source, detector and control unit. The developed prototype of SDG has been tested in a laboratory experimental setup for density measurement of slurry and its performance was evaluated. (author)

  11. Degradation and persistence of cotton pesticides in sandy loam soils from Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Afzal, Shahzad; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2006-02-01

    The present study evaluated the influence of temperature, moisture, and microbial activity on the degradation and persistence of commonly used cotton pesticides, i.e., carbosulfan, carbofuran, lambda-cyhalothrin, endosulfan, and monocrotophos, with the help of laboratory incubation and lysimeter studies on sandy loam soil (Typic Ustocurepts) in Pakistan. Drainage from the lysimeters was sampled on days 49, 52, 59, 73, 100, 113, and 119 against the pesticide application on days 37, 63, 82, 108, and 137 after the sowing of cotton. Carbofuran, monocrotophos, and nitrate were detected in the drainage samples, with an average value, respectively, of 2.34, 2.6 microg/L, and 15.6 mg/L for no-tillage and 2.16, 2.3 microg/L, and 13.4 mg/L for tillage. In the laboratory, pesticide disappearance kinetics were measured with sterile and nonsterile soils from 0 to 10 cm in depth at 15, 25, and 35 degrees C and 50% and 90% field water capacities. Monocrotophos and carbosulfan dissipation followed first-order kinetics while others followed second-order kinetics. The results of incubation studies showed that temperature and moisture contents significantly reduced the t(1/2) (half-life) values of pesticides in sterile and nonsterile soil, but the effect of microbial activity was nearly significant that might be due to less organic carbon (0.3%). The presence of carbofuran and monocrotophos in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-150 cm) and the higher concentrations of endosulfan and lambda-cyhalothrin in the top layer (0-10 cm) showed the persistence of the pesticides. The detection of endosulfan and lambda-cyhalothrin in the 10-30 cm soil layer might be due to preferential flow. The data generated from this study could be helpful for risk assessment studies of pesticides and for validating pesticide transport models for sandy loam soils in cotton-growing areas of Pakistan.

  12. Prediction of strain energy-based liquefaction resistance of sand-silt mixtures: An evolutionary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziar, Mohammad H.; Jafarian, Yaser; Shahnazari, Habib; Movahed, Vahid; Amin Tutunchian, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    Liquefaction is a catastrophic type of ground failure, which usually occurs in loose saturated soil deposits under earthquake excitations. A new predictive model is presented in this study to estimate the amount of strain energy density, which is required for the liquefaction triggering of sand-silt mixtures. A wide-ranging database containing the results of cyclic tests on sand-silt mixtures was first gathered from previously published studies. Input variables of the model were chosen from the available understandings evolved from the previous studies on the strain energy-based liquefaction potential assessment. In order to avoid overtraining, two sets of validation data were employed and a particular monitoring was made on the behavior of the evolved models. Results of a comprehensive parametric study on the proposed model are in accord with the previously published experimental observations. Accordingly, the amount of strain energy required for liquefaction onset increases with increase in initial effective overburden pressure, relative density, and mean grain size. The effect of nonplastic fines on strain energy-based liquefaction resistance shows a more complicated behavior. Accordingly, liquefaction resistance increases with increase in fines up to about 10-15% and then starts to decline for a higher increase in fines content. Further verifications of the model were carried out using the valuable results of some downhole array data as well as centrifuge model tests. These verifications confirm that the proposed model, which was derived from laboratory data, can be successfully utilized under field conditions.

  13. Preliminary Assessment of Silting and The Quality of Bottom Sediments in A Small Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Łukasz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the degree of silting and pollution of bottom sediments in a small water reservoir Lubianka situated in Starachowice, Świętokrzyskie Province, with selected heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Hg. Catchment basin of the reservoir is forested in 92%. Other parts are covered by estates of detached houses, barren lands and green areas. Bathymetric measurements and analyses of trace elements in bottom sediments were made in 2012. After 28 years of exploitation, reservoir's basin accumulated 43 thousand cubic metres of sediments i.e. 4.7% of its initial volume. Mean annual silting rate was 0.17%. Due to the content of copper and chromium, bottom sediments were classified to the II category (sediments of average pollution according to geochemical standards. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg in all analysed samples were below geochemical background. In a sample collected at the inlet to the reservoir, the TEL index for chromium was exceeded by 25.6%. In other samples the threshold values of the TEL and PEL indices were not exceeded.

  14. Assessment of Silt Density Index (SDI) as Fouling Propensity Parameter in Reverse Osmosis Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2011-07-01

    Reverse osmosis operations are facing persistent fouling phenomenon that has challenged the integrity of these processes. Prediction of fouling potential by measuring a fouling index toward feed water is essential to ensure robust operation. Moreover, employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. Silt density index (SDI) is considered insufficient in terms of reliability and empirical theory, among other limitations. Nevertheless due its simplicity, SDI measurement is utilized extensively in RO desalination systems. The aim of this research is to assess the reliability of SDI. Methods include the investigation of different SDI membranes and study of the nature of the SDI filtration. Results demonstrate the existence of the membrane properties\\' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role on SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity assisted SDI measurements along with determination of UF pretreated and clean water fouling potential, establishes the indication of non-fouling related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as a natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic condition that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI value. Keywords: Reverse Osmosis, Fouling index, Particulate Fouling, Silt Density Index (SDI), and Assessment of SDI.

  15. ELASTOPLASTICIDAD DE UN SUELO FRANCO ARENOSO DE SABANA I SANDY LOAM SAVANNA SOIL ELASTOPLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Hossne García

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of elastoplastic properties is important for calculating soil elastic and plastic deformations experienced by static or dynamic loads generated, for example, by farm implements and root growth. The objective of this study was to determine the soil elastoplastic parameters: Young’s modulus (E, the shear modulus (G, bulk modulus (K and Poisson’s ratio (υ of a sandy-loam soil from a savanna in Monagas State, Venezuela. Triaxial tests and regression analyses were used to interpret the variance between them. The results show that E varied from 4693.39 to 36669.35 kPa; G from 700 to 5000 kPa; K from 500 to 2000 kPa and υ had a value of 0.50. It is concluded that these soils are incompressible under plastic conditions, i.e. easily deformable. The Poisson’s ratio varied significantly with soil water content. The Young modulus, bulk modulus and the shear modulus showed high variation with respect to water content. Both the Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio increased, at low soil water content, with the rise in chamber pressure .

  16. The Influence Of Loam Type And Cement Content On The Compressive Strength Of Rammed Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narloch P. L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a worldwide dynamic rise of interest in using soil as a construction material can be observed. This trend is evident in the rapid rise of the amount of standards that deal with soil techniques. In 2012 the number of standards was larger by one third than five years prior. To create a full standardization of the rammed earth technique it is necessary to take into account the diversity of used soil and stabilizing additives. The proportion of the components, the process of element production and the research methods must also be made uniform. The article describes the results of research on the compressive strength of rammed earth samples that differed from each other with regards to the type of loam used for the mixture and the amount of the stabilizer. The stabilizer used was Portland cement CEM I 42.5R. The research and the analysis of the results were based on foreign publications, the New Zealand standard NZS 4298:1998, the American Standard NMAC14.7.4 and archival Polish Standards from the 1960’s that dealt with earth material.

  17. Depth distribution of preferential flow patterns in a sandy loam soil as affected by tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Petersen

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-tracer studies using the anionic dye Brilliant Blue FCF were conducted on a structured sandy loam soil (Typic Agrudalf. 25 mm of dye solution was applied to the surface of 11 1.6 x 1.6 m field plots, some of which had been subjected to conventional seed bed preparation (harrowing while others had been rotovated to either 5 or 15 cm depth before sowing. The soil was excavated to about 160 cm depth one or two days after dye application. Flow patterns and structural features appearing on vertical or horizontal cross sections were examined and photographed. The flow patterns were digitized, and depth functions for the number of activated flow pathways and the degree of dye coverage were calculated. Dye was found below 100 cm depth on 26 out of 33 vertical cross sections made in conventionally tilled plots showing that preferential flow was a prevailing phenomenon. The depth-averaged number of stained flow pathways in the 25-100 cm layer was significantly smaller in a plot rotovated to 5 cm depth than in a conventionally tilled plot, both under relatively dry initial soil conditions and when the entire soil profiles were initially at field capacity. There were no examples of dye penetration below 25 cm depth one month after deep rotovation. Distinct horizontal structures in flow patterns appearing at 20-40 cm depth coupled with changes in flow domains indicated soil layering with abrupt changes in soil structure and hydraulic properties.

  18. Inhibition effect of zinc in wastewater on the N2O emission from coastal loam soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Ou, Danyun; Chen, Shunyang; Chen, Bin; Liu, Wenhua; Bai, Renao; Chen, Guangcheng

    2017-03-15

    The effects of zinc (Zn) on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes from coastal loam soil and the abundances of soil nitrifier and denitrifier were studied in a tidal microcosm receiving livestock wastewater with different Zn levels. Soil N 2 O emission significantly increased due to discharge of wastewater rich in ammonia (NH 4 + -N) while the continuous measurements of gas flux showed a durative reduction in N 2 O flux by high Zn input (40mgL -1 ) during the low tide period. Soil inorganic nitrogen concentrations increased at the end of the experiment and even more soil NH 4 + -N was measured in the high-Zn-level treatment, indicating an inhibition of ammonia oxidation by Zn input. Quantitative PCR of soil amoA, narG and nirK genes encoding ammonia monooxygenase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, respectively, showed that the microbial abundances involved in these metabolisms were neither affected by wastewater discharge nor Zn contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Eleven years' effect of conservation practices for temperate sandy loams: II. Soil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfallah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    Conservation agriculture (CA) is regarded by many as a sustainable intensification strategy. Minimal soil disturbance in combination with residue retention are important CA components. This study examined the long-term effects of crop rotation, residue retention, and tillage on soil pore characte......Conservation agriculture (CA) is regarded by many as a sustainable intensification strategy. Minimal soil disturbance in combination with residue retention are important CA components. This study examined the long-term effects of crop rotation, residue retention, and tillage on soil pore...... characteristics of two Danish sandy loams. Rotation R2 is a rotation of winter crops (mainly cereals) with residues retained, rotation R3 a mix of winter and spring crops (mainly cereals) with residues removed, and rotation R4 the same mix of winter and spring crops, but with residues retained. Each rotation...... included the tillage treatments: moldboard plowing to 20-cm depth (MP), harrowing to 8- to 10-cm depth (H) and direct drilling (D). Soil cores were taken from the topsoil (4–8, 12–16, 18–27 cm) in mid-autumn 2013 and early spring 2014. Water retention, air permeability, and gas diffusivity was determined...

  20. Critical undrained shear strength of sand-silt mixtures under monotonic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bensoula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study uses experimental triaxial tests with monotonic loading to develop empirical relationships to estimate undrained critical shear strength. The effect of the fines content on undrained shear strength is analyzed for different density states. The parametric analysis indicates that, based on the soil void ratio and fine content properties, the undrained critical shear strength first increases and then decreases as the proportion of fines increases, which demonstrates the influence of fine content on a soil’s vulnerability to liquefaction. A series of monotonic undrained triaxial tests were performed on reconstituted saturated sand-silt mixtures. Beyond 30% fines content, a fraction of the silt participates in the soil’s skeleton chain force. In this context, the concept of the equivalent intergranular void ratio may be an appropriate parameter to express the critical shear strength of the studied soil. This parameter is able to control the undrained shear strength of non-plastic silt and sand mixtures with different densities.   Resumen Este estudio utiliza evaluaciones experimentales triaxiales con cargas repetitivas para desarrollar relaciones empíricas y estimar la tensión crítica de corte bajo condiciones no drenadas. El efecto de contenido de finos en la tensión de corte sin drenar se analizó en diferentes estados de densidad. El análisis paramétrico indica que, basado en la porosidad del suelo y las propiedades del material de finos, la tensión de corte sin drenar primero se incrementa y luego decrece mientras la proporción de finos aumenta, lo que demuestra la influencia de contenido de finos en la vulnerabilidad del suelo a la licuación. Una serie de las evaluaciones se realizó en  mezclas rehidratadas y saturadas de arena y cieno. Más allá del 30 % de los contenidos finos, una fracción del cieno hace parte principal de la cadena de fuerza del suelo. En este contexto, el concepto de porosidad equivalente

  1. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    tracer mass could be well fitted to an analytical solution to the classical convection-dispersion equation. Both cumulative tracer mass and concentration as a function of time were hereby reasonable well predicted from the simple inputs of bulk density, clay and silt contents, and applied tracer mass......Solute transport through the soil matrix is heterogeneous and greatly affected by soil texture, soil structure, and macropore networks. This study examined the relationship between tracer breakthrough characteristics, soil hydraulic properties, and basic soil properties. Hundred...... of the soil structure rather than the actual formation of macropores causing preferential flow. The arrival times of 5 % and up to 50 % of the tracer mass were found to be strongly correlated with volumetric fines content. The hereby predicted tracer concentration breakthrough points up to 50% of applied...

  2. Lagoon Sediment Dynamics: A Coupled Model to Study a Medium-Term Silting of Tidal Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Petti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The silting of tidal channels is a natural process that affects several shallow lagoons and makes it difficult to navigate, requiring regular maintenance interventions. This phenomenon is the result of the complex non-linear interaction between tidal currents and wave motion. In this work, the morphodynamic evolution of the Marano and Grado lagoon is investigated by means of a two-dimensional horizontal (2DH morphological-hydrodynamic and a spectral coupled model. An innovative procedure to reproduce the overall bathymetric changes in the medium term and, in particular, the volumes deposited inside channels, is presented. An average year with a sequence of winds and tides acting over that time was reconstructed, carrying out cross correlation techniques and spectral analyses of measured data. The predicted morphological evolution matches the annual dredged volumes in the lagoon critical branches and shows the distribution of erosion and deposition of cohesive sediments according to spatially variable values of critical shear stress.

  3. Phosphorus application to cotton enhances growth, yield, and quality characteristics on a sandy loam soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ranjha, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the second most limiting nutrient in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production after nitrogen. Under wheat-cotton cropping system of Pakistan most of the farmers apply P fertilizer only to wheat crop. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilizer P on the growth, yield and fibre quality of cotton on a sandy loam calcareous soil at farmer's field in cotton growing area of district Khanewal, Punjab. Five levels of P (0, 17, 26, 34 and 43 kg P ha /sup -1/) along with 120 kg N and 53 kg K ha/sup -1/ were applied. The response of cotton growth parameters was greater than quality components to P addition in calcareous soil. There was significant increase in the growth and yield parameters with each additional rate of P. The response of number of bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield was to the tune of 88.23, 16.82 and 42%, respectively at P application rate of 34 kg ha/sup -1/. Cotton quality components (lint %age, fiber length and fiber strength) improved from 2 to 5% where 43 kg P ha/sup -1/ was added. The lint and seed P concentration was little affected by P application as compared to stem and leaves showing its essentiality for cell division and development of meristematic tissue. Phosphorus use, thus not only valuable for wheat crop but also its application to cotton crop is of vital importance in improving both lint yield and quality. (author)

  4. Surface Runoff of Pesticides from a Clay Loam Field in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsbo, Mats; Sandin, Maria; Jarvis, Nick; Etana, Ararso; Kreuger, Jenny

    2016-07-01

    Pesticides stored at or close to the soil surface after field application can be mobilized and transported off the field when surface runoff occurs. The objective of our study was to quantify the potential pesticide losses in surface runoff from a conventionally managed agricultural field in a Swedish climate. This was achieved by measuring surface runoff volumes and concentrations in runoff of six spring-applied pesticides and autumn-applied glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). Measurements were performed for 3 yr both during the growing seasons and during intervening winter snowmelt periods on a clay loam field close to Uppsala. During growing seasons, surface runoff was generated on only five occasions during one 25-d period in 2012 when the infiltration capacity of the soil may have been reduced by structural degradation due to large cumulative rainfall amounts after harrowing. Concentrations in surface runoff exceeded Swedish water quality standards in all samples during this growing season for diflufenican and pirimicarb. Surface runoff was generated during three snowmelt periods during the winter of 2012-2013. All of the applied pesticides were found in snowmelt samples despite incorporation of residues by autumn plowing, degradation, and leaching into the soil profile during the period between spraying and sampling. Concentrations of glyphosate ranged from 0.12 to 7.4 μg L, and concentrations of AMPA ranged from 0 to 2.7 μg L. Our results indicate that temporal changes in hydraulic properties during the growing season and when the soil freezes during winter affect pesticide losses through surface runoff. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Plant uptake and soil retention of phthalic acid applied to Norfolk sandy loam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorney, J.R.; Weber, J.B.; Overcash, M.R.; Strek, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Plant uptake and soil retention of 14 C carboxyl-labeled phthalic acid were studied at application rates of 0.6, 6.0, 60.0, and 600.0 ppm (soil dry weight) to Norfolk sandy loam (Typic Paleudult, fine loamy, kaolinitic, thermic). Height and dry weight of corn (Zea mays L. Pioneer 3368A) (21 day), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Kentucky 31) (45 day) immature soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. Altoona) (21 day) plant, mature soybean plant, and mature wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Butte) straw were not affected by phthalic acid applied to soil. In addition, soybean seed and wheat seed dry weight were unaffected. Immature wheat (40 day) height decreased at the 600 ppm rate. Plant uptake of phthalic acid ranged from 0 to 23 ppm and was significantly above background for all plants and plant materials except soybean pods. Fescue and immature plants exhibited the highest concentration of phthalic acid while mature wheat plants and wheat seeds exhibited the least. Most of the phthalic acid volatilized or was decomposed from the soil by the end of the study; an average of only 5.7% of the originally applied chemical was recovered in both soil or plants. An average of 0.02% of the originally applied phthalic acid leached out of the treated zone. Considering the low toxicity of phthalic acid and its relatively rapid disappearance from soil, it is unlikely to become a health hazard from contaminated plants. However, plant uptake of other toxic organics could potentially become a hazard on soils treated with sludge containing significant quantities of these substances

  6. Aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen in reclaimed sandy loam soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, A.F.; Stahl, P.D.; Ingram, L.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Minimal research has been conducted on aggregate, C, and N in coarse-textured soils used to reclaim surface coal mine lands. Furthermore, little is known about the contribution different plant communities make to the recovery of aggregation in these soils. Two chronosequences of semiarid reclaimed sites with sandy loam soils were sampled under shrub- and grass-dominated communities. Aggregation, aggregate fractions, and associated C and N were measured. No definitive trends of increasing macroaggregates between sites were observed undershrubs; however, macro- and microaggregation was greater in the 16-yr-old (0.20 and 0.23 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) than in the 5-yr-old soils (0.02 and 0.08 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) under grasses. Although C and N concentrations were drastically reduced (50-75%) with mining activity between the <1-yr-old and native soils, aggregate C and N concentrations tinder shrubs and grasses were similar to each other and to the native soils in the 5-yr-old site. Sods under grass in the 16-yr-old site had lower available and aggregate-occluded C and N concentrations than the 5-yr-old site, while C and N concentrations did not change between 5- and 16-yr-old soils under shrubs. Conversely, aggregate C and N pool sizes under shrubs and grasses both increased with site age to conditions similar to those observed in the native soil. Reclaimed shrub site soils had consistently higher C concentrations in the older reclaimed sites (10 and 16 yr old) than the soils under grasses, indicating greater accumulation and retention of C and N in organic material under shrub than grass communities in semiarid reclaimed sites.

  7. IMPACT OF THE REPEATED TRACTOR PASSES ON SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SILTY LOAM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Filipović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to quantify soil compaction induced by tractor traffic on untilled wet silty loam soil (Mollic Fluvisol. Changes in penetration resistance, bulk density and total porosity were measured for detecting the soil compaction. Treatments include ten passes of a four-wheel drive tractor with the engine power of 54.0 kW and weight of 3560 kg (1580 kg on the front axle and 1980 kg on the rear axle, 2.41 m distance between axles. The tyres on the tractor were cross-ply, front 11.2-24 and rear 16.9-30, with the inflation pressure of 160 kPa and 100 kPa, respectively. The speed of tractor during passes over experimental plots was 5.0 km h-1. In comparison to control, each tractor pass induced an increase in soil penetration resistance at all depths, and the average increment ratios, determined as the average of all layers, were 9.8, 18.5 and 26.1% after one, five and ten passes, respectively. The bulk density also increased with number of tractor passes, but with less percentage increasing. The increment ratios comparison to the control were 3.6, 9.5 and 12.9% after one, five and ten passes, respectively. The total porosity decreased with the number of passes, and the decrement ratios were 4.5, 16.5 and 20.8% after one, five and ten passes, respectively.

  8. Determination of p-y Curves for Bucket Foundations in Silt and Sand Using Finite Element Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vethanayagam, Vinojan; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    slender than the tested piles. The suction bucket has a slenderness ratio of 0.5-1, thus its response is a rigid movement, where slender piles undergoes a flexible movement. Due to the importance of precise estimations, p-y formulations for suction buckets in drained and undrained silt are sought...... developed with use of finite element. In general the developed p-y formulations for the drained and undrained silt are fairly precise. Furthermore, the same method and basic formulation of the drained silt is applied to data of the drained sand from Østergaard et al. [2015]. The developed formulation...... herefore shows to be more versatile and precise than the formulation suggested by Østergaard et al. [2015]. The developed p-y formulations are functions of the effective vertical in-situ stress, soil stiffness, diameter of the bucket and the internal friction angle/the undrained shear strength....

  9. Respirable dust and quartz exposure from three South African farms with sandy, sandy loam, and clay soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Andrew J; Kromhout, Hans; Jinnah, Zubair A; Portengen, Lützen; Renton, Kevin; Gardiner, Kerry; Rees, David

    2011-07-01

    To quantify personal time-weighted average respirable dust and quartz exposure on a sandy, a sandy loam, and a clay soil farm in the Free State and North West provinces of South Africa and to ascertain whether soil type is a determinant of exposure to respirable quartz. Three farms, located in the Free State and North West provinces of South Africa, had their soil type confirmed as sandy, sandy loam, and clay; and, from these, a total of 298 respirable dust and respirable quartz measurements were collected between July 2006-November 2009 during periods of major farming operations. Values below the limit of detection (LOD) (22 μg · m(-3)) were estimated using multiple 'imputation'. Non-parametric tests were used to compare quartz exposure from the three different soil types. Exposure to respirable quartz occurred on all three farms with the highest individual concentration measured on the sandy soil farm (626 μg · m(-3)). Fifty-seven, 59, and 81% of the measurements on the sandy soil, sandy loam soil, and clay soil farm, respectively, exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 25 μg · m(-3). Twelve and 13% of respirable quartz concentrations exceeded 100 μg · m(-3) on the sandy soil and sandy loam soil farms, respectively, but none exceeded this level on the clay soil farm. The proportions of measurements >100 μg · m(-3) were not significantly different between the sandy and sandy loam soil farms ('prop.test'; P = 0.65), but both were significantly larger than for the clay soil farm ('prop.test'; P = 0.0001). The percentage of quartz in respirable dust was determined for all three farms using measurements > the limit of detection. Percentages ranged from 0.5 to 94.4% with no significant difference in the median quartz percentages across the three farms (Kruskal-Wallis test; P = 0.91). This study demonstrates that there is significant potential for over-exposure to respirable quartz in

  10. Field evaluation of two shallow land burial trench cap designs for long-term stabilization and closure of waste repositories at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.; Drennon, B.; Hakonson, T.

    1989-02-01

    The results from several field experiments on methods to control soil erosion, biointrusion, and water infiltration were used to design and test a burial site cover which improves the ability of the disposal site to isolate the wastes. The performance of the improved cover design in managing water and biota at the disposal site was compared with a more conventional design widely used in the industry. The conventional trench cover design consists of 15 cm of sandy loam topsoil over 75 cm of sandy silt backfill, whereas the improved trench cover design consists of 75 cm of topsoil over a minimum of 25 cm of gravel and 90 cm of river cobble. Each plot was lined with an impermeable liner to allow for mass balance calculation of water dynamics and contains hydrologic tracer ions (iodide and bromide) to demonstrate movement of water through the various zones of the trench cap. Cesium was emplaced beneath the trench cap to indicate root penetration through the trench cap, observed by sampling plant samples collected on the plots and assaying them for cesium. The field data are summarized and discussed in terms of its usefulness for waste management decisions. 67 refs., 44 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Geotechnical characteristics of bentonite/sandy silt mixes for use in waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1984-06-01

    The coefficient of consolidation for bentonite/sandy silt ratios of 0.04 to 0.14 decreases inversely proportional with the square of that ratio, whereas the compression index, the swelling index, and the permeability change index increase with increasing bentonite ratio. A strong relationship also exists between the void ratio and the logarithm of the applied stress for any given bentonite ratio. The empirical linear relationship between the void ratio and the logarithm of the applied stress, developed by Taylor, is excellent and enables us to limit the evaluation of conductivity at any void ratio to the measurement of the initial and the desired void ratio, the initial conductivity, and the permeability change index. This allows us to read directly, for a given bentonite ratio, the void ratio (or compaction) needed so that a required hydraulic conductivity will prevail. This is crucial in the choice of materials or mixes to be used in a wick system where an established differentiation in hydraulic conductivity is desirable

  12. Assessment of silt density index (SDI) as fouling propensity parameter in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Wali, F.; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Due to its simplicity, silt density index (SDI) is extensively used in reverse osmosis systems despite its limitations in predicting membrane fouling. Employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. The aim of this investigation is to assess the reliability of SDI in order to understand the reasons for the low level of precision and accuracy. Different commercial SDI membranes and feed water quality were used in this study. Results showed the existence of membrane properties' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role in SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity-assisted SDI measurements along with determination of ultrafiltration permeate and clean water fouling potential, establish the indication of nonfouling-related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic conditions that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI values. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  13. Gas detection in sands of high silt-clay content in the Cook Inlet area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettis, F.

    1976-01-01

    When a sand contains a large amount of silt and clay it is often difficult to detect zones that contain gas using only the Archie Saturation Relationship. However, gas may be detected in these shaly formations using certain quick-look techniques. Log examples of these are presented in this paper. The first quick-look technique is an overlay of the neutron log on a density log. The neutron log is shifted relative to the density log to make the two porosity curves track in shaly water sands. Gas-bearing intervals become readily apparent from separations of the two curves where the density porosity is reading higher than the shifted neutron porosity. The second is an overlay of a neutron log on the sonic interval-transit-time log. The sonic log is shifted so as to match the neutron log in average tight sands in the section. This method has proved to be more optimistic than the density-neutron overlay above. It will find the gas-bearing zones, but may result in testing a zone or two which is nonproductive. The third method, used when no neutron log has been run, is a crossplot of the difference, sonic porosity minus density porosity, versus gamma ray API units. This is the most unreliable of the three methods because of the difficulty of determining the end points and the slope of the line on the plot which separates the gas zones from the non-gas zones

  14. Assessment of silt density index (SDI) as fouling propensity parameter in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2013-01-01

    Due to its simplicity, silt density index (SDI) is extensively used in reverse osmosis systems despite its limitations in predicting membrane fouling. Employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. The aim of this investigation is to assess the reliability of SDI in order to understand the reasons for the low level of precision and accuracy. Different commercial SDI membranes and feed water quality were used in this study. Results showed the existence of membrane properties\\' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role in SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity-assisted SDI measurements along with determination of ultrafiltration permeate and clean water fouling potential, establish the indication of nonfouling-related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic conditions that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI values. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  15. The ecological half-life of 137Cs in undisturbed silt soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The time necessary to safely cultivate agricultural areas after they have been contaminated by radioactivity (e.g. after the Chernobyl accident) is not determined by the physical half-life of the radioactive isotopes in question but by their (usually much shorter) ecological half-life (). This half-life not only depends on the type of soil but also on whether the soil was fertilized or not. Therefore it is not possible to determine an ecological half-life that is universally valid. However, the value for undisturbed, unfertilized soil should provide a general indication for the duration of ecological half-life. In a silt soil in Vienna, Austria, the ecological half-life of 137 Cs was determined to be 0.8 years, which is much shorter than the physical half-life of 30 years. - Highlights: ► Absolute measurements of 137 Cs radioactivity in leaves of perennial plants. ► The natural 40 K radioactivity served as reference. ► The ecological half-life of 137 Cs in loamy soil was determined.

  16. A study on the characteristics of silt loading on paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area using a mobile monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sehyun; Jung, Yong-Won

    2012-07-01

    This study is considered the first attempt to apply a mobile monitoring system to estimating silt loading on paved roads in a megacity such as the Seoul metropolitan area. Using a mobile monitoring system developed in 2005, we estimated silt loadings on representative paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area, including the city of Incheon, over a period of 3 yr. The temporal and spatial characteristics of silt loading were investigated for the carefully selected roads that may reflect the characteristics of the cities of Seoul and Incheon. In this study, changes in the average silt loading values were investigated in terms of land use, the temporal resolution of data acquisition (i.e., seasonal, daily, three-hour scale), the road width or number of lanes, and rainfall, which may affect the characteristics of the average silt loading significantly. It was found that the advantages of using the mobile monitoring system are its ability to obtain a large quantity of silt loading data in a short period of time and over a wide area and its ability to create a silt loading map showing the relative magnitude of silt loading in relation to a specific location, which makes it possible to easily locate hot spots.

  17. THE EFFECT OF SALINITY-SODICITY AND GLYPHOSATE FORMULATIONS – AVANS PREMIUM 360 SL ON PHOSPHOMONOESTERASE ACTIVITIES IN SANDY LOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płatkowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine the influence of NaCl and glyphosate-based herbicide Avans Premium 360 SL on acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities in sandy loam. The experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions on sandy loam with Corg content 10.90 g/kg. Soil was divided into half kilogram samples and adjusted to 60% of maximum water holding capacity. In the experiment dependent variables were: I – dosages of Avans Premium 360 SL (0, a recommended field dosage – FD, a tenfold higher dosage – 10 FD and hundredfold higher dosage – 100 FD, II – amount of NaCl (0, 3% and 6%, III – day of experiment (1, 7, 14, 28 and 56. On days of experiment the activity of alkaline and acid phosphomonoesterase activity was assayed spectrophotometrically. The obtained result showed that the application of Avans Premium 360 SL decreased in acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity in clay soil. Significant interaction effect between the dosage of Avans Premium 360 SL, NaCl amount and day of experiment was reported in the experiment. The inhibitory effect of Avans Premium 360 SL was the highest in soil with NaCl at the amount of 6%.

  18. Application of micron X-ray CT based on micro-PIXE to investigate the distribution of Cs in silt particles for environmental remediation in Fukushima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Keizo, E-mail: keizo.ishii@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Hatakeyama, Taisuke; Itoh, Shin; Sata, Daichi [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Ohnuma, Tohru; Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Arai, Hiromu; Arai, Hirotsugu [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kim, Seong-Yun [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    We used X-ray computed tomography (CT) using characteristic X-rays produced in micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to investigate the internal structure of silt particles and develop new methods to decontaminate soil containing radioactive cesium. We obtained 3D attenuation coefficient images of silt particles with a diameter of approximately 100 μm for V K and Cr K X-rays. Owing to the absorption edges of the Cs L-shell, the differences between the V K and Cr K X-ray images revealed the spatial distribution of Cs atoms in the silt particles. Cs atoms were distributed over the surfaces of the silt particles to a thickness of approximately 10 μm. This information is useful for the decontamination of silt contaminated by radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

  19. Preparation and mechanism of the sintered bricks produced from Yellow River silt and red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hongtao; Yue, Qinyan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Jingzhou; Yu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The best condition was red mud content of 40% and sintering at 1050 °C for 2 h. ► Bricks’ weight loss was caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. ► Bricks’ sintering shrinkage depended on the sodium and iron compounds of red mud. ► Sintering can strengthen bricks and decrease leaching concentration of toxic metal. - Abstract: The preparation, characteristics and mechanisms of sintered bricks manufactured by Yellow River silt and red mud were studied. The sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition. Sintering mechanisms were discussed through linear regression analysis. Crystalline components of raw materials and bricks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Leaching toxicity of raw materials and bricks were measured according to sulphuric acid and nitric acid method. Radiation safety of the sintered bricks was characterized by calculating internal exposure index and external exposure index. The results showed that at the chosen best parameters (red mud content of 40%, sintering temperature of 1050 °C and sintering time of 2 h), the best characteristics of sintered bricks could be obtained. The weight loss on ignition of sintered bricks was principally caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. The sintering shrinkage of sintered bricks mainly depended on sodium compounds and iron compounds of red mud. The sintering process made some components of raw materials transform into other crystals having better thermostability. Besides, the leaching toxicity and radioactivity index of sintered bricks produced under the optimum condition were all below standards.

  20. Silt and gas accumulation beneath an artificial recharge spreading basin, Southwestern Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, D.K.; Ortiz, G.

    2009-01-01

    Sand Hollow Reservoir in southwestern Utah, USA, is operated for both surface-water storage and artificial recharge to the underlying Navajo Sandstone. The total volume of estimated artificial recharge between 2002 and 2007 is 85 million cubic meters (69,000 acre-feet). Since 2002, artificial recharge rates have generally been declining and are inversely correlated with the increasing surface area of the reservoir. Permeability testing of core samples retrieved from beneath the reservoir indicates that this decline may not be due to silt accumulation. Artificial recharge rates also show much seasonal variability. Calculations of apparent intrinsic permeability show that these variations can only partly be explained by variation in water viscosity associated with seasonal changes in water temperature. Sporadic seasonal trends in recharge rates and intrinsic permeability during 2002-2004 could be associated with the large fluctuations in reservoir elevation and wetted area. From 2005 through 2007, the reservoir was mostly full and there has been a more consistent seasonal pattern of minimum recharge rates during the summer and maximum rates during the autumn. Total dissolved-gas pressure measurements indicate the presence of biogenic gas bubbles in the shallow sediments beneath the shallower parts of Sand Hollow Reservoir when the water is warmer. Permeability reduction associated with this gas clogging may contribute to the decrease in artificial recharge rates during the spring and summer, with a subsequently increasing recharge rates in the autumn associated with a decline in volume of gas bubbles. Other possible causes for seasonal variation in artificial recharge rates require further investigation.

  1. Interrill sediment enrichment of P and C from organically and conventionally farmed silty loams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.

    2012-04-01

    Globally, between 0.57 and 1.33 Pg of soil organic carbon (SOC) may be affected by interrill processes. Also, a significant amount of phosphorus (P) is contained in the surface soil layer transformed by raindrop impact, runoff and crust formation. In the EU, the P content of a crusted (2 mm) surface layer corresponds to 4 to 40 kg ha-1 of P on arable land (1.094 mil km2). Therefore, the role of interrill processes for nutrient cycling and the global carbon cycle requires close attention. Interrill erosion is a complex phenomen on involving the detachment, transport and deposition of soil particles by raindrop impacted flow. Resistance to interrill erosion varies between soils depending on their physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. In addition, significant changes in soil resistance to interrill erosion occur during storms as a result of changes in surface roughness, cohesion and particle size. As a consequence, erosion on interrill areas is selective, moving the most easily detached small and/or light soil particles. This leads to the enrichment of clay, phosphorous (P)and carbon (C). Such enrichment in interrill sediment is well documented, however, the role of interrill erosion processes on the enrichment remains unclear. Enrichment of P and C in interrill sediment is attributed to the preferential erosion of the smaller, lighter soil particles. In this study, the P and organic C content of sediment generated from two Devon silts under conventional (CS) and organic (OS) soil management were examined. Artificial rainfall was applied to the soils using two rainfall scenarios of differing intensity and kinetic energy to determine the effects on the P and C enrichment in interrill sediment. Interrill soil erodibility was lower on the OS, irrespective of rainfall intensity. Sediment from both soils showed a significant enrichment in P and C compared to the bulk soil. However, sediment from the OS displayed a much greater degree of P enrichment. This shows

  2. Full utilization of silt density index (SDI) measurements for seawater pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2012-07-01

    In order to clarify the fouling mechanism during silt density index (SDI) measurements of seawater in the seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, 11 runs were conducted under constant-pressure (207kPa) dead-end filtration mode according to the standard protocol for SDI measurement, in which two kinds of 0.45μm membranes of different material and seawater samples from the Mediterranean including raw seawater and seawater pre-treated by coagulation followed by sand filtration (CSF) and coagulation followed by microfiltration (CMF) technologies were tested. Fouling mechanisms based on the constant-pressure filtration equation were fully analyzed. For all runs, only t/(V/A)∼t showed very good linearity (correlation coefficient R 2>0.99) since the first moment of the filtration, indicating that standard blocking rather than cake filtration was the dominant fouling mechanism during the entire filtration process. The very low concentration of suspended solids rejected by MF of 0.45μm in seawater was the main reason why a cake layer was not formed. High turbidity removal during filtration indicated that organic colloids retained on and/or adsorbed in membrane pores governed the filtration process (i.e., standard blocking) due to the important contribution of organic substances to seawater turbidity in this study. Therefore the standard blocking coefficient k s, i.e., the slope of t/(V/A)∼t, could be used as a good fouling index for seawater because it showed good linearity with feed seawater turbidity. The correlation of SDI with k s and feed seawater quality indicated that SDI could be reliably used for seawater with low fouling potential (SDI 15min<5) like pre-treated seawater in this study. From both k s and SDI, the order of fouling potential was raw seawater>seawater pre-treated by CSF>seawater pre-treated by CMF, indicating the better performance of CMF than CSF. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi, B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC. When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and the ratio for the slag was a constant 30 % by weight of the blend. Rheological and zeta potential tests were conducted to evaluate paste electrokinetics and rheological behaviour. The findings showed that burnt silt is apt for use as an addition to cement for SCC manufacture.

    En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la posibilidad de utilizar los lodos procedentes de embalses como adición en la fabricación del hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Con la calcinación, estos materiales se vuelven más reactivos debido a la transformación en metacaolín, del caolín que forma parte de su composición. Las materias primas empleadas en esta investigación son: cemento Pórtland, lodos de embalse calcinados y escorias granuladas de horno alto. Se prepararon pastas de cemento con mezclas que contenían dos o tres de estos materiales. El porcentaje de reemplazo de los lodos calcinados osciló entre el 10 y el 20 % en peso del cemento, mientras que el de la escoria fue del 30 % en peso de la mezcla. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos reológicos y de potencial zeta para evaluar el comportamiento electrocinético y reológico de las distintas pastas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, una vez calcinados, los lodos de embalse son aprovechables como adición al cemento con destino a la preparación de HAC.

  4. Evaluation of Diuron Tolerance and Biotransformation by Fungi from a Sugar Cane Plantation Sandy-Loam Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissini-Lopes, Bruna; Egea, Tássia Chiachio; Monteiro, Diego Alves; Vici, Ana Cláudia; Da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Lisboa, Daniela Correa de Oliveira; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Parsons, John Robert; Da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni

    2016-12-14

    Microorganisms capable of degrading herbicides are essential to minimize the amount of chemical compounds that may leach into other environments. This work aimed to study the potential of sandy-loam soil fungi to tolerate the herbicide Herburon (50% diuron) and to degrade the active ingredient diuron. Verticillium sp. F04, Trichoderma virens F28, and Cunninghamella elegans B06 showed the highest growth in the presence of the herbicide. The evaluation of biotransformation showed that Aspergillus brasiliensis G08, Aspergillus sp. G25, and Cunninghamella elegans B06 had the greatest potential to degrade diuron. Statistical analysis demonstrated that glucose positively influences the potential of the microorganism to degrade diuron, indicating a cometabolic process. Due to metabolites founded by diuron biotransformation, it is indicated that the fungi are relevant in reducing the herbicide concentration in runoff, minimizing the environmental impact on surrounding ecosystems.

  5. Direct and Indirect Short-term Effects of Biochar on Physical Characteristics of an Arable Sandy Loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Moldrup, Per; Elsgaard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soil is reported in several studies to reduce climate gas emissions, boost carbon storage, and improve soil fertility and crop productivity. These effects may be partly related to soil physical changes resulting from biochar amendment, but knowledge of how biochar...... application mechanistically affects soil physical characteristics is limited. This study investigated the effect of biochar application on soil structural and functional properties, including specific surface area, water retention, and gas transport parameters. Intact soil cores were taken from a field...... experiment on an arable sandy loam that included four reference plots without biochar and four plots with 20 tons ha(-1) biochar incorporated into the upper 20 cm 7 months before sampling. Water retention was measured at matric potentials ranging from wet (pF 1.0) to extremely dry conditions (pF similar to 6...

  6. Soil water retention, air flow and pore structure characteristics after corn cob biochar application to a tropical sandy loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoakwah, Emmanuel; Frimpong, Kwame Agyei; Okae-Anti, D

    2017-01-01

    Soil structure is a key soil physical property that affects soil water balance, gas transport, plant growth and development, and ultimately plant yield. Biochar has received global recognition as a soil amendment with the potential to ameliorate the structure of degraded soils. We investigated how...... corn cob biochar contributed to changes in soil water retention, air flow by convection and diffusion, and derived soil structure indices in a tropical sandy loam. Intact soil cores were taken from a field experiment that had plots without biochar (CT), and plots each with 10 t ha− 1 (BC-10), 20 t ha...... to significant increase in soil water retention compared to the CT and BC-10 as a result of increased microporosity (pores biochar had minimal impact. No significant influence of biochar was observed for ka and Dp/D0 for the BC treatments compared to the CT despite...

  7. Biochar effects on wet and dry regions of the soil water retention curve of a sandy loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Moldrup, Per; Sun, Zhencai

    2014-01-01

    Reported beneficial effects of biochar on soil physical properties and processes include decreased soil density, and increased soil water transport, water holding capacity and retention (mainly for the wet region). Research is limited on biochar effects on the full soil water retention curve (wet...... and dry regions) for a given soil and biochar amendment scenarios. This study evaluates how biochar applied to a sandy loam field at rates from 0 to 50 Mg ha−1 yr–1 in 2011, 2012, or both years (2011+2012) influences the full water retention curve. Inorganic fertilizer and pig slurry were added to all...... treatments. Six months after the last biochar application, intact and disturbed soil samples were collected for analyses. Soil water retention was measured from −1 kPa to −100 kPa using tension tables and ceramic plates and from −10 MPa to −480 MPa using a Vapor Sorption Analyzer. Soil specific area...

  8. Influence of Long-term Application of Feedlot Manure Amendments on Water Repellency of a Clay Loam Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Beasley, Bruce W; Hazendonk, Paul; Drury, Craig F; Chanasyk, David S

    2017-05-01

    Long-term application of feedlot manure to cropland may increase the quantity of soil organic carbon (C) and change its quality, which may influence soil water repellency. The objective was to determine the influence of feedlot manure type (stockpiled vs. composted), bedding material (straw [ST] vs. woodchips [WD]), and application rate (13, 39, or 77 Mg ha) on repellency of a clay loam soil after 17 annual applications. The repellency was determined on all 14 treatments using the water repellency index ( index), the water drop penetration time (WDPT) method, and molarity of ethanol (MED) test. The C composition of particulate organic matter in soil of five selected treatments after 16 annual applications was also determined using C nuclear magnetic resonance-direct polarization with magic-angle spinning (NMR-DPMAS). Manure type had no significant ( > 0.05) effect on index and WDPT, and MED classification was similar. Mean index and WDPT values were significantly greater and MED classification more hydrophobic for WD than ST. Application rate had no effect on the index, but WDPT was significantly greater and MED classification more hydrophobic with increasing application rate. Strong ( > 0.7) but nonsignificant positive correlations were found between index and WDPT versus hydrophobic (alkyl + aromatic) C, lignin at 74 ppm (O-alkyl), and unspecified aromatic compounds at 144 ppm. Specific aromatic compounds also contributed more to repellency than alkyl, O-alkyl, and carbonyl compounds. Overall, all three methods consistently showed that repellency was greater for WD- than ST-amended clay loam soil, but manure type had no effect. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Effect of Simulated Weathering and Aging of TNT in Amended Sandy Loam Soil on Toxicity to the Enchytraeid Worm, Enchytreaeus Crypticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    high bioavailability of organic compounds. However, amended SSL soil was analyzed for presence of metabolic transformation products from nitroaromatic...Phillips, C.; Checkai, R. 1999. Comparison of malathion toxicity using enchytraeid reproduction test and earthworm toxicity test in different soil ...OF TNT IN AMENDED SANDY LOAM SOIL ON TOXICITY TO THE ENCHYTRAEID WORM, ENCHYTRAEUS CRYPTICUS Roman G. Kuperman Ronald T. Checkai Michael Simini

  10. Testing Re-entrained Aerosol Kinetic Emissions from Roads : a new approach to infer silt loading on roadways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, H.; Etyemezian, V.; Landwehr, D.; MacDougall, C.; Pitchford, M.; Green, M.

    PM 10 and PM 2.5 emissions from roadways are currently estimated using the silt loading on the road surface as a surrogate for the emissions potential of road dust. While the United States Environmental Protection Agency prescribes this method in AP-42, there is considerable cost associated with silt loading measurements; it is feasible to sample only a small portion of a roadway network. A new approach for measuring the concentration of suspendable PM 10 above road surfaces has been developed to obtain a more spatially representative estimate of a road's potential to emit dust. The Testing Re-entrained Aerosols Kinetic Emissions from Roads (TRAKER) system uses real-time aerosol sensors mounted on a vehicle to measure the concentration of dust suspended from the road while the vehicle is in motion. When coupled with a Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument, TRAKER can be used to efficiently survey the changes in suspendable particles due to varying road conditions over a large spatial domain. In a recent study on paved roads in Las Vegas, the TRAKER system was compared with collocated silt loading measurements. The TRAKER system was also used to survey the relative amounts of suspendable road dust on approximately 300 miles of paved roads. The system provides a unique perspective on road dust sources and their spatial distribution. Results of this study indicated that the difference of the PM 10 concentrations measured behind the tire and on the hood is exponentially related to vehicle speed. This was an interesting finding because current AP-42 road dust emissions estimation methods do not include vehicle speed as a factor in the emissions calculations. The experiment also demonstrated that the distribution of suspendable material on roadways is highly variable and that a large number of samples are needed to represent road dust emissions potential on an urban scale for a variety of road and activity conditions.

  11. Carbon sequestration in clay and silt fractions of Brazilian soils under conventional and no-tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Estima Sacramento dos Reis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of soils to sequestrate carbon (C is mainly related to the formation of organo-mineral complexes. In this study, we investigated the influence of soil management systems on the C retention capacity of soil with an emphasis on the silt and clay fractions of two subtropical soils with different mineralogy and climate. Samples from a Humic Hapludox and a Rhodic Hapludox, clayey soils cultivated for approximately 30 years under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT were collected from six layers distributed within 100-cm soil depth from each site and from an adjacent native forest. After the removal of particulate organic matter (POM, the suspension (<53 µm was sonicated, the silt and clay fractions were separated in accordance with Stokes' law and the carbon content of whole soil and physical fractions was determined. In the Humic Hapludox, the clay and silt fractions under NT showed a higher maximum C retention (72 and 52 g kg-1, respectively in comparison to those under CT (54 and 38 g kg-1, respectively. Moreover, the C concentration increase in both fractions under NT occurred mainly in the topsoil (up to 5 cm. The C retention in physical fractions of Rhodic Hapludox varied from 25 to 32 g kg-1, and no difference was observed whether under an NT or a CT management system. The predominance of goethite and gibbsite in the Humic Hapludox, as well as its exposure to a colder climate, may have contributed to its greater C retention capacity. In addition to the organo-mineral interaction, a mechanism of organic matter self-assemblage, enhanced by longer periods of soil non-disturbance, seems to have contributed to the carbon stabilization in both soils.

  12. Moisture and temperature in a proppant-enveloped silt block of a recharge dam reservoir: Laboratory experiment and 1-D mathematical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Kacimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic 3-D cascade of parallelepiped-shaped silt blocks, which sandwich sand- lled cracks, has been discovered in the eld and tested in lab experiments. Controlled wetting-drying of these blocks, collected from a dam reservoir, mimics field ponding-desiccation conditions of the topsoil layer subject to caustic solar radiation, high temperature and wind, typical in the Batinah region of Oman. In 1-D analytical modelling of a transient Richards’ equation for vertical evaporation, the method of small perturbations is applied, assuming that the relative permeability is Avery-anov’s 3.5-power function of the moisture content and capillary pressure is a given (measured function. A linearized advective dispersion equation is solved with respect to the second term in the series expansion of the moisture content as a function of spatial coordinates and time. For a single block of a nite thickness we solve a boundary value problem with a no- ow condition at the bottom and a constant moisture content at the surface. Preliminary comparisons with theta-, TDR- probes measuring the moisture content and temperature at several in-block points are made. Results corroborate that a 3-D heterogeneity of soil physical properties, in particular, horizontal and vertical capillary barriers emerging on the interfaces between silt and sand generate eco-niches with stored soil water compartments favourable for lush vegetation in desert conditions. Desiccation significantly increases the temperature in the blocks and re-wetting of the blocks reduces the daily average and peak temperatures, the latter by almost 15°C. This is important for planning irrigation in smartly designed soil substrates and sustainability of wild plants in the region where the top soil peak temperature in the study area exceeds 70°C in Summer but smartly structured soils maintain lash vegetation. Thee layer of dry top-blocks acts as a thermal insulator for the subjacent layers of wet blocks that

  13. Uncertainty of Deardorff’s soil moisture model based on continuous TDR measurements for sandy loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandyk Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on soil moisture is indispensable for a range of hydrological models, since it exerts a considerable influence on runoff conditions. Proper tools are nowadays applied in order to gain in-sight into soil moisture status, especially of uppermost soil layers, which are prone to weather changes and land use practices. In order to establish relationships between meteorological conditions and topsoil moisture, a simple model would be required, characterized by low computational effort, simple structure and low number of identified and calibrated parameters. We demonstrated, that existing model for shallow soils, considering mass exchange between two layers (the upper and the lower, as well as with the atmosphere and subsoil, worked well for sandy loam with deep ground water table in Warsaw conurbation. GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation linked with GSA (Global Sensitivity Analysis provided for final determination of parameter values and model confidence ranges. Including the uncertainty in a model structure, caused that the median soil moisture solution of the GLUE was shifted from the one optimal in deterministic sense. From the point of view of practical model application, the main shortcoming were the underestimated water exchange rates between the lower soil layer (ranging from the depth of 0.1 to 0.2 m below ground level and subsoil. General model quality was found to be satisfactory and promising for its utilization for establishing measures to regain retention in urbanized conditions.

  14. Field Performance of Nine Soil Water Content Sensors on a Sandy Loam Soil in New Brunswick, Maritime Region, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Stevens

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors, regardless of installation depths and soil water regimes, CS615, Trase, and Troxler performed the best with the factory calibrations, with a relative root mean square error (RRMSE of 15.78, 16.93, and 17.65%, and a r2 of 0.75, 0.77, and 0.65, respectively. TRIME, Moisture Point (MP917, and Gopher performed slightly worse with the factory calibrations, with a RRMSE of 45.76, 26.57, and 20.41%, and a r2 of 0.65, 0.72, and 0.78, respectively, while the Gypsum, WaterMark, and Netafim showed a frequent need for calibration in the application in this region.

  15. Empirical Models for Power and Energy Requirements II : A Powered Implement Operation in Serdang Sandy Clay Loam, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Kheiralla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Power and energy requirements were measured with an instrumented tractor for rotary tilling in Serdang sandy clay loam soil.  The effects of travel speed and rotor speed upon the measured data were investigated.  Power model from orthogonal regression analysis was formulated based on linear and quadratic functions of travel speed and bite length.  Fuel consumption model from regression analysis was formulated based on linear tractor PTO power as well as linear equivalent tractor PTO power.  Fuel consumption rates predicted by ASAE D497.3 were found to be 25% to 28% overestimates of the values predicted by the model developed.  However, fuel consumption rates reported by OECD Tractor Test were found to be 1% to 9% lower than the fuel consumption rates predicted by the model developed.  A comparison of power and energy requirements for both powered and draught implements showed that the disk harrow was the most energy efficient implement in terms of fuel consumption and specific energy followed by the rotary tiller, disk plough and mouldboard.  Finally, average PTO power, fuel consumption, wheel slip, wheel power and specific energy for a powered implement are presented.

  16. The fate of fresh and stored 15N-labelled sheep urine and urea applied to a sandy and a sandy loam soil using different application strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The fate of nitrogen from N-15-labelled sheep urine and urea applied to two soils was studied under field conditions. Labelled and stored urine equivalent to 204 kg N ha(-1) was either incorporated in soil or applied to the soil surface prior to sowing of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L...... and soil was not significantly different for incorporated urine and urea. Almost all the supplied labelled N was accounted for in soil and herbage in the sandy loam soil, whereas 33-34% of the labelled N was unaccounted for in the sandy soil. When the stored urine was applied to the soil surface, 20...... was applied to growing ryegrass at the sandy loam soil, the immobilization of urine-derived N was significantly reduced compared to application prior to sowing. The results indicated that the net mineralization of urine N was similar to that of urea in the sandy soil, but only about 75% of the urine N was net...

  17. Upper Pleistocene turbidite sand beds and chaotic silt beds in the channelized, distal, outer-fan lobes of the Mississippi fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Twichell, D.C.; Schwab, W.C.; Lee, H.J.; Kenyon, Neil H.

    1992-01-01

    Cores from a Mississippi outer-fan depositional lobe demonstrate that sublobes at the distal edge contain a complex local network of channelized-turbidite beds of graded sand and debris-flow beds of chaotic silt. Off-lobe basin plains lack siliciclastic coarse-grained beds. The basin-plain mud facies exhibit low acoustic backscatter on SeaMARC IA sidescan sonar images, whereas high acoustic backscatter characteristic of the lobe sand and silt facies. The depth of the first sand-silt layer correlates with relative backscatter intensity and stratigraphic age of the distal sublobes (i.e., shallowest sand = highest backscatter and youngest sublobe). The high proportion (>50%) of chaotic silt compared to graded sand in the distal, outer-fan sublobes may be related to the unstable, muddy, canyon-wall source areas of the extensive Mississippi delta-fed basin slope. A predominace of chaotic silt in cores or outcrops from outer-fan lobes thus may predict similar settings for ancient fans.

  18. Crop uptake and leaching losses of 15N labelled fertilizer nitrogen in relation to waterlogging of clay and sandy loam soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, C.P.; Belford, R.K.; Cannell, R.Q.

    1986-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, labelled with 15 N, was applied in spring to winter wheat growing in undisturbed monoliths of clay and sandy loam soil in lysimeters; the rates of application were respectively 95 and 102 kg N ha -1 in the spring of 1976 and 1975. Crops of winter wheat, oilseed rape, peas and barley grown in the following 5 or 6 years were treated with unlabelled nitrogen fertilizer at rates recommended for maximum yields. During each year of the experiments the lysimeters were divided into treatments which were either freely drained or subjected to periods of waterlogging. Another labelled nitrogen application was made in 1980 to a separate group of lysimeters with a clay soil and a winter wheat crop to study further the uptake of nitrogen fertilizer in relation to waterlogging. In the first growing season, shoots of the winter wheater at harvest contained 46 and 58% of the fertilizer nitrogen applied to the clay and sandy loam soils respectively. In the following year the crops contained a further 1-2% of the labelled fertilizer, and after 5 and 6 years the total recoveries of labelled fertilizer in the crops were 49 and 62% on the clay and sandy loam soils respectively. In the first winter after the labelled fertilizer was applied, less than 1% of the fertilizer was lost in the drainage water, and only about 2% of the total nitrogen (mainly nitrate) in the drainage water from both soils was derived from the fertilizer

  19. Elevated gas hydrate saturation within silt and silty clay sediments in the Shenhu area, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Wu, Shiguo; Yang, Shengxiong; Guo, Yiqun

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate saturations were estimated using five different methods in silt and silty clay foraminiferous sediments from drill hole SH2 in the South China Sea. Gas hydrate saturations derived from observed pore water chloride values in core samples range from 10 to 45% of the pore space at 190–221 m below seafloor (mbsf). Gas hydrate saturations estimated from resistivity (Rt) using wireline logging results are similar and range from 10 to 40.5% in the pore space. Gas hydrate saturations were also estimated by P wave velocity obtained during wireline logging by using a simplified three-phase equation (STPE) and effective medium theory (EMT) models. Gas hydrate saturations obtained from the STPE velocity model (41.0% maximum) are slightly higher than those calculated with the EMT velocity model (38.5% maximum). Methane analysis from a 69 cm long depressurized core from the hydrate-bearing sediment zone indicates that gas hydrate saturation is about 27.08% of the pore space at 197.5 mbsf. Results from the five methods show similar values and nearly identical trends in gas hydrate saturations above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone at depths of 190 to 221 mbsf. Gas hydrate occurs within units of clayey slit and silt containing abundant calcareous nannofossils and foraminifer, which increase the porosities of the fine-grained sediments and provide space for enhanced gas hydrate formation. In addition, gas chimneys, faults, and fractures identified from three-dimensional (3-D) and high-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) seismic data provide pathways for fluids migrating into the gas hydrate stability zone which transport methane for the formation of gas hydrate. Sedimentation and local canyon migration may contribute to higher gas hydrate saturations near the base of the stability zone.

  20. Impacts of soil conditioners and water table management on phosphorus loss in tile drainage from a clay loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Zheng, Z M; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D

    2015-03-01

    Adoption of waste-derived soil conditioners and refined water management can improve soil physical quality and crop productivity of fine-textured soils. However, the impacts of these practices on water quality must be assessed to ensure environmental sustainability. We conducted a study to determine phosphorus (P) loss in tile drainage as affected by two types of soil conditioners (yard waste compost and swine manure compost) and water table management (free drainage and controlled drainage with subirrigation) in a clay loam soil under corn-soybean rotation in a 4-yr period from 1999 to 2003. Tile drainage flows were monitored and sampled on a year-round continuous basis using on-site auto-sampling systems. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP), particulate P (PP), and total P (TP). Substantially greater concentrations and losses of DRP, PP, and TP occurred with swine manure compost than with control and yard waste compost regardless of water table management. Compared with free drainage, controlled drainage with subirrigation was an effective way to reduce annual and cumulative losses of DRP, PP, and TP in tile drainage through reductions in flow volume and P concentration with control and yard waste compost but not with swine manure compost. Both DRP and TP concentrations in tile drainage were well above the water quality guideline for P, affirming that subsurface loss of P from fine-textured soils can be one critical source for freshwater eutrophication. Swine manure compost applied as a soil conditioner must be optimized by taking water quality impacts into consideration. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Nitrogen Amendment Stimulated Decomposition of Maize Straw-Derived Biochar in a Sandy Loam Soil: A Short-Term Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Lu

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of nitrogen (N on biochar stability in relation to soil microbial community as well as biochar labile components using δ13C stable isotope technology. A sandy loam soil under a long-term rotation of C3 crops was amended with biochar produced from maize (a C4 plant straw in absence (BC0 and presence (BCN of N and monitored for dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2 flux, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs profile and dissolved organic carbon (DOC content. N amendment significantly increased the decomposition of biochar during the first 5 days of incubation (P < 0.05, and the proportions of decomposed biochar carbon (C were 2.30% and 3.28% in BC0 and BCN treatments, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. The magnitude of decomposed biochar C was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than DOC in biochar (1.75% and part of relatively recalcitrant biochar C was mineralized in both treatments. N amendment increased soil PLFAs concentration at the beginning of incubation, indicating that microorganisms were N-limited in test soil. Furthermore, N amendment significantly (P < 0.05 increased the proportion of gram-positive (G+ bacteria and decreased that of fungi, while no noticeable changes were observed for gram-negative (G- bacteria and actinobacteria at the early stage of incubation. Our results indicated that N amendment promoted more efficiently the proliferation of G+ bacteria and accelerated the decomposition of relatively recalcitrant biochar C, which in turn reduced the stability of maize straw-derived biochar in test soil.

  2. [Characteristics of N2, N2O, NO, CO2 and CH4 Emissions in Anaerobic Condition from Sandy Loam Paddy Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Na; Wang, Rui; Liao, Ting-ting; Chen, Nuo; Zheng, Xun-hua; Yao, Zhi-sheng; Zhang, Hai; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the characteristics of the production of nitrogen gases (N2, N2O and NO), CO2 and CH4 in anaerobic paddy soils is not only a prerequisite for an improved mechanistic understanding of key microbial processes involved in the production of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), but might also provide the basis for designing greenhouse gas mitigation strategies. Moreover, quantifying the composition fractions of denitrification gaseous products is of key importance for improving parameterization schemes of microbial processes in process-oriented models which are increasingly used for assessing soil GHG emissions at site and national scales. In our experiments we investigated two sandy loam soils from two paddy fields. The initial concentrations of soil nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were set at approximately 50 mg.kg-1 and mg.kg-1, respectively, by adding a mixture solution of KNO3 and glucose. The emissions of N2, N2O NO, CO2 and CH4, as well as concentrations of carbon and nitrogen substrates for each soil sample were measured simultaneously, using a gas-flow-soil-core technique and a paralleling substrate monitoring system. The results showed that the accumulative emissions of N2, N2O and NO of the two soil samples for the entire incubation period were 6 - 8, 20, and 15 - 18 mg.kg-1, respectively. By measuring the cumulative emissions of denitrification gases (N, = N2 + N2O + NO) we were able to explain 95% to 98% of observed changes in s1ifr nilrate concentrations. The mass fractions of N2, N2O and NO emissions to Nt were approximately 15% -19%, 47% -49%, and 34% -36%, respectively. Thus, in our experiments N2O and NO were the main products of denitrification for the entire incubation period. However, as the temporal courses of hourly or daily production of the denitrification gases showed, NO production dominated and peaked firstly, and then N2O, before finally N2 became the dominant product. Our results show the high temporal dynamic of

  3. 78 FR 5351 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... al. 2002, p. 6074; Cook et al. 2004, p. 1015). We recognize that critical habitat designated at a... silt, is necessary for spawning and egg development (Maddux and Kepner 1988, p. 364). Excessive levels of silt can inhibit egg and juvenile fish development through the clogging of the small spaces...

  4. Fate of corrosion products released from stainless steel in marine sediments and seawater. Part 2. Sequim Bay clayey silt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    This report describes laboratory experiments in which neutron-activated 347 stainless steel specimens were exposed to clayey silt from Sequim Bay, Washington. The properties and trace metal geochemistry of the sediment and the amounts of corrosion products that were released under oxic and reduced conditions and their distribution among different chemical fractions of the sediment are discussed. The distributions of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu among different chemical forms in the Sequim Bay sediment show that DTPA removed <10% of extractable Cr, Fe and Mn, approx. 20% of extractable Ni and approx. 30% of extractable Cu. The inorganic fraction (material soluble in 2.5% acetic acid) accounted for approx. 30% of total extractable Mn and approx. 10% or less of Cr, Fe, Ni and Cu. Major portions of Cr and Cu, and a large amount of Fe were in the organic fraction. Extractable Mn, Fe and Ni were associated with hydrous oxides likely as coatings on the mineral substrate of the sediment. No Co was detectable in any of the extracts

  5. Rapid runoff via shallow throughflow and deeper preferential flow in a boreal catchment underlain by frozen silt (Alaska, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Joshua C.; Ewing, Stephanie A.; Striegl, Robert G.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    In high-latitude catchments where permafrost is present, runoff dynamics are complicated by seasonal active-layer thaw, which may cause a change in the dominant flowpaths as water increasingly contacts mineral soils of low hydraulic conductivity. A 2-year study, conducted in an upland catchment in Alaska (USA) underlain by frozen, well-sorted eolian silt, examined changes in infiltration and runoff with thaw. It was hypothesized that rapid runoff would be maintained by flow through shallow soils during the early summer and deeper preferential flow later in the summer. Seasonal changes in soil moisture, infiltration, and runoff magnitude, location, and chemistry suggest that transport is rapid, even when soils are thawed to their maximum extent. Between June and September, a shift occurred in the location of runoff, consistent with subsurface preferential flow in steep and wet areas. Uranium isotopes suggest that late summer runoff erodes permafrost, indicating that substantial rapid flow may occur along the frozen boundary. Together, throughflow and deep preferential flow may limit upland boreal catchment water and solute storage, and subsequently biogeochemical cycling on seasonal to annual timescales. Deep preferential flow may be important for stream incision, network drainage development, and the release of ancient carbon to ecosystems

  6. Parametric study of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sand, silt, and clay sediments: 1. Electromagnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.Y.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2010-01-01

    The marked decrease in bulk electrical conductivity of sediments in the presence of gas hydrates has been used to interpret borehole electrical resistivity logs and, to a lesser extent, the results of controlled source electromagnetic surveys to constrain the spatial distribution and predicted concentration of gas hydrate in natural settings. Until now, an exhaustive laboratory data set that could be used to assess the impact of gas hydrate on the electromagnetic properties of different soils (sand, silt, and clay) at different effective stress and with different saturations of hydrate has been lacking. The laboratory results reported here are obtained using a standard geotechnical cell and the hydrate-formed tetrahydrofuran (THF), a liquid that is fully miscible in water and able to produce closely controlled saturations of hydrate from dissolved phase. Both permittivity and electrical conductivity are good indicators of the volume fraction of free water in the sediment, which is in turn dependent on hydrate saturation. Permittivity in the microwave frequency range is particularly predictive of free water content since it is barely affected by ionic concentration, pore structure, and surface conduction. Electrical conductivity (or resistivity) is less reliable for constraining water content or hydrate saturation: In addition to fluid-filled porosity, other factors, such as the ionic concentration of the pore fluid and possibly other conduction effects (e.g., surface conduction in high specific surface soils having low conductivity pore fluid), also influence electrical conductivity.

  7. Weeds of cereal stubble-fields on various soils in the Kielce region. P. 1. Podzolic and brown soils developed from sands and loams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Pawłowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupying cereal stubble-fields weed flora is the most characteristic of the environmental (especially soil conditions. Because of its developing and accomplishing the reproductive stages there it can threatens cultivated plants. They are considered to complete the seed store in a soil by 393 min per ha. The results presented in the paper concern the species composition, number and constancy (S and indice of coverage (D of the cereal stubble-field weed species on various soils in the Kielce region (the central part of Poland. The report was based upon 885 phytosociological records collected in the 268 stands. The records were carried out after the crop harvest, in the latter part of September, in 1976-1980. Soil were chosen on the base of soil maps. The analyse of soil samples, taken at the investigation process, were done in order to confirm the soil quality. The worked out material was divided into three parts. The first part, including 369 phytosociological records collected in the 112 stands (in 90 localities concerns stubble-field weeds on podzolic and brown soils developed from sands (loose, weakly loamy and loamy and loams (light and medium. It was found that these soils were grown by 108 (loamy sands to 132 (weakly loamy sands weed species. Among them 66 species were common for all of the soils. Species composition was not differentiated by the soil type (brown, podzolic within kind of the. soil (sand or loams. Among soil examined, the brown loams was the most abundant with species of high constancy degree (30 species but brown loose sands and podzolic loamy sands was the poorest one with (16 species.

  8. Changes to soil water content and biomass yield under combined maize and maize-weed vegetation with different fertilization treatments in loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehoczky Éva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Especially during early developmental stages, competition with weeds can reduce crop growth and have a serious effect on productivity. Here, the effects of interactions between soil water content (SWC, nutrient availability, and competition from weeds on early stage crop growth were investigated, to better understand this problem. Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using long-term study plots on loam soil in Hungary. Plots of maize (Zea mays L. and a weed-maize combination were exposed to five fertilization treatments. SWC was observed along the 0–80 cm depth soil profile and harvested aboveground biomass (HAB was measured.

  9. Vertical hydraulic conductivity of a clayey-silt aquitard: accelerated fluid flow in a centrifuge permeameter compared with in situ conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, W. A.; Crane, R.; Anderson, D. J.; Bouzalakos, S.; Whelan, M.; McGeeney, D.; Rahman, P. F.; Guinea, A.; Acworth, R. I.

    2014-03-01

    Evaluating the possibility of leakage through low permeability geological strata is critically important for sustainable water supplies, extraction of fuels from strata such as coal beds, and confinement of waste within the earth. Characterizing low or negligible flow rates and transport of solutes can require impractically long periods of field or laboratory testing, but is necessary for evaluations over regional areas and over multi-decadal timescales. The current work reports a custom designed centrifuge permeameter (CP) system, which can provide relatively rapid and reliable hydraulic conductivity (K) measurement compared to column permeameter tests at standard gravity (1g). Linear fluid velocity through a low K porous sample is linearly related to g-level during a CP flight unless consolidation or geochemical reactions occur. The CP module is designed to fit within a standard 2 m diameter, geotechnical centrifuge with a capacity for sample dimensions of 30 to 100 mm diameter and 30 to 200 mm in length. At maximum RPM the resultant centrifugal force is equivalent to 550g at base of sample or a total stress of ~2 MPa. K is calculated by measuring influent and effluent volumes. A custom designed mounting system allows minimal disturbance of drill core samples and a centrifugal force that represents realistic in situ stress conditions is applied. Formation fluids were used as influent to limit any shrink-swell phenomena which may alter the resultant K value. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) results from CP testing of core from the sites in the same clayey silt formation varied (10-7 to 10-9 m s-1, n = 14) but higher than 1g column permeameter tests of adjacent core using deionized water (10-9 to 10-11 m s-1, n = 7). Results at one site were similar to in situ Kv values (3 × 10-9 m s-1) from pore pressure responses within a 30 m clayey sequence in a homogenous area of the formation. Kv sensitivity to sample heterogeneity was observed, and anomalous flow via

  10. Effect of organic amendments on nitrate leaching mitigation in a sandy loam soil of Shkodra district, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdona Demiraj

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available European lacustrine systems are frequently exposed to nitrate (NO3– pollution causing eutrophication processes. An example of these lakes is Shkodra Lake, a large, shallow lake shared by Albania and Montenegro, in the Balkans Peninsula. Shkodra Lake is a natural sink that collects NO3– from agricultural activities, widely diffused in the surrounding area. The additions of wheat straw and biochar have been suggested to increase soil NO3– retention of agricultural lands. To better understand the role of these two organic soil amendments in mitigating NO3– leaching from arable lands, a pot experiment using a representative sandy loam soil of the Skodra Lake basin was performed. More specifically, a greenhouse experiment with Lolium multiflorum L. and Zea mays L., was carried out for three months, to evaluate the concentrations of NO3–-N in leachate and the cumulative leaching losses of NO3–-N, after wheat straw (10 Mg ha–1 and biochar (10 Mg ha–1 soil addition, under the same rate of NPK fertiliser (300 kg ha–1. The effect of the two organic amendments on nitrate retention, was evaluated according to two methods: i Soil NO3–-N leaching with distilled water; and ii Soil NO3–-N extraction with 2M KCl. The leached NO3–-N and the Potentially Leachable NO3–-N (2M KCl extraction were respectively determined. N uptake by plants, as well as the Nitrogen Use Efficiency were also calculated. A retention effect on nitrate was found in Lolium multiflorum L. and wheat straw treatments compared to control, by reducing leached NO3–-N almost to 35%. In SBFL (soil+biochar+fertiliser+Lolium treatment, biochar effectively reduced the total amount of nitrate in leachate of 27% and 26% compared to SFL (soil+fertiliser+Lolium and SSFL (soil+straw+fertiliser+Lolium treatments, respectively. The potentially leachable NO3–-N was two to four times higher than the leached NO3–-N. The amount of potentially leachable NO3–-N per hectare ranged

  11. Relation of sortable silt grain-size to deep-sea current speeds: Calibration of the 'Mud Current Meter'

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCave, I. N.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Hall, I. R.

    2017-09-01

    Fine grain-size parameters have been used for inference of palaeoflow speeds of near-bottom currents in the deep-sea. The basic idea stems from observations of varying sediment size parameters on a continental margin with a gradient from slower flow speeds at shallower depths to faster at deeper. In the deep-sea, size-sorting occurs during deposition after benthic storm resuspension events. At flow speeds below 10-15 cm s-1 mean grain-size in the terrigenous non-cohesive 'sortable silt' range (denoted by SS bar , mean of 10-63 μm) is controlled by selective deposition, whereas above that range removal of finer material by winnowing is also argued to play a role. A calibration of the SS bar grain-size flow speed proxy based on sediment samples taken adjacent to sites of long-term current meters set within 100 m of the sea bed for more than a year is presented here. Grain-size has been measured by either Sedigraph or Coulter Counter, in some cases both, between which there is an excellent correlation for SS bar (r = 0.96). Size-speed data indicate calibration relationships with an overall sensitivity of 1.36 ± 0.19 cm s-1/μm. A calibration line comprising 12 points including 9 from the Iceland overflow region is well defined, but at least two other smaller groups (Weddell/Scotia Sea and NW Atlantic continental rise/Rockall Trough) are fitted by sub-parallel lines with a smaller constant. This suggests a possible influence of the calibre of material supplied to the site of deposition (not the initial source supply) which, if depleted in very coarse silt (31-63 μm), would limit SS bar to smaller values for a given speed than with a broader size-spectrum supply. Local calibrations, or a core-top grain-size and local flow speed, are thus necessary to infer absolute speeds from grain-size. The trend of the calibrations diverges markedly from the slope of experimental critical erosion and deposition flow speeds versus grain-size, making it unlikely that the SS bar (or

  12. Stormwater quality performance of a macro-pervious pavement car park installation equipped with channel drain based oil and silt retention devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Alan Paul; Aitken, Douglas; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2013-12-15

    This paper reports the results of a two year field monitoring exercise intended to investigate the pollution abatement capabilities of a novel system which offers an alternative to the, now well established, pervious pavement system as a source control device for stormwater management. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a live installation of a macro-pervious pavement system (MPPS) (operated as a visitors' car park at a prison in Central Scotland) in retaining and treating a range of pollutants which originate from automobile use or become concentrated on the parking surface from the wider environment. The MPPS is a sub-class of pervious pavement system where the vast majority of the surface is impermeable. It directs stormwater into a pervious sub surface storage/attenuation zone through a series of distinct infiltration points fast enough to prevent flooding during the design storm. In the particular system studied here the infiltration points consist of a network of oil/silt separation devices with extensive further pollutant retention/degradation provided during the passage of stormwater through the sub surface zone. Approximately 12 months after the car park was completed a sampling regime was instigated in which grab samples were collected at intervals from each of the three sub catchments whilst, simultaneously, samples were collected directly from the, pollutant retaining, infiltration devices. Through investigation of samples collected at the upstream end of the system, the retention of significant amounts of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the initial collection devices has been illustrated and the analysis of effluent samples collected at the outlet points indicate that the system is capable of producing effluent which is of a standard comparable to that expected from a traditional pervious pavement system and is acceptable for direct release into a surface water receptor. The system offers the opportunity to accrue the benefits

  13. Interaction of the heavy metals (Cr +6, Cd, Pb, Ni) between the silt and the water column in the case study of Bogota River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinzon U, L.F.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Giraldo, E.

    1993-01-01

    For the present study the Bogota River it uses as framework, this river has a course of 255 km., in it pathway through 26 municipalities, including the Western area of the District Capital (Bogota). In the District Capital area, some significant sampling points were founded, due to their localization on the bed and that industrial activities of grateful polluting function are developed. Silt samples were extracted and it dilutes for chemical-physical analysis and study to scale; these samples were implanted in columns or reactors; one of characteristic totally anaerobic and another of characteristic aerobic. Of equal forms it procedure is repeated, but replacing the river water for dilution water; every third day the extracted samples are been about agreement with the metal to analyze Chromium IV for the waters, Total Chromium for the silts, Cadmium, Lead and Total Nickel in the column of water and silts to be analyzed by means of Absorption Atomic Spectrophotometry. The object is the one of establishing that exchange type is presented between the polluted water and the water free of contaminants

  14. Consolidation and compaction as a means to prevent settlement of bentonite/sandy silt mixes for use in waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    The texture of the local Los Alamos tuff is that of a sandy silt with a high hydraulic conductivity. The permeability is dramatically decreased by addition of small amounts of bentonite. The coefficient of consolidation for bentonite/sandy silt ratios decreases inversely proportional with the square of that ratio, whereas the compression index, the swelling index, and the permeability change index increase with increasing bentonite ratio. A strong relationship also exists between the void ratio and the logarithm of the applied stress for any given bentonite ratio. The empirical linear relationship between the void ratio and the logarithm of the applied stress, developed by Taylor, is excellent and enables us to limit the evaluation of conductivity at any void ratio to the measurement of the initial and the desired void ratio, the initial conductivity, and the permeability change index. The decrease in void ratio caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the mixes are scrutinized. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of bentonite/sandy silt mixes. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are considered. We finally discuss our field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems in general and on biobarriers in particular. 15 refs., 5 tabs

  15. Can mud (silt and clay) concentration be used to predict soil organic carbon content within seagrass ecosystems?

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, Oscar

    2016-09-07

    The emerging field of blue carbon science is seeking cost-effective ways to estimate the organic carbon content of soils that are bound by coastal vegetated ecosystems. Organic carbon (C-org) content in terrestrial soils and marine sediments has been correlated with mud content (i.e., silt and clay, particle sizes <63 mu m), however, empirical tests of this theory are lacking for coastal vegetated ecosystems. Here, we compiled data (n = 1345) on the relationship between C-org and mud contents in seagrass ecosystems (79 cores) and adjacent bare sediments (21 cores) to address whether mud can be used to predict soil C-org content. We also combined these data with the delta C-13 signatures of the soil C-org to understand the sources of Corg stores. The results showed that mud is positively correlated with soil C-org content only when the contribution of seagrass-derived C-org to the sedimentary C-org pool is relatively low, such as in small and fast-growing meadows of the genera Zostera, Halodule and Halophila, and in bare sediments adjacent to seagrass ecosystems. In large and long-living seagrass meadows of the genera Posidonia and Amphibolis there was a lack of, or poor relationship between mud and soil C-org content, related to a higher contribution of seagrass-derived C-org to the sedimentary C-org pool in these meadows. The relatively high soil C-org contents with relatively low mud contents (e.g., mud-C-org saturation) in bare sediments and Zostera, Halodule and Halophila meadows was related to significant allochthonous inputs of terrestrial organic matter, while higher contribution of seagrass detritus in Amphibolis and Posidonia meadows disrupted the correlation expected between soil C-org and mud contents. This study shows that mud is not a universal proxy for blue carbon content in seagrass ecosystems, and therefore should not be applied generally across all seagrass habitats. Mud content can only be used as a proxy to estimate soil C-org content for

  16. Discriminating silt-and-clay from suspended-sand in rivers using side-looking acoustic profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott A.; Topping, David J.; Williams, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    techniques rely on measurements of ancillary properties that correlate with suspended-sediment concentration and particle size and thus require the collection of traditional samples for calibration. Through in situ deployments, these methods can provide the high temporal resolution that cannot be achieved through traditional sampling. Here we focus on the evaluation of acoustic profiling techniques (e.g. acoustic-Doppler sideways-looking profilers, or ADPs). One major advantage of acoustic profiling is the ability to concurrently measure water velocity (using Doppler-shift methods) and suspended-sediment concentration such that suspended-sediment flux can be directly computed using data from a single instrument. Acoustic-Doppler profilers have become popular for measuring water velocity and discharge in rivers, through both moving-boat operations and from fixed deployments such as bank-mounted sideways-looking instruments (Hirsch and Costa, 2004, Muste et al., 2007). The method presented herein is most suited to sideways-looking applications as a complement to the "index velocity" technique, whereby an index velocity from a sideways-looking instrument is related to the cross-section average velocity (determined from moving-boat discharge measurements) as a means for developing a continuous water-discharge record (Ruhl and Simpson, 2005). Topping et al. (2007) presented a method for discriminating silt-and-clay from suspended sand, using single frequency ADPs. This method takes advantage of the relations among acoustic backscatter, sediment-induced acoustic attenuation, suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), and particle size distribution (PSD). Backscatter is the amount of sound scattered back and received at the transducer while sediment-induced attenuation is the amount of sound scattered in other directions and absorbed by the sediment particles. Both of these parameters can be measured with an ADP, and their different dependencies on SSC and PSD allow for the

  17. USE OF THE “ROTHC” MODEL TO SIMULATE SOIL ORGANIC CARBON DYNAMICS ON A SILTY-LOAM INCEPTISOL IN NORTHERN ITALY UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Francaviglia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the efficiency of the RothC model to simulate Soil Organic Carbon (SOC dynamics after 12 years of organic and mineral fertilization practices in a study area located in northern Italy, on a silty-loam Inceptisol with a rotation including tomato, maize and alfalfa. The model performance was assessed by RMSE and EF coefficients. RothC simulated well observed SOC decreases in 71 samples (RMSE=7.42; EF=0.79, while performed with less accuracy when considering all samples (96 samples; RMSE=12.37; EF=0.58, due to the fact that the model failed in case of measured SOC increases (25 samples; RMSE=20.77; EF=-0.038. The model was used to forecast the SOC dynamics over a 50 year period under the same pedoclimatic conditions. Only clay contents >15% allowed to predict increasing levels of SOC respect to the starting values.

  18. Influence of N,K and CaSO4 on utilisation of sulfur by rice in red sandy loam soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, M.C.; Sathe, Arun

    1993-01-01

    A greenhouse study with rice on red sandy loam soil showed that uptake of sulphur increased from both native as well as applied source with increase in the application of sulphur from 20-60 kg S ha -1 through gypsum. The grain yields were influenced by nitrogen application but there was only relative increase with the application of potassium and sulphur. There was positive effect of applied nitrogen and sulphur for the total sulphur removal by the rice crop. The per cent sulphur utilisation decreased with increase in sulphur application from 20-60 kg S ha -1 through gypsum but increased with increase in the application of nitrogen from 0-150 kg N ha -1 . Sulphur utilization by rice crop was more in potassium treated pots compared to that without its application. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Small proportions of silt linked to distinct and predictable differences in marine macrofaunal assemblages on the continental shelf of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, S. K.; Politano, K. K.

    2017-07-01

    Increasing interest in offshore development has motivated intensified efforts to map the seafloor for marine spatial planning. However, surficial geologic maps do not accurately represent habitats for various species groups of concern. This study used a bottom-up approach to integrate macrofaunal densities and benthic conditions on the Pacific Northwest shelf to identify macrofaunal assemblages and associated habitat features. Benthic cores and water-column profiles were collected from 137 stations from 50 to 110 m depth. Analyses grouping stations based on both similar species abundances and benthic conditions resulted in six broad habitats. Within the sampled depth and latitudinal range, sediment characteristics were the primary structuring variable. A major break in assemblages was detected between sediment that had less than 1% silt/clay and those containing more than 1% silt/clay. Assemblages differed primarily in the bivalve species present and secondarily in polychaete species. Within the greater than and less than 1% silt/clay habitats, further discretization of assemblages was based mostly on differing abundances of characteristic bivalves and polychaetes associated with differing median grain sizes, which did not correspond to traditional definitions of fine or medium sand. These data show that a bottom-up methodology is necessary to discern habitats for macrofauna and that site-specific physical sampling is necessary to predict macrofaunal assemblage composition. However, if detailed sediment characteristics are known, macrofaunal assemblages may be predicted without time-intensive biological sampling and processing. These results also indicate that seemingly small sedimentary changes due to offshore installations may have measureable effects on the relative abundances and even the species composition of macrofauna.

  20. Function of a deltaic silt deposit as a repository and long-term source of sulfate and related weathering products in a glaciofluvial aquifer derived from organic-rich shale (North Dakota, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, W. M.; Bottrell, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    A shallow unconfined glaciofluvial aquifer in North Dakota (USA) has largest groundwater sulfate concentrations near the bottom boundary. A deltaic silt layer underlying the aquifer, at >16 m, is the modern proximate sulfate source for the aquifer. The original sulfate source was pyrite in the organic-rich shale component of the aquifer and silt grain matrix. An oxidizing event occurred during which grain-matrix pyrite sulfur was oxidized to sulfate. Thereafter the silt served as a "conserving" layer, slowly feeding sulfate into the lower part of the aquifer and the underlying till. A method was developed for estimating the approximate initial sulfate concentration in the source layer and the redistribution time since the oxidizing event, using a semi-generic convection-dispersion model. The convection-dispersion model and a model for the evolution of modern sulfate δ 34S in silt-layer pore water from the initial grain-matrix pyrite δ 34S, both estimated that the oxidizing event occurred several thousand years ago, and was likely related to the dry conditions of the Hypsithermal Interval. The silt layer also serves as an arsenic source. Results indicate that deltaic silts derived from organic-rich shale parent materials in a glacial environment can provide long-term sources for sulfate and arsenic and possibly other related oxidative weathering products.

  1. The impacts of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type on biochar properties and the effects of biochar application on the properties of a sandy loam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Steve; Doerr, Stefan; Street-Perrott, Alayne

    2013-04-01

    The production of biochar and its application to soil has the potential to make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation whilst simultaneously improving soil fertility, crop yield and soil water-holding capacity. Biochar is produced from various biomass feedstock materials at varying pyrolysis temperatures, but relatively little is known about how these parameters affect the properties of the resultant biochars and their impact on the properties of the soils to which they are subsequently applied. Salix viminalis, M. giganteus and Picea sitchensis feedstocks were chipped then sieved to 2 - 5 mm, oven dried to constant weight, then pyrolyzed at 350, 500, 600 and 800° C in a nitrogen-purged tube furnace. Biochar yields were measured by weighing the mass of each sample before and after pyrolysis. Biochar hydrophobicity was assessed by using a goniometer to measure water-droplet contact-angles. Cation-exchange-capacity (CEC) was measured using the ammonium acetate method. Biochars were also produced in a rotary kiln from softwood pellets at 400, 500, 600 and 700° C then ground to 0.4 - 1 mm and applied to a sandy loam at a rate of 50 g kg-1. Bulk densities of these soil-biochar mixtures were measured on a tapped, dry, basis. The water-holding-capacity (WHC) of each mixture was measured gravimetrically following saturation and free-draining. The filter paper method was used to assess how pyrolysis temperature influences the effect of biochar application on matric suction. For all feedstocks, large decreases in biochar yield were observed between the pyrolysis temperatures of 350° C and 500° C. For Salix viminalis and M. giganteus feedstocks, subsequent reductions in the yield with increasing pyrolysis temperature were much lower. There were significant differences in hydrophobicity between biochars produced from different biomass and mean biochar hydrophobicity decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature for all feedstocks. Results for CEC and WHC

  2. Effect of the heat curing on strength development of self-compacting mortars containing calcined silt of dams and Ground Brick Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Safi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The strength development of self-compacting mortars (SCM containing calcined silt (CS and ground brick waste (GWB was investigated. The variables are the nature of addition (CS and GWB in the binder and the heat curing at different temperatures (20 ºC and 60 ºC at 7 and 14 days of curing. Two temperatures 20 and 60 ºC were applied to samples with intermediate levels (depending on the drying method applied to precast for 18 hours in total. In this study, a Portland cement (CEMII, Calcined silt (750 ºC for 5 hours, ground waste brick, were used in the binders of SCM. The results show that the compressive strength to 14 days of mortars, increases with annealing (60 ºC compared to that measured at 20 ºC. Also, values of compressive strength of mortars at 14 days that are close to those obtained without 28 days curing treatment. Indeed, a strength gain of about 20.5% and 27.3% was obtained respectively for the SCM with GWB and the SCM with CS. However, a small change in mass recorded for both types of mortars.

  3. Effects of a novel poly (AA-co-AAm)/AlZnFe₂O₄/potassium humate superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposite on water retention of sandy loam soil and wheat seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaukat Ali; Qidwai, Ansar Ahmad; Anwar, Farooq; Ullah, Inam; Rashid, Umer

    2012-10-25

    A novel poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)AlZnFe₂O₄/potassium humate( )superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposite (PHNC) was synthesized and its physical properties characterized using SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. Air dried sandy loam soil was amended with 0.1 to 0.4 w/w% of PHNC to evaluate its soil moisture retention attributes. Effect of PHNC amendment on pH, electrical conductivity (EC), porosity, bulk density and hydraulic conductivity of sandy loam soil was also studied. The soil amendment with 0.1 to 0.4 w/w% of PHNC remarkably enhanced the moisture retention at field capacity as compared to the un-amended soils. Seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was considerably increased and a delay by 6-9 days in wilting of seedlings was observed in the soil amended with PHNC, resulting in improved wheat plant establishment and growth.

  4. Weeds of cereal stubble-fields on various soils in the Kielce region. P. II. Podzolic and brown soils developed from silt of water origin, loess and chernozem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Pawłowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The weedy status of the cereal stubble-fields on a fertile soils (podzolic and brown developed from silt of water origin and loess as well as chemozem were asessed. The 243 phytosociological records, collected in 69 stands situated in 63 localities, were worked out. The species composition, number and constancy (S and indice of coverage (D of weed species are presented in the report. There were from 113 (podzolic loess to 142 (brown loess weed species on the edafic sites considered. The short-lived predominated among them (62-65%. The great floristic similarity was stated within the weed species occupied the investigated soils. The 88 species (including 27 perennial were common for the each of them. From 24 to 37 species dernonstrated high (V-III constancy degree, but only 5-12 along with high (over 200 indice of coverage.

  5. Amount of deposited by river silt Cs-137 brought to the river Arbuzynka with sewerage water from South Ukrainian Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyintsukevich, N.V.; Tomyilyin, Yu.A.; Grigor'jeva, L.Yi.

    1996-01-01

    The peculiarities of radionuclide depositing in the silt of the river Arbuzynka in the place of discharge of sewerage water from South Ukrainian Atomic Power Plant have been studied. According to the finding of the observation, the main contribution to the total radioactivity of the sewerage water for the entire period of the plant operation was made by Cs-137. The greatest contamination of the river was observed in 1988 and 1993. It has been established that for the whole period of the plant operation two processes developed dynamically in the Arbuzynka, e.i. Cs-137 accumulation by the bottom deposits and its reserve receipt by the water. The process of accumulation was more dynamic

  6. Discovery of a landscape-wide drape of late-glacial aeolian silt in the western Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria): First results and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gild, Charlotte; Geitner, Clemens; Sanders, Diethard

    2018-01-01

    Aeolian deposits record palaeoenvironmental conditions and may coin soil properties. Whereas periglacial loess is extensively investigated for 200 years, the study of the intramontane wind-blown deposits of the Alps has just stuttered along. Herein, we describe a drape of polymictic siliciclastic silt interpreted as an aeolian deposit that veneers extensive areas in the western Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA), from kames terraces near valley floors up to last-glacial nunataks. The NCA - part of the Eastern Alps mountain range - consist mainly of Triassic carbonate rocks; these are overlain by deposits of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and its deglacial-paraglacial aftermath (e.g., glacial tills, fluvio-lacustrine successions, alluvial fans, scree slopes) - and a regional drape of polymictic silt newly described herein. The drape is typically a few decimeters in thickness and slightly modified by soil formation; it consists mainly of well-sorted silt of quartz, feldspars, phyllosilicates (muscovite, chlorite, biotite), amphiboles and, rarely, calcite or dolomite. The drape is unrelated to the substrate: it overlies carbonate bedrock and - in lateral continuity - abandoned deposystems such as colluvial slopes of redeposited till, kames, alluvial fans, scree slopes, and rock avalanche deposits. The drape was spotted from near the present valley floors up to LGM nunataks, over a vertical range of some 2000 m; it is also present in catchments of the NCA that were not overridden by far-travelled ice streams and that lack metamorphic rock fragments. Two OSL quartz ages of the drape from two distinct locations (18.77 ± 1.55 ka; 17.81 ± 1.68 ka) fall into the early Alpine late-glacial interval shortly after the collapse of pleniglacial ice streams; this fits with geological and geomorphological evidence, respectively, that the drape should be of early late-glacial age, and that it accumulated during a specific interval of time. In the NCA, localized minor deposition of

  7. Field application of a multi-frequency acoustic instrument to monitor sediment for silt erosion study in Pelton turbine in Himalayan region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Kumar, A.; Hies, T.; Nguyen, H. H.

    2016-11-01

    High sediment load passing through hydropower components erodes the hydraulic components resulting in loss of efficiency, interruptions in power production and downtime for repair/maintenance, especially in Himalayan regions. The size and concentration of sediment play a major role in silt erosion. The traditional process of collecting samples manually to analyse in laboratory cannot suffice the need of monitoring temporal variation in sediment properties. In this study, a multi-frequency acoustic instrument was applied at desilting chamber to monitor sediment size and concentration entering the turbine. The sediment size and concentration entering the turbine were also measured with manual samples collected twice daily. The samples collected manually were analysed in laboratory with a laser diffraction instrument for size and concentration apart from analysis by drying and filtering methods for concentration. A conductivity probe was used to calculate total dissolved solids, which was further used in results from drying method to calculate suspended solid content of the samples. The acoustic instrument was found to provide sediment concentration values similar to drying and filtering methods. However, no good match was found between mean grain size from the acoustic method with the current status of development and laser diffraction method in the first field application presented here. The future versions of the software and significant sensitivity improvements of the ultrasonic transducers are expected to increase the accuracy in the obtained results. As the instrument is able to capture the concentration and in the future most likely more accurate mean grain size of the suspended sediments, its application for monitoring silt erosion in hydropower plant shall be highly useful.

  8. Physical-hydraulic properties of a sandy loam typic paleudalf soil under organic cultivation of 'montenegrina' mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Valverde dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are the most important fruit species in the world, with emphasis to oranges, mandarins and lemons. In Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, most fruit production is found on small properties under organic cultivation. Soil compaction is one of the factors limiting production and due to the fixed row placement of this crop, compaction can arise in various manners in the interrows of the orchard. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil physical properties and water infiltration capacity in response to interrow management in an orchard of mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore 'Montenegrina' under organic cultivation. Interrow management was performed through harrowing, logs in em "V", mowing, and cutting/knocking down plants with a knife roller. Soil physical properties were evaluated in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, between the wheel tracks (BWT, and in the area under the line projection of the canopy (CLP, with undisturbed soil samples collected in the 0.00-0.15, 0.15-0.30, 0.30-0.45, and 0.45-0.60 m layers, with four replicates. The soil water infiltration test was performed using the concentric cylinder method, with a maximum time of 90 min for each test. In general, soil analysis showed a variation in the physical-hydraulic properties of the Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico (sandy loam Typic Paleudalf in the three sampling sites in all layers, regardless of the management procedure in the interrows. Machinery traffic leads to heterogeneity in the soil physical-hydraulic properties in the interrows of the orchard. Soil porosity and bulk density are affected especially in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, which causes a reduction in the constant rate of infiltration and in the accumulated infiltration of water in this sampling site. The use of the disk harrow and mower leads to greater harmful effects on the soil, which can interfere with mandarin production.

  9. Major soil classes of the metropolitan region of Curitiba (PR, Brazil: I - mineralogical characterization of the sand, silt and clay fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Duarte Pires

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of most representative soils of the Region of Curitiba, Paraná State. Samples were collected at different depths. The results showed: (a the quartz was the only identified mineral at the silt and sand fractions. The dominant clay mineral was Kaolinite, with contents ranging from 676.7 to 820.8 g kg-1. The gibbsite was also an important constituent of the most weathered horizons and the hematite and goethite contents were low, mainly in the Histosol; (b at the C horizon of the Inceptisol, high intensity of vermiculite/smectite reflections were detected (X-ray diffraction, justifying the high capacity of expansion and contraction, normally showed for this soil horizon; (c was observed a good relation between pedogenetic degree and crystallographic mineral characteristics.Devido a grande importância dos minerais, notadamente aqueles da fração argila, sobre o planejamento de uso e sobre os impactos das atividades antrópicas, estudos detalhados da composição dos solos das regiões metropolitanas são imprescindíveis. Para avaliar as características mineralógicas e químicas de solos mais representativos da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, estado do Paraná, foram coletadas amostras das classes Organossolo, Latossolo e Cambissolo, em diferentes profundidades. As frações areia, silte e argila foram estudadas por difratometria de Raios-X (DRX e a fração mais fina foi submetida a análise térmica e extrações químicas com oxalato de amônio (OA, ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato (DCB e solução de NaOH 5 mol L-1 fervente. As características cristalográficas da hematita (Hm, goethita (Gt, gibbsita (Gb e caulinita (Ct foram determinadas por DRX. Os resultados permitiram concluir que: (a o quartzo foi o único mineral identificado nas frações areia e silte. Na fração argila, verificou-se o predomínio de Ct, com teores variando de 661,7 a 820,8 g kg-1

  10. Efficiency of contour benches, filling-in and silting-up of a hillside reservoir in a semi-arid climate in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, Noamen; Boussema, Mohamed Rached; Lamachère, Jean-Marie; Nasri, Slah

    2008-01-01

    The El Gouazine catchment area (18.1 km 2), located in semi-arid central Tunisia (average annual rainfall 350 mm), was equipped with total retention contour benches on 43% of its surface area between June 1996 and July 1997. In order to analyze the efficiency of these benches on the catchment area, different thematic maps (slope, lithology, land use, hydrographic network) were crossed using GIS with a map that located the benches and their breaks. Specific topographical surveys were also carried out on a series of 14 benches' in order to characterize the development of their holding capacities. To evaluate the impact of the contour bench installation on the catchment area, the change of liquid and solid inflow was measured at the catchment area outlet two years before and eight years after the bench installation. On-site surveys showed that contour bench dysfunction in the El Gouazine catchment area could not have been caused by man. However, three main physical causes could explain the dysfunction: placement of benches on gypsum clay soils, location of breaks on the hydrographic network, and slope greater than 25%. Topographic surveys showed that the benches initial holding capacity varied between 1 and 3 m 3 per linear metre for a construction standard fixed at 2.28 m 3. These surveys also showed that, nine years after their construction, the benches had lost 10 to 50% of their initial holding capacity. After installing benches in the El Gouazine catchment area, solid inflow was only reduced by 30%, whereas liquid inflow was reduced seven to eight times during a four-year period, which greatly limited the possibility of downstream irrigation. Annual runoff coefficients, at 4.5% before bench installation, were again at 5.1% in 2002-2003, and the silting-up rate was evaluated, in June 2005, as identical to its value before installation. Bench breakage and silting up of upstream canals explain these changes. The results of this study should serve to improve contour

  11. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  12. The Effects of Land Configuration and Wood-Shavings Mulch on the Properties of a Sandy Loam Soil in Northeast Nigeria. 2. Changes in Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiroma, AM.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulching and ridge tillage are proven technologies for improving soil productivity in semi-arid regions. Yet data quantifying the combined influences of these practices are limited. Our objectives were to determine the changes in selected physical properties of a sandy loam after 4-years of annual tillage and wood-shavings mulching. The tillage and wood-shavings treatments consisted of: Flat bed (FB, Open ridge (OR, Tiedridge (TR, FBM, ORM and TRM were same as FB, OR and TR, respectively except that wood-shavings at a rate of 10 t/ha were surface applied ≈ 2 weeks after sowing each year to serve as both a mulch and an organic amendment. At the end of the trial in 2002, bulk density, penetration resistance, total porosity and soil water content from each of 0-0.075, 0.075-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m depths were determined. Composite samples from the surface (0.075 and 0.075-0.15 m layers from 3 replicates of each treatment were also collected for the determination of wet aggregate stability and from 0-0.15 m and 0.15-0.30 m layers for determination of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat. After 4 years of annual tillage and addition of woodshavings, soil bulk density and penetration resistance were consistently lower and total porosity higher in the FBM, ORM and TRM treatments than in the FB, OR and TR treatments. Penetration resistance in all treatments was strongly related to soil water content. A 'hoe pan' was established below 0.15 m depth beneath the furrows of the ridged treatments. This could be attributed to human traffic during field operations and ponding of water, which occurred in the furrows following heavy rains. Wet aggregate stability estimated as the proportion of aggregates of size > 0.25 mm (macro-aggregates in the 0-0.15 m layer were significantly (P< 0.05 higher under FBM, ORM and TRM than under FB, OR or TR treatments. Ksat was not influenced by either tillage or wood-shavings treatments but were higher for the mulched plots

  13. Peanut plant growth and yield as influenced by co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium and some rhizo-microorganisms under sandy loam soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Sh.F. Badawi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of tested rhizomicrobial isolates (Serratia marcescens and Trichoderma harzianum along with a strain of root nodule bacteria (Bradyrhizobium spp. to exhibit some PGP-properties was evaluated in vitro conditions. The main PGP-properties, namely the ability to solubilize-P and production of IAA, as well as production of siderophores and HCN were examined. Additionally, field trials were conducted on sandy loam soil at El-Tahrir Province during two successive summer seasons to study the effect of co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium either individually or together with S. marcescens and/or T. harzianum on nodulation, some plant growth characters, peanut yield and its yield components. The in vitro experiment revealed that all of the tested microorganisms were apparently able to trigger PGP-properties. Phosphate solubilization was the common feature of the employed microorganisms. However, T. harzianum appeared to be superior to other microorganisms, and Bradyrhizobium displayed the lowest capacity. The ability of the microorganisms to produce indole compounds showed that S. marcescens was more effective in IAA production and followed by Bradyrhizobium. Capacity of S. marcescens and T. harzianum to excrete ferric-specific ligands (siderophores and HCN was detected, while Bradyrhizobium failed to produce such compounds. Results of field trials showed that the uninoculated peanut had the least nodulation status, N2-ase activity and all vegetative growth characters in both studied seasons. Bacterization of peanut seeds with bradyrhizobia exerted considerable improvement in number and mass of root nodules, increased the rate of acetylene reduction and all growth characters in comparison to the uninoculated control. The synergy inoculation between bradyrhizobia and any of the tested microorganisms led to further increases of all mentioned characters and strengthened the stimulating effect of the bacterial inoculation. However, the promotive

  14. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  15. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  16. VARIABILIDADE ESPACIAL DE ARGILA, SILTE E ATRIBUTOS QUÍMICOS EM UMA PARCELA EXPERIMENTAL DE UM LATOSSOLO ROXO DE CAMPINAS (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDNEY ROSA VIEIRA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A grande maioria dos ensaios de manejo e fertilidade do solo utiliza o método de delineamentos experimentais, segundo o qual as observações devem ser independentes umas das outras e as parcelas experimentais, uniformes quanto aos atributos estudados. A hipótese de independência entre as amostras apenas pode ser satisfeita e verificada na prática, se a amostragem contiver informações geográficas, como, por exemplo, as coordenadas com referências a um eixo arbitrário para possibilitar análises da geoestatística. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a variabilidade espacial de alguns atributos químicos e granulométricos do solo dentro de uma parcela experimental e mostrar o uso da geoestatística para analisar os dados. O campo estudado localiza-se no Centro Experimental de Campinas do Instituto Agronômico, Campinas (SP, em um latossolo roxo distrófico sob preparo convencional nos últimos dez anos. Marcou-se uma parcela de 30 m por 30 m a cada 5 m em duas direções, resultando em um reticulado quadrado de 49 pontos de amostragem. Em cada ponto, coletaram-se amostras de solo das camadas 0-25 cm e 25-50 cm de profundidade, as quais foram levadas ao laboratório, secas ao ar, peneiradas em uma malha de 2 mm e submetidas às análises granulométricas e químicas de rotina para obter teor de argila, teor de silte, delta pH, soma de bases (S, capacidade de troca catiônica (CTC e saturação por bases (V%. Para a análise de variabilidade espacial, utilizou-se a geoestatística. Os coeficientes de variação encontrados são mais altos na camada 0-25 cm do que na 25-50 cm, provavelmente devido à região de maior alteração com cultivo. Foi encontrada dependência espacial para todos os atributos analisados para a camada 0-25 cm, e dependência fraca para a camada 25-50 cm. Considerando que o campo engloba apenas uma área de 30 m por 30 m, conclui-se que a variabilidade encontrada para os atributos químicos do solo foi grande e

  17. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions by desig...... by providing ideas about future research for investigating mobilities in situ as a kind of “staging,” which he notes is influenced by the “material turn” in social sciences....... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  18. Radiological aspects of choice of a system of cultivation of sod-podzolic sandy loam soils with different degree of humidity on lands of Mogilev region contaminated with 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevich, S.S.; Ermolenko, A.V.; Shapsheeva, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there were presented data about the influence of technological factors on entry of 137Cs into plant products (grain and green mass). In course of the study there were analyzed the following variants of soil cultivation: moldboard plowing; subsurface chisel soil tillage; subsurface surface soil tillage; minimal tillage. There were presented data on specific activity of 137Cs in plant product samples of oat (Avena sativa) grain; field pea (Pisum arvense L.) and oat mixture grain and green mass; wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain. There were determined the main principles of influence of cultivation systems of sod-podzolic sandy loam soil with different degree of humidity on transition of 137Cs into plants depending on the degree of soil and crop humidity. On the automorphic soil there was revealed a tendency of increased transition of 137Cs into grain and green mass after application of subsurface surface soil tillage system

  19. Influence of Soil Based Growing Media on Vegetative Propagation of Selected Cultivars of Olea Europaea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. I.; Ashraf, M. I.; Malik, S. U.; Husaain, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Pothwar region of Pakistan is a natural habitat of Olea spp. There is a high demand of certified olive plants to establish olive orchids in the region, because native wild species are non-fruit bearing. Plants of certified fruit bearing olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars are rarely available. Vegetative propagation of olive is highly responsive to texture of soil based growing media. This study examined the effect of growing media composition (soil texture and nutrients) on vegetative propagation of five cultivars of olive. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two factors factorial having 25 repeats of each four treatments. Plant growth and survival data were collected and analyzed for the influence of soil attributes. In sandy loam soil, cv. Bari-1 had 82 percent plant survival, highest number of roots per plant (3.5), and longest root length (13.01 cm). Highest number of shoots per plant (4.25) and maximum shoot length (15.64 cm) were also recorded for Bari-1 with sandy loam growing media. Silt loam soil is least suitable growing media for vegetative propagation of olive. In the silt loam soil, plants survival rate was 59 percent for cv. Gemlik, number of roots per plant was 1.5 for cv. Ottobrattica, minimum root length 5.65 cm, minimum number of shoots per plant one, and minimum shoot length 7.42 cm were recorded for cv. Pendolino with silt loam soil. Results suggested that sandy loam growing media is better than the others for vegetative propagation of olive. Cultivar Bari-1 performed better than the others examined in this study by indicating highest (1) survival percentage, (2) root and shoot length, and (3) number of roots and shoots produced within a specific period of time. (author)

  20. Field-measured, hourly soil water evaporation stages in relation to reference evapotranspiration rate and soil to air temperature ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water evaporation takes critical water supplies away from crops, especially in areas where both rainfall and irrigation water are limited. This study measured bare soil water evaporation from clay loam, silt loam, sandy loam, and fine sand soils. It found that on average almost half of the ir...

  1. Field Performance of the Disk Harrow, Power Harrow and Rotary Tiller at Different Soil Moisture Contents on a Clay Loam Soil in Mazandaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rajabi Vandechali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available About 60% of the mechanical energy consumed in mechanized agriculture is used for tillage operations and seedbed preparation. On the other hand, unsuitable tillage system resulted in soil degradation, affecting soil physical properties and destroying soil structure. The objective of this research was to compare the effects of three types of secondary tillage machines on soil physical properties and their field performances. An experiment was conducted in a wheat farm in Jouybar area of Mazandaran as split plots based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main independent variable (plot was soil moisture with three levels (23.6-25, 22.2-23.6 and 20.8-22.2 percent based on dry weight and the subplot was three types of machine (two-disk perpendicular passing harrow, Power harrow and Rotary tiller. The measured parameters included: clod mean weight diameter, soil bulk density, specific fuel consumption, machine efficiency and machine capacity. The effects of treatments and their interactions on the specific fuel consumption, machine efficiency and machine capacity and also the effects of treatments on bulk density were significant (P

  2. Growth and yield response of hybrid maize (Zea mays L. to phosphorus levels in sandy loam soil of Chitwan Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandhu Raj Baral

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the phosphorus response on winter hybrid maize, a field experiment was conducted at farm land of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal on 2012 and 2013. Seven levels of Phosphorus i.e. 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 were applied along with 160:40 kg N:K2O ha-1. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Hybrid maize RML 32 × RML 17 was used for this study. Analysis of variance showed that plant height (cm, dry matter accumulation (g, number of kernels per row, 1000 grain weight (g and grain yield (ton ha-1 were significantly affected with Phosphorus level. The results showed that the trend of increment was positive for grain yield with increased P level from 0 to 80 kg P2O5 ha-1. The highest grain yield (10.77 ton ha-1 was measured when 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 is applied. It is concluded that 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 can be applied in winter season for hybrid maize RML-32 × RML-17 in Chitwan valley low land irrigated condition. Further studies are necessary on different soil types, seasons, management system and varieties to get more information about the most proper addition of P on maize. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12634 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 147-156

  3. A water balance study of four landfill cover designs varying in slope for semiarid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Schofield, T.G.; Salazar, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of disposing of radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and to the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose a hazard. In order to achieve this, the performance of a landfill cover design without an engineered barrier (Conventional Design) was compared with three designs containing either a hydraulic barrier (EPA Design) or a capillary barrier (Loam and Clay Loam Capillary Barrier Designs). Water balance parameters were measured since 1991 at six-hour intervals for four different landfill cover designs in 1.0- by 10.0-m plots with downhill slopes of 5, 10, 15, and 25%. Whereas runoff generally accounted for only 2-3% of the precipitation losses on these designs, similar values for evapotranspiration ranged from 86% to 91%, with increased evapotranspiration occurring with increases in slope. Consequently, interflow and seepage usually decreased with increasing slope for each landfill cover design. Seepage consisted of up to 10% of the precipitation on the Conventional Design, whereas the hydraulic barrier in the EPA Design effectively controlled seepage at all slopes, and both of the capillary designs worked effectively to eliminate seepage at the higher slopes

  4. Environmental Assessment, Repair of the Dam at Non-Potable Reservoir #1, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    expected and are not analyzed further in this EA. Utilities. The electrical, natural gas, water, and sanitary sewer requirements of the Proposed...therefore, no increase in utility usage or sanitary and solid waste generation would occur. Utility connections that run alongside the existing dam...for evaluation of the soils suitability for native revegetation. An acceptable topsoil shall have a loam, sandy loam, clay loam, or silt loam texture

  5. Uus silt turul - clean label / Gunnel Koba

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koba, Gunnel

    2013-01-01

    Suurbritanniast alguse saanud clean labeli toiduainete märgis annab tarbijale kindlustunde, et tegemist on võimalikult puhta lihtsa ja arusaadava koostisega tootega. Samas pole märgisel ametlikku definitsiooni ning pole välistatud, et toiduaine koostises ei ole ka mõni e-aine

  6. Field performance of three real-time moisture sensors in sandy loam and clay loam soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study was conducted to evaluate HydraProbe (HyP), Campbell Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and Watermarks (WM) moisture sensors for their ability to estimate water content based on calibrated neutron probe measurements. The three sensors were in-situ tested under natural weather conditions over ...

  7. Soil physical effects on longleaf pine performance in the West Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Anne S. Sayer; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2015-01-01

    We summarize 8 years of soil physical property responses to herbicide manipulation of the understory in two young longleaf pine stands growing on either Ruston fine sandy loam or Beauregard silt loam soils. We also describe relationships between pine sapling vigor and the soil physical environment across a 3-year period on the Ruston soil and a 2-year period on the...

  8. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AS PREDICTORS OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROBIAL RESPIRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structure-activity analysis was used to evaluate the effects of 19 hazardous organic chemicals on microbial respiration in two slightly acidic soils (a Captina silt loam from Roane County Tennessee, and a McLaurin sandy loam from Stone County, Mississippi), both low in organic ca...

  9. Application of Polyacrylamide (PAM) through Lay-Flat Polyethylene Tubing: Effects on Infiltration, Erosion, N and P Transport, and Corn Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, J P; Krutz, L J; Locke, M A; Kenty, M M; Atwill, R L; Pickelmann, D M; Bryant, C J; Wood, C W; Golden, B R; Cox, M S

    2017-07-01

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs), when applied as a soil amendment, purportedly improve soil infiltration, decrease erosion, and reduce offsite agrochemical transport. The effect of PAM on infiltration, erosion, agrochemical transport, and crop yield when applied in furrow to mid-southern US production systems has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess PAM effects on infiltration, erosion, corn ( L.) grain yield, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport when applied at 10 mg L through lay-flat polyethylene tubing. A 2-yr field study was conducted at the Mississippi State Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, MS, on a Dundee silt loam and a Forestdale silty clay loam. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications of each treatment: irrigated plus no PAM (control) and irrigated plus PAM at 10 mg L. Each irrigation event delivered 102 mm of water at 18.9 L m per furrow, and runoff was captured in a holding tank on the lower end of each plot. Pooled over year and soil texture, PAM increased infiltration and corn grain yield by 6% ( ≤ 0.0398). Polyacrylamide effects on the offsite transport of sediment and N and P were inconsistent, varying across year and soil texture. Results indicate that PAM improves infiltration and corn grain yield on silt loam and silty clay loam textured soils; however, further research is required before PAM can be recommended as a best management practice for mitigating erosion and offsite agrochemical transport in mid-southern production systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. An analysis on remediation characteristics of soils contaminated with Co for in-situ application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. N.; Won, H. J.; Kweun, H. S.; Shon, J. S.; Oh, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    The solvent flushing apparatus for in-situ soil remediation was designed. After the soil around nuclear facilities was sampled and compulsorily contaminated by Co solution, the remediation characteristics by solvent flushing were analyzed. Meanwhile, the nonequilibrium sorption code was developed for modelling of the soil remediation by solvent flushing, and input parameters needed for modelling were measured by laboratory experiment. Experimental results are as follows: The soil around nuclear facilities belongs to Silt Loam including a lot of silt and sand. When water was used as a solvent, the higher was the hydraulic conductivity, the higher the efficiency of soil remediation was. The values calculated by the nonequilibrium sorption code agreed with experimental values more exactly than the values calculated by the equilibrium sorption code. When citric acid was used as a solvent, the soil remediation efficiency by citric acid showed 1.65 times that by water

  11. The design and construction of large diameter pre-filter packed recovery wells at the Ninth Avenue Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, S.L.; Maley, T.J.; Bono, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    Large diameter groundwater/oil recovery wells were installed in an unconfined sand aquifer at the Ninth Avenue Superfund Site in Gary, Indiana. To assure adequate filter packs, prefilter packed groundwater/oil recovery wells were selected to minimize silting by using appropriate screen slot size and filter pack. A properly sized filter pack was necessary to prevent the formation material from entering the well. During field drilling operations, open-quotes having sandsclose quotes and silting of existing wells were encountered. By using sieve analyses of the native aquifer soil, described by Driscoll (1989), the filter pack and screen slot size were selected. Prefilter packed well screens were selected for this site to assure the presence of a uniform filter pack, thus minimizing siltation in the wells. A prefilter packed well screen consists of a double screen with the interstitial space filled with granular filter pack material designed specifically for site conditions. These wells provide the adequate filter pack without the need to add additional filter pack material outside the well screen. Wells were installed using 12 1/4 inch ID hollow stem augers. This methodology is EPA-approved, expeditious, and inexpensive. Level B personal protective equipment was required during installation. Therefore, the advantages of hollow stem drilling include short drilling time and no circulation fluids. The 14 recovery wells were successfully installed in 14 days using the hollow stem auger drilling technique. Observations during well development revealed little or no silt present in purged groundwater

  12. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...... the development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers.......ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...

  13. Designing Material Materialising Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designing Material Materialising Design documents five projects developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. These projects explore the idea that new designed materials might require new design methods....... Focusing on fibre reinforced composites, this book sustains an exploration into the design and making of elastically tailored architectural structures that rely on the use of computational design to predict sensitive interdependencies between geometry and behaviour. Developing novel concepts...

  14. The application of radioactive isotopes to the study of motion of silt and pebbles in the rivers and in the sea; Application des isotopes radioactifs a l'etude des mouvements des sediments et des galets dans les cours d'eau et en mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hours, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Jaffry, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d' Hydraulique

    1959-07-01

    The application of radioactive tracers to the study of sediments drift has received considerable attention since 1954 in various countries. A comparative review is made of a number of techniques of labelling, immersing and detecting silts, sands, and pebbles. The influence of the burying of the active material is emphasized. The different experiments which have been so far carried out are described. (author) [French] L'application des traceurs radioactifs a l'etude des deplacements de sediments a fait depuis 1954 l'objet de travaux nombreux dans divers pays. On passe en revue et on compare differentes techniques de marquage, d'immersion et de detection des vases, sables et galets; on insiste sur l'influence de l'enfouissement du materiau actif. On decrit les differentes experiences effectuees jusqu'a ce jour. (auteur)

  15. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  16. Designing Communication Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvlie, Anders Sundnes

    2016-01-01

    Innovating in the field of new media genres requires methods for producing designs that can succeed in being disseminated and used outside of design research labs. This article uses the author's experiences with the development of university courses in communication design to address the research...... question: How can we design courses to give students the competencies they need to work as designers of new media? Based on existing approaches from UX design and other fields, I present a model that has demonstrated its usefulness in the development of commercial products and services. The model...

  17. Effect of Tractor Forward Speed on Sandy Loam Soil Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate significant differences in soil physical conditions arising from different levels of tractor forward speed. A forward speed of approximately 7km/h resulted in appreciable amelioration of soil structure as reflected in improvements in the soil strength properties and maximum reduction in clod mean weight ...

  18. Laboratory Study of the Influence of Substrate Type and Temperature on the Exploratory Tunneling by Formosan Subterranean Termite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal K. Gautam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using two-dimensional foraging arenas, laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effect of soil type, soil moisture level and ambient temperature on the exploratory tunneling by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. In choice arenas consisting of two substrate types having two moisture levels each, and conducted at a constant temperature of 22 °C, a significantly greater proportion of termites aggregated in sand than in sandy loam. Similarly, the length of excavated tunnels was also increased in sand. In a given substrate, termite aggregation or tunnel length did not differ between 5% and 15% moisture levels. In no-choice tests, where three different substrates (sand, sandy loam and silt loam were tested at two temperatures (22 °C and 28 °C, excavations were significantly greater in sand than either sandy loam or silt loam at 22 °C. Fewer primary tunnels were constructed in sandy loam than in sand and fewer branched tunnels than either in sand or silt loam. No significant difference in either tunnel length or number of primary or branched tunnels was found between these two temperatures.

  19. Prompting Designers to Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2006-01-01

    Recent research suggest that engineering designers need assistance to understand what information is relevant for their particular design problem. They require guidance in formulating their queries and also to understand what information is relevant for them. This paper presents an approach to pr...

  20. Distribución de la porosidad de un suelo franco arcilloso (alfisol en condiciones semiáridas después de 15 años bajo siembra directa Soil porosity distribution of a clay loam soil (alfisol in semi-arid conditions after 15 years under direct drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Isabel Cerisola

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un estudio más amplio sobre evolución de las propiedades físicas de un suelo sometido a tres sistemas de labranza, se realizó, en dos campañas consecutivas, un seguimiento de la distribución de la porosidad del suelo según su origen, en parcelas cultivadas bajo siembra directa continua durante 15 años. En el ensayo se consideró un trayecto de 2 metros de longitud, perpendicular a la dirección de las labores, donde se realizaron mediciones de densidad aparente seca y contenido de humedad. El cultivo extensivo de secano (cereal, en cada una de las dos campañas, fue cebada de ciclo corto y de ciclo largo. El calendario de la toma de datos de las variables medidas se fijó en 5 fechas por campaña. La porosidad estructural del suelo, debida principalmente a la alternancia de ciclos de humectación - desecación, fue calculada cada 5 cm y hasta 35 cm de profundidad. Este proceso de fisuración natural resulta suficiente para asegurar un buen drenaje y facilitar el desarrollo radicular de las plantas, siempre y cuando el contenido de humedad se mantenga dentro de la capacidad de retención de agua.On a long-term essay under direct drilling, the evolution of the physical properties of a clay loam soil, such as distribution by origin of soil porosity, has been assessed during two growing seasons. The cereal crops in each growing seasons were spring barley and winter barley, respectively. Soil physical properties were measured on a 2 m length transect located in a perpendicular line to the direction of vehicular traffic for field operations. Five sampling opportunities, within crop cycle, were used to measure the variables. Structural soil porosity, due principally to shrinkage and swelling cycles, was assessed in the 0 to 35 cm depth soil profile. This natural process seemed to be sufficient to guarantee good drainage and normal crop development, unless in the moisture content range included in field capacity.

  1. Winged design; Befluegeltes Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Tilman

    2013-10-15

    Today the wind rotor blades are about 80 meter long. To keep them light and transportable designers and material scientists come up with a number of ideas. Will the carbon fiber prevail against the glass fiber? [German] Ueber 80 Meter messen die laengsten Rotorblaetter heute. Um sie leicht und transportfaehig zu halten, lassen sich Designer und Materialforscher einiges einfallen. Wird sich die Kohlefaser gegen die Glasfaser durchsetzen?.

  2. Physical Modelling of Silt in Relation to Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Rikke

    precisely so that the competitiveness of offshore wind turbines can be improved. Carrying out in situ tests offshore is very expensive. Therefore, all experiment regarding this project is conducted onshore. A field in Dronninglund was found useful for this purpose since the subsoil at the field mainly......Offshore wind energy is a sustainable form of energy that can help reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and increase the share of renewable energy. In order to ensure that offshore wind energy can continue to be a competitive source of energy compared to other types of renewable energy...... consists of silty soil and the water table is situated just below the surface so the field is comparable to offshore conditions. In connection with the project, CPT and SCPT (Seismic Cone Penetration Test) were conducted in the field, just like large soil samples were collected with the purpose of carrying...

  3. A Case Study On Pile Relaxation In Dilative Silts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    2 Table 2-1 Correlation of Uncorrected SPT N -Value with Total Unit Weight and Friction Angle (Kulhawy and Mayne, 1990...Effective internal friction angle. N = Uncorrected SPT blow count. σ’v = Effective vertical stress. cn = Overburden correction factor...shear strength of the soil. The unit weight of a soil can be determined from correlations to SPT N values, as shown in Table 2.1. 10

  4. Late Quaternary fine silt deposits of Jammu, NW Himalaya: Genesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Jammu suggest fluvial environment of the deposits wherein the water budget fluctuated. ... the probable source for desert 'loess' of Pakistan. (Rendell et al 1989). ...... the velocity of water is diminished due to loss of flow competence and.

  5. Dansk Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    Indhold: Hvad er design?; Hvor kommer dansk design fra?; Produktdesign; Tekstil- og tøjdesign; Design af møbler og boligindretning; Bygningen og design; Arbejdets design; Transportdesign; Offentligt design; Grafisk design; Nye tider og en ny slags design...

  6. Toxicity of Fipronil in Mississippi Soil Types Against Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Mulrooney; P. D. Gerard

    2007-01-01

    Three soils (a silt loam, loamy sand, sandy loam) found in Mississippi and pure silica sand were treated with fipronil and bioassayed using eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes. Soils were treated with aqueous solutions of Termidor (fipronil) at concentrations of 0, 0.12, 0.25,2.5, 5.0 and 20.0 ppm (wt AI: wt soil) that brought the soils to 15%...

  7. VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasetty, Vikram Arkalgud

    2011-01-01

    This book provides insight into the practical design of VLSI circuits. It is aimed at novice VLSI designers and other enthusiasts who would like to understand VLSI design flows. Coverage includes key concepts in CMOS digital design, design of DSP and communication blocks on FPGAs, ASIC front end and physical design, and analog and mixed signal design. The approach is designed to focus on practical implementation of key elements of the VLSI design process, in order to make the topic accessible to novices. The design concepts are demonstrated using software from Mathworks, Xilinx, Mentor Graphic

  8. Environmental Assessment Newport Research Facility Irish Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    Classification Symbol Burdett silt loam, 3 to 8 percent BuB Not Hydric Prime Farmland if Drained slopes Honeoye and Lansing silt loams, Hre Not...Part USDA - llap unit symbol BuB ~ CsB HrE HsD HIB HtC LnC LnD McB MIS ~ MoB I MoD NaB NaC NaD I 1R0 •ShF llap unit Mille Rating

  9. Technology development for the design of shallow land burial facilities at semiarid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.; Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments are described: effectiveness of a moisture barrier and the physical basis for capillary barriers; trench cap designs for long term stabilization including biointrusion barrier testing; and joint DOE/NRC tracer migration experiment. In the first, a barrier concept known as the wick effect is being field tested to control the movement of water on top of and around shallow land burial trenches. The barrier is composed of bentonite and tuff. In the second, the performance is measured of a conventional and an improved trench cover design on surface water dynamics, in limiting biological intrusion, and under both natural and enhanced precipitation regimes. The third experiment evaluates leaching and transport of solutes in sandy silt backfill used in shallow land burial at Los Alamos and compares results with laboratory-derived parameter estimates. 6 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  10. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  11. Field calibration and modification of scs design equation for predicting length of border under local conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, M.R.; Mustafa, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    Field tests were conducted to calibrate the existing SCS design equation in determining field border length using field data of different field lengths during 2nd and 3rd irrigations under local conditions. A single ring infiltrometer was used to estimate the water movement into and through the irrigated soil profile and in estimating the coefficients of Kostiakov infiltration function. Measurements of the unit discharge and time of advance were carried out during different irrigations on wheat irrigated fields having clay loam soil. The collected field data were used to calibrate the existing SCS design equation developed by USDA for testing its validity under local field conditions. SCS equation was modified further to improve its applicability. Results from the study revealed that the Kostiakov model over predicted the coefficients, which in turn overestimated the water advance length for boarder in the selected field using existing SCS design equation. However, the calibrated SCS design equation after parametric modification produced more satisfactory results encouraging the scientists to make its use at larger scale. (author)

  12. Case study: design, operation, maintenance and water quality management of sustainable storm water ponds for roof runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Miklas

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this case study was to optimise design, operation and maintenance guidelines, and to assess the water treatment potential of a storm water pond system after 15 months of operation. The system was based on a combined silt trap, attenuation pond and vegetated infiltration basin. This combination was used as the basis for construction of a roof water runoff system from a single domestic property. United Kingdom Building Research Establishment and Construction Industry Research and Information Association, and German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste design guidelines were tested. These design guidelines failed because they did not consider local conditions. The infiltration function for the infiltration basin was logarithmic. Algal control techniques were successfully applied, and treatment of rainwater runoff from roofs was found to be largely unnecessary for recycling (e.g., watering plants). However, seasonal and diurnal variations of biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen and pH were recorded.

  13. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical....

  14. Evidensbaseret design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Debatindlæg om evidensbaseret design, som argumenterer for at det dels er en gammeldags, modernistisk tilgang til design, dels ikke baserer sig på evidens.......Debatindlæg om evidensbaseret design, som argumenterer for at det dels er en gammeldags, modernistisk tilgang til design, dels ikke baserer sig på evidens....

  15. FPGA design

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This book describes best practices for successful FPGA design. It is the result of the author's meetings with hundreds of customers on the challenges facing each of their FPGA design teams. By gaining an understanding into their design environments, processes, what works and what does not work, key areas of concern in implementing system designs have been identified and a recommended design methodology to overcome these challenges has been developed. This book's content has a strong focus on design teams that are spread across sites. The goal being to increase the productivity of FPGA design t

  16. Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin Wetterstrand

    2007-01-01

    In this paper design games are discussed as an approach to managing design sessions. The focus is on the collaborative design session and more particular on how to set up the collaboration and reinsure progress. Design games have the advantage of framing the collaborative assignment at hand....... Experiments can be set up to explore possible futures and design games has the qualities of elegantly focus the work at the same time as it lessens the burden for the process facilitator. The present paper goes into detail about how design games can be set up to facilitate collaboration and how the design...

  17. Design What?%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2017-01-01

    processes, which require specific development methods across a wide range of disciplines, from industrial design over graphic communication to service and digital design and strategic corporate development. The book addresses both established methods and recent research in design processes at leading design...... idea to the end-result. The goal for this graphic non-fiction project is to document and present both historical and current developments in design methodology, from the early attempts at documenting procedures for design process management at the Bauhaus School in the 1920s to contemporary design...

  18. Escarificação mecânica e biológica para a redução da compactação em argissolo franco-arenoso sob plantio direto Mechanical and biological chiseling to reduce compaction of a sandy loam alfisol under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Abreu

    2004-06-01

    saturado, em médio prazo, a "escarificação biológica" (CM-crot mostrou-se mais eficaz na ruptura da camada compactada e estabelecimento de poros condutores de água do que a escarificação mecânica (Esc-soja do solo. Em contrapartida, se o indicador for a RP, o resultado é inverso. Assim, a propriedade hídrica ou mecânica do solo a ser usada como indicadora para a avaliação da eficácia da ruptura da camada compactada do solo depende do processo físico priorizado: a infiltração e redistribuição de água ou a penetração e crescimento de raízes.Soil management alters the physical soil properties and changes the soil air, water, and solute dynamics. Physical soil properties as affected by conservationist soil management systems were studied in a sandy loam Typic Hapludalf. The treatments were established on a soil that has been under no-tillage for 10 years, and consisted of: no-tillage soybeans, chisel tillage soybeans, reduced tillage Crotalaria, and bare soil without tillage. The evaluated soil properties were soil penetration resistance, bulk density, porosity, pore size distribution, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, water infiltration using concentric rings or natural rainfall, variation of the volumetric soil moisture throughout the cropping cycle, and water retention curve. Soil penetration resistance (PR was highest at 0.075 m and 0.175 m depth in no-tillage and chiseled soil, respectively. Soil subsurface mobilization with chiseling and surface mobilization due to disking and sowing did not influence the bulk density (BD after the crop harvest. No-till soil under soybean crop had greater macroporosity than reduced tillage crotalaria and bare soil at 0.02 to 0.05 m depth, resulting in a greater saturated hydraulic conductivity and lower water retention during periods of low water availability. Among the analyzed soil physical-mechanical properties, PR seemed to be more sensitive to detect soil compaction than BD or porosities

  19. VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, D K

    2014-01-01

    Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) design has moved from costly curiosity to an everyday necessity, especially with the proliferated applications of embedded computing devices in communications, entertainment and household gadgets. As a result, more and more knowledge on various aspects of VLSI design technologies is becoming a necessity for the engineering/technology students of various disciplines. With this goal in mind the course material of this book has been designed to cover the various fundamental aspects of VLSI design, like Categorization and comparison between various technologies used for VLSI design Basic fabrication processes involved in VLSI design Design of MOS, CMOS and Bi CMOS circuits used in VLSI Structured design of VLSI Introduction to VHDL for VLSI design Automated design for placement and routing of VLSI systems VLSI testing and testability The various topics of the book have been discussed lucidly with analysis, when required, examples, figures and adequate analytical and the...

  20. Design Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, Ilpo; Krogh, Peter

    2015-01-01

    When design research builds on design practice, it may contribute to both theory and practice of design in ways richer than research that treats design as a topic. Such research, however, faces several tensions that it has to negotiate successfully in order not to lose its character as research....... This paper looks at constructive design research which takes the entanglement of theory and practice as its hallmark, and uses it as a test case in exploring how design researchers can work with theory, methodology, and practice without losing their identity as design researchers. The crux of practice based...... design research is that where classical research is interested in singling out a particular aspect and exploring it in depth, design practice is characterized by balancing numerous concerns in a heterogenous and occasionally paradoxical product. It is on this basis the notion of design accountability...

  1. Mechanical design

    CERN Document Server

    Risitano, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    METHODOLOGICAL STATEMENT OF ENGINEERING DESIGNApproaches to product design and developmentMechanical design and environmental requirementsPROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALSMaterials for mechanical designCharacterization of metalsStress conditionsFatigue of materialsOptimum material selection in mechanical designDESIGN OF MECHANICAL COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMSFailure theoriesHertz theoryLubrificationShafts and bearingsSplines and keysSpringsFlexible machine elementsSpur gearsPress and shrink fitsPressure tubesCouplingsClutchesBrakes

  2. Migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in undisturbed soil profiles under controlled and close-to-real conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, S.; Rosen, K.; Fernandez, V.; Juhan, H.

    2000-01-01

    Migration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in undisturbed soil was studied in large lysimeters three and four years after contamination, as part of a larger European project studying radionuclide soil-plant interactions. The lysimeters were installed in greenhouses with climate control and contaminated with radionuclides in an aerosol mixture, simulating fallout from a nuclear accident. The soil types studied were loam, silt loam, sandy loam and loamy sand. The soils were sampled to 30-40 cm depth in 1997 and 1998. The total deposition of 137 Cs ranged from 24 to 45 MBq/m 2 , and of 90 Sr from 23 to 52 MBq/m 2 . It was shown that migration of 137 Cs was fastest in sandy loam, and of 90 Sr fastest in sandy loam and loam. The slowest migration of both nuclides was found in loamy sand. Retention within the upper 5 cm was 60% for both 137 Cs and 90 Sr in sandy loam, while in loamy sand it was 97 and 96%, respectively. In 1998, migration rates, calculated as radionuclide weighted median depth (migration centre) divided by time since deposition were 1.1 cm/year for both 137 Cs and 90 Sr in sandy loam, 0.8 and 1.0 cm/year, respectively, in loam, 0.6 and 0.8 cm/year in silt loam, and 0.4 and 0.6 cm/year for 137 Cs and 90 Sr, respectively, in loamy sand. A distinction is made between short-term migration, caused by events soon after deposition and less affected by soil type, and long-term migration, more affected by e.g. soil texture. Three to four years after deposition, effects of short-term migration is still dominant in the studied soils

  3. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds......Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... a cultural dimension to the design objects, enabling the objects to make an identity-forming impact. Whether or not the concept of memory plays a significant role in Danish design has not yet been elucidated fully. TERMINOLOGY The concept of "memory design" refers to the idea that design carries...

  4. Business design or Creative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Suna; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2008-01-01

    Business design is about turning good ideas into future business, but it requires a great entrepreneurial opportunity to be exploited via a valid strategic and organizational design. The literature says much about how entrepreneurs design strategies and organizations, but how do they design...

  5. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  6. Effect of Injecting Hydrogen Peroxide into Heavy Clay Loam Soil on Plant Water Status, NET CO2 Assimilation, Biomass, and Vascular Anatomy of Avocado Trees Efecto de la Inyección de Peróxido de Hidrógeno en Suelo Franco Arcilloso Pesado, sobre el Estado Hídrico, Asimilación Neta de CO2, Biomasa y Anatomía Vascular de Paltos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar M Gil M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In Chile, avocado (Persea americana Mill. orchards are often located in poorly drained, low-oxygen soils, situation which limits fruit production and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of injecting soil with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a source of molecular oxygen, on plant water status, net CO2 assimilation, biomass and anatomy of avocado trees set in clay loam soil with water content maintained at field capacity. Three-year-old ‘Hass’ avocado trees were planted outdoors in containers filled with heavy loam clay soil with moisture content sustained at field capacity. Plants were divided into two treatments, (a H2O2 injected into the soil through subsurface drip irrigation and (b soil with no H2O2 added (control. Stem and root vascular anatomical characteristics were determined for plants in each treatment in addition to physical soil characteristics, net CO2 assimilation (A, transpiration (T, stomatal conductance (gs, stem water potential (SWP, shoot and root biomass, water use efficiency (plant biomass per water applied [WUEb]. Injecting H2O2 into the soil significantly increased the biomass of the aerial portions of the plant and WUEb, but had no significant effect on measured A, T, gs, or SWP. Xylem vessel diameter and xylem/phloem ratio tended to be greater for trees in soil injected with H2O2 than for controls. The increased biomass of the aerial portions of plants in treated soil indicates that injecting H2O2 into heavy loam clay soils may be a useful management tool in poorly aerated soil.En Chile, los huertos de palto (Persea americana Mill. se ubican comúnmente en suelos pobremente drenados con bajo contenido de oxígeno, lo que limita producción y calidad de fruta. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la inyección de peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2 al suelo como fuente de O2, sobre el estado hídrico, asimilación de CO2, biomasa y anatomía de paltos en suelo franco arcilloso con

  7. Design Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy

    Design anthropology is a call for a different way of involving anthropology and participatory observation within practices of designing technologies, services, policies and infrastructure that does not aim towards changing human behavior. Here design is considered the process and not the object...... of inquiry. The paper presents a short history of design anthropology, its theoretical underpinnings and methodologies. Theoretically, the emerging field is influenced by processual, critical and action orientated approaches in anthropology. I argue that by combining anthropological methodology and knowledge...... with the future orientated imaginative praxis of design skill and collaborative design processes, anthropology and design could learn from each other. I conclude by referring to what theories, methods, and approaches are in use by practitioners of design anthropology....

  8. Danish design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Hvordan dansk design bliver innovativt og verdensberømt igen som i storhedstiden i 1950- og 60'erne......Hvordan dansk design bliver innovativt og verdensberømt igen som i storhedstiden i 1950- og 60'erne...

  9. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...

  10. Research Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2019-01-01

    Gunnar Scott Reinbacher (editor) Antology.  Research Design : Validation in Social Sciences. Gunnar Scott Reinbacher: Introduction. Research design and validity. 15p Ole Riis: Creative Research design. 16 p Lennart Nørreklit: Validity in Research Design. 24p Gitte Sommer Harrits: Praxeological...... Scott Reinbacher: Multidisciplinary Research Designs in Problem Based Research. The case of an european project on chronical diseases, the Tandem project (Training Alternmative Networking Skills in Diabetes Management). 15p Niels Nørgaard Kristensen: A qualitative bottom up approach to post modern...... knowledge: An integrated strategy for combining "explaining" and "understanding". 22p Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen & Viola Burau: Comparative research designs. 40p Rasmus Antoft & Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen: Studying organizations by a Pragmatic Research Design: the case of qualitative case study  designs. 31p...

  11. Repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C M

    1982-01-01

    Various technical issues of radioactive waste design are addressed in this paper. Two approaches to repository design considered herein are: (1) design to minimize the disturbance of the hot rock; and (2) designs that intentionally modify the hot rock to insure better containment of the wastes. The latter designs range from construction of a highly impermeable barrier around a spherical cavern to creating a matrix of tunnels and boreholes to form a cage within which the hydraulic pressure is nearly constant. Examples of these design alternatives are described in some detail. It is concluded that proposed designs for repositories illustrate that performance criteria considered acceptable for such facilities can be met by appropriate site selection and repository engineering. With these technically feasible design concepts, it is also felt that socioeconomic and institutional issues can be better resolved. (BLM)

  12. A design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of the viscous barrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Yen, P.; Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Williams, P.; Myer, L.; Pruess, K.

    1996-09-01

    This report is the design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The test site is located in central California in a quarry owned by the Los Banos Gravel Company in Los Banos, California, in heterogeneous unsaturated deposits of sand, silt, and -ravel typical of many of the and DOE cleanup sites and particularly analogous to the Hanford site. The coals of the field demonstration are (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier isolating a medium-scale volume (30 ft long by 30 ft wide by 20 ft deep, i.e. 1/10th to 1/8th the size of a buried tank at the Hanford Reservation) in the subsurface, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier

  13. Development of technology for the design of shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Drennon, B.J.; Herrera, W.J.; Lopez, E.A.; Langhorst, G.J.; Stallings, E.A.; Walker, R.D.; Martinez, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Los Alamos field research program involving technology development for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Field data are presented for an integrated field experiment, which was designed to test individual SLB component experiments related to erosion control, biobarriers, and subsurface capillary and migration barriers. Field tests of biointrusion barriers at waste disposal sites and in experimental plots are reported. The results of a joint DOE/NRC experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of sorbing (Cs, Sr, Li) and nonsorbing (I, Br) solutes in sandy silt backfill are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. A capillary barrier experiment performed in a large caisson (3-m diameter, 6.1 m deep) is described and a year's worth of field data is presented

  14. Breakwater design

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, H.J.; van den Bos, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    For this book we have deliberately chosen that the text should follow a more or less logical design procedure for breakwaters. It follows the required design steps from the system level down to the individual crosssection level, and in time from conceptual design to construction. This systematic approach starts at the functional description of breakwaters, system analysis including side-effects and derivation of boundary conditions and continues to the actual design, first of the main armour ...

  15. Design typology and design organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Wognum, N.; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2002-01-01

    research society has recognised normative procedural models of designing as being a reasonable answer to the question: How do designing proceed? The reasoning behind the models, from which the design methodology model by [Pahl & Beitz 1995], may be seen as a characteristic one, was a mix of human problem......The idea of focusing upon the creation of a design typology was articulated by [Andreasen & Wognum 2000] and detailed by [Andreasen & Wognum 2001]. The aim was to propose a typology, which could serve as identification of design types and design research contributions. For a long period the design...... solving-, design management-, and artefact nature-reasoning. Critique has been raised to that type of models as being neither explanatory nor instructive. If we accept these models as merely being pragmatically "stepping-stone" explanations of what happens during designing, it is interesting to observe...

  16. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through interviews...... and emerging production methods....

  17. Radiopharmacy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    The factors which should be considered when designing a radiopharmacy are examined. These include the levels and types of radioactivity and the functions, location, size and layout of the radiopharmacy. Aspects of the design process including environmental cleanliness in enclosed spaces and microbiological safety cabinets are also discussed. Finally the current publications available on recommendations and guidelines for radiopharmacy designs are briefly reviewed. (UK)

  18. Breakwater design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; van den Bos, J.P.

    For this book we have deliberately chosen that the text should follow a more or less logical design procedure for breakwaters. It follows the required design steps from the system level down to the individual crosssection level, and in time from conceptual design to construction. This systematic

  19. Design Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillary, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizing part of a seminar on iodide filter testing the author classifies the design information on iodine filters which was presented at the meeting in terms of design requirements - species to be trapped sorption materials and engineering factors -, design evaluation, applications and operational experience

  20. Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Design Research is a new interdisciplinary research area with a social science orientation at its heart, and this book explores how scientific knowledge can be put into practice in ways that are at once ethical, creative, helpful, and extraordinary in their results. In order to clarify the common...... aspects – in terms of features and approaches – that characterize all strands of research disciplines addressing design, Design Research undertakes an in depth exploration of the social processes involved in doing design, as well as analyses of the contexts for design use. The book further elicits...... ‘synergies from interdisciplinary perspectives’ by discussing and elaborating on differing academic perspectives, theoretical backgrounds, and design concept definitions, and evaluating their unique contribution to a general core of design research. This book is an exciting contribution to this little...

  1. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  2. Design Research as Conceptual Designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylirisku, Salu; Jacucci, Giulio; Sellen, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    define conceptual designing as a constructive framing and re-framing activity, which is mediated by and targeted at the creation of new design concepts. Conceptual designing as an approach is valuable for addressing the fuzziness and ambiguity typical of research that explores novel areas with new...... partners, methods and resources. It is by no means a new phenomenon, and the main contribution of the article is the clarification of conceptual designing as a particular approach to designing and researching. The approach embraces openness, resource-construction and collaboration. We conclude...... that conceptual designing can be especially useful in research and design projects that bring different kinds of people, organizations, technologies and domains together into the forming of new well-founded proposals for development. The presentation of conceptual designing in this paper is written...

  3. Artificial neural networks aided conceptual stage design of water harvesting structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Chandwani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents artificial neural networks (ANNs based methodology for ascertaining the structural parameters of water harvesting structures (WHS at the conceptual stage of design. The ANN is trained using exemplar patterns generated using an in-house MSExcel based design program, to draw a functional relationship between the five inputs design parameters namely, peak flood discharge, safe bearing capacity of strata, length of structure, height of structure and silt factor and four outputs namely, top width, bottom width, foundation depth and flood lift representing the structural parameters of WHS. The results of the study show that, the structural parameters of the WHS predicted using ANN model are in close agreement with the actual field parameters. The versatility of ANN to map complex or complex unknown relationships has been proven in the study. A parametric sensitivity study is also performed to assess the most significant design parameter. The study holistically presents a neural network based decision support tool that can be used to accurately estimate the major design parameters of the WHS at the conceptual stage of design in quick time, aiding the engineer-in-charge to conveniently forecast the budget requirements and minimize the labor involved during the subsequent phases of analysis and design.

  4. ECO DESIGN IN DESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eco-design is a new domain, required by the new trends and existing concerns worldwide, generated by the necessity of adopting new design principles. New design principles require the designer to provide a friendly relationship between concept created, environment and consume. This "friendly" relationship should be valid both at present and in the future, generating new opportunities for product, product components or materials from which it was made. Awareness, by the designer, the importance of this new trend, permits the establishment of concepts that have as their objective the protection of present values and ensuring the legacy of future generations. Ecodesig, by its principles, is involved in the design process, from early stage, the stage of product design. Priority objective of the designers will consist in reducing the negative effects on the environment through the entire life cycle and after it is taken out of use. The main aspects of the eco-design will consider extending product exploitation, make better use of materials, reduction of emission of waste. The design process in the "eco"domein must be started by selecting the function of the concept, materials and technological processes, causing the shape of macro and micro geometric of the product through an analysis that involves optimizing and streamlining the product. This paper presents the design process of a cross-sports footwear concept, built on the basis of the principles of ecodesign

  5. Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva

    2007-01-01

    In resent years the two main design schools in Denmark (Danmarks Designskole and Designskolen Kolding ) undergo many changes. The overall goal for both is to obtain status as a university, and they will be evaluated in this regard in 2010. Transforming a vocational school with long handicraft...... traditions into a research based institution for higher education is demanding. Danmarks Designskole is in the middle of this process, many activities are initiated, both employees and students are involved, and from outside representatives from various design professions. The design process has many...... stakeholders with various interests and opinions. The aim it is not to design a computer system, a service or product but re-designing curriculum, work procedures, self images etc. which support educating designers of the future. This paper reports on two investigations that have been carried through as part...

  6. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    In the contemporary world, engineers and designers face huge challenges as they shift towards novel organizational concepts such as ‘concurrent engineering’ in order to manage increasing product diversity so as to satisfy customer demands while trying to accelerate the design process to deal...... they are facing. On one hand, designers need highly flexible ‘coordination mecha-nisms’ that can support horizontal coordination of large-scale distributed design projects, and on the other hand design organizations require versatile and ubiquitous infrastructures to be able to manage their ‘common informa...... with the competitive realities of a global market and decreasing product life cycles. In this environment, the coordination and integration of the myriads of interdependent and yet distributed and concurrent design activities becomes enormously complex. It thus seems as if CSCW technologies may be indispensable...

  7. Workspace Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim, Rikke

    Arbejdsmiljø adresseres sjældent i den klassike tekniske tilgang til arbejdspladsdesign. Workspace Design konceptet er et alternativ tilgang til design eller re-design af arbejdspladser, baseret på en socio-teknisk systemforståelse, hvor hovedprincipperne er 1) transformation af...... arbejdsmiljørådgiveren til facilitator af arbejdspladsdesignprocessen og 2) transformation af medarbejderne til co-designere af deres egen arbejdsplads. Dette ph.d.-projekt er en del af Workspace Design forskningsprogrammet som har udviklet og testet Workspace Design konceptet og de tilhørende metoder ved intervention i...... arbejdspladsdesignprocesser i tre virksomheder tilhørende henholdsvis industri-, service- og sundhedssektoren. Ph.d.-projektet har belyst hvordan en medarbejderinvolverende designproces kan iscenesættes og faciliteres af arbejdsmiljøprofessionelle ved hjælp af kreative, visuelle metoder inspireret af Participatory Design...

  8. Design culture and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Bang, Anne Louise

    2014-01-01

    to change the education of future designers. This is an emerging field at a number of design schools across the world, among these Design School Kolding in Denmark. In this paper we understand and discuss design education as part of a cultural phenomenon. The aim of our research is to develop new dialogue...... tools for teaching fashion and textile students in order to stimulate new ways of thinking and engaging with users. By employing participatory design methods in the field of fashion and textiles, we seek to develop an alternative transformational strategy that may further the design of products....... In this paper we discuss ways in which design education might contribute in changing the current professional culture in order to meet the need for more sustainable futures....

  9. Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael; Nielsen, M. W.; Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    and describe the decision process. Specific attention is given to how the engineering input was presented and how it was able to facilitate the design development. Site and context, building shape, organization of functions and HVAC-systems were all included to obtain a complete picture of the building......, low-energy consumption, and high-quality indoor environment. We use this case study to investigate how technical knowledge about building performance can be integrated into the conceptual design stage. We have selected certain points during the design process that represented design challenges...

  10. Design Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankl, Kathrina

    2014-01-01

    . The exhibition is oriented along disciplines such as inclusive design, which calls for products to be designed in such a way that they are equally attractive to people of all ages. Despite the existence of innovative design concepts, the number of well-designed products available on the market is low. While many...... courageous projects for "best agers" and "golden agers" never get beyond the prototype stage, products that paint a more "beige" picture of everyday life can be found in large numbers. This fact raises some key questions: Does the existing product culture reflect today's views on old age? Do contemporary...

  11. Team designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denise J. Stokholm, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Future wellbeing is depending on human competences in order to strengthen a sustainable development. This requires system thinking and ability to deal with complexity, dynamic and a vast of information. `We need to move away from present principles of breaking down problems into components and gi...... thinking and communication in design. Trying to answer the question: How can visual system models facilitate learning in design thinking and team designing?......Future wellbeing is depending on human competences in order to strengthen a sustainable development. This requires system thinking and ability to deal with complexity, dynamic and a vast of information. `We need to move away from present principles of breaking down problems into components and give...... in relation to a design-engineering education at Aalborg University. It will exemplify how the model has been used in workshops on team designing, challenged design learning and affected design competence. In specific it will investigate the influence of visual models of the perception of design, design...

  12. Design Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Marianne Denise J.

    2006-01-01

    Design is moreover recognised as an important strategic tool in achieving competitive business´, products and services in a global market. As design becomes a more complex matter, due to a general increase in knowledge, requirements and internationalisation, more professions are involved....... As such it acts a managing tool for both leaders and participants in the design process. This paper builds on long term practical experiment with development and use of a simple tool to support management of complex design matters in diverse groups. Concerning education it has supported the development of new...

  13. Designated Places

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Census 2000 Place Names provides a seamless statewide GIS layer of places, including census designated places (CDP), consolidated cities, and incorporated places,...

  14. Design theory

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with the basic subjects of design theory. It begins with balanced incomplete block designs, various constructions of which are described in ample detail. In particular, finite projective and affine planes, difference sets and Hadamard matrices, as tools to construct balanced incomplete block designs, are included. Orthogonal latin squares are also treated in detail. Zhu's simpler proof of the falsity of Euler's conjecture is included. The construction of some classes of balanced incomplete block designs, such as Steiner triple systems and Kirkman triple systems, are also given.

  15. Cryostat Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parma, V [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to give non-expert engineers and scientists working in the domain of accelerators a general introduction to the main disciplines and technologies involved in the design and construction of accelerator cryostats. Far from being an exhaustive coverage of these topics, an attempt is made to provide simple design and calculation rules for a preliminary design of cryostats. Recurrent reference is made to the Large Hadron Collider magnet cryostats, as most of the material presented is taken from their design and construction at CERN.

  16. Short exposure to acetylene to distinguish between nitrifier and denitrifier nitrous oxide production in soil and sediment samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, R.A.; Boer, W. de; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The contribution of nitrifiers and denitrifiers to the nitrous oxide production in slurries of calcareous silt loam and river bank sediment at different oxygen concentrations was determined using acetylene as nitrification inhibitor. The addition of 10 Pa acetylene resulted in inhibition of

  17. Short exposure to acetylene to distinguish between nitrifier and denitrifier nitrous oxide production in soil and sediment samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, R.A.; De Boer, W.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The contribution of nitrifiers and denitrifiers to the nitrous oxide production in slurries of calcareous silt loam and river bank sediment at different oxygen concentrations was determined using acetylene as nitrification inhibitor. The addition of 10 Pa acetylene resulted in inhibition of nitrous

  18. Water deficit stress effects on corn (Zea mays, L.) root: shoot ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted at Akron, CO, USA, on a Weld silt loam in 2004 to quantify the effects of water deficit stress on corn (Zea mays, L.) root and shoot biomass. Corn plants were grown under a range of soil bulk density and water conditions caused by previous tillage, crop rotation, and irrigation...

  19. Transitional Effects of Double-Lateral Drip Irrigation and Straw Mulch on Irrigation Water Consumption, Mineral Nutrition, Yield, and Storability of Sweet Cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field trial was conducted on a Cherryhill silt loam soil at The Dalles, OR from 2006 through 2008. The impacts of switching from the traditional micro sprinkler irrigation (MS) to double-lateral drip irrigation (DD) and from no ground cover with herbicide control of weeds (NC) to in-row wheat (Tri...

  20. Comparative research on tillable properties of diatomite-improved soils in the Yangtze River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ji-Li; Zhao, Dong-Xue

    2016-10-15

    To improve soil texture and structure, techniques associated with physical, biological or chemical aspects are generally adopted, among which diatomite is an important soil conditioner. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the physical, hydraulic and tillage performance of diatomite-improved soils. Consistency limits and compaction properties were investigated in this study, and several performance indicators were compared, such as the liquid limit, plastic limit and compactability, of silt, silt loam and silty-clay loam soils to which diatomite was added at volumetric ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. The results showed that diatomite significantly (pdiatomite lowered the maximum dry bulk density (MBD) of the classified soils, the optimum moisture content (OMC) was increased overall. The trend was consistent with the proportion of diatomite, and MBD decreased by 8.7%, 10.3%, and 13.2% in the silt, silt loam and silty-clay loam soils when 30% diatomite was mixed, whereas OMC increased by 28.7%, 22.4%, and 25.3%, respectively. Additionally, aggregate stability was negatively correlated with MBD but positively correlated with OMC. Diatomite exerts positive effects on soil mechanical strength, suggesting that soils from sludge farms are more tillable with a larger stabilized and workable matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cottonwood Response to Nitrogen Related To Plantation Age and Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.G. Blackmon

    1977-01-01

    When applied at plantation age 4,336 kg N/ha increased diameter growth of cottonwood on Sharkey clay by 33 percent over unfertilized controls. Fertilizing at ages 2 and 3 resulted in no response, nor was there any benefit from applying nitrogen fertilizer to cottonwood on Commerce silt loam. On both sites, foliar N levels were increased by fertilization regardless of...

  2. Nitrogen Fertilization Increases Cottonwood Growth on Old-Field Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. G. Blackmon; E. H. White

    1972-01-01

    Nitrogen (150 lb ./acre as NH4N03 ) applied to a 6-year-old eastern cottonwood plantation in an old field on Commerce silt loam soil increased diameter, basal area, and volume growth by 200 percent over untreated controls. The plantation did not respond to 100 pounds P per acre from concentrated superphosphate.

  3. Control of Eolian soil erosion from waste site surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1994-11-01

    Physical models were tested in a wind tunnel to determine optimum surface-ravel admixtures for protecting silt-loam soil from erosion by, wind and saltating, sand stresses. The tests were performed to support the development of a natural-material surface barrier for and waste sites. Plans call for a 2-m deep silt-loam soil reservoir to retain infiltrating water from rainfall and snowmelt. The objective of the study was to develop a gravel admixture that would produce an erosion-resistant surface layer during, periods of extended dry climatic stress. Thus, tests were performed using simulated surfaces representing dry, unvegetated conditions present just after construction, after a wildfire, or during an extended drought. Surfaces were prepared using silt-loam soil mixed with various grades of sand and Travel. Wind-induced surface shear stresses were controlled over the test surfaces, as were saltating, sand mass flow rates and intensities. Tests were performed at wind speeds that approximated and exceeded local 100-year peak gust intensities. Surface armors produced by pea gravel admixtures were shown to provide the best protection from wind and saltating sand stresses. Compared with unprotected silt-loam surfaces, armored surfaces reduced erosion rates by more than 96%. Based in part on wind tunnel results, a pea gravel admixture of 15% will be added to the top 1 in of soil in a prototype barrier under construction in 1994. Field tests are planned at the prototype site to provide data for comparison with wind tunnel results

  4. Wind erosion potential of a winter wheat–summer fallow rotation after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    While land application of biosolids is recognized as a sustainable management practice for enhancing soil health, no studies have determined the effects of biosolids on soil wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and bio...

  5. Improvement, Verification, and Refinement of Spatially-Explicit Exposure Models in Risk Assessment - SEEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    is Beltsville silt loam. Land use in the watershed is mainly upland or wetland forests, with significant urban and agricultural development. The...covered with extensive woodlands and wetlands that provide habitat for many animals, including white tail deer, foxes, and wild turkeys. The area is

  6. Improvement, Verification, and Refinement of Spatially Explicit Exposure Models in Risk Assessment - SEEM Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    is Beltsville silt loam. Land use in the watershed is mainly upland or wetland forests, with significant urban and agricultural development. The...covered with extensive woodlands and wetlands that provide habitat for many animals, including white tail deer, foxes, and wild turkeys. The area is

  7. Interior Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an eight-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on interior design. The units cover period styles of interiors, furniture and accessories, surface treatments and lighting, appliances and equipment, design and space planning in home and business settings, occupant needs, acquisition…

  8. Opportunity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løwe Nielsen, Suna; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2013-01-01

    design”. The framework explains how opportunities intentionally and pro-actively can be designed from methods and processes of moving-in and moving-out. An illustrative case of opportunity design within the area of sustainable energy and electric cars is presented to link the theoretical discussion...

  9. Publication Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Roy Paul

    This book is designed to solve the problem of coordinating art and typography with content in publications. Through text and illustrations, this book suggests ways to make pages and spreads in magazines, newspapers, and books attractive and readable. As a book of techniques, it is directed at potential and practicing art directors, designers, and…

  10. Designing friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Stronks, B.; van der Vet, P.E.; Rosenberg, D.

    2003-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents are virtual humans that can interact with humans using verbal and non-verbal forms of communication. In most cases, they have been designed for short interactions. This paper asks the question how one would start to design synthetic characters that can become your

  11. Design tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Mark T. Bomberg

    2009-01-01

    Overall, despite the lack of exact input data, the use of design tools, including models, is much superior to the simple following of rules of thumbs, and a moisture analysis should be standard procedure for any building envelope design. Exceptions can only be made for buildings in the same climate, similar occupancy, and similar envelope construction. This chapter...

  12. Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    1999-01-01

    A homepage on the internet with course material, lecture plan, student exercises, etc. Continuesly updated during the course Integrated Design (80402, 80403)......A homepage on the internet with course material, lecture plan, student exercises, etc. Continuesly updated during the course Integrated Design (80402, 80403)...

  13. Persuasive Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri

    2013-01-01

    of the specific context. This paper argues that the claim of persuasive design may not be the ability to change the user’s attitude or behaviour towards a given subject, but rather on the ability to create designs, which adapt the context in a way, which facilitates the ability to act within the opportune moment....

  14. Japansk design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen udspringer af interviews med ti af Japans bedste møbeldesignere, grafikere, arkitekter og designfirmaer. Efter samtalerne var der tre træk ved japansk design, som trådte frem: god økonomi, fantasi og vovemod. Det bedste japanske design fusionerer vovemod med den unikke japanske kultur med...

  15. Intelligent Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig.......Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig....

  16. Performance Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    Contribution to conference: Art and Presence The emerging field of Performance Design is unfolded as a bastard form of research/art/design/practice, with shapeshifting, monstruous, hybrid and transformational qualities. The potential for presencing, which emerges out of momentarily transgressing...

  17. Design law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This book chapter describes, analyses and discusses the development of and the challenges to the legal protection og designs in Scandinavia and the EU......This book chapter describes, analyses and discusses the development of and the challenges to the legal protection og designs in Scandinavia and the EU...

  18. Furniture design

    CERN Document Server

    Smardzewski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the principles of designing furniture as wooden structures, this book discusses issues related to the history of furniture structures, their classification and characteristics, ergonomic approaches to anthropometric requirements and safety of use. It presents key methods and highlights common errors in designing the characteristics of the materials, components, joints and structures, as well as looking at the challenges regarding developing associated design documentation. Including analysis of how designers may go about calculating the stiffness and endurance of parts, joints and whole structures, the book analyzes questions regarding the loss of furniture stability and the resulting threats to health of the user, putting forward a concept of furniture design as an engineering processes. Creating an attractive, functional, ergonomic and safe piece of furniture is not only the fruit of the work of individual architects and artists, but requires an effort of many people working ...

  19. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify the nexus between design (architecture, urban design, service design, etc.) and mobilities as a new and emerging research field. In this paper, we apply a “situational mobilities” perspective and take point of departure in the pragmatist question: “What design decisions...... and interventions affords this particular mobile situation?” The paper presents the contours of an emerging research agenda within mobilities research. The advent of “mobilities design” as an emerging research field points towards a critical interest in the material as well as practical consequences of contemporary......-making. The paper proposes that increased understanding of the material affordances facilitated through design provides important insight to planning and policymaking that at times might be in risk of becoming too detached from the everyday life of the mobile subject within contemporary mobilities landscapes....

  20. Effects of Field Conditions on Emergence of Oilseed Rape Seed lots Grown in Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yanegh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen irrigated farms of canola from six cities of Khorasan selected to assess the seedling emergence one month after sowing in 2009. Soil texture of each farm determined using the Hydrometer method. The results showed that weather conditions of sowing areas had no significant effect on emergence of oilseed rape. With increasing the temperature (within the range of 19.5 to 21.5 ˚C emergence percentage was not increased significantly. Rainfall also caused no significant effect on seedling emergence. The percentage of emergence in machine-sowing and hand-sowing were 38.4% and 28%, respectively. Soils with loam silt, silt clay loam and loam texture had emergence of 27.2%, 31.2% and 47% respectively. It seems soil texture plays a great roll on the emergence of oilseed rape with epigeal seedlings.

  1. ARE INCLUSIVE DESIGNERS DESIGNING INCLUSIVELY?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2013-01-01

    of activity conforming to an authoritative design method. Analysis of the result showed that of the 66 cases, 4.5% reported carrying out all six categories of activity. 39.3% carried out or reported just one step. The study also found that the predominant focus of reported design activity is in the initial...

  2. Designing Users/Designing Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The paper addresses issues of user conceptualisation and representation in the processes of designing and innovating artifacts and use-practices. It is informed by early as well as more recent insights from technology studies within the new sociology of technology (e.g. Akrich 1995, Bijker & Law...... and competencies. Characteristic of these projects are the interplay between the social and the technical dimensions in the process of product development, and the students are expected to apply socio-technical methodologies in their strategies. The students’ need to inform the design through iteratively...... themes ranging from user-oriented design to product redesign and workspace design, etc. It is expected that some of the insights gained from these projects may be related outside of the immediate context of the classroom, to inform the notion of competencies in engineering design and sociotechnical...

  3. Design Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume provides an introduction to the emerging field of design anthropology from the point of view of anthropologists engaging in its development. Contributors include young anthropologists with experience in the field and leading theoreticians, who combine to articulate the specific...... style of knowing involved in doing design anthropology. So far design anthropology has been developed mostly in the practice of industry and the public sector, in particular in Scandinavia and the US, and the sustained academic reflection to support this practice is still in its early stages. This book...... will contribute to this theoretical reflection and provide a reference for practitioners, teachers and students of anthropology, as well as design and innovation....

  4. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Book Description The design of organizations has been an ongoing concern of management theory and practice over the past several decades. Over this time, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design (OD). Recently organizational life has...... changed dramatically with the advent of: new communication systems, adaptive mechanisms, information technology, knowledge management systems, innovation processes and more. This book systemically examines these developments and their impact on OD with contributions from leading scholars in the area...... is a benchmark publication in the field of organization design. By focusing on recent developments in organization design, this book will help to create more thoughtful research and stronger empirical analyses in this important area of management and organization....

  5. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    changed dramatically with the advent of: new communication systems, adaptive mechanisms, information technology, knowledge management systems, innovation processes and more. This book systemically examines these developments and their impact on OD with contributions from leading scholars in the area....... The individual chapters are organized into five sections: (1) Putting Contingency Theory in its Place, (2) Focus on Individuals who make up the Organization, (3) Innovation Processes and Organization Design, (4) Adaptation and Technology, and (5) Design for Performance. Each chapter examines aspects of the books...... is a benchmark publication in the field of organization design. By focusing on recent developments in organization design, this book will help to create more thoughtful research and stronger empirical analyses in this important area of management and organization....

  6. Design '82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The papers in the symposium cover many aspects of the economy and effectiveness of chemical engineering design in industrial plants. Among the topics dealt with are the special problems associated with nuclear reprocessing plants. (U.K.)

  7. Persuasiv design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Per

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce the theme issue on “Persuasive design”. Design/methodology/approach – This editorial describes the essential ideas and purposes of persuasive design (PD). PD's relation to other IT‐disciplines and rhetoric in general is discussed. A special...... to rhetoric and the concomitant implications for library and information systems is largely original (when compared with other discussions of PD)....

  8. Mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Design concepts for a 1000 mw thermal stationary power plant employing the UF6 fueled gas core breeder reactor are examined. Three design combinations-gaseous UF6 core with a solid matrix blanket, gaseous UF6 core with a liquid blanket, and gaseous UF6 core with a circulating blanket were considered. Results show the gaseous UF6 core with a circulating blanket was best suited to the power plant concept.

  9. Effect of soil properties on Hydraulic characteristics under subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wangtao; Li, Gang

    2018-02-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a technique that has a high potential in application because of its high efficiency in water-saving. The hydraulic characteristics of SDI sub-unit pipe network can be affected by soil physical properties as the emitters are buried in soils. The related research, however, is not fully explored. The laboratory tests were carried out in the present study to determine the effects of hydraulic factors including operating pressure, initial soil water content, and bulk density on flow rate and its sensitivity to each hydraulic factor for two types of SDI emitters (PLASSIM emitter and Heping emitter). For this purpose, three soils with contrasting textures (i.e., light sand, silt loam, and light clay) were repacked with two soil bulk density (1.25 and1.40 g cm-3) with two initial soil water content (12% and 18%) in plexiglass columns with 40 cm in diameter and 40 cm in height. Drip emitters were buried at depth of 20 cm to measure the flow rates under seven operating pressures (60, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 370 kPa). We found that the operating pressure was the dominating factor of flow rate of the SDI emitter, and flow rate increased with the increase of operating pressure. The initial soil water content and bulk density also affected the flow rate, and their effects were the most notable in the light sand soil. The sensitivity of flow rate to each hydraulic factor was dependent on soil texture, and followed a descending order of light sand>silt loam>light clay for both types of emitters. Further, the sensitivity of flow rate to each hydraulic factor decreased with the increase of operating pressure, initial soil water content, and bulk density. This study may be used to guide the soil specific-design of SDI emitters for optimal water use and management.

  10. [Development of APSIM (agricultural production systems simulator) and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuying; Nan, Zhibiao; Bellotti, Bill; Robertson, Michael; Chen, Wen; Shao, Xinqing

    2002-08-01

    Soil-crop simulator model is an effective tool for providing decision on agricultural management. APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator) was developed to simulate the biophysical process in farming system, and particularly in the economic and ecological features of the systems under climatic risk. The current literatures revealed that APSIM could be applied in wide zone, including temperate continental, temperate maritime, sub-tropic and arid climate, and Mediterranean climates, with the soil type of clay, duplex soil, vertisol, silt sandy, silt loam and silt clay loam. More than 20 crops have been simulated well. APSIM is powerful on describing crop structure, crop sequence, yield prediction, and quality control as well as erosion estimation under different planting pattern.

  11. Pupation Behaviors and Emergence Successes of Ectropis grisescens (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Response to Different Substrate Types and Moisture Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huifang; Ma, Tao; Xiao, Qiang; Cao, Panrong; Chen, Xuan; Wen, Yuzhen; Xiong, Hongpeng; Qin, Wenquan; Liang, Shiping; Jian, Shengzhe; Li, Yanjun; Sun, Zhaohui; Wen, Xiujun; Wang, Cai

    2017-12-08

    Ectropis grisescens Warren (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is one of the most severe pests of tea plants in China. This species commonly pupates in soil; however, little is known about its pupation ecology. In the present study, choice and no-choice tests were conducted to investigate the pupation behaviors and emergence success of E. grisescens in response to different substrates (sand, sandy loam 1, sandy loam 2, and silt loam) and moisture contents (5, 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80%). Moisture-choice bioassays showed that significantly more E. grisescens individuals pupated in or on soil (sandy loam 1 and 2 and silt loam) that was at the intermediate moisture levels, whereas 5%- and 35%-moisture sand was significantly more preferred over 80%-moisture sand for pupating. Substrate-choice bioassays showed that sand was most preferred by E. grisescens individuals at 20%- and 80%-moisture levels, but no preference was detected among the four substrates at 50%-moisture content. No-choice tests showed that the percentage of burrowed E. grisescens individuals and pupation depth were significantly lower when soil was dry (20% moisture) or wet (80% moisture). In addition, 20%-moisture sandy loam 2 and silt loam significantly decreased the body water content of pupae and emergence success of adults compared to 50%-moisture content. However, each measurement (percentage of burrowed individuals, pupation depth, body water content, or emergence success) was similar when compared among different moisture levels of sand. Interestingly, pupae buried with 80%-moisture soil exhibited significantly lower emergence success than that were unburied. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Mechanisms Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2006-01-01

    Most products and machines involve some kind of controlled movement. From window casements to DVD players, from harbor cranes to the shears to prune your garden, all these machines require mechanisms to move. This course intends to provide the analytical and conceptual tools to design such mechan......Most products and machines involve some kind of controlled movement. From window casements to DVD players, from harbor cranes to the shears to prune your garden, all these machines require mechanisms to move. This course intends to provide the analytical and conceptual tools to design...... using criteria such as size, performance parameters, operation environment, etc. Content: Understanding Mechanisms Design (2 weeks) Definitions, mechanisms representations, kinematic diagrams, the four bar linkage, mobility, applications of mechanisms, types of mechanisms, special mechanisms, the design......: equations for various mechanisms. At the end of this module you will be able to analyze existing mechanisms and to describe their movement. Designing mechanisms (7 weeks) Type synthesis and dimensional synthesis, function generation, path generation, three precision points in multi-loop mechanisms...

  13. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  14. INFRASTRUCTURING DESIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertner, Sara Marie

    The fact that the average citizen in Western societies is aging has significant implications for national welfare models. What some call ’the grey tsunami’ has resulted in suggestions for, and experiments in, re-designing healthcare systems and elderly care. In Denmark, one attempted solution...... that are imagined as the target group for welfare technology, and where are they located? Based on ethnographic explorations of ’welfare technology’ and related figures that include not only ’the elderly’, but also ’prototypes’ and ’partnership’ the dissertation analyses the processes and socio...... for collaborative design to happen. The implication of this is that technological design should not be imagined as the foundation for shaping more effective health care practices and better welfare. Instead, possibilities for improving practices through welfare technology emerge out of heterogeneous assemblages...

  15. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    are often still not engaged with in a sufficiently manner. Often social sciences keep distance to the physical and material as if the social was still to be understood as a realm separate of technology, architecture, and design (for a critique of this see; Latour 2005 and Urry 2000). This paper takes point......Within the so-called ‘mobilities turn’ (Adey 2010; Cresswell 2006; Urry 2007) much research has taken place during the last decade bringing mobilities into the centre of sociological analysis. However, the materiality and spatiality of artefacts, infrastructures, and sites hosting mobilities...... of departure in the sociological perspective termed ‘Staging Mobilities’ (Jensen 2013a) and utilizes this as an analytical frame for exploring cases of mobility design. The paper put focus on how the material shape, design and architectures of technologies, spaces and sites influence mobilities practices...

  16. Design thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim

    2008-06-01

    In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes.

  17. Dark Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Any design idea or intervention in the world is based on an underpinning logic or a set of normative principles and values. At times such will be very explicit, at other times they will be unspoken and tacit. In this paper the underpinning values leading to power exercise, social exclusion, and d...... of technologies (e.g. Graham 2010). The paper re-works how inequalities are ‘staged’ through overt and covert design ideas and interventions shaping and re-shaping the social geography of a world increasingly marked by the rights, abilities, and opportunities to move freely – or not!...

  18. Design & Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelskifte, Per; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    The new design and innovation programme at DTU is challenging some of the standard concepts dominating most engineering educations. The programme, its background, context and basic educational ideas are presented and discussed in this paper. To build competences that match the need for innovative...... and design oriented engineers in industry and society has turned out to challenge a number of the standard – and often taken for granted – concepts in engineering education still dominated world wide by rather strict norms and concepts of learning that do not challenge the students creativity and innovative...

  19. Lighting Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Mullins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    of design developed from three experiments show how distinct qualitative and quantitative criteria in different disciplinary traditions can be integrated successfully, despite disparate technical/scientific, social scientific and art/humanities backgrounds. The model is applied to a pedagogical curriculum......Light as a multi-dimensional design element has fundamental importance for a sustainable environment. The paper discusses the need for an integration of scientific, technical and creative approaches to light and presents theory, methods and applications toward fulfilling this need. A theory...

  20. VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 14: VLSI Design presents a comprehensive exposition and assessment of the developments and trends in VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) electronics. This volume covers topics that range from microscopic aspects of materials behavior and device performance to the comprehension of VLSI in systems applications. Each article is prepared by a recognized authority. The subjects discussed in this book include VLSI processor design methodology; the RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer); the VLSI testing program; silicon compilers for VLSI; and special

  1. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    How is the width of the pavement shaping the urban experience? How is the material design of transport infrastructure and mobile technology affording social interaction in everyday life spaces? How do people inhabit these spaces with their bodies and in accordance to social and cultural norms...

  2. Designed communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2013-01-01

    In current residential spaces there seem to be an increasing emphasis on small-scale communities. A number of new, high profiled residential complexes thus seek to promote new ways of social living by rethinking architectural design, typologies and concepts. In this paper I explore the emergence ...

  3. Design junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    . This case study illustrates how dominant regimes of practice, established through the conception of pathogen bacteria and antibacterial treatments and disinfection, are now creating signals that call into question fundamental design of hygiene practices. By examining the epistemic assumptions of scientific...

  4. Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Toni; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    focus of later chapters. The target audience is identified, and the structure of the book explained. A short description of each chapter highlights its particular contributions as well as the associated challenges facing designers and researchers engaged in participatory approaches. The chapter...

  5. Designer's Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunrath, Kamila; Cash, Philip; Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    A designer’s professional identity (DPI) develops through both education and professional experience, building on core personality traits and innate skills. In this paper a systematic literature review and a secondary narrative review were developed in order to map personal attributes and design...

  6. Appraising design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Acronyms ADM Army Design Methodology AFRICOM Africa Command CAS Complex Adaptive System COCOM...the case studies. It does not analyze the moral forces of training, quality of troops, and readiness. It also does not analyze national strength in...Second Lebanese War.110 Issues included a lack of vests, medical equipment, radios, ammunition, night vision devices (NVD), and food and water for the

  7. Dwelling Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    Children's inventions go far beyond track housing or Ethan Allen furniture; they foreshadow the most innovative ideas in building forms and interior designs. Children improvise with containers and find places in a home that suggest enticing dwellings. A drawer left open becomes a balcony, soap trays become cots, and the space between twin beds…

  8. Probabilistic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.

    This chapter describes how partial safety factors can be used in design of vertical wall breakwaters and an example of a code format is presented. The partial safety factors are calibrated on a probabilistic basis. The code calibration process used to calibrate some of the partial safety factors...

  9. Intimate Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Marie Louise Juul

    2017-01-01

    I examine how design can reflect on and critically discuss political and cultural issues of intimate technologies, such as gender and identity, embodied experiences, privacy, intimate data and sharing. In presenting my PhD project's background, research objectives, hypothesis and methodological...

  10. Collaborative Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Debora

    2014-01-01

    This practitioner research study investigates the power of multimodal texts within a real-world context and argues that a participatory culture focused on literary arts offers marginalized high school students opportunities for collaborative design and authoring. Additionally, this article invites educators to rethink the at-risk label. This…

  11. Integreret Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Klavs; Lenau, Torben Anker; Kristensen, Tore

    Integreret Design (ItD) var et tværdisciplinært kursus, der gennemførtes i samarbejde mellem Danmarks Designskole, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet og Handelshøjskolen i København i årene 1998 - 2001. Som støtte for undervisningen blev der udviklet et kompendium i bogform, som udgives af Danmarks...

  12. Didaktisk Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Levinsen, Karin

    projekter - Individuelle fordybelsesprojekter. Forfatterne introducerer begrebet elever som didaktiske designere og viser med konkrete eksempler fra dansk, matematik og tværfaglige forløb, hvordan læreren med et overordnet rammedesign kan understøtte elevernes design af deres egne læreprocesser og dermed...

  13. Safety design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Shiozawa, Shusaku

    2004-01-01

    JAERI established the safety design philosophy of the HTTR based on that of current reactors such as LWR in Japan, considering inherent safety features of the HTTR. The strategy of defense in depth was implemented so that the safety engineering functions such as control of reactivity, removal of residual heat and confinement of fission products shall be well performed to ensure safety. However, unlike the LWR, the inherent design features of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) enables the HTTR meet stringent regulatory criteria without much dependence on active safety systems. On the other hand, the safety in an accident typical to the HTGR such as the depressurization accident initiated by a primary pipe rupture shall be ensured. The safety design philosophy of the HTTR considers these unique features appropriately and is expected to be the basis for future Japanese HTGRs. This paper describes the safety design philosophy and safety evaluation procedure of the HTTR especially focusing on unique considerations to the HTTR. Also, experiences obtained from an HTTR safety review and R and D needs for establishing the safety philosophy for the future HTGRs are reported

  14. Design i Danmark = Danish Design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lentz, Uffe

    2003-01-01

    Titlen på denne forelæsning har 3 led skønt det ser ud som om der er 4. Design i Danmark er en geografisk afgrænsning af et ikke særligt veldefineret begreb, der både kan dække over ting og aktiviteter, mens Danish Design er en fælles hat man har markedsført en række produkter under, for at få...... værdiopfattelse før fra det ene produkt til det andet. Et Brand ville det hedde i dag....

  15. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    Contemporary society is marked and defined by the ways in which mobile goods, bodies, vehicles, objects, and data are organized, moved and staged. On the background of the ‘mobilities turn’ (e.g. Cresswell 2006, Urry 2007) this book articulates a new and emerging research field, namely that of ‘m......Contemporary society is marked and defined by the ways in which mobile goods, bodies, vehicles, objects, and data are organized, moved and staged. On the background of the ‘mobilities turn’ (e.g. Cresswell 2006, Urry 2007) this book articulates a new and emerging research field, namely...... that of ‘mobilities design’. The book revolves around the following research question: How are design decisions and interventions staging mobilities? It builds upon the Staging Mobilities model (Jensen 2013) in an explorative inquiry into the problems and potentials of the design of mobilities. The exchange value...

  16. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2016-01-01

    of life’ for billions of people in the everyday life. This paper is structured in three parts. After the general introduction we present the mobilities theory perspective of ‘staging mobilities’ and connects this to the empirical phenomenon of parking lots and their design. The paper ends in section three......Contemporary society is marked and defined by the ways in which mobile goods, bodies, vehicles, objects, and data are organized, moved and staged. On the backgound of the ‘mobilities turn’ (for short review paper on this see; Sheller 2011, Vannini 2010) this paper proposes a further development...... of the perspective in the direction of a material and design oriented turn. In order to fulfill this purpose we articulate a new and emerging research field, namely that of ‘mobilities design’. In our understanding time has come to articulate ‘Mobilities Design’ as a dedicated research field in and of its own...

  17. Design Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knoche, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Taking a case study approach, we synchronised two courses to focus on the students working with learning and applying tools in the one course and acting on understandings gained to produce artefacts in the other. Design/methodology/approach – Working with real users throughout all stages...... focused evaluation methods using tangible representations; identified the relationship from these findings for subsequent re-design rationales; and discussed and critiqued each other’s work using multiple feedback, teach-back and discursive strategies. Findings – We found that in-depth coverage...... of material, working with real data and users at all stages of assessment and producing visualisations from evaluations, naturally forced student motivation to act and redesign better solutions. We noted improved attendance and students reported high engagement and content appreciation. Research limitations...

  18. Sustainable covers for uranium mill tailings, USA: alternative design, performance, and renovation - 16369

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, William J.; Benson, Craig H.; Albright, William H.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management is investigating alternatives to conventional cover designs for uranium mill tailings. A cover constructed in 2000 near Monticello, Utah, USA, was a redundant design with a conventional low-conductivity composite cover overlain with an alternative cover designed to mimic the natural soil water balance as measured in nearby undisturbed native soils and vegetation. To limit percolation, the alternative cover design relies on a 160-cm layer of sandy clay loam soil overlying a 40- cm sand capillary barrier for water storage, and a planting of native sagebrush steppe vegetation to seasonally release soil water through evapotranspiration (ET). Water balance monitoring within a 3.0-ha drainage lysimeter, embedded in the cover during construction, provided convincing evidence that the cover has performed well over a 9-year period (2000- 2009). The total cumulative percolation, 4.8 mm (approximately 0.5 mm yr -1 ), satisfied a regulatory goal of -1 . Most percolation can be attributed to the very wet winter and spring of 2004-2005, when soil water content exceeded the storage capacity of the cover. Diversity, percent cover, and leaf area of vegetation increased over the monitoring period. Field and laboratory evaluations several years after construction show that soil structural development, changes in soil hydraulic properties, and development of vegetation patterns have not adversely impacted cover performance. A new test facility was constructed in 2008 near Grand Junction, Colorado, USA, to evaluate low-cost methods for renovating or transforming conventional covers into more sustainable ET covers. (authors)

  19. Design and Testing of an Agricultural Implement for Underground Application of Rodenticide Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Malón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait to control the Mediterranean pocket gopher (Microtus Duodecimcostatus in fruit orchards has been designed and tested. The main objective of this research was to design and test the implement by using the finite element method (FEM and considering a range of loads generated on most commonly used furrow openers in agricultural implements. As a second step, the prototype was tested in the field by analysing the effects of forward speed and application depth on the mechanical behaviour of the implement structure. The FEM was used in the design phase and a prototype was manufactured. The structural strains on the prototype chassis under working conditions were tested by using strain gauges to validate the design phase. Three forward speeds (4.5, 5.5, and 7.0 km/h, three application depths (0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 m, and two types of soil (clayey-silty-loam and clayey-silty-sandy were considered. The prototype was validated successfully by analysing the information obtained from the strain gauges. The Von Mises stresses indicated a safety coefficient of 1.9 for the most critical load case. Although both forward speed and application depth had a significant effect on the stresses generated on the chassis, the latter parameter critically affected the structural behaviour of the implement. The effects of the application depth on the strains were linear such that strains increased with depth. In contrast, strains remained roughly constant regardless of variation in the forward speed.

  20. Organization Design

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Harris; Artur Raviv

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain organization structure based on optimal coordination of interactions among activities. The main idea is that each manager is capable of detecting and coordinating interactions only within his limited area of expertise. Only the CEO can coordinate company wide interactions. The optimal design of the organization trades off the costs and benefits of various configurations of managers. Our results consist of classifying the characteristics of activities and manager...

  1. Designing Privacy-by-Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, J.H.C. van; Boonstra, D.; Everts, M.H.; Rijn, M. van; Paassen, R.J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    The proposal for a new privacy regulation d.d. January 25th 2012 introduces sanctions of up to 2% of the annual turnover of enterprises. This elevates the importance of mitigation of privacy risks. This paper makes Privacy by Design more concrete, and positions it as the mechanism to mitigate these

  2. Design livre: cannibalistic interaction design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amstel, Frederick; Vassao, C.A.; Ferraz, G.B.; Formia, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a historical account of cannibalism as used to explain how Brazilians integrate foreign cultural influences into their own culture and introduces a design praxis based on it. From Modernism to Digital Culture, cannibalism is a recurring tactic used to overcome cultural traditions

  3. Mechanical Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shook, Richard; /Marquette U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The particle beam of the SXR (soft x-ray) beam line in the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) has a high intensity in order to penetrate through samples at the atomic level. However, the intensity is so high that many experiments fail because of severe damage. To correct this issue, attenuators are put into the beam line to reduce this intensity to a level suitable for experimentation. Attenuation is defined as 'the gradual loss in intensity of any flux through a medium' by [1]. It is found that Beryllium and Boron Carbide can survive the intensity of the beam. At very thin films, both of these materials work very well as filters for reducing the beam intensity. Using a total of 12 filters, the first 9 being made of Beryllium and the rest made of Boron Carbide, the beam's energy range of photons can be attenuated between 800 eV and 9000 eV. The design of the filters allows attenuation for different beam intensities so that experiments can obtain different intensities from the beam if desired. The step of attenuation varies, but is relative to the thickness of the filter as a power function of 2. A relationship for this is f(n) = x{sub 0}2{sup n} where n is the step of attenuation desired and x{sub 0} is the initial thickness of the material. To allow for this desired variation, a mechanism must be designed within the test chamber. This is visualized using a 3D computer aided design modeling tool known as Solid Edge.

  4. Mechanical Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The particle beam of the SXR (soft x-ray) beam line in the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) has a high intensity in order to penetrate through samples at the atomic level. However, the intensity is so high that many experiments fail because of severe damage. To correct this issue, attenuators are put into the beam line to reduce this intensity to a level suitable for experimentation. Attenuation is defined as 'the gradual loss in intensity of any flux through a medium' by (1). It is found that Beryllium and Boron Carbide can survive the intensity of the beam. At very thin films, both of these materials work very well as filters for reducing the beam intensity. Using a total of 12 filters, the first 9 being made of Beryllium and the rest made of Boron Carbide, the beam's energy range of photons can be attenuated between 800 eV and 9000 eV. The design of the filters allows attenuation for different beam intensities so that experiments can obtain different intensities from the beam if desired. The step of attenuation varies, but is relative to the thickness of the filter as a power function of 2. A relationship for this is f(n) = x 0 2 n where n is the step of attenuation desired and x 0 is the initial thickness of the material. To allow for this desired variation, a mechanism must be designed within the test chamber. This is visualized using a 3D computer aided design modeling tool known as Solid Edge.

  5. Designed Places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    The 2008 financial crisis has left traces in the built environment of Copenhagen like many other places: Building projects are left unfinished or their function or finish is changed due to new economic circumstances. An ethnographic exploration of these traces exposes central aspects of what is a......, and when the ceilings leak water, the residents suspect it to be a consequence of the crisis. The paper discusses how market forces interact with the material surroundings we inhabit and explores the relationship between controlled and uncontrollable in the design of places....

  6. The impact of foundation conditions on the design and construction of the Snake Lake Reservoir dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, G. D.

    1998-01-01

    Unique aspects of the design and construction of two small dams for the Snake Lake Reservoir Project and some of the lessons learned in the process are described. The outstanding feature of this project was that although relatively close together and in the same post-glacial channel, the foundations of the two dams were quite different. The West Dam had permeable silt, sand and gravel with deep bedrock, while the East Dam had impermeable high plastic clay and shallow bedrock as foundation. The challenge to the design was to develop a cross section that would work for both foundation conditions. The final design turned out to be an impermeable fill with toe berms accommodating the variability in the foundations. Instrumentation was used to determine when the second construction stage should commence. At the end of the construction, the reservoir was partially filled relying on the instrumentation to suggest when that would be safe enough to proceed without impacting the overall embankment stability. In the event, the West Dam foundation soils proved to be several orders of magnitude higher than estimated from grain size analyses, requiring installation of a relief valve after construction was completed. Apart from that, dam construction proceeded smoothly and the instrumentation performed as expected.12 refs., 7 figs

  7. Group Design Problems in Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes group design techniques used within the engineering design graphics sequence at Western Washington University. Engineering and design philosophies such as concurrent engineering place an emphasis on group collaboration for the solving of design problems. (Author/DDR)

  8. Low Level Waste Conceptual Design Adaption to Poor Geological Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.; Drimmer, D.; Giovannini, A.; Manfroy, P.; Maquet, F.; Schittekat, J.; Van Cotthem, A.; Van Echelpoel, E.

    2002-01-01

    Since the early eighties, several studies have been carried out in Belgium with respect to a repository for the final disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). In 1998, the Belgian Government decided to restrict future investigations to the four existing nuclear sites in Belgium or sites that might show interest. So far, only two existing nuclear sites have been thoroughly investigated from a geological and hydrogeological point of view. These sites are located in the North-East (Mol-Dessel) and in the mid part (Fleurus-Farciennes) of the country. Both sites have the disadvantage of presenting poor geological and hydrogeological conditions, which are rather unfavorable to accommodate a surface disposal facility for LLW. The underground of the Mol-Dessel site consists of neogene sand layers of about 180 m thick which cover a 100 meters thick clay layer. These neogene sands contain, at 20 m depth, a thin clayey layer. The groundwater level is quite close to the surface (0-2m) and finally, the topography is almost totally flat. The upper layer of the Fleurus-Farciennes site consists of 10 m silt with poor geomechanical characteristics, overlying sands (only a few meters thick) and Westphalian shales between 15 and 20 m depth. The Westphalian shales are tectonized and strongly weathered. In the past, coal seams were mined out. This activity induced locally important surface subsidence. For both nuclear sites that were investigated, a conceptual design was made that could allow any unfavorable geological or hydrogeological conditions of the site to be overcome. In Fleurus-Farciennes, for instance, the proposed conceptual design of the repository is quite original. It is composed of a shallow, buried concrete cylinder, surrounded by an accessible concrete ring, which allows permanent inspection and control during the whole lifetime of the repository. Stability and drainage systems should be independent of potential differential settlements an d subsidences

  9. Democratic design experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehn, Pelle; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Designers and design researchers are increasingly exploring societal challenges through engagements with issues that call forward new publics and new modes of democratic citizenship. Whatever this is called design activism, social design, adversarial design, participatory design or something else...

  10. Manure biochar influence upon soil properties, phosphorus distribution and phosphatase activities: A microcosm incubation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Liang, Xinqiang; He, Miaomiao; Liu, Yu; Tian, Guangming; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Using manure-derived-biochar as an alternative phosphorus (P) source has bright future prospects to improve soil P status. A 98-day microcosm incubation experiment was set up for two soils which were amended with manure biochar at proportions of 0, 0.5% and 1.5%. Swine manure samples were air-dried and manure biochar was prepared by pyrolysis at 400 °C for 4 h. As determined by P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) spectroscopy, manure biochar mainly increased the contents and fractions of orthophosphate and pyrophosphate in two soils, while decreased those of monoesters (P<0.05). At the end of incubation, 1.5% of manure biochar raised soil pH by 0.5 and 0.6 units, cation exchange capacity by 16.9% and 32.2%, and soil total P by 82.1% and 81.1% for silt loam and clay loam soils, respectively, as compared with those soils without biochar. Simultaneously, 1.5% of manure biochar decreased acid phosphomonoesterase activities by 18.6% and 34.0% for clay loam and silt loam, respectively; while it increased alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities by 28.5% and 95.1% for clay loam and silt loam, respectively. The enhancement of soil P availability after manure biochar addition was firstly due to the orthophosphate and pyrophosphate as the major P species in manure biochar which directly increased contents of soil inorganic P, and also attributed to the decomposition of some organic P like monoesters by enhanced alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities from manure biochar addition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of the electric power industry in Ontario was discussed with particular reference to the procurement of contracts and why the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) must be contracting to resolve many of Ontario's electricity issues. As Ontario increasingly relies on imports and natural gas-fired generation, the price of electricity continues to rise given that supply is at a low level. In addition to the generation gap, there are also several transmission constrained areas in Ontario, particularly in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The OPA announced 2 projects totalling 1900 MW to relieve congestion. According to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), the total potential opportunity for new generation by 2015 is about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts. OPA is expected to launch procurement processes for up to 1000 MW of cogeneration, 250 MW of province-wide conservation initiatives, 1900 MW of generation in the western part of the GTA, and 600 MW of generation in downtown Toronto. New nuclear capacity is also anticipated in addition to renewables and conservation/demand management (CDM) initiatives. The OPA's competitive procurement processes will include requests for expressions of interest, requests for qualifications and requests for proposals. The challenge of balancing the technical complexities and realities of procuring generation assets with the need for a fair procurement process was discussed. Contracts will be designed to react to market signals and will include 3 styles: tariff style, tolling style and standard offer contract. OPA will make every effort to balance generator and ratepayer interests. 6 figs

  12. Design Argumentation in Academic Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Dindler, Christian; Fritsch, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    We explore design argumentation as a resource when teaching interaction design in a university setting. We propose that design argumentation can help bridge between practice-based design education and theoretical issues from university curricula. In this paper, we outline the idea of design...

  13. Conservation of nitrate during the fallow; Conservacion del nitrogeno durante el barbecho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Aguilar, M.

    2004-07-01

    We study the possibility to use the waste-water from olive oil mills, or woom to reduce the leaching, of nitrate during the fallow. The blocking in time that practice the woom about the nitrogen of soil we are suggest this study. We make use of woom dilute in water and we study the influence,as soon as the contained potassium, on the nitrogen leaching of two soils, loam and silt-clay loam. The irrigation of soils with woom dilute in water from ten to forty times prior to the autumnal rains to be worth for reducing the leaching of nitrate during the fallow. (Author) 21 refs.

  14. Dansk design - English edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    Indhold: Hvad er design?; Hvor kommer dansk design fra?; Produktdesign; Tekstil- og tøjdesign; Design af møbler og boligindretning; Bygningen og design; Arbejdets design; Transportdesign; Offentligt design; Grafisk design; Nye tider og en ny slags design...

  15. System design projects for undergraduate design education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batill, S. M.; Pinkelman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Design education has received considerable in the recent past. This paper is intended to address one aspect of undergraduate design education and that is the selection and development of the design project for a capstone design course. Specific goals for a capstone design course are presented and their influence on the project selection are discussed. The evolution of a series of projects based upon the design of remotely piloted aircraft is presented along with students' perspective on the capstone experience.

  16. Experience in design and construction of the Log tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Vojkan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A twin highway Log tunnel is a part of a new motorway connection between Maribor and Zagreb, section Draženci-Gruškovje, which is located towards the border crossing between Slovenia and Croatia. The tunnel is currently under construction, and only the excavation works have been completed during the writing of this paper. The terrain in the area of the Log tunnel is diverse, and the route of the highway in its vicinity is characterised by deep excavations, bridges or viaducts. The Log tunnel is approximately 250 m long, partly constructed as a gallery. The geological conditions are dominated by Miocene base rock, featuring layers of well-connected clastic rocks, which are covered by diluvium clays, silts, sands and gravels of different thicknesses. Due to the short length of the tunnel, the usual separation of the motorway route to the left and the right tunnel axes was not carried out. Thus, the tunnel was constructed with an intermediate pillar and was designed as a three-lane tunnel, including the stopping lane. The construction of the tunnel was carried out using the New Austrian tunnelling method (NATM, in which the central adit was excavated first and the intermediate pillar was constructed within it. The excavation of the main tubes followed and was divided into the top heading, bench and the invert, enabling the intermediate pillar to take the load off the top heading of both tubes. The secondary lining of the tunnel is currently under construction. The experience of the tunnel construction gathered so far is presented in the paper. The main emphasis is on the construction of the intermediate pillar, which had to take the significant and asymmetrical ground load.

  17. Experience in design and construction of the Log tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovičić, Vojkan; Goleš, Niko; Tori, Matija; Peternel, Miha; Vajović, Stanojle; Muhić, Elvir

    2017-09-01

    A twin highway Log tunnel is a part of a new motorway connection between Maribor and Zagreb, section Draženci-Gru\\vskovje, which is located towards the border crossing between Slovenia and Croatia. The tunnel is currently under construction, and only the excavation works have been completed during the writing of this paper. The terrain in the area of the Log tunnel is diverse, and the route of the highway in its vicinity is characterised by deep excavations, bridges or viaducts. The Log tunnel is approximately 250 m long, partly constructed as a gallery. The geological conditions are dominated by Miocene base rock, featuring layers of well-connected clastic rocks, which are covered by diluvium clays, silts, sands and gravels of different thicknesses. Due to the short length of the tunnel, the usual separation of the motorway route to the left and the right tunnel axes was not carried out. Thus, the tunnel was constructed with an intermediate pillar and was designed as a three-lane tunnel, including the stopping lane. The construction of the tunnel was carried out using the New Austrian tunnelling method (NATM), in which the central adit was excavated first and the intermediate pillar was constructed within it. The excavation of the main tubes followed and was divided into the top heading, bench and the invert, enabling the intermediate pillar to take the load off the top heading of both tubes. The secondary lining of the tunnel is currently under construction. The experience of the tunnel construction gathered so far is presented in the paper. The main emphasis is on the construction of the intermediate pillar, which had to take the significant and asymmetrical ground load.

  18. Sharing the design intent between industrial designers and engineering designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Esben Skov; Møller, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to understand the challenges sharing the product frame between industrial designers with the engineering designers. The study is based on six case studies. The analysis showed correspondence between industrial designers and engineering designers in their understanding...... of the key elements of the context and concept. However the analysis also showed a lack of correspondence between the industrial designers and engineering designers in regards to the product framing and thereby how the different elements of the product frame is connected and interrelated....

  19. Service design : Tuning the industrial design profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleeswijk Visser, F.

    2013-01-01

    Design is not only about the design and production of goods, but is increasingly addressing complex social issues nowadays. Roles of designers are becoming more and more varied, and at the same time other professionals are increasingly using design tools in their business, organizational or other

  20. Designing for critique, designing for reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgreen, Lars Bo

    2010-01-01

    litteraturliste og et stikordsregister. Bogen rummer kapitlerne: “Visual topography: analysing the visual context of an interactive interface” af Lise Agerbæk, “Designing (with) Creativity” af Heidi Philipsen, “Designing for critique, designing for reflection – the (re)emergence of aesthetics in current design...

  1. Designing interfaces patterns for effective interaction design

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2005-01-01

    This convenient resource offers advice on creating user-friendly interface designs--whether they're delivered on the Web, a CD, or a smart" devices like a cell phone. Solutions to common UI design problems are expressed as a collection of patterns--each one containing concrete examples, recommendations, and warnings. Intended for designers with basic UI design knowledge

  2. Enhancing biomedical design with design thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemnitzer, Ronald; Dorsa, Ed

    2009-01-01

    The development of biomedical equipment is justifiably focused on making products that "work." However, this approach leaves many of the people affected by these designs (operators, patients, etc.) with little or no representation when it comes to the design of these products. Industrial design is a "user focused" profession which takes into account the needs of diverse groups when making design decisions. The authors propose that biomedical equipment design can be enhanced, made more user and patient "friendly" by adopting the industrial design approach to researching, analyzing, and ultimately designing biomedical products.

  3. Microstructure and stability of two sandy loam soils with different soil management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.

    1969-01-01

    A practical problem initiated this study. In the Haarlemmermeer, a former lake reclaimed about 1850, several farmers had difficulties with soil structure. Land, plowed in autumn, was very wet in spring. Free water was sometimes present on the soil surface. Planting and seeding were long delayed in

  4. Free flow spillways on loam dams; Deversoirs a ecoulement libre sur des digues en terre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The free flow spillways technique was developed abroad and has been used and developed in France by two research offices and foremen. Dams of this type can have heights of 8 to 20 m and both dams and spillways must fit with special technical characteristics which are described (drainage, joints, reinforcements, wall surface, embankment etc..). The experience of French foremen with this type of dams and spillways is reported. (J.S.)

  5. Soil resistance and resilience to mechanical stresses for three differently managed sandy loam soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per

    2012-01-01

    carbon (CCCsoils to compaction using air permeability (ka), void ratio (e) and air-filled porosity (ε) as functional indicators and to characterise aggregate stability, strength and friability. Aggregate tensile strength...... the compression index and a proposed functional index,was significantly greater for theMFC soil compared to the other two soils. The change in compression index with initial void ratio was significantly less for the MFC than the other soils. Plastic reorganisation of the soil particles immediately after......To improve our understanding of how clay-organic carbon dynamics affect soil aggregate strength and physical resilience, we selected three nearby soils (MFC,Mixed Forage Cropping; MCC,Mixed Cash Cropping; CCC, Cereal Cash Cropping)with identical clay content and increasing contents of organic...

  6. Predictivity strength of the spatial variability of phenanthrene sorption across two sandy loam fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Antonio; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Møldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Sorption is commonly suggested as the major process underlying the transport and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. However, studies focusing in spatial variability at the field scale in particular are still scarce. In order to investigate the sorption of phenanthrene...

  7. Persistence of bifenthrin in sandy loam soil as affected by microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2012-06-01

    Soil was fortified with bifenthrin at the level of 10 μg g(-1) soil. Soil samples were drawn at regular intervals of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. For extraction of bifenthrin, soil was extracted with acetone. Clean up was done by liquid-liquid partitioning with dichloromethane after diluting with brine solution. Quantification of bifenthrin residues was done by GC using mega bore column and ECD detector. Recovery of bifenthrin in soil ranged between 92.6 % and 93.8 % at 0.5 and 1.0 μg g(-1). The instrumental limit of detection of bifenthrin was 0.005 μg mL(-1) and LOQ for soil by this method was found to be 0.05 μg g(-1). The calibration curve was found to be linear within range the range of 0.01 and 0.10 μg mL(-1) concentration. The DT(50) (disappearance time for 50 % loss) of bifenthrin at the level of 10 μg g(-1) in sterile and non sterile soil were found to be 330 and 147 days, respectively. A vast difference in the half life of sterile and non sterile soil indicated the presence of potential microbes for bifenthrin degradation.

  8. Carbon dioxide emissions after application of different tillage systems for loam in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwen, Li; Lifeng, Hu; Fub, Chen; Xuemin, Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Tillage operations influence soil physical properties and crop growth, and thus both directly and indirectly the cropland CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. In this study, the results of CO2 flux measurements on cropland, under different tillage practices in northern China, are presented. CO2 flux on croplands with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea may L.) rotation was monitored on plots with conventional tillage (CT), rotary tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT). Soil CO2 flux was generally greater in CT than in NT, and the RT CO2 flux was only slightly smaller than the CT. Daily soil CO2 emissions for CT, RT, and NT averaged 11.30g m-2, 9.63 g m-2 and 7.99 g m-2, respectively, during the growing period. Analysis of variance shows that these differences are significant for the three tillage treatments. Peak CO2 emissions were recorded on the CT and RT croplands after tillage operations. At the same time, no obviously increased emission of CO2 occurred on the NT plot. These differences demonstrate that tillage results in a rapid physical release of CO2.

  9. Improving the Bearing Strength of Sandy Loam Soil Compressed Earth Block Bricks Using Sugercane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhan W. Salim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for affordable and sustainable alternative construction materials to cement in developing countries cannot be underemphasized. Compressed Earth Bricks have gained acceptability as an affordable and sustainable construction material. There is however a need to boost its bearing capacity. Previous research show that Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as a soil stabilizer has yielded positive results. However, there is limited research on its effect on the mechanical property of Compressed Earth Brick. This current research investigated the effect of adding 3%, 5%, 8% and 10% Sugarcane Bagasse Ash on the compressive strength of compressed earth brick. The result showed improvement in its compressive strength by 65% with the addition of 10% Sugarcane Bagasse Ash.

  10. Effect of industrial, municipal and agricultural wastes on peanut in lateritic sandy loam soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.; Khan, A.R.

    2002-06-01

    Modern agriculture, worldwide, depends upon the external application of plant nutrients supplied mostly through chemical fertilizer to meet the crop needs. The natural recycling cannot provide the very large amount of nutrients needed year after year in an intensive cropping system and nutrients being a major constraint harvesting the nutrient energy from biological and industrial waste are of prime importance for maximizing the food grain production in the world. A number of industrial wastes like fly ash from thermal power plants, paper factory sludge from paper factory, sewage sludge from municipal source and farmyard manure from livestock farming are the important waste resources, having potentiality in recycling in agricultural land. When these wastes are recycled through soil for crop production, due to the degradative and assimilative capacity of soil, the pollution hazards of these wastes can be minimized to a greater extent as compared to direct disposing of at the site. Fly ash is a waste product residue resulting from the combustion of pulverised coal in coal-fired power generating station. Physico - chemical analysis of fly ash has revealed the presence of both macro-micro nutrients, which can sustain plant growth. Its application in the agricultural land acts as a liming material and improves crop growth by neutralizing the soil acidity, increasing the water availability for the plants and supplement of nutrients (Adriano et al, 1980, Molliner and Street, 1982, Schnappinger et al, 1975). Application of paper factory sludge has been reported to increase the organic carbon content in soil and nutrient content like P, K, Ca, Mg and micronutrients (Guerini et al, 1994, Muse and Mitchell, 1995). Sludge application also improves the organic carbon content of the soil and availability of nutrients like Ca, K and Mg besides improvement of physical properties (Pitchel and Hayes, 1990). Much is known regarding crop performance and changes in physical and chemical properties of soil due to the application of such organic wastes. However, little is explored regarding the influence of various wastes on soil microbiology and its impact on nodulation and yield of leguminous crop like peanut. Soil biology is a significant component of soil quality and is the catalytic agent responsible for many transformations occurring in soil, most notably the reactions involved in nutrient cycling (Karlen et al, 1997). Thus it is meaningful to evaluate the physical, chemical and biological aspects of soil quality by addition of such organic wastes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of industrial, municipal and agricultural waste on the performance of a leguminous crop like peanut and on the total microbial and Rhizobium population in soil rhizosphere

  11. Effects of biochar and manure amendments on water vapor sorption in a sandy loam soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the application of biochar (BC) as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and mitigate global climate change has received considerable attention. While positive effects of biochar on plant nutrition are well documented, little is known about potential impacts on the physical....... Hysteresis of the water vapor sorption isotherms increased with increasing BC application rates. Biochar age did not significantly affect vapor sorption and SSA....

  12. Seasonal dynamics in wheel load-carrying capacity of a loam soil in the Swiss Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gut, S.; Chervet, A.; Stettler, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    on in situ measurements of h, measurements of precompression stress at various h and simulations of soil stress. In this work, we concentrated on prevention of subsoil compaction. Calculations were made for different tyres (standard and low-pressure top tyres) and for soil under different tillage......Subsoil compaction is a major problem in modern agriculture caused by the intensification of agricultural production and the increase in weight of agricultural machinery. Compaction in the subsoil is highly persistent and leads to deterioration of soil functions. Wheel load-carrying capacity (WLCC......) is defined as the maximum wheel load for a specific tyre and inflation pressure that does not result in soil stress in excess of soil strength. The soil strength and hence WLCC is strongly influenced by soil matric potential (h). The aim of this study was to estimate the seasonal dynamics in WLCC based...

  13. Overall assessment of soil quality on humid sandy loams: Effects of location, rotation and tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Hansen, Elly Møller; Rickson, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    .e. visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS), overall visual structure (OVS) and overall soil structure (OSS)) were employed to differentiate the effects of these alternative management practices on soil structural quality and relative crop yield (RY). A Pearson correlation was also employed to find...... the correlation between the soil quality indices and relative crop yield. Relevant soil properties for calculating the soil quality indices were measured or obtained from previous publications. Crop rotation affected the soil structure and RY. The winter-dominated crop rotation (R2) resulted in the poorest soil...... correlations were found in most cases between soil quality indices (including M-SQR) and RY. This highlights the influence of soil quality (as measured by the selected indicators) – and soil structure in particular – on crop yield potential....

  14. Anisotropy of the porosity in a silty loam soil under continuous no tillage management

    OpenAIRE

    Soracco, Carlos Germán; Lozano, Luis A.; Gelati, Pablo R.; Sarli, Guillermo O.; Filgueira, Roberto R.

    2008-01-01

    La superficie bajo siembra directa (SD) se incrementa continuamente en la Republica Argentina. Existen trabajos que muestran una orientación preferencial de los poros en sentido horizontal cerca de la superficie de suelos bajo SD. El objetivo específico de este trabajo fue evaluar la conductividad hidráulica saturada del horizonte superficial en sentido vertical y horizontal en SD continua con descompactación (SDCD) respecto de un testigo de SD sin descompactacion (SDSD) para determinar la ex...

  15. Crop residues as driver for N2O emissions from a sandy loam soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Petersen, Søren O.; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe

    2017-01-01

    -term experiment on a loamy sand soil at Foulum in Denmark. All cropping systems included winter wheat, a leguminous crop (faba bean or grass-clover), potato and spring barley grown in different 4-crop rotations varying in strategies for N supply (fertilizer/manure type and rate, use of catch crops and green......-N leaching losses ranged from 39 to 56 kg N ha−1 y−1 and were lowest in rotations with catch crops; leaching was not correlated with N surplus or N input in fertilizer or manure. Crop yields of the organic rotations were 25 to 37% lower than in identical conventional rotations. As a consequence, yield...

  16. Impact of lime treated soils performance on design of earthfill dikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerincx Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays soil treatment with lime in civil engineering is widespread in many countries on all continents, within several construction fields. The interest of the hydraulic works community regarding this technique is currently growing. It has been indeed shown during the last decade that appropriate treatment technologies provide lime treated soils with high level properties such as excellent homogeneity, low permeability, internal and external erosion resistance and mechanical stability. Those have been shown in laboratory and for some properties with full scale experiments. The so conferred soil properties can lead to innovative earthfill dams and dikes designs by addressing some of the typical designer’s problems, such as stability, watertightness, internal erosion, surface protection and flood control. However, lime treated soil external erosion resistance is still to be quantified in the field for proper designing and dimensioning of lime treated soil external erosion protection or spillways. With this purpose, an experimental earthfill dike has been built along the river Vidourle (France in July 2015, in the frame of the French R&D program “DigueELITE”. This 50 m long and 3,5 m high dike is made of lime treated silt and is provided with sensors (succion, water content and temperature and piezometer in order to be monitored. It will also be tested against surface erosion. The final objective of this R&D program is to provide guidelines for designing innovative overflow resistant earthfill dikes. This article describes the performance reached by lime treated soils and associated design requirements and application; the experimental dike construction and lessons learned; the monitoring program; the dike design perspectives opened by soil treatment.

  17. Design methods and design theory for architectural design management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.; Otter, den A.F.H.J.; Achten, H.H.; Pels, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Most parties that an architectural design manager meets in daily practice are engaged to some degree with design. What these parties are actually doing in a project is contingent with the concrete design project. Additionally, each party has some stake, and may employ different strategies to solve

  18. Effect of bovine manure on fecal coliform attachment to soil and soil particles of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guber, Andrey K; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Shelton, Daniel R; Yu, Olivia

    2007-05-01

    Manure-borne bacteria can be transported in runoff as free cells, cells attached to soil particles, and cells attached to manure particles. The objectives of this work were to compare the attachment of fecal coliforms (FC) to different soils and soil fractions and to assess the effect of bovine manure on FC attachment to soil and soil fractions. Three sand fractions of different sizes, the silt fraction, and the clay fraction of loam and sandy clay loam soils were separated and used along with soil samples in batch attachment experiments with water-FC suspensions and water-manure-FC suspensions. In the absence of manure colloids, bacterial attachment to soil, silt, and clay particles was much higher than the attachment to sand particles having no organic coating. The attachment to the coated sand particles was similar to the attachment to silt and clay. Manure colloids in suspensions decreased bacterial attachment to soils, clay and silt fractions, and coated sand fractions, but did not decrease the attachment to sand fractions without the coating. The low attachment of bacteria to silt and clay particles in the presence of manure colloids may cause predominantly free-cell transport of manure-borne FC in runoff.

  19. Managing collaborative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, R.

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative design has been emerging in building projects everywhere. The more complex a building project becomes, the closer and more intensive collaboration between the design actors is required. This research focuses on collaborative design in the conceptual architecture design phase,

  20. Design for Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A report on how nine rail builder, operators and transport designers deal with design for accessibility......A report on how nine rail builder, operators and transport designers deal with design for accessibility...

  1. Design is an Attitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare Riise

    2005-01-01

    Arttiklen beskriver den mexicanske designer Rafael Davidsons arbejder gennem en menneskealder, samt hans visioner for mexicansk design i fremtiden.......Arttiklen beskriver den mexicanske designer Rafael Davidsons arbejder gennem en menneskealder, samt hans visioner for mexicansk design i fremtiden....

  2. Design Research between Design and Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Markussen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The discourse on architecture and design research in Denmark in the past thirty years has been stuck in a unproductive dichotomy between research through design on the one hand and a phantom image of academic and theoretical, word-based research on the other. Advocates of the research through...... design strand have argued, that architecture and design research must follow an architecture and design methodology – designing – and be communicated by means of architecture and design media – images and artefacts. Essentially, this view sees no difference between architecture and design research...... and practice, as expressed in the notion of research as ‘artistic innovation work’. On the other hand, the pressure to expand research in architecture and design has seen a movement towards adopting traditional research paradigms from the technical and social sciences and humanities. For many architects...

  3. Design Games for In-Situ Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The mobile culture has spawned a host of context-based products, like location-based and tag-based applications. This presents a new challenge for the designer. There is a need of design methods that acknowledge the context and allows it to influence the design ideas. This article focuses...... on a design problem where an in-situ design practice may further the early design process: the case of designing a pervasive game. Pervasive games are computer games, played using the city as a game board and often using mobile phones with GPS. Some contextual design methods exist, but we propose an approach...... sitestorming, is based on a game using Situationistic individual exploration of the site and different types of game cards, followed by a joint evaluation of the generated ideas. A series of evaluations showed that the designers found the method enjoyable to use, that the method motivated idea generation...

  4. Design of modern experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Hweon

    1984-03-01

    This book is for researchers and engineers, which is written to focus on practical design of experiments. It gives descriptions of conception of design of experiments, basic statistics theory, one way design of experiment, two-way layout without repetition, two-way layout with repetition, partition, a correlation analysis and regression analysis, latin squares, factorial design, design of experiment by table of orthogonal arrays, design of experiment of response surface, design of experiment on compound, Evop, and design of experiment of taguchi.

  5. Design and maintenance of a network for collecting high-resolution suspended-sediment data at remote locations on rivers, with examples from the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.; Andrews, Timothy; Bennett, Glenn E.; Sabol, Thomas A.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2012-01-01

    Management of sand and finer sediment in fluvial settings has become increasingly important for reasons ranging from endangered-species habitat to transport of sediment-associated contaminants. In all rivers, some fraction of the suspended load is transported as washload, and some as suspended bed material. Typically, the washload is composed of silt-and-clay-size sediment, and the suspended bed material is composed of sand-size sediment. In most rivers, as a result of changes in the upstream supply of silt and clay, large, systematic changes in the concentration of the washload occur over time, independent of changes in water discharge. Recent work has shown that large, systematic, discharge-independent changes in the concentration of the suspended bed material are also present in many rivers. In bedrock canyon rivers, such as the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, changes in the upstream tributary supply of sand may cause large changes in the grain-size distribution of the bed sand, resulting in changes in both the concentration and grain-size distribution of the sand in suspension. Large discharge-independent changes in suspended-sand concentration coupled to discharge-independent changes in the grain-size distribution of the suspended sand are not unique to bedrock canyon rivers, but also occur in large alluvial rivers, such as the Mississippi River. These systematic changes in either suspended-silt-and-clay concentration or suspended-sand concentration may not be detectable by using conventional equal-discharge- or equal-width-increment measurements, which may be too infrequently collected relative to the time scale over which these changes in the sediment load are occurring. Furthermore, because large discharge-independent changes in both suspended-silt-and-clay and suspended-sand concentration are possible in many rivers, methods using water discharge as a proxy for suspended-sediment concentration (such as sediment rating curves) may not produce

  6. Computational Design Tools for Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    In an architectural conceptual sketching process, where an architect is working with the initial ideas for a design, the process is characterized by three phases: sketching, evaluation and modification. Basically the architect needs to address three areas in the conceptual sketching phase......: aesthetical, functional and technical requirements. The aim of the present paper is to address the problem of a vague or not existing link between digital conceptual design tools used by architects and designers and engineering analysis and simulation tools. Based on an analysis of the architectural design...... process different digital design methods are related to tasks in an integrated design process....

  7. Analog circuit design designing high performance amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The third volume Designing High Performance Amplifiers applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification.

  8. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  9. Design rules for dynamic organization design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burton, Richard; Obel, Børge

    2013-01-01

    Organizational design rules are contingent if-then statements about what a good design should be for a given situation. Today’s challenge is to look forward to devise organization design rules for a different future with greater uncertainty and greater interdependency – all with dynamic performance...... demands. These new demands call for new design rules for coordination, incentives and leadership, among others. Our existing rules are mostly based upon past experience and empirical studies of what is. What might be – going beyond what we have observed and explained of yesterday and today to help design...... for a future new situation – is a disciplined response to examine the new contingencies of organizational design and their design consequences. Computational laboratories permit us to go beyond what is to develop and examine new design possibilities and boundaries to explore a future world of what might be. We...

  10. Money and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Borcuch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the influence of the money design on willingness to make purchases. In this paper, we focus on three aspects that structure the relation between money and design: the link between design and finance (in general, determinants of design and perspective of currency design. The main research problem explored in this paper is: Does the money design have influence on the willingness to make purchases by employees/employers at design studios, design students and students of economics/management? The main hypothesis is as follows – the more experience in design practice, the more important is money design.

  11. Investigation of the transport of actinide-bearing soil colloids in the soil-aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, J.C.; Campbell, M.J.; Kittrick, J.; Cheng, T.

    1980-04-01

    Uranium-233 particle size dependent distribution ratios for the 10 to 60 range were determined for muscatine silt loam, Burbank loamy sand, Ritzville silt loam, Fuquay sand, and Idaho sandy clay. A mathematical method for the analysis of centrifuge data was developed to determine particle size dependent distribution ratio for the 10 to 60 nm range. Comparison of the distribution ratio data for the 0 to 60 nm particle size range strongly suggests that particles in the 1 to 10 nm (8000 to 50,000 MW) range play a dominate role. Since these particles are probably humic acid polymers, future research should be focused on humic acid complexing of radionuclides. A mathematical analysis is given to demonstrate the role of humic acid complexing in the transport of radionuclides in the soil-aquatic environment

  12. Design as Value Celebration: Rethinking Design Argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per Liljenberg

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces knowledge of the rhetorical genre of epideictic to design. The aim is to provide designers with concepts that stimulate their ability to deliberate about design choices and explore the arguments they may be making about the human-made world. The article begins with explora...

  13. Ergonomics in design or design in ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Design in Scandinavia has a long tradition of participation in the development of society. Designers in the Nordic countries have taken pride in concerning themselves with problems of everyday living and the design communities at large have been committed proponents of a socially responsible appr...

  14. Suspended silt and salinity tolerances of the first zoeal stage of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergo the zoeal stage of development in open-ocean waters, where they experience stable salinity levels, low turbidity and reduced predation. The St ... Despite recent attempts to improve marine connectivity, it remains limited, occurring primarily on the flood tide through channels connected to the adjacent Mfolozi River.

  15. Interrill erosion of carbon and phosphorus from conventionally and organically farmed Devon silt soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J; Armstrong, Elizabeth K; Ling, Amy C

    2012-01-01

    particles by raindrop impacted flow. Resistance to interrill erosion varies between soils depending on their physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. In addition, significant changes in soil resistance to interrill erosion occur during storms as a result of changes in surface roughness, cohesion...... to conventional soil management. The enrichment of P and C in the interrill sediment was not directly related to SOC, P content of the soil and soil interrill erodibility. A comparison of soil and sediment properties indicates that crusting, P and C content as well as density and size of eroded aggregate......Globally, between 0.57 and 1.33 Pg of soil organic carbon (SOC) may be affected by interrill processes. Also, a significant amount of phosphorus (P) is contained in the surface soil layer transformed by raindrop impact, runoff and crust formation. In the EU, the P content of a crusted (2 mm...

  16. Full utilization of silt density index (SDI) measurements for seawater pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai; Laborie, Sté phanie; Ben Aï m, Roger M.; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    according to the standard protocol for SDI measurement, in which two kinds of 0.45μm membranes of different material and seawater samples from the Mediterranean including raw seawater and seawater pre-treated by coagulation followed by sand filtration (CSF

  17. Radionuclides behaviour in the silts-water system of a cooling pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol'khovik, Yu.A.; Kostyuchenko, N.G.; Koromyslichenko, T.I.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl' accident a considerable amount of radioisotopes (1-5x10 5 Ci) concentrated in a cooling pond. A year later the accident a level of water contamination decreased by 2 orders, whereas the radionuclide distribution changed perceptibly. Processes of water self-decontamination in the cooling pond were considered. A forecast of water radiactivity level in the cooling pond in the summer of 1988 was made. 3 refs.; 1 refs.; 2 tabs

  18. Acoustic measurement of suspensions of clay and silt particles using single frequency attenuation and backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of ultrasonic acoustic technology to measure the concentration of fine suspended sediments has the potential to greatly increase the temporal and spatial resolution of sediment measurements while reducing the need for personnel to be present at gauging stations during storm events. The conv...

  19. Silt density index and modified fouling index relation, and effect of pressure, temperature and membrane resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Hadidi, A.M.M.; Alhadidi, A.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Blankert, B.; Blankert, B.; Schippers, J.C.; Wessling, Matthias; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Particulate matter present in feed water of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane elements tends to deposit on the membrane surface and spacers. This type of fouling results in permeate flux decline, loss of product quality and membrane damage. To characterize the fouling potential of RO feed

  20. Reduction in wick drain effectiveness with spacing for Utah silts and clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Although decreasing the spacing of vertical drains usually decreases the time for consolidation, previous field tests have shown that there is a critical drain spacing for which tighter spacing does not decrease the time for consolidation. This...

  1. The Silting-Up Prevention in the Geothermal Absorbent Openings of Geothermal Energy Plant Pyrzyce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noga Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents precipitation results from cold thermal water deposits that are the main cause of clogging in absorbent geothermal wells and borehole areas. As a result of physical and chemical analysis, laboratory tests and observation of the operation of a geothermal installation, a new method was developed to prevent the precipitation of sludge from cooled thermal water. The method being a modification of soft acidising was tentatively named as a super soft acidising method

  2. Sediment-worm interaction: transfer of 65Zn from marine silt by the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, W.C.; Benayoun, G.

    1976-01-01

    Marine polychaete worms (Nereis diversicolor) accumulated 65 Zn sorbed to silty marine sediment for 5 days and were then transferred to nonradioactive sediment in the laboratory and in the sea. The mean biological half-life (T/sub B//2/) for the laboratory worms did not differ greatly from that for worms in the sea. Worms living in small flowing seawater systems containing 16 cm 3 of sediment accumulated 65 Zn added to each system in the form of radioactive organic detritus. Higher percentage uptake of 65 Zn was from radioactive detritus particles 0.2 to 2 mm in diameter resting on the sediment surface or mixed with sediment than from finely-ground ( 65 Zn coprecipitated from fresh water with Fe(OH) 3 was accumulated by N. diversicolor when the precipitate was on the sediment surface than when the precipitate was well mixed with the sediment. These experimental results indicate that benthic organisms may take up limited amounts of heavy metals associated with bottom sediments and recycle them to benthic and pelagic food webs

  3. Eindhoven school for technological design : design education and design research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trum, H.M.G.J.; Oxman, R.M.; Bax, M.F.Th.

    1995-01-01

    Nine years after starting the two-year post-graduate programme on technological design [Ackermans and Trum, 1988], Eindhoven University of Technology (EUT) decided to enhance the development of synthesis-oriented engineering education by establishing a post-graduate school for technological design.

  4. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  5. The Distributed Criterion Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    This article describes and illustrates a novel form of the changing criterion design called the distributed criterion design, which represents perhaps the first advance in the changing criterion design in four decades. The distributed criterion design incorporates elements of the multiple baseline and A-B-A-B designs and is well suited to applied…

  6. Effects of Conventional and Conservation Tillage on Soil Hydraulic Properties of a Silty-loamy Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Niels Arne; Bens, O.; Buczko, U.

    2004-01-01

    Infiltration into soils is strongly correlated with macroporosity. Under agricultural land use, the properties of the macropore network are governed by the applied management and tillage system. On an experimental site with a silt loam soil partly under conventional and conservation tillage, the ......, conservation tillage could possibly offer a means to reduce surface runoff and flood generation in agricultural landscapes dominated by silty-loamy soils. d 2...

  7. Short exposure to acetylene to distinguish between nitrifier and denitrifier nitrous oxide production in soil and sediment samples

    OpenAIRE

    Kester, R.A.; Boer, W. de; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The contribution of nitrifiers and denitrifiers to the nitrous oxide production in slurries of calcareous silt loam and river bank sediment at different oxygen concentrations was determined using acetylene as nitrification inhibitor. The addition of 10 Pa acetylene resulted in inhibition of nitrous oxide production at oxic conditions, but strongly enhanced the nitrous oxide production at oxygen-poor and anoxic conditions. Inhibition of nitrification by short exposure (1 to 24 h) to high conce...

  8. Chemical Weed Control Increases Survival and Growth in Hardwood Plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann

    1967-01-01

    In a plantation of four hardwood species on a silt loam soil planted to 1-0 stock, 4 pounds of active atrazine or simazine controlled weeds effectively without injuring the trees. Chemical weed control was better on plowed and disked ground than on unprepared ground. Yellow-poplar and white ash grew faster on prepared ground. Black walnut and red oak did not respond...

  9. Bioaugmentation for Aerobic Bioremediation of RDX-Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    sampling. The surface soil is characterized as a sandy loam soil (78% sand, 6% silt, 16% clay ) with a pH of 8.4, an organic carbon content of < 0.1...biomass is disposed of according to local ordinances (e.g., sterilized and directed into a municipal sanitary sewer). E.3. Use Information and...sterilized and directed into a municipal sanitary sewer). E.3. Use Information and Consumer Exposure Cultures are being used solely for field

  10. Medicines by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight Nature's Medicine Cabinet A Medicine's Life Inside ... hunt for drugs of the future. Medicines By Design in PDF | E-PUB Tell Us What You ...

  11. Design Sea State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    National codes of practice which specifies the design wave climate on a given location do not yet exist. Nevertheless, decision on the design wave climate is one of the most important tasks of the designer....

  12. Responsive web design workflow

    OpenAIRE

    LAAK, TIMO

    2013-01-01

    Responsive Web Design Workflow is a literature review about Responsive Web Design, a web standards based modern web design paradigm. The goals of this research were to define what responsive web design is, determine its importance in building modern websites and describe a workflow for responsive web design projects. Responsive web design is a paradigm to create adaptive websites, which respond to the properties of the media that is used to render them. The three key elements of responsi...

  13. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Il; Kim, Seung Jae; Yang, Jae Ho; Ryu, Hwa Won

    1993-01-01

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  14. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  15. The Communication Between Designer and Design Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Dai, Yan

    2009-01-01

    When people think about a product,the first impression always mainly influences the result.Product is the medium of communication between designer and designer receiver.Because both of them have varied different experience and background,the information would be biased during the transferring...... process.The common symbols which can be recognized by both of designer and receiver are the key tools for communication.In some case,the same symbol in one product would be leads to different receiver impression.Generally,impression includes 3 aspects:aesthetics,function, and emotion.Designer needs...... to create an attractive and accurate impression in product from these 3 aspects.For facing the dilemma of communication,some experimental approaches can help designer deal with unique and diversity situations.Solving the detail problem in each step could keep the original meaning of designer....

  16. Integrated circuit design using design automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwyn, C.W.

    1976-09-01

    Although the use of computer aids to develop integrated circuits is relatively new at Sandia, the program has been very successful. The results have verified the utility of the in-house CAD design capability. Custom IC's have been developed in much shorter times than available through semiconductor device manufacturers. In addition, security problems were minimized and a saving was realized in circuit cost. The custom CMOS IC's were designed at less than half the cost of designing with conventional techniques. In addition to the computer aided design, the prototype fabrication and testing capability provided by the semiconductor development laboratory and microelectronics computer network allows the circuits to be fabricated and evaluated before the designs are transferred to the commercial semiconductor manufacturers for production. The Sandia design and prototype fabrication facilities provide the capability of complete custom integrated circuit development entirely within the ERDA laboratories

  17. Structured Analog CMOS Design

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanovic, Danica

    2008-01-01

    Structured Analog CMOS Design describes a structured analog design approach that makes it possible to simplify complex analog design problems and develop a design strategy that can be used for the design of large number of analog cells. It intentionally avoids treating the analog design as a mathematical problem, developing a design procedure based on the understanding of device physics and approximations that give insight into parameter interdependences. The proposed transistor-level design procedure is based on the EKV modeling approach and relies on the device inversion level as a fundament

  18. Design for Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feder, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the new Design for Play initiative is to inspire and educate designers to design for the future of play. To create “play ambassadors” equipped with excellent tools, methods, approaches and mind-sets to design for the playful human being in an ever-changing world. To teach...... and inspire children to grow up to be creative designers of their own life and the world around them. The Design for Play research team will study the interplay between people, processes and products in design for play and support the development of playful designers, playful solutions and playful experiences...

  19. Identification of Soil Properties and Organophosphate Residues From Agricultural Land in Wanasari Sub-District, Brebes, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joko, Tri; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Rachmawati, Savitri

    2018-02-01

    Organophosphates have been used to eradicate pests and prevent losses from harvest failures caused by pest attack. It is undeniable that the organophosphate persist in soil. This study aims to identify the organophosphate residue and soil properties include pH, soil texture, and permeability. The soil samples were taken from cropland in 10 villages, Wanasari sub-district, Brebes, Indonesia. Organophosphate residue determined by gas chromatography using Flame Photometric Detector. Soil texture was determined by soil texture triangle from NRCS USDA, and the permeability value was determined by falling head method. The mean value of chlorpyrifos, profenofos, diazinon were 0.0078; 0.0388; 0.2271 mg/l respectively. The soil texture varies from clay, silt clay, loam, silt loam, and silt clay loam with permeability value at 10-7 with the soil pH value between 6.4 - 8.1. The results showed that organophosphate residues found in the soil and its potential affect the soil fertility decline. We recommend to conduct routine soil quality analysis to prevent soil damage in the agricultural environment.

  20. Analyses for designing objects in mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Norihiro; Miyamura, Hiroko N.; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Kawamura, Takuma

    2015-01-01

    Defining factors to induce the damage that can be assumed in the mechanical structures, it is a loaded work to analyze a damage possibility point derived by the assumption phenomenon that can occur is, but it is the important designing process. Taking factors caused by the earthquake as an example, and simulating the phenomenon that can be assumed, the computational result was analyzed with information visualization. A damage possibility point by analyzing the result mathematically. The illustration of analytical results may give points to designers as means for a designer to recognize a damage possibility point from the sensitivity of the designer. (author)

  1. Volatilization of gasoline from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthus, P.

    1993-05-01

    Gasoline contaminated soil threatens water resources and air quality. The extent of the threat depends on gasoline behavior in soil, which is affected by various mechanisms such as volatilization. To quantify volatilization, gasoline spills were simulated in the laboratory using a synthetic gasoline and three dry soils. Total gasoline and individual gasoline compound concentrations in soil were monitored as a function of depth and time. The time to reduce overall gasoline concentration in coarse sand, sandy loam, and silt loam to 40% of initial concentration, averaged between surface and a 200-mm depth, ranged from 0.25 d to 10 d. A wicking phenomenon which contributed to gasoline flux toward the atmosphere was indicated by behavior of a low-volatility gasoline compound. Based on separate wicking experiments, this bulk immiscible movement was estimated at an upward velocity of 0.09 m/d for Delhi sandy loam and 0.05 m/d for Elora silt loam. 70 refs., 24 figs., 34 tabs

  2. Performative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    visitors and participants to engage and interact with the city. Inspired by Lefebvre statement that "the most beautiful cities were those where festivals were not planned in advance” (Lefebvre 1987:36), I will discuss how urban designers can design engaging spaces, where the potentials of the city can...... unfold. Is it, for instance, the formal aesthetics of the design or rather the socio-cultural codes of the existing urban space that engage people? The paper engages in three urban performance designs: 1) The 10th Avenue Plaza at the Highline in New York 2) The temporary installations at Boble Plads......Urban design has come to mean many things. From the architectural masterplans to the informal urban design in temporary spaces and event designs. The paper will focus on urban designs engaging urban designs. Engaging urban design can broadly be understood as temporary design installations inviting...

  3. Solar Design Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF OPTIMIZATION OF DESIGN FORMULA DESIGN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: reinforced concrete slabs, flexure, m. 1. Introduction ntroduction ntroduction. An evaluation of the flexural resistance of reinforced concrete solid slabs with the optimu weight required for structural safety a economy and as stated in design codes. 5] is presented. It is a well-known fact by many design enginee.

  5. Reframing Design: Design Thinking and Mediation Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Design Thinking’ has proven to be a fruitful way to deal with societal problems and challenges. But what does it in fact mean to approach problems as design problems? What does it imply for our ways to understand societal challenges, and for the ways in which we address them? In order to answer

  6. Design Thinking Pedagogy: The Educational Design Ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, Cara; Straker, Kara

    2017-01-01

    As global industries change and technology advances, traditional education systems might no longer be able to supply companies with graduates who possess an appropriate mix of skills and experience. The recent increased interest in Design Thinking as an approach to innovation has resulted in its adoption by non-design-trained professionals. This…

  7. Ethical Design Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa; Vistisen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we examine how ethical challenges can be approached in and through design fiction. To do so, we develop a new framework for analysis as well as creation of design fictions. Our main focus will be on design fiction within a strategical setting, connecting the notion of design fiction...

  8. Empirical research through design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Bruns, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the empirical research through design method (ERDM), which differs from current approaches to research through design by enforcing the need for the designer, after a series of pilot prototype based studies, to a-priori develop a number of testable interaction design hypothesis

  9. Delimiting Inclusive Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper was written as an answer to the question raised by my PhD dissertation on accessibility through user-centred and Inclusive Design (ID) methods: can Inclusive Design be delimited? The literature on Inclusive Design deals almost entrirely with consumer product design and assistive...

  10. Design, Desire, and Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Kevin M.; Boldt, Gail

    2018-01-01

    In response to the rise in popularity of concepts of "design" in education research, pedagogy, and curriculum design, in this article we consider how the New London Group conceived of the role of student design practices as an outcome of pedagogy, as well as the parallel role of design in teaching practices. In this descriptive analysis,…

  11. Designing Healthcare Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devorah E. Klein

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is generated when designers collaborate with scientists and clinicians. Who are designers? Professionals trained to uncover people’s spoken and unspoken needs (human factors researchers, to generate tangible products and services that address these needs in new and better ways (industrial and graphic designers, and to ensure that the design intent is preserved in the final manufactured form (engineers.

  12. Analysis of Design Documentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp

    1998-01-01

    In design practice a process where a satisfactory solution is created within limited resources is required. However, since the design process is not well understood, research into how engineering designers actually solve design problems is needed. As a contribution to that end a research project...

  13. Design as Gesamtkunstwerk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    Three texts on the historical development of ideas of total design: "The Art of Transgression" on contemporary projects between art, design and architecture; "Design as Gesamtkunstwerk" on the early modern total designs from Morris to Gropius (but mirrored in Panton) & "Throughout any Scale...

  14. Instant responsive web design

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Cory

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial approach which will teach the readers what responsive web design is and how it is used in designing a responsive web page.If you are a web-designer looking to expand your skill set by learning the quickly growing industry standard of responsive web design, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of CSS is assumed.

  15. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline

  16. CBETA Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffstaetter, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mayes, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-06-08

    This Design Report describes the baseline design of the Cornell-BNL ERL Test Accelerator, as it exists on the date of its publication in June 2017. The Design Report will not change frequently in the future. In contrast, the parameter sheets that summarize the CBETA design will respond as quickly and as thoroughly as necessary to maintain con guration control.

  17. CBETA Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffstaetter, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mayes, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-06-08

    This Design Report describes the baseline design of the Cornell-BNL ERL Test Accelerator, as it exists on the date of its publication in June 2017. The Design Report will not change frequently in the future. In contrast, the parameter sheets that summarize the CBETA design will respond as quickly and as thoroughly as necessary to maintain configuration control.

  18. Early Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Development of a design methodology that can handle the vast design space in early building design. •A global design space is modelled from extensive Monte Carlo simulations. •Sensitivity analysis methods applied to guide decision-makers. •Interactive visualizations help the multi-act...

  19. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  20. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  1. Design and Iconic Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The VW Beetle, Apple, Porsche … many iconic brands have reached their status with groundbreaking designs. But what makes these designs so special? And is it really the design factor that accounts for the overall success of a brand? Dr. Walter de Silva shares with us his thoughts on iconic designs, the design process and the role of design in branding. Open your heart and mind to his extensive experience in developing designs for Volkswagen, Audi and other brands of the Volkswagen Group

  2. Ergonomic Product Design 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Guk

    1996-09-01

    This book explains basic of ergonomic product design with human engineering, image engineering and strategy of that design, ergonomic industrial design, which includes product design to access the human engineering in development of new product and customer satisfaction, application technology of image engineering, industrial design of human engineering item and strategy of human engineering, a good ergonomic design. It also tells of examples of convenient design for human such as hardware product and software product in automobile, telephones for ergonomic product in the future, new goods and new technology, ergonomic product in house and office, and computers and robots in the future.

  3. Organizing design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the kind of understanding of organizing that is implied by design theories for project managers' understanding and organizing of design work. Five theories and their organizing consequences for project managers organizing of design work...... are analyzed. The paper contributes to design research and organization studies by putting the organizing of design projects on the research agenda. It also contributes by demonstrating the importance of being aware of the ontological and epistemological assumptions and organizing consequences of different...... design theories. The selected theories of design thus represent different views on what design is, address different design areas and are based on different ontological and epistemological assumptions that influence their views on how design processes should be organized....

  4. Designing For Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Mårbjerg Thomsen, Signe

    2014-01-01

    there are already a number of approaches available which in one way or the other address the relationship between design, democracy and power. We provide an account of participatory design, adversarial design and design activism thereby pointing towards design?s potential for re-distributing power and authority......n this paper we focus on ?patient-democracy? and ?shared decision-making? seen from the perspective of design practice and design research. In the research on democracy in healthcare it is rarely questioned what forms of democracy underlies these concepts. We have examined three different theories...... of democracy and the democratic practices that belong to each of these. For designers working to increase patient democracy it is of vital importance to be able to distinguish different structures underlying democratic practices and to work out methods for prototyping democracy. In design research...

  5. Conceptualizing Aesthetics in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to introduce and discuss aesthetics as an approach to understand how design frames experience. In doing so, the chapter combines two philosophical interests in design, design phenomenology and design aesthetics, in order to promote a framework for discussing the impact...... of aesthetic meaning construction on experience. First, the chapter raises the phenomenological question of the relationship between design and experience, specifically, how design conditions experience. Second, in looking at aesthetics in terms of a) the sensual appeal of design, b) design objects...... as aesthetic media that frame modes of understanding, and c) contextual factors, such as media, influencing what is regarded as aesthetic, it is the thesis of the chapter that a reflective concept of design aesthetics can be employed to differentiate between three different ways in which design frame our...

  6. Participatory workspace design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design...... process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study...... where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually...

  7. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  8. Managing collaborative design

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian, R.

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative design has been emerging in building projects everywhere. The more complex a building project becomes, the closer and more intensive collaboration between the design actors is required. This research focuses on collaborative design in the conceptual architecture design phase, especially during the elaboration of the masterplan and the development of the preliminary building designs. This research is descriptive and has two aims. First, it aims at describing the characteristics a...

  9. Video Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...... in which 25 educators as part of a digital fabrication and design program were able to critically reflect on their teaching practice....

  10. Designing Futures in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Crosby

    2016-01-01

    Design is a wide reaching and unruly idea, often associated with seamless global mobility, ubiquitous consumerism, elite urban tastes, and fast paced economic growth. But design is also increasingly understood to be operating at edges, as a necessary response to the ethical and political challenges of advanced global capitalism. Design is both the problem and the solution, and effects everything. As Tony Fry writes ‘Design–the designer and designed objects, images, systems and things–shapes t...

  11. Mechanizing Exploratory Game Design

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Game design is an art form that deals with inherently interactive artifacts. Game designers craft games (assembled from rule systems and content), but they really seek to manipulate play: the interaction between games and players. When developing new games that are similar to past games, a designer may rely on previous experience with related designs and relatively easy access to players familiar with conventional design choices. When exploratorily venturing into uncharted territory, uncoveri...

  12. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  13. Design professional activity analysis in design management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Souza Libanio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Design use perception, as an essential element for achieving competitive advantage, also suggests the need to manage the design activities in companies. However, a few is discussed about the activity of these design professionals who participate in this process, their roles, functions and competencies, including  their connections to a company and other involved sectors. This article aims to analyze, during the design management processes, the work relations of design professionals connected to organizations both internal and externally, in order to comprehend the structure and intervenient factors on the activity of these professionals, as well as the interactions with their main coworkers. The methodology was exploratory and qualitative, using in-depth interviews with three design professionals. Subsequently, the responses were analyzed allowing the comparison of these obtained data to the theoretical bases researched. Through this case study, it was possible to realize the aspects and the structure of the design professional activity, connected intern and externally to organizations, as well as its relations with the main coworkers.

  14. Digital Interior Design by Stailia Design Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindroos, Jaana

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the thesis work is to research and create a web based service in a field of interior design. With my project, I am hoping to find out whether this kind of web service in the field of interior design can work in general and that the process together with the actual order form on internet is smooth from both customer and company point of view. The company has interior design related services but none entirely executed on the web. The target is to create a totally new service/pr...

  15. Database modeling and design logical design

    CERN Document Server

    Teorey, Toby J; Nadeau, Tom; Jagadish, HV

    2011-01-01

    Database systems and database design technology have undergone significant evolution in recent years. The relational data model and relational database systems dominate business applications; in turn, they are extended by other technologies like data warehousing, OLAP, and data mining. How do you model and design your database application in consideration of new technology or new business needs? In the extensively revised fifth edition, you'll get clear explanations, lots of terrific examples and an illustrative case, and the really practical advice you have come to count on--with design rules

  16. Database modeling and design logical design

    CERN Document Server

    Teorey, Toby J; Nadeau, Tom; Jagadish, HV

    2005-01-01

    Database systems and database design technology have undergone significant evolution in recent years. The relational data model and relational database systems dominate business applications; in turn, they are extended by other technologies like data warehousing, OLAP, and data mining. How do you model and design your database application in consideration of new technology or new business needs? In the extensively revised fourth edition, you'll get clear explanations, lots of terrific examples and an illustrative case, and the really practical advice you have come to count on--with design rul

  17. Overland Transport of Rotavirus and the Effect of Soil Type and Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Davidson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil and vegetation are two critical factors for controlling the overland transport kinetics of pathogens in a natural environment. With livestock operations moving more towards concentrated animal operations, the need to dispose of a very large amount of manure in a localized area is becoming increasingly important. Animal manure contains a substantial amount of microbial pathogens, including rotavirus, which may pose a threat of contamination of water resources. This study examined the kinetics of rotavirus in overland transport, with an overall objective of optimizing the design of best management practices, especially vegetative filter strips. The overland transport of rotavirus was studied using three soil types (Catlin silt-loam, Darwin silty-clay, Alvin fine sandy-loam, spanning the entire spectrum of typical Illinois soil textures. A 20-min rainfall event was produced using a small-scale (1.07 m × 0.66 m laboratory rainfall simulator over a soil box measuring 0.610 m × 0.305 m. Each soil type was tested for rotavirus transport kinetics with bare surface conditions, as well as with Smooth Brome and Fescue vegetative covers. Surface runoff, near-surface runoff, soil cores, and vegetation were each analyzed for infective rotavirus particles using cell-culture infectivity assays. Results show that vegetation reduces the recovery of infective rotavirus particles in surface runoff by an average of 73%, in addition to delaying the time to peak recovery. The vegetation, in general, appeared to decrease the recovery of infective rotavirus particles in surface runoff by impeding surface flow and increasing the potential for infiltration into the soil profile.

  18. The design explorer project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Annelise Mark; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Buur, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    the 'Design Explorer' research project whose goal is to specify requirements for an information system that will effectively help design team members from different domains and organizational cultures to locate and utilize diverse information sources and interact more effectively throughout the design process....... The project introduces a new approach to support of design; instead of design guidelines, support is given by creating a transparent information environment in which designers can navigate freely according to their individual preferences. The project is based on a framework that structures the dimensions......, or categories, of domain information which need to be available for a system or product designer/design team in order to determine the characteristics of the artefact, or object of design. These dimensions include information about the different work domains in which the product plays a role during its lifetime...

  19. The interactive design collaboratorium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter Gall

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental process in which a prototype was developed of an interactive design collaboatorium, in cooperation with a group of usability designers. In a longterm research cooperation, this usability group has changed its work practice in order to work in the design...... collaboratorium. The design collaboratorium was developed to move usability design away from a lab towards an open physical and organizational space where designer, users and engineers meet and collaborate, or work alongside each other. The cooperation between researchers and the usability gruop has resulted...... in practical experimentation in projects and in design of an experimental design collaboratorium emploing electronic whiteboards, 3D design documentation, etc. This experimental prototype has been evaluated in cooperative workshops. We report on the results of this evaluation....

  20. Building theory through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with a fundamental matter of concern in research through design: how can design work lead to the building of new theory? Controversy exists about the balance between theory and design work in research through design. While some researchers see theory production as the scientific...... hallmark of this type of research, others argue for design work being the primary achievement, with theory serving the auxiliary function of inspiring new designs. This paper demonstrates how design work and theory can be appreciated as two equally important outcomes of research through design. To set...... the scene, it starts out by briefly examining ideas on this issue presented in existing research literature. Hereafter, it introduces three basic forms in which design work can lead to theory that is referred to as extending theories, scaffolding theories and blending theories. Finally, it is discussed how...

  1. Understanding representations in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Representing computer applications and their use is an important aspect of design. In various ways, designers need to externalize design proposals and present them to other designers, users, or managers. This article deals with understanding design representations and the work they do in design....... The article is based on a series of theoretical concepts coming out of studies of scientific and other work practices and on practical experiences from design of computer applications. The article presents alternatives to the ideas that design representations are mappings of present or future work situations...... and computer applications. It suggests that representations are primarily containers of ideas and that representation is situated at the same time as representations are crossing boundaries between various design and use activities. As such, representations should be carriers of their own contexts regarding...

  2. Radiological design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this design guide is to provide radiological safety requirements, standards, and information necessary for designing facilities that will operate without unacceptable risk to personnel, the public, or the environment as required by the US Department of Energy (DOE). This design guide, together with WHC-CM-4-29, Nuclear Criticality Safety, WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis, and WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance, covers the radiation safety design requirements at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This design guide applies to the design of all new facilities. The WHC organization with line responsibility for design shall determine to what extent this design guide shall apply to the modifications to existing facilities. In making this determination, consideration shall include a cost versus benefit study. Specifically, facilities that store, handle, or process radioactive materials will be covered. This design guide replaces WHC-CM-4-9 and is designated a living document. This design guide is intended for design purposes only. Design criteria are different from operational criteria and often more stringent. Criteria that might be acceptable for operations might not be adequate for design

  3. Can design science be used for design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Markfoged, Kim; Andersen, Jesper Lund

    2010-01-01

    software development projects. They studied the literature, chose appropriate starting theories, designed their own development processes, used them to build small mobile applications, documented their experiences and evaluated those experiences by writing research articles. A more experienced researcher...

  4. Parametric Design Strategies for Collaborative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Yıldırım, Miray Baş; Özkar, Mine

    2013-01-01

    to the collaboration between professionals, participation by different non-professional stakeholders, such as residents, local authorities, non-governmental organizations and investors, is another important component of collaborative urban design processes. The involvement of community in decision making process...... implications of planning and design decisions, unless they are presented with relatively detailed architectural models, whether physical or virtual. This however, typically presents steep demands in terms of time and resources. As a foundation for our work with parametric urban design lies the hypothesis...... to solve different scripting challenges. The paper is organized into an introduction, three main sections and closing section with conclusions and perspectives. The first section of the paper gives a theoretical discussion of the notion of collaborative design and the challenges of collaborative urban...

  5. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    1991-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  6. Handbook of optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Malacara-Hernández, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Optical Design, Third Edition covers the fundamental principles of geometric optics and their application to lens design in one volume. It incorporates classic aspects of lens design along with important modern methods, tools, and instruments, including contemporary astronomical telescopes, Gaussian beams, and computer lens design. Written by respected researchers, the book has been extensively classroom-tested and developed in their lens design courses. This well-illustrated handbook clearly and concisely explains the intricacies of optical system design and evaluation. It also di

  7. Professional ASPNET Design Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Millett, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Professional ASP.NET Design Patterns will show you how to implement design patterns in real ASP.NET applications by introducing you to the basic OOP skills needed to understand and interpret design patterns. A sample application used throughout the book is an enterprise level ASP.NET website with multi-tiered, SOA design techniques that can be applied to your future ASP.NET projects. Read about each design pattern in detail, including how to interpret the UML design, how to implement it in ASP.NET, its importance for ASP.NET development, and how it's integrated into the final project.

  8. Introduction to combinatorial designs

    CERN Document Server

    Wallis, WD

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial theory is one of the fastest growing areas of modern mathematics. Focusing on a major part of this subject, Introduction to Combinatorial Designs, Second Edition provides a solid foundation in the classical areas of design theory as well as in more contemporary designs based on applications in a variety of fields. After an overview of basic concepts, the text introduces balanced designs and finite geometries. The author then delves into balanced incomplete block designs, covering difference methods, residual and derived designs, and resolvability. Following a chapter on the e

  9. Optimal Hospital Layout Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine

    foundation. The basis of the present study lies in solving the architectural design problem in order to respond to functionalities and performances. The emphasis is the practical applicability for architects, engineers and hospital planners for assuring usability and a holistic approach of functionalities...... a correlation matrix. The correlation factor defines the framework for conceptual design, whereby the design considers functionalities and their requirements and preferences. It facilitates implementation of evidence-based design as it is prepared for ongoing update and it is based on actual data. Hence......, this contribution is a model for hospital design, where design derives as a response to the defined variables, requirements and preferences....

  10. REDOing Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Götzen, Amalia De

    2017-01-01

    that are being developed in design education and research. The value in use, the infrastructuring and the governance levels are explained with the specific tools and approaches required according to the specific aim of the design activity: that is, whether it is about understanding, transforming or communicating......Service design education is still young and it is still interpreted in many different ways, according to the design programs where it usually plays a minor role. Very few education schemes provide a complete curriculum on service design, facing the challenge of equipping a designer who will want...

  11. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  12. KALIMER design concept report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Gyun; Kim, Eui Kwang; Song, Hoon; Chung, Hyun Tai; Hwang, Woan; Nam, Cheol; Sub, Sim Yoon; Kim, Yeon Sik; Whan, Wim Myung; Min, Byung Tae; Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Ham, Chang Shik; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Sim, Bong Shick; Hahn, Do Hee; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kwon, Sang Woon

    1997-07-01

    KAERI is working for the development of KALIMER and work is being done for methodology development, experimental facility set up and design concept development. The development target of KALIMER has been set as to make KALIMER safer, more economic, more resistant to nuclear proliferation, and yield less impact on the environment. To achieve the target, study has been made for setting up the design concept of KALIMER including the assessment of various possible design alternatives. This report is the results of the study for the KALIMER concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept is to be used as the starting point of the next development phase of conceptual design and the concept will be refined and modified in the conceptual design phase. The scope of the work has been set as the NSSS and essential BOP systems. For systems, NSSS and functionally related major BOP are covered. Sizing and specifying conceptual structure are covered for major equipment. Equipment and piping are arranged for the parts where the arrangement is critical in fulfilling the foresaid intention of setting up the KALIMER design concept. This report consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 2 is for the top level design requirements of KALIMER and it serves as the basis of KALIMER design concept development. Chapter 3 summarizes the KALIMER concept and describes the general design features. The remaining chapters are for specific systems. (author). 29 tabs., 37 figs.

  13. KALIMER design concept report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Gyun; Kim, Eui Kwang; Song, Hoon; Chung, Hyun Tai; Hwang, Woan; Nam, Cheol; Sim Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeon Sik; Wim Myung Whan; Min, Byung Tae; Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Ham, Chang Shik; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Sim, Bong Shick; Hahn, Do Hee; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kwon, Sang Woon.

    1997-07-01

    KAERI is working for the development of KALIMER and work is being done for methodology development, experimental facility set up and design concept development. The development target of KALIMER has been set as to make KALIMER safer, more economic, more resistant to nuclear proliferation, and yield less impact on the environment. To achieve the target, study has been made for setting up the design concept of KALIMER including the assessment of various possible design alternatives. This report is the results of the study for the KALIMER concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept is to be used as the starting point of the next development phase of conceptual design and the concept will be refined and modified in the conceptual design phase. The scope of the work has been set as the NSSS and essential BOP systems. For systems, NSSS and functionally related major BOP are covered. Sizing and specifying conceptual structure are covered for major equipment. Equipment and piping are arranged for the parts where the arrangement is critical in fulfilling the foresaid intention of setting up the KALIMER design concept. This report consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 2 is for the top level design requirements of KALIMER and it serves as the basis of KALIMER design concept development. Chapter 3 summarizes the KALIMER concept and describes the general design features. The remaining chapters are for specific systems. (author). 29 tabs., 37 figs

  14. Designing the design at JPL'S innovation foundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Freeman, Anthony

    2017-08-01

    NASA is a dynamic and living organization. Looking at it through the optics of cybernetics, we can describe it as an autopoietic system. It has to sustain itself, and compete successfully to be viable. Its organizational elements have to interact with the broader environment by maintaining and improving its processes that generate the means for future sustainability. It also needs to bring up follow-on generations who are not simply aligning with the status quo, but also improve the system's viability. For government-run programs, organizational, programmatic and project management practices are often rigidly linear. They can be characterized as observed first-order cybernetic systems, where the paradigm is bound by well-established requirements. At the implementation level this does not readily accommodate flexibility and change. To address this, broadening the system's worldview is needed from the strategic level. This corresponds to an observing second-order cybernetic system, where strategic leadership can overwrite the rules of a first-order system. Changing the worldview of an organization can be complex and face much resistance. Still, with the appropriate strategic-level support, it can be achieved by introducing novel languages, new perspectives, and adding new disciplines to existing ones. In effect, this helps to broaden the organizational paradigm, and subsequently influence its mission, impact the culture, and open up its core processes. These changes can be effectively introduced through design conversations in the early formulation stages, when new ideas are conceived. Within NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, early-stage concept developments are performed at a specially formulated environment, called the Innovation Foundry. Within this office, a continuous effort is being made on designing the design processes, which helps to broaden the variety of the option trades. It is achieved by an added focus on conversations and the inclusion of non

  15. Optimum study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, C; Rao, D C

    2001-01-01

    Because simplistic designs will lead to prohibitively large sample sizes, the optimization of genetic study designs is critical for successfully mapping genes for complex diseases. Creative designs are necessary for detecting and amplifying the usually weak signals for complex traits. Two important outcomes of a study design--power and resolution--are implicitly tied together by the principle of uncertainty. Overemphasis on either one may lead to suboptimal designs. To achieve optimality for a particular study, therefore, practical measures such as cost-effectiveness must be used to strike a balance between power and resolution. In this light, the myriad of factors involved in study design can be checked for their effects on the ultimate outcomes, and the popular existing designs can be sorted into building blocks that may be useful for particular situations. It is hoped that imaginative construction of novel designs using such building blocks will lead to enhanced efficiency in finding genes for complex human traits.

  16. Clothing Systems Design Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Clothing Systems Design Lab houses facilities for the design and rapid prototyping of military protective apparel.Other focuses include: creation of patterns and...

  17. Prestressed concrete design

    CERN Document Server

    Hurst, MK

    1998-01-01

    This edition provides up-to-date guidance on the detailed design of prestressed concrete structures. All major topics are dealt with, including prestressed flat slabs, an important and growing application in the design of buildings.

  18. Algebraic design theory

    CERN Document Server

    Launey, Warwick De

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorial design theory is a source of simply stated, concrete, yet difficult discrete problems, with the Hadamard conjecture being a prime example. It has become clear that many of these problems are essentially algebraic in nature. This book provides a unified vision of the algebraic themes which have developed so far in design theory. These include the applications in design theory of matrix algebra, the automorphism group and its regular subgroups, the composition of smaller designs to make larger designs, and the connection between designs with regular group actions and solutions to group ring equations. Everything is explained at an elementary level in terms of orthogonality sets and pairwise combinatorial designs--new and simple combinatorial notions which cover many of the commonly studied designs. Particular attention is paid to how the main themes apply in the important new context of cocyclic development. Indeed, this book contains a comprehensive account of cocyclic Hadamard matrices. The book...

  19. Food packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.

    2007-01-01

    'Food product design - An integrated approach' deals with food product design from a technological perspective. It presents creative techniques for the innovation process and structured methodologies to translate consumer wishes into product properties based on Quality Function Deployment.

  20. Design reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Hunt, R.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved design techniques are needed to achieve high reliability at minimum cost. This is especially true of space systems where lifetimes of many years without maintenance are needed and severe mass limitations exist. Reliability must be designed into these systems from the start. Techniques are now being explored to structure a formal design process that will be more complete and less expensive. The intent is to integrate the best features of design, reliability analysis, and expert systems to design highly reliable systems to meet stressing needs. Taken into account are the large uncertainties that exist in materials, design models, and fabrication techniques. Expert systems are a convenient method to integrate into the design process a complete definition of all elements that should be considered and an opportunity to integrate the design process with reliability, safety, test engineering, maintenance and operator training. 1 fig

  1. Adaptive Trajectory Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Adaptive Trajectory Design (ATD) is an original concept for quick and efficient end-to-end trajectory designs using proven piece-wise dynamical methods. With ongoing...

  2. Participatory Design with Dyslectics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangeli, Panagiota; Stage, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Participatory Design has been used successfully in many projects but the question is how participatory design works with people with a cognitive disorder like dyslexia. In this study, we analyzed observations of participatory design sessions with dyslectic participants for developing designs...... of a reading software application by applying two participatory design methods: the IDEAS and CI methods. Furthermore, we conducted online surveys to gather information on dyslectics participants’ and their special-education teachers’ opinion regarding the participatory design process, methods and final...... designs. The results indicate that participatory design works effectively with dyslectic people provided the participation of Proxy Users to represent dyslectics, when it is necessary, the participation of an experienced on dyslexia facilitator who has the knowledge to address incidents caused due...

  3. Designing an Educational Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Hansen, Charina Benedikte Søgaard

    2010-01-01

    When designing games with learning purposes used in a classroom, there often occur problems about the lack of learning content or the lack of game contents. Other disadvantages of existing educational games are the difficulty to provide a continual balance between the challenge and the pupils......’ skill to control and solve the given task. In this paper we suggest three different perspectives that need to be communicated across in order to design a useful educational game: teachers, pupils and game designers. It is our intention with this paper to suggest some design principles for educational...... games, and to integrate teachers, pupils and game designers needs and requirements. To set up these design principles for educational games we have used a holistic perspective. This means that the design principles must be seen in coherence within the social and physical environment. The design...

  4. Photonic Design for Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.

    2014-08-28

    We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.

  5. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  6. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    and the design process, in ethical and society-related concerns, and in evaluating how designs fulfill needs and solve problems. Designing Human Technologies subscribes to a broad technology concept including information and communication, mobile, environmental/sustainable and energy technologies......Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...

  7. Energy design for architects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, A. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    This book contains techniques for energy efficiency in architectural design. Many aspects are covered including: cost; comfort and health; energy use; the design process; and analytical techniques. 202 figs. (JF)

  8. Rock Slope Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  9. Geometric Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Geometric Design Laboratory (GDL) is to support the Office of Safety Research and Development in research related to the geometric design...

  10. DMS message design workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This report summarizes the training conducted statewide regarding the design and display of messages on : dynamic message signs. The training is based on the Dynamic Message Sign Message Design and Display : Manual (0-4023-P3). Researchers developed ...

  11. Berm Breakwater Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tue; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, H. F.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, conventional rubble mound breakwaters are designed with stable armour units, and consequently, very large stones or even artificial armour units are required. Reshaping breakwater designs allow reshaping of the seward slope thus involving stone movements. Ultimately, dependent...

  12. Learning Design Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, David; Blat, Josep; Garcia, Rocío; Vogten, Hubert; Kwong, KL

    2005-01-01

    Griffiths, D., Blat, J., Garcia, R., Vogten, H. & Kwong, KL. (2005). Learning Design Tools. In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 109-136). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  13. Method card design dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.

    2013-01-01

    There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers....... The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design....

  14. Performing Performance Design Anglonationally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design......Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design...

  15. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  16. How do changes in bulk soil organic carbon content affect carbon concentrations in individual soil particle fractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. M.; Drury, C. F.; Reynolds, W. D.; Yang, J. Y.

    2016-06-01

    We test the common assumption that organic carbon (OC) storage occurs on sand-sized soil particles only after the OC storage capacity on silt- and clay-sized particles is saturated. Soil samples from a Brookston clay loam in Southwestern Ontario were analysed for the OC concentrations in bulk soil, and on the clay (<2 μm), silt (2-53 μm) and sand (53-2000 μm) particle size fractions. The OC concentrations in bulk soil ranged from 4.7 to 70.8 g C kg-1 soil. The OC concentrations on all three particle size fractions were significantly related to the OC concentration of bulk soil. However, OC concentration increased slowly toward an apparent maximum on silt and clay, but this maximum was far greater than the maximum predicted by established C sequestration models. In addition, significant increases in OC associated with sand occurred when the bulk soil OC concentration exceeded 30 g C kg-1, but this increase occurred when the OC concentration on silt + clay was still far below the predicted storage capacity for silt and clay fractions. Since the OC concentrations in all fractions of Brookston clay loam soil continued to increase with increasing C (bulk soil OC content) input, we concluded that the concept of OC storage capacity requires further investigation.

  17. Dwelling with design

    OpenAIRE

    Paavilainen, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Dwelling with Design offers a throughout look at the domestic meanings of design. The research is based on studying households in and around Helsinki, in order to find out what role, if any, design plays in the domestication of a product. The picture emerging from the research is quite different from design’s public and professional image represented for example in the interior decoration magazines, where designed qualities such as usability, reliability, interesting branding and aesthetic co...

  18. Participatory design based research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Bach Jensen, Louise; Falk, Lars

    This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus.......This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus....

  19. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  20. Design for Disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Design for Disassembly’ is becoming a familiar part of discourses on environmental strategies for construction and sustainable design. The concept originates in industrial design and pertains to a wide range of strategies for reuse and recycling, all of which highlight a whole-of-life approach t...... to materials and buildings. Design for Disassembly is particularly relevant to prefabricated and industrialized construction; as such methodologies already contain within them the possibility for easy deconstruction, whether for maintenance, refurbishment or reuse....

  1. Job and Work Design

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Broeck, Anja; Parker, Sharon K.

    2017-01-01

    Job design or work design refers to the content, structure, and organization of tasks and activities. It is mostly studied in terms of job characteristics, such as autonomy, workload, role problems, and feedback. Throughout history, job design has moved away from a sole focus on efficiency and productivity to more motivational job designs, including the social approach toward work, Herzberg’s two-factor model, Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model, the job demand control model of Kar...

  2. Design and Test of a Soil Profile Moisture Sensor Based on Sensitive Soil Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Qian, Hongzhou; Cao, Weixing; Ni, Jun

    2018-01-01

    To meet the demand of intelligent irrigation for accurate moisture sensing in the soil vertical profile, a soil profile moisture sensor was designed based on the principle of high-frequency capacitance. The sensor consists of five groups of sensing probes, a data processor, and some accessory components. Low-resistivity copper rings were used as components of the sensing probes. Composable simulation of the sensor’s sensing probes was carried out using a high-frequency structure simulator. According to the effective radiation range of electric field intensity, width and spacing of copper ring were set to 30 mm and 40 mm, respectively. A parallel resonance circuit of voltage-controlled oscillator and high-frequency inductance-capacitance (LC) was designed for signal frequency division and conditioning. A data processor was used to process moisture-related frequency signals for soil profile moisture sensing. The sensor was able to detect real-time soil moisture at the depths of 20, 30, and 50 cm and conduct online inversion of moisture in the soil layer between 0–100 cm. According to the calibration results, the degree of fitting (R2) between the sensor’s measuring frequency and the volumetric moisture content of soil sample was 0.99 and the relative error of the sensor consistency test was 0–1.17%. Field tests in different loam soils showed that measured soil moisture from our sensor reproduced the observed soil moisture dynamic well, with an R2 of 0.96 and a root mean square error of 0.04. In a sensor accuracy test, the R2 between the measured value of the proposed sensor and that of the Diviner2000 portable soil moisture monitoring system was higher than 0.85, with a relative error smaller than 5%. The R2 between measured values and inversed soil moisture values for other soil layers were consistently higher than 0.8. According to calibration test and field test, this sensor, which features low cost, good operability, and high integration, is qualified for

  3. Designing for Interaction Proxemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Jens Emil

    2018-01-01

    Design of interactive technology provides opportunities as well as constraints in how a group of users can organize in a shared space. The core argument of interaction proxemics is to consider this in designing for collaboration. In my thesis, I focus on conceptualizing design of ubicomp...

  4. Information Design Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    Information design has practical and theoretical components. As an academic discipline we may view information design as a combined discipline, a practical theory, or as a theoretical practice. So far information design has incorporated facts, influences, methods, practices, principles, processes, strategies, and tools from a large number of…

  5. Designing for social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, C.C.M.; Trotto, A.

    2013-01-01

    The concepts that helps us to get grip on how we make sense of the world or the way we give meaning to our lives is essential for the field of design, since designers produce proposals for action and experience through their designed artefacts. They create opportunities through which a person can

  6. Bayesian Geostatistical Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diggle, Peter; Lophaven, Søren Nymand

    2006-01-01

    locations to, or deletion of locations from, an existing design, and prospective design, which consists of choosing positions for a new set of sampling locations. We propose a Bayesian design criterion which focuses on the goal of efficient spatial prediction whilst allowing for the fact that model...

  7. DesignLAK17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringtved, Ulla; Milligan, Sandra; Corrin, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Notions of what constitutes quality in design in traditional on-campus or online teaching and learning may not always translate into scaled digital environments. The DesignLAK17 workshop builds on the DesignLAK16 workshop to explore one aspect of this theme, namely the opportunities arising from...

  8. Lehigh Design Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Vincent G.; Luyben, William L.; Silebi, Cesar A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a two-semester senior design course that combines traditional steady-state economic process design with dynamic plantwide control. This unique course has been taught at Lehigh for more than a decade and has garnered rave reviews from students, industry, and ABET. Each student design group has its own industrial consultant who…

  9. DEEP EMPATHIC DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRAQUELLI Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Empathic design is often described as a creative process that translates observations - typically of people and their behaviours into design ideas. Another similar and closely related expression is user centred design, which attempts to turn the attention away from an object or product towards its usefulness and usability. The central premise of empathic design is that the best-designed products and services result from understanding the needs of the people who will use them. User-centred designers engage actively with end-users to gather insights that drive design from the earliest stages of product and service development, right through the design process.[1] Our standard definitions and understanding of empathic design or user centred design are well recognised and widely practiced, particularly taught in design schools and in professional creative business. This paper extends and explores a deeper understanding of empathy within a systems thinking framework where the observer and subject are both components of empathic design. It proposes that empathy can be described as the bonds of connection with others (in its traditional interpretation, but also with an ecological, social and economic context.

  10. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic...

  11. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  12. Conceptual thermal design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Present thermal design tools and methods insufficiently support the development of structural concepts engaged by typical practicing designers. Research described in this thesis identifies the main thermal design problems in practice. In addition, models and methods are developed that support an

  13. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  14. Embodied Design Ideation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Danielle; Vallgårda, Anna; Tomico, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Embodied design ideation practices work with relationships between body, material and context to enliven design and research potential. Methods are often idiosyncratic and – due to their physical nature – not easily transferred. This presents challenges for designers wishing to develop and share ...

  15. Designing Online Education Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Guglielmo

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the main elements that characterize online course design. Topics include design constraints; analysis of learning needs; defining objectives; course prerequisites; content structuring; course flexibility; learning strategies; evaluation criteria; course activities; course structure; communication architecture; and design evaluation.…

  16. Cryogenic moderator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diplock, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the present design of the two cold moderators to be built for the Spallation Neutron Source. It discusses the reasons behind a number of the design features and highlights several problem areas requiring solutions before a final design can be constructed

  17. Designers in Britain 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Graphic Society, Greenwich, CT.

    The Society of Industrial Artists and Designers (SIAD) has for over 40 years been working to establish design as a profession with a status equivalent to that of architecture or engineering. Intended as a selective review of recent British illustration and design in industry, advertising, and publishing, this volume is the seventh in a series…

  18. Designers Block 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Artiklen indleder med: ved siden aaf Londons etablerede designmesse '100% Design', er der vokset et undergrundsmiljø af designudstillinger op. Det dominerende og mest kendte initiativ er Designers Block, der i år udstillede to steder i byen. Designers Block er et mere uformelt udstillingsforum...

  19. Prototyping Design and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen; Kramp, Gunnar; Schiønning Mortensen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly common that design firms go from working with their client’s development department on specific products, to discussing strategic issues directly with the company’s management. In this new territory designers face a number of challenges. Designers are traditionally trained to ‘...

  20. Situating universal design architecture: designing with whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To respond to growing calls for a theoretical unpacking of Universal Design (UD), a disparate movement cohering around attempts to design spaces and technologies that seek to allow use by all people (to the fullest extent possible). The on-going embedding of UD into architectural practice and pedagogy represents an opportune juncture at which to draw learning from other distinct-but-related transformatory architectural movements. Sociological-theoretical commentary. UD has to date, and necessarily, been dominated by the practice contexts from which it emerged. Appealing as a short-hand for description of "designing-for-all", in most cases UD has come to stand in as a term to signal a general intent in this direction and as an umbrella term for the range of technical design resources that have been developed under these auspices. There remains a fundamental ambivalence vis-à-vis the question of users' power/capacity to influence decision-making in the design process in UD; technically-oriented typologies of bodies predominate in influential UD architectural accounts. UD represents rich technical and pedagogical resources for those architects committed to transforming the existing built environment so as to be less hostile to a wide range of users. However, within UD, unpacking the social role of the professional architect vis-à-vis a variety of publics is an important, but hitherto underdeveloped, challenge; issues concerning professional-citizen power relations continue to animate parallel architectural politics, and UD can both contribute and draw much from these on-going explorations. Implications for Rehabilitation Universal Design (UD) architecture shares a close affinity with rehabilitation practice, with the creation of built environments that allow use by individuals with a wide range of capacities a priority for both. While an effective communicative "bridge" between professions, UD's deployment typically leaves unspoken the capacity of users to

  1. Enhanced Design Alternative I: Low Temperature Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNeil, K.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) 1, the low temperature repository design concept (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This technical document will provide supporting information for Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA). Preparation of this evaluation will be in accordance with the technical document preparation plan (TDPP), (CRWMS M and O 1999b). EDA 1, one of five EDAs, was evolved from evaluation of a series of design features and alternatives developed during the first phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) process. Low, medium, and high temperature concepts were developed from the design features and alternatives prepared during Phase 1 of the LADS effort (CRWMS M and O 1999a). EDA 1 will first be evaluated against a single Screening Criterion, outlined in CRWMS M and O 1999a, which addresses post-closure performance of the repository. The performance of the repository is defined quantitatively as the peak radiological dose rate to an average individual of a critical group at a distance of 20 km from the repository site within 10,000 years. To satisfy this criterion the peak dose rate must not exceed the anticipated regulatory level of 25 mrem/yr within 10,000 years. If the EDA meets the screening criterion, the EDA will be further evaluated against the LADS Phase 2 Evaluation Criteria contained in CRWMS M and O 1999a

  2. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  3. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  4. Integrated Structural Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte; Almegaard, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    to EU legislation. And a successful engineering student must be prepared to work in the open-ended, multidisciplinary environment necessary to produce structures which comply with EIA demands. This paper describes an innovative course developed at the Technical University of Denmark which integrates...... landscaping and structural design. The integrated courses create a setting for learning about the design of large-scale structures and involve geometry, statics, computer simulation, graphical design and landscape architecture. Together, they educate engineers who can take part in the early design phases...... of a project, function well in design teams, and comply with EU EIA demands....

  5. Learning Space Service Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Felix

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same level of sophistication or integration. Nor do they adequately assess their services. This paper calls for a focus on designing services to facilitate better learning experiences. It describes the fundamentals of service design practice, a selection of exemplary spaces, and the implications for design, budgeting, and staffing.

  6. Interior design for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthank, M; True, G

    1999-11-01

    In the increasingly complex, competitive and stressful field of dentistry, effectively designed dental offices can offer significant benefits. Esthetic, functional and life-cycle cost issues to be considered when developing your interior design scheme include color, finishes, lighting, furnishings, art and accessories. An appropriately designed dental office serves as a valuable marketing tool for your practice, as well as a safe and enjoyable work environment. Qualified interior design professionals can help you make design decisions that can yield optimum results within your budget.

  7. Exemplary Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels

    The didactic principle of exemplary learning may be defined briefly as 'learning by example'. In design education, working with a practical example is particularly appropriate, because design by definition is about creating a solution to a practical problem. Indeed, some design theorists claim......, including: If design knowing is bound to a given practical design context, how is it possible to generalize such knowing, as presumably required by an exemplary learning approach? To explore these questions, an account is given of the theories of exemplary learning proposed by Martin Wagenschein and Oskar...

  8. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  9. Maintainability design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Human Factors Design Guide for Maintainability provides guidance for systematically incorporating good human factors techniques into the design of power plants. The guide describes a means of developing a comprehensive program plan to ensure compliance with the human factors approaches specified by the utility. The guide also provides specific recommendations for design practices, with examples, bases, and references. The recommendations are formatted for easy use by nuclear power plant design teams and by utility personnel involved in specification and design review. The guide was developed under EPRI research project RP2166-4 and is currently being published

  10. Towards programmatic design research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Löwgren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of design research entails research where design practice forms part of the knowledge production. Based on our characterization of the nature of design, we propose to conceptualize this kind of research as programmatic design research. Two ongoing PhD projects in interaction design are presented as examples of programmatic research processes, highlighting issues to do with the virtues and qualities of the processes, the interplay of optics and engagements in a hermeneutical dynamic, and the production of takeaways for the academic community.

  11. Worldviews for Design Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2006-01-01

    aware of, I demonstrate how 'insidious inconsistency ' may infect design theory if we ignore this admonition. As a possible remedy, I propose a method by which the philosophy of design may develop sound methaphysical foundations ('worldviews') for design theory - and obtain philosophical insights......I suspect that the growing 'body' of design theory may be infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design researchers. Taking my clue from Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basics metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critically...

  12. Design Characteristics as Basis for Design Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The application of modern feature based CAD systems has in many companies lead to significant rationalisation of design, particulary the "down stream" acticities such as NC code generation, FEM analysis, mould flow simulation and documentation. The subject of this paper is the "up stream" activit......The application of modern feature based CAD systems has in many companies lead to significant rationalisation of design, particulary the "down stream" acticities such as NC code generation, FEM analysis, mould flow simulation and documentation. The subject of this paper is the "up stream...

  13. Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne; Nyvang, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory...... approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues...

  14. Empathic design: Research strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed ‘just for them’, otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker, when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities.The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user’s needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  15. Empathic design: Research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed 'just for them', otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker), when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves) during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities).The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user's needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  16. Reactor System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, S. K.; Kim, G. K.; Yeo, J. W.

    2006-08-01

    SMART NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) has been developed for duel purpose, electricity generation and energy supply for seawater desalination. The objective of this project IS to design the reactor system of SMART pilot plant(SMART-P) which will be built and operated for the integrated technology verification of SMART. SMART-P is an integral reactor in which primary components of reactor coolant system are enclosed in single pressure vessel without connecting pipes. The major components installed within a vessel includes a core, twelve steam generator cassettes, a low-temperature self pressurizer, twelve control rod drives, and two main coolant pumps. SMART-P reactor system design was categorized to the reactor coe design, fluid system design, reactor mechanical design, major component design and MMIS design. Reactor safety -analysis and performance analysis were performed for developed SMART=P reactor system. Also, the preparation of safety analysis report, and the technical support for licensing acquisition are performed

  17. LISA system design highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallusti, M [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk ZH (Netherlands); Gath, P; Weise, D; Berger, M; Schulte, H R, E-mail: marcello.sallusti@esa.in, E-mail: peter.gath@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: dennis.weise@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: marcel.berger@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: Hans.Reiner.Schulte@astrium.eads.ne [Astrium GmbH Satellites, Claude-Dornier-Str., 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-05-07

    A contract, started in January 2005, was awarded to a consortium of Astrium GmbH and Astrium Ltd for the LISA Mission Formulation. The scope of the contract was the development of a reference design for the mission architecture and for the mission elements (with particular focus on the payload) and a successive phase of derivation of requirements, to be concluded with a mission design review. The technical starting point was the output of the previous LISA study formalized in the Final Technical Report, issued in the year 2000. During the design phase, different architecture concepts were identified and traded off, including the LISA orbits, the measurement scheme and the opto-mechanical architecture. During the Mission Design Review (July 2008) the consolidated mission baseline design, and the specifications of the flight elements and of the payload subsystem and major components were presented. This paper gives a brief overview of the major design points of the latest design of the LISA system.

  18. LISA system design highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallusti, M; Gath, P; Weise, D; Berger, M; Schulte, H R

    2009-01-01

    A contract, started in January 2005, was awarded to a consortium of Astrium GmbH and Astrium Ltd for the LISA Mission Formulation. The scope of the contract was the development of a reference design for the mission architecture and for the mission elements (with particular focus on the payload) and a successive phase of derivation of requirements, to be concluded with a mission design review. The technical starting point was the output of the previous LISA study formalized in the Final Technical Report, issued in the year 2000. During the design phase, different architecture concepts were identified and traded off, including the LISA orbits, the measurement scheme and the opto-mechanical architecture. During the Mission Design Review (July 2008) the consolidated mission baseline design, and the specifications of the flight elements and of the payload subsystem and major components were presented. This paper gives a brief overview of the major design points of the latest design of the LISA system.

  19. Visualization Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  20. Teaching engineering design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blessing, Lucienne; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2005-01-01

    The importance og engineering design as an industrial activity, and the increasingly complex and dynamic context in which it takes place, has led to the wish to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of engineering design in practice as well as in education. Although attempts have been made...... to improve design for centuries, it was not until well in the second half of the 20th century that engineering design became a research topic (see pahl and Beitz (1996), Heymann (2004) for historical overviews). Engineering research, such as research into thermodynamics, mechanics and materials, has a much...... by PhD students. This has created the demand for a clear, efficient way of learning the crafmanship of doing design research, a demand which is in strong contrast to the state of design research in general. This article reflects the authors' efforts in running a summer school om engineering design...