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Sample records for silicon surface layer

  1. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubenko, E. B., E-mail: eugene.chubenko@gmail.com; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P. [Belarusian State University of Information and RadioElectronics (Belarus)

    2016-03-15

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  2. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubenko, E. B.; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  3. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  4. DEPTH MEASUREMENT OF DISRUPTED LAYER ON SILICON WAFER SURFACE USING AUGER SPECTROSCOPY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Solodukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for depth measurement of a disrupted layer on silicon wafer surface which is based on application of Auger spectroscopy with the precision sputtering of surface silicon layers and registration of the Auger electron yield intensity. In order to measure the disrupted layer with the help of Auger spectroscopy it is necessary to determine dependence of the released Auger electron amount on sputtering time (profile and then the dependence is analyzed. Silicon amount in the disrupted layer is less than in the volume. While going deeper the disruptive layer is decreasing that corresponds to an increase of atom density in a single layer. The essence of the method lies in the fact the disruptive layer is removed by ion beam sputtering and detection of interface region is carried out with the help of registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from the sputtered surface up to the moment when it reaches the value which is equal to the Auger electron yield intensity for single-crystal silicon. While removing surface silicon layers the registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from silicon surface makes it possible to control efficiently a presence of the disrupted layer on the silicon wafer surface. In this case depth control locality is about 1.0 nm due to some peculiarities of Auger spectroscopy method. The Auger electron yield intensity is determined automatically while using Auger spectrometer and while removing the disrupted layer the intensity is gradually increasing. Depth of the disrupted layer is determined by measuring height of the step which has been formed as a result of removal of the disrupted layer from the silicon wafer surface. Auger spectroscopy methods ensures an efficient depth control surface disruptions at the manufacturing stages of silicon wafers and integrated circuits. The depth measurement range of disruptions constitutes 0.001–1.000 um.

  5. Surface plasmons based terahertz modulator consisting of silicon-air-metal-dielectric-metal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Dongxiao; Qian, Zhenhai

    2018-05-01

    An optically controlled modulator of the terahertz wave, which is composed of a metal-dielectric-metal structure etched with circular loop arrays on both the metal layers and a photoexcited silicon wafer separated by an air layer, is proposed. Simulation results based on experimentally measured complex permittivities predict that modification of complex permittivity of the silicon wafer through excitation laser leads to a significant tuning of transmission characteristics of the modulator, forming the modulation depths of 59.62% and 96.64% based on localized surface plasmon peak and propagating surface plasmon peak, respectively. The influences of the complex permittivity of the silicon wafer and the thicknesses of both the air layer and the silicon wafer are numerically studied for better understanding the modulation mechanism. This study proposes a feasible methodology to design an optically controlled terahertz modulator with large modulation depth, high speed and suitable insertion loss, which is useful for terahertz applications in the future.

  6. Al-Si alloy point contact formation and rear surface passivation for silicon solar cells using double layer porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumni, Besma; Ben Jaballah, Abdelkader; Bessais, Brahim

    2012-01-01

    Lowering the rear surface recombination velocities by a dielectric layer has fascinating advantages compared with the standard fully covered Al back-contact silicon solar cells. In this work the passivation effect by double layer porous silicon (PS) (wide band gap) and the formation of Al-Si alloy in narrow p-type Si point contact areas for rear passivated solar cells are analysed. As revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that a thin passivating aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) layer is formed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis performed in cross sections shows that with bilayer PS, liquid Al penetrates into the openings, alloying with the Si substrate at depth and decreasing the contact resistivity. At the solar cell level, the reduction in the contact area and resistivity leads to a minimization of the fill factor losses.

  7. Formation and Characterization of Stacked Nanoscale Layers of Polymers and Silanes on Silicon Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Rosie; Davis, Brian; Conley, Hiram; Hurd, Katie; Linford, Matthew R.; Davis, Robert C.

    2008-10-01

    Chemical surface patterning at the nanoscale is a critical component of chemically directed assembly of nanoscale devices or sensitive biological molecules onto surfaces. Complete and consistent formation of nanoscale layers of silanes and polymers is a necessary first step for chemical patterning. We explored methods of silanizing silicon substrates for the purpose of functionalizing the surfaces. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was characterized by use of ellipsometry, water contact angle, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We found that forming the highest quality functionalized surfaces was accomplished through use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Specifically, surfaces were plasma cleaned and hydrolyzed before the silane was applied. A polymer layer less then 2 nm in thickness was electrostatically bound to the silane layer. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was also characterized for the polymer layer using ellipsometry, water contact angle, and AFM.

  8. Ellipsometry measurements of thickness of oxide and water layers on spherical and flat silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Netterfield, R.; Wielunski, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Ellipsometry has been used to measure the thickness of oxide layers on single crystal silicon surfaces, both flat and spherical and also to measure the extent of adsorption of moisture on the surface as a function of partial water vapour pressure. The measurements form part of an international collaborative project to make a precise determination of the Avogadro constant (ΔN A /N A -8 ) which will then be used to obtain an absolute definition of the kilogram, rather than one in terms of an artefact. Typically the native oxide layer on a cleaned silicon wafer is about 2 nm thick. On a polished sphere this oxide layer is typically 8 to 10 nm thick, the increased thickness being attributed to parameters related to the polishing process. Ellipsometry measurements on an 89 mm diameter polished silicon sphere at both VUW and CSIRO indicated a SiO 2 layer at 7 to 10 nm thick. It was observed that this thickness varied regularly. The crystal orientation of the sphere was determined using electron patterns generated from an electron microscope and the oxide layer was then measured through 180 arcs of great circles along (110) and (100) planes. It was observed that the thickness varied systematically with orientation. The minimum thickness was 7.4 nm at the axis (softest direction in silicon) and the greatest thickness was 9.5 nm at the axis (hardest direction in silicon). This is similar to an orientation dependent cubic pattern which has been observed to be superimposed on polished silicon spheres. At VUW, the sphere was placed in an evacuated bell jar and the ellipsometry signal was observed as the water vapour pressure was progressively increased up to saturation. The amount of water vapour adsorbed at saturation was one or two monolayers, indicating that the sphere does not wet

  9. Surface texture of single-crystal silicon oxidized under a thin V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S. E., E-mail: nikitin@mail.ioffe.ru; Verbitskiy, V. N.; Nashchekin, A. V.; Trapeznikova, I. N.; Bobyl, A. V.; Terukova, E. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The process of surface texturing of single-crystal silicon oxidized under a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer is studied. Intense silicon oxidation at the Si–V{sub 2}O{sub 5} interface begins at a temperature of 903 K which is 200 K below than upon silicon thermal oxidation in an oxygen atmosphere. A silicon dioxide layer 30–50 nm thick with SiO{sub 2} inclusions in silicon depth up to 400 nm is formed at the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–Si interface. The diffusion coefficient of atomic oxygen through the silicon-dioxide layer at 903 K is determined (D ≥ 2 × 10{sup –15} cm{sup 2} s{sup –1}). A model of low-temperature silicon oxidation, based on atomic oxygen diffusion from V{sub 2}O{sub 5} through the SiO{sub 2} layer to silicon, and SiO{sub x} precipitate formation in silicon is proposed. After removing the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and silicon-dioxide layers, texture is formed on the silicon surface, which intensely scatters light in the wavelength range of 300–550 nm and is important in the texturing of the front and rear surfaces of solar cells.

  10. XPS studies of SiO2 surface layers formed by oxygen ion implantation into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.; Finster, J.

    1983-01-01

    SiO 2 surface layers of 160 nm thickness formed by 16 O + ion implantation into silicon are examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements into the depth after a step-by-step chemical etching. The chemical nature and the thickness of the transition layer were determined. The results of the XPS measurements show that the outer surface and the bulk of the layers formed by oxygen implantation and subsequent high temperature annealing consist of SiO 2 . There is no evidence for Si or SiO/sub x/ (0 2 and Si is similar to that of thin grown oxide layers. Only its thickness is somewhat larger than in thermal oxide

  11. Optical and electrical properties of porous silicon layer formed on the textured surface by electrochemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiying, Ou; Lei, Zhao; Hongwei, Diao; Jun, Zhang; Wenjing, Wang

    2011-05-01

    Porous silicon (PS) layers were formed on textured crystalline silicon by electrochemical etching in HF-based electrolyte. Optical and electrical properties of the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation are studied. Moreover, the influences of the initial structures and the anodizing time on the optical and electrical properties of the surfaces after PS formation are investigated. The results show that the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation present a dramatic decrease in reflectance. The longer the anodizing time is, the lower the reflectance. Moreover, an initial surface with bigger pyramids achieved lower reflectance in a short wavelength range. A minimum reflectance of 3.86% at 460 nm is achieved for a short anodizing time of 2 min. Furthermore, the reflectance spectrum of the sample, which was etched in 3 vol.% TMAH for 25 min and then anodized for 20 min, is extremely flat and lies between 3.67% and 6.15% in the wavelength range from 400 to 1040 nm. In addition, for a short anodizing time, a slight increase in the effective carrier lifetime is observed. Our results indicate that PS layers formed on a TMAH textured surface for a short anodization treatment can be used as both broadband antireflection coatings and passivation layers for the application in solar cells.

  12. Optical and electrical properties of porous silicon layer formed on the textured surface by electrochemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Weiying; Zhao Lei; Diao Hongwei; Zhang Jun; Wang Wenjing, E-mail: wjwangwj@126.com [Key Laboratory of Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaic System, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Porous silicon (PS) layers were formed on textured crystalline silicon by electrochemical etching in HF-based electrolyte. Optical and electrical properties of the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation are studied. Moreover, the influences of the initial structures and the anodizing time on the optical and electrical properties of the surfaces after PS formation are investigated. The results show that the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation present a dramatic decrease in reflectance. The longer the anodizing time is, the lower the reflectance. Moreover, an initial surface with bigger pyramids achieved lower reflectance in a short wavelength range. A minimum reflectance of 3.86% at 460 nm is achieved for a short anodizing time of 2 min. Furthermore, the reflectance spectrum of the sample, which was etched in 3 vol.% TMAH for 25 min and then anodized for 20 min, is extremely flat and lies between 3.67% and 6.15% in the wavelength range from 400 to 1040 nm. In addition, for a short anodizing time, a slight increase in the effective carrier lifetime is observed. Our results indicate that PS layers formed on a TMAH textured surface for a short anodization treatment can be used as both broadband antireflection coatings and passivation layers for the application in solar cells. (semiconductor technology)

  13. Surface layers in the 4A group metals with implanted silicon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovneristyj, Yu.K.; Vavilova, V.V.; Krasnopevtsev, V.V.; Galkin, L.N.; Kudyshev, A.N.; Klechkovskaya, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made on the change of structure and phase composition of fine near the surface layers of 4A group metals (Hf, Zr, Ti) during ion Si implantation and successive thermal annealing at elevated temperatures. Implantation of Si + ions with 30 or 16 keV energy in Ti, Zr and Hf at room temperature results to amorphization of metal surface layer. The surface hafnium and titanium layer with implanted Si atoms due to interaction with residual atmosphere of oxygen turns during annealing at 870 K to amorphous solid solution of HfO 2m or TiO 2 with Si, preventing further metal oxidation; layers of amorphous alloy are characterized by thermal stability up to 1270 K. Oxidation of the surface amorphous layer in residual oxygen atmosphere and its crystallization in ZrO 2 take place in result of Zr annealing with implanted Si ions at temperature not exceeding 870 K. Similar phenomena are observed in the case of hafnium with implanted oxygen ions or small dose of silicon ions. Thermal stability of amorphous layers produced during ion implantation of Si in Ti, Zr and Hf corresponds to scale resistance of monolithic alloys in Ti-Si, Zr-Si and Hf-Si systems

  14. Silicon surface passivation using thin HfO2 films by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gope, Jhuma; Vandana; Batra, Neha; Panigrahi, Jagannath; Singh, Rajbir; Maurya, K.K.; Srivastava, Ritu; Singh, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HfO 2 films using thermal ALD are studied for silicon surface passivation. • As-deposited thin film (∼8 nm) shows better passivation with surface recombination velocity (SRV) <100 cm/s. • Annealing improves passivation quality with SRV ∼20 cm/s for ∼8 nm film. - Abstract: Hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) is a potential material for equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) scaling in microelectronics; however, its surface passivation properties particularly on silicon are not well explored. This paper reports investigation on passivation properties of thermally deposited thin HfO 2 films by atomic layer deposition system (ALD) on silicon surface. As-deposited pristine film (∼8 nm) shows better passivation with <100 cm/s surface recombination velocity (SRV) vis-à-vis thicker films. Further improvement in passivation quality is achieved with annealing at 400 °C for 10 min where the SRV reduces to ∼20 cm/s. Conductance measurements show that the interface defect density (D it ) increases with film thickness whereas its value decreases after annealing. XRR data corroborate with the observations made by FTIR and SRV data.

  15. Influence of intermediate layers on the surface condition of laser crystallized silicon thin films and solar cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höger, Ingmar, E-mail: ingmar.hoeger@ipht-jena.de; Gawlik, Annett; Brückner, Uwe; Andrä, Gudrun [Leibniz-Institut für Photonische Technologien, PF 100239, 07702 Jena (Germany); Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan [Institut für Mikro-und Nanotechnologien, Technische Universität Ilmenau, PF 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-01-28

    The intermediate layer (IL) between glass substrate and silicon plays a significant role in the optimization of multicrystalline liquid phase crystallized silicon thin film solar cells on glass. This study deals with the influence of the IL on the surface condition and the required chemical surface treatment of the crystallized silicon (mc-Si), which is of particular interest for a-Si:H heterojunction thin film solar cells. Two types of IL were investigated: sputtered silicon nitride (SiN) and a layer stack consisting of silicon nitride and silicon oxide (SiN/SiO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed the formation of silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) or silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layers at the surface of the mc-Si after liquid phase crystallization on SiN or SiN/SiO, respectively. We propose that SiO{sub x}N{sub y} formation is governed by dissolving nitrogen from the SiN layer in the silicon melt, which segregates at the crystallization front during crystallization. This process is successfully hindered, when additional SiO layers are introduced into the IL. In order to achieve solar cell open circuit voltages above 500 mV, a removal of the formed SiO{sub x}N{sub y} top layer is required using sophisticated cleaning of the crystallized silicon prior to a-Si:H deposition. However, solar cells crystallized on SiN/SiO yield high open circuit voltage even when a simple wet chemical surface treatment is applied. The implementation of SiN/SiO intermediate layers facilitates the production of mesa type solar cells with open circuit voltages above 600 mV and a power conversion efficiency of 10%.

  16. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  17. Formation of porous surface layers in reaction bonded silicon nitride during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, N. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Microstructural examination of reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) has shown that there is often a region adjacent to the as-nitrided surfaces that is even more porous than the interior of this already quite porous material. Because this layer of large porosity is considered detrimental to both the strength and oxidation resistance of RBSN, a study was undertaken to determine if its formation could be prevented during processing. All test bars studied were made from a single batch of Si powder which was milled for 4 hours in heptane in a vibratory mill using high density alumina cylinders as the grinding media. After air drying the powder, bars were compacted in a single acting die and hydropressed.

  18. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  19. Changing of micromorphology of silicon-on-sapphire epitaxial layer surface at irradiation by subthreshold energy X-radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, A N; Skupov, V D; Filatov, D O

    2001-01-01

    The morphology of silicon-on-sapphire epitaxial layer surface after pulse irradiation by the X-rays with the energy of <= 140 keV is studied. The study on the irradiated material surface is carried out by the methods of the atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. The average roughness value after irradiation constitutes 7 nm. The change in the films surface microrelief occurs due to reconstruction of their dislocation structure under the action of elastic waves, originating in the X radiation

  20. Apparatus and method of manufacture for depositing a composite anti-reflection layer on a silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus and associated method are provided. A first silicon layer having at least one of an associated passivation layer and barrier is included. Also included is a composite anti-reflection layer including a stack of layers each with a different thickness and refractive index. Such composite anti-reflection layer is disposed adjacent to the first silicon layer.

  1. Effect of ozone concentration on silicon surface passivation by atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrow, Guillaume von; Li, Shuo; Putkonen, Matti; Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo; Savin, Hele

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The ALD Al 2 O 3 passivation quality can be controlled by the ozone concentration. • Ozone concentration affects the Si/Al 2 O 3 interface charge and defect density. • A surface recombination velocity of 7 cm/s is reached combining ozone and water ALD. • Carbon and hydrogen concentrations correlate with the surface passivation quality. - Abstract: We study the impact of ozone-based Al 2 O 3 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on the surface passivation quality of crystalline silicon. We show that the passivation quality strongly depends on the ozone concentration: the higher ozone concentration results in lower interface defect density and thereby improved passivation. In contrast to previous studies, our results reveal that too high interface hydrogen content can be detrimental to the passivation. The interface hydrogen concentration can be optimized by the ozone-based process; however, the use of pure ozone increases the harmful carbon concentration in the film. Here we demonstrate that low carbon and optimal hydrogen concentration can be achieved by a single process combining the water- and ozone-based reactions. This process results in an interface defect density of 2 × 10 11 eV −1 cm −2 , and maximum surface recombination velocities of 7.1 cm/s and 10 cm/s, after annealing and after an additional firing at 800 °C, respectively. In addition, our results suggest that the effective oxide charge density can be optimized in a simple way by varying the ozone concentration and by injecting water to the ozone process.

  2. Characterization of Ag-porous silicon nanostructured layer formed by an electrochemical etching of p-type silicon surface for bio-application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Al-Mariri, A.; Haj-Mhmoud, N.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured layers composed of silver-porous silicon (Ag-PS) have been formed by an electrochemical etching of p-type (1 1 1) silicon substrate in a AgNO3:HF:C2H5OH solution at different etching times (10 min-30 min). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results reveal that the produced layers consist of Ag dendrites and a silicon-rich porous structure. The nanostructuring nature of the layer has been confirmed by spatial micro-Raman scattering and x-ray diffraction techniques. The Ag dendrites exhibit a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum, while the porous structure shows a typical PS Raman spectrum. Upon increasing the etching time, the average size of silicon nanocrystallite in the PS network decreases, while the average size of Ag nanocrystals is slightly affected. In addition, the immobilization of prokaryote Salmonella typhimurium DNA via physical adsorption onto the Ag-PS layer has been performed to demonstrate its efficiency as a platform for detection of biological molecules using SERS.

  3. XPS studies of SiO/sub 2/ surface layers formed by oxygen ion implantation into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, D.; Finster, J. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Chemie); Hensel, E.; Skorupa, W.; Kreissig, U. (Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung, Rossendorf bei Dresden (German Democratic Republic))

    1983-03-16

    SiO/sub 2/ surface layers of 160 nm thickness formed by /sup 16/O/sup +/ ion implantation into silicon are examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements into the depth after a step-by-step chemical etching. The chemical nature and the thickness of the transition layer were determined. The results of the XPS measurements show that the outer surface and the bulk of the layers formed by oxygen implantation and subsequent high temperature annealing consist of SiO/sub 2/. There is no evidence for Si or SiO/sub x/ (0layers. Only its thickness is somewhat larger than in thermal oxide.

  4. The microstructure of the surface layer of magnesium laser alloyed with aluminum and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziadoń, Andrzej [Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, Al. Tysiąclecia P.P. 7, 25-314 Kielce (Poland); Mola, Renata, E-mail: rmola@tu.kielce.pl [Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, Al. Tysiąclecia P.P. 7, 25-314 Kielce (Poland); Błaż, Ludwik [Department of Structure and Mechanics of Solids, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    The surface layer under analysis was formed as a result of diffusion bonding of a thin AlSi20 plate to a magnesium substrate followed by laser melting. Depending on the process parameters, the laser beam melted the AlSi20 plate only or the AlSi20 plate and a layer of the magnesium surface adjacent to it. Two types of microstructure of the remelted layer were thus analyzed. If the melting zone was limited to the AlSi20 plate, the microstructure of the surface layer was typical of a rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al–Si alloy. Since, however, the liquid AlSi20 reacted with the magnesium substrate, the following intermetallic phases formed: Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Mg{sub 2}Si. The microstructure of the modified surface layer of magnesium was examined using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of the surface properties of the laser modified magnesium revealed that the thin layer has a microstructure of a rapidly solidified Al–Si alloy offering good protection against corrosion. By contrast, the surface layer containing particles of intermetallic phases was more resistant to abrasion but had lower corrosion resistance than the silumin type layer. - Highlights: •A CO{sub 2} laser was used for surface alloying of Mg with AlSi20. •Before alloying, an AlSi20 plate was diffusion bonded with the Mg substrate. •The process parameters affected the alloyed layer microstructure and properties. •With melting limited to AlSi20, the layer had a structure of rapidly solidified AlSi20. •Mg–Al and Mg–Si phases were present when both the substrate and the plate were melted.

  5. The microstructure of the surface layer of magnesium laser alloyed with aluminum and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziadoń, Andrzej; Mola, Renata; Błaż, Ludwik

    2016-01-01

    The surface layer under analysis was formed as a result of diffusion bonding of a thin AlSi20 plate to a magnesium substrate followed by laser melting. Depending on the process parameters, the laser beam melted the AlSi20 plate only or the AlSi20 plate and a layer of the magnesium surface adjacent to it. Two types of microstructure of the remelted layer were thus analyzed. If the melting zone was limited to the AlSi20 plate, the microstructure of the surface layer was typical of a rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al–Si alloy. Since, however, the liquid AlSi20 reacted with the magnesium substrate, the following intermetallic phases formed: Al 3 Mg 2 , Mg 17 Al 12 and Mg 2 Si. The microstructure of the modified surface layer of magnesium was examined using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of the surface properties of the laser modified magnesium revealed that the thin layer has a microstructure of a rapidly solidified Al–Si alloy offering good protection against corrosion. By contrast, the surface layer containing particles of intermetallic phases was more resistant to abrasion but had lower corrosion resistance than the silumin type layer. - Highlights: •A CO 2 laser was used for surface alloying of Mg with AlSi20. •Before alloying, an AlSi20 plate was diffusion bonded with the Mg substrate. •The process parameters affected the alloyed layer microstructure and properties. •With melting limited to AlSi20, the layer had a structure of rapidly solidified AlSi20. •Mg–Al and Mg–Si phases were present when both the substrate and the plate were melted.

  6. Relation of lifetime to surface passivation for atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 on crystalline silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Joon; Song, Hee Eun; Chang, Hyo Sik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated the relation of potassium contamination on Si solar wafer to lifetime. • We deposited Al 2 O 3 layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si solar wafer after several cleaning process. • Potassium can be left on Si surface by incomplete cleaning process and degrade the Al 2 O 3 passivation quality. - Abstract: We investigated the relation of potassium contamination on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface after potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching to the lifetime of the c-Si solar cell. Alkaline solution was employed for saw damage removal (SDR), texturing, and planarization of a textured c-Si solar wafer prior to atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al 2 O 3 growth. In the solar-cell manufacturing process, ALD Al 2 O 3 passivation is utilized to obtain higher conversion efficiency. ALD Al 2 O 3 shows excellent surface passivation, though minority carrier lifetime varies with cleaning conditions. In the present study, we investigated the relation of potassium contamination to lifetime in solar-cell processing. The results showed that the potassium-contaminated samples, due to incomplete cleaning of KOH, had a short lifetime, thus establishing that residual potassium can degrade Al 2 O 3 surface passivation

  7. In situ measurement of fixed charge evolution at silicon surfaces during atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Ling; Watt, Morgan R.; Strandwitz, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial fixed charge or interfacial dipoles are present at many semiconductor-dielectric interfaces and have important effects upon device behavior, yet the chemical origins of these electrostatic phenomena are not fully understood. We report the measurement of changes in Si channel conduction in situ during atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide using trimethylaluminum and water to probe changes in surface electrostatics. Current-voltage data were acquired continually before, during, and after the self-limiting chemical reactions that result in film growth. Our measurements indicated an increase in conductance on p-type samples with p + ohmic contacts and a decrease in conductance on analogous n-type samples. Further, p + contacted samples with n-type channels exhibited an increase in measured current and n + contacted p-type samples exhibited a decrease in current under applied voltage. Device physics simulations, where a fixed surface charge was parameterized on the channel surface, connect the surface charge to changes in current-voltage behavior. The simulations and analogous analytical relationships for near-surface conductance were used to explain the experimental results. Specifically, the changes in current-voltage behavior can be attributed to the formation of a fixed negative charge or the modification of a surface dipole upon chemisorption of trimethylaluminum. These measurements allow for the observation of fixed charge or dipole formation during ALD and provide further insight into the electrostatic behavior at semiconductor-dielectric interfaces during film nucleation

  8. Formation and properties of porous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanov, P.; Kamenova, M.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    1993-01-01

    Preparation, properties and application of porous silicon films are investigated. Porous silicon structures were formed by an electrochemical etching process resulting in selective dissolution of the silicon substrate. The silicon wafers used with a resistivity of 5-10Ω.cm were doped with B to concentrations 6x10 18 -1x10 19 Ω.cm -3 in the temperature region 950 o C-1050 o C. The density of each porous films was determined from the weight loss during the anodization and it depends on the surface resistivity of the Si wafer. The density decreases with decreasing of the surface resistivity. The surface of the porous silicon layers was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy which indicates the presence of SiF 4 . The kinetic dependence of the anode potential and the porous layer thickness on the time of anodization in a galvanostatic regime for the electrolytes with various HF concentration were studied. In order to compare the properties of the resulting porous layers and to establish the dependence of the porosity on the electrolyte, three types of electrolytes were used: concentrated HF, diluted HF:H 2 O=1:1 and ethanol-hydrofluoric solutions HF:C 2 H 5 OH:H 2 O=2:1:1. High quality uniform and reproducible layers were formed using aqueous-ethanol-hydrofluoric electrolyte. Both Kikuchi's line and ring patterns were observed by TEM. The porous silicon layer was single crystal with the same orientation as the substrate. The surface shows a polycrystalline structure only. The porous silicon layers exhibit visible photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature under 480 nm Ar + laser line excitation. The peak of PL was observed at about 730 nm with FWHM about 90 nm. Photodiodes was made with a W-porous silicon junction. The current voltage and capacity voltage characteristics were similar to those of an isotype heterojunction diode. (orig.)

  9. Electrical Double Layer-Induced Ion Surface Accumulation for Ultrasensitive Refractive Index Sensing with Nanostructured Porous Silicon Interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefano; Strambini, Lucanos Marsilio; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2018-03-23

    Herein, we provide the first experimental evidence on the use of electrical double layer (EDL)-induced accumulation of charged ions (using both Na + and K + ions in water as the model) onto a negatively charged nanostructured surface (e.g., thermally growth SiO 2 )-Ion Surface Accumulation, ISA-as a means of improving performance of nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) interferometers for optical refractometric applications. Nanostructured PSi interferometers are very promising optical platforms for refractive index sensing due to PSi huge specific surface (hundreds of m 2 per gram) and low preparation cost (less than $0.01 per 8 in. silicon wafer), though they have shown poor resolution ( R) and detection limit (DL) (on the order of 10 -4 -10 -5 RIU) compared to other plasmonic and photonic platforms ( R and DL on the order of 10 -7 -10 -8 RIU). This can be ascribed to both low sensitivity and high noise floor of PSi interferometers when bulk refractive index variation of the solution infiltrating the nanopores either approaches or is below 10 -4 RIU. Electrical double layer-induced ion surface accumulation (EDL-ISA) on oxidized PSi interferometers allows the interferometer output signal (spectral interferogram) to be impressively amplified at bulk refractive index variation below 10 -4 RIU, increasing, in turn, sensitivity up to 2 orders of magnitude and allowing reliable measurement of refractive index variations to be carried out with both DL and R of 10 -7 RIU. This represents a 250-fold-improvement (at least) with respect to the state-of-the-art literature on PSi refractometers and pushes PSi interferometer performance to that of state-of-the-art ultrasensitive photonics/plasmonics refractive index platforms.

  10. Silicon epitaxy on textured double layer porous silicon by LPCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Hong; Shen Honglie; Zhang Lei; Huang Haibin; Lu Linfeng; Tang Zhengxia; Shen Jiancang

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial silicon thin film on textured double layer porous silicon (DLPS) was demonstrated. The textured DLPS was formed by electrochemical etching using two different current densities on the silicon wafer that are randomly textured with upright pyramids. Silicon thin films were then grown on the annealed DLPS, using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). The reflectance of the DLPS and the grown silicon thin films were studied by a spectrophotometer. The crystallinity and topography of the grown silicon thin films were studied by Raman spectroscopy and SEM. The reflectance results show that the reflectance of the silicon wafer decreases from 24.7% to 11.7% after texturing, and after the deposition of silicon thin film the surface reflectance is about 13.8%. SEM images show that the epitaxial silicon film on textured DLPS exhibits random pyramids. The Raman spectrum peaks near 521 cm -1 have a width of 7.8 cm -1 , which reveals the high crystalline quality of the silicon epitaxy.

  11. Surface passivation at low temperature of p- and n-type silicon wafers using a double layer a-Si:H/SiNx:H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focsa, A.; Slaoui, A.; Charifi, H.; Stoquert, J.P.; Roques, S.

    2009-01-01

    Surface passivation of bare silicon or emitter region is of great importance towards high efficiency solar cells. Nowadays, this is usually accomplished by depositing an hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) layer on n + p structures that serves also as an excellent antireflection layer. On the other hand, surface passivation of p-type silicon is better assured by an hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer but suffers from optical properties. In this paper, we reported the surface passivation of p-type and n-type silicon wafers by using an a-Si:H/SiNx:H double layer formed at low temperature (50-400 deg. C) with ECR-PECVD technique. We first investigated the optical properties (refraction index, reflectance, and absorbance) and structural properties by FTIR (bonds Si-H, N-H) of the deposited films. The hydrogen content in the layers was determined by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). The passivation effect was monitored by measuring the minority carrier effective lifetime vs. different parameters such as deposition temperature and amorphous silicon layer thickness. We have found that a 10-15 nm a-Si film with an 86 nm thick SiN layer provides an optimum of the minority carriers' lifetime. It increases from an initial value of about 50-70 μs for a-Si:H to about 760 and 800 μs for a-Si:H/SiNx:H on Cz-pSi and FZ-nSi, respectively, at an injection level 2 x 10 15 cm -3 . The effective surface recombination velocity, S eff , for passivated double layer on n-type FZ Si reached 11 cm/s and for FZ-pSi-14 cm/s, and for Cz-pSi-16-20 cm/s. Effect of hydrogen in the passivation process is discussed.

  12. Effect of nanodimensional polyethylenimine layer on surface potential barriers of hybrid structures based on silicon single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyar, Ivan V.; Gorin, Dmitry A.; Stetsyura, Svetlana V.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we present the analysis of I-V curves for MIS-structures like silicon substrate / nanodimensional polyelectrolyte layer / metal probe (contact) which is promising for biosensors, microfluidic chips, different devices of molecular electronics, such as OLEDs, solar cells, where polyelectrolyte layers can be used to modify semiconductor surface. The research is directed to investigate the contact phenomena which influence the resulting signal of devices mentioned above. The comparison of I-V characteristics of such structures measured by scanning tunnel microscopy (contactless technique) and using contact areas deposited by thermal evaporation onto the organic layer (the contact one) was carried out. The photoassisted I-V measurements and complex analysis based on Simmons and Schottky models allow one to extract the potential barriers and to observe the changes of charge transport in MIS-structures under illumination and after polyelectrolyte adsorption. The direct correlation between the thickness of the deposited polyelectrolyte layer and both equilibrium tunnel barrier and Schottky barrier height was observed for hybrid structures with polyethylenimine. The possibility of control over the I-V curves of hybrid structure and the height of the potential barriers (for different charge transports) by illumination was confirmed. Based on experimental data and complex analysis the band diagrams were plotted which illustrate the changes of potential barriers for MIS-structures due to the polyelectrolyte adsorption and under the illumination.

  13. Molecular layer deposition of APTES on silicon nanowire biosensors: Surface characterization, stability and pH response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yuchen; Huang, Jie; Zang, Pengyuan; Kim, Jiyoung; Hu, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: We report the use of molecular layer deposition (MLD) for depositing 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) on a silicon dioxide surface. The APTES monolayer was characterized using spectroscopic ellipsometry, contact angle goniometry, and atomic force microscopy. Effects of reaction time of repeating pulses and simultaneous feeding of water vapor with APTES were tested. The results indicate that the synergistic effects of water vapor and reaction time are significant for the formation of a stable monolayer. Additionally, increasing the number of repeating pulses improved the APTES surface coverage but led to saturation after 10 pulses. In comparing MLD with solution-phase deposition, the APTES surface coverage and the surface quality were nearly equivalent. The hydrolytic stability of the resulting films was also studied. The results confirmed that the hydrolysis process was necessary for MLD to obtain stable surface chemistry. Furthermore, we compared the pH sensing results of Si nanowire field effect transistors (Si NWFETs) modified by both the MLD and solution methods. The highly repeatable pH sensing results reflected the stability of APTES monolayers. The results also showed an improved pH response of the sensor prepared by MLD compared to the one prepared by the solution treatment, which indicated higher surface coverage of APTES

  14. Molecular layer deposition of APTES on silicon nanowire biosensors: Surface characterization, stability and pH response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuchen; Huang, Jie; Zang, Pengyuan; Kim, Jiyoung; Hu, Walter

    2014-12-01

    We report the use of molecular layer deposition (MLD) for depositing 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) on a silicon dioxide surface. The APTES monolayer was characterized using spectroscopic ellipsometry, contact angle goniometry, and atomic force microscopy. Effects of reaction time of repeating pulses and simultaneous feeding of water vapor with APTES were tested. The results indicate that the synergistic effects of water vapor and reaction time are significant for the formation of a stable monolayer. Additionally, increasing the number of repeating pulses improved the APTES surface coverage but led to saturation after 10 pulses. In comparing MLD with solution-phase deposition, the APTES surface coverage and the surface quality were nearly equivalent. The hydrolytic stability of the resulting films was also studied. The results confirmed that the hydrolysis process was necessary for MLD to obtain stable surface chemistry. Furthermore, we compared the pH sensing results of Si nanowire field effect transistors (Si NWFETs) modified by both the MLD and solution methods. The highly repeatable pH sensing results reflected the stability of APTES monolayers. The results also showed an improved pH response of the sensor prepared by MLD compared to the one prepared by the solution treatment, which indicated higher surface coverage of APTES.

  15. Surface Passivation of Silicon Using HfO2 Thin Films Deposited by Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Hsu, Chia-Hsun; Lien, Shui-Yang; Chen, Song-Yan; Huang, Wei; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Kung, Chung-Yuan; Zhu, Wen-Zhang; Xiong, Fei-Bing; Meng, Xian-Guo

    2017-12-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) thin films have attracted much attention owing to their usefulness in equivalent oxide thickness scaling in microelectronics, which arises from their high dielectric constant and thermodynamic stability with silicon. However, the surface passivation properties of such films, particularly on crystalline silicon (c-Si), have rarely been reported upon. In this study, the HfO 2 thin films were deposited on c-Si substrates with and without oxygen plasma pretreatments, using a remote plasma atomic layer deposition system. Post-annealing was performed using a rapid thermal processing system at different temperatures in N 2 ambient for 10 min. The effects of oxygen plasma pretreatment and post-annealing on the properties of the HfO 2 thin films were investigated. They indicate that the in situ remote plasma pretreatment of Si substrate can result in the formation of better SiO 2 , resulting in a better chemical passivation. The deposited HfO 2 thin films with oxygen plasma pretreatment and post-annealing at 500 °C for 10 min were effective in improving the lifetime of c-Si (original lifetime of 1 μs) to up to 67 μs.

  16. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  17. PECVD-ONO: A New Deposited Firing Stable Rear Surface Passivation Layer System for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hofmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD stack layer system consisting of a-SiOx:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiOx:H is presented for silicon solar cell rear side passivation. Surface recombination velocities below 60 cm/s (after firing and below 30 cm/s (after forming gas anneal were achieved. Solar cell precursors without front and rear metallisation showed implied open-circuit voltages Voc values extracted from quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC measurements above 680 mV. Fully finished solar cells with up to 20.0% energy conversion efficiency are presented. A fit of the cell's internal quantum efficiency using software tool PC1D and a comparison to a full-area aluminium-back surface field (Al-BSF and thermal SiO2 is shown. PECVD-ONO was found to be clearly superior to Al-BSF. A separation of recombination at the metallised and the passivated area at the solar cell's rear is presented using the equations of Fischer and Kray. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA has been used to evaluate the hydrogen depth profile of the passivation layer system at different stages.

  18. Comment on 'Ultrafast photoluminescence in quantum-confined silicon nanocrystals arises from an amorphous surface layer'

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůsová, Kateřina; Ondič, Lukáš; Pelant, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2015), s. 454-455 ISSN 2330-4022 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon nanocrystals, ultrafast luminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.404, year: 2015

  19. Surface Effects in Segmented Silicon Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kopsalis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Silicon detectors in Photon Science and Particle Physics require silicon sensors with very demanding specifications. New accelerators like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL) and the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), pose new challenges for silicon sensors, especially with respect to radiation hardness. High radiation doses and fluences damage the silicon crystal and the SiO2 layers at the surface, thus changing the sensor properties and limiting their...

  20. Effective optimization of surface passivation on porous silicon carbide using atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Iwasa, Yoshimi; Ou, Yiyu

    2017-01-01

    Porous silicon carbide (B–N co-doped SiC) produced by anodic oxidation showed strong photoluminescence (PL) at around 520 nm excited by a 375 nm laser. The porous SiC samples were passivated by atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films, resulting in a significant enhancement...

  1. Surface passivation of n-type doped black silicon by atomic-layer-deposited SiO2/Al2O3 stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Loo, B. W. H.; Ingenito, A.; Verheijen, M. A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2017-06-01

    Black silicon (b-Si) nanotextures can significantly enhance the light absorption of crystalline silicon solar cells. Nevertheless, for a successful application of b-Si textures in industrially relevant solar cell architectures, it is imperative that charge-carrier recombination at particularly highly n-type doped black Si surfaces is further suppressed. In this work, this issue is addressed through systematically studying lowly and highly doped b-Si surfaces, which are passivated by atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 films or SiO2/Al2O3 stacks. In lowly doped b-Si textures, a very low surface recombination prefactor of 16 fA/cm2 was found after surface passivation by Al2O3. The excellent passivation was achieved after a dedicated wet-chemical treatment prior to surface passivation, which removed structural defects which resided below the b-Si surface. On highly n-type doped b-Si, the SiO2/Al2O3 stacks result in a considerable improvement in surface passivation compared to the Al2O3 single layers. The atomic-layer-deposited SiO2/Al2O3 stacks therefore provide a low-temperature, industrially viable passivation method, enabling the application of highly n- type doped b-Si nanotextures in industrial silicon solar cells.

  2. Effect of ozone concentration on silicon surface passivation by atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastrow, Guillaume von, E-mail: guillaume.von.gastrow@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Li, Shuo [Aalto University, Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Putkonen, Matti [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Savin, Hele [Aalto University, Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation quality can be controlled by the ozone concentration. • Ozone concentration affects the Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface charge and defect density. • A surface recombination velocity of 7 cm/s is reached combining ozone and water ALD. • Carbon and hydrogen concentrations correlate with the surface passivation quality. - Abstract: We study the impact of ozone-based Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on the surface passivation quality of crystalline silicon. We show that the passivation quality strongly depends on the ozone concentration: the higher ozone concentration results in lower interface defect density and thereby improved passivation. In contrast to previous studies, our results reveal that too high interface hydrogen content can be detrimental to the passivation. The interface hydrogen concentration can be optimized by the ozone-based process; however, the use of pure ozone increases the harmful carbon concentration in the film. Here we demonstrate that low carbon and optimal hydrogen concentration can be achieved by a single process combining the water- and ozone-based reactions. This process results in an interface defect density of 2 × 10{sup 11} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and maximum surface recombination velocities of 7.1 cm/s and 10 cm/s, after annealing and after an additional firing at 800 °C, respectively. In addition, our results suggest that the effective oxide charge density can be optimized in a simple way by varying the ozone concentration and by injecting water to the ozone process.

  3. Characteristics of surface mount low barrier silicon Schottky diodes with boron contamination in the substrate–epitaxial layer interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Debdas; Hoag, David; Barter, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Unusual negative resistance characteristics were observed in low barrier HMIC (Heterolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) silicon Schottky diodes with HF (hydrofluoric acid)/IPA (isopropyl alcohol) vapor clean prior to epitaxial growth of silicon. SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy) analysis and the results of the buried layer structure confirmed boron contamination in the substrate/epitaxial layer interface. Consequently the structure turned into a thyristor like p-n-p-n device. A dramatic reduction of boron contamination was found in the wafers with H 2 0/HCl/HF dry only clean prior to growth, which provided positive resistance characteristics. Consequently the mean differential resistance at 10 mA was reduced to about 8.1 Ω. The lower series resistance (5.6–5.9 Ω) and near 1 ideality factor (1.03–1.06) of the Schottky devices indicated the good quality of the epitaxial layer. (paper)

  4. Surface wet-ability modification of thin PECVD silicon nitride layers by 40 keV argon ion treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Picciotto, A.; Vanzetti, L.; Iacob, E.; Scolaro, C.

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of wet-ability of liquid drops have been performed on a 30 nm silicon nitride (Si3N4) film deposited by a PECVD reactor on a silicon wafer and implanted by 40 keV argon ions at different doses. Surface treatments by using Ar ion beams have been employed to modify the wet-ability. The chemical composition of the first Si3N4 monolayer was investigated by means of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The surface morphology was tested by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Results put in evidence the best implantation conditions for silicon nitride to increase or to reduce the wet-ability of the biological liquid. This permits to improve the biocompatibility and functionality of Si3N4. In particular experimental results show that argon ion bombardment increases the contact angle, enhances the oxygen content and increases the surface roughness.

  5. Surface segregation as a means of gettering Cu in liquid-phase-epitaxy silicon thin layers grown from Al-Cu-Si solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Reedy, R.; Asher, S.; King, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors demonstrate that, by using the natural surface segregation phenomenon, Cu can be gettered to the surface from the bulk of silicon layers so that its concentrations in the liquid-phase-epitaxy (LPE) layers are much lower than its solubility at the layer growth temperature and the reported 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3} degradation threshold for solar-cell performance. Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis indicates that, within a micron-deep sub-surface region, Cu accumulates even in as-grown LPE samples. Slower cooling after growth to room temperature enhances this Cu enrichment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement shows as much as 3.2% Cu in a surface region of about 50 {Angstrom}. More surface-sensitive, ion-scattering spectroscopy (ISS) analysis further reveals about 7% of Cu at the top surface. These results translate to an areal gettering capacity of about 1.0 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}2}, which is higher than the available total-area density of Cu in the layer and substrate (3.6 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} for a uniform 1.2 x 10{sup 17}cm{sup {minus}3} Cu throughout the layer and substrate with a total thickness of 300 {mu}m).

  6. Drastic reduction in the surface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon passivated with catalytic chemical vapor deposited SiNx films by introducing phosphorous catalytic-doped layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Trinh Cham; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    We improve the passivation property of n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivated with a catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) Si nitride (SiN x ) film by inserting a phosphorous (P)-doped layer formed by exposing c-Si surface to P radicals generated by the catalytic cracking of PH 3 molecules (Cat-doping). An extremely low surface recombination velocity (SRV) of 2 cm/s can be achieved for 2.5 Ω cm n-type (100) floating-zone Si wafers passivated with SiN x /P Cat-doped layers, both prepared in Cat-CVD systems. Compared with the case of only SiN x passivated layers, SRV decreases from 5 cm/s to 2 cm/s. The decrease in SRV is the result of field effect created by activated P atoms (donors) in a shallow P Cat-doped layer. Annealing process plays an important role in improving the passivation quality of SiN x films. The outstanding results obtained imply that SiN x /P Cat-doped layers can be used as promising passivation layers in high-efficiency n-type c-Si solar cells.

  7. Oxide layers for silicon detector protection against enviroment effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'tsazh, E.; Brylovska, I.; Valerian, M.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that for protection of silicon detectors of nuclear radiations oxide layers could be used. The layers are produced by electrochemical oxidation of silicon surface with the following low-temperature annealing. These layers have characteristics similar to those for oxide layers produced by treatment of silicon samples at elevated temperature in oxygen flow. To determine properties of oxide layers produced by electrochemical oxidation the α-particle back-scattering method and the method of volt-farad characteristics were used. Protection properties of such layers were checked on the surface-barrier detectors. It was shown that protection properties of such detectors were conserved during long storage at room temperature and during their storage under wet-bulb temperature. Detectors without protection layer have worsened their characteristics

  8. Study on structural properties of epitaxial silicon films on annealed double layer porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Zhihao; Shen Honglie; Cai Hong; Lv Hongjie; Liu Bin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, epitaxial silicon films were grown on annealed double layer porous silicon by LPCVD. The evolvement of the double layer porous silicon before and after thermal annealing was investigated by scanning electron microscope. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the structural properties of the epitaxial silicon thin films grown at different temperature and different pressure. The results show that the surface of the low-porosity layer becomes smooth and there are just few silicon-bridges connecting the porous layer and the substrate wafer. The qualities of the epitaxial silicon thin films become better along with increasing deposition temperature. All of the Raman peaks of silicon films with different deposition pressure are situated at 521 cm -1 under the deposition temperature of 1100 °C, and the Raman intensity of the silicon film deposited at 100 Pa is much closer to that of the monocrystalline silicon wafer. The epitaxial silicon films are all (4 0 0)-oriented and (4 0 0) peak of silicon film deposited at 100 Pa is more symmetric.

  9. Barrier layer arrangement for conductive layers on silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, L.S.; Agostinelli, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a circuit element comprised of a silicon substrate and a conductive layer located on the substrate. It is characterized in that the conductive layer consists essentially of a rare earth alkaline earth copper oxide and a barrier layer triad is interposed between the silicon substrate and the conductive layer comprised of a first triad layer located adjacent the silicon substrate consisting essentially of silica, a third triad layer remote from the silicon substrate consisting essentially of a least one Group 4 heavy metal oxide, and a second triad layer interposed between the first and third triad layers consisting essentially of a mixture of silica and at lease one Group 4 heavy metal oxide

  10. Atomic layer deposition and post-growth thermal annealing of ultrathin MoO3 layers on silicon substrates: Formation of surface nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Yang, Ren Bin; Yang, Weifeng; Jin, Yunjiang; Lee, Coryl J. J.

    2018-05-01

    Ultrathin MoO3 layers have been grown on Si substrates at 120 °C by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using molybdenum hexacarbonyl [Mo(CO)6] and ozone (O3) as the Mo- and O-source precursors, respectively. The ultrathin films were further annealed in air at Tann = 550-750 °C for 15 min. Scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been employed to evaluate the morphological and elemental properties as well as their evolutions upon annealing of the thin films. They revealed an interfacial SiOx layer in between the MoO3 layer and the Si substrate; this SiOx layer converted into SiO2 during the annealing; and the equivalent thickness of the MoO3 (SiO2) layer decreased (increased) with the increase in Tann. Particles with diameters smaller than 50 nm emerged at Tann = 550 °C and their sizes (density) were reduced (increased) by increasing Tann to 650 °C. A further increase of Tann to 750 °C resulted in telephone-cord-like MoO3 structures, initiated from isolated particles on the surface. These observations have been discussed and interpreted based on temperature-dependent atomic interdiffusions, surface evaporations, and/or melting of MoO3, which shed new light on ALD MoO3 towards its electronic applications.

  11. Facile Deposition of Ultrafine Silver Particles on Silicon Surface Not Submerged in Precursor Solutions for Applications in Antireflective Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a facile deposition method, the ultrafine silver particles are successfully deposited on the Si surface that is not submerged in precursor solutions. The ultrafine silver particles have many advantages, such as quasiround shape, uniformity in size, monodisperse distribution, and reduction of agglomeration. The internal physical procedure in the deposition is also investigated. The results show that there are more particles on the rough Si surface due to the wetting effect of solid-liquid interface. The higher concentration of ethanol solvent can induce the increase of quantity and size of particles on Si surface not in solutions. The ultrafine particles can be used to prepare porous Si antireflective layer in solar cell applications.

  12. Porosity-dependent fractal nature of the porous silicon surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, N.; Dariani, R. S., E-mail: dariani@alzahra.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran, 1993893973 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Porous silicon films with porosity ranging from 42% to 77% were fabricated by electrochemical anodization under different current density. We used atomic force microscopy and dynamic scaling theory for deriving the surface roughness profile and processing the topography of the porous silicon layers, respectively. We first compared the topography of bare silicon surface with porous silicon and then studied the effect of the porosity of porous silicon films on their scaling behavior by using their self-affinity nature. Our work demonstrated that silicon compared to the porous silicon films has the highest Hurst parameter, indicating that the formation of porous layer due to the anodization etching of silicon surface leads to an increase of its roughness. Fractal analysis revealed that the evolution of the nanocrystallites’ fractal dimension along with porosity. Also, we found that both interface width and Hurst parameter are affected by the increase of porosity.

  13. Buried Porous Silicon-Germanium Layers in Monocrystalline Silicon Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Monocrystalline semiconductor lattices with a buried porous semiconductor layer having different chemical composition is discussed and monocrystalline semiconductor superlattices with a buried porous semiconductor layers having different chemical composition than that of its monocrystalline semiconductor superlattice are discussed. Lattices of alternating layers of monocrystalline silicon and porous silicon-germanium have been produced. These single crystal lattices have been fabricated by epitaxial growth of Si and Si-Ge layers followed by patterning into mesa structures. The mesa structures are strain etched resulting in porosification of the Si-Ge layers with a minor amount of porosification of the monocrystalline Si layers. Thicker Si-Ge layers produced in a similar manner emitted visible light at room temperature.

  14. Hopping absorption edge in silicon inversion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1983-09-01

    The low frequency gap observed in the absorption spectrum of silicon inversion layers is related to the AC variable range hopping. The frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient is calculated. (author)

  15. X-ray and scanning electron microscopic investigation of porous silicon and silicon epitaxial layers grown on porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchowski, W.; Pawlowska, M.; Nossarzewska-Orlowska, E.; Brzozowski, A.; Wieteska, K.; Graeff, W.

    1998-01-01

    The 1 to 5 μm thick layers of porous silicon and epitaxial layers grown on porous silicon were studied by means of X-ray diffraction methods, realised with a wide use of synchrotron source and scanning microscopy. The results of x-ray investigation pointed the difference of lateral periodicity between the porous layer and the substrate. It was also found that the deposition of epitaxial layer considerably reduced the coherence of porous fragments. A number of interface phenomena was also observed in section and plane wave topographs. The scanning electron microscopic investigation of cleavage faces enabled direct evaluation of porous layer thickness and revealed some details of their morphology. The scanning observation of etched surfaces of epitaxial layers deposited on porous silicon revealed dislocations and other defects not reasonable in the X-ray topographs. (author)

  16. UV radiation hardness of silicon inversion layer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezel, R.

    1990-01-01

    For full utilization of the high spectral response of inversion layer solar cells in the very-short-wavelength range of the solar spectrum sufficient ultraviolet-radiation hardness is required. In addition to the charge-induced passivation achieved by cesium incorporation into the silicon nitride AR coating, in this paper the following means for further drastic reduction of UV light-induced effects in inversion layer solar cells without encapsulation are introduced and interpretations are given: increasing the nitride deposition temperature, silicon surface oxidation at low temperatures, and texture etching and using higher substrate resistivities. High UV radiation tolerance and improvement of the cell efficiency could be obtained simultaneously

  17. Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.; Liu, Y.; de Jong, M.M.; de Wild, J.; Schuttauf, J.A.; Brinza, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2009-01-01

    Texture etching of ZnO:1%Al layers using diluted HCl solution provides excellent TCOs with crater type surface features for the front contact of superstrate type of thin film silicon solar cells. The texture etched ZnO:Al definitely gives superior performance than Asahi SnO2:F TCO in case of

  18. Amorphous silicon oxide layers for surface passivation and contacting of heterostructure solar cells of amorphous and crystalline silicon; Amorphe Siliziumoxidschichten zur Oberflaechenpassivierung und Kontaktierung von Heterostruktur-Solarzellen aus amorphen und kristallinem Silizium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einsele, Florian

    2010-02-05

    Atomic hydrogen plays a dominant role in the passivation of crystalline silicon surfaces by layers of amorphous silicon. In order to research into this role, this thesis presents the method of hydrogen effusion from thin amorphous films of silicon (a-Si:H) and silicon oxide (a-SiO{sub x}:H). The oxygen concentration of the sub-stoichiometric a-SiO{sub x}:H films ranges up to 10 at.-%. The effusion experiment yields information about the content and thermal stability of hydrogen and about the microstructure of the films. A mathematical description of the diffusion process of atomic hydrogen yields an analytical expression of the effusion rate R{sub E} depending on the linearly increasing temperature in the experiment. Fitting of the calculated effusion rates R{sub E} to measured effusion spectra yields the diffusion coefficient of atomic hydrogen in a-SiO{sub x}:H. With increasing oxygen concentration, the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the a-SiO{sub x}:H films decreases. This is attributed to an increasing Si-H bond energy due to back bonded oxygen, resulting in a higher stability of hydrogen in the films. This result is confirmed by an increasing thermal stability of the p-type c-Si passivation with a-SiO{sub x}:H of increasing oxygen concentrations up to 5 at.-%. The passivation reaches very low recombination velocities of S < 10 cm/s at the interface. However, for higher oxygen concentrations up to 10 at.-%, the passivation quality decreases significantly. Here, infrared spectroscopy of Si-H vibrational modes and hydrogen effusion show an increase of hydrogen-rich interconnected voids in the films. This microstructure results in a high amount of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the layers, which is not suitable for the saturation of c-Si interface defects. Annealing of the films at temperatures around 400 C leads to a release of H{sub 2} from the voids, as a result of which Si-Si bonds in the material reconstruct. Subsequently, hydrogen migration in the

  19. Hydrogen Incorporation during Aluminium Anodisation on Silicon Wafer Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Pei Hsuan Doris; Strutzberg, Hartmuth; Wenham, Stuart; Lennon, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen can act to reduce recombination at silicon surfaces for solar cell devices and consequently the ability of dielectric layers to provide a source of hydrogen for this purpose is of interest. However, due to the ubiquitous nature of hydrogen and its mobility, direct measurements of hydrogen incorporation in dielectric layers are challenging. In this paper, we report the use of secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements to show that deuterium from an electrolyte can be incorporated in an anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) layer and be introduced into an underlying amorphous silicon layer during anodisation of aluminium on silicon wafers. After annealing at 400 °C, the concentration of deuterium in the AAO was reduced by a factor of two, as the deuterium was re-distributed to the interface between the amorphous silicon and AAO and to the amorphous silicon. The assumption that hydrogen, from an aqueous electrolyte, could be similarly incorporated in AAO, is supported by the observation that the hydrogen content in the underlying amorphous silicon was increased by a factor of ∼ 3 after anodisation. Evidence for hydrogen being introduced into crystalline silicon after aluminium anodisation was provided by electrochemical capacitance voltage measurements indicating boron electrical deactivation in the underlying crystalline silicon. If introduced hydrogen can electrically deactivate dopant atoms at the surface, then it is reasonable to assume that it could also deactivate recombination-active states at the crystalline silicon interface therefore enabling higher minority carrier lifetimes in the silicon wafer

  20. Silicon quantum dots: surface matters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnalová, K.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Kůsová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 17 (2014), 1-28 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon quantum dots * quantum dot * surface chemistry * quantum confinement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014

  1. Electrical behavior of free-standing porous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazrafkan, I.; Dariani, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The electrical behavior of porous silicon (PS) layers has been investigated on one side of p-type silicon with various anodization currents and electrolytes. The two contact I-V characteristic is assigned by the metal/porous silicon rectifying interface, whereas, by using the van der Pauw technique, a nonlinear dependence of the current vs voltage was found. By using Dimethylformamide (DMF) in electrolyte, regular structures and columns were formed and porosity increased. Our results showed that by using DMF, surface resistivity of PS samples increased and became double for free-standing porous silicon (FPS). The reason could be due to increasing surface area and adsorbing some more gas molecules. Activation energy of PS samples was also increased from 0.31 to 0.34 eV and became 0.35 eV for FPS. The changes induced by storage are attributed to the oxidation process of the internal surface of free-standing porous silicon layers.

  2. Atomic-layer deposition of silicon nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, S; Ooba, K

    1999-01-01

    Atomic-layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride has been investigated by means of plasma ALD in which a NH sub 3 plasma is used, catalytic ALD in which NH sub 3 is dissociated by thermal catalytic reaction on a W filament, and temperature-controlled ALD in which only a thermal reaction on the substrate is employed. The NH sub 3 and the silicon source gases (SiH sub 2 Cl sub 2 or SiCl sub 4) were alternately supplied. For all these methods, the film thickness per cycle was saturated at a certain value for a wide range of deposition conditions. In the catalytic ALD, the selective deposition of silicon nitride on hydrogen-terminated Si was achieved, but, it was limited to only a thin (2SiO (evaporative).

  3. Surface Passivation for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deligiannis, D.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) are currently one of the most promising solar cell technologies in the world. The SHJ solar cell is based on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, passivated on both sides with a thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer. Subsequently, p-type

  4. Silicon carbide layer structure recovery after ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violin, Eh.E.; Demakov, K.D.; Kal'nin, A.A.; Nojbert, F.; Potapov, E.N.; Tairov, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    The process of recovery of polytype structure of SiC surface layers in the course of thermal annealing (TA) and laser annealing (LA) upon boron and aluminium implantation is studied. The 6H polytype silicon carbide C face (0001) has been exposed to ion radiation. The ion energies ranged from 80 to 100 keV, doses varied from 5x10 14 to 5x10 16 cm -2 . TA was performed in the 800-2000 K temperature range. It is shown that the recovery of the structure of silicon carbide layers after ion implantation takes place in several stages. Considerable effect on the structure of the annealed layers is exerted by the implantation dose and the type of implanted impurity. The recovery of polytype structure is possible only under the effect of laser pulses with duration not less than the time for the ordering of the polytype in question

  5. Low surface damage dry etched black silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym M.; Gaudig, Maria; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Lindhard, Jonas Michael; Hirsch, Jens; Lausch, Dominik; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Stamate, Eugen; Hansen, Ole

    2017-10-01

    Black silicon (bSi) is promising for integration into silicon solar cell fabrication flow due to its excellent light trapping and low reflectance, and a continuously improving passivation. However, intensive ion bombardment during the reactive ion etching used to fabricate bSi induces surface damage that causes significant recombination. Here, we present a process optimization strategy for bSi, where surface damage is reduced and surface passivation is improved while excellent light trapping and low reflectance are maintained. We demonstrate that reduction of the capacitively coupled plasma power, during reactive ion etching at non-cryogenic temperature (-20 °C), preserves the reflectivity below 1% and improves the effective minority carrier lifetime due to reduced ion energy. We investigate the effect of the etching process on the surface morphology, light trapping, reflectance, transmittance, and effective lifetime of bSi. Additional surface passivation using atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 significantly improves the effective lifetime. For n-type wafers, the lifetime reaches 12 ms for polished and 7.5 ms for bSi surfaces. For p-type wafers, the lifetime reaches 800 μs for both polished and bSi surfaces.

  6. Mechanical properties of silicon in subsurface damage layer from nano-grinding studied by atomistic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Chen, Pei; Qin, Fei; An, Tong; Yu, Huiping

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-thin silicon wafer is highly demanded by semi-conductor industry. During wafer thinning process, the grinding technology will inevitably induce damage to the surface and subsurface of silicon wafer. To understand the mechanism of subsurface damage (SSD) layer formation and mechanical properties of SSD layer, atomistic simulation is the effective tool to perform the study, since the SSD layer is in the scale of nanometer and hardly to be separated from underneath undamaged silicon. This paper is devoted to understand the formation of SSD layer, and the difference between mechanical properties of damaged silicon in SSD layer and ideal silicon. With the atomistic model, the nano-grinding process could be performed between a silicon workpiece and diamond tool under different grinding speed. To reach a thinnest SSD layer, nano-grinding speed will be optimized in the range of 50-400 m/s. Mechanical properties of six damaged silicon workpieces with different depths of cut will be studied. The SSD layer from each workpiece will be isolated, and a quasi-static tensile test is simulated to perform on the isolated SSD layer. The obtained stress-strain curve is an illustration of overall mechanical properties of SSD layer. By comparing the stress-strain curves of damaged silicon and ideal silicon, a degradation of Young's modulus, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and strain at fracture is observed.

  7. Mechanical properties of silicon in subsurface damage layer from nano-grinding studied by atomistic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-thin silicon wafer is highly demanded by semi-conductor industry. During wafer thinning process, the grinding technology will inevitably induce damage to the surface and subsurface of silicon wafer. To understand the mechanism of subsurface damage (SSD layer formation and mechanical properties of SSD layer, atomistic simulation is the effective tool to perform the study, since the SSD layer is in the scale of nanometer and hardly to be separated from underneath undamaged silicon. This paper is devoted to understand the formation of SSD layer, and the difference between mechanical properties of damaged silicon in SSD layer and ideal silicon. With the atomistic model, the nano-grinding process could be performed between a silicon workpiece and diamond tool under different grinding speed. To reach a thinnest SSD layer, nano-grinding speed will be optimized in the range of 50-400 m/s. Mechanical properties of six damaged silicon workpieces with different depths of cut will be studied. The SSD layer from each workpiece will be isolated, and a quasi-static tensile test is simulated to perform on the isolated SSD layer. The obtained stress-strain curve is an illustration of overall mechanical properties of SSD layer. By comparing the stress-strain curves of damaged silicon and ideal silicon, a degradation of Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength (UTS, and strain at fracture is observed.

  8. Photo and electroluminescence of porous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshmini, S.H.; Samadpour, S.; Haji-Ali, E.; Rokn-Abadi, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) layers were prepared by both chemical and electrochemical methods on n- and p-type Si substrates. In the former technique, light emission was obtained from p-type and n-type samples. It was found that intense light illumination during the preparation process was essential for PSi formation on n-type substrates. An efficient electrochemical cell with some useful features was designed for electrochemical etching of silicon. Various preparation parameters were studied and photoluminescence emissions ranging from dark red to light blue were obtained from PSi samples prepared on p-type substrates. N-type samples produced emission ranging from dark red to orange yellow. Electroluminescence of porous silicon samples showed that the color of the emission was the same as the photoluminescence color of the sample, and its intensity and duration depended on the current density passed through the sample. The effects of exposure of samples to air, storage in vacuum and heat treatment in air on luminescence intensity of the samples and preparation of patterned porous layers were also studied. (author)

  9. A surface code quantum computer in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles D.; Peretz, Eldad; Hile, Samuel J.; House, Matthew G.; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.

    2015-01-01

    The exceptionally long quantum coherence times of phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon, coupled with the proven scalability of silicon-based nano-electronics, make them attractive candidates for large-scale quantum computing. However, the high threshold of topological quantum error correction can only be captured in a two-dimensional array of qubits operating synchronously and in parallel—posing formidable fabrication and control challenges. We present an architecture that addresses these problems through a novel shared-control paradigm that is particularly suited to the natural uniformity of the phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubit states and electronic confinement. The architecture comprises a two-dimensional lattice of donor qubits sandwiched between two vertically separated control layers forming a mutually perpendicular crisscross gate array. Shared-control lines facilitate loading/unloading of single electrons to specific donors, thereby activating multiple qubits in parallel across the array on which the required operations for surface code quantum error correction are carried out by global spin control. The complexities of independent qubit control, wave function engineering, and ad hoc quantum interconnects are explicitly avoided. With many of the basic elements of fabrication and control based on demonstrated techniques and with simulated quantum operation below the surface code error threshold, the architecture represents a new pathway for large-scale quantum information processing in silicon and potentially in other qubit systems where uniformity can be exploited. PMID:26601310

  10. A surface code quantum computer in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles D; Peretz, Eldad; Hile, Samuel J; House, Matthew G; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2015-10-01

    The exceptionally long quantum coherence times of phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon, coupled with the proven scalability of silicon-based nano-electronics, make them attractive candidates for large-scale quantum computing. However, the high threshold of topological quantum error correction can only be captured in a two-dimensional array of qubits operating synchronously and in parallel-posing formidable fabrication and control challenges. We present an architecture that addresses these problems through a novel shared-control paradigm that is particularly suited to the natural uniformity of the phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubit states and electronic confinement. The architecture comprises a two-dimensional lattice of donor qubits sandwiched between two vertically separated control layers forming a mutually perpendicular crisscross gate array. Shared-control lines facilitate loading/unloading of single electrons to specific donors, thereby activating multiple qubits in parallel across the array on which the required operations for surface code quantum error correction are carried out by global spin control. The complexities of independent qubit control, wave function engineering, and ad hoc quantum interconnects are explicitly avoided. With many of the basic elements of fabrication and control based on demonstrated techniques and with simulated quantum operation below the surface code error threshold, the architecture represents a new pathway for large-scale quantum information processing in silicon and potentially in other qubit systems where uniformity can be exploited.

  11. Surface effects in segmented silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsalis, Ioannis

    2017-05-15

    Silicon detectors in Photon Science and Particle Physics require silicon sensors with very demanding specifications. New accelerators like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL) and the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), pose new challenges for silicon sensors, especially with respect to radiation hardness. High radiation doses and fluences damage the silicon crystal and the SiO{sub 2} layers at the surface, thus changing the sensor properties and limiting their life time. Non-Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) of incident particles causes silicon crystal damage. Ionizing Energy Loss (IEL) of incident particles increases the densities of oxide charge and interface traps in the SiO{sub 2} and at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface. In this thesis the surface radiation damage of the Si-SiO{sub 2} system on high-ohmic Si has been investigated using circular MOSFETs biased in accumulation and inversion at an electric field in the SiO{sub 2} of about 500 kV/cm. The MOSFETs have been irradiated by X-rays from an X-ray tube to a dose of about 17 kGy(SiO{sub 2}) in different irradiation steps. Before and after each irradiation step, the gate voltage has been cycled from inversion to accumulation conditions and back. From the dependence of the drain-source current on gate voltage the threshold voltage of the MOSFET and the hole and electron mobility at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface were determined. In addition, from the measured drain-source current the change of the oxide charge density during irradiation has been determined. The interface trap density and the oxide charge has been determined separately using the subthreshold current technique based on the Brews charge sheet model which has been applied for first time on MOSFETs built on high-ohmic Si. The results show a significant field-direction dependence of the surface radiation parameters. The extracted parameters and the acquired knowledge can be used to improve simulations of the surface

  12. Surface effects in segmented silicon sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsalis, Ioannis

    2017-05-01

    Silicon detectors in Photon Science and Particle Physics require silicon sensors with very demanding specifications. New accelerators like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL) and the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), pose new challenges for silicon sensors, especially with respect to radiation hardness. High radiation doses and fluences damage the silicon crystal and the SiO 2 layers at the surface, thus changing the sensor properties and limiting their life time. Non-Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) of incident particles causes silicon crystal damage. Ionizing Energy Loss (IEL) of incident particles increases the densities of oxide charge and interface traps in the SiO 2 and at the Si-SiO 2 interface. In this thesis the surface radiation damage of the Si-SiO 2 system on high-ohmic Si has been investigated using circular MOSFETs biased in accumulation and inversion at an electric field in the SiO 2 of about 500 kV/cm. The MOSFETs have been irradiated by X-rays from an X-ray tube to a dose of about 17 kGy(SiO 2 ) in different irradiation steps. Before and after each irradiation step, the gate voltage has been cycled from inversion to accumulation conditions and back. From the dependence of the drain-source current on gate voltage the threshold voltage of the MOSFET and the hole and electron mobility at the Si-SiO 2 interface were determined. In addition, from the measured drain-source current the change of the oxide charge density during irradiation has been determined. The interface trap density and the oxide charge has been determined separately using the subthreshold current technique based on the Brews charge sheet model which has been applied for first time on MOSFETs built on high-ohmic Si. The results show a significant field-direction dependence of the surface radiation parameters. The extracted parameters and the acquired knowledge can be used to improve simulations of the surface radiation damage of silicon sensors.

  13. Reflectance analysis of porosity gradient in nanostructured silicon layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurečka, Stanislav; Imamura, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2017-12-01

    In this work we study optical properties of nanostructured layers formed on silicon surface. Nanostructured layers on Si are formed in order to reach high suppression of the light reflectance. Low spectral reflectance is important for improvement of the conversion efficiency of solar cells and for other optoelectronic applications. Effective method of forming nanostructured layers with ultralow reflectance in a broad interval of wavelengths is in our approach based on metal assisted etching of Si. Si surface immersed in HF and H2O2 solution is etched in contact with the Pt mesh roller and the structure of the mesh is transferred on the etched surface. During this etching procedure the layer density evolves gradually and the spectral reflectance decreases exponentially with the depth in porous layer. We analyzed properties of the layer porosity by incorporating the porosity gradient into construction of the layer spectral reflectance theoretical model. Analyzed layer is splitted into 20 sublayers in our approach. Complex dielectric function in each sublayer is computed by using Bruggeman effective media theory and the theoretical spectral reflectance of modelled multilayer system is computed by using Abeles matrix formalism. Porosity gradient is extracted from the theoretical reflectance model optimized in comparison to the experimental values. Resulting values of the structure porosity development provide important information for optimization of the technological treatment operations.

  14. Spontaneous layering of porous silicon layers formed at high current densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhutik, Vitali; Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Millan, Mari-Carmen [R and D Center MTM, Technical University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Albella, Jose [Institute of Materials Science (ICMM CSIC) Madrid (Spain)

    2005-06-01

    We report here a curious effect of spontaneous fracturing of the silicon layers formed in galvanostatic conditions at medium and high current densities. Instead of formation of homogeneous p-Si layer as at low currents, a stack of thin layers is formed. Each layer is nearly separated from others and possesses rather flat interfaces. The effects is observed using p{sup +}-Si wafers for the p-Si formation and starts being noticeable at above 100 mA/cm{sup 2}. We interpret these results in terms of the porous silicon growth model where generation of dynamic mechanical stress during the p-Si growth causes sharp changes in Si dissolution mechanism from anisotropic etching of individual needle-like pores in silicon to their branching and isotropic etching. At this moment p-Si layer loses its adhesion to the surface of Si wafer and another p-Si layer starts growing. One of the mechanisms triggering on the separation of p-Si layers from one another is a fluctuation of local anodic current in the pore bottoms associated with gas bubble evolution during the p-Si formation. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. On the photon annealing of silicon-implanted gallium-nitride layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seleznev, B. I.; Moskalev, G. Ya.; Fedorov, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    The conditions for the formation of ion-doped layers in gallium nitride upon the incorporation of silicon ions followed by photon annealing in the presence of silicon dioxide and nitride coatings are analyzed. The conditions of the formation of ion-doped layers with a high degree of impurity activation are established. The temperature dependences of the surface concentration and mobility of charge carriers in ion-doped GaN layers annealed at different temperatures are studied.

  16. Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals with chlorosilane surfaces - synthesis and reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, Ignaz M. D.; Kehrle, Julian; Purkait, Tapas K.; Veinot, Jonathan G. C.; Rieger, Bernhard

    2014-12-01

    We present a new efficient two-step method to covalently functionalize hydride terminated silicon nanocrystals with nucleophiles. First a reactive chlorosilane layer was formed via diazonium salt initiated hydrosilylation of chlorodimethyl(vinyl)silane which was then reacted with alcohols, silanols and organolithium reagents. With organolithium compounds a side reaction is observed in which a direct functionalization of the silicon surface takes place.We present a new efficient two-step method to covalently functionalize hydride terminated silicon nanocrystals with nucleophiles. First a reactive chlorosilane layer was formed via diazonium salt initiated hydrosilylation of chlorodimethyl(vinyl)silane which was then reacted with alcohols, silanols and organolithium reagents. With organolithium compounds a side reaction is observed in which a direct functionalization of the silicon surface takes place. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedures and additional NMR, PL, EDX, DLS and TEM data. See DOI: 10.1039/C4NR05888G

  17. Ultrathin Oxide Passivation Layer by Rapid Thermal Oxidation for the Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngseok Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to deposit extremely thin a-Si:H layer in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT solar cell due to thermal damage and tough process control. This study aims to understand oxide passivation mechanism of silicon surface using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO process by examining surface effective lifetime and surface recombination velocity. The presence of thin insulating a-Si:H layer is the key to get high Voc by lowering the leakage current (I0 which improves the efficiency of HIT solar cell. The ultrathin thermal passivation silicon oxide (SiO2 layer was deposited by RTO system in the temperature range 500–950°C for 2 to 6 minutes. The thickness of the silicon oxide layer was affected by RTO annealing temperature and treatment time. The best value of surface recombination velocity was recorded for the sample treated at a temperature of 850°C for 6 minutes at O2 flow rate of 3 Lpm. A surface recombination velocity below 25 cm/s was obtained for the silicon oxide layer of 4 nm thickness. This ultrathin SiO2 layer was employed for the fabrication of HIT solar cell structure instead of a-Si:H, (i layer and the passivation and tunneling effects of the silicon oxide layer were exploited. The photocurrent was decreased with the increase of illumination intensity and SiO2 thickness.

  18. Surface passivation and carrier selectivity of the thermal-atomic-layer-deposited TiO2 on crystalline silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Schüler, Nadine; Shkondin, Evgeniy

    2017-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate the use of an ultrathin TiO2 film as a passivating carrier-selective contact for silicon photovoltaics. The effective lifetime, surface recombination velocity, and diode quality dependence on TiO2 deposition temperature with and without a thin tunneling oxide interlayer (SiO2...... heterojunction with optimized photovoltage, interface quality, and electron extraction to maximize the photovoltage of TiO2–Si heterojunction photovoltaic cells are formulated. Diode behaviour was analysed with the help of experimental, analytical, and simulation methods. It is predicted that TiO2 with a high...

  19. Fusion bonding of silicon nitride surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Østergaard, Christian; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2011-01-01

    While silicon nitride surfaces are widely used in many micro electrical mechanical system devices, e.g. for chemical passivation, electrical isolation or environmental protection, studies on fusion bonding of two silicon nitride surfaces (Si3N4–Si3N4 bonding) are very few and highly application...

  20. Inverted amorphous silicon solar cell utilizing cermet layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a transparent high work function metal cermet incident to solar radiation and a thick film cermet contacting the amorphous silicon opposite to said incident surface.

  1. Ultrathin Oxide Passivation Layer by Rapid Thermal Oxidation for the Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Youngseok; Oh, Woongkyo; Dao, Vinh Ai; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Yi, Junsin

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to deposit extremely thin a-Si:H layer in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cell due to thermal damage and tough process control. This study aims to understand oxide passivation mechanism of silicon surface using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) process by examining surface effective lifetime and surface recombination velocity. The presence of thin insulating a-Si:H layer is the key to get high Voc by lowering the leakage current (I0) which improves the efficie...

  2. Method of producing buried porous silicon-geramanium layers in monocrystalline silicon lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Lattices of alternating layers of monocrystalline silicon and porous silicon-germanium have been produced. These single crystal lattices have been fabricated by epitaxial growth of Si and Si--Ge layers followed by patterning into mesa structures. The mesa structures are stain etched resulting in porosification of the Si--Ge layers with a minor amount of porosification of the monocrystalline Si layers. Thicker Si--Ge layers produced in a similar manner emitted visible light at room temperature.

  3. Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Rajeewa R.

    1988-01-12

    Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells comprise a plurality of first and second lattices of amorphous silicon alternatingly formed on one another. Each of the first lattices has a first optical bandgap and each of the second lattices has a second optical bandgap different from the first optical bandgap. A method of fabricating the superlattice doped layers also is disclosed.

  4. Low surface damage dry etched black silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym M.; Gaudig, Maria; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Black silicon (bSi) is promising for integration into silicon solar cell fabrication flow due to its excellent light trapping and low reflectance, and a continuously improving passivation. However, intensive ion bombardment during the reactive ion etching used to fabricate bSi induces surface dam...

  5. Superacid Passivation of Crystalline Silicon Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James; Kiriya, Daisuke; Grant, Nicholas; Azcatl, Angelica; Hettick, Mark; Kho, Teng; Phang, Pheng; Sio, Hang C; Yan, Di; Macdonald, Daniel; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel A; Wallace, Robert M; Cuevas, Andres; Javey, Ali

    2016-09-14

    The reduction of parasitic recombination processes commonly occurring within the silicon crystal and at its surfaces is of primary importance in crystalline silicon devices, particularly in photovoltaics. Here we explore a simple, room temperature treatment, involving a nonaqueous solution of the superacid bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, to temporarily deactivate recombination centers at the surface. We show that this treatment leads to a significant enhancement in optoelectronic properties of the silicon wafer, attaining a level of surface passivation in line with state-of-the-art dielectric passivation films. Finally, we demonstrate its advantage as a bulk lifetime and process cleanliness monitor, establishing its compatibility with large area photoluminescence imaging in the process.

  6. Bovine serum albumin adsorption on passivated porous silicon layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, David; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2005-03-01

    Hydrogen-terminated porous silicon (pSi) films were fabricated through electrochemical anodization of crystalline Si in HF-based solutions. The pSi-H surface was chemically functionalized by thermal reaction with undecylenic acid to produce an organic monolayer covalently attached to the silicon surface through Si-C bonds and bearing an acid terminal group. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was then adsorbed onto the modified surface. SEM showed that the porous films were damaged and partially lifted off the Si substrate after a prolonged BSA adsorption. Ellipsometry revealed that the BSA had penetrated ˜ 1.3 micrometers into the porous structure. The film damage results from BSA anchoring itself tightly through strong electrostatic interactions to the acid-covered Si sidewalls. A change in surface tension during BSA film formation then causes the pSi layer to buckle and lift-off the underlying Si substrate. FTIR results from the modified pSi surfaces showed the presence of strong characteristic Amide I, II and III vibrational bands after BSA adsorption.

  7. Photo-EMF sensitivity of porous silicon thin layer-crystalline silicon heterojunction to ammonia adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Jung, Jae Il; Kwack, Kae Dal

    2011-01-01

    A new method of using photo-electromotive force in detecting gas and controlling sensitivity is proposed. Photo-electromotive force on the heterojunction between porous silicon thin layer and crystalline silicon wafer depends on the concentration of ammonia in the measurement chamber. A porous silicon thin layer was formed by electrochemical etching on p-type silicon wafer. A gas and light transparent electrical contact was manufactured to this porous layer. Photo-EMF sensitivity corresponding to ammonia concentration in the range from 10 ppm to 1,000 ppm can be maximized by controlling the intensity of illumination light.

  8. Surface Coating of Gypsum-Based Molds for Maxillofacial Prosthetic Silicone Elastomeric Material: The Surface Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Salah; Ariffin, Zaihan; Husein, Adam; Reza, Fazal

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the surface roughness of maxillofacial silicone elastomers fabricated in noncoated and coated gypsum materials. This study was also conducted to characterize the silicone elastomer specimens after surfaces were modified. A gypsum mold was coated with clear acrylic spray. The coated mold was then used to produce modified silicone experimental specimens (n = 35). The surface roughness of the modified silicone elastomers was compared with that of the control specimens, which were prepared by conventional flasking methods (n = 35). An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used for surface roughness measurement of silicone elastomer (unmodified and modified), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the topographic conditions of coated and noncoated gypsum and silicone elastomer specimens (unmodified and modified) groups. After the gypsum molds were characterized, the fabricated silicone elastomers molded on noncoated and coated gypsum materials were evaluated further. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of gypsum materials (noncoated and coated) and silicone elastomer specimens (unmodified and modified) was performed to evaluate the elemental changes after coating was conducted. Independent t test was used to analyze the differences in the surface roughness of unmodified and modified silicone at a significance level of p SEM analysis results showed evident differences in surface smoothness. EDX data further revealed the presence of the desired chemical components on the surface layer of unmodified and modified silicone elastomers. Silicone elastomers with lower surface roughness of maxillofacial prostheses can be obtained simply by coating a gypsum mold. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Defects and defect generation in oxide layer of ion implanted silicon-silicon dioxide structures

    CERN Document Server

    Baraban, A P

    2002-01-01

    One studies mechanism of generation of defects in Si-SiO sub 2 structure oxide layer as a result of implantation of argon ions with 130 keV energy and 10 sup 1 sup 3 - 3.2 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 doses. Si-SiO sub 2 structures are produced by thermal oxidation of silicon under 950 deg C temperature. Investigations were based on electroluminescence technique and on measuring of high-frequency volt-farad characteristics. Increase of implantation dose was determined to result in spreading of luminosity centres and in its maximum shifting closer to boundary with silicon. Ion implantation was shown, as well, to result in increase of density of surface states at Si-SiO sub 2 interface. One proposed model of defect generation resulting from Ar ion implantation into Si-SiO sub 2

  10. Methods To Determine the Silicone Oil Layer Thickness in Sprayed-On Siliconized Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Viviane; Germershaus, Oliver; Steinberg, Henrik; Dreher, Sascha; Grauschopf, Ulla; Funke, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    The silicone lubricant layer in prefilled syringes has been investigated with regards to siliconization process performance, prefilled syringe functionality, and drug product attributes, such as subvisible particle levels, in several studies in the past. However, adequate methods to characterize the silicone oil layer thickness and distribution are limited, and systematic evaluation is missing. In this study, white light interferometry was evaluated to close this gap in method understanding. White light interferometry demonstrated a good accuracy of 93-99% for MgF 2 coated, curved standards covering a thickness range of 115-473 nm. Thickness measurements for sprayed-on siliconized prefilled syringes with different representative silicone oil distribution patterns (homogeneous, pronounced siliconization at flange or needle side, respectively) showed high instrument (0.5%) and analyst precision (4.1%). Different white light interferometry instrument parameters (autofocus, protective shield, syringe barrel dimensions input, type of non-siliconized syringe used as base reference) had no significant impact on the measured average layer thickness. The obtained values from white light interferometry applying a fully developed method (12 radial lines, 50 mm measurement distance, 50 measurements points) were in agreement with orthogonal results from combined white and laser interferometry and 3D-laser scanning microscopy. The investigated syringe batches (lot A and B) exhibited comparable longitudinal silicone oil layer thicknesses ranging from 170-190 nm to 90-100 nm from flange to tip and homogeneously distributed silicone layers over the syringe barrel circumference (110- 135 nm). Empty break-loose (4-4.5 N) and gliding forces (2-2.5 N) were comparably low for both analyzed syringe lots. A silicone oil layer thickness of 100-200 nm was thus sufficient for adequate functionality in this particular study. Filling the syringe with a surrogate solution including short

  11. Ion beam studied of silicon oxynitride and silicon nitroxide thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oude Elferink, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    In this the processes occurring during high temperature treatments of silicon oxynitride and silicon oxide layers are described. Oxynitride layers with various atomic oxygen to nitrogen concentration ration (O/N) are considered. The high energy ion beam techniques Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection and nuclear reaction analysis have been used to study the layer structures. A detailed discussion of these ion beam techniques is given. Numerical methods used to obtain quantitative data on elemental compositions and depth profiles are described. The electrical compositions and depth profiles are described. The electrical properties of silicon nitride films are known to be influenced by the behaviour of hydrogen in the film during high temperature anneling. Investigations of the behaviour of hydrogen are presented. Oxidation of silicon (oxy)nitride films in O 2 /H 2 0/HCl and nitridation of silicon dioxide films in NH 3 are considered since oxynitrides are applied as an oxidation mask in the LOCOS (Local oxidation of silicon) process. The nitridation of silicon oxide layers in an ammonia ambient is considered. The initial stage and the dependence on the oxide thickness of nitrogen and hydrogen incorporation are discussed. Finally, oxidation of silicon oxynitride layers and of silicon oxide layers are compared. (author). 76 refs.; 48 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Surface chemistry of a hydrogenated mesoporous p-type silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Media, El-Mahdi, E-mail: belhadidz@tahoo.fr; Outemzabet, Ratiba, E-mail: oratiba@hotmail.com

    2017-02-15

    of siloxanes/hydroxide, SiO{sub x}, and hydrides, SiH{sub x}, respectively. The results show clearly that the adsorbed species found in the final stage after an electrochemical treatment consist of surface hydrogen and they show also that the surface morphology is different compared to the starting one, which is considered as reference. It is clear that the H-terminated of porous silicon surface is hydrophobic in nature. The hydrophobic character of this surface makes difficult the grafting of a probe which serves to get other molecules; where from the necessity of the presence of a hydrophilic surface on the porous silicon surface. This will facilitate the penetration and the grafting of the molecules probes. So to improve the penetration and the grafting of the organic molecules or the immobilization of the probes on the hydrogenated mesoporous silicon surfaces under wet chemical conditions an intermediate step is required. In this second study, we use the following procedure. After the porosification of the silicon by electrochemical anodisation, the porous SiH layer returns a hydrophobic surface. This stage is a starting point of multistep scheme for the surface modification. The next step is the thermal hydrosilylation in order to have an acidic surface. The acidic surface was then modified by the chains of Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) which is a highly investigated polymer for the covalent modification of biological macromolecules and surfaces. The grafting of PEG returns a hydrophilic surface confirmed by the IR results.

  13. Thermoelectric characteristics of Pt-silicide/silicon multi-layer structured p-type silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Wonchul; Jun, Dongseok; Kim, Soojung; Shin, Mincheol; Jang, Moongyu

    2015-01-01

    Electric and thermoelectric properties of silicide/silicon multi-layer structured devices were investigated with the variation of silicide/silicon heterojunction numbers from 3 to 12 layers. For the fabrication of silicide/silicon multi-layered structure, platinum and silicon layers are repeatedly sputtered on the (100) silicon bulk substrate and rapid thermal annealing is carried out for the silicidation. The manufactured devices show ohmic current–voltage (I–V) characteristics. The Seebeck coefficient of bulk Si is evaluated as 195.8 ± 15.3 μV/K at 300 K, whereas the 12 layered silicide/silicon multi-layer structured device is evaluated as 201.8 ± 9.1 μV/K. As the temperature increases to 400 K, the Seebeck coefficient increases to 237.2 ± 4.7 μV/K and 277.0 ± 1.1 μV/K for bulk and 12 layered devices, respectively. The increase of Seebeck coefficient in multi-layered structure is mainly attributed to the electron filtering effect due to the Schottky barrier at Pt-silicide/silicon interface. At 400 K, the thermal conductivity is reduced by about half of magnitude compared to bulk in multi-layered device which shows the efficient suppression of phonon propagation by using Pt-silicide/silicon hetero-junctions. - Highlights: • Silicide/silicon multi-layer structured is proposed for thermoelectric devices. • Electric and thermoelectric properties with the number of layer are investigated. • An increase of Seebeck coefficient is mainly attributed the Schottky barrier. • Phonon propagation is suppressed with the existence of Schottky barrier. • Thermal conductivity is reduced due to the suppression of phonon propagation

  14. Surface passivation of n-type doped black silicon by atomic-layer-deposited SiO2/Al2O3 stacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Loo, B.W.H.; Ingenito, A.; Verheijen, M.A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Black silicon (b-Si) nanotextures can significantly enhance the light absorption of crystalline silicon solar cells. Nevertheless, for a successful application of b-Si textures in industrially relevant solar cell architectures, it is imperative that charge-carrier recombination at particularly

  15. Memory characteristics of silicon nitride with silicon nanocrystals as a charge trapping layer of nonvolatile memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sangmoo; Yang, Hyundeok; Chang, Man; Baek, Sungkweon; Hwang, Hyunsang; Jeon, Sanghun; Kim, Juhyung; Kim, Chungwoo

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride with silicon nanocrystals formed by low-energy silicon plasma immersion ion implantation has been investigated as a charge trapping layer of a polycrystalline silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon-type nonvolatile memory device. Compared with the control sample without silicon nanocrystals, silicon nitride with silicon nanocrystals provides excellent memory characteristics, such as larger width of capacitance-voltage hysteresis, higher program/erase speed, and lower charge loss rate at elevated temperature. These improved memory characteristics are derived by incorporation of silicon nanocrystals into the charge trapping layer as additional accessible charge traps with a deeper effective trap energy level

  16. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.

  17. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels immobilized on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchi, Stefano; Battocchio, Chiara; Galluzzi, Martina; Navisse, Emanuele [Department of Sciences, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 79, Roma, 00146 (Italy); Zamuner, Annj; Dettin, Monica [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, Via Marzolo, 9, Padua, 35131 (Italy); Iucci, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.iucci@uniroma3.it [Department of Sciences, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 79, Roma, 00146 (Italy)

    2016-12-01

    The hydrogels of self-assembling ionic complementary peptides have collected in the scientific community increasing consensus as mimetics of the extracellular matrix that can offer 3D supports for cell growth or be vehicles for the delivery of stem cells or drugs. Such scaffolds have also been proposed as bone substitutes for small defects as they promote beneficial effects on human osteoblasts. In this context, our research deals with the introduction of a layer of self-assembling peptides on a silicon surface by covalent anchoring and subsequent physisorption. In this work, we present a spectroscopic investigation of the proposed bioactive scaffolds, carried out by surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques such as XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and RAIRS (Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy) and by state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation methodologies such as angle dependent NEXAFS (Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure). XPS studies confirmed the change in the surface composition in agreement with the proposed enrichments, and led to assess the self-assembling peptide chemical stability. NEXAFS spectra, collected in angular dependent mode at the N K-edge, allowed to investigate the self-assembling behavior of the macromolecules, as well as to determine their molecular orientation on the substrate. Furthermore, Infrared Spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the peptide maintains its secondary structure (β-sheet anti-parallel) after deposition on the silicon surface. The complementary information acquired by means of XPS, NEXAFS and RAIRS lead to hypothesize a “layer-by-layer” arrangement of the immobilized peptides, giving rise to an ordered 3D nanostructure. - Highlights: • A self-assembling peptide (SAP) was covalently immobilized of on a flat silicon surface. • A physisorbed SAP layer was grown on top of the covalently immobilized peptide layer. • Molecular order and orientation of the peptide overlayer on the flat silicon

  18. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels immobilized on silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, Stefano; Battocchio, Chiara; Galluzzi, Martina; Navisse, Emanuele; Zamuner, Annj; Dettin, Monica; Iucci, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogels of self-assembling ionic complementary peptides have collected in the scientific community increasing consensus as mimetics of the extracellular matrix that can offer 3D supports for cell growth or be vehicles for the delivery of stem cells or drugs. Such scaffolds have also been proposed as bone substitutes for small defects as they promote beneficial effects on human osteoblasts. In this context, our research deals with the introduction of a layer of self-assembling peptides on a silicon surface by covalent anchoring and subsequent physisorption. In this work, we present a spectroscopic investigation of the proposed bioactive scaffolds, carried out by surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques such as XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and RAIRS (Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy) and by state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation methodologies such as angle dependent NEXAFS (Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure). XPS studies confirmed the change in the surface composition in agreement with the proposed enrichments, and led to assess the self-assembling peptide chemical stability. NEXAFS spectra, collected in angular dependent mode at the N K-edge, allowed to investigate the self-assembling behavior of the macromolecules, as well as to determine their molecular orientation on the substrate. Furthermore, Infrared Spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the peptide maintains its secondary structure (β-sheet anti-parallel) after deposition on the silicon surface. The complementary information acquired by means of XPS, NEXAFS and RAIRS lead to hypothesize a “layer-by-layer” arrangement of the immobilized peptides, giving rise to an ordered 3D nanostructure. - Highlights: • A self-assembling peptide (SAP) was covalently immobilized of on a flat silicon surface. • A physisorbed SAP layer was grown on top of the covalently immobilized peptide layer. • Molecular order and orientation of the peptide overlayer on the flat silicon

  19. Thin-Film layers with Interfaces that reduce RF Losses on High-Resistivity Silicon Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evseev, S. B.; Milosavljevic, S.; Nanver, L. K.

    2017-01-01

    Radio-Frequency (RF) losses on High-Resistivity Silicon (HRS) substrates were studied for several different surface passivation layers comprising thin-films of SiC, SiN and SiO2 In many combinations, losses from conductive surface channels were reduced and increasing the number of interfaces between

  20. Improvement of silicon direct bonding using surfaces activated by hydrogen plasma treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, W B; Lee Jae Sik; Sung, M Y

    2000-01-01

    The plasma surface treatment, using hydrogen gas, of silicon wafers was studied as a pretreatment for silicon direct bonding. Chemical reactions of the hydrogen plasma with the surfaces were used for both surface activation and removal of surface contaminants. Exposure of the silicon wafers to the plasma formed an active oxide layer on the surface. This layer was hydrophilic. The surface roughness and morphology were examined as functions of the plasma exposure time and power. The surface became smoother with shorter plasma exposure time and lower power. In addition, the plasma surface treatment was very efficient in removing the carbon contaminants on the silicon surface. The value of the initial surface energy, as estimated by using the crack propagation method, was 506 mJ/M sup 2 , which was up to about three times higher than the value for the conventional direct bonding method using wet chemical treatments.

  1. Investigation of the interface region between a porous silicon layer and a silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Park, Dae-Kyu; Kim, Young-You; Shin, Hyun-Joon

    2005-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were performed to investigate the physical and structural characteristics of the interface region between a porous silicon layer and a silicon substrate. We discovered that, when anodization time was increased under a constant current density, the Si crystallites in the interface region became larger and formed different lattice parameters than observed in the porous silicon layer. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis also revealed that the Si was more concentrated in the interface region than in the porous silicon layer. These results were interpreted by the deficiency of the HF solution in reaching to the interface through the pores during the porous silicon formation

  2. Covalent biofunctionalization of silicon nitride surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, A.; Giesbers, M.; Rosso, M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; White, R.G.; Li Yang,; Linford, M.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2007-01-01

    Covalently attached organic monolayers on etched silicon nitride (SixN4; x 3) surfaces were prepared by reaction of SixN4-coated wafers with neat or solutions of 1-alkenes and 1-alkynes in refluxing mesitylene. The surface modification was monitored by measurement of the static water contact angle,

  3. Demultiplexing Surface Waves With Silicon Nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinev, I.; Bogdanov, A.; Komissarenko, F.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on thin gold film with a single silicon nanosphere. The directivity pattern of the excited surface waves exhibits rapid switching from forward to backward excitation within extremely narrow spectral hand (! 50 nm), which is driven...... by the mutual interference of magnetic and electric dipole moments supported by the dielectric nanoantenna....

  4. Structural, optical and electrical properties of quasi-monocrystalline silicon thin films obtained by rapid thermal annealing of porous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajji, M.; Khardani, M.; Khedher, N.; Rahmouni, H.; Bessais, B.; Ezzaouia, H.; Bouchriha, H.

    2006-01-01

    Quasi-mono-crystalline silicon (QMS) layers have a top surface like crystalline silicon with small voids in the body. Such layers are reported to have a higher absorption coefficient than crystalline silicon at the interesting range of the solar spectrum for photovoltaic application. In this work we present a study of the structural, optical and electrical properties of quasimonocrystalline silicon thin films. Quasimonocrystalline silicon thin films were obtained from porous silicon, which has been annealed at a temperature ranging from 950 to 1050 deg. C under H 2 atmosphere for different annealing durations. The porous layers were prepared by conventional electrochemical anodization using a double tank cell and a HF / Ethanol electrolyte. Porous silicon is formed on highly doped p + -type silicon substrates that enable us to prevent back contacts for the anodization. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) was used to study the morphological quality of the prepared layers. Optical properties were extracted from transmission and reflectivity spectra. Dark I-V characteristics were used to determine the electrical conductivity of quasimonocrystalline silicon thin films. Results show an important improvement of the absorption coefficient of the material and electrical conductivity reaches a value of twenty orders higher than that of starting mesoporous silicon

  5. Effect of porous silicon layer on the performance of Si/oxide photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, Waheed A.

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical systems were prepared by the formation of a thin porous film on silicon. The porous silicon layer was formed on the top of a clean oxide free silicon wafer surface by anodic etching in HF/H 2 O/C 2 H 5 OH mixture (2:1:1). The silicon was then covered by an oxide film (tin oxide, ITO or titanium oxide). The oxide films were prepared by the spray/pyrolysis technique which enables doping of the oxide film by different atoms like In, Ru or Sb during the spray process. Doping of SnO 2 or TiO 2 films with Ru atoms improves the surface characteristics of the oxide film which improves the solar conversion efficiency. The prepared solar cells are stable against environmental attack due to the presence of the stable oxide film. It gives relatively high short circuit currents (I sc ), due to the presence of the porous silicon layer, which leads to the recorded high conversion efficiency. Although the open-circuit potential (V oc ) and fill factor (FF) were not affected by the thickness of the porous silicon film, the short circuit current was found to be sensitive to this thickness. An optimum thickness of the porous film and also the oxide layer is required to optimize the solar cell efficiency. The results represent a promising system for the application of porous silicon layers in solar energy converters. The use of porous silicon instead of silicon single crystals in solar cell fabrication and the optimization of the solar conversion efficiency will lead to the reduction of the cost as an important factor and also the increase of the solar cell efficiency making use of the large area of the porous structures

  6. Increased carrier lifetimes in epitaxial silicon layers on buried silicon nitride produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorupa, W.; Kreissig, U.; Hensel, E.; Bartsch, H.

    1984-01-01

    Carrier lifetimes were measured in epitaxial silicon layers deposited on buried silicon nitride produced by high-dose nitrogen implantation at 330 keV. The values were in the range 20-200 μs. The results are remarkable taking into account the high density of crystal defects in the epitaxial layers. Comparing with other SOI technologies the measured lifetimes are higher by 1-2 orders of magnitude. (author)

  7. Silicon and Germanium (111) Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, You Gong

    Silicon (111) surface (7 x 7) reconstruction has been a long standing puzzle. For the last twenty years, various models were put forward to explain this reconstruction, but so far the problem still remains unsolved. Recent ion scattering and channeling (ISC), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and transmission electron diffraction (TED) experiments reveal some new results about the surface which greatly help investigators to establish better models. This work proposes a silicon (111) surface reconstruction mechanism, the raising and lowering mechanism which leads to benzene -like ring and flower (raised atom) building units. Based on these building units a (7 x 7) model is proposed, which is capable of explaining the STM and ISC experiment and several others. Furthermore the building units of the model can be used naturally to account for the germanium (111) surface c(2 x 8) reconstruction and other observed structures including (2 x 2), (5 x 5) and (7 x 7) for germanium as well as the (/3 x /3)R30 and (/19 x /19)R23.5 impurity induced structures for silicon, and the higher temperature disordered (1 x 1) structure for silicon. The model is closely related to the silicon (111) surface (2 x 1) reconstruction pi-bonded chain model, which is the most successful model for the reconstruction now. This provides an explanation for the rather low conversion temperature (560K) of the (2 x 1) to the (7 x 7). The model seems to meet some problems in the explanation of the TED result, which is explained very well by the dimer, adatom and stacking fault (DAS) model proposed by Takayanagi. In order to explain the TED result, a variation of the atomic scattering factor is proposed. Comparing the benzene-like ring model with the DAS model, the former needs more work to explain the TED result and the later has to find a way to explain the silicon (111) surface (1 x 1) disorder experiment.

  8. Graphene Quantum Dot Layers with Energy-Down-Shift Effect on Crystalline-Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung D; Park, Myung J; Kim, Do-Yeon; Kim, Soo M; Kang, Byungjun; Kim, Seongtak; Kim, Hyunho; Lee, Hae-Seok; Kang, Yoonmook; Yoon, Sam S; Hong, Byung H; Kim, Donghwan

    2015-09-02

    Graphene quantum dot (GQD) layers were deposited as an energy-down-shift layer on crystalline-silicon solar cell surfaces by kinetic spraying of GQD suspensions. A supersonic air jet was used to accelerate the GQDs onto the surfaces. Here, we report the coating results on a silicon substrate and the GQDs' application as an energy-down-shift layer in crystalline-silicon solar cells, which enhanced the power conversion efficiency (PCE). GQD layers deposited at nozzle scan speeds of 40, 30, 20, and 10 mm/s were evaluated after they were used to fabricate crystalline-silicon solar cells; the results indicate that GQDs play an important role in increasing the optical absorptivity of the cells. The short-circuit current density was enhanced by about 2.94% (0.9 mA/cm(2)) at 30 mm/s. Compared to a reference device without a GQD energy-down-shift layer, the PCE of p-type silicon solar cells was improved by 2.7% (0.4 percentage points).

  9. Metallization of DNA on silicon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchkova, Anastasiya Olegovna; Sokolov, Petr; Petrov, Yuri Vladimirovich; Kasyanenko, Nina Anatolievna

    2011-01-01

    New simple way for silver deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based nanowires preparation on silicon surface was developed. The electrochemical reduction of silver ions fixed on DNA molecule provides the forming of tightly matched zonate silver clusters. Highly homogeneous metallic clusters have a size about 30 nm. So the thickness of nanowires does not exceed 30–50 nm. The surface of n-type silicon monocrystal is the most convenient substrate for this procedure. The comparative analysis of DNA metallization on of n-type silicon with a similar way for nanowires fabrication on p-type silicon, freshly cleaved mica, and glass surface shows the advantage of n-type silicon, which is not only the substrate for DNA fixation but also the source of electrons for silver reduction. Images of bound DNA molecules and fabricated nanowires have been obtained using an atomic force microscope and a scanning ion helium microscope. DNA interaction with silver ions in a solution was examined by the methods of ultraviolet spectroscopy and circular dichroism.

  10. Polyenergy ion beam synthesis of buried oxynitride layer in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabanenkov, M.Yu. E-mail: barab@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Mordkovich, V.N.; Pustovit, A.N.; Vyatkin, A.F.; Zinenko, V.I

    2000-11-01

    The efficiency of silicon oxynitride synthesis in silicon crystals implanted with substoichiometric doses of oxygen and nitrogen ions is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Si crystals are implanted with oxygen and nitrogen ions with doses of 1.5 and 4.5x10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}, respectively, at fixed oxygen ion energy of 150 keV and nitrogen ion energies varied from 80 to 180 keV. The samples annealed at 1200 deg C for 2 h were analysed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Theoretically, a `diffusion-alternative sinks' model is applied to the annealing stage of ion beam synthesis of a buried layer of a new phase in solids. It is shown that the maximum of the ternary phase production is attained when nitrogen ions are implanted deeper than oxygen ions. An explanation of this fact is given in terms of that (i) the segregation of oxygen and nitrogen species on the surface of oxide nuclei removes the kinetic restriction of nuclei growth, characteristic of oxide growth, at the expense of only oxygen atoms, and (ii) the higher the implantation energy the smoother the shape of ion range distribution in the target, which, in its turn, causes the predominance of the impurity sink over the impurity diffusion.

  11. Polyenergy ion beam synthesis of buried oxynitride layer in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanenkov, M.Yu.; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Mordkovich, V.N.; Pustovit, A.N.; Vyatkin, A.F.; Zinenko, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of silicon oxynitride synthesis in silicon crystals implanted with substoichiometric doses of oxygen and nitrogen ions is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Si crystals are implanted with oxygen and nitrogen ions with doses of 1.5 and 4.5x10 17 cm -2 , respectively, at fixed oxygen ion energy of 150 keV and nitrogen ion energies varied from 80 to 180 keV. The samples annealed at 1200 deg C for 2 h were analysed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Theoretically, a `diffusion-alternative sinks' model is applied to the annealing stage of ion beam synthesis of a buried layer of a new phase in solids. It is shown that the maximum of the ternary phase production is attained when nitrogen ions are implanted deeper than oxygen ions. An explanation of this fact is given in terms of that (i) the segregation of oxygen and nitrogen species on the surface of oxide nuclei removes the kinetic restriction of nuclei growth, characteristic of oxide growth, at the expense of only oxygen atoms, and (ii) the higher the implantation energy the smoother the shape of ion range distribution in the target, which, in its turn, causes the predominance of the impurity sink over the impurity diffusion

  12. Engineering the size and density of silicon agglomerates by controlling the initial surface carbonated contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowik, Ł., E-mail: Lukasz.Borowik@cea.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Chevalier, N.; Mariolle, D.; Martinez, E.; Bertin, F.; Chabli, A.; Barbé, J.-C. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-04-01

    Actually, thermally induced thin-films dewetting silicon in the silicon-on-insulator is a way to obtain silicon agglomerates with a size and a density fixed by the silicon film thickness. In this paper we report a new method to monitor both the size and the density of the Si agglomerates thanks to the deposition of a carbon-like layer. We show that using a 5-nm thick layer of silicon and additional ≤1-nm carbonated layer; we obtain agglomerates sizes ranging from 35 nm to 60 nm with respectively an agglomerate density ranging from 38 μm{sup −2} to 18 μm{sup −2}. Additionally, for the case of strained silicon films an alternative dewetting mechanism can be induced by monitoring the chemical composition of the sample surface.

  13. Biofunctionalization on alkylated silicon substrate surfaces via "click" chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guoting; Santos, Catherine; Zhang, Wen; Li, Yan; Kumar, Amit; Erasquin, Uriel J; Liu, Kai; Muradov, Pavel; Trautner, Barbara Wells; Cai, Chengzhi

    2010-11-24

    Biofunctionalization of silicon substrates is important to the development of silicon-based biosensors and devices. Compared to conventional organosiloxane films on silicon oxide intermediate layers, organic monolayers directly bound to the nonoxidized silicon substrates via Si-C bonds enhance the sensitivity of detection and the stability against hydrolytic cleavage. Such monolayers presenting a high density of terminal alkynyl groups for bioconjugation via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC, a "click" reaction) were reported. However, yields of the CuAAC reactions on these monolayer platforms were low. Also, the nonspecific adsorption of proteins on the resultant surfaces remained a major obstacle for many potential biological applications. Herein, we report a new type of "clickable" monolayers grown by selective, photoactivated surface hydrosilylation of α,ω-alkenynes, where the alkynyl terminal is protected with a trimethylgermanyl (TMG) group, on hydrogen-terminated silicon substrates. The TMG groups on the film are readily removed in aqueous solutions in the presence of Cu(I). Significantly, the degermanylation and the subsequent CuAAC reaction with various azides could be combined into a single step in good yields. Thus, oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) with an azido tag was attached to the TMG-alkyne surfaces, leading to OEG-terminated surfaces that reduced the nonspecific adsorption of protein (fibrinogen) by >98%. The CuAAC reaction could be performed in microarray format to generate arrays of mannose and biotin with varied densities on the protein-resistant OEG background. We also demonstrated that the monolayer platform could be functionalized with mannose for highly specific capturing of living targets (Escherichia coli expressing fimbriae) onto the silicon substrates.

  14. Evaluation of hydrogen and oxygen impurity levels on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, M J; Wielunski, L S; Netterfield, R P; Martin, P J; Leistner, A [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on surface analytical techniques used to quantify surface concentrations of impurities such as oxygen and hydrogen. The following analytical techniques were used: Rutherford and Backscattering, elastic recoil detection, time-of-flight SIMS, spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results have shown a spread in thickness of oxide layer, ranging from unmeasurable to 1.6 nm. The data must be considered as preliminary at this stage, but give some insight into the suitability of the techniques and a general idea of the significance of impurities at the monolayer level. These measurements have been carried out on a small number of silicon surfaces both semiconductor grade <111> crystalline material and silicon which has been used in sphere fabrication. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Evaluation of hydrogen and oxygen impurity levels on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S.; Netterfield, R.P.; Martin, P.J.; Leistner, A. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports on surface analytical techniques used to quantify surface concentrations of impurities such as oxygen and hydrogen. The following analytical techniques were used: Rutherford and Backscattering, elastic recoil detection, time-of-flight SIMS, spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results have shown a spread in thickness of oxide layer, ranging from unmeasurable to 1.6 nm. The data must be considered as preliminary at this stage, but give some insight into the suitability of the techniques and a general idea of the significance of impurities at the monolayer level. These measurements have been carried out on a small number of silicon surfaces both semiconductor grade <111> crystalline material and silicon which has been used in sphere fabrication. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Surface thiolation of silicon for antifouling application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Gao, Pei; Hollimon, Valerie; Brodus, DaShan; Johnson, Arion; Hu, Hongmei

    2018-02-07

    Thiol groups grafted silicon surface was prepared as previously described. 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) molecules were then immobilized on such a surface through disulfide bonds formation. To investigate the contribution of PFDT coating to antifouling, the adhesion behaviors of Botryococcus braunii (B. braunii) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were studied through biofouling assays in the laboratory. The representative microscope images suggest reduced B. braunii and E. coli accumulation densities on PFDT integrated silicon substrate. However, the antifouling performance of PFDT integrated silicon substrate decreased over time. By incubating the aged substrate in 10 mM TCEP·HCl solution for 1 h, the fouled PFDT coating could be removed as the disulfide bonds were cleaved, resulting in reduced absorption of algal cells and exposure of non-fouled silicon substrate surface. Our results indicate that the thiol-terminated substrate can be potentially useful for restoring the fouled surface, as well as maximizing the effective usage of the substrate.

  17. Atomic Layer Deposition Alumina-Passivated Silicon Nanowires: Probing the Transition from Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor to Electrolytic Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboriau, Dorian; Boniface, Maxime; Valero, Anthony; Aldakov, Dmitry; Brousse, Thierry; Gentile, Pascal; Sadki, Said

    2017-04-19

    Silicon nanowires were coated by a 1-5 nm thin alumina layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to replace poorly reproducible and unstable native silicon oxide by a highly conformal passivating alumina layer. The surface coating enabled probing the behavior of symmetric devices using such electrodes in the EMI-TFSI electrolyte, allowing us to attain a large cell voltage up to 6 V in ionic liquid, together with very high cyclability with less than 4% capacitance fade after 10 6 charge/discharge cycles. These results yielded fruitful insights into the transition between an electrochemical double-layer capacitor behavior and an electrolytic capacitor behavior. Ultimately, thin ALD dielectric coatings can be used to obtain hybrid devices exhibiting large cell voltage and excellent cycle life of dielectric capacitors, while retaining energy and power densities close to the ones displayed by supercapacitors.

  18. Passivation mechanism in silicon heterojunction solar cells with intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Dimitrios; van Vliet, Jeroen; Vasudevan, Ravi; van Swaaij, René A. C. M. M.; Zeman, Miro

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we use intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide layers (a-SiOx:H) with varying oxygen content (cO) but similar hydrogen content to passivate the crystalline silicon wafers. Using our deposition conditions, we obtain an effective lifetime (τeff) above 5 ms for cO ≤ 6 at. % for passivation layers with a thickness of 36 ± 2 nm. We subsequently reduce the thickness of the layers using an accurate wet etching method to ˜7 nm and deposit p- and n-type doped layers fabricating a device structure. After the deposition of the doped layers, τeff appears to be predominantly determined by the doped layers themselves and is less dependent on the cO of the a-SiOx:H layers. The results suggest that τeff is determined by the field-effect rather than by chemical passivation.

  19. Doping profile measurement on textured silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Zahi; Taleb, Nadjib; Sermage, Bernard; Broussillou, Cédric; Bazer-Bachi, Barbara; Quillec, Maurice

    2018-04-01

    In crystalline silicon solar cells, the front surface is textured in order to lower the reflection of the incident light and increase the efficiency of the cell. This texturing whose dimensions are a few micrometers wide and high, often makes it difficult to determine the doping profile measurement. We have measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrochemical capacitance voltage profiling the doping profile of implanted phosphorus in alkaline textured and in polished monocrystalline silicon wafers. The paper shows that SIMS gives accurate results provided the primary ion impact angle is small enough. Moreover, the comparison between these two techniques gives an estimation of the concentration of electrically inactive phosphorus atoms.

  20. Passivating electron contact based on highly crystalline nanostructured silicon oxide layers for silicon solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuckelberger, J.; Nogay, G.; Wyss, P.; Jeangros, Q.; Allebe, Ch.; Debrot, F.; Niquille, X.; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Despeisse, M.; Haug, F.J.; Löper, P.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, Dec (2016), s. 2-10 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface passivation * passivating contact * nanostructure * silicon oxide * nanocrystalline * microcrystalline * poly-silicon * crystallization * Raman * transmission line measurement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.784, year: 2016

  1. Formation of silicon carbide by laser ablation in graphene oxide-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone suspension on silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleh, Babak; Ghasemi, Samaneh; Torkamany, Mohammad Javad; Salehzadeh, Sadegh; Maleki, Farahnaz

    2018-01-01

    Laser ablation of a silicon wafer in graphene oxide-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (GO-NMP) suspension was carried out with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (pulse duration = 250 ns, wavelength = 1064 nm). The surface of silicon wafer before and after laser ablation was studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The results showed that the ablation of silicon surface in liquid by pulsed laser was done by the process of melt expulsion under the influence of the confined plasma-induced pressure or shock wave trapped between the silicon wafer and the liquid. The X-ray diffraction‌ (XRD) pattern of Si wafer after laser ablation showed that 4H-SiC layer is formed on its surface. The formation of the above layer was also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy‌ (XPS), as well as EDX was utilized. The reflectance of samples decreased with increasing pulse energy. Therefore, the morphological alteration and the formation of SiC layer at high energy increase absorption intensity in the UV‌-vis regions. Theoretical calculations confirm that the formation of silicon carbide from graphene oxide and silicon wafer is considerably endothermic. Development of new methods for increasing the reflectance without causing harmful effects is still an important issue for crystalline Si solar cells. By using the method described in this paper, the optical properties of solar cells can be improved.

  2. Surface elastic properties in silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Claudio; Giordano, Stefano; Colombo, Luciano

    2017-09-01

    The elastic behavior of the external surface of a solid body plays a key role in nanomechanical phenomena. While bulk elasticity enjoys the benefits of a robust theoretical understanding, many surface elasticity features remain unexplored: some of them are here addressed by blending together continuum elasticity and atomistic simulations. A suitable readdressing of the surface elasticity theory allows to write the balance equations in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates and to investigate the dependence of the surface elastic parameters on the mean and Gaussian curvatures of the surface. In particular, we predict the radial strain induced by surface effects in spherical and cylindrical silicon nanoparticles and provide evidence that the surface parameters are nearly independent of curvatures and, therefore, of the surface conformation.

  3. Metrology of nanosize biopowders using porous silicon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravel', L.V.; Latukhina, N.V.; Pisareva, E.V.; Vlasov, M.Yu.; Volkov, A.V.; Volodkin, B.O.

    2008-01-01

    Powders of hydroxyapatite deposited on porous silicon surface were investigated by TEM and STM methods. Thickness of porous lay was 1-100 micrometers; porous diameter was 0.01-10 micrometers. Images of porous silicon surface with deposited particles give possibility to estimate particles size and induce that only proportionate porous diameter particles have good adhesion to porous silicon surface.

  4. Evolution of arsenic in high fluence plasma immersion ion implanted silicon : Behavior of the as-implanted surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vishwanath, V.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D.; Vanzetti, L.; Koh, A. L.; Steinhauser, G.; Pepponi, G.; Bersani, M.; Meirer, F.; Foad, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    High fluence (>1015 ions/cm2) low-energy (3 + on (1 0 0) silicon was investigated, with the focus on stability and retention of the dopant. At this dose, a thin (∼3 nm) amorphous layer forms at the surface, which contains about 45% arsenic (As) in a silicon and oxygen matrix. The presence of silicon

  5. Protective silicon coating for nanodiamonds using atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.; Wang, Y.H.; Zang, J.B.; Li, Y.N.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrathin silicon coating was deposited on nanodiamonds using atomic layer deposition (ALD) from gaseous monosilane (SiH 4 ). The coating was performed by sequential reaction of SiH 4 saturated adsorption and in situ decomposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were utilized to investigate the structural and morphological properties of the coating. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to compare the thermal stability of nanodiamonds before and after silicon coating. The results confirmed that the deposited cubic phase silicon coating was even and continuous. The protective silicon coating could effectively improve the oxidation resistance of nanodiamonds in air flow, which facilitates the applications of nanodiamonds that are commonly hampered by their poor thermal stability

  6. Protective silicon coating for nanodiamonds using atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); Wang, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); Zang, J.B. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China) and College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China)]. E-mail: diamondzjb@163.com; Li, Y.N. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China)

    2007-01-30

    Ultrathin silicon coating was deposited on nanodiamonds using atomic layer deposition (ALD) from gaseous monosilane (SiH{sub 4}). The coating was performed by sequential reaction of SiH{sub 4} saturated adsorption and in situ decomposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were utilized to investigate the structural and morphological properties of the coating. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to compare the thermal stability of nanodiamonds before and after silicon coating. The results confirmed that the deposited cubic phase silicon coating was even and continuous. The protective silicon coating could effectively improve the oxidation resistance of nanodiamonds in air flow, which facilitates the applications of nanodiamonds that are commonly hampered by their poor thermal stability.

  7. Mobility of charge carriers in porous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsh, P. A.; Martyshov, M. N.; Latysheva, A. P.; Vorontsov, A. S.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2008-01-01

    The (conduction) mobility of majority charge carriers in porous silicon layers of the n and p types is estimated by joint measurements of electrical conductivity and free charge carrier concentration, which is determined from IR absorption spectra. Adsorption of donor and acceptor molecules leading to a change in local electric fields in the structure is used to identify the processes controlling the mobility in porous silicon. It is found that adsorption of acceptor and donor molecules at porous silicon of the p and n types, respectively, leads to a strong increase in electrical conductivity, which is associated with an increase in the concentration of free carrier as well as in their mobility. The increase in the mobility of charge carriers as a result of adsorption indicates the key role of potential barriers at the boundaries of silicon nanocrystals and may be due to a decrease in the barrier height as a result of adsorption

  8. The silicon-silicon oxide multilayers utilization as intrinsic layer on pin solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colder, H.; Marie, P.; Gourbilleau, F.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanostructures are promising candidate for the intrinsic layer on pin solar cells. In this work we report on new material: silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO) deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering of a pure silica target and an interesting structure: multilayers consisting of a stack of SRSO and pure silicon oxide layers. Two thicknesses of the SRSO sublayer, t SRSO , are studied 3 nm and 5 nm whereas the thickness of silica sublayer is maintaining at 3 nm. The presence of nanocrystallites of silicon, evidenced by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), leads to photoluminescence (PL) emission at room temperature due to the quantum confinement of the carriers. The PL peak shifts from 1.3 eV to 1.5 eV is correlated to the decreasing of t SRSO from 5 nm down to 3 nm. In the purpose of their potential utilization for i-layer, the optical properties are studied by absorption spectroscopy. The achievement a such structures at promising absorption properties. Moreover by favouring the carriers injection by the tunnel effect between silicon nanograins and silica sublayers, the multilayers seem to be interesting for solar cells

  9. Silicon dioxide with a silicon interfacial layer as an insulating gate for highly stable indium phosphide metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, V. J.; Shokrani, M.

    1991-01-01

    A novel gate insulator consisting of silicon dioxide (SiO2) with a thin silicon (Si) interfacial layer has been investigated for high-power microwave indium phosphide (InP) metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs). The role of the silicon interfacial layer on the chemical nature of the SiO2/Si/InP interface was studied by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the silicon interfacial layer reacted with the native oxide at the InP surface, thus producing silicon dioxide, while reducing the native oxide which has been shown to be responsible for the instabilities in InP MISFETs. While a 1.2-V hysteresis was present in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve of the MIS capacitors with silicon dioxide, less than 0.1 V hysteresis was observed in the C-V curve of the capacitors with the silicon interfacial layer incorporated in the insulator. InP MISFETs fabricated with the silicon dioxide in combination with the silicon interfacial layer exhibited excellent stability with drain current drift of less than 3 percent in 10,000 sec, as compared to 15-18 percent drift in 10,000 sec for devices without the silicon interfacial layer. High-power microwave InP MISFETs with Si/SiO2 gate insulators resulted in an output power density of 1.75 W/mm gate width at 9.7 GHz, with an associated power gain of 2.5 dB and 24 percent power added efficiency.

  10. Atomic and electronic structures of novel silicon surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.H. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    The modification of silicon surfaces is presently of great interest to the semiconductor device community. Three distinct areas are the subject of inquiry: first, modification of the silicon electronic structure; second, passivation of the silicon surface; and third, functionalization of the silicon surface. It is believed that surface modification of these types will lead to useful electronic devices by pairing these modified surfaces with traditional silicon device technology. Therefore, silicon wafers with modified electronic structure (light-emitting porous silicon), passivated surfaces (H-Si(111), Cl-Si(111), Alkyl-Si(111)), and functionalized surfaces (Alkyl-Si(111)) have been studied in order to determine the fundamental properties of surface geometry and electronic structure using synchrotron radiation-based techniques.

  11. Investigation of silicon/silicon germanium multiple quantum well layers in silicon avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loudon, A.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are currently utilised in many single photon counting systems due to their high efficiency, fast response times, low voltage operation and potentially low cost. For fibre based applications however (at wavelengths 1.3 and 1.55μm) and eye-safe wavelength applications (>1.4μm), Si devices are not suitable due to their 1.1μm absorption edge and hence greatly reduced absorption above this wavelength. InGaAs/InP or Ge SPADs absorb at these longer wavelengths, but both require cryogenic cooling for low noise operation and III-V integration with conventional Si circuitry is difficult. Si/SiGe is currently attracting great interest for optoelectronic applications and attempts to combine Si avalanche photodiodes with Si/SiGe multiple quantum well absorbing layers have been successful. Here, an effort to utilise this material system has shown an improvement in photon counting efficiency above 1.1μm of more than 30 times compared to an all-Si control device. In addition to its longer wavelength response, this Si/SiGe device has room temperature operation, low cost fabrication and is compatible with conventional Si circuitry. (author)

  12. Characterisation and stabilisation of the surface region of a highly polished silicon crystal sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Typically a single crystal silicon wafer has a native oxide layer a few nm thick which changes slowly with time. A number of parameters such as hydrocarbons, water vapour, storage environment can affect this layer. The thickness of the layer is also orientation dependent. In the case of a silicon sphere the situation becomes more complex, because all orientations are present and the process of polishing involves a higher pressure and also high local temperatures. A highly polished single crystal sphere 93.6 mm in diameter is being used to determine the Avogadro constant with an uncertainty of ≤ 1 x 10 -8 . This will then be used to obtain an atomic definition of the kilogram. The composition and structure of the surface oxide layer play an important role in this measurement. Firstly the density of the oxide layer is different from that of silicon. Secondly since the diameter is measured by optical interferometry, corrections must be applied for the phase change in the reflected light beam due to the surface layer. Thirdly the orientation dependence of the layer complicated the corrections to be applied. Fourthly if measurements are made over a period of time, any changes in the surface layer must be taken into account. Given the accuracy required in the determination, the surface layer is a determining factor in the final result. A number of techniques such as spectroscopic ellipsometry and ion beam analysis are being used to study the composition and structure of the surface of a silicon sphere. Cleaning techniques such as HF and low temperature ultraviolet (ozone) are being developed to produce a clean surface. The next step involves deposition of a stable and uniform surface oxide layer a few nm thick. Techniques being investigated for this include ultra violet ozone deposition at 450 deg C and plasma deposition. The paper describes work at the NML in achieving an appropriate stable surface on the silicon sphere

  13. Surface topography and morphology characterization of PIII irradiated silicon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Satinder K.; Barthwal, Sumit

    2008-01-01

    The effect of plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment on silicon surfaces was investigated by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. The surface damage was given by the implantation of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and argon ions using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source at low pressure. AFM studies show that surface topography of the PIII treated silicon wafers depend on the physical and chemical nature of the implanted species. Micro-Raman spectra indicate that the significant reduction of intensity of Raman peak after PIII treatment. Plasma immersion ion implantation is a non-line-of-sight ion implantation method, which allows 3D treatment of materials. Therefore, PIII based surface modification and plasma immersion ion deposition (PIID) coatings are applied in a wide range of situations.

  14. Influence of oxygen on the ion-beam synthesis of silicon carbide buried layers in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamanov, V.V.; Valakh, M.Ya.; Klyui, N.I.; Mel'nik, V.P.; Romanyuk, A.B.; Romanyuk, B.N.; Yukhimchuk, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of silicon structures with silicon carbide (SiC) buried layers produced by high-dose carbon implantation followed by a high-temperature anneal are investigated by Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The influence of the coimplantation of oxygen on the features of SiC buried layer formation is also studied. It is shown that in identical implantation and post-implantation annealing regimes a SiC buried layer forms more efficiently in CZ Si wafers or in Si (CZ or FZ) subjected to the coimplantation of oxygen. Thus, oxygen promotes SiC layer formation as a result of the formation of SiO x precipitates and accommodation of the volume change in the region where the SiC phase forms. Carbon segregation and the formation of an amorphous carbon film on the SiC grain boundaries are also discovered

  15. A parametric study of laser induced ablation-oxidation on porous silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefano, Luca; Rea, Ilaria; Nigro, M Arcangela; Della Corte, Francesco G; Rendina, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the laser induced ablation-oxidation process on porous silicon layers having different porosities and thicknesses by non-destructive optical techniques. In particular, the interaction between a low power blue light laser and the porous silicon surfaces has been characterized by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The oxidation profiles etched on the porous samples can be tuned as functions of the layer porosity and laser fluence. Oxide stripes of width less than 2 μm and with thicknesses between 100 nm and 5 μm have been produced, depending on the porosity of the porous silicon, by using a 40 x focusing objective

  16. Silicon surface biofunctionalization with dopaminergic tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena-Serrano, A.; Lucena-Serrano, C.; Contreras-Cáceres, R.; Díaz, A.; Valpuesta, M. [Dep. Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Cai, C. [Dep. Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5003 (United States); López-Romero, J.M., E-mail: jmromero@uma.es [Dep. Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Two dopaminergic tetrahydroisoquinolines (THI) were synthesized. • Vinyl-terminated THI incorporated onto the H−Si(1 1 1) substrates via a hydrosilylation. • The highest yield in coverage was obtained in DMSO, at 4 h of irradiation and 0.1 mbar of vacuum. • Alkynyl-terminated Si surface was produced for incorporation of azide-THI by click reaction. • Best yields on grafted molecule were obtained by click reaction in absence of ascorbic acid. - Abstract: In this work we grafted vinyl- and azido-terminated tetrahydroisoquinolines (compounds 1 and 2, respectively) onto H−Si(1 1 1) silicon wafers obtaining highly stable modified surfaces. A double bond was incorporated into the tetrahydroisoquinoline structure of 1 to be immobilized by a light induced hydrosilylation reaction on hydrogen-terminated Si(1 1 1). The best results were obtained employing a polar solvent (DMSO), rather than a non-polar solvent (toluene). The azide derivative 2 was grafted onto alkenyl-terminated silicon substrates with copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle goniometry (CA) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) were used to demonstrate the incorporation of 1 and 2 into the surfaces, study the morphology of the modified surfaces and to calculate the yield of grafting and surface coverage. CA measurements showed the increase in the surface hydrophobicity when 1 or 2 were incorporated into the surface. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 were prepared starting from 1-(p-nitrophenyl)tetrahydroisoquinoline 3 under smooth conditions and in good yields. The structures of 1 and 2 were designed with a reduced A-ring, two substituents at positions C-6 and C-7, an N-methyl group and a phenyl moiety at C-1 in order to provide a high affinity against dopaminergic receptors. Moreover, O-demethylation of 1 was carried out once it was adsorbed onto the surface by treatment with BBr{sub 3}. The method

  17. Characterization and use of crystalline bacterial cell surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleytr, Uwe B.; Sára, Margit; Pum, Dietmar; Schuster, Bernhard

    2001-10-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most common outermost cell envelope components of prokaryotic organisms (archaea and bacteria). S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. S-layers as the most abundant of prokaryotic cellular proteins are appealing model systems for studying the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly and function of proteinaceous supramolecular structures. The wealth of information existing on the general principle of S-layers have revealed a broad application potential. The most relevant features exploited in applied S-layer research are: (i) pores passing through S-layers show identical size and morphology and are in the range of ultrafiltration membranes; (ii) functional groups on the surface and in the pores are aligned in well-defined positions and orientations and accessible for chemical modifications and binding functional molecules in very precise fashion; (iii) isolated S-layer subunits from a variety of organisms are capable of recrystallizing as closed monolayers onto solid supports (e.g., metals, polymers, silicon wafers) at the air-water interface, on lipid films or onto the surface of liposomes; (iv) functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins by genetic engineering. Thus, S-layer technologies particularly provide new approaches for biotechnology, biomimetics, molecular nanotechnology, nanopatterning of surfaces and formation of ordered arrays of metal clusters or nanoparticles as required for nanoelectronics.

  18. Growth and characterization of molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. L.; Liu, J. K.; Sadwick, L.; Wang, K. L.; Kao, Y. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs layers have been grown on porous silicon (PS) substrates with good crystallinity by molecular beam epitaxy. In spite of the surface irregularity of PS substrates, no surface morphology deterioration was observed on epitaxial GaAs overlayers. A 10-percent Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy minimum channeling yield for GaAs-on-PS layers as compared to 16 percent for GaAs-on-Si layers grown under the same condition indicates a possible improvement of crystallinity when GaAs is grown on PS. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the dominant defects in the GaAs-on-PS layers are microtwins and stacking faults, which originate from the GaAs/PS interface. GaAs is found to penetrate into the PS layers. n-type GaAs/p-type PS heterojunction diodes were fabricated with good rectifying characteristics.

  19. Surface Area, and Oxidation Effects on Nitridation Kinetics of Silicon Powder Compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Palczer, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Commercially available silicon powders were wet-attrition-milled from 2 to 48 hr to achieve surface areas (SA's) ranging from 1.3 to 70 sq m/g. The surface area effects on the nitridation kinetics of silicon powder compacts were determined at 1250 or 1350 C for 4 hr. In addition, the influence of nitridation environment, and preoxidation on nitridation kinetics of a silicon powder of high surface area (approximately equals 63 sq m/g) was investigated. As the surface area increased, so did the percentage nitridation after 4 hr in N2 at 1250 or 1350 C. Silicon powders of high surface area (greater than 40 sq m/g) can be nitrided to greater than 70% at 1250 C in 4 hr. The nitridation kinetics of the high-surface-area powder compacts were significantly delayed by preoxidation treatment. Conversely, the nitridation environment had no significant influence on the nitridation kinetics of the same powder. Impurities present in the starting powder, and those accumulated during attrition milling, appeared to react with the silica layer on the surface of silicon particles to form a molten silicate layer, which provided a path for rapid diffusion of nitrogen and enhanced the nitridation kinetics of high surface area silicon powder.

  20. Surface evolution and stability transition of silicon wafer subjected to nano-diamond grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shisheng Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain excellent physical properties and ultrathin devices, thinning technique plays an important role in semiconductor industry with the rapid development of wearable electronic devices. This study presents a physical nano-diamond grinding technique without any chemistry to obtain ultrathin silicon substrate. The nano-diamond with spherical shape repeats nano-cutting and penetrating surface to physically etch silicon wafer during grinding process. Nano-diamond grinding induces an ultrathin “amorphous layer” on silicon wafer and thus the mismatch strain between the amorphous layer and substrate leads to stability transition from the spherical to non-spherical deformation of the wafer. Theoretical model is proposed to predict and analyze the deformation of amorphous layer/silicon substrate system. Furthermore, the deformation bifurcation behavior of amorphous layer/silicon substrate system is analyzed. As the mismatch strain increases or thickness decreases, the amorphous layer/silicon substrate system may transit to non-spherical deformation, which is consistent to the experimental results. The amorphous layer stresses are also obtained to predict the damage of silicon wafer.

  1. Strain of laser annealed silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemanich, R. J.; Haneman, D.

    1982-05-01

    High resolution Raman scattering measurements have been carried out on pulse and continuous-wave laser annealed silicon samples with various surface preparations. These included polished and ion-bombarded wafers, and saw-cut crystals. The pulse annealing treatments were carried out in ultrahigh vacuum and in air. The residual strain was inferred from the frequency shift of the first-order Raman active mode of Si, and was detectable in the range 10-2-10-3 in all except the polished samples.

  2. The laser surface alloying of the surface layer of the plain carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldan, A.; Kusinski, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the microstructure and properties (chemical composition, microhardness and the effect of tribological test of the surface laser alloyed layer with tantalum. Scanning electron microscopy examinations show structure, which consist of martensite and Ta2C carbides. Samples covered with Ta and the carbon containing binder showed after laser alloying higher hardness than in case of using silicon-containing binder. (author)

  3. Combined analyses of ion beam synthesized layers in porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A.R.; Silva, M.F. da; Silva, M.R. da; Soares, J.C.; Paszti, F.; Horvath, Z.E.; Vazsonyi, E.; Conde, O.

    2001-01-01

    High dose ion implantation was used to form polycrystalline silicide films on porous silicon with different native concentrations of light impurities (C and O). Porous silicon layers several μm thick were implanted with 170 KeV Cr + ions to fluences of 3x10'1 7 ions/cm 2 both at room temperature and 450 o C. Similar samples were implanted with 100 keV Co + ions to fluences of 2x10 17 ions/cm 2 at room temperature and 350 o C and 450 o C. The formed silicide compounds were studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction, and four point-probe sheet resistance measurements. Selected Co implanted samples were analysed by cross-section transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the light impurities were partially expelled from the forming silicide layer. Combining cross-section transmission electron microscopy with ion beam methods it was possible to show that, in the implanted region, the porous structure collapses and densities during implantation, but the underlying porous silicon remains intact. The layer structure as well as the quality and type of the formed silicide, were found to depend on the original impurity level, implantation temperature, and annealing. (author)

  4. Single-layer graphene on silicon nitride micromembrane resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Bagci, Tolga; Zeuthen, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Due to their low mass, high quality factor, and good optical properties, silicon nitride (SiN) micromembrane resonators are widely used in force and mass sensing applications, particularly in optomechanics. The metallization of such membranes would enable an electronic integration with the prospect...... for exciting new devices, such as optoelectromechanical transducers. Here, we add a single-layer graphene on SiN micromembranes and compare electromechanical coupling and mechanical properties to bare dielectric membranes and to membranes metallized with an aluminium layer. The electrostatic coupling...

  5. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection

  6. Adhesion between coating layers based on epoxy and silicone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jacob R.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Kiil, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The adhesion between a silicon tie-coat and epoxy primers, used in marine coating systems, has been studied in this work. Six epoxy coatings (with varying chain lengths of the epoxy resins), some of which have shown problems with adhesion to the tie-coat during service life, have been considered....... The experimental investigation includes measurements of the surface tension of the tie-coat and the critical surface tensions of the epoxies, topographic investigation of the surfaces of cured epoxy coatings via atomic force microscopy (AFM), and pull-off tests for investigating the strength of adhesion...... to the silicon/epoxy systems. Calculations for determining the roughness factor of the six epoxy coatings (based on the AFM topographies) and the theoretical work of adhesion have been carried out. The coating surfaces are also characterized based on the van Oss-Good theory. Previous studies on the modulus...

  7. Optimization of the Surface Structure on Black Silicon for Surface Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaojie; Zhou, Chunlan; Wang, Wenjing

    2017-12-01

    Black silicon shows excellent anti-reflection and thus is extremely useful for photovoltaic applications. However, its high surface recombination velocity limits the efficiency of solar cells. In this paper, the effective minority carrier lifetime of black silicon is improved by optimizing metal-catalyzed chemical etching (MCCE) method, using an Al 2 O 3 thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a passivation layer. Using the spray method to eliminate the impact on the rear side, single-side black silicon was obtained on n-type solar grade silicon wafers. Post-etch treatment with NH 4 OH/H 2 O 2 /H 2 O mixed solution not only smoothes the surface but also increases the effective minority lifetime from 161 μs of as-prepared wafer to 333 μs after cleaning. Moreover, adding illumination during the etching process results in an improvement in both the numerical value and the uniformity of the effective minority carrier lifetime.

  8. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  9. Oil Contact Angles in a Water-Decane-Silicon Dioxide System: Effects of Surface Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shijing; Wang, Jingyao; Wu, Jiazhong; Liu, Qingjie; Sun, Chengzhen; Bai, Bofeng

    2018-04-19

    Oil wettability in the water-oil-rock systems is very sensitive to the evolution of surface charges on the rock surfaces induced by the adsorption of ions and other chemical agents in water flooding. Through a set of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal the effects of surface charge on the oil contact angles in an ideal water-decane-silicon dioxide system. The results show that the contact angles of oil nano-droplets have a great dependence on the surface charges. As the surface charge density exceeds a critical value of 0.992 e/nm 2 , the contact angle reaches up to 78.8° and the water-wet state is very apparent. The variation of contact angles can be confirmed from the number density distributions of oil molecules. With increasing the surface charge density, the adsorption of oil molecules weakens and the contact areas between nano-droplets and silicon dioxide surface are reduced. In addition, the number density distributions, RDF distributions, and molecular orientations indicate that the oil molecules are adsorbed on the silicon dioxide surface layer-by-layer with an orientation parallel to the surface. However, the layered structure of oil molecules near the silicon dioxide surface becomes more and more obscure at higher surface charge densities.

  10. Surface and Core Electronic Structure of Oxidized Silicon Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor A. Nama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio restricted Hartree-Fock method within the framework of large unit cell formalism is used to simulate silicon nanocrystals between 216 and 1000 atoms (1.6–2.65 nm in diameter that include Bravais and primitive cell multiples. The investigated properties include core and oxidized surface properties. Results revealed that electronic properties converge to some limit as the size of the nanocrystal increases. Increasing the size of the core of a nanocrystal resulted in an increase of the energy gap, valence band width, and cohesive energy. The lattice constant of the core and oxidized surface parts shows a decreasing trend as the nanocrystal increases in a size that converges to 5.28 Ǻ in a good agreement with the experiment. Surface and core convergence to the same lattice constant reflects good adherence of oxide layer at the surface. The core density of states shows highly degenerate states that split at the oxygenated (001-(1×1 surface due to symmetry breaking. The nanocrystal surface shows smaller gap and higher valence and conduction bands when compared to the core part, due to oxygen surface atoms and reduced structural symmetry. The smaller surface energy gap shows that energy gap of the nanocrystal is controlled by the surface part. Unlike the core part, the surface part shows a descending energy gap that proves its obedience to quantum confinement effects. Nanocrystal geometry proved to have some influence on all electronic properties including the energy gap.

  11. Surface wave photonic device based on porous silicon multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermain, E.; Lysenko, V.; Benyattou, T.

    2006-01-01

    Porous silicon is widely studied in the field of photonics due to its interesting optical properties. In this work, we present theoretical and first experimental studies of a new kind of porous silicon photonic device based on optical surface wave. A theoretical analysis of the device is presented using plane-wave approximation. The porous silicon multilayered structures are realized using electrochemical etching of p + -type silicon. Morphological and optical characterizations of the realized structures are reported

  12. Study of an Amorphous Silicon Oxide Buffer Layer for p-Type Microcrystalline Silicon Oxide/n-Type Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells and Their Temperature Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweewat Krajangsang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (i-a-SiO:H films were used as front and rear buffer layers in crystalline silicon heterojunction (c-Si-HJ solar cells. The surface passivity and effective lifetime of these i-a-SiO:H films on an n-type silicon wafer were improved by increasing the CO2/SiH4 ratios in the films. Using i-a-SiO:H as the front and rear buffer layers in c-Si-HJ solar cells was investigated. The front i-a-SiO:H buffer layer thickness and the CO2/SiH4 ratio influenced the open-circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and temperature coefficient (TC of the c-Si-HJ solar cells. The highest total area efficiency obtained was 18.5% (Voc=700 mV, Jsc=33.5 mA/cm2, and FF=0.79. The TC normalized for this c-Si-HJ solar cell efficiency was −0.301%/°C.

  13. Nanolayer surface passivation schemes for silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, G.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with nanolayer surface passivation schemes and corresponding deposition processes, for envisaged applications in crystalline silicon solar cells. Surface passivation, i.e. the reduction of electronic recombination processes at semiconductor surfaces, is essential for

  14. Fast surface modification by microwave assisted click reactions on silicon substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haensch, C.; Erdmenger, T.; Fijten, M.W.M.; Höppener, S.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    Microwave irradiation has been used for the chemical modification of functional monolayers on silicon surfaces. The thermal and chemical stability of these layers was tested under microwave irradiation to investigate the possibility to use this alternative heating process for the surface

  15. Ion-step method for surface potential sensing of silicon nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan William; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel stimulus-response method for surface potential sensing of silicon nanowire (Si NW) field-effect transistors. When an "ion-step" from low to high ionic strength is given as a stimulus to the gate oxide surface, an increase of double layer capacitance is therefore expected.

  16. Chemical modification of silicon surfaces for the application in soft lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, S.

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this work was to chemically modify silicon surfaces by anchoring functional molecules. A major part was devoted to the investigation and improvement of the self-assembly process of organosilanes on oxidized silicon surfaces. The formation of a release agent layer with perfluorinated alkylsilanes was performed by vapor phase deposition. An advanced vapor phase deposition device, called CASINO device, was built to enhance the qualities of the thin films. It is possible to carry out cleaning and silanization in a closed chamber without exposing the samples to air in between. Thereby surface contamination is avoided. Experiments with the new device were performed following examples given in literature. To optimize the silanization process in the CASINO device, it was also planned to apply heat treatment of the sample during or after the deposition process. Surface layers of thiolterminated and of aminoterminated molecules were investigated as adhesive layer for the linkage of metal structures to silicon surfaces, e.g. Shuttle-Transfer Printing with gold crossbar electrodes. First, thiol- and aminoterminated organosilane SAMs were tested as adhesive layers for gold. The surface modified with thiolterminated silane molecules was further examined. Adhesion was promoted only after heat treatment of a thiolmodified silicon substrate with a gold layer on top. (orig.)

  17. Influence of germanium on thermal dewetting and agglomeration of the silicon template layer in thin silicon-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P P; Yang, B; Rugheimer, P P; Roberts, M M; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Liu Feng

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the influence of heteroepitaxially grown Ge on the thermal dewetting and agglomeration of the Si(0 0 1) template layer in ultrathin silicon-on-insulator (SOI). We show that increasing Ge coverage gradually destroys the long-range ordering of 3D nanocrystals along the (1 3 0) directions and the 3D nanocrystal shape anisotropy that are observed in the dewetting and agglomeration of pure SOI(0 0 1). The results are qualitatively explained by Ge-induced bond weakening and decreased surface energy anisotropy. Ge lowers the dewetting and agglomeration temperature to as low as 700 0 C.

  18. Impact of microcrystalline silicon carbide growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition on crystalline silicon surface passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomaska, M.; Beyer, W.; Neumann, E.; Finger, F.; Ding, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highly crystalline microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H) with excellent optoelectronic material properties is a promising candidate as highly transparent doped layer in silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. These high quality materials are usually produced using hot wire chemical vapor deposition under aggressive growth conditions giving rise to the removal of the underlying passivation layer and thus the deterioration of the crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. In this work, we introduced the n-type μc-SiC:H/n-type μc-SiO x :H/intrinsic a-SiO x :H stack as a front layer configuration for p-type SHJ solar cells with the μc-SiO x :H layer acting as an etch-resistant layer against the reactive deposition conditions during the μc-SiC:H growth. We observed that the unfavorable expansion of micro-voids at the c-Si interface due to the in-diffusion of hydrogen atoms through the layer stack might be responsible for the deterioration of surface passivation. Excellent lifetime values were achieved under deposition conditions which are needed to grow high quality μc-SiC:H layers for SHJ solar cells. - Highlights: • High surface passivation quality was preserved after μc-SiC:H deposition. • μc-SiC:H/μc-SiO x :H/a-SiO x :H stack a promising front layer configuration • Void expansion at a-SiO x :H/c-Si interface for deteriorated surface passivation • μc-SiC:H provides a high transparency and electrical conductivity.

  19. Single-layer model for surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniglia, C K; Jensen, D G

    2002-06-01

    Random roughness of an optical surface reduces its specular reflectance and transmittance by the scattering of light. The reduction in reflectance can be modeled by a homogeneous layer on the surface if the refractive index of the layer is intermediate to the indices of the media on either side of the surface. Such a layer predicts an increase in the transmittance of the surface and therefore does not provide a valid model for the effects of scatter on the transmittance. Adding a small amount of absorption to the layer provides a model that predicts a reduction in both reflectance and transmittance. The absorbing layer model agrees with the predictions of a scalar scattering theory for a layer with a thickness that is twice the rms roughness of the surface. The extinction coefficient k for the layer is proportional to the thickness of the layer.

  20. Broadband wavelength conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide with silicon nitride layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang; Li, Yongfang; Wang, Zhaolu; Han, Jing; Huang, Nan; Liu, Hongjun

    2018-01-01

    Broadband wavelength conversion based on degenerate four-wave mixing is theoretically investigated in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) waveguide with silicon nitride inter-cladding layer (a-Si:HN). We have found that enhancement of the non-linear effect of a-Si:H waveguide nitride intermediate layer facilitates broadband wavelength conversion. Conversion bandwidth of 490 nm and conversion efficiency of 11.4 dB were achieved in a numerical simulation of a 4 mm-long a-Si:HN waveguide under 1.55 μm continuous wave pumping. This broadband continuous-wave wavelength converter has potential applications in photonic networks, a type of readily manufactured low-cost highly integrated optical circuits.

  1. Layered structure in core–shell silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tuan, Pham [Advanced Institute for Science and Technology (AIST) and International Training Institute for Materials Science Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 01 Dai Co Viet Street,Hanoi 10000,Vietnam (Viet Nam); Anh Tuan, Chu; Thanh Thuy, Tran; Binh Nam, Vu [Institute of Materials Science (IMS), Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Toan Thang, Pham [Advanced Institute for Science and Technology (AIST) and International Training Institute for Materials Science Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 01 Dai Co Viet Street,Hanoi 10000,Vietnam (Viet Nam); Hong Duong, Pham, E-mail: duongphamhong@yahoo.com [Institute of Materials Science (IMS), Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Thanh Huy, Pham, E-mail: huy.phamthanh@hust.edu.vn [Advanced Institute for Science and Technology (AIST) and International Training Institute for Materials Science Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 01 Dai Co Viet Street,Hanoi 10000,Vietnam (Viet Nam)

    2014-10-15

    Silicon nanowires (NWs) with core–shell structures were prepared using the Vapor–Liquid–Solid (VLS) method. The wires have lengths of several hundreds of nanometers and diameters in the range of 30–50 nm. Generally, these wires are too large to exhibit the quantum confinement effect of excitons in Si nanocrystals. However, the photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra are similar to those of nanocrystalline silicon embedded in a SiO{sub 2} matrix, in which the recombination of quantum-confined excitons plays an important role. This effect occurs only when the average size of the silicon nanocrystals is smaller than 5 nm. To understand this discrepancy, TEM images of nanowires were obtained and analyzed. The results revealed that the cores of wires have a layered Si/SiO{sub 2} structure, in which the thickness of each layer is much smaller than its diameter. The temperature dependence of the PL intensity was recorded from 11 to 300 K; the result is in good agreement with a model that takes into account the energy splitting between the excitonic singlet and triplet levels. - Highlights: • The cores of the Si NWs have a layered Si/SiO{sub 2} structure. • The Si NWs were formed due to the phase separation of Si and SiO{sub 2} and the partial oxidization by residual oxygen. • Two processes, the reaction of Si and oxygen atoms and the combination between Si atoms, occur simultaneously. • The formation of the layered structures is associated with the self-limiting oxidation phenomenon in Si nanostructures.

  2. Degradation of Silicon Carbide Reflective Surfaces in the LEO Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, Sandro; Coluzzi, Plinio; Marchetti, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Space mirrors in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) encounter a degradation problem caused by the impact of atomic oxygen (ATOX) in the space environment. This paper presents an experiment of the atomic oxygen impact degradation and UV synergic effects on ground simulation. The experiment was carried out in a dedicated ATOX simulation vacuum chamber. As target materials, a polished CVD Beta-silicon carbide (SiC) coating was investigated. The selection of silicon carbide is due to its high potential candidate as a mirror layer substrate material for its good reflectance at UV wavelengths and excellent thermal diffusivity. It has highly desirable mechanical and thermal properties and can achieve an excellent surface finish. The deposition of the coatings were on carbon-based material substrate; i.e., silicon impregnated carbon fiber composite (C/SiC). Mechanical and thermal properties of the coatings such as hardness and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) were achieved. Several atomic oxygen impact angles were studied tilting the target samples respect to the flux direction. The various impact angles permitted to analyze the different erosion rates and typologies which the mirrors would encounter in LEO environment. The degradation was analyzed in various aspects. Macroscopic mass loss per unit area, surface roughness and morphology change were basically analyzed. The exposed surfaces of the materials were observed through a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Secondly, optical diagnostic of the surfaces were performed in order to investigate their variation in optical properties as the evaluation of reflectance degradation. The presence of micro-cracks caused by shrinkage, grinding, polishing or thermal cycling and the porosity in the coatings, could have led to the undercutting phenomenon. Observation of uprising of undercutting was also conducted. Remarks are given regarding capabilities in short-term mission exposures to the LEO environment of this coating.

  3. The kinetics of dewetting ultra-thin Si layers from silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouassa, M; Favre, L; Ronda, A; Berbezier, I; Maaref, H

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the kinetically driven dewetting of ultra-thin silicon films on silicon oxide substrate under ultra-high vacuum, at temperatures where oxide desorption and silicon lost could be ruled out. We show that in ultra-clean experimental conditions, the three different regimes of dewetting, namely (i) nucleation of holes, (ii) film retraction and (iii) coalescence of holes, can be quantitatively measured as a function of temperature, time and thickness. For a nominal flat clean sample these three regimes co-exist during the film retraction until complete dewetting. To discriminate their roles in the kinetics of dewetting, we have compared the dewetting evolution of flat unpatterned crystalline silicon layers (homogeneous dewetting), patterned crystalline silicon layers (heterogeneous dewetting) and amorphous silicon layers (crystallization-induced dewetting). The first regime (nucleation) is described by a breaking time which follows an exponential evolution with temperature with an activation energy E H ∼ 3.2 eV. The second regime (retraction) is controlled by surface diffusion of matter from the edges of the holes. It involves a very fast redistribution of matter onto the flat Si layer, which prevents the formation of a rim on the edges of the holes during both heterogeneous and homogeneous dewetting. The time evolution of the linear dewetting front measured during heterogeneous dewetting follows a characteristic power law x ∼ t 0.45 consistent with a surface diffusion-limited mechanism. It also evolves as x ∼ h -1 as expected from mass conservation in the absence of thickened rim. When the surface energy is isotropic (during dewetting of amorphous Si) the dynamics of dewetting is considerably modified: firstly, there is no measurable breaking time; secondly, the speed of dewetting is two orders of magnitude larger than for crystalline Si; and thirdly, the activation energy of dewetting is much smaller due to the different driving

  4. Rapid Thermal annealing of silicon layers amorphized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenack, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The recrystallization behavior and the supression mechanisms of the residual defects of silicon layers amorphized by ion implantation, were investigated. The samples were annealed with the aid of a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system at temperature range from 850 to 1200 0 C, and annealing time up to 120 s. Random and aligned Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were used to analyse the samples. Similarities in the recrystallization behavior for layers implanted with ions of the same chemical groups such as As or Sb; Ge, Sn or Pb, In or Ga, are observed. The results show that the effective supression of resisual defects of the recrystallired layers is vinculated to the redistribution of impurities via thermal diffusion. (author) [pt

  5. One - step nanosecond laser microstructuring, sulfur hyperdoping, and annealing of silicon surfaces in liquid carbondisulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Luong, Nguyen; Danilov, P. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Khmel'nitskii, P. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Mel'nik, N. N.; Saraeva, I. N.; Смirnov, H. A.; Rudenko, A. A.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    We perform a single-shot IR nanosecond laser processing of commercial silicon wafers in ambient air and under a 2 mm thick carbon disulfide liquid layer. We characterize the surface spots modified in the liquid ambient and the spots ablated under the same conditions in air in terms of its surface topography, chemical composition, band-structure modification, and crystalline structure by means of SEM and EDX microscopy, as well as of FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. These studies indicate that single-step microstructuring and deep (up to 2-3% on the surface) hyperdoping of the crystalline silicon in its submicron surface layer, preserving via pulsed laser annealing its crystallinity and providing high (103 - 104 cm-1) spectrally at near- and mid-IR absorption coefficients, can be obtained in this novel approach, which is very promising for thin - film silicon photovoltaic devices

  6. Optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown from tin catalyst layers on silicon coated glass

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, Jeremy

    2012-08-20

    The optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown on Si layers on glass have been modeled using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) technique and compared with experimental results. The wires were grown by the VLS (vapour-liquid-solid) method using Sn catalyst layers and exhibit a conical shape. The resulting measured and modeled absorption, reflectance and transmittance spectra have been investigated as a function of the thickness of the underlying Si layer and the initial catalyst layer, the latter having a strong influence on wire density. High levels of absorption (>90% in the visible wavelength range) and good agreement between the modeling and experiment have been observed when the nanowires have a relatively high density of ∼4 wires/μ m2. The experimental and modeled results diverge for samples with a lower density of wire growth. The results are discussed along with some implications for solar cell fabrication. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  7. Optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown from tin catalyst layers on silicon coated glass

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, Jeremy; Centeno, Anthony; Mendis, Budhika G.; Reehal, H. S.; Alford, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown on Si layers on glass have been modeled using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) technique and compared with experimental results. The wires were grown by the VLS (vapour-liquid-solid) method using Sn catalyst layers and exhibit a conical shape. The resulting measured and modeled absorption, reflectance and transmittance spectra have been investigated as a function of the thickness of the underlying Si layer and the initial catalyst layer, the latter having a strong influence on wire density. High levels of absorption (>90% in the visible wavelength range) and good agreement between the modeling and experiment have been observed when the nanowires have a relatively high density of ∼4 wires/μ m2. The experimental and modeled results diverge for samples with a lower density of wire growth. The results are discussed along with some implications for solar cell fabrication. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  8. Formation and properties of the buried isolating silicon-dioxide layer in double-layer “porous silicon-on-insulator” structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotov, V. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Ponomareva, I. V.; Kan, V. E., E-mail: kan@obisp.oscsbras.ru; Davletkildeev, N. A.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The oxidation of mesoporous silicon in a double-layer “macroporous silicon–mesoporous silicon” structure is studied. The morphology and dielectric properties of the buried insulating layer are investigated using electron microscopy, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements. Specific defects (so-called spikes) are revealed between the oxidized macropore walls in macroporous silicon and the oxidation crossing fronts in mesoporous silicon. It is found that, at an initial porosity of mesoporous silicon of 60%, three-stage thermal oxidation leads to the formation of buried silicon-dioxide layers with an electric-field breakdown strength of E{sub br} ~ 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} V/cm. Multilayered “porous silicon-on-insulator” structures are shown to be promising for integrated chemical micro- and nanosensors.

  9. Femtosecond laser irradiation-induced infrared absorption on silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The near-infrared (NIR absorption below band gap energy of crystalline silicon is significantly increased after the silicon is irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses at a simple experimental condition. The absorption increase in the NIR range primarily depends on the femtosecond laser pulse energy, pulse number, and pulse duration. The Raman spectroscopy analysis shows that after the laser irradiation, the silicon surface consists of silicon nanostructure and amorphous silicon. The femtosecond laser irradiation leads to the formation of a composite of nanocrystalline, amorphous, and the crystal silicon substrate surface with microstructures. The composite has an optical absorption enhancement at visible wavelengths as well as at NIR wavelength. The composite may be useful for an NIR detector, for example, for gas sensing because of its large surface area.

  10. Role of oxygen in surface segregation of metal impurities in silicon poly- and bicrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarray, E.; Deville, J.P.

    1987-07-01

    Metal impurities at surfaces of polycrystalline silicon ribbons have been characterized by surface sensitive methods. Oxygen and heat treatments were found to be a driving force for surface segregation of these impurities. To better analyse their influence and their possible incidence in gettering, model studies were undertaken on Czochralski grown silicon bicrystals. Two main factors of surface segregation have been studied: the role of an ultra-thin oxide layer and the effect of heat treatments. The best surface purification was obtained after an annealing process at 750/sup 0/C of a previously oxidized surface at 450/sup 0/C. This was related to the formation of SiO clusters, followed by a coalescence of SiO/sub 4/ units leading to the subsequent injection of silicon self-interstitials in the lattice.

  11. Precision Surface Grinding of Silicon Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Konneh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC is well known for its excellent material properties, high durability, high wear resistance, light weight and extreme hardness. Among the engineering applications of this material, it is an excellent candidate for optic mirrors used in an Airbone Laser (ABL device. However, the low fracture toughness and extreme brittleness characteristics of SiC are predominant factors for its poor machinability. This paper presents surface grinding of SiC using diamond cup wheels to assess the performance of diamond grits with respect to the roughness produced on the machined surfaces and also the morphology of the ground work-piece. Resin bonded diamond cup wheels of grit sizes 46 µm, 76 µm and 107 µm; depth of cut of 10 µm, 20 µm and 30 µm; and feed rate of 2 mm/min, 12 mm/min and 22 mm/min were used during this machining investigation. It has been observed that the 76 grit performs better in terms of low surface roughness value and morphology.

  12. Grafting of functionalized polymer on porous silicon surface using Grignard reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighilt, F.-Z.; Belhousse, S.; Sam, S.; Hamdani, K.; Lasmi, K.; Chazalviel, J. N.; Gabouze, N.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been paid to the manipulation and the control of the physicochemical properties of porous silicon surfaces because of their crucial importance to the modern microelectronics industry. Hybrid structures consisting of deposited polymer on porous silicon surfaces are important to applications in microelectronics, photovoltaics and sensors (Ensafi et al., 2016; Kashyout et al., 2015; Osorio et al.; 2015; Hejjo et al., 2002) [1-4]. In many cases, the polymer can provide excellent mechanical and chemical protection of the substrate, changes the electrochemical interface characteristics of the substrate, and provides new ways to the functionalization of porous silicon surfaces for molecular recognition and sensing. In this work, porous silicon surface was modified by anodic treatment in ethynylmagnesium bromide electrolyte leading to the formation of a polymeric layer bearing some bromine substituents. Subsequently, the formed polymer is functionalized with amine molecules containing functional groups (carboxylic acid or pyridine) by a substitution reaction between bromine sites and amine groups (Hofmann reaction). The chemical composition of the modified porous silicon surfaces was investigated and the grafting of polymeric chains and functional groups on the porous silicon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) which displayed the principal characteristic peaks attributed to the different functional groups. Furthermore, the surface of the material was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  13. High surface area silicon materials: fundamentals and new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriak, Jillian M

    2006-01-15

    Crystalline silicon forms the basis of just about all computing technologies on the planet, in the form of microelectronics. An enormous amount of research infrastructure and knowledge has been developed over the past half-century to construct complex functional microelectronic structures in silicon. As a result, it is highly probable that silicon will remain central to computing and related technologies as a platform for integration of, for instance, molecular electronics, sensing elements and micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. Porous nanocrystalline silicon is a fascinating variant of the same single crystal silicon wafers used to make computer chips. Its synthesis, a straightforward electrochemical, chemical or photochemical etch, is compatible with existing silicon-based fabrication techniques. Porous silicon literally adds an entirely new dimension to the realm of silicon-based technologies as it has a complex, three-dimensional architecture made up of silicon nanoparticles, nanowires, and channel structures. The intrinsic material is photoluminescent at room temperature in the visible region due to quantum confinement effects, and thus provides an optical element to electronic applications. Our group has been developing new organic surface reactions on porous and nanocrystalline silicon to tailor it for a myriad of applications, including molecular electronics and sensing. Integration of organic and biological molecules with porous silicon is critical to harness the properties of this material. The construction and use of complex, hierarchical molecular synthetic strategies on porous silicon will be described.

  14. Investigation into the surface of implanted monocrystalline silicon with the aid of wetting angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, N.N.; Bakovets, V.V.; Sedymova, E.A.; Pridachin, N.B.

    1986-01-01

    The dependence of silicon wetting margical angle on its irradiation dose by ions of electrically active and neutral materials is studied. It has been found that the system of immiscible liquids - ether and water can be successfully used for studying the silicon ion implantation effect on its water wetting. Changing of implanted silicon wetting is bound up with the increase of the defects presence level of surface layers. The specimens annealing reestablishes silicon wetting up to parameters characteristic of non irradiated specimens. The most effective annealing region is within the 550-700 deg C range. The implanted silicon wetting by melts at increased temperatures can be employed for studying kinetics and defect annealing mechanism

  15. Single-layer graphene on silicon nitride micromembrane resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Silvan; Guillermo Villanueva, Luis; Amato, Bartolo; Boisen, Anja [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Bagci, Tolga; Zeuthen, Emil; Sørensen, Anders S.; Usami, Koji; Polzik, Eugene S. [QUANTOP, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Taylor, Jacob M. [Joint Quantum Institute/NIST, College Park, Maryland 20899 (United States); Herring, Patrick K.; Cassidy, Maja C. [School of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Marcus, Charles M. [Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Cheol Shin, Yong; Kong, Jing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Due to their low mass, high quality factor, and good optical properties, silicon nitride (SiN) micromembrane resonators are widely used in force and mass sensing applications, particularly in optomechanics. The metallization of such membranes would enable an electronic integration with the prospect for exciting new devices, such as optoelectromechanical transducers. Here, we add a single-layer graphene on SiN micromembranes and compare electromechanical coupling and mechanical properties to bare dielectric membranes and to membranes metallized with an aluminium layer. The electrostatic coupling of graphene covered membranes is found to be equal to a perfectly conductive membrane, without significantly adding mass, decreasing the superior mechanical quality factor or affecting the optical properties of pure SiN micromembranes. The concept of graphene-SiN resonators allows a broad range of new experiments both in applied physics and fundamental basic research, e.g., for the mechanical, electrical, or optical characterization of graphene.

  16. Investigation of charges carrier density in phosphorus and boron doped SiNx:H layers for crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviet-Salomon, B.; Gall, S.; Slaoui, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the properties of phosphorus and boron-doped silicon nitride films. ► Phosphorus-doped layers yield higher lifetimes than undoped ones. ► The fixed charges density decreases when increasing the films phosphorus content. ► Boron-doped films feature very low lifetimes. ► These doped layers are of particular interest for crystalline silicon solar cells. -- Abstract: Dielectric layers are of major importance in crystalline silicon solar cells processing, especially as anti-reflection coatings and for surface passivation purposes. In this paper we investigate the fixed charge densities (Q fix ) and the effective lifetimes (τ eff ) of phosphorus (P) and boron (B) doped silicon nitride layers deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. P-doped layers exhibit a higher τ eff than standard undoped layers. In contrast, B-doped layers exhibit lower τ eff . A strong Q fix decrease is to be seen when increasing the P content within the film. Based on numerical simulations we also demonstrate that the passivation obtained with P- and B-doped layers are limited by the interface states rather than by the fixed charges

  17. Steady-state solution growth of microcrystalline silicon on nanocrystalline seed layers on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansen, R.; Ehlers, C.; Teubner, Th.; Boeck, T.

    2016-09-01

    The growth of polycrystalline silicon layers on glass from tin solutions at low temperatures is presented. This approach is based on the steady-state solution growth of Si crystallites on nanocrystalline seed layers, which are prepared in a preceding process step. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations reveal details about the seed layer surfaces, which consist of small hillocks, as well as about Sn inclusions and gaps along the glass substrate after solution growth. The successful growth of continuous microcrystalline Si layers with grain sizes up to several ten micrometers shows the feasibility of the process and makes it interesting for photovoltaics. Project supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) (No. BO 1129/5-1).

  18. Direct measurements of the velocity and thickness of ''explosively'' propagating buried molten layers in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowndes, D.H.; Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Pennycook, S.J.; Withrow, S.P.; Mashburn, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous infrared (1152 nm) and visible (633 nm) reflectivity measurements with nanosecond resolution were used to study the initial formation and subsequent motion of pulsed KrF laser-induced ''explosively'' propagating buried molten layers in ion implantation-amorphized silicon. The buried layer velocity decreases with depth below the surface, but increases with KrF laser energy density; a maximum velocity of about 14 m/s was observed, implying an undercooling-velocity relationship of approx. 14 K/(m/s). Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to form a direct chemical image of implanted Cu ions transported by the buried layer and showed that the final buried layer thickness was <15 nm

  19. Effect of p-layer properties on nanocrystalline absorber layer and thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Amartya; Adhikary, Koel; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Ray, Swati

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the p-layer on the crystallinity of the absorber layer and nanocrystalline silicon thin film solar cells has been studied. Boron doped Si : H p-layers of different crystallinities have been prepared under different power pressure conditions using the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. The crystalline volume fraction of p-layers increases with the increase in deposition power. Optical absorption of the p-layer reduces as the crystalline volume fraction increases. Structural studies at the p/i interface have been done by Raman scattering studies. The crystalline volume fraction of the i-layer increases as that of the p-layer increases, the effect being more prominent near the p/i interface. Grain sizes of the absorber layer decrease from 9.2 to 7.2 nm and the density of crystallites increases as the crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer increases and its grain size decreases. With increasing crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer solar cell efficiency increases

  20. Correlation between surface microstructure and optical properties of porous silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Rhramezani Sani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available   We have studied the effect of increasing porosity and its microstructure surface variation on the optical and dielectric properties of porous silicon. It seems that porosity, as the surface roughness within the range of a few microns, shows quantum effect in the absorption and reflection process of porous silicon. Optical constants of porous silicon at normal incidence of light with wavelength in the range of 250-3000 nm have been calculated by Kramers-Kroning method. Our experimental analysis shows that electronic structure and dielectric properties of porous silicon are totally different from silicon. Also, it shows that porous silicon has optical response in the visible region. This difference was also verified by effective media approximation (EMA.

  1. Increasing the radiation resistance of single-crystal silicon epitaxial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmashev Sh. D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the possibility of increasing the radiation resistance of silicon epitaxial layers by creating radiation defects sinks in the form of dislocation networks of the density of 109—1012 m–2. Such networks are created before the epitaxial layer is applied on the front surface of the silicon substrate by its preliminary oxidation and subsequent etching of the oxide layer. The substrates were silicon wafers KEF-4.5 and KDB-10 with a diameter of about 40 mm, grown by the Czochralski method. Irradiation of the samples was carried out using electron linear accelerator "Electronics" (ЭЛУ-4. Energy of the particles was 2,3—3,0 MeV, radiation dose 1015—1020 m–2, electron beam current 2 mA/m2. It is shown that in structures containing dislocation networks, irradiation results in reduction of the reverse currents by 5—8 times and of the density of defects by 5—10 times, while the mobility of the charge carriers is increased by 1,2 times. Wafer yield for operation under radiation exposure, when the semiconductor structures are formed in the optimal mode, is increased by 7—10% compared to the structures without dislocation networks. The results obtained can be used in manufacturing technology for radiation-resistant integrated circuits (bipolar, CMOS, BiCMOS, etc..

  2. Modification of inkjet printer for polymer sensitive layer preparation on silicon-based gas sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjian Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing is a versatile, low cost deposition technology with the capabilities for the localized deposition of high precision, patterned deposition in a programmable way, and the parallel deposition of a variety of materials. This paper demonstrates a new method of modifying the consumer inkjet printer to prepare polymer-sensitive layers on silicon wafer for gas sensor applications. A special printing tray for the modified inkjet printer to support a 4-inch silicon wafer is designed. The positioning accuracy of the deposition system is tested, based on the newly modified printer. The experimental data show that the positioning errors in the horizontal direction are negligibly small, while the positioning errors in the vertical direction rise with the increase of the printing distance of the wafer. The method for making suitable ink to be deposited to form the polymer-sensitive layer is also discussed. In the testing, a solution of 0.1 wt% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA was used as ink to prepare a sensitive layer with certain dimensions at a specific location on the surface of the silicon wafer, and the results prove the feasibility of the methods presented in this article.

  3. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride photonic crystals for improved-performance surface electromagnetic wave biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Alberto; Descrovi, Emiliano; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Dominici, Lorenzo; Ballarini, Mirko; Mandracci, Pietro; Danz, Norbert; Michelotti, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We exploit the properties of surface electromagnetic waves propagating at the surface of finite one dimensional photonic crystals to improve the performance of optical biosensors with respect to the standard surface plasmon resonance approach. We demonstrate that the hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride technology is a versatile platform for fabricating one dimensional photonic crystals with any desirable design and operating in a wide wavelength range, from the visible to the near infrared. We prepared sensors based on photonic crystals sustaining either guided modes or surface electromagnetic waves, also known as Bloch surface waves. We carried out for the first time a direct experimental comparison of their sensitivity and figure of merit with surface plasmon polaritons on metal layers, by making use of a commercial surface plasmon resonance instrument that was slightly adapted for the experiments. Our measurements demonstrate that the Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride photonic crystals outperform surface plasmon polaritons by a factor 1.3 in terms of figure of merit.

  4. Ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic wave generation for acoustic charge transport in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büyükköse, S.; Vratzov, B.; van der Veen, Johan (CTIT); Santos, P.V.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate piezo-electrical generation of ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon substrates, using high-resolution UV-based nanoimprint lithography, hydrogen silsequioxane planarization, and metal lift-off. Interdigital transducers were fabricated on a ZnO layer sandwiched between

  5. Investigation of epitaxial silicon layers as a material for radiation hardened silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Eremin, V.; Ilyashenko, I.; Ivanov, A.; Verbitskaya, E.

    1997-12-01

    Epitaxial grown thick layers (≥ 100 micrometers) of high resistivity silicon (Epi-Si) have been investigated as a possible candidate of radiation hardened material for detectors for high-energy physics. As grown Epi-Si layers contain high concentration (up to 2 x 10 12 cm -3 ) of deep levels compared with that in standard high resistivity bulk Si. After irradiation of test diodes by protons (E p = 24 GeV) with a fluence of 1.5 x 10 11 cm -2 , no additional radiation induced deep traps have been detected. A reasonable explanation is that there is a sink of primary radiation induced defects (interstitial and vacancies), possibly by as-grown defects, in epitaxial layers. The ''sinking'' process, however, becomes non-effective at high radiation fluences (10 14 cm -2 ) due to saturation of epitaxial defects by high concentration of radiation induced ones. As a result, at neutron fluence of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 the deep level spectrum corresponds to well-known spectrum of radiation induced defects in high resistivity bulk Si. The net effective concentration in the space charge region equals to 3 x 10 12 cm -3 after 3 months of room temperature storage and reveals similar annealing behavior for epitaxial as compared to bulk silicon

  6. Simulation and Optimization of Silicon Solar Cell Back Surface Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad TOBBECHE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, TCAD Silvaco (Technology Computer Aided Design software has been used to study the Back Surface Field (BSF effect of a p+ silicon layer for a n+pp+ silicon solar cell. To study this effect, the J-V characteristics and the external quantum efficiency (EQE are simulated under AM 1.5 illumination for two types of cells. The first solar cell is without BSF (n+p structure while the second one is with BSF (n+pp+ structure. The creation of the BSF on the rear face of the cell results in efficiency h of up to 16.06% with a short-circuit current density Jsc = 30.54 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage Voc = 0.631 V, a fill factor FF = 0.832 and a clear improvement of the spectral response obtained in the long wavelengths range. An electric field and a barrier of potential are created by the BSF and located at the junction p+/p with a maximum of 5800 V/cm and 0.15 V, respectively. The optimization of the BSF layer shows that the cell performance improves with the p+ thickness between 0.35 – 0.39 µm, the p+ doping dose is about 2 × 1014 cm-2, the maximum efficiency up to 16.19 %. The cell efficiency is more sensitive to the value of the back surface recombination velocity above a value of 103 cm/s in n+p than n+pp+ solar cell.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9565

  7. A silicon-based electrical source for surface plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, Robert J.; van Loon, Rob V.A.; Brunets, I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Polman, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of a silicon-based electrical source for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at low temperatures using silicon nanocrystal doped alumina within a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide geometry. The fabrication method uses established microtechnology processes

  8. Implanted Silicon Resistor Layers for Efficient Terahertz Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Abrahams, J.; Allen, C. A.; Benford, D. J.; Henry, R.; Stevenson, T.; Wollack, E.; Moseley, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    Broadband absorption structures are an essential component of large format bolometer arrays for imaging GHz and THz radiation. We have measured electrical and optical properties of implanted silicon resistor layers designed to be suitable for these absorbers. Implanted resistors offer a low-film-stress, buried absorber that is robust to longterm aging, temperature, and subsequent metals processing. Such an absorber layer is readily integrated with superconducting integrated circuits and standard micromachining as demonstrated by the SCUBA II array built by ROE/NIST (1). We present a complete characterization of these layers, demonstrating frequency regimes in which different recipes will be suitable for absorbers. Single layer thin film coatings have been demonstrated as effective absorbers at certain wavelengths including semimetal (2,3), thin metal (4), and patterned metal films (5,6). Astronomical instrument examples include the SHARC II instrument is imaging the submillimeter band using passivated Bi semimetal films and the HAWC instrument for SOFIA, which employs ultrathin metal films to span 1-3 THz. Patterned metal films on spiderweb bolometers have also been proposed for broadband detection. In each case, the absorber structure matches the impedance of free space for optimal absorption in the detector configuration (typically 157 Ohms per square for high absorption with a single or 377 Ohms per square in a resonant cavity or quarter wave backshort). Resonant structures with -20% bandwidth coupled to bolometers are also under development; stacks of such structures may take advantage of instruments imaging over a wide band. Each technique may enable effective absorbers in imagers. However, thin films tend to age, degrade or change during further processing, can be difficult to reproduce, and often exhibit an intrinsic granularity that creates complicated frequency dependence at THz frequencies. Thick metal films are more robust but the requirement for

  9. Low-stress silicon nitride layers for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, Ciprian; Wei, Jiashen; Chen, Bangtao; Ong, Poh Lam; Tay, Francis E. H.

    2006-12-01

    The paper presents two deposition methods for generation of SiN x layers with "zero" residual stress in PECVD reactors: mixed frequency and high power in high frequency mode (13.56 MHz). Traditionally, mix frequency mode is commonly used to produce low stress SiN x layers, which alternatively applies the HF and LF mode. However, due to the low deposition rate of LF mode, the combined deposition rate of mix frequency is quite small in order to produce homogenous SiN x layers. In the second method, a high power which was up to 600 W has been used, may also produce low residual stress (0-20 MPa), with higher deposition rate (250 to 350 nm/min). The higher power not only leads to higher dissociation rates of gases which results in higher deposition rates, but also brings higher N bonding in the SiN x films and higher compressive stress from higher volume expansion of SiN x films, which compensates the tensile stress and produces low residual stress. In addition, the paper investigates the influence of other important parameters which have great impact to the residual stress and deposition rates, such as reactant gases flow rate and pressure. By using the final optimized recipe, masking layer for anisotropic wet etching in KOH and silicon nitride cantilever have been successfully fabricated based on the low stress SiN x layers. Moreover, nanoporous membrane with 400nm pores has also been fabricated and tested for cell culture. By cultivating the mouse D1 mesenchymal stem cells on top of the nanoporous membrane, the results showed that mouse D1 mesenchymal stem cells were able to grow well. This shows that the nanoporous membrane can be used as the platform for interfacing with living cells to become biocapsules for biomolecular separation.

  10. Photonic intermediate layer for silicon tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielawny, Andreas; Miclea, Paul-Tiberiu; Wehrspohn, Ralf [Martin-Luther Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik, Mikro-MD; Lee, Seuong-Mo; Knez, Mato [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany); Carius, Reinhard [Forschungszentrum Juelich (DE). Inst. fuer Photovoltaik (IEF-5); Lisca, Marian; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk [Universitaet Jena (Germany). Dept. Physik

    2008-07-01

    The concept of incorporation of a 3D photonic crystal as diffractive spectral filter within a-Si/mc-Si tandem solar cells has been investigated as a promising application. Our intermediate reflective filter enhances the pathway of spectrally selected light within an amorphous silicon top cell in its spectral region of low absorption. From our previous work, we expect a significant improvement of the tandem's efficiency of about 1.2%(absolute). This increases efficiency for a typical silicon tandem cell from 11.2% to 12.4%, as a result of the optical current-matching of the two junctions. Our wavelength-selective optical element is a 3D-structured optical thin-film - prepared by self-organized artificial opal templates and finalized with atomic layer deposition techniques. The resulting samples are highly periodical thin-film inverted opals made of zinc-oxide. We compare recent experimental data on the optical properties with our simulations and photonic bandstructure calculations.

  11. Producing of multicomponent and composite surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchon, T.; Bielinski, P.; Michalski, A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a new method of producing multicomponent and composite layers on steel substrate. The combination of nickel plating with glow-discharge bordering or impulse-plasma deposition method gives an opportunity to obtain good properties of surface layers. The results of examinations of carbon 45 (0.45%C) steel, nickel plated and then borided under glow discharge conditions or covered with TiN layers are presented. The corrosion and friction wear resistance of such layers are markedly higher than for layer produced on non nickel plated substrates. (author). 19 refs, 5 figs

  12. Application of various surface passivation layers in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Youn; Lee, Soo Hong

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have used different techniques for surface passivation: conventional thermal oxidation (CTO), rapid thermal oxidation (RTO), and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The surface passivation qualities of eight different single and combined double layers have been investigated both on phosphorus non-diffused p-type Float Zone (FZ) silicon wafers and on diffused emitters (100 Ω/□ and 40 Ω/□). CTO/SiN 1 passivates very well not only on a non-diffused surface (τ eff = 1361 μs) but also on an emitter (τ eff = 414 μs). However, we concluded that RTO/SiN 1 and RTO/SiN 2 stacks were more suitable than CTO/SiN stacks for surface passivation in solar cells since those stacks had relatively good passivation qualities and suitable optical reflections. RTO/SiN 1 for rear-surface passivation and RTO/SiN 2 for front-surface passivation were applied to the fabrication of solar cells. We achieved efficiencies of 18.5 % and 18.8 % on 0.5 Ω-cm (FZ) silicon with planar and textured front surfaces, respectively. An excellent open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 675.6 mV was obtained for the planar cell.

  13. Investigation of Low-Cost Surface Processing Techniques for Large-Size Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuang-Tung Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present work is to develop a simple and effective method of enhancing conversion efficiency in large-size solar cells using multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si wafer. In this work, industrial-type mc-Si solar cells with area of 125×125 mm2 were acid etched to produce simultaneously POCl3 emitters and silicon nitride deposition by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD. The study of surface morphology and reflectivity of different mc-Si etched surfaces has also been discussed in this research. Using our optimal acid etching solution ratio, we are able to fabricate mc-Si solar cells of 16.34% conversion efficiency with double layers silicon nitride (Si3N4 coating. From our experiment, we find that depositing double layers silicon nitride coating on mc-Si solar cells can get the optimal performance parameters. Open circuit (Voc is 616 mV, short circuit current (Jsc is 34.1 mA/cm2, and minority carrier diffusion length is 474.16 μm. The isotropic texturing and silicon nitride layers coating approach contribute to lowering cost and achieving high efficiency in mass production.

  14. Silicon protected with atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Tilley, S. David; Pedersen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present work demonstrates that tuning the donor density of protective TiO2 layers on a photocathode has dramatic consequences for electronic conduction through TiO2 with implications for the stabilization of oxidation-sensitive catalysts on the surface. Vacuum annealing at 400 °C for 1 hour o...

  15. Dry Etch Black Silicon with Low Surface Damage: Effect of Low Capacitively Coupled Plasma Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iandolo, Beniamino; Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Gaudig, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Black silicon fabricated by reactive ion etch (RIE) is promising for integration into silicon solar cells thanks to its excellent light trapping ability. However, intensive ion bombardment during the RIE induces surface damage, which results in enhanced surface recombination velocity. Here, we pr...... carrier lifetime thanks to reduced ion energy. Surface passivation using atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 improves the effective lifetime to 7.5 ms and 0.8 ms for black silicon n- and p-type wafers, respectively.......Black silicon fabricated by reactive ion etch (RIE) is promising for integration into silicon solar cells thanks to its excellent light trapping ability. However, intensive ion bombardment during the RIE induces surface damage, which results in enhanced surface recombination velocity. Here, we...... present a RIE optimization leading to reduced surface damage while retaining excellent light trapping and low reflectivity. In particular, we demonstrate that the reduction of the capacitively coupled power during reactive ion etching preserves a reflectance below 1% and improves the effective minority...

  16. Radiation resistant passivation of silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, R.M.; Gan, J.Y.; Gruenbaum, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a silicon solar cell having improved stability when exposed to concentrated solar radiation. It comprises a body of silicon material having a major surface for receiving radiation, a plurality of p and n conductivity regions in the body for collecting electrons and holes created by impinging radiation, and a passivation layer on the major surface including a first layer of silicon oxide in contact with the body and a polycrystalline silicon layer on the first layer of silicon oxide

  17. Porosity and thickness effect of porous silicon layer on photoluminescence spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husairi, F. S.; Eswar, K. A.; Guliling, Muliyadi; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2018-05-01

    The porous silicon nanostructures was prepared by electrochemical etching of p-type silicon wafer. Porous silicon prepared by using different current density and fix etching time with assistance of halogen lamp. The physical structure of porous silicon measured by the parameters used which know as experimental factor. In this work, we select one of those factors to correlate which optical properties of porous silicon. We investigated the surface morphology by using Surface Profiler (SP) and photoluminescence using Photoluminescence (PL) spectrometer. Different physical characteristics of porous silicon produced when current density varied. Surface profiler used to measure the thickness of porous and the porosity calculated using mass different of silicon. Photoluminescence characteristics of porous silicon depend on their morphology because the size and distribution of pore its self will effect to their exciton energy level. At J=30 mA/cm2 the shorter wavelength produced and it followed the trend of porosity with current density applied.

  18. A proposed mechanism for investigating the effect of porous silicon buffer layer on TiO{sub 2} nanorods growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, N. [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran, 1993893973 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dariani, R.S., E-mail: dariani@alzahra.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran, 1993893973 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, M. [Deparment of Advanced Materials and Renewable Energies, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Tehran 3353136846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanorods (NRs) are synthesized on silicon and porous silicon (PS) substrates by hydrothermal method. • TiO{sub 2} NRs grown on PS substrates have a better growth compared to those grown on silicon. • Also increasing substrate porosity leads to an increase in density of the NRs. • We proposed a growth mechanism to explain how can control the local surface chemical potential. - Abstract: In this study, we have synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanorods (NRs) on silicon and porous silicon (PS) substrates by hydrothermal method. The PS substrates with different porosities were fabricated by electrochemical anodization on silicon. According to the field emission electron microscopy images, TiO{sub 2} NRs grown on PS substrates have a better growth compared to those grown on silicon. Also increasing substrate porosity leads to an increase in density of the NRs. Atomic force microscopy observation demonstrates that porous layer formation due to etching of silicon surface leads to an increase of its roughness. Results indicate surface roughness evolution with porosity increasing enhances TiO{sub 2} nucleation on substrate and thus increases TiO{sub 2} NRs density. We propose a growth mechanism to explain how we can control the local surface chemical potential and thus the nucleation and alignment of TiO{sub 2} NRs by surface roughness variation. Also, photoluminescence studies show a red-shift in band gap energy of NRs compared to that of common bulk TiO{sub 2}.

  19. Effect of silicon ion implantation upon the structure and corrosion resistance of the surface layer of stainless steel 316L, Vitalium and titanium alloy Ti6Al14V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baszkiewicz, J.; Kaminski, M.; Krupa, D.; Kozubowski, J.; Barcz, A.; Gawlik, A.; Jagielski, J.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of 316L stainless steel, Vitalium and Ti6A14V titanium alloy have been implanted with doses of 1.5, 3, and 4.5 x 10 17 Si + /cm 2 . Transmission electron microscopy shows that during ion implantation amorphous layers are formed. When samples of titanium alloy were implanted with a dose of 0.5 x 10 17 Si + /cm 2 , the implanted layer consisted of a dispersion of fine silicide crystallites instead of being amorphous. The corrosion resistance was analyzed by electrochemical techniques in 0.9% NaCl at the temperature of 37 C. The increase of corrosion resistance has been observed as a result of structural modifications of the surface layer. (author). 7 refs, 4 tabs

  20. Nanoshaving and Nanografting of Water Soluble Polymers on Glass and Silicon Dioxide Surfaces with Applications to DNA Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian; Conley, Hiram; Ochoa, Rosie; Hurd, Katie; Linford, Matthew R.; Davis, Robert C.

    2008-10-01

    Chemical surface patterning at the nanoscale is a critical component of chemically directed assembly of nanoscale devices or sensitive biological molecules onto surfaces. Here we present a scanning probe lithography technique that allows for patterning of aqueous polymers on glass or silicon dioxide surfaces. The surfaces were functionalized by covalently bonding a silane monolayer with a known surface charge to either a glass slide or a silicon wafer. A polymer layer less then 2 nm in thickness was electrostatically bound to the silane layer, passivating the functionalized surface. An Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) probe was used to remove a portion of the polymer layer, exposing the functional silane layer underneath. Employing this method we made chemically active submicron regions. These regions were backfilled with a fluorescent polymer and Lambda-DNA. Chemical differentiation was verified through tapping mode AFM and optical fluorescent microscopy. Lines with a pitch as small as 20nm were observed with AFM height and phase mode data.

  1. Oxygen recoil implant from SiO2 layers into single-crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.; Chen, Y.; Li, D.; Oak, S.; Srivastav, G.; Banerjee, S.; Tasch, A.; Merrill, P.; Bleiler, R.

    2001-01-01

    It is important to understand the distribution of recoil-implanted atoms and the impact on device performance when ion implantation is performed at a high dose through surface materials into single crystalline silicon. For example, in ultralarge scale integration impurity ions are often implanted through a thin layer of screen oxide and some of the oxygen atoms are inevitably recoil implanted into single-crystalline silicon. Theoretical and experimental studies have been performed to investigate this phenomenon. We have modified the Monte Carlo ion implant simulator, UT-Marlowe (B. Obradovic, G. Wang, Y. Chen, D. Li, C. Snell, and A. F. Tasch, UT-MARLOWE Manual, 1999), which is based on the binary collision approximation, to follow the full cascade and to dynamically modify the stoichiometry of the Si layer as oxygen atoms are knocked into it. CPU reduction techniques are used to relieve the demand on computational power when such a full cascade simulation is involved. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) profiles of oxygen have been carefully obtained for high dose As and BF 2 implants at different energies through oxide layers of various thicknesses, and the simulated oxygen profiles are found to agree very well with the SIMS data. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  2. Formation of porous silicon oxide from substrate-bound silicon rich silicon oxide layers by continuous-wave laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Fricke-Begemann, Th.; Peretzki, P.; Ihlemann, J.; Seibt, M.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide that show room temperature photoluminescence (PL) have great potential in silicon light emission applications. Nanocrystalline silicon particle formation by laser irradiation has the unique advantage of spatially controlled heating, which is compatible with modern silicon micro-fabrication technology. In this paper, we employ continuous wave laser irradiation to decompose substrate-bound silicon-rich silicon oxide films into crystalline silicon particles and silicon dioxide. The resulting microstructure is studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques with considerable emphasis on the formation and properties of laser damaged regions which typically quench room temperature PL from the nanoparticles. It is shown that such regions consist of an amorphous matrix with a composition similar to silicon dioxide which contains some nanometric silicon particles in addition to pores. A mechanism referred to as "selective silicon ablation" is proposed which consistently explains the experimental observations. Implications for the damage-free laser decomposition of silicon-rich silicon oxides and also for controlled production of porous silicon dioxide films are discussed.

  3. Growth of a delta-doped silicon layer by molecular beam epitaxy on a charge-coupled device for reflection-limited ultraviolet quantum efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenk, Michael E.; Grunthaner, Paula J.; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Terhune, R. W.; Fattahi, Masoud; Tseng, Hsin-Fu

    1992-01-01

    Low-temperature silicon molecular beam epitaxy is used to grow a delta-doped silicon layer on a fully processed charge-coupled device (CCD). The measured quantum efficiency of the delta-doped backside-thinned CCD is in agreement with the reflection limit for light incident on the back surface in the spectral range of 260-600 nm. The 2.5 nm silicon layer, grown at 450 C, contained a boron delta-layer with surface density of about 2 x 10 exp 14/sq cm. Passivation of the surface was done by steam oxidation of a nominally undoped 1.5 nm Si cap layer. The UV quantum efficiency was found to be uniform and stable with respect to thermal cycling and illumination conditions.

  4. Efficiency Enhancement of Nanotextured Black Silicon Solar Cells Using Al2O3/TiO2 Dual-Layer Passivation Stack Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Meng-Chen; Yang, Jason; Hsu, Chuck; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-05-20

    In this study, efficient nanotextured black silicon (NBSi) solar cells composed of silicon nanowire arrays and an Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack on the n(+) emitter were fabricated. The highly conformal Al2O3 and TiO2 surface passivation layers were deposited on the high-aspect-ratio surface of the NBSi wafers using atomic layer deposition. Instead of the single Al2O3 passivation layer with a negative oxide charge density, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack treated with forming gas annealing provides a high positive oxide charge density and a low interfacial state density, which are essential for the effective field-effect and chemical passivation of the n(+) emitter. In addition, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack suppresses the total reflectance over a broad range of wavelengths (400-1000 nm). Therefore, with the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack, the short-circuit current density and efficiency of the NBSi solar cell were increased by 11% and 20%, respectively. In conclusion, a high efficiency of 18.5% was achieved with the NBSi solar cells by using the n(+)-emitter/p-base structure passivated with the Al2O3/TiO2 stack.

  5. Complex boron redistribution kinetics in strongly doped polycrystalline-silicon/nitrogen-doped-silicon thin bi-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadli, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University Aout 1955, Skikda, 21000 (Algeria); LEMEAMED, Department of Electronics, University Mentouri, Constantine, 25000 (Algeria); Mansour, F. [LEMEAMED, Department of Electronics, University Mentouri, Constantine, 25000 (Algeria); Pereira, E. Bedel [CNRS-LAAS, 7 avenue du colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France)

    2012-10-15

    We have investigated the complex behaviour of boron (B) redistribution process via silicon thin bi-layers interface. It concerns the instantaneous kinetics of B transfer, trapping, clustering and segregation during the thermal B activation annealing. The used silicon bi-layers have been obtained by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method at 480 C, by using in-situ nitrogen-doped-silicon (NiDoS) layer and strongly B doped polycrystalline-silicon (P{sup +}) layer. To avoid long-range B redistributions, thermal annealing was carried out at relatively low-temperatures (600 C and 700 C) for various times ranging between 30 min and 2 h. To investigate the experimental secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) doping profiles, a redistribution model well adapted to the particular structure of two thin layers and to the effects of strong-concentrations has been established. The good adjustment of the simulated profiles with the experimental SIMS profiles allowed a fundamental understanding about the instantaneous physical phenomena giving and disturbing the complex B redistribution profiles-shoulders. The increasing kinetics of the B peak concentration near the bi-layers interface is well reproduced by the established model. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Optical near-field lithography on hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steen; Müllenborn, Matthias; Birkelund, Karen

    1996-01-01

    by the optical near field, were observed after etching in potassium hydroxide. The uncoated fibers can also induce oxidation without light exposure, in a manner similar to an atomic force microscope, and linewidths of 50 nm have been achieved this way. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics.......We report on a novel lithography technique for patterning of hydrogen-passivated amorphous silicon surfaces. A reflection mode scanning near-field optical microscope with uncoated fiber probes has been used to locally oxidize a thin amorphous silicon layer. Lines of 110 nm in width, induced...

  7. Surface layer effects on waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.

    1993-01-01

    Water contact subjects waste glass to chemical attack that results in the formation of surface alteration layers. Two principal hypotheses have been advanced concerning the effect of surface alteration layers on continued glass corrosion: (1) they act as a mass transport barrier and (2) they influence the chemical affinity of the glass reaction. In general, transport barrier effects have been found to be less important than affinity effects in the corrosion of most high-level nuclear waste glasses. However, they can be important under some circumstances, for example, in a very alkaline solution, in leachants containing Mg ions, or under conditions where the matrix dissolution rate is very low. The latter suggests that physical barrier effect may affect the long-term glass dissolution rate. Surface layers influence glass reaction affinity through the effects of the altered glass and secondary phases on the solution chemistry. The reaction affinity may be controlled by various precipitates and crystalline phases, amorphous silica phases, gel layer, or all the components of the glass. The surface alteration layers influence radionuclide release mainly through colloid formation, crystalline phase incorporation, and gel layer retention. This paper reviews current understanding and uncertainties

  8. On determining dead layer and detector thicknesses for a position-sensitive silicon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, J.; Lee, Jenny; Lynch, W. G.; Niu, C. Y.; Tsang, M. B.; Anderson, C.; Barney, J.; Brown, K. W.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, K. P.; Chen, G.; Estee, J.; Li, Z.; Pruitt, C.; Rogers, A. M.; Sanetullaev, A.; Setiawan, H.; Showalter, R.; Tsang, C. Y.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Xiao, Z.; Xu, Z.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, two particular properties of the position-sensitive, thick silicon detectors (known as the "E" detectors) in the High Resolution Array (HiRA) are investigated: the thickness of the dead layer on the front of the detector, and the overall thickness of the detector itself. The dead layer thickness for each E detector in HiRA is extracted using a measurement of alpha particles emitted from a 212Pb pin source placed close to the detector surface. This procedure also allows for energy calibrations of the E detectors, which are otherwise inaccessible for alpha source calibration as each one is sandwiched between two other detectors. The E detector thickness is obtained from a combination of elastically scattered protons and an energy-loss calculation method. Results from these analyses agree with values provided by the manufacturer.

  9. The behavior of silicon and boron in the surface of corroded nuclear waste glasses: an EFTEM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E. C.; Smith, K. L.; Blackford, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    Using electron energy-loss filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), we have observed the formation of silicon-rich zones on the corroded surface of a West Valley (WV6) glass. This layer is approximately 100-200 nm thick and is directly underneath a precipitated smectite clay layer. Under conventional (C)TEM illumination, this layer is invisible; indeed, more commonly used analytical techniques, such as x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), have failed to describe fully the localized changes in the boron and silicon contents across this region. Similar silicon-rich and boron-depleted zones were not found on corroded Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) borosilicate glasses, including SRL-EA and SRL-51, although they possessed similar-looking clay layers. This study demonstrates a new tool for examining the corroded surfaces of materials

  10. Contribution to implanted silicon layers and their annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combasson, J.-L.

    1976-01-01

    Defects created by boron implantation in silicon have been characterized by measuring the diffusion coefficient during annealing. Implanted impurity distributions were calculated after analyzing the hypotheses relating to charged particle slowing down through matter. Profiles are predicted with a good accuracy, by replacing occasionally the electronic stopping law by an empirical law. The asymmetries predicted are generally observed but deviations may occur for crystalline targets, or when the ion is heavy with regard to the substrate (in the event the Thomas-Fermi potential is not yet valid due to the high impact parameters). When deviations are neglected, the displacement cascade from implantation is represented by a damage profile proportional to the distribution of the Frenkel pairs. The annealing of the implanted layers is characterized by three annealing stages. The first one (400 deg C-600 deg C) is imputed to divacancy annealing associated to the formation and migration of boron-vacancy complexes. The second one (500 deg C-650 deg C) is characterized by the Watkins replacement mechanism. At high temperatures, when the annealing duration is longer than that of precipitation, interstitial loops are dissolved, and the thermal diffusion of boron atoms involves the vacancy mechanism of thermal diffusion [fr

  11. Formation of a silicon terminated (100) diamond surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, Alex; Sear, Michael; Pakes, Chris; Tadich, Anton; O'Donnell, Kane M.; Ley, Lothar; Stacey, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    We report the preparation of an ordered silicon terminated diamond (100) surface with a two domain 3 × 1 reconstruction as determined by low energy electron diffraction. Based on the dimensions of the surface unit cell and on chemical information provided by core level photoemission spectra, a model for the structure is proposed. The termination should provide a homogeneous, nuclear, and electron spin-free surface for the development of future near-surface diamond quantum device architectures

  12. Covalent Attachment of Bent-Core Mesogens to Silicon Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, L.; Achten, R.; Giesbers, M.; Smet, de L.; Arafat, A.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2009-01-01

    Two vinyl-terminated bent core-shaped liquid crystalline molecules that exhibit thermotropic antiferroelectric SmCPA phases have been covalently attached onto a hydrogen-terminated silicon(111) surface. The surface attachment was achieved via a mild procedure from a mesitylene solution, using

  13. Surface etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Muzhi

    With more than 200 GW of accumulated installations in 2015, photovoltaics (PV) has become an important green energy harvesting method. The PV market is dominated by solar cells made from crystalline silicon wafers. The engineering of the wafer surfaces is critical to the solar cell cost reduction and performance enhancement. Therefore, this thesis focuses on the development of surface etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells. It aims to develop a more efficient alkaline texturing method and more effective surface cleaning processes. Firstly, a rapid, isopropanol alcohol free texturing method is successfully demonstrated to shorten the process time and reduce the consumption of chemicals. This method utilizes the special chemical properties of triethylamine, which can form Si-N bonds with wafer surface atoms. Secondly, a room-temperature anisotropic emitter etch-back process is developed to improve the n+ emitter passivation. Using this method, 19.0% efficient screen-printed aluminium back surface field solar cells are developed that show an efficiency gain of 0.15% (absolute) compared with conventionally made solar cells. Finally, state-of-the-art silicon surface passivation results are achieved using hydrogen plasma etching as a dry alternative to the classical hydrofluoric acid wet-chemical process. The effective native oxide removal and the hydrogenation of the silicon surface are shown to be the reasons for the excellent level of surface passivation achieved with this novel method.

  14. On the growth of native oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces in dark and under illumination with light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Zinine, A.; Bankras, R.G.; Wormeester, Herbert; Poelsema, Bene; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2006-01-01

    After a cleaning procedure, a silicon surface can be terminated by Si-OH groups which results in a high chemical activity. As it is accepted, after removing the wet-chemically grown oxide layer using an HF solution, the surface becomes terminated with Si-H groups. This results in a chemically stable

  15. Chemically immobilised carbon nanotubes on silicon: Stable surfaces for aqueous electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavel, Benjamin S.; Garrett, David J.; Lehr, Joshua; Shapter, Joseph G.; Downard, Alison J.

    2010-01-01

    Diazonium ion chemistry has been used to electrochemically graft aminophenyl layers onto p-type silicon (1 0 0) substrates. A condensation reaction was used to immobilise single-walled carbon nanotubes with high carboxylic acid functionality directly to this layer. Electrochemical monitoring of the aminophenyl groups confirmed the formation of an amide linkage between the single-walled carbon nanotubes and the aminophenyl layer. The carbon nanotube electrode showed high stability and good electrochemical performance in aqueous solution. At moderate scan rates the Ru(NH 3 ) 6 +3/+2 couple exhibited quasi-reversible electron transfer kinetics with a standard heterogenous rate constant of 1.2 x 10 -3 cm s -1 at the covalently-linked carbon nanotube surface. The electrode thus combines the advantages of a silicon substrate for easy integration into sophisticated electrical and electronic devices, carbon nanotubes for desirable electrochemical properties, and stability in aqueous medium for future applications in environmental sensing.

  16. Study of double porous silicon surfaces for enhancement of silicon solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. S. M.; Rahim, A. F. A.; Radzali, R.; Mahmood, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, design and simulation of double porous silicon surfaces for enhancement of silicon solar cell is carried out. Both single and double porous structures are constructed by using TCAD ATHENA and TCAD DEVEDIT tools of the SILVACO software respectively. After the structures were created, I-V characteristics and spectral response of the solar cell were extracted using ATLAS device simulator. Finally, the performance of the simulated double porous solar cell is compared with the performance of both single porous and bulk-Si solar cell. The results showed that double porous silicon solar cell exhibited 1.8% efficiency compared to 1.3% and 1.2% for single porous silicon and bulk-Si solar cell.

  17. Silicon-ion-implanted PMMA with nanostructured ultrathin layers for plastic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristov, G. B.; Ivanov, Tz E.; Marinov, Y. G.

    2014-12-01

    Being of interest for plastic electronics, ion-beam produced nanostructure, namely silicon ion (Si+) implanted polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) with ultrathin nanostructured dielectric (NSD) top layer and nanocomposite (NC) buried layer, is examined by electric measurements. In the proposed field-effect organic nanomaterial structure produced within the PMMA network by ion implantation with low energy (50 keV) Si+ at the fluence of 3.2 × 1016 cm-2 the gate NSD is ion-nanotracks-modified low-conductive surface layer, and the channel NC consists of carbon nanoclusters. In the studied ion-modified PMMA field-effect configuration, the gate NSD and the buried NC are formed as planar layers both with a thickness of about 80 nm. The NC channel of nano-clustered amorphous carbon (that is an organic semiconductor) provides a huge increase in the electrical conduction of the material in the subsurface region, but also modulates the electric field distribution in the drift region. The field effect via the gate NSD is analyzed. The most important performance parameters, such as the charge carrier field-effect mobility and amplification of this particular type of PMMA- based transconductance device with NC n-type channel and gate NSD top layer, are determined.

  18. Silicon transport in sputter-deposited tantalum layers grown under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallais, P.; Hantzpergue, J.J.; Remy, J.C.; Roptin, D.

    1988-01-01

    Tantalum was sputter deposited on (111) Si substrate under low-energy ion bombardment in order to study the effects of the ion energy on the silicon transport into the Ta layer. The Si substrate was heated up to 500 0 C during growth. For ion energies up to 180 eV silicon is not transported into tantalum and the growth temperature has no effect. An ion bombardment energy of 280 eV enhances the transport of silicon throughout the tantalum layer. Growth temperatures up to 300 0 C have no effect on the silicon transport which is mainly enhanced by the ion bombardment. For growth temperatures between 300 and 500 0 C, the silicon transport is also enhanced by the thermal diffusion. The experimental depth distribution of silicon is similar to the theoretical depth distribution calculated for the case of an interdiffusion. The ion-enhanced process of silicon transport is characterized by an activation energy of 0.4 eV. Silicon into the layers as-grown at 500 0 C is in both states, amorphous silicide and microcrystalline cubic silicon

  19. Effect of additive gases and injection methods on chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F2 remote plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y. B.; Park, S. M.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, N.-E.; Kim, K. S.; Bae, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of various additive gases and different injection methods on the chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F 2 remote plasmas. N 2 and N 2 +O 2 gases in the F 2 /Ar/N 2 and F 2 /Ar/N 2 /O 2 remote plasmas effectively increased the etch rate of the layers. The addition of direct-injected NO gas increased the etch rates most significantly. NO radicals generated by the addition of N 2 and N 2 +O 2 or direct-injected NO molecules contributed to the effective removal of nitrogen and oxygen in the silicon nitride and oxide layers, by forming N 2 O and NO 2 by-products, respectively, and thereby enhancing SiF 4 formation. As a result of the effective removal of the oxygen, nitrogen, and silicon atoms in the layers, the chemical dry etch rates were enhanced significantly. The process regime for the etch rate enhancement of the layers was extended at elevated temperature

  20. Oxygen inhibition layer of composite resins: effects of layer thickness and surface layer treatment on the interlayer bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelic-Donova, Jasmina; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-02-01

    An oxygen inhibition layer develops on surfaces exposed to air during polymerization of particulate filling composite. This study assessed the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer of short-fiber-reinforced composite in comparison with conventional particulate filling composites. The effect of an oxygen inhibition layer on the shear bond strength of incrementally placed particulate filling composite layers was also evaluated. Four different restorative composites were selected: everX Posterior (a short-fiber-reinforced composite), Z250, SupremeXT, and Silorane. All composites were evaluated regarding the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer and for shear bond strength. An equal amount of each composite was polymerized in air between two glass plates and the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer was measured using a stereomicroscope. Cylindrical-shaped specimens were prepared for measurement of shear bond strength by placing incrementally two layers of the same composite material. Before applying the second composite layer, the first increment's bonding site was treated as follows: grinding with 1,000-grit silicon-carbide (SiC) abrasive paper, or treatment with ethanol or with water-spray. The inhibition depth was lowest (11.6 μm) for water-sprayed Silorane and greatest (22.9 μm) for the water-sprayed short-fiber-reinforced composite. The shear bond strength ranged from 5.8 MPa (ground Silorane) to 36.4 MPa (water-sprayed SupremeXT). The presence of an oxygen inhibition layer enhanced the interlayer shear bond strength of all investigated materials, but its absence resulted in cohesive and mixed failures only with the short-fiber-reinforced composite. Thus, more durable adhesion with short-fiber-reinforced composite is expected. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  1. The surface roughness and planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, James W.

    1980-03-01

    Applications of the entrainment process to layers at the boundary, which meet the self similarity requirements of the logarithmic profile, have been studied. By accepting that turbulence has dominating scales related in scale length to the height above the surface, a layer structure is postulated wherein exchange is rapid enough to keep the layers internally uniform. The diffusion rate is then controlled by entrainment between layers. It has been shown that theoretical relationships derived on the basis of using a single layer of this type give quantitatively correct factors relating the turbulence, wind and shear stress for very rough surface conditions. For less rough surfaces, the surface boundary layer can be divided into several layers interacting by entrainment across each interface. This analysis leads to the following quantitatively correct formula compared to published measurements. 1 24_2004_Article_BF00877766_TeX2GIFE1.gif {σ _w }/{u^* } = ( {2/{9Aa}} )^{{1/4}} ( {1 - 3^{{1/2}{ a/k{d_n }/z{σ _w }/{u^* }z/L} )^{{1/4}} = 1.28(1 - 0.945({{σ _w }/{u^* }}}) {{z/L}})^{{1/4 where u^* = ( {{tau/ρ}}^{{1/2}}, σ w is the standard deviation of the vertical velocity, z is the height and L is the Obukhov scale lenght. The constants a, A, k and d n are the entrainment constant, the turbulence decay constant, Von Karman's constant, and the layer depth derived from the theory. Of these, a and A, are universal constants and not empirically determined for the boundary layer. Thus the turbulence needed for the plume model of convection, which resides above these layers and reaches to the inversion, is determined by the shear stress and the heat flux in the surface layers. This model applies to convection in cool air over a warm sea. The whole field is now determined except for the temperature of the air relative to the water, and the wind, which need a further parameter describing sea surface roughness. As a first stop to describing a surface where roughness elements

  2. Silicon surface damage caused by reactive ion etching in fluorocarbon gas mixtures containing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norstroem, H.; Blom, H.; Ostling, M.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Keinonen, J.; Berg, S.

    1991-01-01

    For selective etching of SiO 2 on silicon, gases or gas mixtures containing hydrogen are often used. Hydrogen from the glow discharge promotes the formation of a thin film polymer layer responsible for the selectivity of the etching process. The reactive ion etch (RIE) process is known to create damage in the silicon substrate. The influence of hydrogen on the damage and deactivation of dopants is investigated in the present work. The distribution of hydrogen in silicon, after different etching and annealing conditions have been studied. The influence of the RIE process on the charge carrier concentration in silicon has been investigated. Various analytical techniques like contact resistivity measurements, four point probe measurements, and Hall measurements have been used to determine the influence of the RIE process on the electrical properties of processed silicon wafers. The hydrogen profile in as-etched and post annealed wafers was determined by the 1 H( 15 N,αγ) 12 C nuclear reaction. The depth of the deactivated surface layer is discussed in terms of the impinging hydrogen ion energy, i.e., the possibility of H + ions to pick up an energy equal to the peak-to-peak voltage of the rf signal

  3. Effect of nanoscale surface roughness on the bonding energy of direct-bonded silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, N.; Spearing, S. M.

    2003-11-01

    Direct wafer bonding of silicon wafers is a promising technology for manufacturing three-dimensional complex microelectromechanical systems as well as silicon-on-insulator substrates. Previous work has reported that the bond quality declines with increasing surface roughness, however, this relationship has not been quantified. This article explicitly correlates the bond quality, which is quantified by the apparent bonding energy, and the surface morphology via the bearing ratio, which describes the area of surface lying above a given depth. The apparent bonding energy is considered to be proportional to the real area of contact. The effective area of contact is defined as the area sufficiently close to contribute to the attractive force between the two bonding wafers. Experiments were conducted with silicon wafers whose surfaces were roughened by a buffered oxide etch solution (BOE, HF:NH4F=1:7) and/or a potassium hydroxide solution. The surface roughness was measured by atomic force microscopy. The wafers were direct bonded to polished "monitor" wafers following a standard RCA cleaning and the resulting bonding energy was measured by the crack-opening method. The experimental results revealed a clear correlation between the bonding energy and the bearing ratio. A bearing depth of ˜1.4 nm was found to be appropriate for the characterization of direct-bonded silicon at room temperature, which is consistent with the thickness of the water layer at the interface responsible for the hydrogen bonds that link the mating wafers.

  4. Surface chemistry dependent immunostimulative potential of porous silicon nanoplatforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Fernández, Tahia D; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Le Guével, Xavier; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Kaasalainen, Martti H; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested for immunotherapy applications in order to optimize the delivery of immuno-stimulative or -suppressive molecules. However, low attention towards the impact of the NPs' physicochemical properties has presented a major hurdle for developing efficient immunotherapeutic agents. Here, the effects of porous silicon (PSi) NPs with different surface chemistries were evaluated on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) and lymphocytes in order to highlight the importance of the NPs selection in immuno-stimulative or -suppressive treatment. Although all the PSi NPs showed high biocompatibility, only thermally oxidized PSi (TOPSi) and thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (THCPSi) NPs were able to induce very high rate of immunoactivation by enhancing the expression of surface co-stimulatory markers of the MDDCs (CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR), inducing T-cell proliferation, and also the secretion of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). These results indicated a balanced increase in the secretion of Th1, Th2, and Treg cytokines. Moreover, undecylenic acid functionalized THCPSi, as well as poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) conjugated to (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane functionalized thermally carbonized PSi and polyethyleneimine conjugated undecylenic acid functionalized THCPSi NPs showed moderate immunoactivation due to the mild increase in the above-mentioned markers. By contrast, thermally carbonized PSi (TCPSi) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane functionalized TCPSi NPs did not induce any immunological responses, suggesting that their application could be in the delivery of immunosuppressive molecules. Overall, our findings suggest all the NPs containing more nitrogen or oxygen on the outermost backbone layer have lower immunostimulatory effect than NPs with higher C-H structures on the surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of inverted pyramid-based nanostructured black-silicon solar cells passivated by an atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, David Wei

    2015-10-07

    Inverted pyramid-based nanostructured black-silicon (BS) solar cells with an Al2O3 passivation layer grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been demonstrated. A multi-scale textured BS surface combining silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and inverted pyramids was obtained for the first time by lithography and metal catalyzed wet etching. The reflectance of the as-prepared BS surface was about 2% lower than that of the more commonly reported upright pyramid-based SiNW BS surface over the whole of the visible light spectrum, which led to a 1.7 mA cm(-2) increase in short circuit current density. Moreover, the as-prepared solar cells were further passivated by an ALD-Al2O3 layer. The effect of annealing temperature on the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells was investigated. It was found that the values of all solar cell parameters including short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor exhibit a further increase under an optimized annealing temperature. Minority carrier lifetime measurements indicate that the enhanced cell performance is due to the improved passivation quality of the Al2O3 layer after thermal annealing treatments. By combining these two refinements, the optimized SiNW BS solar cells achieved a maximum conversion efficiency enhancement of 7.6% compared to the cells with an upright pyramid-based SiNWs surface and conventional SiNx passivation.

  6. Extrinsic passivation of silicon surfaces for solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, R.S.; Reichel, C.; Hermle, M.; Martins, G.; Wilshaw, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we study the extent to which extrinsic chemical and field effect passivation can improve the overall electrical passivation quality of silicon dioxide on silicon. Here we demonstrate that, when optimally applied, extrinsic passivation can produce surface recombination velocities below 1.2 cm/s in planar 1 Omega cm n-type Si. This is largely due to the additional field effect passivation component which reduces the recombination velocity below 2.13 cm/s. On textured surface...

  7. Improvement of crystalline silicon surface passivation by hydrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.; Vetter, M.; Orpella, A.; Voz, C.; Puigdollers, J.; Alcubilla, R.; Kharchenko, A.V.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2004-01-01

    A completely dry low-temperature process has been developed to passivate 3.3 Ω cm p-type crystalline silicon surface with excellent results. Particularly, we have investigated the use of a hydrogen plasma treatment, just before hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC x :H) deposition, without breaking the vacuum. We measured effective lifetime, τ eff , through a quasi-steady-state photoconductance technique. Experimental results show that hydrogen plasma treatment improves surface passivation compared to classical HF dip. S eff values lower than 19 cm s -1 were achieved using a hydrogen plasma treatment and an a-SiC x :H film deposited at 300 deg. C

  8. Elementary structural building blocks encountered in silicon surface reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, Corsin; Monney, Claude; Didiot, Clement; Schwier, Eike Fabian; Garnier, Michael Gunnar; Aebi, Philipp; Gaal-Nagy, Katalin; Onida, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Driven by the reduction of dangling bonds and the minimization of surface stress, reconstruction of silicon surfaces leads to a striking diversity of outcomes. Despite this variety even very elaborate structures are generally comprised of a small number of structural building blocks. We here identify important elementary building blocks and discuss their integration into the structural models as well as their impact on the electronic structure of the surface. (topical review)

  9. Deuterium trapping in the carbon-silicon co-deposition layers prepared by RF sputtering in D2 atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Zhang, Weiyuan; Su, Ranran; Tu, Hanjun; Shi, Liqun; Hu, Jiansheng

    2018-04-01

    Deuterated carbon-silicon layers co-deposited on graphite and silicon substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering in pure D2 plasma were produced to study deuterium trapping and characteristics of the C-Si layers. The C-Si co-deposited layers were examined by ion beam analysis (IBA), Raman spectroscopy (RS), infrared absorption (IR) spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the growth rate of the C-Si co-deposition layer decreased with increasing temperature from 350 K to 800 K, the D concentration and C/Si ratios increased differently on graphite and silicon substrates. TDS shows that D desorption is mainly as D2, HD, HDO, CD4, and C2D4 and release peaks occurred at temperatures of less than 900 K. RS and IR analysis reveal that the structure of the C-Si layers became more disordered with increasing temperatures. Rounded areas of peeling with 1-2 μm diameters were observed on the surface.

  10. Functionality of novel black silicon based nanostructured surfaces studied by TOF SIMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Aranyosiova, M.; Orinak, A.

    2010-01-01

    A functionality of the novel black silicon based nanostructured surfaces (BS 2) with different metal surface modifications was tested by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF SIMS). Mainly two surface functions were studied: analytical signal enhancement and analyte pre-ionization e......A functionality of the novel black silicon based nanostructured surfaces (BS 2) with different metal surface modifications was tested by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF SIMS). Mainly two surface functions were studied: analytical signal enhancement and analyte pre......-ionization effect in SIMS due to nanostructure type and the assistance of the noble metal surface coating (Ag or Au) for secondary ion formation. As a testing analyte a Rhodamine 6G was applied. Bi+ has been used as SIMS primary ions. It was found out that SIMS signal enhancement of the analyte significantly...... depends on Ag layer thickness and measured ion mode (negative, positive). The best SIMS signal enhancement was obtained at BS2 surface coated with 400 nm of Ag layer. SIMS fragmentation schemes were developed for a model analyte deposited onto a silver and gold surface. Significant differences in pre...

  11. Process induced sub-surface damage in mechanically ground silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yu; De Munck, Koen; Teixeira, Ricardo Cotrin; Swinnen, Bart; De Wolf, Ingrid; Verlinden, Bert

    2008-01-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microcopy, atomic force microscopy and preferential etching were used to characterize the sub-surface damage induced by the rough and fine grinding steps used to make ultra-thin silicon wafers. The roughly and ultra-finely ground silicon wafers were examined on both the machined (1 0 0) planes and the cross-sectional (1 1 0) planes. They reveal similar multi-layer damage structures, consisting of amorphous, plastically deformed and elastically stressed layers. However, the thickness of each layer in the roughly ground sample is much higher than its counterpart layers in the ultra-finely ground sample. The residual stress after rough and ultra-fine grinding is in the range of several hundreds MPa and 30 MPa, respectively. In each case, the top amorphous layer is believed to be the result of sequential phase transformations (Si-I to Si-II to amorphous Si). These phase transformations correspond to a ductile grinding mechanism, which is dominating in ultra-fine grinding. On the other hand, in rough grinding, a mixed mechanism of ductile and brittle grinding causes multi-layer damage and sub-surface cracks

  12. Second-harmonic generation in substoichiometric silicon nitride layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Emanuele; Capretti, Antonio; Miano, Giovanni; Dal Negro, Luca

    2013-03-01

    Harmonic generation in optical circuits offers the possibility to integrate wavelength converters, light amplifiers, lasers, and multiple optical signal processing devices with electronic components. Bulk silicon has a negligible second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility owing to its crystal centrosymmetry. Silicon nitride has its place in the microelectronic industry as an insulator and chemical barrier. In this work, we propose to take advantage of silicon excess in silicon nitride to increase the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) efficiency. Thin films have been grown by reactive magnetron sputtering and their nonlinear optical properties have been studied by femtosecond pumping over a wide range of excitation wavelengths, silicon nitride stoichiometry and thermal processes. We demonstrate SHG in the visible range (375 - 450 nm) using a tunable 150 fs Ti:sapphire laser, and we optimize the SH emission at a silicon excess of 46 at.% demonstrating a maximum SHG efficiency of 4x10-6 in optimized films. Polarization properties, generation efficiency, and the second order nonlinear optical susceptibility are measured for all the investigated samples and discussed in terms of an effective theoretical model. Our findings show that the large nonlinear optical response demonstrated in optimized Si-rich silicon nitride materials can be utilized for the engineering of nonlinear optical functions and devices on a Si chip.

  13. Electroless deposition of Ni-P on a silicon surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hassan El Grini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article concerns the metallization of silicon substrates by deposition of the nickel-phosphorus alloy produced by an autocatalytic chemical process. The deposition electrolyte is composed of a metal salt, a reducing agent (sodium hypophosphite, a complexing agent (sodium citrate and a buffer (ammonium acetate. The deposition could only be carried out after activation of the silicon by fixing catalytic species on its surface. The immersion of the silicon samples in palladium chloride made it possible to produce relatively thick and regular Ni-P coatings. The immersion time was optimized. The activation of Si was characterized by XPS and the Ni-P coating by XPS and M.E.B. The electrochemical study did not show any real mechanism changes compared to the Ni-P deposition on a conductive surface

  14. Influence of laser alloyed layer of carbon steel with tantalum on the structure and surface layer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldan, A.; Kusinski, J.; Kac, S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the microstructure and properties (chemical composition and microhardness) of the surface laser alloyed layer with tantalum. The surface alloyed zones varied in microstructure, zones depth and width, as well as Ta content according to the thickness of the coated layer, bonding paint type and process parameters (power and scanning velocity). The electron microprobe analysis of melts showed that higher tantalum content in the melted zone resulted from the thicker original Ta coating as well as slower scanning velocity. Scanning electron microscopy examinations show that dendritic structure of the melted zone becomes evident when carbon was used as one of the components of the binder, while structure is typically martensitic when silicon containing binder was used for powder deposition. Samples covered with Ta and carbon containing binder showed after laser alloying higher hardness than in case of using silicon containing binder. (author)

  15. Optical properties of uniformly sized silicon nanocrystals within a single silicon oxide layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    En Naciri, A., E-mail: aotmane.en-naciri@univ-lorraine.fr [Universite de Lorraine, LCP-A2MC, Institut Jean Barriol (France); Miska, P. [Universite de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour CNRS UMR 7198 (France); Keita, A.-S. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (Germany); Battie, Y. [Universite de Lorraine, LCP-A2MC, Institut Jean Barriol (France); Rinnert, H.; Vergnat, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour CNRS UMR 7198 (France)

    2013-04-15

    Silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC) with different sizes (2-6 nm) are synthesized by evaporation. The system is composed of a single Si-NC layer that is well controlled in size. The numerical modeling of such system, without a large size distribution, is suitable to perform easily the optical calculations. The nanocrystal size and confinement effects on the optical properties are determined by photoluminescence (PL) measurements, absorption in the UV visible range, and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The optical constants and the bandgap energies are then extracted and analyzed. The dependence of the optical responses with the decrease of the size of the Si-NC occurs not only with a drastic reduction of the amplitudes of dielectric function but also by a significant expansion of the optical gap. This study supports the idea of a presence of a critical size of Si-NC for which the confinement effect becomes weak. The evolution of those bandgap energies are discussed in comparison with values reported in literature.

  16. Effect of layer thickness on device response of silicon heavily supersaturated with sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, David [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy NY 12180 (United States); Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, United States Military Academy, West Point NY 10996 (United States); Mathews, Jay [US Army ARDEC – Benét Laboratories, Watervliet NY 12189 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Sullivan, Joseph T.; Buonassisi, Tonio [School of Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139 (United States); Akey, Austin [School of Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139 (United States); Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Aziz, Michael J. [Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Persans, Peter [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy NY 12180 (United States); Warrender, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jwarrend@post.harvard.edu [US Army ARDEC – Benét Laboratories, Watervliet NY 12189 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We report on a simple experiment in which the thickness of a hyperdoped silicon layer, supersaturated with sulfur by ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting and rapid solidification, is systematically varied at constant average sulfur concentration, by varying the implantation energy, dose, and laser fluence. Contacts are deposited and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) is measured for visible wavelengths. We posit that the sulfur layer primarily absorbs light but contributes negligible photocurrent, and we seek to support this by analyzing the EQE data for the different layer thicknesses in two interlocking ways. In the first, we use the measured concentration depth profiles to obtain the approximate layer thicknesses, and, for each wavelength, fit the EQE vs. layer thickness curve to obtain the absorption coefficient of hyperdoped silicon for that wavelength. Comparison to literature values for the hyperdoped silicon absorption coefficients [S.H. Pan et al. Applied Physics Letters 98, 121913 (2011)] shows good agreement. Next, we essentially run this process in reverse; we fit with Beer’s law the curves of EQE vs. hyperdoped silicon absorption coefficient for those wavelengths that are primarily absorbed in the hyperdoped silicon layer, and find that the layer thicknesses obtained from the fit are in good agreement with the original values obtained from the depth profiles. We conclude that the data support our interpretation of the hyperdoped silicon layer as providing negligible photocurrent at high S concentrations. This work validates the absorption data of Pan et al. [Applied Physics Letters 98, 121913 (2011)], and is consistent with reports of short mobility-lifetime products in hyperdoped layers. It suggests that for optoelectronic devices containing hyperdoped layers, the most important contribution to the above band gap photoresponse may be due to photons absorbed below the hyperdoped layer.

  17. Effect of layer thickness on device response of silicon heavily supersaturated with sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hutchinson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on a simple experiment in which the thickness of a hyperdoped silicon layer, supersaturated with sulfur by ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting and rapid solidification, is systematically varied at constant average sulfur concentration, by varying the implantation energy, dose, and laser fluence. Contacts are deposited and the external quantum efficiency (EQE is measured for visible wavelengths. We posit that the sulfur layer primarily absorbs light but contributes negligible photocurrent, and we seek to support this by analyzing the EQE data for the different layer thicknesses in two interlocking ways. In the first, we use the measured concentration depth profiles to obtain the approximate layer thicknesses, and, for each wavelength, fit the EQE vs. layer thickness curve to obtain the absorption coefficient of hyperdoped silicon for that wavelength. Comparison to literature values for the hyperdoped silicon absorption coefficients [S.H. Pan et al. Applied Physics Letters 98, 121913 (2011] shows good agreement. Next, we essentially run this process in reverse; we fit with Beer’s law the curves of EQE vs. hyperdoped silicon absorption coefficient for those wavelengths that are primarily absorbed in the hyperdoped silicon layer, and find that the layer thicknesses obtained from the fit are in good agreement with the original values obtained from the depth profiles. We conclude that the data support our interpretation of the hyperdoped silicon layer as providing negligible photocurrent at high S concentrations. This work validates the absorption data of Pan et al. [Applied Physics Letters 98, 121913 (2011], and is consistent with reports of short mobility-lifetime products in hyperdoped layers. It suggests that for optoelectronic devices containing hyperdoped layers, the most important contribution to the above band gap photoresponse may be due to photons absorbed below the hyperdoped layer.

  18. Excellent Silicon Surface Passivation Achieved by Industrial Inductively Coupled Plasma Deposited Hydrogenated Intrinsic Amorphous Silicon Suboxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an alternative method of depositing a high-quality passivation film for heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells, in this paper. The deposition of hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon suboxide is accomplished by decomposing hydrogen, silane, and carbon dioxide in an industrial remote inductively coupled plasma platform. Through the investigation on CO2 partial pressure and process temperature, excellent surface passivation quality and optical properties are achieved. It is found that the hydrogen content in the film is much higher than what is commonly reported in intrinsic amorphous silicon due to oxygen incorporation. The observed slow depletion of hydrogen with increasing temperature greatly enhances its process window as well. The effective lifetime of symmetrically passivated samples under the optimal condition exceeds 4.7 ms on planar n-type Czochralski silicon wafers with a resistivity of 1 Ωcm, which is equivalent to an effective surface recombination velocity of less than 1.7 cms−1 and an implied open-circuit voltage (Voc of 741 mV. A comparison with several high quality passivation schemes for solar cells reveals that the developed inductively coupled plasma deposited films show excellent passivation quality. The excellent optical property and resistance to degradation make it an excellent substitute for industrial heterojunction silicon solar cell production.

  19. Fabrication of wear-resistant silicon microprobe tips for high-speed surface roughness scanning devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Yu, Feng; Doering, Lutz; Völlmeke, Stefan; Brand, Uwe; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2015-05-01

    Silicon microprobe tips are fabricated and integrated with piezoresistive cantilever sensors for high-speed surface roughness scanning systems. The fabrication steps of the high-aspect-ratio silicon microprobe tips were started with photolithography and wet etching of potassium hydroxide (KOH) resulting in crystal-dependent micropyramids. Subsequently, thin conformal wear-resistant layer coating of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was demonstrated on the backside of the piezoresistive cantilever free end using atomic layer deposition (ALD) method in a binary reaction sequence with a low thermal process and precursors of trimethyl aluminum and water. The deposited Al2O3 layer had a thickness of 14 nm. The captured atomic force microscopy (AFM) image exhibits a root mean square deviation of 0.65 nm confirming the deposited Al2O3 surface quality. Furthermore, vacuum-evaporated 30-nm/200-nm-thick Au/Cr layers were patterned by lift-off and served as an etch mask for Al2O3 wet etching and in ICP cryogenic dry etching. By using SF6/O2 plasma during inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching, micropillar tips were obtained. From the preliminary friction and wear data, the developed silicon cantilever sensor has been successfully used in 100 fast measurements of 5- mm-long standard artifact surface with a speed of 15 mm/s and forces of 60-100 μN. Moreover, the results yielded by the fabricated silicon cantilever sensor are in very good agreement with those of calibrated profilometer. These tactile sensors are targeted for use in high-aspect-ratio microform metrology.

  20. The quantitative analysis of silicon carbide surface smoothing by Ar and Xe cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieshkin, A. E.; Kireev, D. S.; Ermakov, Yu. A.; Trifonov, A. S.; Presnov, D. E.; Garshev, A. V.; Anufriev, Yu. V.; Prokhorova, I. G.; Krupenin, V. A.; Chernysh, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    The gas cluster ion beam technique was used for the silicon carbide crystal surface smoothing. The effect of processing by two inert cluster ions, argon and xenon, was quantitatively compared. While argon is a standard element for GCIB, results for xenon clusters were not reported yet. Scanning probe microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques were used for the analysis of the surface roughness and surface crystal layer quality. The gas cluster ion beam processing results in surface relief smoothing down to average roughness about 1 nm for both elements. It was shown that xenon as the working gas is more effective: sputtering rate for xenon clusters is 2.5 times higher than for argon at the same beam energy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis of the surface defect layer gives values of 7 ± 2 nm and 8 ± 2 nm for treatment with argon and xenon clusters.

  1. Retinal Layers Measurements following Silicone Oil Tamponade for Retinal Detachment Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurišić, Darija; Geber, Mia Zorić; Ćavar, Ivan; Utrobičić, Dobrila Karlica

    2017-12-19

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of silicone oil on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent vitreoretinal surgery. The study included 47 patients (eyes), who underwent a pars plana vitrectomy with the silicone oil tamponade. The control group included unoperated eye of all participants. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used for the measurements of peripapilar and macular RNFL thickness. The average peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly higher in the silicone oil filled eyes during endotamponade and after its removal. The eyes with elevated IOP had less thickening of the RNFL in comparison to the eyes with normal IOP. Central macular thickness and macular volume were decreased in the silicone oil filled eyes in comparison to the control eyes. In conclusion, silicone oil caused peripapilar RNFL thickening in the vitrectomized eyes during endotamponade and after silicone oil removal.

  2. Substrate and p-layer effects on polymorphous silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolmasov S.N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of textured transparent conducting oxide (TCO substrate and p-layer on the performance of single-junction hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H solar cells has been addressed. Comparative studies were performed using p-i-n devices with identical i/n-layers and back reflectors fabricated on textured Asahi U-type fluorine-doped SnO2, low-pressure chemical vapor deposited (LPCVD boron-doped ZnO and sputtered/etched aluminum-doped ZnO substrates. The p-layers were hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbon and microcrystalline silicon oxide. As expected, the type of TCO and p-layer both have a great influence on the initial conversion efficiency of the solar cells. However they have no effect on the defect density of the pm-Si:H absorber layer.

  3. Investigations of surface characterization of silicone rubber due to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    †Department of Polymer Technology, Crescent Engineering College, Chennai 600 048, India. Abstract. In the present work, tracking ... Silicone rubber; surface degradation; tracking; WAXD; TG–DTA. 1. Introduction. Power transmission at ... mena in polymer insulators under d.c. voltages. Hence the tracking phenomena ...

  4. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  5. Surface functionalization of HF-treated silicon nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    place when silicon nanowires reacted with 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate, and reductive deposition reaction occurred in the ... detection of fM level of protein. 14 and DNA. 15 ... surfaces can be easily modified to act as both elec- tron-transfer ...

  6. Recrystallization of implanted amorphous silicon layers. I. Electrical properties of silicon implanted with BF+2 or Si++B+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.Y.; Streetman, B.G.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical properties of recrystallized amorphous silicon layers, formed by BF + 2 implants or Si + +B + implants, have been studied by differential resistivity and Hall-effect measurements. Electrical carrier distribution profiles show that boron atoms inside the amorphized Si layers can be fully activated during recrystallization at 550 0 C. The mobility is also recovered. However, the tail of the B distribution, located inside a damaged region near the original amorphous-crystalline interface, remains inactive. This inactive tail has been observed for all samples implanted with BF + 2 . Only in a thicker amorphous layer, formed for example by Si + predamage implants, can the entire B profile be activated. The etch rate of amorphous silicon in HF and the effect of fluorine on the recrystallization rate are also reported

  7. Conciliating surface superhydrophobicities and mechanical strength of porous silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuguo; Zhao, Kun; Cheng, Jinchun; Zhang, Junyan

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces on Mechanical stable macroporous silicon films were prepared by electrochemical etching with subsequent octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) modification. The surface morphologies were controlled by current densities and the mechanical properties were adjusted by their corresponding porosities. Contrast with the smooth macroporous silicon films with lower porosities (34.1%) and microporous silicon with higher porosities (97%), the macroporous film with a rough three-dimension (3D) surface and a moderate pore to cross-section area ratio (37.8%, PSi2‧) exhibited both good mechanical strength (Yong' modulus, shear modulus and collapse strength are 64.2, 24.1 and 0.32 GPa, respectively) and surface superhydrophobicity (water contact angle is 158.4 ± 2° and sliding angle is 2.7 ± 1°). This result revealed that the surface hydrophobicities (or the surface roughness) and mechanical strength of porous films could be conciliated by pore to cross-section area ratios control and 3D structures construction. Thus, the superhydrophobic surfaces on mechanical stable porous films could be obtained by 3D structures fabrication on porous film with proper pore to cross-section area ratios.

  8. Characterization of Al2O3 surface passivation of silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albadri, Abdulrahman M.

    2014-01-01

    A study of the passivation of silicon surface by aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) is reported. A correlation of fixed oxide charge density (Q f ) and interface trap density (D it ) on passivation efficiency is presented. Low surface recombination velocity (SRV) was obtained even by as-deposited Al 2 O 3 films and this was found to be associated to the passivation of interface states. Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy spectra show the existence of an interfacial silicon oxide thin layer in both as-deposited and annealed Al 2 O 3 films. Q f is found positive in as-deposited films and changing to negative upon subsequent annealing, providing thus an enhancement of the passivation in p-type silicon wafers, associated to field effects. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis confirms the correlation between D it and hydrogen concentration at the Al 2 O 3 /Si interface. A lowest SRV of 15 cm/s was obtained after an anneal at 400 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. - Highlights: • Al 2 O 3 provides superior passivation for silicon surfaces. • Atomic layer deposition-Al 2 O 3 was deposited at a low temperature of 200 °C. • A lowest surface passivation velocity of 15 cm/s was obtained after an anneal at 400 °C in nitrogen. • As-deposited Al 2 O 3 films form very thin SiO 2 layer responsible of low interface trap densities. • High negative fixed charge density of (− 2 × 10 12 cm −2 ) was achieved upon annealing at 400 °C

  9. Design criteria for XeF{sub 2} enabled deterministic transformation of bulk silicon (100) into flexible silicon layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Hussain, Muhammad M., E-mail: muhammadmustafa.hussain@kaust.edu.sa [Integrated Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL) and Integrated Disruptive Electronics Applications (IDEA) Laboratory, Computer Electrical Mathematical Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology - KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-07-15

    Isotropic etching of bulk silicon (100) using Xenon Difluoride (XeF{sub 2}) gas presents a unique opportunity to undercut and release ultra-thin flexible silicon layers with pre-fabricated state-of-the-art Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) electronics. In this work, we present design criteria and mechanism with a comprehensive mathematical model for this method. We consider various trench geometries and parametrize important metrics such as etch time, number of cycles and area efficiency in terms of the trench diameter and spacing so that optimization can be done for specific applications. From our theoretical analysis, we conclude that a honeycomb-inspired hexagonal distribution of trenches can produce the most efficient release of ultra-thin flexible silicon layers in terms of the number of etch cycles, while a rectangular distribution of circular trenches provides the most area efficient design. The theoretical results are verified by fabricating and releasing (varying sizes) flexible silicon layers. We observe uniform translation of design criteria into practice for etch distances and number of etch cycles, using reaction efficiency as a fitting parameter.

  10. Design criteria for XeF2 enabled deterministic transformation of bulk silicon (100) into flexible silicon layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2016-07-15

    Isotropic etching of bulk silicon (100) using Xenon Difluoride (XeF2) gas presents a unique opportunity to undercut and release ultra-thin flexible silicon layers with pre-fabricated state-of-the-art Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) electronics. In this work, we present design criteria and mechanism with a comprehensive mathematical model for this method. We consider various trench geometries and parametrize important metrics such as etch time, number of cycles and area efficiency in terms of the trench diameter and spacing so that optimization can be done for specific applications. From our theoretical analysis, we conclude that a honeycomb-inspired hexagonal distribution of trenches can produce the most efficient release of ultra-thin flexible silicon layers in terms of the number of etch cycles, while a rectangular distribution of circular trenches provides the most area efficient design. The theoretical results are verified by fabricating and releasing (varying sizes) flexible silicon layers. We observe uniform translation of design criteria into practice for etch distances and number of etch cycles, using reaction efficiency as a fitting parameter.

  11. Design criteria for XeF2 enabled deterministic transformation of bulk silicon (100) into flexible silicon layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Isotropic etching of bulk silicon (100) using Xenon Difluoride (XeF2) gas presents a unique opportunity to undercut and release ultra-thin flexible silicon layers with pre-fabricated state-of-the-art Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) electronics. In this work, we present design criteria and mechanism with a comprehensive mathematical model for this method. We consider various trench geometries and parametrize important metrics such as etch time, number of cycles and area efficiency in terms of the trench diameter and spacing so that optimization can be done for specific applications. From our theoretical analysis, we conclude that a honeycomb-inspired hexagonal distribution of trenches can produce the most efficient release of ultra-thin flexible silicon layers in terms of the number of etch cycles, while a rectangular distribution of circular trenches provides the most area efficient design. The theoretical results are verified by fabricating and releasing (varying sizes) flexible silicon layers. We observe uniform translation of design criteria into practice for etch distances and number of etch cycles, using reaction efficiency as a fitting parameter.

  12. Control of single-electron charging of metallic nanoparticles onto amorphous silicon surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Martin; Gmucová, Katarína; Nádazdy, Vojtech; Capek, Ignác; Satka, Alexander; Kopáni, Martin; Cirák, Július; Majková, Eva

    2008-11-01

    Sequential single-electron charging of iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in oleic acid/oleyl amine envelope and deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique onto Pt electrode covered with undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon film is reported. Single-electron charging (so-called quantized double-layer charging) of nanoparticles is detected by cyclic voltammetry as current peaks and the charging effect can be switched on/off by the electric field in the surface region induced by the excess of negative/positive charged defect states in the amorphous silicon layer. The particular charge states in amorphous silicon are created by the simultaneous application of a suitable bias voltage and illumination before the measurement. The influence of charged states on the electric field in the surface region is evaluated by the finite element method. The single-electron charging is analyzed by the standard quantized double layer model as well as two weak-link junctions model. Both approaches are in accordance with experiment and confirm single-electron charging by tunnelling process at room temperature. This experiment illustrates the possibility of the creation of a voltage-controlled capacitor for nanotechnology.

  13. Influence of polycrystalline silicon layer on flow through «metal — p-Si» contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyntyna V. A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of investigations of charge transport in the "metal — p-Si" contacts with different thickness of polycrystalline p-Si layer the mechanisms of charge transport through such structures are shown. It is established that with increasing thickness of the layer of polycrystalline p-Si current transport mechanism changes from a double injection into the drift-diffusion. This change is due to an increase in the drift current component in the space charge zone of "metal — p-Si" contact, which arises as a result of increased surface density of scattering barriers, which are localized at the boundaries of neighboring silicon polycrystals.

  14. Surface engineered porous silicon for stable, high performance electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Landon; Westover, Andrew; Mares, Jeremy W.; Chatterjee, Shahana; Erwin, William R.; Bardhan, Rizia; Weiss, Sharon M.; Pint, Cary L.

    2013-10-01

    Silicon materials remain unused for supercapacitors due to extreme reactivity of silicon with electrolytes. However, doped silicon materials boast a low mass density, excellent conductivity, a controllably etched nanoporous structure, and combined earth abundance and technological presence appealing to diverse energy storage frameworks. Here, we demonstrate a universal route to transform porous silicon (P-Si) into stable electrodes for electrochemical devices through growth of an ultra-thin, conformal graphene coating on the P-Si surface. This graphene coating simultaneously passivates surface charge traps and provides an ideal electrode-electrolyte electrochemical interface. This leads to 10-40X improvement in energy density, and a 2X wider electrochemical window compared to identically-structured unpassivated P-Si. This work demonstrates a technique generalizable to mesoporous and nanoporous materials that decouples the engineering of electrode structure and electrochemical surface stability to engineer performance in electrochemical environments. Specifically, we demonstrate P-Si as a promising new platform for grid-scale and integrated electrochemical energy storage.

  15. Surface engineered porous silicon for stable, high performance electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Landon; Westover, Andrew; Mares, Jeremy W.; Chatterjee, Shahana; Erwin, William R.; Bardhan, Rizia; Weiss, Sharon M.; Pint, Cary L.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon materials remain unused for supercapacitors due to extreme reactivity of silicon with electrolytes. However, doped silicon materials boast a low mass density, excellent conductivity, a controllably etched nanoporous structure, and combined earth abundance and technological presence appealing to diverse energy storage frameworks. Here, we demonstrate a universal route to transform porous silicon (P-Si) into stable electrodes for electrochemical devices through growth of an ultra-thin, conformal graphene coating on the P-Si surface. This graphene coating simultaneously passivates surface charge traps and provides an ideal electrode-electrolyte electrochemical interface. This leads to 10–40X improvement in energy density, and a 2X wider electrochemical window compared to identically-structured unpassivated P-Si. This work demonstrates a technique generalizable to mesoporous and nanoporous materials that decouples the engineering of electrode structure and electrochemical surface stability to engineer performance in electrochemical environments. Specifically, we demonstrate P-Si as a promising new platform for grid-scale and integrated electrochemical energy storage. PMID:24145684

  16. Optimizing pentacene thin-film transistor performance: Temperature and surface condition induced layer growth modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnig, R; Hollerer, M; Striedinger, B; Fian, A; Stadlober, B; Winkler, A

    2015-11-01

    In this work we present in situ electrical and surface analytical, as well as ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on temperature and surface condition induced pentacene layer growth modifications, leading to the selection of optimized deposition conditions and entailing performance improvements. We prepared p ++ -silicon/silicon dioxide bottom-gate, gold bottom-contact transistor samples and evaluated the pentacene layer growth for three different surface conditions (sputtered, sputtered + carbon and unsputtered + carbon) at sample temperatures during deposition of 200 K, 300 K and 350 K. The AFM investigations focused on the gold contacts, the silicon dioxide channel region and the highly critical transition area. Evaluations of coverage dependent saturation mobilities, threshold voltages and corresponding AFM analysis were able to confirm that the first 3-4 full monolayers contribute to the majority of charge transport within the channel region. At high temperatures and on sputtered surfaces uniform layer formation in the contact-channel transition area is limited by dewetting, leading to the formation of trenches and the partial development of double layer islands within the channel region instead of full wetting layers. By combining the advantages of an initial high temperature deposition (well-ordered islands in the channel) and a subsequent low temperature deposition (continuous film formation for low contact resistance) we were able to prepare very thin (8 ML) pentacene transistors of comparably high mobility.

  17. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited MoOx emitters for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, J.; Mews, M.; Kaufmann, K.; Schneider, T.; Sprafke, A.N.; Korte, L.; Wehrsporn, R.B

    2015-01-01

    A method for the deposition of molybdenum oxide MoOx with high growth rates at temperatures below 200 C based on plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition is presented. The stoichiometry of the overstoichiometric MoOx films can be adjusted by the plasma parameters. First results of these layers acting as hole selective contacts in silicon heterojunction solar cells are presented and discussed

  18. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Adhesion of yeasts and bacteria to fluoro-alkylsiloxane layers chemisorbed on silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaert, EPJM; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1998-01-01

    Indwelling voice prostheses are most often made of silicone rubber. However, the silicone rubber surface attracts huge quantities of adhering yeasts and bacteria and their colonization on the valve side of voice prostheses leads to frequent malfunctioning. On average, indwelling voice prostheses

  20. Rare earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanke, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The growth, structure and electronic properties of rare earth silicide nanowires are investigated on planar and vicinal Si(001) und Si(111) surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). On all surfaces investigated within this work hexagonal disilicides are grown epitaxially with a lattice mismatch of -2.55% up to +0.83% along the hexagonal a-axis. Along the hexagonal c-axis the lattice mismatch is essentially larger with 6.5%. On the Si(001)2 x 1 surface two types of nanowires are grown epitaxially. The socalled broad wires show a one-dimensional metallic valence band structure with states crossing the Fermi level. Along the nanowires two strongly dispersing states at the anti J point and a strongly dispersing state at the anti Γ point can be observed. Along the thin nanowires dispersing states could not be observed. Merely in the direction perpendicular to the wires an intensity variation could be observed, which corresponds to the observed spacial structure of the thin nanowires. The electronic properties of the broad erbium silicide nanowires are very similar to the broad dysprosium silicide nanowires. The electronic properties of the DySi 2 -monolayer and the Dy 3 Si 5 -multilayer on the Si(111) surface are investigated in comparison to the known ErSi 2 /Si(111) and Er 3 Si 5 /Si(111) system. The positions and the energetic locations of the observed band in the surface Brillouin zone will be confirmed for dysprosium. The shape of the electron pockets in the vector k parallel space is elliptical at the anti M points, while the hole pocket at the anti Γ point is showing a hexagonal symmetry. On the Si(557) surface the structural and electronic properties depend strongly on the different preparation conditions likewise, in particular on the rare earth coverage. At submonolayer coverage the thin nanowires grow in wide areas of the sample surface, which are oriented

  1. Electric field strength and plasma delay in silicon surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, I.; Inbe, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Kimura, I.

    1994-01-01

    The resistivity change of a silicon irradiated by high energy neutrons became an interest of study associated with the large scale accelerator projects . The increase of the resistivity of the silicon of a silicon surface barrier detector (SSBD) was studied as a function of neutron fluence. The plasma delay, which was an interesting but not favorite timing property of the SSBD, was reported being dependent on the resistivity of silicon . The neutron irradiation brings the change of timing property as well as the resistivity change on the SSBD. The resistivity dependence of the plasma delay should be studied for the purpose of high energy accelerator experiments. Some empirical formulae of the plasma delay were reported, however, there were no discussions on the physical meanings of the resistivity dependence of the plasma delay. The plasma delay in a SSBD is discussed in the light of electric field strength in the depletion layer of the SSBD. The explanation of the plasma delay is presented taking into account of the competing two electric forces. The resistivity of the silicon affects the plasma delay through the electric forces. 3 figs, 3 refs. (author)

  2. Structure and field emission of graphene layers on top of silicon nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Chan, Hui-Wen; Jou, Shyankay; Chen, Guan-Yu; Kuo, Hsiu-An; Song, Wan-Jhen

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We prepared graphene on top of silicon nanowires by transfer-print technique. • Graphene changed from discrete flakes to a continuous by repeated transfer-print. • The triple-layer graphene had high electron field emission due to large edge ratio. - Abstract: Monolayer graphene was grown on copper foils and then transferred on planar silicon substrates and on top of silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays to form single- to quadruple-layer graphene films. The morphology, structure, and electron field emission (FE) of these graphene films were investigated. The graphene films on the planar silicon substrates were continuous. The single- to triple-layer graphene films on the SiNW arrays were discontinuous and while the quadruple-layer graphene film featured a mostly continuous area. The Raman spectra of the graphene films on the SiNW arrays showed G and G′ bands with a singular-Lorentzian shape together with a weak D band. The D band intensity decreased as the number of graphene layers increased. The FE efficiency of the graphene films on the planar silicon substrates and the SiNW arrays varied with the number of graphene layers. The turn-on field for the single- to quadruple-layer graphene films on planar silicon substrates were 4.3, 3.7, 3.5 and 3.4 V/μm, respectively. The turn-on field for the single- to quadruple-layer graphene films on SiNW arrays decreased to 3.9, 3.3, 3.0 and 3.3 V/μm, respectively. Correlation of the FE with structure and morphology of the graphene films is discussed.

  3. Structure and field emission of graphene layers on top of silicon nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Chan, Hui-Wen [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Jou, Shyankay, E-mail: sjou@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Guan-Yu [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Hsiu-An; Song, Wan-Jhen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We prepared graphene on top of silicon nanowires by transfer-print technique. • Graphene changed from discrete flakes to a continuous by repeated transfer-print. • The triple-layer graphene had high electron field emission due to large edge ratio. - Abstract: Monolayer graphene was grown on copper foils and then transferred on planar silicon substrates and on top of silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays to form single- to quadruple-layer graphene films. The morphology, structure, and electron field emission (FE) of these graphene films were investigated. The graphene films on the planar silicon substrates were continuous. The single- to triple-layer graphene films on the SiNW arrays were discontinuous and while the quadruple-layer graphene film featured a mostly continuous area. The Raman spectra of the graphene films on the SiNW arrays showed G and G′ bands with a singular-Lorentzian shape together with a weak D band. The D band intensity decreased as the number of graphene layers increased. The FE efficiency of the graphene films on the planar silicon substrates and the SiNW arrays varied with the number of graphene layers. The turn-on field for the single- to quadruple-layer graphene films on planar silicon substrates were 4.3, 3.7, 3.5 and 3.4 V/μm, respectively. The turn-on field for the single- to quadruple-layer graphene films on SiNW arrays decreased to 3.9, 3.3, 3.0 and 3.3 V/μm, respectively. Correlation of the FE with structure and morphology of the graphene films is discussed.

  4. Effect of laser pulsed radiation on the properties of implanted layers of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violin, Eh.E.; Voron'ko, O.N.; Nojbert, F.; Potapov, E.N.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented of investigation into pulsed laser radiation effects on the layers of GH polytype silicon carbide converted to amorphous state by implantation of boron and aluminium ions. The implantation doses were selected to be 5x10 16 for boron and 5x10 15 cm -2 for aluminium, with the ion energies being 60 and 80 keV, respectively. The samples annealed under nanosecond regime are stated to posseys neither photoluminescence (PL) nor cathodoluminescence (CL). At the same time the layers annealed in millisecond regime have a weak PL at 100 K and CL at 300 K. The PL and CL are observed in samples, laser-annealed at radiation energy density above 150-160 J/cm 2 in case of boron ion implantation and 100-120 J/cm 2 in case of aluminium ion implantation. Increasing the radiation energy density under the nanosecond regime of laser annealing results in the surface evaporation due to superheating of amorphous layers. Increasing the energy density above 220-240 J/cm 2 results in destruction of the samples

  5. Study on the fabrication of silicon nanoparticles in an amorphous silicon light absorbing layer for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyung; Song, Jin Soo; Lee, Jae Hee; Lee, Jeong Chul

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous-silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells have advantages of relatively simple technology, less material consumption, higher absorption ratio compared to crystalline silicon, and low cost due to the use of cheaper substrates rather than silicon wafers. However, together with those advantages, amorphous-silicon thin-film solar cells face several issues such as a relatively lower efficiency, a relatively wider bandgap, and the Staebler-Wronski effect (SWE) compared to other competing materials (i.e., crystalline silicon, CdTe, Cu(In x Ga (1-x) )Se 2 (CIGS), etc.). As a remedy for those drawbacks and a way to enhance the cell conversion efficiency at the same time, the employment of crystalline silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs) in the a-Si matrix is proposed to organize the quantum-dot (QD) structure as the light-absorbing layer. This structure of the light absorbing layer consists of single-crystal Si-NPs in an a-Si:H thin-film matrix. The single-crystal Si-NPs are synthesized by using SiH 4 gas decomposition with CO 2 laser pyrolysis, and the sizes of Si-NPs are calibrated to control their bandgaps. The synthesized size-controlled Si-NPs are directly transferred to another chamber to form a QD structure by using co-deposition of the Si-NPs and the a-Si:H matrix. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses are employed to verify the sizes and the crystalline properties of the Si-NPs alone and of the Si-NPs in the a-Si:H matrix. The TEM results show successful co-deposition of size-controlled Si-NPs in the a-Si:H matrix, which is meaningful because it suggests the possibility of further enhancement of the a-Si:H solar-cell structure and of tandem structure applications by using a single element.

  6. Synthesis of Si epitaxial layers from technical silicon by liquid-phase epitaxy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimov, Sh.I.; Saidov, A.S.; Sapaev, B.; Horvat, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: For today silicon is one of the most suitable materials because it is investigated, cheap and several its parameters are even just as good as those of connections A III B V . Disintegration of the USSR has led to the must difficult position of the industry of silicon instrument manufacture because of all industry of semiconductor silicon manufacture had generally concentrated in Ukraine. The importance of semiconductor silicon is rather great, because of, in opinion of expects, the nearest decade this material will dominate over not only on microelectronics but also in the majority of basic researches. Research of obtain of semiconductor silicon, power electronics and solar conversion, is topical interest of the science. In the work research of technological conditions of obtain and measurement of parameters of epitaxial layers obtained from technical silicon + stannum is resulted. Growth of silicon epitaxial layer with suitable parameters on thickness, cleanliness uniformity and structural perfection depends on the correct choice of condition of the growth and temperature. It is shown that in this case the growth occurring without preliminary clearing of materials (mix materials and substrates) at crystallization of epitaxial layer from technical silicon is accompanied by clearing of silicon film from majority of impurities order-of-magnitude. As starting raw material technical silicon of mark Kr.3 has been taken. By means of X-ray microanalyzer 'Jeol' JSM 5910 LV - Japan the quantitative analysis from the different points has been and from the different sides and from different points has been carried out. After corresponding chemical and mechanical processing the quantitative analysis of layer on chip has been carried out. Results of the quantitative analysis are shown. More effective clearing occurs that of the impurity atoms such as Al, P, Ca, Ti and Fe. The obtained material (epitaxial layer) has the parameters: specific resistance ρ∼0.1-4.0

  7. Determination of surface recombination velocity and bulk lifetime in detector grade silicon and germanium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derhacobian, N.; Fine, P.; Walton, J.T.; Wong, Y.K.; Rossington, C.S.; Luke, P.N.

    1993-10-01

    Utility of a noncontact photoconductive decay (PCD) technique is demonstrated in measuring bulk lifetime, τ B , and surface recombination velocity, S, in detector grade silicon and germanium crystals. We show that the simple analytical equations which relate the observed effective lifetimes in PCD transients to τ B and S have a limited range of applicability. The noncontact PCD technique is used to determine the effect of several surface treatments on the observed effective lifetimes in Si and Ge. A degradation of the effective lifetime in Si is reported as result of the growth of a thin layer of native oxide at room temperature under atmospheric conditions

  8. Iridium-coated micropore x-ray optics using dry etching of a silicon wafer and atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tomohiro; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Moriyama, Teppei; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Kakiuchi, Takuya; Ohashi, Takaya; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Putkonen, Matti

    2013-08-20

    To enhance x-ray reflectivity of silicon micropore optics using dry etching of silicon (111) wafers, iridium coating is tested by use of atomic layer deposition. An iridium layer is successfully formed on sidewalls of tiny micropores with a pore width of 20 μm and depth of 300 μm. The film thickness is ∼20  nm. An enhanced x-ray reflectivity compared to that of silicon is confirmed at Ti Kα 4.51 keV, for what we believe to be the first time, with this type of optics. Some discrepancies from a theoretical reflectivity curve of iridium-coated silicon are noticed at small incident angles <1.3°. When a geometrical shadowing effect due to occultation by a ridge existing on the sidewalls is taken into account, the observed reflectivity becomes well represented by the modified theoretical curve. An estimated surface micro roughness of ∼1  nm rms is consistent with atomic force microscope measurements of the sidewalls.

  9. Dissolution of Monocrystalline Silicon Nanomembranes and Their Use as Encapsulation Layers and Electrical Interfaces in Water-Soluble Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Kyeung; Yu, Ki Jun; Song, Enming; Barati Farimani, Amir; Vitale, Flavia; Xie, Zhaoqian; Yoon, Younghee; Kim, Yerim; Richardson, Andrew; Luan, Haiwen; Wu, Yixin; Xie, Xu; Lucas, Timothy H; Crawford, Kaitlyn; Mei, Yongfeng; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang; Litt, Brian; Aluru, Narayana R; Yin, Lan; Rogers, John A

    2017-12-26

    The chemistry that governs the dissolution of device-grade, monocrystalline silicon nanomembranes into benign end products by hydrolysis serves as the foundation for fully eco/biodegradable classes of high-performance electronics. This paper examines these processes in aqueous solutions with chemical compositions relevant to groundwater and biofluids. The results show that the presence of Si(OH) 4 and proteins in these solutions can slow the rates of dissolution and that ion-specific effects associated with Ca 2+ can significantly increase these rates. This information allows for effective use of silicon nanomembranes not only as active layers in eco/biodegradable electronics but also as water barriers capable of providing perfect encapsulation until their disappearance by dissolution. The time scales for this encapsulation can be controlled by introduction of dopants into the Si and by addition of oxide layers on the exposed surfaces.The former possibility also allows the doped silicon to serve as an electrical interface for measuring biopotentials, as demonstrated in fully bioresorbable platforms for in vivo neural recordings. This collection of findings is important for further engineering development of water-soluble classes of silicon electronics.

  10. Rare earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Martina

    2008-11-10

    The growth, structure and electronic properties of rare earth silicide nanowires are investigated on planar and vicinal Si(001) und Si(111) surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). On all surfaces investigated within this work hexagonal disilicides are grown epitaxially with a lattice mismatch of -2.55% up to +0.83% along the hexagonal a-axis. Along the hexagonal c-axis the lattice mismatch is essentially larger with 6.5%. On the Si(001)2 x 1 surface two types of nanowires are grown epitaxially. The socalled broad wires show a one-dimensional metallic valence band structure with states crossing the Fermi level. Along the nanowires two strongly dispersing states at the anti J point and a strongly dispersing state at the anti {gamma} point can be observed. Along the thin nanowires dispersing states could not be observed. Merely in the direction perpendicular to the wires an intensity variation could be observed, which corresponds to the observed spacial structure of the thin nanowires. The electronic properties of the broad erbium silicide nanowires are very similar to the broad dysprosium silicide nanowires. The electronic properties of the DySi{sub 2}-monolayer and the Dy{sub 3}Si{sub 5}-multilayer on the Si(111) surface are investigated in comparison to the known ErSi{sub 2}/Si(111) and Er{sub 3}Si{sub 5}/Si(111) system. The positions and the energetic locations of the observed band in the surface Brillouin zone will be confirmed for dysprosium. The shape of the electron pockets in the (vector)k {sub parallel} space is elliptical at the anti M points, while the hole pocket at the anti {gamma} point is showing a hexagonal symmetry. On the Si(557) surface the structural and electronic properties depend strongly on the different preparation conditions likewise, in particular on the rare earth coverage. At submonolayer coverage the thin nanowires grow in wide areas

  11. Pt thermal atomic layer deposition for silicon x-ray micropore optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuma; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Kumi; Numazawa, Masaki; Terada, Masaru; Ishi, Daiki; Fujitani, Maiko; Sowa, Mark J; Ohashi, Takaya; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2018-04-20

    We fabricated a silicon micropore optic using deep reactive ion etching and coated by Pt with atomic layer deposition (ALD). We confirmed that a metal/metal oxide bilayer of Al 2 O 3 ∼10  nm and Pt ∼20  nm was successfully deposited on the micropores whose width and depth are 20 μm and 300 μm, respectively. An increase of surface roughness of sidewalls of the micropores was observed with a transmission electron microscope and an atomic force microscope. X-ray reflectivity with an Al Kα line at 1.49 keV before and after the deposition was measured and compared to ray-tracing simulations. The surface roughness of the sidewalls was estimated to increase from 1.6±0.2  nm rms to 2.2±0.2  nm rms. This result is consistent with the microscope measurements. Post annealing of the Pt-coated optic at 1000°C for 2 h showed a sign of reduced surface roughness and better angular resolution. To reduce the surface roughness, possible methods such as the annealing after deposition and a plasma-enhanced ALD are discussed.

  12. Surface rheology of saponin adsorption layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanimirova, R; Marinova, K; Tcholakova, S; Denkov, N D; Stoyanov, S; Pelan, E

    2011-10-18

    Extracts of the Quillaja saponaria tree contain natural surfactant molecules called saponins that very efficiently stabilize foams and emulsions. Therefore, such extracts are widely used in several technologies. In addition, saponins have demonstrated nontrivial bioactivity and are currently used as essential ingredients in vaccines, food supplements, and other health products. Previous preliminary studies showed that saponins have some peculiar surface properties, such as a very high surface modulus, that may have an important impact on the mechanisms of foam and emulsion stabilization. Here we present a detailed characterization of the main surface properties of highly purified aqueous extracts of Quillaja saponins. Surface tension isotherms showed that the purified Quillaja saponins behave as nonionic surfactants with a relatively high cmc (0.025 wt %). The saponin adsorption isotherm is described well by the Volmer equation, with an area per molecule of close to 1 nm(2). By comparing this area to the molecular dimensions, we deduce that the hydrophobic triterpenoid rings of the saponin molecules lie parallel to the air-water interface, with the hydrophilic glucoside tails protruding into the aqueous phase. Upon small deformation, the saponin adsorption layers exhibit a very high surface dilatational elasticity (280 ± 30 mN/m), a much lower shear elasticity (26 ± 15 mN/m), and a negligible true dilatational surface viscosity. The measured dilatational elasticity is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the Volmer adsorption model (260 mN/m). The measured characteristic adsorption time of the saponin molecules is 4 to 5 orders of magnitude longer than that predicted theoretically for diffusion-controlled adsorption, which means that the saponin adsorption is barrier-controlled around and above the cmc. The perturbed saponin layers relax toward equilibrium in a complex manner, with several relaxation times, the longest of them being around 3

  13. Detection of charged particles in amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Morel, J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Street, R.A.

    1986-02-01

    The successful development of radiation detectors made from amorphous silicon could offer the possibility for relatively easy construction of large area position-sensitive detectors. We have conducted a series of measurements with prototype detectors, on signals derived from alpha particles. The measurement results are compared with simple model calculations, and projections are made of potential applications in high-energy and nuclear physics

  14. Band engineering of amorphous silicon ruthenium thin film and its near-infrared absorption enhancement combined with nano-holes pattern on back surface of silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Anran; Zhong, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Wei, E-mail: wli@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Gu, Deen; Jiang, Xiangdong [School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Jiang, Yadong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • The increase of Ru concentration leads to a narrower bandgap of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} thin film. • The absorption coefficient of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} is higher than that of SiGe. • A double-layer absorber comprising of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} film and Si nano-holes layer is achieved. - Abstract: Silicon is widely used in semiconductor industry but has poor performance in near-infrared photoelectronic devices because of its bandgap limit. In this study, a narrow bandgap silicon rich semiconductor is achieved by introducing ruthenium (Ru) into amorphous silicon (a-Si) to form amorphous silicon ruthenium (a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x}) thin films through co-sputtering. The increase of Ru concentration leads to an enhancement of light absorption and a narrower bandgap. Meanwhile, a specific light trapping technique is employed to realize high absorption of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} thin film in a finite thickness to avoid unnecessary carrier recombination. A double-layer absorber comprising of a-Si{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} thin film and silicon random nano-holes layer is formed on the back surface of silicon substrates, and significantly improves near-infrared absorption while the leaky light intensity is less than 5%. This novel absorber, combining narrow bandgap thin film with light trapping structure, may have a potential application in near-infrared photoelectronic devices.

  15. Plated copper front side metallization on printed seed-layers for silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Achim

    2015-01-01

    A novel copper front side metallization architecture for silicon solar cells based on a fine printed silver seed-layer, plated with nickel, copper and silver, is investigated. The work focuses on the printing of fine seed-layers with low silver consumption, the corrosion of the printed seed-layers by the interaction with electrolyte solutions and the encapsulation material on module level and on the long term stability of the cells due to copper migration. The investigation of the correlation...

  16. Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloatti, L.; Lauermann, M.; Koos, C.; Freude, W.; Sürgers, C.; Leuthold, J.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the optical losses in gate-induced charge accumulation/inversion layers at a Si/SiO 2 interface. Comparison between gate-induced charge layers and ion-implanted thin silicon films having an identical sheet resistance shows that optical losses can be significantly lower for gate-induced layers. For a given sheet resistance, holes produce higher optical loss than electrons. Measurements have been performed at λ = 1550 nm

  17. Surface metal standards produced by ion implantation through a removable layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, B.W.; Granger, C.N.; McCaig, L.; McKinley, J.M.; Metz, J.; Mowat, I.; Reich, D.F.; Smith, S.; Stevie, F.A.; Yang, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Surface metal concentration standards were produced by ion implantation and investigated for their suitability to calibrate surface metal measurements by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Single isotope implants were made through a 100 nm oxide layer on silicon. The implant energies were chosen to place the peak of the implanted species at a depth of 100 nm. Subsequent removal of the oxide layer was used to expose the implant peak and to produce controlled surface metal concentrations. Surface metal concentration measurements by time-of-flight SIMS (TOF-SIMS) with an analysis depth of 1 nm agreed with the expected surface concentrations of the implant standards with a relative mean standard deviation of 20%. Since the TOF-SIMS relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) were originally derived from surface metal measurements of surface contaminated silicon wafers, the agreement implies that the implant standards can be used to measure RSF values. The homogeneity of the surface metal concentration was typically <10%. The dopant dose remaining in silicon after oxide removal was measured using the surface-SIMS protocol. The measured implant dose agreed with the expected dose with a mean relative standard deviation of 25%

  18. Direct modification of silicon surface by nanosecond laser interference lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dapeng [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Wang, Zuobin, E-mail: wangz@cust.edu.cn [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Zhang, Ziang [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); Yue, Yong [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Li, Dayou [JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Maple, Carsten [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Periodic and quasi-periodic structures on silicon surface have numerous significant applications in photoelectronics and surface engineering. A number of technologies have been developed to fabricate the structures in various research fields. In this work, we take the strategy of direct nanosecond laser interference lithography technology, and focus on the silicon material to create different well-defined surface structures based on theoretical analysis of the formation of laser interference patterns. Two, three and four-beam laser interference systems were set up to fabricate the grating, regular triangle and square structures on silicon surfaces, respectively. From the AFM micrographs, the critical features of structures have a dependence on laser fluences. For a relative low laser fluence, grating and dot structures formed with bumps due to the Marangoni Effect. With the increase of laser fluences, melt and evaporation behaviors can be responsible for the laser modification. By properly selecting the process parameters, well-defined grating and dot structures can been achieved. It can be demonstrated that direct laser interference lithography is a facile and efficient technology with the advantage of a single process procedure over macroscale areas for the fabrication of micro and nano structures.

  19. Directional radiative properties of anisotropic rough silicon and gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J.; Chen, Y.B.; Zhang, Z.M. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Recent studies have shown that the topography of some chemically etched microrough silicon surfaces is non-Gaussian and may be strongly anisotropic. However, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of anisotropic surfaces has not been fully understood. The present study uses the Monte Carlo method to investigate the out-of-plane BRDF, multiple scattering, and the change of the polarization state upon reflection. Two ray-tracing algorithms are developed that incorporate the surface topography or slope distribution of the samples obtained by the use of an atomic force microscope. The predicted BRDFs for silicon surfaces with or without a gold coating are in reasonable agreement with the results measured using a laser scatterometer at a wavelength of 635nm. The employment of surface topographic data is indispensable to the BRDF modeling of anisotropic surfaces. While first-order scattering makes the dominant contribution to reflections from the studied surfaces, it is critical to consider the polarization state change in order to correctly predict the out-of-plane BRDF. The versatile Monte Carlo modeling tools developed through the present study help gain a better understanding of the directional radiative properties of microrough surfaces and, furthermore, will have an impact on thermal metrology in the semiconductor industry. (author)

  20. Ambient plasma treatment of silicon wafers for surface passivation recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Prinz, Markus; Markert, Thomas; Aberle, Armin G.; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of an ambient plasma treatment powered by compressed dry air on the passivation quality of silicon wafers coated with intrinsic amorphous silicon sub-oxide is investigated. While long-time storage deteriorates the effective lifetime of all samples, a short ambient plasma treatment improves their passivation qualities. By studying the influence of the plasma treatment parameters on the passivation layers, an optimized process condition was identified which even boosted the passivation quality beyond its original value obtained immediately after deposition. On the other hand, the absence of stringent requirement on gas precursors, vacuum condition and longtime processing makes the ambient plasma treatment an excellent candidate to replace conventional thermal annealing in industrial heterojunction solar cell production.

  1. Activity and lifetime of urease immobilized using layer-by-layer nano self-assembly on silicon microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Scott R; Elmore, Bill B; Palmer, James D

    2005-01-01

    Urease has been immobilized and layered onto the walls of manufactured silicon microchannels. Enzyme immobilization was performed using layer-by-layer nano self-assembly. Alternating layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, with enzyme layers "encased" between them, were deposited onto the walls of the silicon microchannels. The polycations used were polyethylenimine (PEI), polydiallyldimethylammonium (PDDA), and polyallylamine (PAH). The polyanions used were polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and polyvinylsulfate (PVS). The activity of the immobilized enzyme was tested by pumping a 1 g/L urea solution through the microchannels at various flow rates. Effluent concentration was measured using an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer by monitoring the absorbance of a pH sensitive dye. The architecture of PEI/PSS/PEI/urease/PEI with single and multiple layers of enzyme demonstrated superior performance over the PDDA and PAH architectures. The precursor layer of PEI/PSS demonstrably improved the performance of the reactor. Conversion rates of 70% were achieved at a residence time of 26 s, on d 1 of operation, and >50% at 51 s, on d 15 with a six-layer PEI/urease architecture.

  2. Observing the morphology of single-layered embedded silicon nanocrystals by using temperature-stable TEM membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gutsch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We use high-temperature-stable silicon nitride membranes to investigate single layers of silicon nanocrystal ensembles by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy. The silicon nanocrystals are prepared from the precipitation of a silicon-rich oxynitride layer sandwiched between two SiO2 diffusion barriers and subjected to a high-temperature annealing. We find that such single layers are very sensitive to the annealing parameters and may lead to a significant loss of excess silicon. In addition, these ultrathin layers suffer from significant electron beam damage that needs to be minimized in order to image the pristine sample morphology. Finally we demonstrate how the silicon nanocrystal size distribution develops from a broad to a narrow log-normal distribution, when the initial precipitation layer thickness and stoichiometry are below a critical value.

  3. Effect of PECVD SiNx/SiOy Nx –Si interface property on surface passivation of silicon wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xiao-Jie; Zhou Chun-Lan; Zhou Su; Wang Wen-Jing; Zhu Jun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    It is studied in this paper that the electrical characteristics of the interface between SiO y N x /SiN x stack and silicon wafer affect silicon surface passivation. The effects of precursor flow ratio and deposition temperature of the SiO y N x layer on interface parameters, such as interface state density Di t and fixed charge Q f , and the surface passivation quality of silicon are observed. Capacitance–voltage measurements reveal that inserting a thin SiO y N x layer between the SiN x and the silicon wafer can suppress Q f in the film and D it at the interface. The positive Q f and D it and a high surface recombination velocity in stacks are observed to increase with the introduced oxygen and minimal hydrogen in the SiO y N x film increasing. Prepared by deposition at a low temperature and a low ratio of N 2 O/SiH 4 flow rate, the SiO y N x /SiN x stacks result in a low effective surface recombination velocity (S eff ) of 6 cm/s on a p-type 1 Ω·cm–5 Ω·cm FZ silicon wafer. The positive relationship between S eff and D it suggests that the saturation of the interface defect is the main passivation mechanism although the field-effect passivation provided by the fixed charges also make a contribution to it. (paper)

  4. Lewis basicity, adhesion thermodynamic work and coordinating ability on aminated silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, M. Alejandra; Paniagua, Sergio A.; Borge, Ignacio; Viales, Christian; Montero, Mavis L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Silicon(1 0 0) surfaces with diamines followed by anchoring of copper complexes over the diamine layer, an approach that could be used for advanced functionalization of semiconducting surfaces. • Lewis basicity (using Fowkes–van Oss–Chaudhury–Good surface tension model) and adhesion thermodynamic work (using chemical force microscopy) were determined. • Higher basicity and thermodynamic work correlate with selective copper acetate monolayer grow. The cyclic voltammetry studies confirm the confined copper redox activity. - Abstract: Silicon(1 0 0) surfaces have been modified with three different amines (aniline, benzylamine and dodecylamine) and diamines (4-aminopyridine, 4-aminomethylpyridine, 1,12-dodecyldiamine). The surface energy was measured by contact angle technique. For Si-diamine surfaces, Lewis basicity (using Fowkes–van Oss–Chaudhury–Good surface tension model) and adhesion thermodynamic work (using chemical force microscopy) were determined. We related these data, the amine/diamine nature and their geometry on the surface (via DFT calculations) with the consequent ability to coordinate copper(II) acetate. Finally, copper(II) acetate monolayers behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry

  5. Effects of silicon:carbon P+ layer interfaces on solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, F.R.; Vernstrom, G.D.; Weber, M.F.; Gilbert, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented showing the effects on amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic performance of the interfaces associated with a silicon carbide (a-Si:C) p+ layer. Carbon grading into the intrinsic layer from the p+ layer increases open circuit voltage (Voc) from 0.7V to 0.88V. This effect is very similar to the boron profile effect reported earlier and supports the contention that Voc is being limited by an electron current at the p-i interface. The interface between the p+ a-Si:C layer and the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) is shown to be a potential source of high series resistance, with an abrupt interface showing the most serious problem. The effect is explained by electron injection from the TCO into the p+ layer being inhibited as a result of band mismatch

  6. Detection of charged particles in amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.N.; Morel, J.R.; Mulera, T.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Schnurmacher, G.; Street, R.A.

    1985-10-01

    The successful development of radiation detectors made from amorphous silicon could offer the possibility for relatively easy construction of large area position-sensitive detectors. We have conducted a series of measurements with prototype detectors, on signals derived from alpha particles. The measurement results are compared with simple model calculations, and projections are made of potential applications in high-energy and nuclear physics. 4 refs., 7 figs

  7. Charged particle detectors made from thin layers of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the feasibility of using hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) as solid state thin film charged particle detectors. 241 Am alphas were successfully detected with α-Si:H devices. The measurements and results of these experiments are presented. The problems encountered and changes in the fabrication of the detectors that may improve the performance are discussed

  8. Fatigue crack layer propagation in silicon-iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol, Y.; Welsch, G.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation in metal is almost always accompanied by plastic deformation unless conditions strongly favor brittle fracture. The analysis of the plastic zone is crucial to the understanding of crack propagation behavior as it governs the crack growth kinetics. This research was undertaken to study the fatigue crack propagation in a silicon iron alloy. Kinetic and plasticity aspects of fatigue crack propagation in the alloy were obtained, including the characterization of damage evolution.

  9. Are atmospheric surface layer flows ergodic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chad W.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Froidevaux, Martin; Simeonov, Valentin; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-06-01

    The transposition of atmospheric turbulence statistics from the time domain, as conventionally sampled in field experiments, is explained by the so-called ergodic hypothesis. In micrometeorology, this hypothesis assumes that the time average of a measured flow variable represents an ensemble of independent realizations from similar meteorological states and boundary conditions. That is, the averaging duration must be sufficiently long to include a large number of independent realizations of the sampled flow variable so as to represent the ensemble. While the validity of the ergodic hypothesis for turbulence has been confirmed in laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations for idealized conditions, evidence for its validity in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL), especially for nonideal conditions, continues to defy experimental efforts. There is some urgency to make progress on this problem given the proliferation of tall tower scalar concentration networks aimed at constraining climate models yet are impacted by nonideal conditions at the land surface. Recent advancements in water vapor concentration lidar measurements that simultaneously sample spatial and temporal series in the ASL are used to investigate the validity of the ergodic hypothesis for the first time. It is shown that ergodicity is valid in a strict sense above uniform surfaces away from abrupt surface transitions. Surprisingly, ergodicity may be used to infer the ensemble concentration statistics of a composite grass-lake system using only water vapor concentration measurements collected above the sharp transition delineating the lake from the grass surface.

  10. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.; Shenoy, Shrikant

    Surface layer temperature inversion occurring in the Bay of Bengal has been addressed. Hydrographic data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Center are used to understand various aspects of the temperature inversion of surface layer in the Bay...

  11. Layer-by-layer composition and structure of silicon subjected to combined gallium and nitrogen ion implantation for the ion synthesis of gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, D. S.; Mikhaylov, A. N.; Belov, A. I.; Vasiliev, V. K.; Guseinov, D. V.; Okulich, E. V. [Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation); Shemukhin, A. A. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Surodin, S. I.; Nikolitchev, D. E.; Nezhdanov, A. V.; Pirogov, A. V.; Pavlov, D. A.; Tetelbaum, D. I., E-mail: tetelbaum@phys.unn.ru [Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The composition and structure of silicon surface layers subjected to combined gallium and nitrogen ion implantation with subsequent annealing have been studied by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, electron spin resonance, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. A slight redistribution of the implanted atoms before annealing and their substantial migration towards the surface during annealing depending on the sequence of implantations are observed. It is found that about 2% of atoms of the implanted layer are replaced with gallium bonded to nitrogen; however, it is impossible to detect the gallium-nitride phase. At the same time, gallium-enriched inclusions containing ∼25 at % of gallium are detected as candidates for the further synthesis of gallium-nitride inclusions.

  12. Attachment chemistry of aromatic compounds on a Silicon(100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Anders; Nishiori, Daiki; Maeda, Hiroaki; Miyachi, Mariko; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    A mild method was developed for the chemical attachment of aromatic compounds directly onto a hydrogen-terminated Si(100) (H-Si(100)) surface. In the presence of palladium catalyst and base, 4-iodophenylferrocene and a π-conjugated iron complex were attached to H-Si(100) electrodes and hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs), both of which have predominant dihydride species on their surfaces. The reactions were conducted in 1,4-dioxane at 100 °C and the immobilization of both 4-ferrocenylphenyl group and π-conjugated molecular wires were confirmed and quantified by XPS and electrochemical measurements. We reported densely packed monolayer whose surface coverage (Γ), estimated from the electrochemical measurements are in analogue to similar monolayers prepared via thermal or light induced hydrosilylation reactions with alkenes or alkynes. The increase in electrochemical response observed on nanostructured silicon surfaces corresponds well to the increase in surface area, those strongly indicating that this method may be applied for the functionalization of electrodes with a variety of surface topographies.

  13. Comparative analysis of germanium-silicon quantum dots formation on Si(100), Si(111) and Sn/Si(100) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovoy, Kirill; Kokhanenko, Andrey; Voitsekhovskii, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    In this paper theoretical modeling of formation and growth of germanium-silicon quantum dots in the method of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on different surfaces is carried out. Silicon substrates with crystallographic orientations (100) and (111) are considered. Special attention is paid to the question of growth of quantum dots on the silicon surface covered by tin, since germanium-silicon-tin system is extremely important for contemporary nano- and optoelectronics: for creation of photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and fast-speed transistors. A theoretical approach for modeling growth processes of such semiconductor compounds during the MBE is presented. Both layer-by-layer and island nucleation stages in the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode are described. A change in free energy during transition of atoms from the wetting layer to an island, activation barrier of the nucleation, critical thickness of 2D to 3D transition, as well as surface density and size distribution function of quantum dots in these systems are calculated with the help of the established model. All the theoretical speculations are carried out keeping in mind possible device applications of these materials. In particular, it is theoretically shown that using of the Si(100) surface covered by tin as a substrate for Ge deposition may be very promising for increasing size homogeneity of quantum dot array for possible applications in low-noise selective quantum dot infrared photodetectors.

  14. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of silicon on porous silicon for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, S.; Quoizola, S.; Fave, A.; Kaminski, A.; Perichon, S.; Barbier, D.; Laugier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to grow a thin silicon layer ( 2 atmosphere, and finally LPE silicon growth with different temperature profiles in order to obtain a silicon layer on the sacrificial porous silicon (p-Si). We observed a pyramidal growth on the surface of the (100) porous silicon but the coalescence was difficult to obtain. However, on a p-Si (111) oriented wafer, homogeneous layers were obtained. (orig.)

  15. Hydrogen desorption from hydrogen fluoride and remote hydrogen plasma cleaned silicon carbide (0001) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Sean W., E-mail: sean.king@intel.com; Tanaka, Satoru; Davis, Robert F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the extreme chemical inertness of silicon carbide (SiC), in-situ thermal desorption is commonly utilized as a means to remove surface contamination prior to initiating critical semiconductor processing steps such as epitaxy, gate dielectric formation, and contact metallization. In-situ thermal desorption and silicon sublimation has also recently become a popular method for epitaxial growth of mono and few layer graphene. Accordingly, numerous thermal desorption experiments of various processed silicon carbide surfaces have been performed, but have ignored the presence of hydrogen, which is ubiquitous throughout semiconductor processing. In this regard, the authors have performed a combined temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation of the desorption of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and various other oxygen, carbon, and fluorine related species from ex-situ aqueous hydrogen fluoride (HF) and in-situ remote hydrogen plasma cleaned 6H-SiC (0001) surfaces. Using XPS, the authors observed that temperatures on the order of 700–1000 °C are needed to fully desorb C-H, C-O and Si-O species from these surfaces. However, using TPD, the authors observed H{sub 2} desorption at both lower temperatures (200–550 °C) as well as higher temperatures (>700 °C). The low temperature H{sub 2} desorption was deconvoluted into multiple desorption states that, based on similarities to H{sub 2} desorption from Si (111), were attributed to silicon mono, di, and trihydride surface species as well as hydrogen trapped by subsurface defects, steps, or dopants. The higher temperature H{sub 2} desorption was similarly attributed to H{sub 2} evolved from surface O-H groups at ∼750 °C as well as the liberation of H{sub 2} during Si-O desorption at temperatures >800 °C. These results indicate that while ex-situ aqueous HF processed 6H-SiC (0001) surfaces annealed at <700 °C remain terminated by some surface C–O and

  16. Turbulent transport in the atmospheric surface layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2012-04-01

    In the modelling of transport and accumulation of the radioactive isotope carbon-14 (C-14) in the case of a potential release from a future repository of radioactive waste, it is important to describe the transport of the isotope in the atmosphere. This report aims to describe the turbulent transport within the lower part of the atmosphere; the inertial surface layer and the roughness sublayer. Transport in the inertial surface layer is dependent on several factors, whereof some can be neglected under certain circumstances. Under steady state conditions, fully developed turbulent conditions, in flat and horizontal homogeneous areas, it is possible to apply an eddy diffusivity approach for estimating vertical transport of C. The eddy diffusivity model assumes that there is proportionality between the vertical gradient and the transport of C. The eddy diffusivity is depending on the atmospheric turbulence, which is affected by the interaction between mean wind and friction of the ground surface and of the sensible heat flux in the atmosphere. In this report, it is described how eddy diffusivity of the inertial surface layer can be estimated from 3-d wind measurements and measurements of sensible heat fluxes. It is also described how to estimate the eddy diffusivity in the inertial surface layer from profile measurements of temperature and wind speed. Close to the canopy, wind and C profiles are influenced by effects of the surface roughness; this section of the atmosphere is called the roughness sublayer. Its height is up to ∼3 times the height of the plant canopy. When the mean wind interacts with the canopy, turbulence is not only produced by shear stress and buoyancy, it is additionally created by wakes, which are formed behind the plants. Turbulence is higher than it would be over a flat surface, and the turbulent transport is hereby more efficient. Above the plant canopy, but still within the roughness sublayer, a function that compensates for the effect of

  17. Turbulent transport in the atmospheric surface layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    In the modelling of transport and accumulation of the radioactive isotope carbon-14 (C-14) in the case of a potential release from a future repository of radioactive waste, it is important to describe the transport of the isotope in the atmosphere. This report aims to describe the turbulent transport within the lower part of the atmosphere; the inertial surface layer and the roughness sublayer. Transport in the inertial surface layer is dependent on several factors, whereof some can be neglected under certain circumstances. Under steady state conditions, fully developed turbulent conditions, in flat and horizontal homogeneous areas, it is possible to apply an eddy diffusivity approach for estimating vertical transport of C. The eddy diffusivity model assumes that there is proportionality between the vertical gradient and the transport of C. The eddy diffusivity is depending on the atmospheric turbulence, which is affected by the interaction between mean wind and friction of the ground surface and of the sensible heat flux in the atmosphere. In this report, it is described how eddy diffusivity of the inertial surface layer can be estimated from 3-d wind measurements and measurements of sensible heat fluxes. It is also described how to estimate the eddy diffusivity in the inertial surface layer from profile measurements of temperature and wind speed. Close to the canopy, wind and C profiles are influenced by effects of the surface roughness; this section of the atmosphere is called the roughness sublayer. Its height is up to {approx}3 times the height of the plant canopy. When the mean wind interacts with the canopy, turbulence is not only produced by shear stress and buoyancy, it is additionally created by wakes, which are formed behind the plants. Turbulence is higher than it would be over a flat surface, and the turbulent transport is hereby more efficient. Above the plant canopy, but still within the roughness sublayer, a function that compensates for the effect

  18. Biofunctionalization on Alkylated Silicon Substrate Surfaces via “Click” Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Guoting; Santos, Catherine; Zhang, Wen; Li, Yan; Kumar, Amit; Erasquin, Uriel J.; Liu, Kai; Muradov, Pavel; Trautner, Barbara Wells; Cai, Chengzhi

    2010-01-01

    Biofunctionalization of silicon substrates is important to the development of silicon-based biosensors and devices. Compared to conventional organosiloxane films on silicon oxide intermediate layers, organic monolayers directly bound to the non-oxidized silicon substrates via Si-C bonds enhance the sensitivity of detection and the stability against hydrolytic cleavage. Such monolayers presenting a high density of terminal alkynyl groups for bioconjugation via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3...

  19. SiN sub x passivation of silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives were to perform surface characterization of high efficiency n+/p and p+/n silicon cells, to relate surface density to substrate dopant concentration, and to identify dominant current loss mechanisms in high efficiency cells. The approach was to measure density of states on homogeneously doped substrates with high frequency C-V and Al/SiN sub x/Si structures; to investigate density of states and photoresponse of high efficiency N+/P and P+/N cells; and to conduct I-V-T studies to identify current loss nechanisms in high efficiency cells. Results are given in tables and graphs.

  20. Beam Simulation Studies of Plasma-Surface Interactions in Fluorocarbon Etching of Silicon and Silicon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David C.

    1992-01-01

    A molecular beam apparatus has been constructed which allows the synthesis of dominant species fluxes to a wafer surface during fluorocarbon plasma etching. These species include atomic F as the primary etchant, CF _2 as a potential polymer forming precursor, and Ar^{+} or CF _{rm x}^{+} type ions. Ionic and neutral fluxes employed are within an order of magnitude of those typical of fluorocarbon plasmas and are well characterized through the use of in -situ probes. Etching yields and product distributions have been measured through the use of in-situ laser interferometry and line-of-sight mass spectrometry. XPS studies of etched surfaces were performed to assess surface chemical bonding states and average surface stoichiometry. A useful design guide was developed which allows optimal design of straight -tube molecular beam dosers in the collisionally-opaque regime. Ion-enhanced surface reaction kinetics have been studied as a function of the independently variable fluxes of free radicals and ions, as well as ion energy and substrate temperature. We have investigated the role of Ar ^{+} ions in enhancing the chemistries of F and CF_2 separately, and in combination on undoped silicon and silicon dioxide surfaces. We have employed both reactive and inert ions in the energy range most relevant to plasma etching processes, 20-500 eV, through the use of Kaufman and ECR type ion sources. The effect of increasing ion energy on the etching of fluorine saturated silicon and silicon dioxide surfaces was quantified through extensions of available low energy physical sputtering theory. Simple "site"-occupation models were developed for the quantification of the ion-enhanced fluorine etching kinetics in these systems. These models are suitable for use in topography evolution simulators (e.g. SAMPLE) for the predictive modeling of profile evolution in non-depositing fluorine-based plasmas such as NF_3 and SF_6. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14

  1. Removal of dangling bonds and surface states on silicon (001) with a monolayer of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Meng; Udeshi, Darshak; Basit, Nasir; Maldonado, Eduardo; Kirk, Wiley P.

    2003-01-01

    Dangling bonds and surface states are inherent to semiconductor surfaces. By passivating dangling bonds on the silicon (001) surface with a monolayer of selenium, surface states are removed from the band gap. Magnesium contacts on selenium-passivated silicon (001) behave ohmically, as expected from the work function of magnesium and the electron affinity of silicon. After rapid thermal annealing and hot-plate annealing, magnesium contacts on selenium-passivated silicon (001) show better thermal stability than on hydrogen-passivated silicon (001), which is attributed to the suppression of silicide formation by selenium passivation

  2. Towards a high performing UV-A sensor based on Silicon Carbide and hydrogenated Silicon Nitride absorbing layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzillo, M.; Renna, L.; Costa, N.; Badalà, P.; Sciuto, A.; Mannino, G.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for most skin cancers. The sun is our primary natural source of UV radiation. The strength of the sun's ultraviolet radiation is expressed as Solar UV Index (UVI). UV-A (320–400 nm) and UV-B (290–320 nm) rays mostly contribute to UVI. UV-B is typically the most destructive form of UV radiation because it has enough energy to cause photochemical damage to cellular DNA. Also overexposure to UV-A rays, although these are less energetic than UV-B photons, has been associated with toughening of the skin, suppression of the immune system, and cataract formation. The use of preventive measures to decrease sunlight UV radiation absorption is fundamental to reduce acute and irreversible health diseases to skin, eyes and immune system. In this perspective UV sensors able to monitor in a monolithic and compact chip the UV Index and relative UV-A and UV-B components of solar spectrum can play a relevant role for prevention, especially in view of the integration of these detectors in close at hand portable devices. Here we present the preliminary results obtained on our UV-A sensor technology based on the use of hydrogenated Silicon Nitride (SiN:H) thin passivating layers deposited on the surface of thin continuous metal film Ni 2 Si/4H-SiC Schottky detectors, already used for UV-Index monitoring. The first UV-A detector prototypes exhibit a very low leakage current density of about 0.2 pA/mm 2 and a peak responsivity value of 0.027 A/W at 330 nm, both measured at 0V bias.

  3. Growth of nanocrystalline silicon thin film with layer-by-layer technique for fast photo-detecting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-Y.; Fang, Y.-K.; Chen, S.-F.; Lin, P.-C.; Lin, C.-S.; Chou, T.-H; Hwang, J.S.; Lin, K.I.

    2006-01-01

    High mobility nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) films with layer-by-layer technique for fast photo-detecting applications were studied. The structure and morphology of films were studied by means of XRD, micro-Raman scattering, SEM and AFM. The Hall mobility and absorption properties have been investigated and found they were seriously affected by the number of layers in growing, i.e., with increasing of layer number, Hall mobility increased but absorption coefficient decreased. The optimum layer number of nc-Si films for fast near-IR photo-detecting is 7 with film thickness of 1400 nm, while that for fast visible photo-detecting is 17 with film thickness of 3400 nm

  4. Natural Contamination and Surface Flashover on Silicone Rubber Surface under Haze–Fog Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Ren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-pollution flashover of insulator is important for power systems. In recent years, haze-fog weather occurs frequently, which makes discharge occurs easily on the insulator surface and accelerates insulation aging of insulator. In order to study the influence of haze-fog on the surface discharge of room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber, an artificial haze-fog lab was established. Based on four consecutive years of insulator contamination accumulation and atmospheric sampling in haze-fog environment, the contamination configuration appropriate for RTV-coated surface discharge test under simulation environment of haze-fog was put forward. ANSYS Maxwell was used to analyze the influence of room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface attachments on electric field distribution. The changes of droplet on the polluted room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface and the corresponding surface flashover voltage under alternating current (AC, direct current (DC positive polar (+, and DC negative polar (− power source were recorded by a high speed camera. The results are as follows: The main ion components from haze-fog atmospheric particles are NO3−, SO42−, NH4+, and Ca2+. In haze-fog environment, both the equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD and non-soluble deposit density (NSDD of insulators are higher than that under general environment. The amount of large particles on the AC transmission line is greater than that of the DC transmission line. The influence of DC polarity power source on the distribution of contamination particle size is not significant. After the deposition of haze-fog, the local conductivity of the room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface increased, which caused the flashover voltage reduce. Discharge is liable to occur at the triple junction point of droplet, air, and room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface. After the deformation or movement of droplets, a new triple junction

  5. Etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.; Acero, M.C. Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J.; El-Hassani, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this work the etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon is studied as a function of the processing parameters, the implantation dose and temperature, and the presence of capping layers during implantation. Etching characteristics have been probed using tetramethylammonium hydroxide or KOH solutions for different times up to 6 h. Results show that, after annealing, the minimum dose required for the formation of an efficient etch-stop layer is about 4 x 10 17 cm -2 , for an implantation energy of 75 keV. This is defined as a layer with an efficient etch selectivity in relation to Si of s ≥ 100. For larger implantation doses efficient etch selectivities larger than 100 are obtained. However, for these doses a considerable density of pits is observed in the etch-stop layer. These are related to the presence of nitrogen poor Si regions in the buried layer after annealing, due to a partial separation of silicon and silicon nitride phases during the annealing process. The influence of this separation of phases as well as nitrogen gettering in the buried layer on the etch-stop behavior is discussed as a function of the processing parameters

  6. Effect of argon implantation on solid-state dewetting: control of size and surface density of silicon nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadori, Y; Borowik, Ł; Chevalier, N; Barbé, J-C

    2017-01-27

    Thermally induced solid-state dewetting of ultra-thin films on insulators is a process of prime interest, since it is capable of easily forming nanocrystals. If no particular treatment is performed to the film prior to the solid-state dewetting, it is already known that the size, the shape and the density of nanocrystals is governed by the initial film thickness. In this paper, we report a novel approach to control the size and the surface density of silicon nanocrystals based on an argon-implantation preliminary surface treatment. Using 7.5 nm thin layers of silicon, we show that increasing the implantation dose tends to form smaller silicon nanocrystals with diameter and height lower than 50 nm and 30 nm, respectively. Concomitantly, the surface density is increased by a factor greater than 20, going from 5 μm -2 to values over 100 μm -2 .

  7. THE 15 LAYER SILICON DRIFT DETECTOR TRACKER IN EXPERIMENT 896

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.U.

    1998-01-01

    Large linear silicon drift detectors have been developed and are in production for use in several experiments. Recently 15 detectors were used as a tracking device in BNL-AGS heavy ion experiment (E896). The detectors were successfully operated in a 6.2 T magnetic field. The behavior of the detectors, such as drift uniformity, resolution, and charge collection efficiency are presented. The effect of the environment on the detector performance is discussed. Some results from the experimental run are presented. The detectors performed well in an experimental environment. This is the first tracking application of these detectors

  8. Influence of oxidation treatment on ballistic electron surface-emitting display of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wentao; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Wenjiang; Duan, Xiaotao

    2012-01-01

    Two groups of porous silicon (PS) samples are treated by rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) and electrochemical oxidation (ECO), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images show that PS samples are segmented into two layers. Oxidized film layer is formed on the top surface of PS samples treated by RTO while at the bottom of PS samples treated by ECO. Both ECO and RTO treatment can make emission current density, diode current density, and emission efficiency of PS increase with the bias voltage increasing. The emission current density and the field emission enhancement factor β of PS sample treated by RTO are larger than that treated by ECO. The Fowler–Nordheim curves of RTO and ECO samples are linear which indicates that high electric field exists on the oxidized layer and field emission occurs whether PS is treated by RTO or ECO.

  9. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  10. Surface Coating Constraint Induced Self-Discharging of Silicon Nanoparticles as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Langli; Zhao, Peng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Borui; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Yu, Guihua; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges of Si-based anodes for lithium ion batteries is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which commonly leads to electrochemo-mechanical degradation and subsequent fast capacity fading. Recent studies have shown that applying nanometer-thick coating layers on Si nanoparticle (SiNPs) enhances cyclability and capacity retention. However, it is far from clear how the coating layer function from the point of view of both surface chemistry and electrochemo-mechanical effect. Herein, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the lithiation/delithiation kinetics of SiNPs coated with a conductive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy). We discovered that this coating layer can lead to “self-delithiation” or “self-discharging” at different stages of lithiation. We rationalized that the self-discharging is driven by the internal compressive stress generated inside the lithiated SiNPs due to the constraint effect of the coating layer. We also noticed that the critical size of lithiation-induced fracture of SiNPs is increased from ~ 150 nm for bare SiNPs to ~ 380 nm for the PPy-coated SiNPs, showing a mechanically protective role of the coating layer. These observations demonstrate both beneficial and detrimental roles of the surface coatings, shedding light on rational design of surface coatings for silicon to retain high-power and high capacity as anode for lithium ion batteries.

  11. Analysis of buried etch-stop layers in silicon by nitrogen-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, M.C.; Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Garrido, B.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of the etch-stop properties of layers obtained by substoichiometric nitrogen-ion implantation and annealing in silicon has been performed as a function of the implantation conditions. The analysis of the etching efficiency has been tested in TMAH-IPA systems. The results obtained show the need to implant at doses higher than 2 x 10 17 cm -2 to obtain etch-stop layers stable under high-temperature annealing. So, for implantation doses of 5 x 10 17 cm -2 , layers stand unetched for times longer than 2 h. The preliminary structural analysis of the samples suggests the presence of an amorphous silicon nitride layer for higher implantation doses. (author)

  12. Analysis of buried etch-stop layers in silicon by nitrogen-ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, M.C.; Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J. (Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (CNM-CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain)); Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Garrido, B.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R. (Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisica Aplicada i Electronica)

    1993-09-01

    The analysis of the etch-stop properties of layers obtained by substoichiometric nitrogen-ion implantation and annealing in silicon has been performed as a function of the implantation conditions. The analysis of the etching efficiency has been tested in TMAH-IPA systems. The results obtained show the need to implant at doses higher than 2 x 10[sup 17] cm[sup -2] to obtain etch-stop layers stable under high-temperature annealing. So, for implantation doses of 5 x 10[sup 17] cm[sup -2], layers stand unetched for times longer than 2 h. The preliminary structural analysis of the samples suggests the presence of an amorphous silicon nitride layer for higher implantation doses. (author).

  13. Precision calibration of the silicon doping level in gallium arsenide epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhov, D. V.; Berezovskaya, T. N.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Maleev, N. A.; Timoshnev, S. N.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2017-10-01

    An approach to precision calibration of the silicon doping level in gallium arsenide epitaxial layers is discussed that is based on studying the dependence of the carrier density in the test GaAs layer on the silicon- source temperature using the Hall-effect and CV profiling techniques. The parameters are measured by standard or certified measuring techniques and approved measuring instruments. It is demonstrated that the use of CV profiling for controlling the carrier density in the test GaAs layer at the thorough optimization of the measuring procedure ensures the highest accuracy and reliability of doping level calibration in the epitaxial layers with a relative error of no larger than 2.5%.

  14. Organic light emitting diode with surface modification layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, John D.; Bhandari, Abhinav; Buhay, Harry; Arbab, Mehran; Marietti, Gary J.

    2017-09-12

    An organic light emitting diode (10) includes a substrate (12) having a first surface (14) and a second surface (16), a first electrode (32), and a second electrode (38). An emissive layer (36) is located between the first electrode (32) and the second electrode (38). The organic light emitting diode (10) further includes a surface modification layer (18). The surface modification layer (18) includes a non-planar surface (30, 52).

  15. Wurtzite-Phased InP Micropillars Grown on Silicon with Low Surface Recombination Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Ng, Kar Wei; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Sun, Hao; Lu, Fanglu; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2015-11-11

    The direct growth of III-V nanostructures on silicon has shown great promise in the integration of optoelectronics with silicon-based technologies. Our previous work showed that scaling up nanostructures to microsize while maintaining high quality heterogeneous integration opens a pathway toward a complete photonic integrated circuit and high-efficiency cost-effective solar cells. In this paper, we present a thorough material study of novel metastable InP micropillars monolithically grown on silicon, focusing on two enabling aspects of this technology-the stress relaxation mechanism at the heterogeneous interface and the microstructure surface quality. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy studies show that InP grows directly on silicon without any amorphous layer in between. A set of periodic dislocations was found at the heterointerface, relaxing the 8% lattice mismatch between InP and Si. Single crystalline InP therefore can grow on top of the fully relaxed template, yielding high-quality micropillars with diameters expanding beyond 1 μm. An interesting power-dependence trend of carrier recombination lifetimes was captured for these InP micropillars at room temperature, for the first time for micro/nanostructures. By simply combining internal quantum efficiency with carrier lifetime, we revealed the recombination dynamics of nonradiative and radiative portions separately. A very low surface recombination velocity of 1.1 × 10(3) cm/sec was obtained. In addition, we experimentally estimated the radiative recombination B coefficient of 2.0 × 10(-10) cm(3)/sec for pure wurtzite-phased InP. These values are comparable with those obtained from InP bulk. Exceeding the limits of conventional nanowires, our InP micropillars combine the strengths of both nanostructures and bulk materials and will provide an avenue in heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductor materials onto silicon platforms.

  16. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on novel black silicon-based nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Orinak, A.

    2009-01-01

    , effects of Ti and Ti/Pt adhesion layers underneath the gold layers on the analytical signal enhancement were tested. An enhancement factor of 7.6 x 10(7) with the excitation laser 785 nm was achieved for the tested analyte, Rhodamine 6G, and non-resonance SER spectra were recorded in a 5 s acquisition...... mode. Such an enhancement enables to achieve a detection limit down to 2.4 pg of Rhodamine 6G on a black silicon-based nanosurface coated with a 400-nm-thin layer of gold....

  17. System for removing contaminated surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kozo.

    1987-04-01

    The object of the present invention is to offer a new type of useful decontamination system, with which the contaminated surface layers can be removed effectively by injection of such solid microparticles. Liquid carbon dioxide is passed from a liquid carbon dioxide tank via the carbon dioxide supply line into the system for injecting solid carbon dioxide particles. Part of the liquid carbon dioxide introduced into the system is converted to solid carbon dioxide particles by the temperature drop resulting from adiabatic expansion in the carbon dioxide expansion space of the injection system. The solid carbon dioxide particles reach the injection nozzle, which is connected through the expansion space. The carbon dioxide microparticles are further cooled and accelerated by nitrogen gas injected from the nitrogen gas nozzle at the tip of the nitrogen gas supply line, which is connected to a liquid nitrogen tank. The cooled and accelerated solid carbon dioxide microparticles are injected from the injection nozzle for the solid carbon dioxide and directed against the contaminated surface to be cleaned, and, as a result, the surface contamination is removed

  18. Durable Superomniphobic Surface on Cotton Fabrics via Coating of Silicone Rubber and Fluoropolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsheen Moiz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance textiles that protect human from different threats and dangers from environment are in high demand, and the advancement in functionalization technology together with employing advanced materials have made this an area of research focus. In this work, silicone rubber and environmentally friendly fluoropolymers have been employed to explore superomniphobic surface on cotton fabrics without compromising comfort much. It has been found that a cross-linked network between the rubber membrane and the fluoropolymers has been formed. The surface appearance, morphology, handle, thickness and chemical components of the surface of cotton fabrics have been changed. The coated fabrics showed resistance to water, aqueous liquid, oil, chemicals and soil. The comfort of the coated fabrics is different to uncoated cotton fabrics due to the existence of coated layers on the surface of cotton fabrics. This work would benefit the development and design of the next generation of performance textiles with balanced performance and comfort.

  19. Suppression of interfacial voids formation during silane (SiH4)-based silicon oxide bonding with a thin silicon nitride capping layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Yue; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Seng Tan, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    The material properties and bonding behavior of silane-based silicon oxide layers deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to determine the chemical composition of the silicon oxide films. The incorporation of hydroxyl (-OH) groups and moisture absorption demonstrates a strong correlation with the storage duration for both as-deposited and annealed silicon oxide films. It is observed that moisture absorption is prevalent in the silane-based silicon oxide film due to its porous nature. The incorporation of -OH groups and moisture absorption in the silicon oxide films increase with the storage time (even in clean-room environments) for both as-deposited and annealed silicon oxide films. Due to silanol condensation and silicon oxidation reactions that take place at the bonding interface and in the bulk silicon, hydrogen (a byproduct of these reactions) is released and diffused towards the bonding interface. The trapped hydrogen forms voids over time. Additionally, the absorbed moisture could evaporate during the post-bond annealing of the bonded wafer pair. As a consequence, defects, such as voids, form at the bonding interface. To address the problem, a thin silicon nitride capping film was deposited on the silicon oxide layer before bonding to serve as a diffusion barrier to prevent moisture absorption and incorporation of -OH groups from the ambient. This process results in defect-free bonded wafers.

  20. On the intrinsic moisture permeation rate of remote microwave plasma-deposited silicon nitride layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Assche, F. J. H.; Unnikrishnan, S.; Michels, J. J.; van Mol, A. M. B.; van de Weijer, P.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Creatore, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a low substrate temperature (110 °C) remote microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process of silicon nitride barrier layers against moisture permeation for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and other moisture sensitive devices such as organic

  1. Preparation and characterization of tempered tungsten layers on single crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitzsche, K.; Knedlik, C.; Tippmann, H.; Spiess, L.; Harman, R.; Vanek, O.; Tvarozek, V.

    1984-01-01

    Tungsten layers have been deposited on single crystalline silicon by sputtering and characterized by measurements of the sheet resistance by a linear four point method and the van der Pauw method. The influence of tempering under argon on the resistance has been studied. By means of the RBS spectroscopy it was found that the increase in the specific resistance is caused by interdiffusion

  2. Aan der Waals terminated silicon(111) surfaces and interfaces. Preparation, morphology, and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the implementation of the concept of the quasi-van der Waals epitaxy as a new perspective for the integration of reactive and lattice-defect fitted materials into the silicon technology. The experimental characterization of this approach pursues in two subsequent sections. First the chemical and electronic passivation of a three-dimensional substrate (silicon) is studied by means of an ultrathin buffer layer from the material class of the layered-lattice chalcogenides (GaSe). The substrate surface (Si(111):GaSe) modified in this way possesses an inert van der Waals surface and serves in the following as base for the deposition of the against the non-passivated substrate really reactive and lattice-defect fitted materials (II-VI-compound semiconductors and metals) The characterization of the electronic and chemical properties of the surfaces and interfaces pursues with highly resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SXPS). The results are supplemented by the characterization of the morphology by the diffraction of low-energy electrons (LEED) and the scanning tunnel microscopy (STM)

  3. Silicon protected with atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Tilley, David S.; Pedersen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The semiconducting materials used for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting must withstand the corrosive nature of the aqueous electrolyte over long time scales in order to be a viable option for large scale solar energy conversion. Here we demonstrate that atomic layer deposited titanium di...

  4. Acoustic tomography in the atmospheric surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ziemann

    Full Text Available Acoustic tomography is presented as a technique for remote monitoring of meteorological quantities. This method and a special algorithm of analysis can directly produce area-averaged values of meteorological parameters. As a result consistent data will be obtained for validation of numerical atmospheric micro-scale models. Such a measuring system can complement conventional point measurements over different surfaces. The procedure of acoustic tomography uses the horizontal propagation of sound waves in the atmospheric surface layer. Therefore, to provide a general overview of sound propagation under various atmospheric conditions a two-dimensional ray-tracing model according to a modified version of Snell's law is used. The state of the crossed atmosphere can be estimated from measurements of acoustic travel time between sources and receivers at different points. Derivation of area-averaged values of the sound speed and furthermore of air temperature results from the inversion of travel time values for all acoustic paths. Thereby, the applied straight ray two-dimensional tomographic model using SIRT (simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique is characterised as a method with small computational requirements, satisfactory convergence and stability properties as well as simple handling, especially, during online evaluation.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; instruments and techniques.

  5. Surface wettability of silicon substrates enhanced by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Shih-Feng [National Applied Research Laboratories, Instrument Technology Research Center, Hsinchu (China); National Chiao Tung University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hsinchu (China); Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Hsiao, Sheng-Yi [National Applied Research Laboratories, Instrument Technology Research Center, Hsinchu (China); Chen, Ming-Fei [National Changhua University of Education, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Changhua (China); Lin, Yung-Sheng [Hungkuang University, Department of Applied Cosmetology and Graduate Institute of Cosmetic Science, Taichung (China); Chou, Chang-Pin [National Chiao Tung University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hsinchu (China)

    2010-11-15

    Laser-ablation techniques have been widely applied for removing material from a solid surface using a laser-beam irradiating apparatus. This paper presents a surface-texturing technique to create rough patterns on a silicon substrate using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The different degrees of microstructure and surface roughness were adjusted by the laser fluence and laser pulse duration. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a 3D confocal laser-scanning microscope are used to measure the surface micrograph and roughness of the patterns, respectively. The contact angle variations between droplets on the textured surface were measured using an FTA 188 video contact angle analyzer. The results indicate that increasing the values of laser fluence and laser pulse duration pushes more molten slag piled around these patterns to create micro-sized craters and leads to an increase in the crater height and surface roughness. A typical example of a droplet on a laser-textured surface shows that the droplet spreads very quickly and almost disappears within 0.5167 s, compared to a contact angle of 47.9 on an untextured surface. This processing technique can also be applied to fabricating Si solar panels to increase the absorption efficiency of light. (orig.)

  6. Development of silicon growth techniques from melt with surface heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly

    2018-05-01

    The paper contains literary and personal data on the development history of silicon-growing technology with volumetric and surface melt heating. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of surface-heating technology. Examples are given of the implementation of such processes in the 60s-70s of the last century, and the reasons for the discontinuation of the relevant work. It describes the main solutions for the implementation of crystal growth process with the electron-beam heating of the melt surface, implemented by KEPP EU (Latvia). It discusses differences in the management of the growth process for the crystals with constant diameters compared to the Czochralski method. It lists geometrical and electro-physical properties of the obtained crystals. It describes the possible use of such crystals and the immediate challenges of technology development.

  7. Surface modification on silicon with chitosan and biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue Xiaoying; Cui Wei; Huang Yan; Zhao Yi; Wang Zhigong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chitosan modification of silicon (Si) on protein adsorption, cell adhesion and cell proliferation. Chitosan was first immobilized on the Si surface through a (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) bridge. The surface was then characterized by contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The amount of protein adsorbed on the native Si and chitosan-modified Si surface was evaluated by a modified Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) protein assay. The adhesion and proliferation behavior of L-929 and pc12 cells were then assessed by microscopy and methylthiazoltetrazolium (MTT) tests. The results showed that the chitosan modification could resist protein adsorption and inhibit the adhesion and proliferation of two kinds of cells on Si.

  8. Analysis of borophosphosilicate glass layers on silicon wafers by X-ray emission from photon and electron excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgersma, O.; Borstrok, J.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Phosphorus and oxygen concentrations in the homogeneous layer of borosilicate glass (BPSG) deposited on Si-integrated circuits are determined by X-ray fluorescence from photon excitation. The X-ray emission from electron excitation in an open X-ray tube instrument yields a sufficiently precise determination of the boron content. The thickness of the layer can be derived from silicon Kα-fluorescence. A calibration model is proposed for photon as well as for electron excitation. The experimentally determined parameters in this model well agree with those derived from fundamental parameters for X-ray absorption and emission. The chemical surrounding of silicon affects strongly the peak profile of the silicon Kβ-emission. This enables to distinguish emission from the silicon atoms in the wafer and from the silicon atoms in the silicon oxide complexes of the BPSG-layer. (author)

  9. Analysis of water microdroplet condensation on silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takuya; Fujimoto, Kenya; Yoshimoto, Yuta; Mogi, Katsuo; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Sugii, Yasuhiko; Takagi, Shu; Univ. of Tokyo Team; Tokyo Inst. of Tech. Team

    2016-11-01

    We observed the condensation process of water microdroplets on flat silicon (100) surfaces by means of the sequential visualization of the droplets using an environmental scanning electron microscope. As previously reported for nanostructured surfaces, the condensation process of water microdroplets on the flat silicon surfaces also exhibits two modes: the constant base (CB) area mode and the constant contact angle (CCA) mode. In the CB mode, the contact angle increases with time while the base diameter is constant. Subsequently, in the CCA mode, the base diameter increases with time while the contact angle remains constant. The dropwise condensation model regulated by subcooling temperature does not reproduce the experimental results. Because the subcooling temperature is not constant in the case of a slow condensation rate, this model is not applicable to the condensation of the long time scale ( several tens of minutes). The contact angle of water microdroplets ( several μm) tended to be smaller than the macro contact angle. Two hypotheses are proposed as the cause of small contact angles: electrowetting and the coalescence of sub- μm water droplets.

  10. Microstructure and initial growth characteristics of the low temperature microcrystalline silicon films on silicon nitride surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young-Bae; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2001-01-01

    Microstructure and initial growth characteristics of the hydrogenated microcrystalline Si (μc-Si:H) films grown on hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiN x :H) surface at low temperature were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscope and micro-Raman spectroscopy. With increasing the Si and Si - H contents in the SiN x :H surfaces, μc-Si crystallites, a few nanometers in size, were directly grown on amorphous nitride surfaces. It is believed that the crystallites were grown through the nucleation and phase transition from amorphous to crystal in a hydrogen-rich ambient of gas phase and growing surface. The crystallite growth characteristics on the dielectric surface were dependent on the stoichiometric (x=N/Si) ratio corresponding hydrogen bond configuration of the SiN x :H surface. Surface facetting and anisotropic growth of the Si crystallites resulted from the different growth rate on the different lattice planes of Si. No twins and stacking faults were observed in the (111) lattice planes of the Si crystallites surrounding the a-Si matrix. This atomic-scale structure was considered to be the characteristic of the low temperature crystallization of the μc-Si:H by the strain relaxation of crystallites in the a-Si:H matrix. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  11. Nano-Welding of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Silicon and Silica Surface by Laser Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a continuous fiber laser (1064 nm wavelength, 30 W/cm2 is used to irradiate multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs on different substrate surfaces. Effects of substrates on nano-welding of MWCNTs are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM. For MWCNTs on silica, after 3 s irradiation, nanoscale welding with good quality can be achieved due to breaking C–C bonds and formation of new graphene layers. While welding junctions can be formed until 10 s for the MWCNTs on silicon, the difference of irradiation time to achieve welding is attributed to the difference of thermal conductivity for silica and silicon. As the irradiation time is prolonged up to 12.5 s, most of the MWCNTs are welded to a silicon substrate, which leads to their frameworks of tube walls on the silicon surface. This is because the accumulation of absorbed energy makes the temperature rise. Then chemical reactions among silicon, carbon and nitrogen occur. New chemical bonds of Si–N and Si–C achieve the welding between the MWCNTs and silicon. Vibration modes of Si3N4 appear at peaks of 363 cm−1 and 663 cm−1. There are vibration modes of SiC at peaks of 618 cm−1, 779 cm−1 and 973 cm−1. The experimental observation proves chemical reactions and the formation of Si3N4 and SiC by laser irradiation.

  12. Nano-Welding of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Silicon and Silica Surface by Laser Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yanping; Chen, Jimin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a continuous fiber laser (1064 nm wavelength, 30 W/cm2) is used to irradiate multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on different substrate surfaces. Effects of substrates on nano-welding of MWCNTs are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). For MWCNTs on silica, after 3 s irradiation, nanoscale welding with good quality can be achieved due to breaking C–C bonds and formation of new graphene layers. While welding junctions can be formed until 10 s for the MWCNTs on silicon, the difference of irradiation time to achieve welding is attributed to the difference of thermal conductivity for silica and silicon. As the irradiation time is prolonged up to 12.5 s, most of the MWCNTs are welded to a silicon substrate, which leads to their frameworks of tube walls on the silicon surface. This is because the accumulation of absorbed energy makes the temperature rise. Then chemical reactions among silicon, carbon and nitrogen occur. New chemical bonds of Si–N and Si–C achieve the welding between the MWCNTs and silicon. Vibration modes of Si3N4 appear at peaks of 363 cm−1 and 663 cm−1. There are vibration modes of SiC at peaks of 618 cm−1, 779 cm−1 and 973 cm−1. The experimental observation proves chemical reactions and the formation of Si3N4 and SiC by laser irradiation. PMID:28344293

  13. Growth of light-emitting SiGe heterostructures on strained silicon-on-insulator substrates with a thin oxide layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baidakova, N. A., E-mail: banatale@ipmras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Bobrov, A. I. [University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Drozdov, M. N.; Novikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Pavlov, D. A. [University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Shaleev, M. V.; Yunin, P. A.; Yurasov, D. V.; Krasilnik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    The possibility of using substrates based on “strained silicon on insulator” structures with a thin (25 nm) buried oxide layer for the growth of light-emitting SiGe structures is studied. It is shown that, in contrast to “strained silicon on insulator” substrates with a thick (hundreds of nanometers) oxide layer, the temperature stability of substrates with a thin oxide is much lower. Methods for the chemical and thermal cleaning of the surface of such substrates, which make it possible to both retain the elastic stresses in the thin Si layer on the oxide and provide cleaning of the surface from contaminating impurities, are perfecte. It is demonstrated that it is possible to use the method of molecular-beam epitaxy to grow light-emitting SiGe structures of high crystalline quality on such substrates.

  14. Exploring Scintillometry in the Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogensis, O.K.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate observation methods of heat and momentum exchange and key variables that characterise turbulence in the atmospheric stable surface layer (SSL), a layer defined as the lower part of the stable boundary layer (SBL) where surface fluxes do not change

  15. Use of hexamethyldisiloxane for p-type microcrystalline silicon oxycarbide layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Prabal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO as an oxygen source for the growth of p-type silicon-based layers deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition is evaluated. The use of this source led to the incorporation of almost equivalent amounts of oxygen and carbon, resulting in microcrystalline silicon oxycarbide thin films. The layers were examined with characterisation techniques including Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Dark Conductivity, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy to check material composition and structure. Materials studies show that the refractive indices of the layers can be tuned over the range from 2.5 to 3.85 (measured at 600 nm and in-plane dark conductivities over the range from 10-8 S/cm to 1 S/cm, suggesting that these doped layers are suitable for solar cell applications. The p-type layers were tested in single junction amorphous silicon p-i-n type solar cells.

  16. Compact polarization beam splitter for silicon photonic integrated circuits with a 340-nm-thick silicon core layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenlei; Dai, Daoxin

    2017-11-01

    A polarization beam splitter (PBS) is proposed and realized for silicon photonic integrated circuits with a 340-nm-thick silicon core layer by introducing an asymmetric directional coupler (ADC), which consists of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire and a subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguide. The SWG is introduced to provide an optical waveguide which has much higher birefringence than a regular 340-nm-thick SOI nanowire, so that it is possible to make the phase-matching condition satisfied for TE polarization only in the present design when the waveguide dimensions are optimized. Meanwhile, there is a significant phase mismatching for TM polarization automatically. In this way, the present ADC enables strong polarization selectivity to realize a PBS that separates TE and TM polarizations to the cross and through ports, respectively. The realized PBS has a length of ∼2  μm for the coupling region. For the fabricated PBS, the extinction ratio (ER) is 15-30 dB and the excess loss is 0.2-2.6 dB for TE polarization while the ER is 20-27 dB and the excess loss is 0.3-2.8 dB for TM polarization when operating in the wavelength range of 1520-1580 nm.

  17. Analysis of signals propagating in a phononic crystal PZT layer deposited on a silicon substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine; Vasseur, Jérôme; Dubus, Bertrand; Morvan, Bruno; Wilkie-Chancellier, Nicolas; Martinez, Loïc

    2013-12-01

    The design of a stop-band filter constituted by a periodically patterned lead zirconate titanate (PZT) layer, polarized along its thickness, deposited on a silicon substrate and sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes for emission/reception of guided elastic waves, is investigated. The filter characteristics are theoretically evaluated by using finite element simulations: dispersion curves of a patterned PZT layer with a specific pattern geometry deposited on a silicon substrate present an absolute stop band. The whole structure is modeled with realistic conditions, including appropriate interdigitated electrodes to propagate a guided mode in the piezoelectric layer. A robust method for signal analysis based on the Gabor transform is applied to treat transmitted signals; extract attenuation, group delays, and wave number variations versus frequency; and identify stop-band filter characteristics.

  18. Characterization of the porosity of silicon nitride thin layers by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrès, T.; Tribollet, B.; Stephan, O.; Montigaud, H.; Boinet, M.; Cohin, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon nitride thin films are widely used as diffusion barriers within stacks in the glass industry but turn out to be porous at the nanometric scale. EIS measurements were conducted on SiNx thin layers deposited on a gold layer. An electrochemical model was established to fit the EIS measurements making use of data from other complementary techniques. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscopy was performed on these thin layers to determine the diameter and the qualitative morphology of the pores. A quantitative determination of the through-porosity of the layer was deduced from the EIS model and was in good agreement with TEM measurements. Moreover, combining EIS with local observations enabled inhomogeneities in the layer to be probed by highlighting a specific region in the layer.

  19. Periodic molybdenum disc array for light trapping in amorphous silicon layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiwei; Deng, Changkai [International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Materials Genome Institute, and Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai, 200444 China (China); Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 99 Haike Road, Shanghai, 201210 China (China); Yang, Kang; Chen, Haiyan, E-mail: chenhy@sari.ac.cn; Li, Dongdong; Chen, Xiaoyuan [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 99 Haike Road, Shanghai, 201210 China (China); Ren, Wei, E-mail: renwei@shu.edu.cn [International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Materials Genome Institute, and Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai, 200444 China (China)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate the light trapping effect in amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer by inserting a layer of periodic molybdenum disc array (MDA) between the a-Si:H layer and the quartz substrate, which forms a three-layer structure of Si/MDA/SiO{sub 2}. The MDA layer was fabricated by a new cost-effective method based on nano-imprint technology. Further light absorption enhancement was realized through altering the topography of MDA by annealing it at 700°C. The mechanism of light absorption enhancement in a-Si:H interfaced with MDA was analyzed, and the electric field distribution and light absorption curve of the different layers in the Si/MDA structure under light illumination of different wavelengths were simulated by employing numerical finite difference time domain (FDTD) solutions.

  20. The influence of initial defects on mechanical stress and deformation distribution in oxidized silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulinich O. A.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The near-surface silicon layers in silicon – dioxide silicon systems with modern methods of research are investigated. It is shown that these layers have compound structure and their parameters depend on oxidation and initial silicon parameters. It is shown the influence of initial defects on mechanical stress and deformation distribution in oxidized silicon.

  1. Laser modification of macroscopic properties of metal surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek

    1995-03-01

    Surface laser treatment of metals comprises a number of diversified technological operations out of which the following can be considered the most common: oxidation and rendering surfaces amorphous, surface hardening of steel, modification of selected physical properties of metal surface layers. In the paper basic results of laser treatment of a group of metals used as base materials for electric contacts have been presented. The aim of the study was to test the usability of laser treatment from the viewpoint of requirements imposed on materials for electric contacts. The results presented in the paper refer to two different surface treatment technologies: (1) modification of infusible metal surface layer: tungsten and molybdenum through laser fusing of their surface layer and its crystallization, and (2) modification of surface layer properties of other metals through laser doping of their surface layer with foreign elements. In the paper a number of results of experimental investigations obtained by the team under the author's supervision are presented.

  2. The effect of oxidation on physical properties of porous silicon layers for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirasteh, Parasteh [Laboratoire d' Optronique, CNRS-UMR FOTON 6082, Universite de Rennes 1, ENSSAT Tecnhopole Anticipa, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 447, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Charrier, Joel [Laboratoire d' Optronique, CNRS-UMR FOTON 6082, Universite de Rennes 1, ENSSAT Tecnhopole Anticipa, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 447, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)]. E-mail: joel.charrier@univ-rennes1.fr; Soltani, Ali [Institut d' Electronique, de Microemectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS-UMR 8520, Cite Scientifique Avenue Poincare, BP 69, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Haesaert, Severine [Laboratoire d' Optronique, CNRS-UMR FOTON 6082, Universite de Rennes 1, ENSSAT Tecnhopole Anticipa, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 447, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Haji, Lazhar [Laboratoire d' Optronique, CNRS-UMR FOTON 6082, Universite de Rennes 1, ENSSAT Tecnhopole Anticipa, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 447, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Godon, Christine [Laboratoire de Physique Crystalline, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Errien, Nicolas [Laboratoire de Physique Crystalline, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2006-12-15

    In order to understand the optical loss mechanisms in porous silicon based waveguides, structural and optical studies have been performed. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations of porous silicon layers are obtained before and after an oxidation process at high temperature in wet O{sub 2}. Pore size and shape of heavily p-type doped Si wafers are estimated and correlated to the optical properties of the material before and after oxidation. The refractive index was measured and compared to that determined by the Bruggeman model.

  3. Measurement of mobility profile in ion-implanted silicon layers using electroreflection spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiev, G.B.; Kapaev, V.V.; Mokerov, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility is shown of the application of the low field linearized electroreflection spectroscopy for the measurement of profiles of carriers mobilities μ(x) simultaneously with the concentration profiles N(x) in thin ion-implanted silicon layers. The μ(χ) value is determined from the calibration curve of the dependence of the phenomenological broadening parameter γ on the mobility for uniformly doped samples. The results are presented for the measurements of the profiles μ(x) for boron- and arsenic-implanted silicon

  4. Chemically immobilised carbon nanotubes on silicon: Stable surfaces for aqueous electrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavel, Benjamin S., E-mail: ben.flavel@flinders.edu.a [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Garrett, David J.; Lehr, Joshua [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Shapter, Joseph G. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Downard, Alison J., E-mail: alison.downard@canterbury.ac.n [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2010-04-30

    Diazonium ion chemistry has been used to electrochemically graft aminophenyl layers onto p-type silicon (1 0 0) substrates. A condensation reaction was used to immobilise single-walled carbon nanotubes with high carboxylic acid functionality directly to this layer. Electrochemical monitoring of the aminophenyl groups confirmed the formation of an amide linkage between the single-walled carbon nanotubes and the aminophenyl layer. The carbon nanotube electrode showed high stability and good electrochemical performance in aqueous solution. At moderate scan rates the Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup +3/+2} couple exhibited quasi-reversible electron transfer kinetics with a standard heterogenous rate constant of 1.2 x 10{sup -3} cm s{sup -1} at the covalently-linked carbon nanotube surface. The electrode thus combines the advantages of a silicon substrate for easy integration into sophisticated electrical and electronic devices, carbon nanotubes for desirable electrochemical properties, and stability in aqueous medium for future applications in environmental sensing.

  5. Characteristics of laser textured silicon surface and effect of mud adhesion on hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa [ME Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Kfupm box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ali, H. [ME Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Kfupm box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khaled, M. [CHEM Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Aqeeli, N.; Abu-Dheir, N. [ME Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Kfupm box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Varanasi, K.K. [Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Laser treatment increases surface microhardness and slightly lowers surface fracture toughness. • Residual stress formed is compressive and self-annealing effect of laser tracks lowers residual stress. • Nitride species lowers surface energy and adhesion work required to remove dust. • Mud residues do not have notable effect on fracture toughness and microhardness of treated surface. • Mud residues lower surface hydrophobicity. - Abstract: Laser gas assisted texturing of silicon wafer surface is carried out. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated layer are examined using the analytical tools. Microhardness and fracture toughness of the laser treated surface are measured using the indentation technique while residual stress formed is determined from the X-ray diffraction data. The hydrophobicity of the textured surfaces are assessed incorporating the contact angle data and compared with those of as received workpiece surfaces. Environmental dust accumulation and mud formation, due to air humidity, at the laser treated and as received workpiece surfaces are simulated and the effect of the mud residues on the properties of the laser treated surface are studied. The adhesion work due to the presence of the mud on the laser treated surface is also measured. It is found that laser textured surface composes of micro/nano poles and fibers, which in turn improves the surface hydrophobicity significantly. In addition, formation of nitride species contributes to microhardness increase and enhancement of surface hydrophobicity due to their low surface energy. The mud residues do not influence the fracture toughness and microhardness of the laser textured surface; however, they reduced the surface hydrophobicity significantly.

  6. Surface Passivation by Quantum Exclusion Using Multiple Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A semiconductor device has a multilayer doping to provide improved passivation by quantum exclusion. The multilayer doping includes at least two doped layers fabricated using MBE methods. The dopant sheet densities in the doped layers need not be the same, but in principle can be selected to be the same sheet densities or to be different sheet densities. The electrically active dopant sheet densities are quite high, reaching more than 1.times.10.sup.14 cm.sup.-2, and locally exceeding 10.sup.22 per cubic centimeter. It has been found that silicon detector devices that have two or more such dopant layers exhibit improved resistance to degradation by UV radiation, at least at wavelengths of 193 nm, as compared to conventional silicon p-on-n devices.

  7. All-(111) surface silicon nanowire field effect transistor devices: Effects of surface preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masood, M.N.; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Etching/hydrogen termination of All-(111) surface silicon nanowire field effect (SiNW-FET) devices developed by conventional photolithography and plane dependent wet etchings is studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and

  8. Microscratch testing method for systematic evaluation of the adhesion of atomic layer deposited thin films on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpi, Lauri, E-mail: Lauri.Kilpi@vtt.fi; Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Vaajoki, Antti; Puurunen, Riikka L.; Ronkainen, Helena [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Malm, Jari [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, Jyväskylä 40014 (Finland); Sintonen, Sakari [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 AALTO (Finland); Tuominen, Marko [ASM Microchemistry Oy, Pietari Kalmin katu 1 F 2, FIN-00560 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-01-15

    The scratch test method is widely used for adhesion evaluation of thin films and coatings. Usual critical load criteria designed for scratch testing of coatings were not applicable to thin atomic layer deposition (ALD) films on silicon wafers. Thus, the bases for critical load evaluation were established and the critical loads suitable for ALD coating adhesion evaluation on silicon wafers were determined in this paper as L{sub CSi1}, L{sub CSi2}, L{sub CALD1}, and L{sub CALD2}, representing the failure points of the silicon substrate and the coating delamination points of the ALD coating. The adhesion performance of the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, TiN, and TaCN+Ru coatings with a thickness range between 20 and 600 nm and deposition temperature between 30 and 410 °C on silicon wafers was investigated. In addition, the impact of the annealing process after deposition on adhesion was evaluated for selected cases. The tests carried out using scratch and Scotch tape test showed that the coating deposition and annealing temperature, thickness of the coating, and surface pretreatments of the Si wafer had an impact on the adhesion performance of the ALD coatings on the silicon wafer. There was also an improved load carrying capacity due to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the magnitude of which depended on the coating thickness and the deposition temperature. The tape tests were carried out for selected coatings as a comparison. The results show that the scratch test is a useful and applicable tool for adhesion evaluation of ALD coatings, even when carried out for thin (20 nm thick) coatings.

  9. Silica-sol-based spin-coating barrier layer against phosphorous diffusion for crystalline silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzum, Abdullah; Fukatsu, Ken; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Yutaka; Tanimoto, Kenji; Yoshinaga, Seiya; Jiang, Yunjian; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ito, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorus barrier layers at the doping procedure of silicon wafers were fabricated using a spin-coating method with a mixture of silica-sol and tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which can be formed at the rear surface prior to the front phosphorus spin-on-demand (SOD) diffusion and directly annealed simultaneously with the front phosphorus layer. The optimization of coating thickness was obtained by changing the applied spin-coating speed; from 2,000 to 8,000 rpm. The CZ-Si p-type silicon solar cells were fabricated with/without using the rear silica-sol layer after taking the sheet resistance measurements, SIMS analysis, and SEM measurements of the silica-sol material evaluations into consideration. For the fabrication of solar cells, a spin-coating phosphorus source was used to form the n(+) emitter and was then diffused at 930°C for 35 min. The out-gas diffusion of phosphorus could be completely prevented by spin-coated silica-sol film placed on the rear side of the wafers coated prior to the diffusion process. A roughly 2% improvement in the conversion efficiency was observed when silica-sol was utilized during the phosphorus diffusion step. These results can suggest that the silica-sol material can be an attractive candidate for low-cost and easily applicable spin-coating barrier for any masking purpose involving phosphorus diffusion.

  10. A new approach based on transfer matrix formalism to characterize porous silicon layers by reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirasteh, P. [RESO Laboratory (EA 3380), ENIB, CS 73862, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Optronics Laboratory, ENSSAT, UMR 6082, BP 80518, 6 rue de Kerampont, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Boucher, Y.G. [RESO Laboratory (EA 3380), ENIB, CS 73862, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Charrier, J.; Dumeige, Y. [Optronics Laboratory, ENSSAT, UMR 6082, BP 80518, 6 rue de Kerampont, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)

    2007-07-01

    We use reflectometry coupled to transfer matrix formalism in order to investigate the comparative effect of surface (localized) and volume (distributed) losses inside a porous silicon monolayer. Both are modeled as fictive absorption. Surface losses are described as a Dirac-like singularity of permittivity localized at an interface whereas volume losses are described trough the imaginary part of the porous silicon complex permittivity. A good agreement with experimental data is determined by this formalism. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Tuning Confinement in Colloidal Silicon Nanocrystals with Saturated Surface Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neale, Nathan R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carroll, Gerard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Limpens, Rens [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-16

    The optical properties of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are a subject of intense study and continued debate. In particular, Si NC photoluminescence (PL) properties are known to depend strongly on the surface chemistry, resulting in electron-hole recombination pathways derived from the Si NC band-edge, surface-state defects, or combined NC-conjugated ligand hybrid states. In this Letter, we perform a comparison of three different saturated surface functional groups - alkyls, amides, and alkoxides - on nonthermal plasma-synthesized Si NCs. We find a systematic and size-dependent high-energy (blue) shift in the PL spectrum of Si NCs with amide and alkoxy functionalization relative to alkyl. Time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption spectroscopies reveal no change in the excited-state dynamics between Si NCs functionalized with alkyl, amide, or alkoxide ligands, showing for the first time that saturated ligands - not only surface-derived charge-transfer states or hybridization between NC and low-lying ligand orbitals - are responsible for tuning the Si NC optical properties. To explain these PL shifts we propose that the atom bound to the Si NC surface strongly interacts with the Si NC electronic wave function and modulates the Si NC quantum confinement. These results reveal a potentially broadly applicable correlation between the optoelectronic properties of Si NCs and related quantum-confined structures based on the interaction between NC surfaces and the ligand binding group.

  12. Tuning Confinement in Colloidal Silicon Nanocrystals with Saturated Surface Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Gerard M; Limpens, Rens; Neale, Nathan R

    2018-05-09

    The optical properties of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are a subject of intense study and continued debate. In particular, Si NC photoluminescence (PL) properties are known to depend strongly on the surface chemistry, resulting in electron-hole recombination pathways derived from the Si NC band-edge, surface-state defects, or combined NC-conjugated ligand hybrid states. In this Letter, we perform a comparison of three different saturated surface functional groups-alkyls, amides, and alkoxides-on nonthermal plasma-synthesized Si NCs. We find a systematic and size-dependent high-energy (blue) shift in the PL spectrum of Si NCs with amide and alkoxy functionalization relative to alkyl. Time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption spectroscopies reveal no change in the excited-state dynamics between Si NCs functionalized with alkyl, amide, or alkoxide ligands, showing for the first time that saturated ligands-not only surface-derived charge-transfer states or hybridization between NC and low-lying ligand orbitals-are responsible for tuning the Si NC optical properties. To explain these PL shifts we propose that the atom bound to the Si NC surface strongly interacts with the Si NC electronic wave function and modulates the Si NC quantum confinement. These results reveal a potentially broadly applicable correlation between the optoelectronic properties of Si NCs and related quantum-confined structures based on the interaction between NC surfaces and the ligand binding group.

  13. Reaction dynamics of molecular hydrogen on silicon surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bratu, P.; Brenig, W.; Gross, A.

    1996-01-01

    of the preexponential factor by about one order of magnitude per lateral degree of freedom. Molecular vibrations have practically no effect on the adsorption/desorption dynamics itself, but lead to vibrational heating in desorption with a strong isotope effect. Ab initio calculations for the H-2 interaction...... between the two surfaces. These results indicate that tunneling, molecular vibrations, and the structural details of the surface play only a minor role for the adsorption dynamics. Instead, they appear to be governed by the localized H-Si bonding and Si-Si lattice vibrations. Theoretically, an effective......Experimental and theoretical results on the dynamics of dissociative adsorption and recombinative desorption of hydrogen on silicon are presented. Using optical second-harmonic generation, extremely small sticking probabilities in the range 10(-9)-10(-5) could be measured for H-2 and D-2 on Si(111...

  14. Surface effects on the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Peng; Zhang, Rui-Qin

    2018-03-01

    Thermal transport in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) has recently attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications in energy harvesting and generation and thermal management. The adjustment of the thermal conductivity of SiNWs through surface effects is a topic worthy of focus. In this paper, we briefly review the recent progress made in this field through theoretical calculations and experiments. We come to the conclusion that surface engineering methods are feasible and effective methods for adjusting nanoscale thermal transport and may foster further advancements in this field. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation ofChina (Grant No. 11504418), China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201706425053), Basic Research Program in Shenzhen, China (Grant No. JCYJ20160229165210666), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2015XKMS075).

  15. A dielectric matrix calculation of the surface-plasmon energy for the silicon (100) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, A.J.; Smith, A.E.; Josefsson, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: As an extension of previous work, we present preliminary calculations for the dielectric properties of the silicon (100) surface. In particular, the |q|→0 and |q|=2π/a(1,0,0) surface loss function, and corresponding surface plasmon energies have been calculated within a simple model for the silicon surface. The results have been obtained from the Adler and Wiser dielectric matrix (DM). The bandstructure used for the calculation was based on the highly successful empirical pseudopotential method of Cohen and Chelikovsky. We have used a 59 plane wave basis for the bandstructure, and have chosen a DM size of 59 x 59. Results are compared and contrasted with volume plasmon calculations, free electron calculations and experiment

  16. Ultrathin silicon oxynitride layer on GaN for dangling-bond-free GaN/insulator interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kengo; Yayama, Tomoe; Miyazaki, Takehide; Taoka, Noriyuki; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2018-01-23

    Despite the scientific and technological importance of removing interface dangling bonds, even an ideal model of a dangling-bond-free interface between GaN and an insulator has not been known. The formation of an atomically thin ordered buffer layer between crystalline GaN and amorphous SiO 2 would be a key to synthesize a dangling-bond-free GaN/SiO 2 interface. Here, we predict that a silicon oxynitride (Si 4 O 5 N 3 ) layer can epitaxially grow on a GaN(0001) surface without creating dangling bonds at the interface. Our ab initio calculations show that the GaN/Si 4 O 5 N 3 structure is more stable than silicon-oxide-terminated GaN(0001) surfaces. The electronic properties of the GaN/Si 4 O 5 N 3 structure can be tuned by modifying the chemical components near the interface. We also propose a possible approach to experimentally synthesize the GaN/Si 4 O 5 N 3 structure.

  17. Charged particle discrimination with silicon surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.; Pithie, J.; Vickridge, I.C.

    1996-01-01

    The application for materials analysis of nuclear reactions that give rise to charged particles is a powerful surface analytical and concentration depth profiling technique. Spectra of charged particles, with energies in the range 0.1 to 15 MeV, emitted from materials irradiated with beams of light nuclei such as deuterons are measured with silicon surface barrier detectors. The spectra from multi-elemental materials typically encountered in materials research are usually composed of an overlapping superposition of proton, alpha, and other charged particle spectra. Interpretation of such complex spectra would be simplified if a means were available to electronically discriminate between the detector response to the different kinds of charged particle. We have investigated two methods of discriminating between different types of charged particles. The fast charge pulses from a surface barrier detector have different shapes, depending on the spatial distribution of energy deposition of the incident particle. Fast digitisation of the pulses, followed by digital signal processing provides one avenue for discrimination. A second approach is to use a thin transmission detector in front of a thick detector as a detector telescope. For a given incident energy, different types of charged particles will lose different amounts of energy in the thin detector, providing an alternative means of discrimination. We show that both approaches can provide significant simplification in the interpretation of charged particle spectra in practical situations, and suggest that silicon surface barrier detectors having graded electronic properties could provide improved discrimination compared to the current generation of detectors having homogeneous electronic properties. (author).12 refs., 2 tabs., 28 figs

  18. Designing high performance precursors for atomic layer deposition of silicon oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallikarjunan, Anupama, E-mail: mallika@airproducts.com; Chandra, Haripin; Xiao, Manchao; Lei, Xinjian; Pearlstein, Ronald M.; Bowen, Heather R.; O' Neill, Mark L. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., 1969 Palomar Oaks Way, Carlsbad, California 92011 (United States); Derecskei-Kovacs, Agnes [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., 7201 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown, Pennsylvania 18195 (United States); Han, Bing [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., 2 Dongsanhuan North Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100027 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Conformal and continuous silicon oxide films produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are enabling novel processing schemes and integrated device structures. The increasing drive toward lower temperature processing requires new precursors with even higher reactivity. The aminosilane family of precursors has advantages due to their reactive nature and relative ease of use. In this paper, the authors present the experimental results that reveal the uniqueness of the monoaminosilane structure [(R{sub 2}N)SiH{sub 3}] in providing ultralow temperature silicon oxide depositions. Disubstituted aminosilanes with primary amines such as in bis(t-butylamino)silane and with secondary amines such as in bis(diethylamino)silane were compared with a representative monoaminosilane: di-sec-butylaminosilane (DSBAS). DSBAS showed the highest growth per cycle in both thermal and plasma enhanced ALD. These findings show the importance of the arrangement of the precursor's organic groups in an ALD silicon oxide process.

  19. Intensifying the Casimir force between two silicon substrates within three different layers of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyedzahedi, A.; Moradian, A.; Setare, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the Casimir force for a system composed of two thick slabs as substrates within three different homogeneous layers. We use the scattering approach along with the Matsubara formalism in order to calculate the Casimir force at finite temperature. First, we focus on constructing the reflection matrices and then we calculate the Casimir force for a water–lipid system. According to the conventional use of silicon as a substrate, we apply the formalism to calculate the Casimir force for layers of Au, VO 2 , mica, KCl and foam rubber on the thick slabs of silicon. Afterwards, introducing an increasing factor, we compare our results with Lifshitz force in the vacuum between two semispaces of silicon in order to illustrate the influence of the layers on intensifying the Casimir force. We also calculate the Casimir force between two slabs of the forementioned materials with finite thicknesses to indicate the substrate's role in increasing the obtained Casimir force. Our simple calculation is interesting since one can extend it along with the Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis to systems containing inhomogeneous layers as good candidates for designing nanomechanical devices.

  20. Intensifying the Casimir force between two silicon substrates within three different layers of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyedzahedi, A. [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, A., E-mail: a.moradian@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the Casimir force for a system composed of two thick slabs as substrates within three different homogeneous layers. We use the scattering approach along with the Matsubara formalism in order to calculate the Casimir force at finite temperature. First, we focus on constructing the reflection matrices and then we calculate the Casimir force for a water–lipid system. According to the conventional use of silicon as a substrate, we apply the formalism to calculate the Casimir force for layers of Au, VO{sub 2}, mica, KCl and foam rubber on the thick slabs of silicon. Afterwards, introducing an increasing factor, we compare our results with Lifshitz force in the vacuum between two semispaces of silicon in order to illustrate the influence of the layers on intensifying the Casimir force. We also calculate the Casimir force between two slabs of the forementioned materials with finite thicknesses to indicate the substrate's role in increasing the obtained Casimir force. Our simple calculation is interesting since one can extend it along with the Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis to systems containing inhomogeneous layers as good candidates for designing nanomechanical devices.

  1. Adsorption and diffusion of lithium on layered silicon for Li-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritsaris, Georgios A; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Meng, Sheng; Wang, Enge

    2013-05-08

    The energy density of Li-ion batteries depends critically on the specific charge capacity of the constituent electrodes. Silicene, the silicon analogue to graphene, being of atomic thickness could serve as high-capacity host of Li in Li-ion secondary batteries. In this work, we employ first-principles calculations to investigate the interaction of Li with Si in model electrodes of free-standing single-layer and double-layer silicene. More specifically, we identify strong binding sites for Li, calculate the energy barriers accompanying Li diffusion, and present our findings in the context of previous theoretical work related to Li-ion storage in other structural forms of silicon: the bulk and nanowires. The binding energy of Li is ~2.2 eV per Li atom and shows small variation with respect to Li content and silicene thickness (one or two layers) while the barriers for Li diffusion are relatively low, typically less than 0.6 eV. We use our theoretical findings to assess the suitability of two-dimensional silicon in the form of silicene layers for Li-ion storage.

  2. Low temperature surface passivation of crystalline silicon and its application to interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (ibc-shj) solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhan

    With the absence of shading loss together with improved quality of surface passivation introduced by low temperature processed amorphous silicon crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) heterojunction, the interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cell exhibits a potential for higher conversion efficiency and lower cost than a traditional front contact diffused junction solar cell. In such solar cells, the front surface passivation is of great importance to achieve both high open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current (Jsc). Therefore, the motivation of this work is to develop a low temperature processed structure for the front surface passivation of IBC-SHJ solar cells, which must have an excellent and stable passivation quality as well as a good anti-reflection property. Four different thin film materials/structures were studied and evaluated for this purpose, namely: amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H), thick amorphous silicon film (a-Si:H), amorphous silicon/silicon nitride/silicon carbide (a-Si:H/a-SiN x:H/a-SiC:H) stack structure with an ultra-thin a-Si:H layer, and zinc sulfide (ZnS). It was demonstrated that the a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H/a-SiC:H stack surpasses other candidates due to both of its excellent surface passivation quality (SRVSi surface is found to be resulted from (i) field effect passivation due to the positive fixed charge (Q fix~1x1011 cm-2 with 5 nm a-Si:H layer) in a-SiNx:H as measured from capacitance-voltage technique, and (ii) reduced defect state density (mid-gap Dit~4x1010 cm-2eV-1) at a-Si:H/c-Si interface provided by a 5 nm thick a-Si:H layer, as characterized by conductance-frequency measurements. Paralleled with the experimental studies, a computer program was developed in this work based on the extended Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) model of surface recombination. With the help of this program, the experimental injection level dependent SRV curves of the stack passivated c-Si samples were successfully reproduced and

  3. Ultrafast triggered transient energy storage by atomic layer deposition into porous silicon for integrated transient electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Share, Keith; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-03-01

    Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics.Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (i) Experimental details for ALD and material fabrication, ellipsometry film thickness, preparation of gel electrolyte and separator, details for electrochemical measurements, HRTEM image of VOx coated porous silicon, Raman spectroscopy for VOx as-deposited as well as annealed in air for 1 hour at 450 °C, SEM and transient behavior dissolution tests of uniformly coated VOx on

  4. Modeling Turbulence Generation in the Atmospheric Surface and Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    hydrostatic equation: dP dz = −ρa g −→ ∫ ZI 0 ρa dz = − 1 g ∫ dP = + 1 g [P (0)− P (ZI)]. (6.14) The pressure at the surface is... surface pressure is estimated, we can compute a vertical pressure profile using the hydrostatic equation and a selected temperature profile based on dP... surface -layer atmosphere. By surface layer what is intended is a layer of foliage plus the surface itself. That is, a flat ground surface that

  5. Controlled amino-functionalization by electrochemical reduction of bromo and nitro azobenzene layers bound to Si(111) surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullien, D.; Thüne, P.C.; Jager, W.F.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; De Smet, L.C.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    4-Nitrobenzenediazonium (4-NBD) and 4-bromobenzenediazonium (4-BBD) salts were grafted electrochemically onto H-terminated, p-doped silicon (Si) surfaces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ellipsometry experiments clearly showed layer thicknesses of 2–7 nm, which indicate multilayer formation.

  6. Surface Wettability of Oxygen Plasma Treated Porous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen plasma treatment on porous silicon (p-Si surfaces was studied as a practical and effective means to modify wetting properties of as-fabricated p-Si surfaces, that is, contact angles of the p-Si materials. P-Si samples spanning a wide range of surface nanostructures have been fabricated which were subjected to a series of oxygen plasma treatments. Reduction of the p-Si surface contact angles has been systematically observed, and the surface activation rate constant as a function of different pore geometries has been analyzed to achieve an empirical equation. The underlying diffusion mechanisms have been discussed by taking into account of different pore diameters of p-Si samples. It is envisaged that such an approach as well as the corresponding empirical equation may be used to provide relevant process guidance in order to achieve precise control of p-Si contact angles, which is essential for many p-Si applications especially in biosensor areas.

  7. Improvement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells with a doped porous silicon layer with rare earth (Ce, La) as antireflection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atyaoui, Malek; Dimassi, Wissem; Atyaoui, Atef; Elyagoubi, Jalel; Ouertani, Rachid; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    The performance improvement of solar cells due to the formation of a porous silicon layer treated with rare earth (Ce, La) in the n + emitter of silicon n + /p junctions has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties of the cells with and without treatment of the porous silicon layer are compared. From the reflection measurements, it was shown that the cells with treated PS layers have lower reflectivity value compared to cell with untreated PS layer. The main result is that the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of solar cells can be enhanced by using the treated porous silicon layers with the rare earth (Ce, La) as anti-reflection coatings. -- Highlights: • The reduction of optical loss in silicon (c-Si) solar cells attracts the attention of many researches to achieve high efficiencies. • To attain this aim, the treated PS layers with rare earth (La, Ce) are suggested to be used as an (ARC) of c-Si solar cell. • The result showed a decrease in the optical losses which can explain the improved photovoltaic properties

  8. Improvement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells with a doped porous silicon layer with rare earth (Ce, La) as antireflection coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atyaoui, Malek, E-mail: atyaoui.malek@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95, Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Dimassi, Wissem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95,Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Atyaoui, Atef [Laboratoire de traitement des eaux usées, Centre de recherches et des technologies des eaux, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB: 273, Soliman 8020 (Tunisia); Elyagoubi, Jalel; Ouertani, Rachid; Ezzaouia, Hatem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95,Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2013-09-15

    The performance improvement of solar cells due to the formation of a porous silicon layer treated with rare earth (Ce, La) in the n{sup +} emitter of silicon n{sup +}/p junctions has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties of the cells with and without treatment of the porous silicon layer are compared. From the reflection measurements, it was shown that the cells with treated PS layers have lower reflectivity value compared to cell with untreated PS layer. The main result is that the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of solar cells can be enhanced by using the treated porous silicon layers with the rare earth (Ce, La) as anti-reflection coatings. -- Highlights: • The reduction of optical loss in silicon (c-Si) solar cells attracts the attention of many researches to achieve high efficiencies. • To attain this aim, the treated PS layers with rare earth (La, Ce) are suggested to be used as an (ARC) of c-Si solar cell. • The result showed a decrease in the optical losses which can explain the improved photovoltaic properties.

  9. Implementation of atomic layer etching of silicon: Scaling parameters, feasibility, and profile control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, Alok, E-mail: alok.ranjan@us.tel.com; Wang, Mingmei; Sherpa, Sonam D.; Rastogi, Vinayak [TEL Technology Center, America LLC, 255 Fuller Road, Suite 214, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Koshiishi, Akira [Tokyo Electron Miyagi, Ltd., 1 Techno-Hills, Taiwa-cho, Kurokawa-gun, Miyagi, 9813629 (Japan); Ventzek, Peter L. G. [Tokyo Electron America, Inc., 2400 Grove Blvd., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Atomic or layer by layer etching of silicon exploits temporally segregated self-limiting adsorption and material removal steps to mitigate the problems associated with continuous or quasicontinuous (pulsed) plasma processes: selectivity loss, damage, and profile control. Successful implementation of atomic layer etching requires careful choice of the plasma parameters for adsorption and desorption steps. This paper illustrates how process parameters can be arrived at through basic scaling exercises, modeling and simulation, and fundamental experimental tests of their predictions. Using chlorine and argon plasma in a radial line slot antenna plasma source as a platform, the authors illustrate how cycle time, ion energy, and radical to ion ratio can be manipulated to manage the deviation from ideality when cycle times are shortened or purges are incomplete. Cell based Monte Carlo feature scale modeling is used to illustrate profile outcomes. Experimental results of atomic layer etching processes are illustrated on silicon line and space structures such that iso-dense bias and aspect ratio dependent free profiles are produced. Experimental results also illustrate the profile control margin as processes move from atomic layer to multilayer by layer etching. The consequence of not controlling contamination (e.g., oxygen) is shown to result in deposition and roughness generation.

  10. Evolution of a Native Oxide Layer at the a-Si:H/c-Si Interface and Its Influence on a Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenzhu; Meng, Fanying; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Zhengxin

    2015-12-09

    The interface microstructure of a silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cell was investigated. We found an ultrathin native oxide layer (NOL) with a thickness of several angstroms was formed on the crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface in a very short time (∼30 s) after being etched by HF solution. Although the NOL had a loose structure with defects that are detrimental for surface passivation, it acted as a barrier to restrain the epitaxial growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) during the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The microstructure change of the NOL during the PECVD deposition of a-Si:H layers with different conditions and under different H2 plasma treatments were systemically investigated in detail. When a brief H2 plasma was applied to treat the a-Si:H layer after the PECVD deposition, interstitial oxygen and small-size SiO2 precipitates were transformed to hydrogenated amorphous silicon suboxide alloy (a-SiO(x):H, x ∼ 1.5). In the meantime, the interface defect density was reduced by about 50%, and the parameters of the SHJ solar cell were improved due to the post H2 plasma treatment.

  11. HOLE-BLOCKING LAYERS FOR SILICON/ORGANIC HETEROJUNCTIONS: A NEW CLASS OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY LOW-COST PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, James [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-12-04

    This project is the first investigation of the use of thin titanium dioxide layers on silicon as a hole-blocking / electron-transparent selective contact to silicon. The work was motivated by the goal of a high-efficiency low-cost silicon-based solar cells that could be processed entirely at low temperature (300 Degree Celsius) or less, without requiring plasma-processing.

  12. Detector and Front-end electronics for ALICE and STAR silicon strip layers

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Higueret, S; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Suire, C; Tarchini, A; Berst, D; Blondé, J P; Clauss, G; Colledani, C; Deptuch, G; Dulinski, W; Hu, Y; Hébrard, L; Kucewicz, W; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Ravel, O; Retière, F

    1998-01-01

    Detector modules consisting of Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) and Front End Electronics (FEE) assembly have been designed in order to provide the two outer layers of the ALICE Inner Tracker System (ITS) [1] as well as the outer layer of the STAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) [2]. Several prototypes have beenproduced and tested in the SPS and PS beam at CERN to validate the final design. Double-sided, AC-coupled SSD detectors provided by two different manufacturers and also a pair of single-sided SSD have been asssociated to new low-power CMOS ALICE128C ASIC chips in a new detector module assembly. The same detectors have also been associated to current Viking electronics for reference purpose. These prototype detector modules are described and some first results are presented.

  13. Development of laser-fired contacts for amorphous silicon layers obtained by Hot-Wire CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, D.; Voz, C.; Blanque, S.; Ibarz, D.; Bertomeu, J.; Alcubilla, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we study aluminium laser-fired contacts for intrinsic amorphous silicon layers deposited by Hot-Wire CVD. This structure could be used as an alternative low temperature back contact for rear passivated heterojunction solar cells. An infrared Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) has been used to locally fire the aluminium through the thin amorphous silicon layers. Under optimized laser firing parameters, very low specific contact resistances (ρ c ∼ 10 mΩ cm 2 ) have been obtained on 2.8 Ω cm p-type c-Si wafers. This investigation focuses on maintaining the passivation quality of the interface without an excessive increase in the series resistance of the device.

  14. Intermediate band mobility in heavily titanium-doped silicon layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, G.; Olea, J.; Martil, I.; Pastor, D. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electronica), Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Marti, A.; Antolin, E.; Luque, A [Instituto de Energia Solar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomunicacion, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    The sheet resistance and the Hall mobility of high-purity Si wafers, in whose surface Ti atoms are implanted and laser annealed reaching concentrations above 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}, are measured in the 90-370 K range. Below 240 K, an unconventional behavior is observed that is well explained on the basis of the appearance of an intermediate band (IB) region able to form a blocking junction with the substrate and of the appearance of an IB conduction. Explanations based on ordinary device physics fail to justify all the unconventional behavior of the characteristics observed. (author)

  15. Preparation of YBCO on YSZ layers deposited on silicon and sapphire by MOCVD: influence of the intermediate layer on the quality of the superconducting film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; Casado, J.; Llibre, J.; Doudkowski, M.; Santiso, J.; Figueras, A.; Schamm, S.; Dorignac, D.; Grigis, C.; Aguilo, M.

    1995-01-01

    YSZ buffer layers were deposited on silicon and sapphire by MOCVD. The layers deposited on silicon were highly oriented along [100] direction without in-plane orientation, probably because the existence of the SiO 2 amorphous interlayer. In contrast, epitaxial YSZ was obtained on (1-102) sapphire showing an in-plane texture defined by the following relationships: (100) YSZ // (1-102) sapphire and (110) YSZ // (01-12) sapphire. Subsequently, YBCO films were deposited on YSZ by MOCVD. Structural, morphological and electrical characterization of the superconducting layers were correlated with the in-plane texture of the buffer layers. (orig.)

  16. Selective formation of porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pattern of porous silicon is produced in the surface of a silicon substrate by forming a pattern of crystal defects in said surface, preferably by applying an ion milling beam through openings in a photoresist layer to the surface, and then exposing said surface to a stain etchant, such as HF:HNO3:H2O. The defected crystal will preferentially etch to form a pattern of porous silicon. When the amorphous content of the porous silicon exceeds 70 percent, the porous silicon pattern emits visible light at room temperature.

  17. The thermodynamic spin magnetization of strongly correlated 2d electrons in a silicon inversion layer

    OpenAIRE

    Prus, O.; Yaish, Y.; Reznikov, M.; Sivan, U.; Pudalov, V.

    2002-01-01

    A novel method invented to measure the minute thermodynamic spin magnetization of dilute two dimensional fermions is applied to electrons in a silicon inversion layer. Interplay between the ferromagnetic interaction and disorder enhances the low temperature susceptibility up to 7.5 folds compared with the Pauli susceptibility of non-interacting electrons. The magnetization peaks in the vicinity of the density where transition to strong localization takes place. At the same density, the suscep...

  18. Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemensberger, Johann; Hartinger, Klaus; Herr, Tobias; Brasch, Victor; Holzwarth, Ronald; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2012-12-03

    We demonstrate dispersion engineering of integrated silicon nitride based ring resonators through conformal coating with hafnium dioxide deposited on top of the structures via atomic layer deposition. Both, magnitude and bandwidth of anomalous dispersion can be significantly increased. The results are confirmed by high resolution frequency-comb-assisted-diode-laser spectroscopy and are in very good agreement with the simulated modification of the mode spectrum.

  19. Instrumental studies on silicone oil adsorption to the surface of intraocular lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Ho [Lab. of Tissue Engineering, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Choun-Ki [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Medical College of Catholic University, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Heung Jae, E-mail: chunhj@catholic.ac.kr [Institute of Cell and Tissue Engineering, Medical College of Catholic University, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Bok Ryul [Organosilicone Chemistry Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Dong Il; Shim, Young Bock [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Korea Bone Bank Co. Ltd., Seoul 153-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was found that PHEMA and Acrysof IOLs possess silicone oil repellant ability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The residual silicone oil was detected on the surfaces of PMMA and silicone IOLs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS studies showed that silicone oil coverage of PMMA lenses was 12%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silicone oil covered the entire surface of the silicone IOLs. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of adherence of silicone oil to various intraocular lenses (IOLs) through comparison of the physico-chemical properties of the oil and IOLs. Four kinds of IOLs comprising various biomaterials were examined: PMMA (720A Trade-Mark-Sign ), PHEMA (IOGEL 1103 Trade-Mark-Sign ), Acrysof (MA60BM Trade-Mark-Sign ), and silicone (SI30NB Trade-Mark-Sign ). Each lens was immersed in silicone oil or carboxylated silicone (CS-PDMS) oil for 72 h. For determination of the changes in chemical and elemental compositions on the surfaces of IOLs caused by the contact with silicone oil, IOLs were washed and rinsed with n-pentane to remove as much of the adsorbed silicone oil as possible, then subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses. The results of FTIR studies strongly indicate that washing with n-pentane completely removed the adhered silicone oil on the surfaces of PHEMA and Acrysof IOLs, whereas the residual silicone oil was detected on the surfaces of PMMA and silicone IOLs. XPS studies showed that silicone oil coverage of PMMA lenses was 12%, even after washing with n-pentane. In the case of silicone IOLs, the relative O1s peak area of carboxyl group in the residual CS-PDMS oil was found to be {approx}2.7%. Considering that 2.8% carboxyl group-substituted silicone oil was used in the present study, CS-PDMS oil covered the entire surface of the silicone IOLs.

  20. Grazing angle X-ray fluorescence from periodic structures on silicon and silica surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.H.; Banaś, D.; Błchucki, W.; Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hönicke, P.; Hoszowska, J.; Jabłoński, Ł.; Kayser, Y.; Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Pajek, M.; Reinhardt, F.; Savu, A.V.; Szlachetko, J.

    2014-01-01

    Various 3-dimensional nano-scaled periodic structures with different configurations and periods deposited on the surface of silicon and silica substrates were investigated by means of the grazing incidence and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence techniques. Apart from the characteristics which are typical for particle- and layer-like samples, the measured angular intensity profiles show additional periodicity-related features. The latter could be explained by a novel theoretical approach based on simple geometrical optics (GO) considerations. The new GO-based calculations were found to yield results in good agreement with experiment, also in cases where other theoretical approaches are not valid, e.g., periodic particle distributions with an increased surface coverage

  1. Carbon out-diffusion mechanism for direct graphene growth on a silicon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung-Sung; Lee, Jong Woon; Jang, Yamujin; Choi, Soon Hyung; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Kim, Jong Min; Joo, Won-Jae; Hwang, Sungwoo; Whang, Dongmok

    2015-01-01

    Direct growth of graphene on silicon (Si) through chemical vapor deposition has predominantly focused on surface-mediated processes due to the low carbon (C) solubility in Si. However, a considerable quantity of C atoms was incorporated in Si and formed Si 1−x C x alloy with a reduced lattice dimension even in the initial stage of direct graphene growth. Subsequent high temperature annealing promoted active C out-diffusion, resulting in the formation of a graphitic layer on the Si surface. Furthermore, the significantly low thermal conductivity of the Si 1−x C x alloy shows that the incorporated C atoms affect the properties of a semiconductor adjacent to the graphene. These findings provide a key guideline for controlling desirable properties of graphene and designing hybrid semiconductor/graphene architectures for various applications

  2. Evolution of arsenic in high fluence plasma immersion ion implanted silicon: Behavior of the as-implanted surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishwanath, V. [Applied Materials, 3225 Oakmead Village Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95052 (United States); Demenev, E. [Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Department of Molecular Science and Nanosystems, Ca’Foscari University, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Giubertoni, D., E-mail: giuberto@fbk.eu [Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Vanzetti, L. [Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Koh, A.L. [Stanford Nanocharacterization Laboratory, Stanford University, 476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Steinhauser, G. [Colorado State University, Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Radioökologie und Strahlenschutz, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Pepponi, G.; Bersani, M. [Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Meirer, F., E-mail: f.meirer@uu.nl [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3584 CG (Netherlands); Foad, M.A. [Applied Materials, 3225 Oakmead Village Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95052 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Samples prepared by high fluence, low-energy PIII of AsH{sub 3}{sup +} on Si(1 0 0) were studied. • PIII is of high technological interest for ultra-shallow doping and activation. • We used a multi-technique approach to study the As-implanted surface. • We show that PIII presents a new set of problems that needs to be tackled. • The presented study goes toward understanding the root mechanisms involved. - Abstract: High fluence (>10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}) low-energy (<2 keV) plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of AsH{sub 3}{sup +} on (1 0 0) silicon was investigated, with the focus on stability and retention of the dopant. At this dose, a thin (∼3 nm) amorphous layer forms at the surface, which contains about 45% arsenic (As) in a silicon and oxygen matrix. The presence of silicon indicates that the layer is not only a result of deposition, but predominantly ion mixing. High fluence PIII introduces high concentration of arsenic, modifying the stopping power for incoming ions resulting in an increased deposition. When exposed to atmosphere, the arsenic rich layer spontaneously evolves forming arsenolite As{sub 2}O{sub 3} micro-crystals at the surface. The micro-crystal formation was monitored over several months and exhibits typical crystal growth kinetics. At the same time, a continuous growth of native silicon oxide rich in arsenic was observed on the exposed surface, suggesting the presence of oxidation enhancing factors linked to the high arsenic concentration at the surface.

  3. Optimization of Controllable Factors in the Aluminum Silicon Eutectic Paste and Rear Silicon Nitride Mono-Passivation Layer of PERC Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungeun; Park, Hyomin; Kim, Dongseop; Yang, JungYup; Lee, Dongho; Kim, Young-Su; Kim, Hyun-Jong; Suh, Dongchul; Min, Byoung Koun; Kim, Kyung Nam; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Donghwan; Lee, Hae-Seok; Nam, Junggyu; Kang, Yoonmook

    2018-05-01

    Passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) is a promising technology owing to high efficiency can be achieved with p-type wafer and their easily applicable to existing lines. In case of using p-type mono wafer, 0.5-1% efficiency increase is expected with PERC technologies compared to existing Al BSF solar cells, while for multi-wafer solar cells it is 0.5-0.8%. We addressed the optimization of PERC solar cells using the Al paste. The paste was prepared from the aluminum-silicon alloy with eutectic composition to avoid the formation of voids that degrade the open-circuit voltage. The glass frit of the paste was changed to improve adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy revealed voids and local back surface field between the aluminum electrode and silicon base. We confirmed the conditions on the SiNx passivation layer for achieving higher efficiency and better adhesion for long-term stability. The cell characteristics were compared across cells containing different pastes. PERC solar cells with the Al/Si eutectic paste exhibited the efficiency of 19.6%.

  4. The kinetics of solid phase epitaxy in As-doped buried amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Ion implantation is the principal method used to introduce dopants into silicon for fabrication of semiconductor devices. During ion implantation, damage accumulates in the crystalline silicon lattice and amorphisation may occur over the depth range of the ions if the implant dose is sufficiently high. As device dimensions shrink, the need to produce shallower and shallower highly-doped layers increases and the probability of amorphisation also increases. To achieve dopant-activation, the amorphous or damaged material must be returned to the crystalline state by thermal annealing. Amorphous silicon layers can be crystallised by the solid-state process of solid phase epitaxy (SPE) in which the amorphous layer transforms to crystalline silicon (c-Si) layer by layer using the underlying c-Si as a seed. The atomic mechanism that is responsible for the crystallisation is thought to involve highly-localised bond-breaking and rearrangement processes at the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interface but the defect responsible for these bond rearrangements has not yet been identified. Since the bond breaking process necessarily generates dangling bonds, it has been suggested that the crystallisation process may solely involve the formation and migration of dangling bonds at the interface. One of the key factors which may shed further light on the nature of the SPE defect is the observed dopant-dependence of the rate of crystallisation. It has been found that moderate concentrations of dopants enhance the SPE crystallisation rate while the presence of equal concentrations of an n-type and a p-type dopant (impurity compensation) returns the SPE rate to the intrinsic value. This provides crucial evidence that the SPE mechanism is sensitive to the position of the Fermi level in the bandgap of the crystalline and/or the amorphous silicon phases and may lead to identification of an energy level within the bandgap that can be associated with the defect. This paper gives details of SPE

  5. Accelerating action of stresses on crystallization kinetics in silicon ion-implanted layers during pulsed heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the effect of stressed in ion-implanted layers on kinetics of amorphous phase transformations is performed. The suggested model of accounting stresses including concentration ones is based on the locality of action of interstitial addition atoms and on general structural inhomogeneity of amorphous semiconductor leading to the formation of areas of the facilitated phase transition. Accounting of effect of energy variation of silicon atoms interaction on probability of displacement events and atoms building in lattice points or atomic bonds disintegration allows one to trace the accelerating action of introduced by ion implantation stresses on the kinetics of layer crystallization during pulsed heating

  6. Surface modification of aluminum nitride by polysilazane and its polymer-derived amorphous silicon oxycarbide ceramic for the enhancement of thermal conductivity in silicone rubber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien Tang; Sukachonmakul, Tanapon; Kuo, Ming Tai; Wang, Yu Hsiang; Wattanakul, Karnthidaporn

    2014-02-01

    Polysilazane (PSZ) and its polymer-derived amorphous silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) ceramic were coated on aluminum nitride (AlN) by using a dip-coating method to allow moisture-crosslinking of PSZ on AlN, followed by heat treatment at 700 °C in air to convert PSZ into SiOC on AlN. The results from FTIR, XPS and SEM indicated that the surface of AlN was successfully coated by PSZ and SiOC film. It was found that the introduction of PSZ and SiOC film help improve in the interfacial adhesion between the modified AlN (PSZ/AlN and SiOC/AlN) and silicone rubber lead to the increase in the thermal conductivity of the composites since the thermal boundary resistance at the filler-matrix interface was decreased. However, the introduction of SiOC as an intermediate layer between AlN and silicone rubber could help increase the thermal energy transport at the filler-matrix interface rather than using PSZ. This result was due to the decrease in the surface roughness and thickness of SiOC film after heat treatment at 700 °C in air. Thus, in the present work, a SiOC ceramic coating could provide a new surface modification for the improvement of the interfacial adhesion between the thermally conductive filler and the matrix in which can enhance the thermal conductivity of the composites.

  7. Surface and interfacial chemistry of high-k dielectric and interconnect materials on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Paul Daniel

    Surfaces and interfaces play a critical role in the manufacture and function of silicon based integrated circuits. It is therefore reasonable to study the chemistries at these surfaces and interfaces to improve existing processes and to develop new ones. Model barium strontium titanate high-k dielectric systems have been deposited on ultrathin silicon oxynitride in ultrahigh vacuum. The resulting nanostructures are characterized with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An interfacial reaction between Ba and Sr atoms and SiOxNy was found to create silicates, BaSixOy or SrSi xOy. Inclusion of N in the interfacial oxide decreased silicate formation in both Ba and Sr systems. Furthermore, inclusion of N in the interfacial oxide decreased the penetration of Ba and Sr containing species, such as silicides and silicates. Sputter deposited HfO2 was studied on nitrided and unnitrided Si(100) surfaces. XPS and SIMS were used to verify the presence of interfacial HfSixOy and estimate its relative amount on both nitrided and unnitrided samples. More HfSixOy formed without the SiNx interfacial layer. These interfacial chemistry results are then used to explain the electrical measurements obtained from metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. MOS capacitors with interfacial SiNx exhibit reduced leakage current and increased capacitance. Lastly, surface science techniques were used to develop a processing technique for reducing thin films of copper (II) and copper (I) oxide to copper. Deuterium atoms (D*) and methyl radicals (CH3*) were shown to reduce Cu 2+ and/or Cu1+ to Cu0 within 30 min at a surface temperature of 400 K under a flux of 1 x 1015 atoms/cm2s. Temperature programmed desorption experiments suggest that oxygen leaves the surface as D2O and CO2 for the D* and CH3* treated surfaces, respectively.

  8. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili.unsw@gmail.com; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Crystallisation kinetic is used to analyse seed layer surface cleanliness. • Simplified RCA cleaning for the seed layer can shorten the epitaxy annealing duration. • RTA for the seed layer can improve the quality for both seed layer and epi-layer. • Epitaxial poly-Si solar cell performance is improved by RTA treated seed layer. - Abstract: This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, V{sub oc} and J{sub sc} than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  9. Influence of surface wettability on cathode electroluminescence of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryachev, D.N.; Sreseli, O.M.; Belyakov, L.V.

    1997-01-01

    Influence of porous silicon wettability on efficiency of its cathode electroluminescence in electrolytes was investigated. It was revealed that increase of porous silicon wettability by electrolyte improved contact with a sublayer and provided generation of sufficient quantity of charge carriers. Diffusion - ionic, not electronic mechanism of charge transfer to the centers of micro crystallite electroluminescence is observed in porous silicon - electrolyte systems

  10. Surface Passivation and Antireflection Behavior of ALD on n-Type Silicon for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Song Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition, a method of excellent step coverage and conformal deposition, was used to deposit TiO2 thin films for the surface passivation and antireflection coating of silicon solar cells. TiO2 thin films deposited at different temperatures (200°C, 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C on FZ n-type silicon wafers are in the thickness of 66.4 nm ± 1.1 nm and in the form of self-limiting growth. For the properties of surface passivation, Si surface is effectively passivated by the 200°C deposition TiO2 thin film. Its effective minority carrier lifetime, measured by the photoconductance decay method, is improved 133% at the injection level of  cm−3. Depending on different deposition parameters and annealing processes, we can control the crystallinity of TiO2 and find low-temperature TiO2 phase (anatase better passivation performance than the high-temperature one (rutile, which is consistent with the results of work function measured by Kelvin probe. In addition, TiO2 thin films on polished Si wafer serve as good ARC layers with refractive index between 2.13 and 2.44 at 632.8 nm. Weighted average reflectance at AM1.5G reduces more than half after the deposition of TiO2. Finally, surface passivation and antireflection properties of TiO2 are stable after the cofire process of conventional crystalline Si solar cells.

  11. Low energy pion detection by a silicon surface barrier telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealock, R.M.; Caplan, H.S.; Leung, M.K.

    1978-01-01

    Four telescopes of three (2-ΔE, 1-E) silicon surface barrier detectors each, mounted in the focal plane of a magnetic spectrometer, have been used to detect positive pions in the energy range from 4.7-17.9 MeV and negative pions from 14.1-17.9 MeV. Positive pions from 4.7-12.7 MeV were stopped in the third detector while positive and negative pions from 14.1-17.9 MeV were detected in transmission. For energies greater than 7.4 MeV aluminum moderators were placed in front of the first detector to degrade the pion energy. Energy spectra show well resolved pion peaks with extremely low background. Double differential cross sections for the 12 C(e,π + ) 12 B,e' reaction have been measured. (Auth.)

  12. Horizontal silicon nanowires for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebavi, Hrvoje; Ristić, Davor; Baran, Nikola; Mikac, Lara; Mohaček-Grošev, Vlasta; Gotić, Marijan; Šikić, Mile; Ivanda, Mile

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to focus on details of the fabrication process of horizontally and vertically oriented silicon nanowires (SiNWs) substrates for the application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The fabrication process is based on the vapor-liquid-solid method and electroless-assisted chemical etching, which, as the major benefit, resulting in the development of economical, easy-to-prepare SERS substrates. Furthermore, we examined the fabrication of Au coated Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the SiNWs substrates in such a way as to diminish the influence of silver NPs corrosion, which, in turn, enhanced the SERS time stability, thus allowing for wider commercial applications. The substances on which high SERS sensitivity was proved are rhodamine (R6G) and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA), with the detection limits of 10-8 M and 10-6 M, respectively.

  13. Effect of rapid thermal treatment on optical properties of porous silicon surface doped lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddadi, Ikbel, E-mail: haded.ikbel@yahoo.fr; Slema, Sonia Ben; Amor, Sana Ben; Bousbih, Rabaa; Bardaoui, Afrah; Dimassi, Wissem; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, we have studied the effect of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties of porous silicon layers doped with lithium (Li/PS). Surface modification of As-deposited Li/PS samples through thermal annealing were investigated by varying the temperature from 100 °C to 800 °C in an infrared (IR) heated belt furnace. A decrease in the reflectivity to about 6% for Li/PS annealed at 200 °C was obtained. From Photoluminescence (PL) spectra, a blue-shift of the gap was observed when the temperature is increased to 800 °C; we correlate these results to the change in chemical composition of the layers in order to find the optimized conditions for a potential application in silicon solar cells. - Highlights: • We have varied the annealing temperature of PS doped with Li. • PL intensity shows significant variation as function of temperature. • We observe reduce of Si–O–Li bands with increasing temperature. • Concurrent with the loss of Li we observe a decrease of the PL.

  14. High performance SONOS flash memory with in-situ silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon nitride charge trapping layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae-Gab; Yang, Seung-Dong; Yun, Ho-Jin; Jung, Jun-Kyo; Park, Jung-Hyun; Lim, Chan; Cho, Gyu-seok; Park, Seong-gye; Huh, Chul; Lee, Hi-Deok; Lee, Ga-Won

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, SONOS-type flash memory device with highly improved charge-trapping efficiency is suggested by using silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) embedded in silicon nitride (SiNX) charge trapping layer. The Si-NCs were in-situ grown by PECVD without additional post annealing process. The fabricated device shows high program/erase speed and retention property which is suitable for multi-level cell (MLC) application. Excellent performance and reliability for MLC are demonstrated with large memory window of ∼8.5 V and superior retention characteristics of 7% charge loss for 10 years. High resolution transmission electron microscopy image confirms the Si-NC formation and the size is around 1-2 nm which can be verified again in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) where pure Si bonds increase. Besides, XPS analysis implies that more nitrogen atoms make stable bonds at the regular lattice point. Photoluminescence spectra results also illustrate that Si-NCs formation in SiNx is an effective method to form deep trap states.

  15. Radiation- stimulated adsorption of n-hexane on the surface of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiyeva, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : This paper presents the results of studies of radiation-stimulated adsorption of n-hexane on a silicon surface, obtained by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy method. It has been used a monocrystal silicon plate with high reflectance coefficient of the surface. Irradiation of the samples was carried out on gamma-quantum source of 60Co

  16. Distribution of electrode elements near contacts and junction layers in amorphous silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, T; Hiraki, A; Okamoto, H

    1982-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy with the ion sputter-etching technique and secondary ion mass spectroscopy have been utilized to investigate the depth distribution of Sn and In electrode elements in amorphous silicon layers of the photovoltaic device. The comparison of the depth profiles with the cell performances has indicated that the presence of the reduced state of In in both the p and i-layers affects the solar cell performance, but that of Sn does not. It was also shown that layered structure of In-Sn oxide (ITO)/SnO2 effectively prevents the diffusion of In and achieves high cell performances, having the thickness of the SnO2 layer about 200 A. 8 references.

  17. Physical and optical characterisation of carbon-silicon layers produced by rapid thermal chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, G.M.

    1994-04-01

    was also evaluated from their NIR and UV/VIS/NIR spectra, which were scanned in the reflection mode. UV/VIS/NIR reflection spectroscopy was found to be the best method for measuring film thickness because it had greater accuracy than NIR reflection spectroscopy, and also because it was a nondestructive technique (unlike SIMS). The detection of Si-C bonds in the deposited films was investigated by both NIR transmission and reflection spectroscopy. In transmission mode, it was only possible to observe the Si-C phonon frequency whenever a lightly phosphorus doped Si wafer was used as the supporting substrate. In reflection mode, the Si-C films grown on heavily phosphorus doped Si substrates tended to have very complicated NIR spectra as a result of the highly reflective nature of the phosphorus doped silicon material (i.e. n + material) found at the film/substrate interface. The derivation of the refractive index and extinction coefficient values for this n + material from Classical Dispersion Theory made it possible to interpret these complicated reflection spectra by means of computer modelling. Due to the excessive time required to interpret these spectra the later Si-C samples studied in this work were deposited on Si substrates that had only their back surfaces phosphorus doped. Consequently, the NIR reflection spectra of these polycrystalline samples showed clearly defined Si-C reststrahlen bands due to the absence of n + material at their film/substrate interfaces. Perhaps the most important characteristic of the Si-C films to be measured was that of the Energy Bandgap, E g . In knowing that it may not be necessary to employ stoichiometric Si-C films in the production of integrated circuits, the influence of the carbon content in the deposited layer on the measured optical bandgap was determined. It was found that as the carbon content in a Si-C film increased it's associated energy bandgap became wider. The relationship between the carbon content and the energy

  18. Contact mechanics for layered materials with randomly rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2012-03-07

    The contact mechanics model of Persson is applied to layered materials. We calculate the M function, which relates the surface stress to the surface displacement, for a layered material, where the top layer (thickness d) has different elastic properties than the semi-infinite solid below. Numerical results for the contact area as a function of the magnification are presented for several cases. As an application, we calculate the fluid leak rate for laminated rubber seals.

  19. Bovine serum albumin adsorption on functionalized porous silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Li-Lin; Rowell, Nelson L.; Lockwood, David J.; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2004-10-01

    The large surface area within porous Si (pSi) and its strong room temperature photoluminescence (PL) make it an ideal host for biological sensors. In particular, the development of pSi-based optical sensors for DNA, enzyme and other biochemical molecules have become of great interest. Here, we demonstrate that the in-situ monitoring of the pSi PL behaviour can be used as a positive identification of bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein adsorption inside the porous matrix. Electrochemically prepared pSi films were first functionalized with undecylenic acid to produce an organic monolayer covalently attached to the porous silicon surfaces. The acid terminal group also provided favourable BSA binding sites on the pSi matrix sidewalls. In-situ PL spectra showed a gradual red shift (up to 12 meV) in the PL peak energy due to the protein incorporation into the porous matrix. The PL then exhibited a continuous blue shift after saturation of the protein molecules in the pores. This blue shift of the PL peak frequency and a steady increase in the PL intensity is evidence of surface oxidation. Comparing the specular reflectance obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) before and after BSA incubation confirmed the adsorption of protein in the pSi matrix.

  20. Functionalization of silicon nanowire surfaces with metal-organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian

    2011-12-28

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been extensively studied due to their unique properties; MOFs have high porosity and specific surface area with well-defined nanoporous structure, while SiNWs have valuable one-dimensional electronic properties. Integration of the two materials into one composite could synergistically combine the advantages of both materials and lead to new applications. We report the first example of a MOF synthesized on surface-modified SiNWs. The synthesis of polycrystalline MOF-199 (also known as HKUST-1) on SiNWs was performed at room temperature using a step-by-step (SBS) approach, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy elemental mapping were used to characterize the material. Matching of the SiNW surface functional groups with the MOF organic linker coordinating groups was found to be critical for the growth. Additionally, the MOF morphology can by tuned by changing the soaking time, synthesis temperature and precursor solution concentration. This SiNW/MOF hybrid structure opens new avenues for rational design of materials with novel functionalities. © 2011 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces by scanning near-field optical lithography using uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steen; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Birkelund, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Optically induced oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces using a scanning near-field optical microscope was achieved with both uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes. Line scans on amorphous silicon using uncoated fiber probes display a three-peak profile after etching in potassium...... hydroxide. Numerical simulations of the electromagnetic field around the probe-sample interaction region are used to explain the experimental observations. With an aluminum-coated fiber probe, lines of 35 nm in width were transferred into the amorphous silicon layer. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....

  2. Improvement in IBC-silicon solar cell performance by insertion of highly doped crystalline layer at heterojunction interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiri, Hadi; Azim Karami, Mohammad; Mohammadnejad, Shahramm

    2017-01-01

    By inserting a thin highly doped crystalline silicon layer between the base region and amorphous silicon layer in an interdigitated back-contact (IBC) silicon solar cell, a new passivation layer is investigated. The passivation layer performance is characterized by numerical simulations. Moreover, the dependence of the output parameters of the solar cell on the additional layer parameters (doping concentration and thickness) is studied. By optimizing the additional passivation layer in terms of doping concentration and thickness, the power conversion efficiency could be improved by a factor of 2.5%, open circuit voltage is increased by 30 mV and the fill factor of the solar cell by 7.4%. The performance enhancement is achieved due to the decrease of recombination rate, a decrease in solar cell resistivity and improvement of field effect passivation at heterojunction interface. The above-mentioned results are compared with reported results of the same conventional interdigitated back-contact silicon solar cell structure. Furthermore, the effect of a-Si:H/c-Si interface defect density on IBC silicon solar cell parameters with a new passivation layer is studied. The additional passivation layer also reduces the sensitivity of output parameter of solar cell to interface defect density. (paper)

  3. Change of Surface Roughness and Planetary Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1978-01-01

    The ratio between upstream and far downstream surface friction velocities relative to a change in surface roughness is given on the basis of results from surface Rossby number similarity theory. By simple theories for the internal boundary layer, which are found to compare quite well with recent...... numerical results from higher-order closure models, it is found that, even at a downwind distance such that the internal boundary layer has grown to the full height of the planetary boundary layers, the surface stress still considerably exceeds the equilibrium value...

  4. Silicon heterojunction transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Oh-uchi, N.; Hayashi, H.; Yamoto, H.

    1979-01-01

    SIPOS (Semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon) which is used as a surface passivation layer for highly reliable silicon devices constitutes a good heterojunction for silicon. P- or B-doped SIPOS has been used as the emitter material of a heterojunction transistor with the base and collector of silicon. An npn SIPOS-Si heterojunction transistor showing 50 times the current gain of an npn silicon homojunction transistor has been realized by high-temperature treatments in nitrogen and low-temperature annealing in hydrogen or forming gas

  5. Study of organic grafting of the silicon surface from 4-nitrobenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait El Hadj, F.; Amiar, A.; Cherkaoui, M.; Chazalviel, J.-N.; Ozanam, F.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogenated silicon surface has outstanding electronic properties. However, its resistance to oxidation is insufficient. An alternative is the substitution of the Si-H bonds with Si-organic groups. This modification of the silicon surface by grafting of organic molecules was carried out by electrochemical reduction of 4-nitrobenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate in an aqueous medium containing HF and H 2 SO 4 . The choice fell on this electrochemical reaction because it allows for fast grafting. The reduction of nitrobenzene diazonium is confirmed by the presence of a voltammetric peak around −0.1 V/SCE. The grafting was also characterized by in situ infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which, via the detection of vibrations characteristic of chemical bonds, allows one to identify the chemical functions present. In addition, electrochemical impedance measurements allowed us to approach the interfacial mechanisms. It appears that the cathodic grafting leads to the formation of a polymeric layer, but the same grafting also occurs spontaneously within a few tens of seconds at open circuit potential, an expected phenomenon indeed in view of the reduction potential of 4-nitrobenzene diazonium.

  6. Epitaxy of GaN on silicon-impact of symmetry and surface reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadgar, A; Schulze, F; Wienecke, M; Gadanecz, A; Blaesing, J; Veit, P; Hempel, T; Diez, A; Christen, J; Krost, A

    2007-01-01

    GaN-on-silicon is a low-cost alternative to growth on sapphire or SiC. Today epitaxial growth is usually performed on Si(111), which has a threefold symmetry. The growth of single crystalline GaN on Si(001), the material of the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) industry, is more difficult due to the fourfold symmetry of this Si surface leading to two differently aligned domains. We show that breaking the symmetry to achieve single crystalline growth can be performed, e.g. by off-oriented substrates to achieve single crystalline device quality GaN layers. Furthermore, an exotic Si orientation for GaN growth is Si(110), which we show is even better suited as compared to Si(111) for the growth of high quality GaN-on-silicon with a nearly threefold reduction in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the (1 1-bar 0 0)ω-scan. It is found that a twofold surface symmetry is in principal suitable for the growth of single crystalline GaN on Si

  7. Boundary layers of aqueous surfactant and block copolymer solutions against hydrophobic and hydrophilic solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steitz, Roland; Schemmel, Sebastian; Shi Hongwei; Findenegg, Gerhard H

    2005-01-01

    The boundary layer of aqueous surfactants and amphiphilic triblock copolymers against flat solid surfaces of different degrees of hydrophobicity was investigated by neutron reflectometry (NR), grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering (GISANS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Solid substrates of different hydrophobicities were prepared by appropriate surface treatment or by coating silicon wafers with polymer films of different chemical natures. For substrates coated with thin films (20-30 nm) of deuterated poly(styrene) (water contact angle θ w ∼ 90), neutron reflectivity measurements on the polymer/water interface revealed a water depleted liquid boundary layer of 2-3 nm thickness and a density about 90% of the bulk water density. No pronounced depletion layer was found at the interface of water against a less hydrophobic polyelectrolyte coating (θ w ∼ 63). It is believed that the observed depletion layer at the hydrophobic polymer/water interface is a precursor of the nanobubbles which have been observed by AFM at this interface. Decoration of the polymer coatings by adsorbed layers of nonionic C m E n surfactants improves their wettability by the aqueous phase at surfactant concentrations well below the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Here, GISANS experiments conducted on the system SiO 2 /C 8 E 4 /D 2 O reveal that there is no preferred lateral organization of the C 8 E 4 adsorption layers. For amphiphilic triblock copolymers (PEO-PPO-PEO) it is found that under equilibrium conditions they form solvent-swollen brushes both at the air/water and the solid/water interface. In the latter case, the brushes transform to uniform, dense layers after extensive rinsing with water and subsequent solvent evaporation. The primary adsorption layers maintain properties of the precursor brushes. In particular, their thickness scales with the number of ethylene oxide units (EO) of the block copolymer. In the case of dip-coating without

  8. Beam test of a dual layer silicon charge detector (SCD) for the CREAM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, N.H.; Ahn, H.S.; Ganel, O.; Han, J.H.; Jeon, J.A.; Kim, C.H.; Kim, K.C.; Lutz, L.; Lee, M.H.; Malinin, A.; Nam, S.; Park, I.H.; Park, J.H.; Seo, E.S.; Walpole, P.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Yoo, J.H.; Yoon, Y.S.; Zinn, S.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) balloon-borne experiment is designed for direct measurement of high-energy cosmic rays. The experimental goal is to measure single-element fluxes of all cosmic-ray nuclei from hydrogen to iron with energies up to the 'knee', or spectral index change near 10 15 eV, observed in the all-particle spectrum. The dual layer Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) was designed to provide precise charge measurements. Each SCD layer has an active area of 77.9cmx79.5cm and consists of 156 silicon sensors mounted on 24 ladders. Each sensor contains a 4 x 4 array of single-sided DC type silicon pixels with an active area of 2.1cm 2 . The detector was flown on the second CREAM flight (December 2005-January 2006) and recovered successfully. The SCD was refurbished for the third CREAM flight and tested with high-energy electron and hadron beams at CERN. This paper reports on the performance of the SCD during the beam test

  9. Electrochemical lithiation of thin silicon based layers potentiostatically deposited from ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlaic, Codruta Aurelia; Ivanov, Svetlozar; Peipmann, Ralf; Eisenhardt, Anja; Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan; Bund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Thin silicon layers containing about 20% carbon and 20% oxygen were deposited on copper substrates by potentiostatic electroreduction from a 1 M SiCl 4 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethyl) sulfonylimide [BMP][TFSI] electrolyte. The electrodeposition process was investigated by means of voltammetric techniques, coupled with in-situ microgravimetry (quartz crystal microbalance, QCM). The electrochemical and QCM data suggest a possible contribution of a partial Si 4+ to Si 2+ reduction and/or a restructuring of the metallic substrate. Considerable impact of side reactions parallel to the deposition process was indicated by QCM measurements performed under potentiostatic and potentiodynamic conditions. The deposition of silicon-based films was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Analysis of the chemical composition of the deposit and its elemental distribution were achieved by depth profiling X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrodeposited silicon containing layers showed stable lithiation and delithiation with capacity values of about 1200 mAhg −1 and 80% capacity retention after 300 cycles in standard EC/DMC electrolytes. In ionic liquid (IL) the material displayed lower capacity of ca. 500 mAhg −1 , which can be attributed to the higher viscosity of this electrolyte and deposition of IL decomposition products during lithiation

  10. Diamond deposition on siliconized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, F.; Reinoso, M.; Huck, H.; Rosenbusch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon diffusion layers in AISI 304 and AISI 316 type stainless steels were investigated as an alternative to surface barrier coatings for diamond film growth. Uniform 2 μm thick silicon rich interlayers were obtained by coating the surface of the steels with silicon and performing diffusion treatments at 800 deg. C. Adherent diamond films with low sp 2 carbon content were deposited on the diffused silicon layers by a modified hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Characterization of as-siliconized layers and diamond coatings was performed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Passivation mechanism of thermal atomic layer-deposited Al2O3 films on silicon at different annealing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Chunlan; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Peng; Dou, Yanan; Wang, Wenjing; Cao, Xingzhong; Wang, Baoyi; Tang, Yehua; Zhou, Su

    2013-03-02

    Thermal atomic layer-deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) acquires high negative fixed charge density (Qf) and sufficiently low interface trap density after annealing, which enables excellent surface passivation for crystalline silicon. Qf can be controlled by varying the annealing temperatures. In this study, the effect of the annealing temperature of thermal ALD Al2O3 films on p-type Czochralski silicon wafers was investigated. Corona charging measurements revealed that the Qf obtained at 300°C did not significantly affect passivation. The interface-trapping density markedly increased at high annealing temperature (>600°C) and degraded the surface passivation even at a high Qf. Negatively charged or neutral vacancies were found in the samples annealed at 300°C, 500°C, and 750°C using positron annihilation techniques. The Al defect density in the bulk film and the vacancy density near the SiOx/Si interface region decreased with increased temperature. Measurement results of Qf proved that the Al vacancy of the bulk film may not be related to Qf. The defect density in the SiOx region affected the chemical passivation, but other factors may dominantly influence chemical passivation at 750°C.

  12. Thermal grafting of fluorinated molecular monolayers on doped amorphous silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbah, H.; Zebda, A.; Ababou-Girard, S.; Solal, F.; Godet, C.; Conde, J. P.; Chu, V.

    2009-01-01

    Thermally induced (160-300 deg. C) gas phase grafting of linear alkene molecules (perfluorodecene) was performed on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films, either nominally undoped or doped with different boron and phosphorus concentrations. Dense and smooth a-Si:H films were grown using plasma decomposition of silane. Quantitative analysis of in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates the grafting of a single layer of organic molecules. The hydrophobic properties of perfluorodecene-modified surfaces were studied as a function of surface coverage. Annealing experiments in ultrahigh vacuum show the covalent binding and the thermal stability of these immobilized layers up to 370 deg. C; this temperature corresponds to the Si-C bond cleavage temperature. In contrast with hydrogenated crystalline Si(111):H, no heavy wet chemistry surface preparation is required for thermal grafting of alkene molecules on a-Si:H films. A threshold grafting temperature is observed, with a strong dependence on the doping level which produces a large contrast in the molecular coverage for grafting performed at 230 deg. C

  13. Ultrathin silicon dioxide layers with a low leakage current density formed by chemical oxidation of Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuha,; Kobayashi, Takuya; Maida, Osamu; Inoue, Morio; Takahashi, Masao; Todokoro, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2002-10-01

    Chemical oxidation of Si by use of azeotrope of nitric acid and water can form 1.4-nm-thick silicon dioxide layers with a leakage current density as low as those of thermally grown SiO2 layers. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves for these ultrathin chemical SiO2 layers have been measured due to the low leakage current density. The leakage current density is further decreased to approx1/5 (cf. 0.4 A/cm2 at the forward gate bias of 1 V) by post-metallization annealing at 200 degC in hydrogen. Photoelectron spectroscopy and C-V measurements show that this decrease results from (i) increase in the energy discontinuity at the Si/SiO2 interface, and (ii) elimination of Si/SiO2 interface states and SiO2 gap states.

  14. ZnO buffer layer for metal films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon

    2014-09-16

    Dramatic improvements in metallization integrity and electroceramic thin film performance can be achieved by the use of the ZnO buffer layer to minimize interfacial energy between metallization and adhesion layers. In particular, the invention provides a substrate metallization method utilizing a ZnO adhesion layer that has a high work of adhesion, which in turn enables processing under thermal budgets typically reserved for more exotic ceramic, single-crystal, or metal foil substrates. Embodiments of the present invention can be used in a broad range of applications beyond ferroelectric capacitors, including microelectromechanical systems, micro-printed heaters and sensors, and electrochemical energy storage, where integrity of metallized silicon to high temperatures is necessary.

  15. Highly Sensitive Bulk Silicon Chemical Sensors with Sub-5 nm Thin Charge Inversion Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Hossain M; Gupta, Niharika; Han, Rui; Desai, Sujay B; Javey, Ali

    2018-03-27

    There is an increasing demand for mass-producible, low-power gas sensors in a wide variety of industrial and consumer applications. Here, we report chemical-sensitive field-effect-transistors (CS-FETs) based on bulk silicon wafers, wherein an electrostatically confined sub-5 nm thin charge inversion layer is modulated by chemical exposure to achieve a high-sensitivity gas-sensing platform. Using hydrogen sensing as a "litmus" test, we demonstrate large sensor responses (>1000%) to 0.5% H 2 gas, with fast response (<60 s) and recovery times (<120 s) at room temperature and low power (<50 μW). On the basis of these performance metrics as well as standardized benchmarking, we show that bulk silicon CS-FETs offer similar or better sensing performance compared to emerging nanostructures semiconductors while providing a highly scalable and manufacturable platform.

  16. Deposition and micro electrical discharge machining of CVD-diamond layers incorporated with silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, R.; Berger, T.; Prieske, M.; Börner, R.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Zeidler, H.; Schubert, A.

    2017-10-01

    In metal forming, lubricants have to be used to prevent corrosion or to reduce friction and tool wear. From an economical and ecological point of view, the aim is to avoid the usage of lubricants. For dry deep drawing of aluminum sheets it is intended to apply locally micro-structured wear-resistant carbon based coatings onto steel tools. One type of these coatings are diamond layers prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Due to the high strength of diamond, milling processes are unsuitable for micro-structuring of these layers. In contrast to this, micro electrical discharge machining (micro EDM) is a suitable process for micro-structuring CVD-diamond layers. Due to its non-contact nature and its process principle of ablating material by melting and evaporating, it is independent of the hardness, brittleness or toughness of the workpiece material. In this study the deposition and micro electrical discharge machining of silicon incorporated CVD-diamond (Si-CVD-diamond) layers were presented. For this, 10 µm thick layers were deposited on molybdenum plates by a laser-induced plasma CVD process (LaPlas-CVD). For the characterization of the coatings RAMAN- and EDX-analyses were conducted. Experiments in EDM were carried out with a tungsten carbide tool electrode with a diameter of 90 µm to investigate the micro-structuring of Si-CVD-diamond. The impact of voltage, discharge energy and tool polarity on process speed and resulting erosion geometry were analyzed. The results show that micro EDM is a suitable technology for micro-structuring of silicon incorporated CVD-diamond layers.

  17. Separation followed by direct SERS detection of explosives on a novel black silicon multifunctional nanostructured surface prepared in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Hübner, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the multifunctionality of a novel black silicon (BS) nanostructured surface covered with a thin layer of noble metal prepared in the a microfluidic channel. It is focused on the separation properties of the BS substrate with direct detection of the separated analytes utilizing...

  18. Modification of silicon nitride and silicon carbide surfaces for food and biosensor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon-rich silicon nitride (SixN4, x > 3) is a robust insulating material widely used for the coating of microdevices: its high chemical and mechanical inertness make it a material of choice for the reinforcement of fragile microstructures (e.g. suspended microcantilevers, micro-fabricated

  19. Influence of acetylcholinesterase immobilization on the photoluminescence properties of mesoporous silicon surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Kongju National University, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rafiq, Muhammad; Seo, Sung-Yum [Department of Biology, Kongju National University, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Hwan, E-mail: khlee@kongju.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Kongju National University, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase immobilized p-type porous silicon surface was prepared by covalent attachment. The immobilization procedure was based on support surface chemical oxidation, silanization, surface activation with cyanuric chloride and finally covalent attachment of free enzyme on the cyanuric chloride activated porous silicon surface. Different pore diameter of porous silicon samples were prepared by electrochemical etching in HF based electrolyte solution and appropriate sample was selected suitable for enzyme immobilization with maximum trapping ability. The surface modification was studied through field emission scanning electron microscope, EDS, FT-IR analysis, and photoluminescence measurement by utilizing the fluctuation in the photoluminescence of virgin and enzyme immobilized porous silicon surface. Porous silicon showed strong photoluminescence with maximum emission at 643 nm and immobilization of acetylcholinesterase on porous silicon surface cause considerable increment on the photoluminescence of porous silicon material while acetylcholinesterase free counterpart did not exhibit any fluorescence in the range of 635–670 nm. The activities of the free and immobilized enzymes were evaluated by spectrophotometric method by using neostigmine methylsulfate as standard enzyme inhibitor. The immobilized enzyme exhibited considerable response toward neostigmine methylsulfate in a dose dependent manner comparable with that of its free counterpart alongside enhanced stability, easy separation from the reaction media and significant saving of enzyme. It was believed that immobilized enzyme can be exploited in organic and biomolecule synthesis possessing technical and economical prestige over free enzyme and prominence of easy separation from the reaction mixture.

  20. Influence of acetylcholinesterase immobilization on the photoluminescence properties of mesoporous silicon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Rafiq, Muhammad; Seo, Sung-Yum; Lee, Ki Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase immobilized p-type porous silicon surface was prepared by covalent attachment. The immobilization procedure was based on support surface chemical oxidation, silanization, surface activation with cyanuric chloride and finally covalent attachment of free enzyme on the cyanuric chloride activated porous silicon surface. Different pore diameter of porous silicon samples were prepared by electrochemical etching in HF based electrolyte solution and appropriate sample was selected suitable for enzyme immobilization with maximum trapping ability. The surface modification was studied through field emission scanning electron microscope, EDS, FT-IR analysis, and photoluminescence measurement by utilizing the fluctuation in the photoluminescence of virgin and enzyme immobilized porous silicon surface. Porous silicon showed strong photoluminescence with maximum emission at 643 nm and immobilization of acetylcholinesterase on porous silicon surface cause considerable increment on the photoluminescence of porous silicon material while acetylcholinesterase free counterpart did not exhibit any fluorescence in the range of 635–670 nm. The activities of the free and immobilized enzymes were evaluated by spectrophotometric method by using neostigmine methylsulfate as standard enzyme inhibitor. The immobilized enzyme exhibited considerable response toward neostigmine methylsulfate in a dose dependent manner comparable with that of its free counterpart alongside enhanced stability, easy separation from the reaction media and significant saving of enzyme. It was believed that immobilized enzyme can be exploited in organic and biomolecule synthesis possessing technical and economical prestige over free enzyme and prominence of easy separation from the reaction mixture.

  1. Studies on the polycrystalline silicon/SiO2 stack as front surface field for IBC solar cells by two-dimensional simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shuai; Jia Rui; Tao Ke; Hou Caixia; Sun Hengchao; Li Yongtao; Yu Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    Interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells can achieve a very high efficiency due to its less optical losses. But IBC solar cells demand for high quality passivation of the front surface. In this paper, a polycrystalline silicon/SiO 2 stack structure as front surface field to passivate the front surface of IBC solar cells is proposed. The passivation quality of this structure is investigated by two dimensional simulations. Polycrystalline silicon layer and SiO 2 layer are optimized to get the best passivation quality of the IBC solar cell. Simulation results indicate that the doping level of polycrystalline silicon should be high enough to allow a very thin polycrystalline silicon layer to ensure an effective passivation and small optical losses at the same time. The thickness of SiO 2 should be neither too thin nor too thick, and the optimal thickness is 1.2 nm. Furthermore, the lateral transport properties of electrons are investigated, and the simulation results indicate that a high doping level and conductivity of polycrystalline silicon can improve the lateral transportation of electrons and then the cell performance. (paper)

  2. Amorphous silicon pixel layers with cesium iodide converters for medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, T.; Cho, G.; Goodman, C.A.

    1993-11-01

    We describe the properties of evaporated layers of Cesium Iodide (Thallium activated) deposited on substrates that enable easy coupling to amorphous silicon pixel arrays. The CsI(Tl) layers range in thickness from 65 to 220μm. We used the two-boat evaporator system to deposit CsI(Tl) layers. This system ensures the formation of the scintillator film with homogenous thallium concentration which is essential for optimizing the scintillation light emission efficiency. The Tl concentration was kept to 0.1--0.2 mole percent for the highest light output. Temperature annealing can affect the microstructure as well as light output of the CsI(Tl) film. 200--300C temperature annealing can increase the light output by a factor of two. The amorphous silicon pixel arrays are p-i-n diodes approximately lμm thick with transparent electrodes to enable them to detect the scintillation light produced by X-rays incident on the CsI(Tl). Digital radiography requires a good spatial resolution. This is accomplished by making the detector pixel size less then 50μm. The light emission from the CsI(Tl) is collimated by techniques involving the deposition process on pattered substrates. We have measured MTF of greater than 12 line pairs per mm at the 10% level

  3. Novel Cyclosilazane-Type Silicon Precursor and Two-Step Plasma for Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Min; Jang, Se Jin; Lee, Sang-Ick; Lee, Won-Jun

    2018-03-14

    We designed cyclosilazane-type silicon precursors and proposed a three-step plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process to prepare silicon nitride films with high quality and excellent step coverage. The cyclosilazane-type precursor, 1,3-di-isopropylamino-2,4-dimethylcyclosilazane (CSN-2), has a closed ring structure for good thermal stability and high reactivity. CSN-2 showed thermal stability up to 450 °C and a sufficient vapor pressure of 4 Torr at 60 °C. The energy for the chemisorption of CSN-2 on the undercoordinated silicon nitride surface as calculated by density functional theory method was -7.38 eV. The PEALD process window was between 200 and 500 °C, with a growth rate of 0.43 Å/cycle. The best film quality was obtained at 500 °C, with hydrogen impurity of ∼7 atom %, oxygen impurity less than 2 atom %, low wet etching rate, and excellent step coverage of ∼95%. At 300 °C and lower temperatures, the wet etching rate was high especially at the lower sidewall of the trench pattern. We introduced the three-step PEALD process to improve the film quality and the step coverage on the lower sidewall. The sequence of the three-step PEALD process consists of the CSN-2 feeding step, the NH 3 /N 2 plasma step, and the N 2 plasma step. The H radicals in NH 3 /N 2 plasma efficiently remove the ligands from the precursor, and the N 2 plasma after the NH 3 plasma removes the surface hydrogen atoms to activate the adsorption of the precursor. The films deposited at 300 °C using the novel precursor and the three-step PEALD process showed a significantly improved step coverage of ∼95% and an excellent wet etching resistance at the lower sidewall, which is only twice as high as that of the blanket film prepared by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  4. Silicon-depth profiling with Rutherford backscattering in photoresist layers; a study on the effects of degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzendoorn, van L.J.; Schellekens, J.P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The reaction of a silicon-containing vapor with a photoresist layer, as used in some dry developable lithographic processes, was studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Degradation of the polymer layer under ion beam irradiation was observed, but it was found that this had no influence

  5. Laser direct writing of oxide structures on hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllenborn, Matthias; Birkelund, Karen; Grey, Francois

    1996-01-01

    on amorphous and crystalline silicon surfaces in order to determine the depassivation mechanism. The minimum linewidth achieved is about 450 nm using writing speeds of up to 100 mm/s. The process is fully compatible with local oxidation of silicon by scanning probe lithography. Wafer-scale patterns can...

  6. Broadband antireflective silicon carbide surface produced by cost-effective method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Ou, Yiyu; Ou, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    A cost-effective method for fabricating antireflective subwavelength structures on silicon carbide is demonstrated. The nanopatterning is performed in a 2-step process: aluminum deposition and reactive ion etching. The effect, of the deposited aluminum film thickness and the reactive ion etching...... conditions, on the average surface reflectance and nanostructure landscape have been investigated systematically. The average reflectance of silicon carbide surface is significantly suppressed from 25.4% to 0.05%, under the optimal experimental conditions, in the wavelength range of 390-784 nm. The presence...... of stochastic nanostructures also changes the wetting properties of silicon carbide surface from hydrophilic (47°) to hydrophobic (108°)....

  7. The application of thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers to charged particle and x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Cho, G.; Fujieda, I.; Kaplan, S.N.; Qureshi, S.; Street, R.A.

    1989-04-01

    We outline the characteristics of thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers which are optimized for the detection of charged particles, x-rays and γ-rays. Signal amplitude as a function of the linear energy transfer of various particles are given. Noise sources generated by the detector material and by the thin film electronics - a-Si:H or polysilicon proposed for pixel position sensitive detectors readout are described, and their relative amplitudes are calculated. Temperature and neutron radiation effects on leakage currents and the corresponding noise changes are presented. 17 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Subattoampere current induced by single ions in silicon oxide layers of nonvolatile memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Larcher, L.; Visconti, A.; Bonanomi, M.

    2006-01-01

    A single ion impinging on a thin silicon dioxide layer generates a number of electron/hole pairs proportional to its linear energy transfer coefficient. Defects generated by recombination can act as a conductive path for electrons that cross the oxide barrier, thanks to a multitrap-assisted mechanism. We present data on the dependence of this phenomenon on the oxide thickness by using floating gate memory arrays. The tiny number of excess electrons stored in these devices allows for extremely high sensitivity, impossible with any direct measurement of oxide leakage current. Results are of particular interest for next generation devices

  9. The role of defects in fluorescent silicon carbide layers grown by sublimation epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmel, Saskia; Kaiser, Michl; Jokubavicius, Valdas

    2014-01-01

    Donor-acceptor co-doped SiC is a promising light converter for novel monolithic all-semiconductor white LEDs due to its broad-band donor-acceptor pair luminescence and potentially high internal quantum efficiency. Besides sufficiently high doping concentrations in an appropriate ratio yielding...... short radiative lifetimes, long nonradiative lifetimes are crucial for efficient light conversion. The impact of different types of defects is studied by characterizing fluorescent silicon carbide layers with regard to photoluminescence intensity, homogeneity and efficiency taking into account...

  10. UV lithography-based protein patterning on silicon: Towards the integration of bioactive surfaces and CMOS electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenci, S., E-mail: silvia.lenci@iet.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, via G.Caruso 16, Pisa I-56122 (Italy); Tedeschi, L. [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica - CNR, via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa I-56124 (Italy); Pieri, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, via G.Caruso 16, Pisa I-56122 (Italy); Domenici, C. [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica - CNR, via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa I-56124 (Italy)

    2011-08-01

    A simple and fast methodology for protein patterning on silicon substrates is presented, providing an insight into possible issues related to the interaction between biological and microelectronic technologies. The method makes use of standard photoresist lithography and is oriented towards the implementation of biosensors containing Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) conditioning circuitry. Silicon surfaces with photoresist patterns were prepared and hydroxylated by means of resist- and CMOS backend-compatible solutions. Subsequent aminosilane deposition and resist lift-off in organic solvents resulted into well-controlled amino-terminated geometries. The discussion is focused on resist- and CMOS-compatibility problems related to the used chemicals. Some samples underwent gold nanoparticle (Au NP) labeling and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observation, in order to investigate the quality of the silane layer. Antibodies were immobilized on other samples, which were subsequently exposed to a fluorescently labeled antigen. Fluorescence microscopy observation showed that this method provides spatially selective immobilization of protein layers onto APTES-patterned silicon samples, while preserving protein reactivity inside the desired areas and low non-specific adsorption elsewhere. Strong covalent biomolecule binding was achieved, giving stable protein layers, which allows stringent binding conditions and a good binding specificity, really useful for biosensing.

  11. Morphology of IR and UV Laser-induced Structural Changes on Silicon Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Jarquin, J.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Fernandez-Guasti, M.; Hernandez-Pozos, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Using scanning electronic microscopy, we analyze the structural changes induced in silicon (100) wafers by focused IR (1064 nm) and UV (355 nm) nanosecond laser pulses. The experiments were performed in the laser ablation regime. When a silicon surface is irradiated by laser pulses in an O2 atmosphere conical microstructures are obtained. The changes in silicon surface morphology depend both on the incident radiation wavelength and the environmental atmosphere. We have patterned Si surfaces with a single focused laser spot and, in doing the experiments with IR or UV this reveals significant differences in the initial surface cracking and pattern formation, however the final result consist of an array of microcones when the experiment is carried out in oxygen. We employ a random scanning technique to irradiate silicon surfaces over large areas. In this form we have obtained large patterned areas

  12. Dominant rate process of silicon surface etching by hydrogen chloride gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habuka, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Sunao; Nakamura, Akio; Takeuchi, Takashi; Aihara, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    Silicon surface etching and its dominant rate process are studied using hydrogen chloride gas in a wide concentration range of 1-100% in ambient hydrogen at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range of 1023-1423 K, linked with the numerical calculation accounting for the transport phenomena and the surface chemical reaction in the entire reactor. The etch rate, the gaseous products and the surface morphology are experimentally evaluated. The dominant rate equation accounting for the first-order successive reactions at silicon surface by hydrogen chloride gas is shown to be valid. The activation energy of the dominant surface process is evaluated to be 1.5 x 10 5 J mol - 1 . The silicon deposition by the gaseous by-product, trichlorosilane, is shown to have a negligible influence on the silicon etch rate

  13. Thermal Stress of Surface of Mold Cavities and Parting Line of Silicone Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajčičák Martin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the study of thermal stress of surface of mold cavities and parting line of silicone molds after pouring. The silicone mold White SD - THT was thermally stressed by pouring of ZnAl4Cu3 zinc alloy with pouring cycle 20, 30 and 40 seconds. The most thermally stressed part of surface at each pouring cycle is gating system and mold cavities. It could be further concluded that linear increase of the pouring cycle time leads to the exponential increasing of the maximum temperature of mold surface after its cooling. The elongated pouring cycle increases the temperature accumulated on the surface of cavities and the ability of silicone mold to conduct the heat on its surface decreases, because the low thermal conductivity of silicone molds enables the conduction of larger amount of heat into ambient environment.

  14. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  15. Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer scintillometer. ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... of soil heat flux and net irradiance, evaporation rates were calculated as a residual of the ...

  16. 2nd international conference on ion beam surface layer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The papers of this conference are concerned with the fundamental aspects and with the application of surface layer analysis. It is reported amongst others about backscattering analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, channelling and microprobe. (HPOE) [de

  17. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2005-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0 to 3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to a significant changes in the impedance related...

  18. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0-3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to significant changes in the impedance related...

  19. Low-temperature micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy on laser-doped silicon with different surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Joon; Franklin, Evan; Fell, Andreas; Ernst, Marco; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Macdonald, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Low-temperature micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy (μ-PLS) is applied to investigate shallow layers of laser-processed silicon for solar cell applications. Micron-scale measurement (with spatial resolution down to 1 μm) enables investigation of the fundamental impact of laser processing on the electronic properties of silicon as a function of position within the laser-processed region, and in particular at specific positions such as at the boundary/edge of processed and unprocessed regions. Low-temperature μ-PLS enables qualitative analysis of laser-processed regions by identifying PLS signals corresponding to both laser-induced doping and laser-induced damage. We show that the position of particular luminescence peaks can be attributed to band-gap narrowing corresponding to different levels of subsurface laser doping, which is achieved via multiple 248 nm nanosecond excimer laser pulses with fluences in the range 1.5-4 J/cm2 and using commercially available boron-rich spin-on-dopant precursor films. We demonstrate that characteristic defect PL spectra can be observed subsequent to laser doping, providing evidence of laser-induced crystal damage. The impact of laser parameters such as fluence and number of repeat pulses on laser-induced damage is also analyzed by observing the relative level of defect PL spectra and absolute luminescence intensity. Luminescence owing to laser-induced damage is observed to be considerably larger at the boundaries of laser-doped regions than at the centers, highlighting the significant role of the edges of laser-doped region on laser doping quality. Furthermore, by comparing the damage signal observed after laser processing of two different substrate surface conditions (chemically-mechanically polished and tetramethylammonium hydroxide etched), we show that wafer preparation can be an important factor impacting the quality of laser-processed silicon and solar cells.

  20. Record high efficiency of screen-printed silicon aluminum back surface field solar cell: 20.29%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyung; Park, Chang Sub; Doo Lee, Jae; Youb Lim, Jong; Yeon, Je Min; Kim, Il Hwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Cho, Young Hyun

    2017-08-01

    We have achieved a record high cell efficiency of 20.29% for an industrial 6-in. p-type monocrystalline silicon solar cell with a full-area aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF) by simply modifying the cell structure and optimizing the process with the existing cell production line. The cell efficiency was independently confirmed by the Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS). To increase the cell efficiency, for example, in four busbars, double printing, a lightly doped emitter with a sheet resistance of 90 to 100 Ω/□, and front surface passivation by using silicon oxynitride (SiON) on top of a silicon nitride (SiN x ) antireflection layer were adopted. To optimize front side processing, PC1D simulation was carried out prior to cell fabrication. The resulting efficiency gain is 0.64% compared with that in the reference cells with three busbars, a single antireflection coating layer, and a low-sheet-resistance emitter.

  1. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Asma, E-mail: asmahayat@gcu.edu.pk; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Laser irradiation effects on Si surface have been explored. • An Excimer Laser was used as a source. • SEM analysis was performed to explore surface morphology. • Raman spectroscopy analysis was carried out to find crystallographical alterations. - Abstract: Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} and 4 J/cm{sup 2} resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm{sup 2}, laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly

  2. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser irradiation effects on Si surface have been explored. • An Excimer Laser was used as a source. • SEM analysis was performed to explore surface morphology. • Raman spectroscopy analysis was carried out to find crystallographical alterations. - Abstract: Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm 2 and 4 J/cm 2 resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm 2 under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm 2 , laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly dependent upon the

  3. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Light Trapping in Metal/Silicon Nanobowl Arrays for Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruinan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the light absorption in thin film silicon solar cells with nanophotonic and plasmonic structures is important for the realization of high efficiency solar cells with significant cost reduction. In this work, we investigate periodic arrays of conformal metal/silicon nanobowl arrays (MSNBs for light trapping applications in silicon solar cells. They exhibited excellent light-harvesting ability across a wide range of wavelengths up to infrared regimes. The optimized structure (MSNBsH covered by SiO2 passivation layer and hemisphere Ag back reflection layer has a maximal short-circuit density (Jsc 25.5 mA/cm2, which is about 88.8% higher than flat structure counterpart, and the light-conversion efficiency (η is increased two times from 6.3% to 12.6%. The double-side textures offer a promising approach to high efficiency ultrathin silicon solar cells.

  4. Nucleation of microcrystalline silicon: on the effect of the substrate surface nature and nano-imprint topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmans, J; Faraz, T; Verheijen, M A; Kessels, W M M; Creatore, M

    2016-01-01

    The nucleation of microcrystalline silicon thin-films has been investigated for various substrate natures and topographies. An earlier nucleation onset on aluminium-doped zinc oxide compared to glass substrates has been revealed, associated with a microstructure enhancement and reduced surface energy. Both aspects resulted in a larger crystallite density, following classical nucleation theory. Additionally, the nucleation onset was (plasma deposition) condition-dependent. Therefore, surface chemistry and its interplay with the plasma have been proposed as key factors affecting nucleation and growth. As such, preliminary proof of the substrate nature’s role in microcrystalline silicon growth has been provided. Subsequently, the impact of nano-imprint lithography prepared surfaces on the initial microcrystalline silicon growth has been explored. Strong topographies, with a 5-fold surface area enhancement, led to a reduction in crystalline volume fraction of ∼20%. However, no correlation between topography and microstructure has been found. Instead, the suppressed crystallization has been partially ascribed to a reduced growth flux, limited surface diffusion and increased incubation layer thickness, originating from the surface area enhancement when transiting from flat to nanostructured surfaces. Furthermore, fundamental plasma parameters have been reviewed in relation with surface topography. Strong topographies are not expected to affect the ion-to-growth flux ratio. However, the reduced ion flux (due to increasing surface area) further limited the already weak ion energy transfer to surface processes. Additionally, the atomic hydrogen flux, i.e. the driving force for microcrystalline growth, has been found to decrease by a factor of 10 when transiting from flat to nanostructured topography. This resulted in an almost 6-fold reduction of the hydrogen-to-growth flux ratio, a much stronger effect than the ion-to-growth flux ratio. Since previous studies regarding

  5. Role of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide as oxidation barrier for silicon based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorentino, Giuseppe, E-mail: g.fiorentino@tudelft.nl; Morana, Bruno [Department of Microelectronic, Delft University of Technology, Feldmannweg 17, 2628 CT Delft (Netherlands); Forte, Salvatore [Department of Electronic, University of Naples Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Sarro, Pasqualina Maria [Department of Microelectronic, Delft University of Technology, Feldmannweg 17, 2628 CT, Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, the authors study the protective effect against oxidation of a thin layer of atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Nitrogen doped silicon carbide (poly-SiC:N) based microheaters coated with ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are used as test structure to investigate the barrier effect of the alumina layers to oxygen and water vapor at very high temperature (up to 1000 °C). Different device sets have been fabricated changing the doping levels, to evaluate possible interaction between the dopants and the alumina layer. The as-deposited alumina layer morphology has been evaluated by means of AFM analysis and compared to an annealed sample (8 h at 1000 °C) to estimate the change in the grain structure and the film density. The coated microheaters are subjected to very long oxidation time in dry and wet environment (up to 8 h at 900 and 1000 °C). By evaluating the electrical resistance variation between uncoated reference devices and the ALD coated devices, the oxide growth on the SiC is estimated. The results show that the ALD alumina coating completely prevents the oxidation of the SiC up to 900 °C in wet environment, while an oxide thickness reduction of 50% is observed at 1000 °C compared to uncoated devices.

  6. Segregation and Clustering Effects on Complex Boron Redistribution in Strongly Doped Polycrystalline-Silicon Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadli, S.; Mansour, F.

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the investigation of the complex phenomenon of boron (B) transient enhanced diffusion (TED) in strongly implanted silicon (Si) layers. It concerns the instantaneous influences of the strong B concentrations, the Si layers crystallization, the clustering and the B trapping/segregation during thermal post-implantation annealing. We have used Si thin layers obtained from disilane (Si2H6) by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) and then B implanted with a dose of 4 x 1015 atoms/cm2 at an energy of 15 keV. To avoid long redistributions, thermal annealing was carried out at relatively low-temperatures (700, 750 and 800 'deg'C) for various short-times ranging between 1 and 30 minutes. To investigate the experimental secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) doping profiles, a redistribution model well adapted to the particular structure of Si-LPCVD layers and to the effects of strong-concentrations has been established. The good adjustment of the simulated profiles with the experimental SIMS profiles allowed a fundamental understanding about the instantaneous physical phenomena giving and disturbing the TED process in strongly doped Si-LPCVD layers. It was found that boron TED is strongly affected by the simultaneous complex kinetics of clustering, crystallization, trapping and segregation during annealing. The fast formation of small Si-B clusters enhances the B diffusivity whereas the evolution of the clusters and segregation reduce this enhancement. (author)

  7. Fabrication of contacts for silicon solar cells including printing burn through layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, David S; Kaydanova, Tatiana; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2014-06-24

    A method for fabricating a contact (240) for a solar cell (200). The method includes providing a solar cell substrate (210) with a surface that is covered or includes an antireflective coating (220). For example, the substrate (210) may be positioned adjacent or proximate to an outlet of an inkjet printer (712) or other deposition device. The method continues with forming a burn through layer (230) on the coating (220) by depositing a metal oxide precursor (e.g., using an inkjet or other non-contact printing method to print or apply a volume of liquid or solution containing the precursor). The method includes forming a contact layer (240) comprising silver over or on the burn through layer (230), and then annealing is performed to electrically connect the contact layer (240) to the surface of the solar cell substrate (210) through a portion of the burn through layer (230) and the coating (220).

  8. Redistribution of erbium during the crystallization of buried amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, O.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.A.; Sobolev, N.A.; Sakharov, V.I.; Serenkov, I.T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.A.

    1999-01-01

    The redistribution of Er during its implantation in silicon at doses close to the amorphization threshold and its subsequent solid-phase epitaxial (SPE) crystallization is investigated. The formation of a buried amorphous (a) layer is discovered at Er doses equal to 5x10 13 and 1x10 14 cm -2 using Rutherford backscattering. The segregation of Er in this case takes place inwardly from the two directions corresponding to the upper and lower boundaries of the buried αlayer and leads to the formation of a concentration peak at the meeting place of the two crystallization fronts. A method for calculating the coordinate dependence of the segregation coefficient k from the distribution profiles of the erbium impurity before and after annealing is proposed. The k(x) curve exhibits a drop, whose width increases with decreasing Er implantation dose. Its appearance is attributed to the nonequilibrium nature of the segregation process at the beginning of SPE crystallization

  9. The role of defects in fluorescent silicon carbide layers grown by sublimation epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmel, Saskia; Kaiser, Michl; Jokubavicius, Valdas

    Donor-acceptor co-doped silicon carbide layers are promising light converters for novel monolithic all-semiconductor LEDs due to their broad-band donor-acceptor pair luminescence and potentially high internal quantum efficiency. Besides appropriate doping concentrations yielding low radiative...... lifetimes, high nonradiative lifetimes are crucial for efficient light conversion. Despite the excellent crystalline quality that can generally be obtained by sublimation epitaxy according to XRD measurements, the role of defects in f-SiC is not yet well understood. Recent results from room temperature...... photoluminescence, charge carrier lifetime measurements by microwave detected photoconductivity and internal quantum efficiency measurements suggest that the internal quantum efficiency of f-SiC layers is significantly affected by the incorporation of defects during epitaxy. Defect formation seems to be related...

  10. Generation Mechanism of Work Hardened Surface Layer in Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikiji, Rikio; Kondo, Eiji; Kawagoishi, Norio; Arai, Minoru

    Finish machining used to be carried out in grinding, but it is being replaced by cutting with very small undeformed chip thickness. In ultra precision process, the effects of the cutting conditions and the complicated factors on the machined surface integrity are the serious problems. In this research, work hardened surface layer was dealt with as an evaluation of the machined surface integrity and the effect of the mechanical factors on work hardening was investigated experimentally in orthogonal cutting. As a result, it was found that work hardened surface layer was affected not only by the shear angle varied under the cutting conditions and the thrust force of cutting resistance, but also by the thrust force acting point, the coefficient of the thrust force and the compressive stress equivalent to the bulk hardness. Furthermore, these mechanical factors acting on the depth of the work hardened surface layer were investigated with the calculation model.

  11. A size selective porous silicon grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gilberto A; Ryckman, Judson D; Jiao, Yang; Weiss, Sharon M

    2014-03-15

    A porous silicon (PSi) grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave (BSW/BSSW) biosensor is demonstrated to size selectively detect the presence of both large and small molecules. The BSW is used to sense large immobilized analytes at the surface of the structure while the BSSW that is confined inside but near the top of the structure is used to sensitively detect small molecules. Functionality of the BSW and BSSW modes is theoretically described by dispersion relations, field confinements, and simulated refractive index shifts within the structure. The theoretical results are experimentally verified by detecting two different small chemical molecules and one large 40 base DNA oligonucleotide. The PSi-BSW/BSSW structure is benchmarked against current porous silicon technology and is shown to have a 6-fold higher sensitivity in detecting large molecules and a 33% improvement in detecting small molecules. This is the first report of a grating-coupled BSW biosensor and the first report of a BSSW propagating mode. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Potassium ions in SiO2: electrets for silicon surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ruy S.; Wilshaw, Peter R.

    2018-01-01

    This manuscript reports an experimental and theoretical study of the transport of potassium ions in thin silicon dioxide films. While alkali contamination was largely researched in the context of MOSFET instability, recent reports indicate that potassium ions can be embedded into oxide films to produce dielectric materials with permanent electric charge, also known as electrets. These electrets are integral to a number of applications, including the passivation of silicon surfaces for optoelectronic devices. In this work, electric field assisted migration of ions is used to rapidly drive K+ into SiO2 and produce effective passivation of silicon surfaces. Charge concentrations of up to ~5  ×  1012 e cm-2 have been achieved. This charge was seen to be stable for over 1500 d, with decay time constants as high as 17 000 d, producing an effectively passivated oxide-silicon interface with SRV  industrial manufacture of silicon optoelectronic devices.

  13. High-stability transparent amorphous oxide TFT with a silicon-doped back-channel layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyoung-Rae; Park, Jea-Gun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    We significantly reduced various electrical instabilities of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) by using the co-deposition of silicon on an a-IGZO back channel. This process showed improved stability of the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) under high temperature and humidity and negative gate-bias illumination stress (NBIS) without any reduction of IDS. The enhanced stability was achieved with silicon, which has higher metal-oxide bonding strengths than gallium does. Additionally, SiO{sub x} distributed on the a-IGZO surface reduced the adsorption and the desorption of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. This process is applicable to the TFT manufacturing process with a variable sputtering target.

  14. Modulated surface textures for enhanced scattering in thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isabella, O.; Battaglia, C.; Ballif, C.; Zeman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nano-scale randomly textured front transparent oxides are superposed on micro-scale etched glass substrates to form modulated surface textures. The resulting enhanced light scattering is implemented in single and double junction thin-film silicon solar cells.

  15. Study of Bulk and Surface States in Porous Silicon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weisz, Zvi

    2000-01-01

    In this final report we summarize our findings on the study of Porous Silicon (PSi). We synthesized a variety of PSi films ranging from mesostructures to arrays of nanoparticles of the order of 2nm...

  16. Influence of hydrogen effusion from hydrogenated silicon nitride layers on the regeneration of boron-oxygen related defects in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilking, S.; Ebert, S.; Herguth, A.; Hahn, G.

    2013-01-01

    The degradation effect boron doped and oxygen-rich crystalline silicon materials suffer from under illumination can be neutralized in hydrogenated silicon by the application of a regeneration process consisting of a combination of slightly elevated temperature and carrier injection. In this paper, the influence of variations in short high temperature steps on the kinetics of the regeneration process is investigated. It is found that hotter and longer firing steps allowing an effective hydrogenation from a hydrogen-rich silicon nitride passivation layer result in an acceleration of the regeneration process. Additionally, a fast cool down from high temperature to around 550 °C seems to be crucial for a fast regeneration process. It is suggested that high cooling rates suppress hydrogen effusion from the silicon bulk in a temperature range where the hydrogenated passivation layer cannot release hydrogen in considerable amounts. Thus, the hydrogen content of the silicon bulk after the complete high temperature step can be increased resulting in a faster regeneration process. Hence, the data presented here back up the theory that the regeneration process might be a hydrogen passivation of boron-oxygen related defects

  17. Selective deposition contact patterning using atomic layer deposition for the fabrication of crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Joon; Shin, Woong-Chul; Chang, Hyo Sik

    2014-01-01

    Selective deposition contact (SDC) patterning was applied to fabricate the rear side passivation of crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. By this method, using screen printing for contact patterning and atomic layer deposition for the passivation of Si solar cells with Al 2 O 3 , we produced local contacts without photolithography or any laser-based processes. Passivated emitter and rear-contact solar cells passivated with ozone-based Al 2 O 3 showed, for the SDC process, an up-to-0.7% absolute conversion-efficiency improvement. The results of this experiment indicate that the proposed method is feasible for conversion-efficiency improvement of industrial crystalline Si solar cells. - Highlights: • We propose a local contact formation process. • Local contact forms a screen print and an atomic layer deposited-Al 2 O 3 film. • Ozone-based Al 2 O 3 thin film was selectively deposited onto patterned silicon. • Selective deposition contact patterning method can increase cell-efficiency by 0.7%

  18. Elimination device for decontaminated surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kozo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct efficient decontamination injecting solid carbon dioxide particles at a high speed by using a simple and compact device. Constitution: Liquid carbon dioxide is injected from a first vessel containing liquid carbon dioxide by way of a carbon dioxide supply tube to a solid carbon dioxide particle jetting device. The liquid carbon dioxide is partially converted into fine solid carbon dioxide particles due to the temperature reduction caused by adiabatic expansion of the gaseous carbon dioxide in an expansion space for the gaseous carbon dioxide formed in the jetting device and arrives at a solid carbon dioxide injection nozzle in communication with the expansion space. Then, the fine solid carbon dioxide particles are further cooled and accelerated by the nitrogen gas jetted out from a nitrogen gas nozzle at the top of a nitrogen gas supply tube in communication with a second vessel containing liquid nitrogen disposed within the nozzle, and jetted out from the solid carbon dioxide injection nozzle to collide against the surface to be decontaminated and eliminate the surface contamination. (Seki, T.)

  19. Modelling of diffusion in presurface silicon layer under the action of pulsed high-intensity ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktaev, N.E.; Remnev, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the pulsed high-intensity ion beam on the silicon is studied by use the developed theoretical model. The input parameters of the model were the settings of the experimental setup of the TEMP-4. It is shown, that at the short-pulsed implantation regime of the TEMP-4 the silicon surface does not melt. However, the regime leads to the high temperature gradient which promotes the diffusion process from the surface into the depth the silicon simple. The diffused particles are the carbon atoms adsorbed on the silicon surface by the various cases. Thus, it is shown that the carbon atom diffused from the surface make the main contribution to the forming of the concentration profile. The concentration of the implanted carbon ions less more than tree orders compared with the concentration of the diffused carbon atoms. (authors)

  20. Dielectric properties of DNA oligonucleotides on the surface of silicon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagraev, N. T., E-mail: bagraev@mail.ioffe.ru [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Chernev, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Klyachkin, L. E. [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Malyarenko, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Emel’yanov, A. K.; Dubina, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Planar silicon nanostructures that are formed as a very narrow silicon quantum well confined by δ barriers heavily doped with boron are used to study the dielectric properties of DNA oligonucleotides deposited onto the surface of the nanostructures. The capacitance characteristics of the silicon nanostructures with oligonucleotides deposited onto their surface are determined by recording the local tunneling current–voltage characteristics by means of scanning tunneling microscopy. The results show the possibility of identifying the local dielectric properties of DNA oligonucleotide segments consisting of repeating G–C pairs. These properties apparently give grounds to correlate the segments with polymer molecules exhibiting the properties of multiferroics.

  1. Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in ... in the nitrogen environment. Keywords. Surface reactivity ... sium (Na–K) compounds in the coating or core of the ..... Barkshire I R, Pruton M and Smith G C 1995 Appl. Sur.

  2. Apparatus for plasma surface treating and preparation of membrane layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating (e.g., forming a membrane layer on a substrate surface) comprises a plasma generation section which is operable at least at substantially atmospheric pressure and is in communication via at least one plasma inlet (e.g., a nozzle) with an enclosed

  3. Imidazolium-based ionic liquids used as additives in the nanolubrication of silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Amorim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the development of micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS, the demand for efficient lubricants of silicon surfaces intensified. Although the use of ionic liquids (ILs as additives to base oils in the lubrication of steel/steel or other types of metal/ metal tribological pairs has been investigated, the number of studies involving Si is very low. In this work, we tested imidazolium-based ILs as additives to the base oil polyethylene glycol (PEG to lubricate Si surfaces. The friction coefficients were measured in a nanotribometer. The viscosity of the PEG + IL mixtures as well as their contact angles on the Si surface were measured. The topography and chemical composition of the substrates surfaces were determined with atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, respectively. Due to the hygroscopic properties of PEG, the first step was to assess the effect of the presence of water. Then, a series of ILs based on the cations 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium [EMIM], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [BMIM], 1-ethyl-3-vinylimidazolium [EVIM], 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium [C2OHMIM] and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium [AMIM] combined with the anions dicyanamide [DCA], trifluoromethanesulfonate [TfO], and ethylsulfate [EtSO4] were added to dry PEG. All additives (2 wt % led to a decrease in friction coefficient as well as an increase in viscosity (with the exception of [AMIM][TfO] and improved the Si wettability. The additives based on the anion [EtSO4] exhibited the most promising tribological behavior, which was attributed to the strong interaction with the Si surface ensuring the formation of a stable surface layer, which hinders the contact between the sliding surfaces.

  4. Hydrogen-terminated mesoporous silicon monoliths with huge surface area as alternative Si-based visible light-active photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting; Li, Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Blazeby, Emma; Shang, Congxiao; Xu, Hualong; Zhang, Xixiang; Chao, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-based nanostructures and their related composites have drawn tremendous research interest in solar energy storage and conversion. Mesoporous silicon with a huge surface area of 400-900 m2 g-1 developed by electrochemical etching exhibits

  5. Multi-layer enhancement to polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.

    1997-10-01

    A multi-level polysilicon surface-micromachining technology consisting of 5 layers of polysilicon is presented. Surface topography and film mechanical stress are the major impediments encountered in the development of a multilayer surface-micromachining process. However, excellent mechanical film characteristics have been obtained through the use of chemical-mechanical polishing for planarization of topography and by proper sequencing of film deposition with thermal anneals. Examples of operating microactuators, geared power-transfer mechanisms, and optical elements demonstrate the mechanical advantages of construction with 5 polysilicon layers.

  6. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rut’kov, E. V.; Lavrovskaya, N. P.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Gall, N. R.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electron transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.

  7. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rut’kov, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Lavrovskaya, N. P. [State University of Aerospace Instrumentation (Russian Federation); Sheshenya, E. S., E-mail: sheshenayket@gmail.ru; Gall, N. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electron transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.

  8. Real-time monitoring of enzyme activity in a mesoporous silicon double layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Manuel M.; Pacholski, Claudia; Sailor, Michael J.

    2009-04-01

    The activity of certain proteolytic enzymes is often an indicator of disease states such as cancer, stroke and neurodegeneracy, so there is a need for rapid assays that can characterize the kinetics and substrate specificity of enzymatic reactions. Nanostructured membranes can efficiently separate biomolecules, but coupling a sensitive detection method to such a membrane remains difficult. Here, we demonstrate a single mesoporous nanoreactor that can isolate and quantify in real time the reaction products of proteases. The reactor consists of two layers of porous films electrochemically prepared from crystalline silicon. The upper layer, with large pore sizes (~100 nm in diameter), traps the protease and acts as the reactor. The lower layer, with smaller pore sizes (~6 nm), excludes the proteases and other large proteins and captures the reaction products. Infiltration of the digested fragments into the lower layer produces a measurable change in optical reflectivity, and this allows label-free quantification of enzyme kinetics in real time within a volume of ~5 nl.

  9. Effects of surface modification on the critical behaviour in multiple-surface-layer ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z X

    2013-01-01

    Using the usual mean-field theory approximation, the critical behaviour (i.e. the Curie temperature T c and the critical surface transverse field Ω sc ) in a multiple-surface-layer ferroelectric thin film is studied on the basis of the spin- 1/2 transverse Ising model. The dependence of the Curie temperature T c on the surface transverse field Ω s and the surface layer number N s are discussed in detail. Meanwhile the dependence of the critical surface transverse field Ω sc on the surface layer number N s is also examined. The numerical results indicate that the critical behaviour of ferroelectric thin films is obviously affected by modifications of the surface transverse field Ω s and surface layer number N s .

  10. Pulse-height response of silicon surface-barrier detectors to high-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.

    1973-01-01

    The pulse-height defect (PHD) of high-energy heavy ions in silicon surface-barrier detectors can be divided into three components: (1) energy loss in the gold-surface layer, (2) a nuclear-stopping defect, and (3) a defect due to recombination of electron-hole pairs in the plasma created by the heavy ion. The plasma recombination portion of the PHD was the subject of this study using the variation of the PHD with (1) the angle of incidence of incoming heavy ions, and (2) changes in the detector bias. The Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory was used to produce scattered beam ions ( 32 S, 35 Cl) and heavy target recoils (Ni, Cu, 98 Mo, Ag, Au) at sufficient energies to produce a significant recombination defect. The results confirm the existence of a recombination zone at the front surface of these detectors and the significance of plasma recombination as a portion of the pulse-height defect. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  11. Novel Size and Surface Oxide Effects in Silicon Nanowires as Lithium Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2011-09-14

    With its high specific capacity, silicon is a promising anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries, but volume expansion and fracture during lithium reaction have prevented implementation. Si nanostructures have shown resistance to fracture during cycling, but the critical effects of nanostructure size and native surface oxide on volume expansion and cycling performance are not understood. Here, we use an ex situ transmission electron microscopy technique to observe the same Si nanowires before and after lithiation and have discovered the impacts of size and surface oxide on volume expansion. For nanowires with native SiO2, the surface oxide can suppress the volume expansion during lithiation for nanowires with diameters <∼50 nm. Finite element modeling shows that the oxide layer can induce compressive hydrostatic stress that could act to limit the extent of lithiation. The understanding developed herein of how volume expansion and extent of lithiation can depend on nanomaterial structure is important for the improvement of Si-based anodes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Double Charged Surface Layers in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmah, Smritakshi P.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding defect chemistry, particularly ion migration, and its significant effect on the surface’s optical and electronic properties is one of the major challenges impeding the development of hybrid perovskite-based devices. Here, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we demonstrated that the surface layers of the perovskite crystals may acquire a high concentration of positively charged vacancies with the complementary negatively charged halide ions pushed to the surface. This charge separation near the surface generates an electric field that can induce an increase of optical band gap in the surface layers relative to the bulk. We found that the charge separation, electric field, and the amplitude of shift in the bandgap strongly depend on the halides and organic moieties of perovskite crystals. Our findings reveal the peculiarity of surface effects that are currently limiting the applications of perovskite crystals and more importantly explain their origins, thus enabling viable surface passivation strategies to remediate them.

  13. Proof of concept of an epitaxy-free layer-transfer process for silicon solar cells based on the reorganisation of macropores upon annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depauw, V.; Gordon, I.; Beaucarne, G.; Poortmans, J.; Mertens, R.; Celis, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    To answer the challenge of less expensive renewable electricity, the photovoltaics community is focusing on producing thinner silicon solar cells. A few years ago, in the field of silicon-on-nothing structures, micron-thick monocrystalline layers suspended over their parent wafer were produced by high-temperature annealing of specific arrays of macropores. Those macropores reorganise into one single void and leave a thin overlayer on top. Since this method may be an inexpensive way of fabricating high-quality silicon films, this paper investigates its potential for photovoltaic applications. In particular, we investigated if large surfaces can be produced and transferred to foreign substrates with this method. We fabricated basic solar cells, without rear-surface passivation, on 5 cm x 5 cm-large and 1-μm-thick films transferred to glass, that showed energy-conversion efficiencies up to 2.6%. These cells demonstrate the feasibility of the presented concept as a layer-transfer process for solar-cell application. After formation by annealing, the film is only barely attached to its parent wafer, but can still safely be handled provided that any abrupt gas flow or pumping to vacuum is avoided. After transfer and permanent bonding, the sample can be handled as any bulk wafer.

  14. Surface States and Effective Surface Area on Photoluminescent P-Type Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, S. Z.; Porras, A. Ramirez; Resto, O.; Goldstein, Y.; Many, A.; Savir, E.

    1997-01-01

    The present study is motivated by the possibility of utilizing porous silicon for spectral sensors. Pulse measurements on the porous-Si/electrolyte system are employed to determine the surface effective area and the surface-state density at various stages of the anodization process used to produce the porous material. Such measurements were combined with studies of the photoluminescence spectra. These spectra were found to shift progressively to the blue as a function of anodization time. The luminescence intensity increases initially with anodization time, reaches a maximum and then decreases with further anodization. The surface state density, on the other hand, increases with anodization time from an initial value of about 2 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm surface to about 1013 sq cm for the anodized surface. This value is attained already after -2 min anodization and upon further anodization remains fairly constant. In parallel, the effective surface area increases by a factor of 10-30. This behavior is markedly different from the one observed previously for n-type porous Si.

  15. Patterned hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces of ultra-smooth nanocrystalline diamond layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, M., E-mail: michael.mertens@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Mohr, M.; Brühne, K.; Fecht, H.J. [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Łojkowski, M.; Święszkowski, W. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Łojkowski, W. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties on fluorine-, hydrogen- and oxygen- terminated ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films. • Micropatterned - multi-terminated layers with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas on one sample. • Visualization of multi-terminated surfaces by e.g. SEM and LFM. • Roughness and friction investigations on different terminated surfaces. • Smooth and biocompatible surfaces with same roughness regardless of hydrophobicity for microbiological investigations. - Abstract: In this work, we show that ultra nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces have been modified to add them hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. The nanocrystalline diamond films were deposited using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. This allows growing diamond on different substrates which can be even 3D or structured. Silicon and, for optical applications, transparent quartz glass are the preferred substrates for UNCD layers growth. Fluorine termination leads to strong hydrophobic properties as indicated by a high contact angle for water of more than 100°. Hydrogen termination shows lesser hydrophobic behavior. Hydrophilic characteristics has been realised with oxygen termination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements confirm the oxygen and fluorine- termination on the nanocrystalline diamond surface. Further, by micropatterning using photolithography, multi-terminated layers have been created with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas. In addition, we have shown that retermination is achieved, and the properties of the surface have been changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and vice versa. Micro- roughness and stress in the grown film influences slightly the wetting angle as well. The opportunity to realize local differences in hydrophobicity on nanocrystalline diamond layers, in any size or geometry, offers interesting applications for example in

  16. Effect of ultraviolet illumination and ambient gases on the photoluminescence and electrical properties of nanoporous silicon layer for organic vapor sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiwongsangthong, Narin

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this research, the nanoporous silicon layer were fabricated and investigated the physical properties such as photoluminescence and the electrical properties in order to develop organic vapor sensor by using nanoporous silicon. The Changes in the photoluminescence intensity of nanoporous silicon samples are studied during ultraviolet illumination in various ambient gases such as nitrogen, oxigen and vacuum. In this paper, the nanoporous silicon layer was used as organic vapor adsorption and sensing element. The advantage of this device are simple process compatible in silicon technology and usable in room temperature. The structure of this device consists of nanoporous silicon layer which is formed by anodization of silicon wafer in hydrofluoric acid solution and aluminum electrode which deposited on the top of nanoporous silicon layer by evaporator. The nanoporous silicon sensors were placed in a gas chamber with various organic vapor such as ethanol, methanol and isopropyl alcohol. From studying on electrical characteristics of this device, it is found that the nanoporous silicon layer can detect the different organic vapor. Therefore, the nanoporous silicon is important material for organic vapor sensor and it can develop to other applications about gas sensors in the future.

  17. Design analysis of doped-silicon surface plasmon resonance immunosensors in mid-infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPippo, William; Lee, Bong Jae; Park, Keunhan

    2010-08-30

    This paper reports the design analysis of a microfabricatable mid-infrared (mid-IR) surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor platform. The proposed platform has periodic heavily doped profiles implanted into intrinsic silicon and a thin gold layer deposited on top, making a physically flat grating SPR coupler. A rigorous coupled-wave analysis was conducted to prove the design feasibility, characterize the sensor's performance, and determine geometric parameters of the heavily doped profiles. Finite element analysis (FEA) was also employed to compute the electromagnetic field distributions at the plasmon resonance. Obtained results reveal that the proposed structure can excite the SPR on the normal incidence of mid-IR light, resulting in a large probing depth that will facilitate the study of larger analytes. Furthermore, the whole structure can be microfabricated with well-established batch protocols, providing tunability in the SPR excitation wavelength for specific biosensing needs with a low manufacturing cost. When the SPR sensor is to be used in a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy platform, its detection sensitivity and limit of detection are estimated to be 3022 nm/RIU and ~70 pg/mm(2), respectively, at a sample layer thickness of 100 nm. The design analysis performed in the present study will allow the fabrication of a tunable, disposable mid-IR SPR sensor that combines advantages of conventional prism and metallic grating SPR sensors.

  18. Room-temperature vacancy migration in crystalline Si from an ion-implanted surface layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Arne Nylandsted; Christensen, Carsten; Petersen, Jon Wulff

    1999-01-01

    Migration of vacancies in crystalline, n-type silicon at room temperature from Ge+-implanted (150 keV, 5×109–1×1011 cm–2) surface layers was studied by tracing the presence of P–V pairs (E centers) in the underlying layer using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Under the conditions we have......–Et[approximate]0.15 eV that has donor character. It is argued that the center associated with this line is most probably the P2–V complex; it anneals at about 550 K. A lower limit of the RT-diffusion coefficient of the doubly charged, negative vacancy is estimated to be 4×10–11 cm2/s. ©1999 American Institute...

  19. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: mika.vaha-nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland); Sievänen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Kenttä, Eija [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland); Johansson, Leena-Sisko, E-mail: leena-sisko.johansson@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, PO Box 16100, FI‐00076 AALTO (Finland); Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland)

    2014-06-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gas–solid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin – even non-uniform – atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: • ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. • Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. • Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. • Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. • Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  20. Surface influence upon vertical profiles in the nocturnal boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1983-05-01

    Near-surface wind profiles in the nocturnal boundary layer, depth h, above relatively flat, tree-covered terrain are described in the context of the analysis of Garratt (1980) for the unstable atmospheric boundary layer. The observations at two sites imply a surface-based transition layer, of depth z *, within which the observed non-dimensional profiles Φ M 0 are a modified form of the inertial sub-layer relation Φ _M ( {{z L}} = ( {{{1 + 5_Z } L}} ) according to Φ _M^{{0}} ˜eq ( {{{1 + 5z} L}} )exp [ { - 0.7( {{{1 - z} z}_ * } )] , where z is height above the zero-plane displacement and L is the Monin-Obukhov length. At both sites the depth z * is significantly smaller than the appropriate neutral value ( z * N ) found from the previous analysis, as might be expected in the presence of a buoyant sink for turbulent kinetic energy.

  1. Dwell Time and Surface Parameter Effects on Removal of Silicone Oil From D6ac Steel Using TCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of dwell time, surface roughness, and the surface activation state on 1,1,1-trichloroethane's (TCA's) effectiveness for removing silicone oil from D6ac steel. Silicone-contaminated test articles were washed with TCA solvent, and then the surfaces were analyzed for residue, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The predominant factor affecting the ability to remove the silicone oil was surface roughness.

  2. Anchoring of alkyl chain molecules on oxide surface using silicon alkoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Ayumi, E-mail: narita.ayumi@jaea.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Bunnkyo, Mito-shi, Ibaraki-ken 310-8512 (Japan); Baba, Yuji; Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Shimoyama, Iwao; Hirao, Norie [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Yaita, Tsuyoshi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Bunnkyo, Mito-shi, Ibaraki-ken 310-8512 (Japan)

    2012-01-01

    Chemical states of the interfaces between octadecyl-triethoxy-silane (ODTS) molecules and sapphire surface were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) using synchrotron soft X-rays. The nearly self-assembled monolayer of ODTS was formed on the sapphire surface. For XPS and NEXAFS measurements, it was elucidated that the chemical bond between silicon alkoxide in ODTS and the surface was formed, and the alkane chain of ODTS locates upper side on the surface. As a result, it was elucidated that the silicon alkoxide is a good anchor for the immobilization of organic molecules on oxides.

  3. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  4. Covalent and stable CuAAC modification of silicon surfaces for control of cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vutti, Surendra; Buch-Månson, Nina; Schoffelen, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    in the vapor or liquid phase. In this work, we compared these two methods for oxidized silicon surfaces and thoroughly characterized the functionalization steps by tagging and fluorescence imaging. We demonstrate that the vapor-phase functionalization only provided transient surface modification that was lost...... on extensive washing. For stable surface modification, a liquid-phase method was developed. In this method, silicon wafers were decorated with azides, either by silanization with (3-azidopropyl)triethoxysilane or by conversion of the amine groups of an aminopropylated surface by means of the azido...

  5. Toward the Physical Basis of Complex Systems: Dielectric Analysis of Porous Silicon Nanochannels in the Electrical Double Layer Length Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mircea Ciuceanu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric analysis (DEA shows changes in the properties of
    a materials as a response to the application on it of a time dependent electric field. Dielectric measurements are extremely sensitive to small changes in materials properties, that molecular relaxation, dipole changes, local motions that involve the reorientation of dipoles, and so can be observed by DEA. Electrical double layer (EDL, consists in a shielding layer that is naturally created within the liquid near a charged surface. The thickness of the EDL is given by the characteristic Debye length what grows less with the ionic strength defined by half summ products of concentration with square of charge for all solvent
    ions (co-ions, counterions, charged molecules. The typical length scale for the Debye length is on the order of 1 nm, depending on the ionic contents in the solvent; thus, the EDL becomes significant for nano-capillaries that nanochannels. The electrokinetic e®ects in the nanochannels depend essentialy on the distribution of charged species in EDL, described by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation those solutions require the solvent dielectric permittivity. In this work we propose a model for solvent low-frequency permittivity and a DEA profile taking into account both the porous silicon electrode and aqueous solvent properties in the Debye length range.

  6. Comparison of stress in single and multiple layer depositions of plasma-deposited amorphous silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, V; Charles, C; Boswell, R W

    2006-01-01

    The stress in a single-layer continuous deposition of amorphous silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) film is compared with the stress within multiple-layer intermittent or 'stop-start' depositions. The films were deposited by helicon activated reactive evaporation (plasma assisted deposition with electron beam evaporation source) to a 1 μm total film thickness. The relationships for stress as a function of film thickness for single, two, four and eight layer depositions have been obtained by employing the substrate curvature technique on a post-deposition etch-back of the SiO 2 film. At film thicknesses of less than 300 nm, the stress-thickness relationships clearly show an increase in stress in the multiple-layer samples compared with the relationship for the single-layer film. By comparison, there is little variation in the film stress between the samples when it is measured at 1 μm film thickness. Localized variations in stress were not observed in the regions where the 'stop-start' depositions occurred. The experimental results are interpreted as a possible indication of the presence of unstable, strained Si-O-Si bonds in the amorphous SiO 2 film. It is proposed that the subsequent introduction of a 'stop-start' deposition process places additional strain on these bonds to affect the film structure. The experimental stress-thickness relationships were reproduced independently by assuming a linear relationship between the measured bow and film thickness. The constants of the linear model are interpreted as an indication of the density of the amorphous film structure

  7. A deep-level transient spectroscopy study of gamma-ray irradiation on the passivation properties of silicon nitride layer on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Peng; Yu, Xuegong; Ma, Yao; Xie, Meng; Li, Yun; Huang, Chunlai; Li, Mo; Dai, Gang; Zhang, Jian

    2017-08-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride (SiNx) films are extensively used as passivation material in the solar cell industry. Such SiNx passivation layers are the most sensitive part to gamma-ray irradiation in solar cells. In this work, deep-level transient spectroscopy has been applied to analyse the influence of gamma-ray irradiation on the passivation properties of SiNx layer on silicon. It is shown that the effective carrier lifetime decreases with the irradiation dose. At the same time, the interface state density is significantly increased after irradiation, and its energy distribution is broadened and shifts deeper with respect to the conduction band edge, which makes the interface states becoming more efficient recombination centers for carriers. Besides, C-V characteristics show a progressive negative shift with increasing dose, indicating the generation of effective positive charges in SiNx films. Such positive charges are beneficial for shielding holes from the n-type silicon substrates, i. e. the field-effect passivation. However, based on the reduced carrier lifetime after irradiation, it can be inferred that the irradiation induced interface defects play a dominant role over the trapped positive charges, and therefore lead to the degradation of passivation properties of SiNx on silicon.

  8. Modification of surfaces and surface layers by non equilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamson, G.; Brennan, W.J.; Clark, D.T.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasmas are examples of non-equilibrium phenomena which are being used increasingly for the synthesis and modification of materials impossible by conventional routes. This paper introduces methods available by describing the construction and characteristics of some equipment used for the production of different types of plasmas and other non-equilibrium phenomena. This includes high energy ion beams. The special features, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques will be described. There are a multitude of potential application relevant to electronic, metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials. However, scale-up from the laboratory to production equipment depends on establishing a better understanding of both the physics and chemistry of plasma as well as plasma-solid interactions. Examples are given of how such an understanding can be gained. The chemical analysis of polymer surfaces undergoing modification by inert gas, hydrogen or oxygen plasmas is shown to give physical information regarding the relative roles of diffusion of active species, and direct and radiative energy transfer from the plasma. Surface modification by plasma depositing a new material onto an existing substrate is discussed with particular reference to the deposition of amorphous carbon films. Applications of the unique properties of these films are outlined together with our current understanding of these properties based on chemical and physical methods of analysis of both the films and the plasmas producing them. Finally, surface modification by ion beams is briefly illustrated using examples from the electronics and metals industries where the modification has had a largely physical rather than chemical effect on the starting material. (orig.)

  9. Properties of p-type amorphous silicon carbide window layers prepared using boron trifluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandia, J J [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Gutierrez, M T [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Carabe, J [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    1993-03-01

    One set (A) of undoped and three sets (B, C and D) of doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide samples have been made in the framework of a research plan for obtaining high quality p-type window layers by radiofrequency glow discharge of silane-based gas mixtures. The samples of sets A and B were made using different RF-power-density to mass-flow ratios for various methane percentages in the gas mixture. The best carbon incorporation in the amorphous silicon lattice was obtained at the highest RF-power density. The properties of sets C and D, prepared using different RF-power densities and silane and methane proportions have been analysed as functions of the concentration of boron trifluoride with respect to silane. In both cases, the optical gap E[sub G], after a slight initial decrease, remains at a value of approximately 2.1 eV without quenching in the doping ranges covered. The best conductivity obtained is 2x10[sup -7] ([Omega] cm)[sup -1]. IR spectra allow to associate these features with the structural quality of the films. (orig.)

  10. Characterization of up-converter layers on bifacial silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, A.C.; Canizo, C. del; Luque, A.

    2009-01-01

    Photon converters can enhance the performance of solar cells as they have the ability to condition the solar spectrum, thus suiting the semiconductor bandgap better. This paper analyzes the implementation and characterization of rare earth-doped up-converters on bifacial silicon solar cells. The bifacial structures considered absorb the light emitted by the up-converter layer located at the rear of the cell. Two different ways of attaching the up-converter to the bifacial solar cell have been implemented: by dissolving the powder in a spin-on oxide and by dissolving it in a silicone gel. The characterization of this system through measurements of quantum efficiency and photocurrent is described. The measurement setup has been adapted to detect the device response in the NIR (near-infrared) range. A key aspect is the light power impinging on the cell; the system has a quartz-tungsten-halogen lamp as a source, and is capable of giving 240 mW m -2 . As the signals we want to detect are very small, an effort has been made to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio by using a low noise pre-amplifier, optimizing the power of the lamp and reducing the chopper frequency. The characterization of two commercial up-converter materials shows the functioning of the approach, as an increase in the photocurrent when illuminated in the 1500 nm wavelength range is detected in some of the cases.

  11. PECVD silicon carbide surface micromachining technology and selected MEMS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Pakula, L.S.; Yang, H.; French, P.J.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attractive material properties of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) silicon carbide (SiC) when combined with CMOS-compatible low thermal budget processing provides an ideal technology platform for developing various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and merging them with

  12. Photovoltaic characteristics of porous silicon /(n+ - p) silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhafarov, T.D.; Aslanov, S.S.; Ragimov, S.H.; Sadigov, M.S.; Nabiyeva, A.F.; Yuksel, Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : The purpose of this work is to improve the photovoltaic parameters of the screen-printed silicon solar cells by formation the nano-porous silicon film on the frontal surface of the cell. The photovoltaic characteristics of two type silicon solar cells with and without porous silicon layer were measured and compared. A remarkable increment of short-circuit current density and the efficiency by 48 percent and 20 percent, respectively, have been achieved for PS/(n + - pSi) solar cell comparing to (n + - p)Si solar cell without PS layer

  13. Role of the inversion layer on the charge injection in silicon nanocrystal multilayered light emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondini, S. [Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Pucker, G. [Advanced Photonics and Photovoltaics Group, Bruno Kessler Foundation, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Pavesi, L. [Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2016-09-07

    The role of the inversion layer on injection and recombination phenomena in light emitting diodes (LEDs) is here studied on a multilayer (ML) structure of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) embedded in SiO{sub 2}. Two Si-NC LEDs, which are similar for the active material but different in the fabrication process, elucidate the role of the non-radiative recombination rates at the ML/substrate interface. By studying current- and capacitance-voltage characteristics as well as electroluminescence spectra and time-resolved electroluminescence under pulsed and alternating bias pumping scheme in both the devices, we are able to ascribe the different experimental results to an efficient or inefficient minority carrier (electron) supply by the p-type substrate in the metal oxide semiconductor LEDs.

  14. On formation of silicon nanocrystals under annealing SiO2 layers implanted with Si ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, G.A.; Yanovskaya, S.G.; Volodin, V.A.; Kesler, V.G.; Lejer, A.F.; Ruault, M.-O.

    2002-01-01

    Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence have been used to study the formation of silicon nanocrystals in SiO 2 implanted with Si ions. Si clusters have been formed at once in the postimplanted layers, providing the excessive Si concentration more ∼ 3 at. %. Si segregation with Si-Si 4 bonds formation is enhanced as following annealing temperature increase, however, the Raman scattering by Si clusters diminishes. The effect is explained by a transformation of the chain-like Si clusters into compact phase nondimensional structures. Segregation of Si nanoprecipitates had ended about 1000 deg C, but the strong photoluminescence typical for Si nanocrystals manifested itself only after 1100 deg C [ru

  15. Self-assisted GaAs nanowires with selectable number density on Silicon without oxide layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietti, S; Somaschini, C; Esposito, L; Sanguinetti, S; Frigeri, C; Fedorov, A; Geelhaar, L

    2014-01-01

    We present the growth of self-assisted GaAs nanowires (NWs) with selectable number density on bare Si(1 1 1), not covered by the silicon oxide. We determine the number density of the NWs by initially self-assembling GaAs islands on whose top a single NW is nucleated. The number density of the initial GaAs base islands can be tuned by droplet epitaxy and the same degree of control is then transferred to the NWs. This procedure is completely performed during a single growth in an ultra-high vacuum environment and requires neither an oxide layer covering the substrate, nor any pre-patterning technique. (paper)

  16. Comparative study on electrical properties of atomic layer deposited high-permittivity materials on silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, S.; Castan, H.; Garcia, H.; Barbolla, J.; Kukli, K.; Ritala, M.; Leskelae, M.

    2005-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage and conductance transient measurement techniques have been applied in order to evaluate the electrical quality of thin high-permittivity oxide layers on silicon. The oxides studied included HfO 2 film grown from two different oxygen-free metal precursors and Ta 2 O 5 and Nb 2 O 5 nanolaminates. The interface trap densities correlated to the oxide growth chemistry and semiconductor substrate treatment. No gap state densities induced by structural disorder were measured in the films grown on chemical SiO 2 . Trap densities were also clearly lower in HfO 2 films compared to Ta 2 O 5 -Nb 2 O 5

  17. Eddy current imaging for electrical characterization of silicon solar cells and TCO layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byungguk; Hillmann, Susanne; Schulze, Martin; Klein, Marcus; Heuer, Henning

    2015-03-01

    Eddy Current Testing has been mainly used to determine defects of conductive materials and wall thicknesses in heavy industries such as construction or aerospace. Recently, high frequency Eddy Current imaging technology was developed. This enables the acquirement of information of different depth level in conductive thin-film structures by realizing proper standard penetration depth. In this paper, we summarize the state of the art applications focusing on PV industry and extend the analysis implementing achievements by applying spatially resolved Eddy Current Testing. The specific state of frequency and complex phase angle rotation demonstrates diverse defects from front to back side of silicon solar cells and characterizes homogeneity of sheet resistance in Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) layers. In order to verify technical feasibility, measurement results from the Multi Parameter Eddy Current Scanner, MPECS are compared to the results from Electroluminescence.

  18. Visible light emission from silicon implanted and annealed SiO2layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghislotti, G.; Nielsen, B.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Di Mauro, L.F.; Bottani, C.E.; Corni, F.; Tonini, R.; Ottaviani, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon implanted and annealed SiO 2 layers are studied using photoluminescence (PL) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Two PL emission bands are observed. A band centered at 560 nm is present in as-implanted samples and it is still observed after 1,000 C annealing. The emission time is fast. A second band centered at 780 nm is detected after 1,000 C annealing. The intensity of the 780 nm band further increased when hydrogen annealing was performed. The emission time is long (1 micros to 0.2 ms). PAS results show that defects produced by implantation anneal at 600 C. Based on the annealing behavior and on the emission times, the origin of the two bands is discussed

  19. Elastic layer under axisymmetric indentation and surface energy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarit, Pong-in; Senjuntichai, Teerapong; Rungamornrat, Jaroon

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a continuum-based approach is adopted to investigate the contact problem of an elastic layer with finite thickness and rigid base subjected to axisymmetric indentation with the consideration of surface energy effects. A complete Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity is employed to consider the influence of surface stresses. The indentation problem of a rigid frictionless punch with arbitrary axisymmetric profiles is formulated by employing the displacement Green's functions, derived with the aid of Hankel integral transform technique. The problem is solved by assuming the contact pressure distribution in terms of a linear combination of admissible functions and undetermined coefficients. Those coefficients are then obtained by employing a collocation technique and an efficient numerical quadrature scheme. The accuracy of proposed solution technique is verified by comparing with existing solutions for rigid indentation on an elastic half-space. Selected numerical results for the indenters with flat-ended cylindrical and paraboloidal punch profiles are presented to portray the influence of surface energy effects on elastic fields of the finite layer. It is found that the presence of surface stresses renders the layer stiffer, and the size-dependent behavior of elastic fields is observed in the present solutions. In addition, the surface energy effects become more pronounced with smaller contact area; thus, the influence of surface energy cannot be ignored in the analysis of indentation problem especially when the indenter size is very small such as in the case of nanoindentation.

  20. Effect of oxygen on the processes of ion beam synthesis of buried SiC layers in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonov, V.V.; Valakh, M.Ya.; Klyuj, N.I.; Mel'nik, V.P.; Romanyuk, A.B.; Romanyuk, B.N.; Yukhimchuk, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of Si-structures with buried silicon carbide (SiC) layers created by high dose carbon implantation into Cz-Si or Fz-Si wafers followed by high-temperature annealing were studied by Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Effect of additional oxygen implantation on the peculiarities of SiC layer formation was also studied. It was shown that under the same implantation and post-implantation annealing conditions the buried SiC layers are more effectively formed in Cz-Si or in Si subjected to additional oxygen implantation. Thus, oxygen in silicon promotes the SiC layer formation due to SiO x precipitate creation and accommodation of the crystal volume in the region where SiC phase is formed