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Sample records for silicon rich nitrogen

  1. Fluorescence and thermoluminescence in silicon oxide films rich in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman M, D.; Piters, T. M.; Aceves M, M.; Berriel V, L. R.; Luna L, J. A.

    2009-10-01

    In this work we determined the fluorescence and thermoluminescence (TL) creation spectra of silicon rich oxide films (SRO) with three different silicon excesses. To study the TL of SRO, 550 nm of SRO film were deposited by Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition technique on N-type silicon substrates with resistivity in the order of 3 to 5 Ω-cm with silicon excess controlled by the ratio of the gases used in the process, SRO films with Ro= 10, 20 and 30 (12-6% silicon excess) were obtained. Then, they were thermally treated in N 2 at high temperatures to diffuse and homogenize the silicon excess. In the fluorescence spectra two main emission regions are observed, one around 400 nm and one around 800 nm. TL creation spectra were determined by plotting the integrated TL intensity as function of the excitation wavelength. (Author)

  2. The role of nitrogen in the formation of oxygen-related thermal donors in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.A.; Hartung, J.; Weber, J.

    1989-01-01

    Nitrogen doped silicon is investigated by Photothermal Ionisation Spectroscopy (PTIS) and Infrared Absorption (IR). The Shallow Thermal Donors (STD) are observed in this nitrogen doped Cz-silicon as well as the deeper Thermal Donors (TD). The Thermal Donor Growth in nitrogen doped material is reduced in comparison to nominally undoped oxygen-rich silicon. The half-widths of the spectral lines arising from the STD-transitions are observed to be dependent on the nitrogen concentration. The results suggest only a catalytic role of N in the STD-growth. (author) 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. Four-Wave Mixing in Silicon-Rich Nitride Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrovic, Miranda; Guan, Xiaowei; Ji, Hua

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate four-wave mixing wavelength conversion in silicon-rich nitride waveguides which are a promising alternative to silicon for nonlinear applications. The obtained conversion efficiency reaches -13.6 dB while showing no significant nonlinear loss.......We demonstrate four-wave mixing wavelength conversion in silicon-rich nitride waveguides which are a promising alternative to silicon for nonlinear applications. The obtained conversion efficiency reaches -13.6 dB while showing no significant nonlinear loss....

  4. Photoconduction in silicon rich oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna-Lopez, J A; Carrillo-Lopez, J; Flores-Gracia, F J; Garcia-Salgado, G [CIDS-ICUAP, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. Ed. 103 D and C, col. San Manuel, Puebla, Pue. Mexico 72570 (Mexico); Aceves-Mijares, M; Morales-Sanchez, A, E-mail: jluna@buap.siu.m, E-mail: jluna@inaoep.m [INAOE, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Apdo. 51, Tonantzintla, Puebla, Mexico 72000 (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Photoconduction of silicon rich oxide (SRO) thin films were studied by current-voltage (I-V) measurements, where ultraviolet (UV) and white (Vis) light illumination were applied. SRO thin films were deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) technique, using SiH{sub 4} (silane) and N{sub 2}O (nitrous oxide) as reactive gases at 700 {sup 0}. The gas flow ratio, Ro = [N{sub 2}O]/[SiH{sub 4}] was used to control the silicon excess. The thickness and refractive index of the SRO films were 72.0 nm, 75.5 nm, 59.1 nm, 73.4 nm and 1.7, 1.5, 1.46, 1.45, corresponding to R{sub o} = 10, 20, 30 and 50, respectively. These results were obtained by null ellipsometry. Si nanoparticles (Si-nps) and defects within SRO films permit to obtain interesting photoelectric properties as a high photocurrent and photoconduction. These effects strongly depend on the silicon excess, thickness and structure type. Two different structures (Al/SRO/Si and Al/SRO/SRO/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-like structures) were fabricated and used as devices. The photocurrent in these structures is dominated by the generation of carriers due to the incident photon energies ({approx}3.0-1.6 eV and 5 eV). These structures showed large photoconductive response at room temperature. Therefore, these structures have potential applications in optoelectronics devices.

  5. Charge trapping and carrier transport mechanism in silicon-rich silicon oxynitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhenrui; Aceves, Mariano; Carrillo, Jesus; Lopez-Estopier, Rosa

    2006-01-01

    The charge-trapping and carrier transport properties of silicon-rich silicon oxynitride (SRO:N) were studied. The SRO:N films were deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. Infrared (IR) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) measurements were performed to characterize their structural properties. Capacitance versus voltage and current versus voltage measurements (I-V) were used to study the charge-trapping and carrier transport mechanism. IR and TEM measurements revealed the existence of Si nanodots in SRO:N films. I-V measurements revealed that there are two conduction regimes divided by a threshold voltage V T . When the applied voltage is smaller than V T , the current is dominated by the charge transfer between the SRO:N and substrate; and in this regime only dynamic charging/discharging of the SRO:N layer is observed. When the voltage is larger than V T , the current increases rapidly and is dominated by the Poole-Frenkel mechanism; and in this regime, large permanent trapped charge density is obtained. Nitrogen incorporation significantly reduced the silicon nanodots or defects near the SRO:N/Si interface. However, a significant increase of the density of silicon nanodot in the bulk of the SRO:N layer is obtained

  6. Formation of porous silicon oxide from substrate-bound silicon rich silicon oxide layers by continuous-wave laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Fricke-Begemann, Th.; Peretzki, P.; Ihlemann, J.; Seibt, M.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide that show room temperature photoluminescence (PL) have great potential in silicon light emission applications. Nanocrystalline silicon particle formation by laser irradiation has the unique advantage of spatially controlled heating, which is compatible with modern silicon micro-fabrication technology. In this paper, we employ continuous wave laser irradiation to decompose substrate-bound silicon-rich silicon oxide films into crystalline silicon particles and silicon dioxide. The resulting microstructure is studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques with considerable emphasis on the formation and properties of laser damaged regions which typically quench room temperature PL from the nanoparticles. It is shown that such regions consist of an amorphous matrix with a composition similar to silicon dioxide which contains some nanometric silicon particles in addition to pores. A mechanism referred to as "selective silicon ablation" is proposed which consistently explains the experimental observations. Implications for the damage-free laser decomposition of silicon-rich silicon oxides and also for controlled production of porous silicon dioxide films are discussed.

  7. Waveguiding properties of Er-implanted silicon-rich oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliman, R.G.; Forcales, M.; Wilkinson, A.R.; Smith, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    The optical properties of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon-oxide waveguides containing amorphous silicon nanoclusters and/or silicon nanocrystals are reported. Both amorphous nanoclusters and nanocrystals are shown to act as effective sensitizers for Er, with nanocrystals being more effective at low pump powers and nanoclusters being more effective at higher pump powers. All samples are shown to exhibit photo-induced absorption, as measured for a guided 1.5 μm probe beam while the waveguide was illuminated from above with a 477 nm pump beam. At a given pump power samples containing silicon nanocrystals exhibited greater attenuation than samples containing amorphous nanoclusters. The absorption is shown to be consistent with confined-carrier absorption due to photoexcited carriers in the nanocrystals and/or nanoclusters

  8. Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh T.; Andersen, Karin Nordström; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2004-01-01

    Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides clad in silica are presented as a high-index contrast platform for high density integrated optics. Performance of different cross-sectional geometries have been measured and are presented with regards to bending loss and insertion loss...

  9. Stressing effects on the charge trapping of silicon oxynitride prepared by thermal oxidation of LPCVD Si-rich silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H.Y.; Wong, H.; Filip, V.; Sen, B.; Kok, C.W.; Chan, M.; Poon, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    It was recently found that the silicon oxynitride prepared by oxidation of silicon-rich silicon nitride (SRN) has several important features. The high nitrogen and extremely low hydrogen content of this material allows it to have a high dielectric constant and a low trap density. The present work investigates in further detail the electrical reliability of this kind of gate dielectric films by studying the charge trapping and interface state generation induced by constant current stressing. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements indicate that for oxidation temperatures of 850 and 950 deg. C, the interface trap generation is minimal because of the high nitrogen content at the interface. At a higher oxidation temperature of 1050 deg. C, a large flatband shift is found for constant current stressing. This observation can be explained by the significant reduction of the nitrogen content and the phase separation effect at this temperature as found by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study. In addition to the high nitrogen content, the Si atoms at the interface exist in the form of random bonding to oxygen and nitrogen atoms for samples oxidized at 850 and 950 deg. C. This structure reduces the interface bonding constraint and results in the low interface trap density. For heavily oxidized samples the trace amount of interface nitrogen atoms exist in the form of a highly constraint SiN 4 phase and the interface oxynitride layer is a random mixture of SiO 4 and SiN 4 phases, which consequently reduces the reliability against high energy electron stressing

  10. Deposition of silicon films in presence of nitrogen plasma— A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A design, development and validation work of plasma based 'activated reactive evaporation (ARE) system' is implemented for the deposition of the silicon films in presence of nitrogen plasma on substrate maintained at room temperature. This plasma based deposition system involves evaporation of pure silicon by.

  11. Experimental identification of nitrogen-vacancy complexes in nitrogen implanted silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Lahir Shaik; Law, Mark E.; Szpala, Stanislaw; Simpson, P. J.; Lawther, Derek; Dokumaci, Omer; Hegde, Suri

    2001-07-01

    Nitrogen implantation is commonly used in multigate oxide thickness processing for mixed signal complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor and System on a Chip technologies. Current experiments and diffusion models indicate that upon annealing, implanted nitrogen diffuses towards the surface. The mechanism proposed for nitrogen diffusion is the formation of nitrogen-vacancy complexes in silicon, as indicated by ab initio studies by J. S. Nelson, P. A. Schultz, and A. F. Wright [Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 247 (1998)]. However, to date, there does not exist any experimental evidence of nitrogen-vacancy formation in silicon. This letter provides experimental evidence through positron annihilation spectroscopy that nitrogen-vacancy complexes indeed form in nitrogen implanted silicon, and compares the experimental results to the ab initio studies, providing qualitative support for the same.

  12. Computational studies on energetic properties of nitrogen-rich ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Computational studies on energetic properties of nitrogen-rich energetic materials with ditetrazoles. LI XIAO-HONGa,b,∗ and ZHANG RUI-ZHOUa. aCollege of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471 003, China. bLuoyang Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Functional Materials, ...

  13. Mechanisms and characteristics of silicon combustion in nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukasian, A.S.; Martynenko, V.M.; Merzhanov, A.G.; Borovinskaia, I.P.; Blinov, M.IU.

    1986-10-01

    An experimental study is made of the principal characteristics of combustion in the system silicon-nitrogen associated with phase transitions of the first kind (silicon melting and silicon nitride dissociation). Concepts of the combustion mechanism are developed on the basis of elementary models of combustion of the second kind and filtering combustion theory. In particular, it is shown that, in the pressure range studied (10-20 MPa), filtering does not limit the combustion process. Details of the experimental procedure and results are presented. 22 references.

  14. Elastic properties of sub-stoichiometric nitrogen ion implanted silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmanova, M.F., E-mail: marina.sarmanova@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Karl, H. [University Augsburg, Institute of Physics, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Mändl, S.; Hirsch, D. [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Mayr, S.G.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); University Leipzig, Institute for Experimental Physics II, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Elastic properties of sub-stoichiometric nitrogen implanted silicon were measured with nanometer-resolution using contact resonance atomic force microscopy (CR-AFM) as function of ion fluence and post-annealing conditions. The determined range of indentation moduli was between 100 and 180 GPa depending on the annealing duration and nitrogen content. The high indentation moduli can be explained by formation of Si–N bonds, as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  15. Nitrogen implantation into silicon at 700-1100 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, G.A.; Tyschenko, I.E.; Popov, V.P.; Tijs, S.A.; Plotnikov, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    Nitrogen ions 130-140 kW potential accelerated were implanted in silicon heated up to Ti=700-1100 deg C. Densities of ion current were 1-5 mcA/cm 2 , doses did not exceed 5x10 17 cm -2 . Initial stages of nitride formation in buried layers are investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering, layer-by-layer Augerspctroscopy and electron microscopy. It is determind, that Ti growth from 700 up to 900 deg C is accompanied by essential reduction of defectiveness of silicon near-the-surface layer at nitrogen retention within the limits of the calculation profile of ion ranges. At Ti=900 deg C nitrogen is rather mobile and at ∼5x10 16 cm -2 dose it is drown to α-Si 3 N 4 crystalling extraction in R p range. Beginning from Ti ≅1000 deg C nitrogen is not retained in the furied layer and diffuses to the surface. No essenstial losses of nitrogen due to evaporation or inside diffusion are observed. It is noted, that critical Ti, when nitrogen is accumulated in the buried layer, correspond to critical temperatures, when light ions introduce essential structure distortions. Conclusion is made, that irradition-introduced distortions of structure represent centres of initiation and growth of nitride phase. At 1150 deg C additional annaling during 3 hs nitrogen, occurring outside the stable extraction, is redistributed between th surface and furied layers, sintering in narrow concentration peaks

  16. Plant species richness enhances nitrogen retention in green roof plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Schweinhart, Shelbye; Buffam, Ishi

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events. We found that (1) total plant biomass increased with increasing species richness, (2) green roof plots were effective at reducing storm runoff, with vegetation increasing water retention more than soil-like substrate alone, but there was no significant effect of plant species identity or richness on runoff volume, (3) green roof substrate was a significant source of phosphate, regardless of presence/absence of plants, and (4) dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = nitrate + ammonium) runoff fluxes were different among plant species and decreased significantly with increasing plant species richness. The variation in N retention was positively related to variation in plant biomass. Notably, the increased biomass and N retention with species richness in this engineered ecosystem are similar to patterns observed in published studies from grasslands and other well-studied ecosystems. We suggest that more diverse plantings on vegetated roofs may enhance the retention capacity for reactive nitrogen. This is of importance for the sustained health of vegetated roof ecosystems, which over time often experience nitrogen limitation, and is also relevant for water quality in receiving waters

  17. Large magnetoresistance effect in nitrogen-doped silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we reported a large magnetoresistance effect in silicon by ion implantation of nitrogen atoms. At room temperature, the magnetoresistance of silicon reaches 125 % under magnetic field 1.7 T and voltage bias -80 V. By applying an alternating magnetic field with a frequency (f of 0.008 Hz, we find that the magnetoresistance of silicon is divided into f and 2f two signal components, which represent the linear and quadratic magnetoresistance effects, respectively. The analysis based on tuning the magnetic field and the voltage bias reveals that electric-field-induced space-charge effect plays an important role to enhance both the linear and quadratic magnetoresistance effects. Observation as well as a comprehensive explanation of large MR in silicon, especially based on semiconductor CMOS implantation technology, will be an important progress towards magnetoelectronic applications.

  18. Preparation and characterization of polymer-derived amorphous silicon carbide with silicon-rich stoichiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Takashi, E-mail: mtakashi@jaist.ac.jp [School of Material and Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Iwasaka, Akira [School of Material and Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Takagishi, Hideyuki [Faculty of Symbiotic System Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima-shi, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Shimoda, Tatsuya [School of Material and Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2016-08-01

    Polydihydrosilane with pendant hexyl groups was synthesized to obtain silicon-rich amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) films via the solution route. Unlike conventional polymeric precursors, this polymer requires neither catalysts nor oxidation for its synthesis and cross-linkage. Therefore, the polymer provides sufficient purity for the fabrication of semiconducting a-SiC. Here, we investigated the correlation of Si/C stoichiometry between the polymer and the resultant a-SiC film. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films with various carbon contents were also explored. Experimental results suggested that the excess carbon that did not participate in Si−C configurations was decomposed and was evaporated during polymer-to-SiC conversion. Consequently, the upper limit of the carbon in resultant a-SiC film was < 50 at.%; namely, the polymer provided silicon-rich a-SiC, whereas the conventionally used polycarbosilane inevitably provides carbon-rich one. These features of this unusual polymer open up a frontier of polymer-derived SiC and solution-processed SiC electronics. - Highlights: • Polymeric precursor solution for silicon carbide (SiC) is synthesized. • Semiconducting amorphous SiC is prepared via solution route. • The excess carbon is decomposed during cross-linking resulting in Si-rich SiC films. • The grown SiC films contain substantial amount of hydrogen atoms as SiH{sub n}/CH{sub n} entities. • Presence of CH{sub n} entities induces dangling bonds, causing poor electrical properties.

  19. Silicon-Rich Silicon Carbide Hole-Selective Rear Contacts for Crystalline-Silicon-Based Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogay, Gizem; Stuckelberger, Josua; Wyss, Philippe; Jeangros, Quentin; Allebé, Christophe; Niquille, Xavier; Debrot, Fabien; Despeisse, Matthieu; Haug, Franz-Josef; Löper, Philipp; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-12-28

    The use of passivating contacts compatible with typical homojunction thermal processes is one of the most promising approaches to realizing high-efficiency silicon solar cells. In this work, we investigate an alternative rear-passivating contact targeting facile implementation to industrial p-type solar cells. The contact structure consists of a chemically grown thin silicon oxide layer, which is capped with a boron-doped silicon-rich silicon carbide [SiC x (p)] layer and then annealed at 800-900 °C. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the thin chemical oxide layer disappears upon thermal annealing up to 900 °C, leading to degraded surface passivation. We interpret this in terms of a chemical reaction between carbon atoms in the SiC x (p) layer and the adjacent chemical oxide layer. To prevent this reaction, an intrinsic silicon interlayer was introduced between the chemical oxide and the SiC x (p) layer. We show that this intrinsic silicon interlayer is beneficial for surface passivation. Optimized passivation is obtained with a 10-nm-thick intrinsic silicon interlayer, yielding an emitter saturation current density of 17 fA cm -2 on p-type wafers, which translates into an implied open-circuit voltage of 708 mV. The potential of the developed contact at the rear side is further investigated by realizing a proof-of-concept hybrid solar cell, featuring a heterojunction front-side contact made of intrinsic amorphous silicon and phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon. Even though the presented cells are limited by front-side reflection and front-side parasitic absorption, the obtained cell with a V oc of 694.7 mV, a FF of 79.1%, and an efficiency of 20.44% demonstrates the potential of the p + /p-wafer full-side-passivated rear-side scheme shown here.

  20. Annealing temperature dependence of photoluminescent characteristics of silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon-rich silicon nitride films grown by PECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, D.S.; Liang, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, light emission from silicon nanostructures has gained great interest due to its promising potential of realizing silicon-based optoelectronic applications. In this study, luminescent silicon nanocrystals (Si–NCs) were in situ synthesized in silicon-rich silicon nitride (SRSN) films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). SRSN films with various excess silicon contents were deposited by adjusting SiH 4 flow rate to 100 and 200 sccm and keeping NH 3 one at 40 sccm, and followed by furnace annealing (FA) treatments at 600, 850 and 1100 °C for 1 h. The effects of excess silicon content and post-annealing temperature on optical properties of Si–NCs were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The origins of two groups of PL peaks found in this study can be attributed to defect-related interface states and quantum confinement effects (QCE). Defect-related interface states lead to the photon energy levels almost kept constant at about 3.4 eV, while QCE results in visible and tunable PL emission in the spectral range of yellow and blue light which depends on excess silicon content and post-annealing temperature. In addition, PL intensity was also demonstrated to be highly correlative to the excess silicon content and post-annealing temperature due to its corresponding effects on size, density, crystallinity, and surface passivation of Si–NCs. Considering the trade-off between surface passivation and structural properties of Si–NCs, an optimal post-annealing temperature of 600 °C was suggested to maximize the PL intensity of the SRSN films

  1. The fabrication of nitrogen detector porous silicon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husairi, F. S.; Othman, N.; Eswar, K. A.; Guliling, Muliyadi; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2018-05-01

    In this study the porous silicon nanostructure used as a the nitrogen detector was fabricated by using anodization method because of simple and easy to handle. This method using 20 mA/ cm2 of current density and the etching time is from 10 - 40 minutes. The properties of the porous silicon nanostructure analyzed using I-V testing (electrical properties) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. From the I-V testing, sample PsiE40 where the sensitivity is 25.4% is a sensitivity of PSiE40 at 10 seconds exposure time.

  2. A study of luminescence from silicon-rich silica fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trwoga, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon is the most studied electronic material known to man and dominates the electronics industry in its use as a semiconductors for nearly all integrated electronics. However, optoelectronics is almost entirely based on III-V materials. This technology is used because silicon is a very inefficient light source, whereas the III-V band structure can lend itself to efficient light emission by electron injection. However, due to the overwhelming dominance of silicon based electronics it is still a highly desirable goal to generate light efficiently from silicon based materials. Recently, studies have demonstrated that efficient visible luminescence can be obtained from certain novel forms of silicon. These materials include porous silicon, hydrogenated amorphous silicon, and silicon-rich silica (SiO x x x is studied in detail; in addition, electroluminescence and rare-earth doping of silicon-rich silica is also addressed. (author)

  3. Determination of carbon and nitrogen in silicon and germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebauhr, W.; Martin, J.

    1975-01-01

    The essential aim of this study is to examine the various technical and economic problems encountered in the determination of carbon and nitrogen in silicon and germanium, for this is in a way an extension of the discussion concerning the presence of oxygen in these two elements. The greater part of the study is aimed at drawing up a catalogue of the methods of analysis used and of the results obtained so far

  4. Optical characterization of nanocrystals in silicon rich oxide superlattices and porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agocs, E.; Petrik, P.; Milita, S.; Vanzetti, L.; Gardelis, S.; Nassiopoulou, A.G.; Pucker, G.; Balboni, R.; Fried, M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose to analyze ellipsometry data by using effective medium approximation (EMA) models. Thanks to EMA, having nanocrystalline reference dielectric functions and generalized critical point (GCP) model the physical parameters of two series of samples containing silicon nanocrystals, i.e. silicon rich oxide (SRO) superlattices and porous silicon layers (PSL), have been determined. The superlattices, consisting of ten SRO/SiO 2 layer pairs, have been prepared using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The porous silicon layers have been prepared using short monopulses of anodization current in the transition regime between porous silicon formation and electropolishing, in a mixture of hydrofluoric acid and ethanol. The optical modeling of both structures is similar. The effective dielectric function of the layer is calculated by EMA using nanocrystalline components (nc-Si and GCP) in a dielectric matrix (SRO) or voids (PSL). We discuss the two major problems occurring when modeling such structures: (1) the modeling of the vertically non-uniform layer structures (including the interface properties like nanoroughness at the layer boundaries) and (2) the parameterization of the dielectric function of nanocrystals. We used several techniques to reduce the large number of fit parameters of the GCP models. The obtained results are in good agreement with those obtained by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. We investigated the correlation of the broadening parameter and characteristic EMA components with the nanocrystal size and the sample preparation conditions, such as the annealing temperatures of the SRO superlattices and the anodization current density of the porous silicon samples. We found that the broadening parameter is a sensitive measure of the nanocrystallinity of the samples, even in cases, where the nanocrystals are too small to be visible for X-ray scattering. Major processes like sintering, phase separation, and intermixing have been

  5. Characterization of silicon oxynitride films prepared by the simultaneous implantation of oxygen and nitrogen ions into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezel, R.; Streb, W.

    1985-01-01

    Silicon oxynitride films about 5 nm in thickness were prepared by simultaneously implanting 5 keV oxygen and nitrogen ions into silicon at room temperature up to saturation. These films with concentrations ranging from pure silicon oxide to silicon nitride were characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and depth-concentration profiling. The different behaviour of the silicon oxynitride films compared with those of silicon oxide and silicon nitride with regard to thermal stability and hardness against electron and argon ion irradiation is pointed out. (Auth.)

  6. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Chemical Species in Silicon and Silicon-Rich Nitride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill O. Bugaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational properties of hydrogenated silicon-rich nitride (SiN:H of various stoichiometry (0.6≤≤1.3 and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H films were studied using Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furnace annealing during 5 hours in Ar ambient at 1130∘C and pulse laser annealing were applied to modify the structure of films. Surprisingly, after annealing with such high-thermal budget, according to the FTIR data, the nearly stoichiometric silicon nitride film contains hydrogen in the form of Si–H bonds. From analysis of the FTIR data of the Si–N bond vibrations, one can conclude that silicon nitride is partly crystallized. According to the Raman data a-Si:H films with hydrogen concentration 15% and lower contain mainly Si–H chemical species, and films with hydrogen concentration 30–35% contain mainly Si–H2 chemical species. Nanosecond pulse laser treatments lead to crystallization of the films and its dehydrogenization.

  7. Annealing and deposition effects of the chemical composition of silicon rich nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karin Nordström; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Stimpel-Lindner, T.

    2005-01-01

    Silicon-rich nitride, deposited by LPCVD, is a low stress amorphous material with a high refractive index. After deposition the silicon-rich nitride thin film is annealed at temperatures above 1100 oC to break N-H bonds, which have absorption peaks in the wavelength band important for optical...... in optical waveguides. This means that the annealing temperature must be high enough to break the N-H bonds, but no so high as to produce clusters. Therefore, the process window for an annealing step lies between 1100 and 1150 oC. The chemical composition of amorphous silicon-rich nitride has been...... investigated by Rutherford back scattering (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The influence of deposition parameters and annealing temperatures on the stoichiometry and the chemical bonds will be discussed. The origin of the clusters has been found to be silicon due to severe silicon out...

  8. Rate equation modelling of erbium luminescence dynamics in erbium-doped silicon-rich-silicon-oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Miraj, E-mail: m.shah@ee.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Wojdak, Maciej; Kenyon, Anthony J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Halsall, Matthew P.; Li, Hang; Crowe, Iain F. [Photon Science Institute and School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville St Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Erbium doped silicon-rich silica offers broad band and very efficient excitation of erbium photoluminescence (PL) due to a sensitization effect attributed to silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc), which grow during thermal treatment. PL decay lifetime measurements of sensitised Er{sup 3+} ions are usually reported to be stretched or multi exponential, very different to those that are directly excited, which usually show a single exponential decay component. In this paper, we report on SiO{sub 2} thin films doped with Si-nc's and erbium. Time resolved PL measurements reveal two distinct 1.54 {mu}m Er decay components; a fast microsecond component, and a relatively long lifetime component (10 ms). We also study the structural properties of these samples through TEM measurements, and reveal the formation of Er clusters. We propose that these Er clusters are responsible for the fast {mu}s decay component, and we develop rate equation models that reproduce the experimental transient observations, and can explain some of the reported transient behaviour in previously published literature.

  9. Delayed addition of nitrogen-rich substrates during composting of municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie; Bruun, Sander; Kuyper, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    -rich substrate (poultry manure) on nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions during composting and to link this effect to different bulking agents (coffee husks and sawdust), and (ii) to assess the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate on compost stability and sanitisation. The results showed...

  10. Increased forest ecosystem carbon and nitrogen storage from nitrogen rich bedrock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Scott L; Houlton, Benjamin Z; Dahlgren, Randy A

    2011-08-31

    Nitrogen (N) limits the productivity of many ecosystems worldwide, thereby restricting the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to offset the effects of rising atmospheric CO(2) emissions naturally. Understanding input pathways of bioavailable N is therefore paramount for predicting carbon (C) storage on land, particularly in temperate and boreal forests. Paradigms of nutrient cycling and limitation posit that new N enters terrestrial ecosystems solely from the atmosphere. Here we show that bedrock comprises a hitherto overlooked source of ecologically available N to forests. We report that the N content of soils and forest foliage on N-rich metasedimentary rocks (350-950 mg N kg(-1)) is elevated by more than 50% compared with similar temperate forest sites underlain by N-poor igneous parent material (30-70 mg N kg(-1)). Natural abundance N isotopes attribute this difference to rock-derived N: (15)N/(14)N values for rock, soils and plants are indistinguishable in sites underlain by N-rich lithology, in marked contrast to sites on N-poor substrates. Furthermore, forests associated with N-rich parent material contain on average 42% more carbon in above-ground tree biomass and 60% more carbon in the upper 30 cm of the soil than similar sites underlain by N-poor rocks. Our results raise the possibility that bedrock N input may represent an important and overlooked component of ecosystem N and C cycling elsewhere.

  11. Development of commercial nitrogen-rich stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljas, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of nitrogen alloyed stainless steels. Nitrogen alloying of austenitic stainless steels started at an early stage and was to a large extent caused by nickel shortage. However, direct technical advantages such as increased strength of the nitrogen alloyed steels made them attractive alternatives to the current steels. It was not until the advent of the AOD (argon oxygen decarburisation) process in the late 1960s that nitrogen alloying could be controlled to such accuracy that it became successful commercially on a broader scale. The paper describes production aspects and how nitrogen addition influences microstructure and the resulting properties of austenitic and duplex stainless steels. For austenitic steels there are several reasons for nitrogen alloying. Apart from increasing strength nitrogen also improves structural stability, work hardening and corrosion resistance. For duplex steels nitrogen also has a decisive effect in controlling the microstructure during thermal cycles such as welding. (orig.)

  12. Long-term nitrogen addition decreases carbon leaching in a nitrogen-rich forest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC plays a critical role in the carbon (C cycle of forest soils, and has been recently connected with global increases in nitrogen (N deposition. Most studies on effects of elevated N deposition on DOC have been carried out in N-limited temperate regions, with far fewer data available from N-rich ecosystems, especially in the context of chronically elevated N deposition. Furthermore, mechanisms for excess N-induced changes of DOC dynamics have been suggested to be different between the two kinds of ecosystems, because of the different ecosystem N status. The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine how long-term N addition affects DOC dynamics below the primary rooting zones (the upper 20 cm soils in typically N-rich lowland tropical forests. We have a primary assumption that long-term continuous N addition minimally affects DOC concentrations and effluxes in N-rich tropical forests. Experimental N addition was administered at the following levels: 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Results showed that seven years of N addition significantly decreased DOC concentrations in soil solution, and chemo-physical controls (solution acidity change and soil sorption rather than biological controls may mainly account for the decreases, in contrast to other forests. We further found that N addition greatly decreased annual DOC effluxes from the primary rooting zone and increased water-extractable DOC in soils. Our results suggest that long-term N deposition could increase soil C sequestration in the upper soils by decreasing DOC efflux from that layer in N-rich ecosystems, a novel mechanism for continued accumulation of soil C in old-growth forests.

  13. Study of Nitrogen Effect on the Boron Diffusion during Heat Treatment in Polycrystalline Silicon/Nitrogen-Doped Silicon Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saci, Lynda; Mahamdi, Ramdane; Mansour, Farida; Boucher, Jonathan; Collet, Maéva; Bedel Pereira, Eléna; Temple-Boyer, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    The present paper studies the boron (B) diffusion in nitrogen (N) doped amorphous silicon (a-Si) layer in original bi-layer B-doped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si)/in-situ N-doped Si layers (NIDOS) thin films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technique. The B diffusion in the NIDOS layer was investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. A new extended diffusion model is proposed to fit the SIMS profile of the bi-layer films. This model introduces new terms which take into account the effect of N concentration on the complex diffusion phenomena of B atoms in bi-layer films. SIMS results show that B diffusion does not exceed one third of NIDOS layer thickness after annealing. The reduction of the B diffusion in the NIDOS layer is due to the formation of complex B-N as shown by infrared absorption measurements. Electrical measurements using four-probe and Hall effect techniques show the good conductivity of the B-doped poly-Si layer after annealing treatment.

  14. Effect of carbon and silicon on nitrogen solubility in liquid chromium and iron-chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khyakkinen, V.I.; Bezobrazov, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    The study is aimed at specifying the role of carbon and silicon in high-chromium melts nitridation processes. It is shown that in high-chromium melts of the Cr-Fe-C system the nitrogen solubility is reduced with the growth of carbon content and in the chromium concentration range of 70-100% at 1873 K and P N 2 =0.1 MPa it is described by the lg[%N] Cr-Fe-C =lg[%N] cr-fe -0.098[%C] equation. While decreasing the temperature the nitrogen solubility in alloys is increased. Silicon essentially decreases the nitrogen solubility in liquid chromium. For the 0-10% silicon concentration range the relation between the equilibrium content of nitrogen and silicon at 1873 K and P N 2 =0.1 MPa is described by the straight line equation [%N] Cr-Si =6.1-0.338 [%Si

  15. Depth distribution of nitrogen in silicon from plasma ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajo, J.J.; Williams, J.D.; Wei, R.; Wilson, R.G.; Matossian, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma Ion Implantation (PII) is an ion implantation technique that eliminates the line-of-sight restriction of conventional ion-beam implantation and therefore allows for cost effective surface modification of large-scale objects or large-number of small-scale objects. In PII, a part to be implanted is immersed in a low-pressure (10 -4 --10 -5 Torr), partially-ionized plasma that surrounds the part with a plasma sheath. The part is negatively pulse biased up to 100 keV using a repetitive train (100--1,000 Hz) of short-duration (10--40 μsec) voltage pulses. The applied voltage develops across the sheath and accelerates plasma ions into the surface, implanting them omnidirectionally and simultaneously over the entire surface of the part. The depth distribution of the implanted ions influences the extent and type of surface modification achieved and depends upon many factors. These include three rise and fall time of the voltage-pulse waveform, the voltage-pulse amplitude, the ion specie, the ion density, and the temperature of the target. Understanding the contributions to the depth distribution from each of these factors will enable prediction of conditions that will be useful for implantation of large complex parts. To investigate the contributions to the measured depth distributions from these factors nitrogen, predominantly as N + 2 , has been implanted into silicon using PII at 50 and 100 keV (25 and 50 keV per N atom). The implanted depth distributions have been determined using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling. The distributions differ from the typical, approximately Gaussian, profiles that result from conventional mass selected monoenergetic ion beam implantation. In comparison with ion beam implants and numerical simulations the profiles appear ''filled-in'' with an approximately constant nitrogen concentration for depths less than the expected average ion range

  16. Thermal Stability of Hi-Nicalon SiC Fiber in Nitrogen and Silicon Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Garg, A.

    1995-01-01

    The room temperature tensile strength of uncoated and two types of pyrolytic boron nitride coated (PBN and Si-rich PBN) Hi-Nicalon SiC fibers was determined after 1 to 400 hr heat treatments to 1800 C under N2 pressures of 0.1, 2, and 4 MPa, and under 0.1 Mpa argon and vacuum environments. In addition, strength stability of both uncoated and coated fibers embedded in silicon powder and exposed to 0.1 MPa N2 for 24 hrs at temperatures to 1400 C was investigated. The uncoated and both types of BN coated fibers exposed to N2 for 1 hr showed noticeable strength degradation above 1400 C and 1600 C, respectively. The strength degradation appeared independent of nitrogen pressure, time of heat treatment, and surface coatings. TEM microstructural analysis suggests that flaws created due to SiC grain growth are responsible for the strength degradation. In contact with silicon powder, the uncoated and both types of PBN coated fibers degrade rapidly above 1350 C.

  17. Properties of non-stoichiometric nitrogen doped LPCVD silicon thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, F.; Mahamdi, R. [Departement d' Electronique, Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Beghoul, M.R. [Departement d' Electronique, Universite de Jijel (Algeria); Temple-Boyer, P. [CNRS, LAAS, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, INP, ISAE, LAAS, Toulouse (France); Bouridah, H.

    2010-02-15

    The influence of nitrogen on the internal structure and so on the electrical properties of silicon thin films obtained by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) was studied using several investigation methods. We found by using Raman spectroscopy and SEM observations that a strong relationship exists between the structural order of the silicon matrix and the nitrogen ratio in film before and after thermal treatment. As a result of the high disorder caused by nitrogen on silicon network during the deposit phase of films, the crystallization phenomena in term of nucleation and crystalline growth were found to depend upon the nitrogen content. Resistivity measurements results show that electrical properties of NIDOS films depend significantly on structural properties. It was appeared that for high nitrogen content, the films tend to acquire an insulator behavior. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Effect of the stoichiometry of Si-rich silicon nitride thin films on their photoluminescence and structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torchynska, T.V., E-mail: ttorch@esfm.ipn.mx [ESFM—Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Casas Espinola, J.L. [ESFM—Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Vergara Hernandez, E. [UPIITA—Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico DF 07320 (Mexico); Khomenkova, L., E-mail: khomen@ukr.net [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 45 Pr. Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Delachat, F.; Slaoui, A. [ICube, 23 rue du Loess, BP 20 CR, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-04-30

    Si-rich Silicon nitride films were grown on silicon substrates by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The film stoichiometry was controlled via the variation of NH{sub 3}/SiH{sub 4} ratio from 0.45 up to 1.0. Thermal annealing at 1100 °C for 30 min in the nitrogen flow was applied to form the Si nanocrystals in the films that have been investigated by means of photoluminescence and Raman scattering methods, as well as transmission electron microscopy. Several emission bands have been detected with the peak positions at: 2.8–3.0 eV, 2.5–2.7 eV, 2.10–2.25 eV, and 1.75–1.98 eV. The temperature dependences of photoluminescence spectra were studied with the aim to confirm the types of optical transitions and the nature of light emitting defects in silicon nitride. The former three bands were assigned to the defects in silicon nitride, whereas the last one (1.75–1.98 eV) was attributed to the exciton recombination inside of Si nanocrystals. The photoluminescence mechanism is discussed. - Highlights: • Substoichiometric silicon nitride films were grown by PECVD technique. • The variation of the NH{sub 3}/SiH{sub 4} ratio controls excess Si content in the films. • Both Si nanocrystals and amorphous Si phase were observed in annealed films. • Temperature evolution of carrier recombination via Si nanocrystals and host defects.

  19. Nitrogen fertilization affects silicon concentration, cell wall composition and biofuel potential of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Lindedam, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential input factor required for plant growth and biomass production. However, very limited information is available on how nitrogen fertilization affects the quality of crop residues to be used as lignocellulosic feedstock. In the present study, straw of winter wheat plants grown...... linearly from 0.32% to 0.71% over the range of nitrogen treatments. Cellulose and hemicellulose were not affected by the nitrogen supply while lignin peaked at medium rates of nitrogen application. The nitrogen treatments had a distinct influence on the silicon concentration, which decreased from 2.5% to 1.......5% of the straw dry matter when the nitrogen supply increased from 48 to 192kgha-1. No further decline in Si occurred at higher rates of nitrogen application. The most abundant metals in the straw were potassium and calcium and their concentrations almost doubled over the range of nitrogen supplies. The enzymatic...

  20. Ammonium transformation in a nitrogen-rich tidal freshwater marsh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribsholt, B.; Andersson, M.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2006-01-01

    The fate and transport of watershed-derived ammonium in a tidal freshwater marsh fringing the nutrient rich Scheldt River, Belgium, was quantified in a whole ecosystem 15N labeling experiment. In late summer (September) we added 15N-NH4+ to the flood water entering a 3477 m2 tidal freshwater marsh...

  1. Electrochemical study of lithium insertion into carbon-rich polymer-derived silicon carbonitride ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspar, Jan; Mera, Gabriela; Nowak, Andrzej P.; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Riedel, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the lithium insertion into carbon-rich polymer-derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic synthesized by the thermal treatment of poly(diphenylsilylcarbodiimide) at three temperatures, namely 1100, 1300, and 1700 o C under 0.1 MPa Ar atmosphere. At lower synthesis temperatures, the material is X-ray amorphous, while at 1700 o C, the SiCN ceramic partially crystallizes. Anode materials prepared from these carbon-rich SiCN ceramics without any fillers and conducting additives were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometric charging/discharging. We found that the studied silicon carbonitride ceramics demonstrate a promising electrochemical behavior during lithium insertion/extraction in terms of capacity and cycling stability. The sample synthesized at 1300 o C exhibits a reversible capacity of 392 mAh g -1 . Our study confirms that carbon-rich SiCN phases are electrochemically active materials in terms of Li inter- and deintercalation.

  2. Structures of Pt clusters on graphene doped with nitrogen, boron, and silicon: a theoretical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xian-Qi; Tang Ya-Nan; Dai Ya-Wei; Li Yan-Hui; Zhao Jian-Hua; Zhao Bao; Yang Zong-Xian

    2011-01-01

    The structures of Pt clusters on nitrogen-, boron-, silicon- doped graphenes are theoretically studied using densityfunctional theory. These dopants (nitrogen, boron and silicon) each do not induce a local curvature in the graphene and the doped graphenes all retain their planar form. The formation energy of the silicon-graphene system is lower than those of the nitrogen-, boron-doped graphenes, indicating that the silicon atom is easier to incorporate into the graphene.All the substitutional impurities enhance the interaction between the Pt atom and the graphene. The adsorption energy of a Pt adsorbed on the silicon-doped graphene is much higher than those on the nitrogen- and boron-doped graphenes.The doped silicon atom can provide more charges to enhance the Pt-graphene interaction and the formation of Pt clusters each with a large size. The stable structures of Pt clusters on the doped-graphenes are dimeric, triangle and tetrahedron with the increase of the Pt coverage. Of all the studied structures, the tetrahedron is the most stable cluster which has the least influence on the planar surface of doped-graphene.

  3. Species-rich grassland can persist under nitrogen-rich but phosphorus-limited conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van Han F.; Wamelink, Wieger; Slim, Pieter A.; Kamiński, Jan; Piórkowski, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Deposition of nitrogen is assumed to cause loss of botanical diversity, probably through increased production and exclusion of less competitive species. However, if production is (co-)limited by phosphorus, acceleration of the phosphorus cycle may be responsible for the diversity loss and,

  4. Nitrogen doped silicon-carbon multilayer protective coatings on carbon obtained by TVA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupina, Victor; Vasile, Eugeniu; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Lungu, Cristian P.; Vladoiu, Rodica; Jepu, Ionut; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Caraiane, Aureliana; Nicolescu, Virginia; Cupsa, Ovidiu; Dinca, Paul; Zaharia, Agripina

    2017-08-01

    Protective nitrogen doped Si-C multilayer coatings on carbon, used to improve the oxidation resistance of carbon, were obtained by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) method. The initial carbon layer having a thickness of 100nm has been deposed on a silicon substrate in the absence of nitrogen, and then a 3nm Si thin film to cover carbon layer was deposed. Further, seven Si and C layers were alternatively deposed in the presence of nitrogen ions, each having a thickness of 40nm. In order to form silicon carbide at the interface between silicon and carbon layers, all carbon, silicon and nitrogen ions energy has increased up to 150eV . The characterization of microstructure and electrical properties of as-prepared N-Si-C multilayer structures were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, STEM) techniques, Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) and electrical measurements. Oxidation protection of carbon is based on the reaction between oxygen and silicon carbide, resulting in SiO2, SiO and CO2, and also by reaction involving N, O and Si, resulting in silicon oxynitride (SiNxOy) with a continuously variable composition, and on the other hand, since nitrogen acts as a trapping barrier for oxygen. To perform electrical measurements, 80% silver filled two-component epoxy-based glue ohmic contacts were attached on the N-Si-C samples. Electrical conductivity was measured in constant current mode. The experimental data show the increase of conductivity with the increase of the nitrogen content. To explain the temperature behavior of electrical conductivity we assumed a thermally activated electric transport mechanism.

  5. Electrical properties of MOS structures on nitrogen-doped Czochralski-grown silicon: A positron annihilation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.; Harmatha, L.; Tapajna, M.; Ballo, P.; Pisecny, P.; Sik, J.; Koegel, G.; Krsjak, V.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of interface trap density, effective generation lifetime (GL) and effective surface generation velocity have been performed using different methods on selected MOS structures prepared on nitrogen-doped Czochralski-grown (NCz) silicon. The application of the positron annihilation technique using a pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS) focused on the detection of nitrogen-related defects in NCz silicon in the near surface region. In the case of p-type Cz silicon, all the results could be used for the testing of homogeneity. In n-type Cz silicon, positron annihilation was found insensitive to nitrogen doping

  6. Is a Nitrogen-rich Reference Needed for Canopy Sensor-based Corn Nitrogen Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen (N) supplying capacity of the soil available to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable both among and within fields. In recent years, canopy reflectance sensing has been investigated for in-season assessment of crop N health and fertilization. Typically, the proced...

  7. Learning nitrogen-vacancy electron spin dynamics on a silicon quantum photonic simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Paesani, S.; Santagati, R.; Knauer, S.; Gentile, A. A.; Wiebe, N.; Petruzzella, M.; Laing, A.; Rarity, J. G.; O'Brien, J. L.; Thompson, M. G.

    2017-01-01

    We present the experimental demonstration of quantum Hamiltonian learning. Using an integrated silicon-photonics quantum simulator with the classical machine learning technique, we successfully learn the Hamiltonian dynamics of a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center's electron ground-state spin.

  8. Fluorescence and thermoluminescence in silicon oxide films rich in silicon; Fluorescencia y termoluminiscencia en peliculas de oxido de silicio rico en silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman M, D.; Piters, T. M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-088, Hermosillo 83190, Sonora (Mexico); Aceves M, M.; Berriel V, L. R. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51, Puebla 72000, Puebla (Mexico); Luna L, J. A. [CIDS, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal 1651, Puebla 72000, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    In this work we determined the fluorescence and thermoluminescence (TL) creation spectra of silicon rich oxide films (SRO) with three different silicon excesses. To study the TL of SRO, 550 nm of SRO film were deposited by Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition technique on N-type silicon substrates with resistivity in the order of 3 to 5 {omega}-cm with silicon excess controlled by the ratio of the gases used in the process, SRO films with Ro= 10, 20 and 30 (12-6% silicon excess) were obtained. Then, they were thermally treated in N{sub 2} at high temperatures to diffuse and homogenize the silicon excess. In the fluorescence spectra two main emission regions are observed, one around 400 nm and one around 800 nm. TL creation spectra were determined by plotting the integrated TL intensity as function of the excitation wavelength. (Author)

  9. Nitrogen doped silicon-carbon multilayer protective coatings on carbon obtained by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupinǎ, Victor; Vasile, Eugeniu; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Vladoiu, Rodica; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Nicolescu, Virginia; Manu, Radu; Dinca, Paul; Zaharia, Agripina

    2018-02-01

    To obtain protective nitrogen doped Si-C multilayer coatings on carbon, used to improve the oxidation resistance of carbon, was used TVA method. The initial carbon layer has been deposed on a silicon substrate in the absence of nitrogen, and then a 3nm Si thin film to cover carbon layer was deposed. Further, seven Si and C layers were alternatively deposed in the presence of nitrogen ions. In order to form silicon carbide at the interface between silicon and carbon layers, all carbon, silicon and nitrogen ions energy has increased up to 150eV. The characterization of microstructure and electrical properties of as-prepared N-Si-C multilayer structures were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, STEM) techniques, Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) and electrical measurements. The retention of oxygen in the protective layer of N-Si-C is due to the following phenomena: (a) The reaction between oxygen and silicon carbide resulting in silicon oxide and carbon dioxide; (b) The reaction involving oxygen, nitrogen and silicon resulting silicon oxinitride with a variable composition; (c) Nitrogen acts as a trapping barrier for oxygen. To perform electrical measurements, ohmic contacts were attached on the N-Si-C samples. Electrical conductivity was measured in constant current mode. To explain the temperature behavior of electrical conductivity we assumed a thermally activated electric transport mechanism.

  10. Sensitization of erbium in silicon-rich silica : the effect of annealing temperature and hydrogen passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, A.R.; Forcales, M.; Elliman, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of annealing temperature and hydrogen passivation on the excitation cross-section and photoluminescence of erbium in silicon-rich silica. Samples were prepared by co-implantation of Si and Er into SiO 2 followed by a single thermal anneal at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100 degrees C, and with or without hydrogen passivation performed at 500 degrees C. Using time-resolved photoluminescence, the effective erbium excitation cross-section is shown to increase by a factor 3, while the number of optically active erbium ions decreases by a factor of 4 with increasing annealing temperature. Hydrogen passivation is shown to increase the luminescence intensity and to shorten the luminescence lifetime at 1.54 μm only in the presence of Si nanocrystals. The implications fo these results for realizing a silicon-based optical amplifier are also discussed. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs

  11. Complex boron redistribution kinetics in strongly doped polycrystalline-silicon/nitrogen-doped-silicon thin bi-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadli, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University Aout 1955, Skikda, 21000 (Algeria); LEMEAMED, Department of Electronics, University Mentouri, Constantine, 25000 (Algeria); Mansour, F. [LEMEAMED, Department of Electronics, University Mentouri, Constantine, 25000 (Algeria); Pereira, E. Bedel [CNRS-LAAS, 7 avenue du colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France)

    2012-10-15

    We have investigated the complex behaviour of boron (B) redistribution process via silicon thin bi-layers interface. It concerns the instantaneous kinetics of B transfer, trapping, clustering and segregation during the thermal B activation annealing. The used silicon bi-layers have been obtained by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method at 480 C, by using in-situ nitrogen-doped-silicon (NiDoS) layer and strongly B doped polycrystalline-silicon (P{sup +}) layer. To avoid long-range B redistributions, thermal annealing was carried out at relatively low-temperatures (600 C and 700 C) for various times ranging between 30 min and 2 h. To investigate the experimental secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) doping profiles, a redistribution model well adapted to the particular structure of two thin layers and to the effects of strong-concentrations has been established. The good adjustment of the simulated profiles with the experimental SIMS profiles allowed a fundamental understanding about the instantaneous physical phenomena giving and disturbing the complex B redistribution profiles-shoulders. The increasing kinetics of the B peak concentration near the bi-layers interface is well reproduced by the established model. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Creation of high density ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centers in nitrogen-rich type Ib nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Long-Jyun; Fang, Chia-Yi; Chang, Yu-Tang; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Hsu, Jui-Hung; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2013-08-09

    This work explores the possibility of increasing the density of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers ([NV(-)]) in nanodiamonds using nitrogen-rich type Ib diamond powders as the starting material. The nanodiamonds (10-100 nm in diameter) were prepared by ball milling of microdiamonds, in which the density of neutral and atomically dispersed nitrogen atoms ([N(0)]) was measured by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. A systematic measurement of the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of the crushed monocrystalline diamonds as a function of [N(0)] indicated that [NV(-)] increases nearly linearly with [N(0)] at 100-200 ppm. The trend, however, failed to continue for nanodiamonds with higher [N(0)] (up to 390 ppm) but poorer crystallinity. We attribute the result to a combined effect of fluorescence quenching as well as the lower conversion efficiency of vacancies to NV(-) due to the presence of more impurities and defects in these as-grown diamond crystallites. The principles and practice of fabricating brighter and smaller fluorescent nanodiamonds are discussed.

  13. Creation of high density ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centers in nitrogen-rich type Ib nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Long-Jyun; Fang, Chia-Yi; Chang, Yu-Tang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Hsu, Jui-Hung

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the possibility of increasing the density of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers ([NV − ]) in nanodiamonds using nitrogen-rich type Ib diamond powders as the starting material. The nanodiamonds (10–100 nm in diameter) were prepared by ball milling of microdiamonds, in which the density of neutral and atomically dispersed nitrogen atoms ([N 0 ]) was measured by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. A systematic measurement of the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of the crushed monocrystalline diamonds as a function of [N 0 ] indicated that [NV − ] increases nearly linearly with [N 0 ] at 100–200 ppm. The trend, however, failed to continue for nanodiamonds with higher [N 0 ] (up to 390 ppm) but poorer crystallinity. We attribute the result to a combined effect of fluorescence quenching as well as the lower conversion efficiency of vacancies to NV − due to the presence of more impurities and defects in these as-grown diamond crystallites. The principles and practice of fabricating brighter and smaller fluorescent nanodiamonds are discussed. (paper)

  14. Synthesis of polybenzoxazine based nitrogen-rich porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liu; Wang, Jianlong; Feng, Chong; Sun, Yahui; Li, Kaixi

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen-rich porous carbons (NPCs) were synthesized from 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene, urea, and formaldehyde based on benzoxazine chemistry by a soft-templating method with KOH chemical activation. They possess high surface areas of 856.8-1257.8 m2 g-1, a large pore volume of 0.15-0.65 cm3 g-1, tunable pore structure, high nitrogen content (5.21-5.32 wt%), and high char yields. The amount of the soft-templating agent F127 has multiple influences on the textural and chemical properties of the carbons, affecting the surface area and pore structure, impacting the compositions of nitrogen species and resulting in an improvement of the CO2 capture performance. At 1 bar, high CO2 uptake of 4.02 and 6.35 mmol g-1 at 25 and 0 °C was achieved for the sample NPC-2 with a molar ratio of F127 : urea = 0.010 : 1. This can be attributed to its well-developed micropore structure and abundant pyridinic nitrogen, pyrrolic nitrogen and pyridonic nitrogen functionalities. The sample NPC-2 also exhibits a remarkable selectivity for CO2/N2 separation and a fast adsorption/desorption rate and can be easily regenerated. This suggests that the polybenzoxazine-based NPCs are desirable for CO2 capture because of possessing a high micropore surface area, a large micropore volume, appropriate pore size distribution, and a large number of basic nitrogen functionalities.Nitrogen-rich porous carbons (NPCs) were synthesized from 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene, urea, and formaldehyde based on benzoxazine chemistry by a soft-templating method with KOH chemical activation. They possess high surface areas of 856.8-1257.8 m2 g-1, a large pore volume of 0.15-0.65 cm3 g-1, tunable pore structure, high nitrogen content (5.21-5.32 wt%), and high char yields. The amount of the soft-templating agent F127 has multiple influences on the textural and chemical properties of the carbons, affecting the surface area and pore structure, impacting the compositions of nitrogen species and resulting in an improvement of the

  15. EFFECT OF SILICON, NITROGEN AND POTASSIUM IN THE INCIDENCE OF TOMATO PIN WORM IN INDUSTRIAL TOMATO PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Cristina dos Santos2*

    2013-12-01

    of two stems per plant. It was observed a decrease in the number of pinworm leaf mines with an increase in silicon and potassium doses and an increase in the number of mines with an increase on nitrogen doses.

  16. A Revival of Waste: Atmospheric Pressure Nitrogen Plasma Jet Enhanced Jumbo Silicon/Silicon Carbide Composite in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Hong; Chuang, Shang-I; Liu, Wei-Ren; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2015-12-30

    In this study, a jumbo silicon/silicon carbide (Si/SiC) composite (JSC), a novel anode material source, was extracted from solar power industry cutting waste and used as a material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), instead of manufacturing the nanolized-Si. Unlike previous methods used for preventing volume expansion and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), the approach proposed here simply entails applying surface modification to JSC-based electrodes by using nitrogen-atmospheric pressure plasma jet (N-APPJ) treatment process. Surface organic bonds were rearranged and N-doped compounds were formed on the electrodes through applying different plasma treatment durations, and the qualitative examinations of before/after plasma treatment were identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The surface modification resulted in the enhancement of electrochemical performance with stable capacity retention and high Coulombic efficiency. In addition, depth profile and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were executed to determine the existence of Li-N matrix and how the nitrogen compounds change the surface conditions of the electrodes. The N-APPJ-induced rapid surface modification is a major breakthrough for processing recycled waste that can serve as anode materials for next-generation high-performance LIBs.

  17. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption in a neotropical rain forest of a nutrient-rich soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, José Luis

    2005-01-01

    In tropical forests with nutrient-rich soil tree's nutrient resorption from senesced leaves has not always been observed to be low. Perhaps this lack of consistence is partly owing to the nutrient resorption methods used. The aim of the study was to analyse N and P resorption proficiency from tropical rain forest trees in a nutrient-rich soil. It was hypothesised that trees would exhibit low nutrient resorption in a nutrient-rich soil. The soil concentrations of total N and extractable P, among other physical and chemical characteristics, were analysed in 30 samples in the soil surface (10 cm) of three undisturbed forest plots at 'Estaci6n de Biologia Los Tuxtlas' on the east coast of Mexico (18 degrees 34' - 18 degrees 36' N, 95 degrees 04' - 95 degrees 09' W). N and P resorption proficiency were determined from senescing leaves in 11 dominant tree species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid. Soil was rich in total N (0.50%, n = 30) and extractable P (4.11 microg g(-1) n = 30). As expected, trees showed incomplete N (1.13%, n = 11) and P (0.11%, n = 1) resorption. With a more accurate method of nutrient resorption assessment, it is possible to prove that a forest community with a nutrient-rich soil can have low levels of N and P resorption.

  18. Annealing effect on thermodynamic and physical properties of mesoporous silicon: A simulation and nitrogen sorption study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Huber, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Discovery of porous silicon formation in silicon substrate in 1956 while electro-polishing crystalline Si in hydrofluoric acid (HF), has triggered large scale investigations of porous silicon formation and their changes in physical and chemical properties with thermal and chemical treatment. A nitrogen sorption study is used to investigate the effect of thermal annealing on electrochemically etched mesoporous silicon (PS). The PS was thermally annealed from 200˚C to 800˚C for 1 hr in the presence of air. It was shown that the pore diameter and porosity of PS vary with annealing temperature. The experimentally obtained adsorption / desorption isotherms show hysteresis typical for capillary condensation in porous materials. A simulation study based on Saam and Cole model was performed and compared with experimentally observed sorption isotherms to study the physics behind of hysteresis formation. We discuss the shape of the hysteresis loops in the framework of the morphology of the layers. The different behavior of adsorption and desorption of nitrogen in PS with pore diameter was discussed in terms of concave menisci formation inside the pore space, which was shown to related with the induced pressure in varying the pore diameter from 7.2 nm to 3.4 nm.

  19. Etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.; Acero, M.C. Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J.; El-Hassani, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this work the etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon is studied as a function of the processing parameters, the implantation dose and temperature, and the presence of capping layers during implantation. Etching characteristics have been probed using tetramethylammonium hydroxide or KOH solutions for different times up to 6 h. Results show that, after annealing, the minimum dose required for the formation of an efficient etch-stop layer is about 4 x 10 17 cm -2 , for an implantation energy of 75 keV. This is defined as a layer with an efficient etch selectivity in relation to Si of s ≥ 100. For larger implantation doses efficient etch selectivities larger than 100 are obtained. However, for these doses a considerable density of pits is observed in the etch-stop layer. These are related to the presence of nitrogen poor Si regions in the buried layer after annealing, due to a partial separation of silicon and silicon nitride phases during the annealing process. The influence of this separation of phases as well as nitrogen gettering in the buried layer on the etch-stop behavior is discussed as a function of the processing parameters

  20. Delayed addition of nitrogen-rich substrates during composting of municipal waste: Effects on nitrogen loss, greenhouse gas emissions and compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Bruun, Sander; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Municipal waste is usually composted with an N-rich substrate, such as manure, to increase the N content of the product. This means that a significant amount of nitrogen can be lost during composting. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate (poultry manure) on nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions during composting and to link this effect to different bulking agents (coffee husks and sawdust), and (ii) to assess the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate on compost stability and sanitisation. The results showed that split addition of the nitrogen-rich substrate reduced nitrogen losses by 9% when sawdust was used and 20% when coffee husks were used as the bulking agent. Depending on the bulking agent used, split addition increased cumulative N 2 O emissions by 400-600% compared to single addition. In contrast, single addition increased methane emissions by up to 50% compared to split addition of the substrate. Hence, the timing of the addition of the N-rich substrate had only a marginal effect on total non-CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions. Split addition of the N-rich substrate resulted in compost that was just as stable and effective at completely eradicating weed seeds as single addition. These findings therefore show that split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate could be an option for increasing the fertilising value of municipal waste compost without having a significant effect on total greenhouse gas emissions or compost stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the Origin of Light Emission in Silicon Rich Oxide Obtained by Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Aceves-Mijares, M.; González-Fernández, A. A.; López-Estopier, R.; Luna-López, A.; Berman-Mendoza, D.; Morales, A.; Falcony, C.; Domínguez, C.; Murphy-Arteaga, R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Rich Oxide (SRO) has been considered as a material to overcome the drawbacks of silicon to achieve optical functions. Various techniques can be used to produce it, including Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD). In this paper, a brief description of the studies carried out and discussions of the results obtained on electro-, cathode-, and photoluminescence properties of SRO prepared by LPCVD and annealed at 1,100°C are presented. The experimental results lead us to accept th...

  2. Screening nitrogen-rich bases and oxygen-rich acids by theoretical calculations for forming highly stable salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Gong, Xuedong

    2014-08-04

    Nitrogen-rich heterocyclic bases and oxygen-rich acids react to produce energetic salts with potential application in the field of composite explosives and propellants. In this study, 12 salts formed by the reaction of the bases 4-amino-1,2,4-trizole (A), 1-amino-1,2,4-trizole (B), and 5-aminotetrazole (C), upon reaction with the acids HNO3 (I), HN(NO2 )2 (II), HClO4 (III), and HC(NO2 )3 (IV), are studied using DFT calculations at the B97-D/6-311++G** level of theory. For the reactions with the same base, those of HClO4 are the most exothermic and spontaneous, and the most negative Δr Gm in the formation reaction also corresponds to the highest decomposition temperature of the resulting salt. The ability of anions and cations to form hydrogen bonds decreases in the order NO3 (-) >N(NO2 )2 (-) >ClO4 (-) >C(NO2 )3 (-) , and C(+) >B(+) >A(+) . In particular, those different cation abilities are mainly due to their different conformations and charge distributions. For the salts with the same anion, the larger total hydrogen-bond energy (EH,tot ) leads to a higher melting point. The order of cations and anions on charge transfer (q), second-order perturbation energy (E2 ), and binding energy (Eb ) are the same to that of EH,tot , so larger q leads to larger E2 , Eb , and EH,tot . All salts have similar frontier orbitals distributions, and their HOMO and LUMO are derived from the anion and the cation, respectively. The molecular orbital shapes are kept as the ions form a salt. To produce energetic salts, 5-aminotetrazole and HClO4 are the preferred base and acid, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Constraints on the properties of Pluto's nitrogen-ice rich layer from convection simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Schenk, P.

    2016-12-01

    Pluto's Sputnik Planum basin (informally named) displays regular cellular patterns strongly suggesting that solid-state convection is occurring in a several-kilometers-deep nitrogen-ice rich layer (McKinnon et al., Convection in a volatile nitrogen-ice-rich layer drives Pluto's geological vigour, Nature 534, 82-85, 2016). We investigate the behavior of thermal convection in 2-D that covers a range of parameters applicable to the nitrogen ice layer to constrain its properties such that these long-wavelength surface features can be explained. We perform a suite of numerical simulations of convection with basal heating and temperature-dependent viscosity in either exponential form or Arrhenius form. For a plausible range of Rayleigh numbers and viscosity contrasts for solid nitrogen, convection can occur in all possible regimes: sluggish lid, transitional, or stagnant lid, or the layer could be purely conducting. We suggest the range of depth and temperature difference across the layer for convection to occur. We observe that the plume dynamics can be widely different in terms of the aspect ratio of convecting cells, or the width and spacing of plumes, and also in the lateral movement of plumes. These differences depend on the regime of convection determined by the Rayleigh number and the actual viscosity contrast across the layer, but is not sensitive to whether the viscosity is in Arrhenius or exponential form. The variations in plume dynamics result in different types of dynamic topography, which can be compared with the observed horizontal and vertical scales of the cells in Sputnik Planum. Based on these simulations we suggest several different possibilities for the formation and evolution of Sputnik Planum, which may be a consequence of the time-dependent behavior of thermal convection.

  4. Plant root proliferation in nitrogen-rich patches confers competitive advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D.; Hodge, A.; Griffiths, B. S.; Fitter, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Plants respond strongly to environmental heterogeneity, particularly below ground, where spectacular root proliferations in nutrient-rich patches may occur. Such 'foraging' responses apparently maximize nutrient uptake and are now prominent in plant ecological theory. Proliferations in nitrogen-rich patches are difficult to explain adaptively, however. The high mobility of soil nitrate should limit the contribution of proliferation to N capture. Many experiments on isolated plants show only a weak relation between proliferation and N uptake. We show that N capture is associated strongly with proliferation during interspecific competition for finite, locally available, mixed N sources, precisely the conditions under which N becomes available to plants on generally infertile soils. This explains why N-induced root proliferation is an important resource-capture mechanism in N-limited plant communities and suggests that increasing proliferation by crop breeding or genetic manipulation will have a limited impact on N capture by well-fertilized monocultures.

  5. Nitrogen-rich heterocycles as reactivity retardants in shocked insensitive explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaa, M Riad; Reed, Evan J; Fried, Laurence E; Goldman, Nir

    2009-04-22

    We report the first quantum-based multiscale simulations to study the reactivity of shocked perfect crystals of the insensitive energetic material triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB). Tracking chemical transformations of TATB experiencing overdriven shock speeds of 9 km/s for up to 0.43 ns and 10 km/s for up to 0.2 ns reveal high concentrations of nitrogen-rich heterocyclic clusters. Further reactivity of TATB toward the final decomposition products of fluid N(2) and solid carbon is inhibited due to the formation of these heterocycles. Our results thus suggest a new mechanism for carbon-rich explosive materials that precedes the slow diffusion-limited process of forming the bulk solid from carbon clusters and provide fundamental insight at the atomistic level into the long reaction zone of shocked TATB.

  6. Boron diffusion into nitrogen doped silicon films for P{sup +} polysilicon gate structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, Farida; Mahamdi, Ramdane; Jalabert, Laurent; Temple-Boyer, Pierre

    2003-06-23

    This paper deals with the study of the boron diffusion in nitrogen doped silicon (NIDOS) deposited from disilane Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} and ammonia NH{sub 3} for the development of P{sup +} polysilicon gate metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices. NIDOS films with varied nitrogen content have been boron implanted, then annealed and finally analysed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In order to simulate the experimental SIMS of boron concentration profiles in the NIDOS films, a model adapted to the particular conditions of the samples elaboration, i.e. the very high boron concentration and the nitrogen content, has been established. The boron diffusion reduction in NIDOS films with increasing nitrogen rates has been evidenced by the profiles as well as by the obtained diffusion coefficients, which shows that the nitrogen incorporation reduces the boron diffusion. This has been confirmed by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements performed on MOS capacitors: the higher the nitrogen content, the lower the flat-band voltage. Finally, these results demonstrate that the improvement of the gate oxide quality occurs with the suppression of the boron penetration.

  7. Analysis of buried etch-stop layers in silicon by nitrogen-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, M.C.; Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Garrido, B.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of the etch-stop properties of layers obtained by substoichiometric nitrogen-ion implantation and annealing in silicon has been performed as a function of the implantation conditions. The analysis of the etching efficiency has been tested in TMAH-IPA systems. The results obtained show the need to implant at doses higher than 2 x 10 17 cm -2 to obtain etch-stop layers stable under high-temperature annealing. So, for implantation doses of 5 x 10 17 cm -2 , layers stand unetched for times longer than 2 h. The preliminary structural analysis of the samples suggests the presence of an amorphous silicon nitride layer for higher implantation doses. (author)

  8. Analysis of buried etch-stop layers in silicon by nitrogen-ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, M.C.; Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J. (Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (CNM-CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain)); Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Garrido, B.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R. (Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisica Aplicada i Electronica)

    1993-09-01

    The analysis of the etch-stop properties of layers obtained by substoichiometric nitrogen-ion implantation and annealing in silicon has been performed as a function of the implantation conditions. The analysis of the etching efficiency has been tested in TMAH-IPA systems. The results obtained show the need to implant at doses higher than 2 x 10[sup 17] cm[sup -2] to obtain etch-stop layers stable under high-temperature annealing. So, for implantation doses of 5 x 10[sup 17] cm[sup -2], layers stand unetched for times longer than 2 h. The preliminary structural analysis of the samples suggests the presence of an amorphous silicon nitride layer for higher implantation doses. (author).

  9. Mesoporous nitrogen-rich carbon materials as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2014-12-01

    The high cost of the catalyst material used for the oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes is one of the factors limiting practical applications of this technology. Mesoporous nitrogen-rich carbon (MNC), prepared at different temperatures, was examined as an oxygen reduction catalyst, and compared in performance to Pt in MFCs and electrochemical cells. MNC calcined at 800 °C produced a maximum power density of 979 ± 131 mW m-2 in MFCs, which was 37% higher than that produced using MNC calined at 600 °C (715 ± 152 mW m-2), and only 14% lower than that obtained with Pt (1143 ± 54 mW m-2). The extent of COD removal and coulombic efficiencies were the same for all cathode materials. These results show that MNC could be used as an alternative to Pt in MFCs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous determination of boron, carbon and nitrogen in silicon by deuteron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Shiyu; Wang, Yinsong; Jin, Baikang; Hua, Zhifen; Zhao, Kaihua

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes simultaneous determination of trace quantities of B, C and N in semiconductor silicon by nuclear reaction of 10 B(d, n) 11 C(T 1/2 = 20.3 min), 11 B(d, 2n) 11 C, 12 C(d, n) 13 N(T 1/2 = 9.96 min) and 14 N(d, n) 15 O(T 1/2 = 2.03 min) with deuterons from a 1.2 m cyclotron in our institute. An inert-gas fusion technique is adopted for rapid radiochemical separation after irradiation of the samples. 11 C, 13 N and 15 O are absorbed in ascarite 5A molecular sieve cooled in liquid nitrogen and Hopcalite reagent at a temperature of 650 deg C respectively. Positron Annihilation events of each produced nucleus are counted by a γ - γ coincidence measuring system. B, C and N contents of about several ten parts per billion in silicon are then calculated simultaneously by a relatively quantitative method. Relative standard deviation for C, B and N are less than +-50% respectively. This method is simple, rapid and sensitive for estimating light element content in silicon material. (author)

  11. On the Origin of Light Emission in Silicon Rich Oxide Obtained by Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aceves-Mijares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon Rich Oxide (SRO has been considered as a material to overcome the drawbacks of silicon to achieve optical functions. Various techniques can be used to produce it, including Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD. In this paper, a brief description of the studies carried out and discussions of the results obtained on electro-, cathode-, and photoluminescence properties of SRO prepared by LPCVD and annealed at 1,100°C are presented. The experimental results lead us to accept that SRO emission properties are due to oxidation state nanoagglomerates rather than to nanocrystals. The emission mechanism is similar to Donor-Acceptor decay in semiconductors, and a wide emission spectrum, from 450 to 850 nm, has been observed. The results show that emission is a function of both silicon excess in the film and excitation energy. As a result different color emissions can be obtained by selecting the suitable excitation energy.

  12. Silicon rich nitride ring resonators for rare - earth doped telecommunications-band amplifiers pumped at the O-band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, P; Chen, G F R; Zhao, X; Ng, D K T; Tan, M C; Tan, D T H

    2017-08-22

    Ring resonators on silicon rich nitride for potential use as rare-earth doped amplifiers pumped at 1310 nm with amplification at telecommunications-band are designed and characterized. The ring resonators are fabricated on 300 nm and 400 nm silicon rich nitride films and characterized at both 1310 nm and 1550 nm. We demonstrate ring resonators exhibiting similar quality factors exceeding 10,000 simultaneously at 1310 nm and 1550 nm. A Dysprosium-Erbium material system exhibiting photoluminescence at 1510 nm when pumped at 1310 nm is experimentally demonstrated. When used together with Dy-Er co-doped particles, these resonators with similar quality factors at 1310 nm and 1550 nm may be used for O-band pumped amplifiers for the telecommunications-band.

  13. Pulsed 1064 nm Nd-YAG Laser Deposition of Titanium on Silicon in a Nitrogen Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Garcia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed laser deposition (PLD technique was demonstrated for the deposition of titanium nitride (TiN thin films on Si (100 substrates. A 1064 nm pulsed Nd-YAG laser is focused on a titanium (99.5% target in a nitrogen environment to generate the atomic flux needed for the film deposition. Spectroscopic analysis of the plasma emission indicates the presence of atomic titanium and nitrogen, which are the precursors of TiN. Images of the films grown at different laser pulse energies show an increase in the number and size of deposited droplets and clusters with increasing laser pulse energy. A decrease in cluster and droplet size is also observed, with an increase in substrate temperature. EDS data show an increase in the titanium peak relative to the silicon as the ambient nitrogen pressure is decreased. An increase in deposition time was found to result in large clusters and irregularly shaped structures on the substrate. Post-deposition annealing of the samples enhanced the crystallinity of the film.

  14. Synergistic effect and mechanism of platinum catalyst and nitrogen-containing silane on the thermal stability of silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wanjuan; Zeng, Xingrong; Lai, Xuejun; Li, Hongqiang; Fang, Weizhen; Liu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Platinum (Pt) and nitrogen-containing silane (NS) were introduced into silicone rubber. • The thermal stability was improved by Pt/NS both under nitrogen and air atmosphere. • The TG-FTIR of evolved gases during degradation was performed. • The synergistic effect and mechanism of Pt and NS were proposed. - Abstract: Platinum (Pt) catalyst and nitrogen-containing silane (NS) were introduced to improve the thermal stability of silicone rubber. The effects of Pt and NS on thermal stability and degradation mechanism of silicone rubber were investigated by thermogravimetry (TG), thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR), scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDXS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). A significant synergism was found between Pt and NS for improving the thermal stability of silicone rubber. When 6.67 ppm of Pt and 1.4 phr of NS were introduced, the temperature of 10% and 20% weight loss under nitrogen atmosphere were respectively increased by 36 °C and 119 °C. Meanwhile, the residue weight at 900 °C was doubled to 68% in the presence of Pt/NS. The synergistic mechanism might be that the nitrogen atom coordinated with Pt and improved the catalytic efficiency of Pt. Additionally, NS preserved the catalytic activity of Pt under air atmosphere. Hence, Pt/NS efficiently catalyzed thermal crosslinking and suppressed degradation of silicone chains. Moreover, it revealed that the presence of Pt/NS protected silicone chains from oxidation. Thus, the unzipping depolymerization by silanol groups was reduced significantly.

  15. Synergistic effect and mechanism of platinum catalyst and nitrogen-containing silane on the thermal stability of silicone rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wanjuan; Zeng, Xingrong, E-mail: psxrzeng@gmail.com; Lai, Xuejun; Li, Hongqiang; Fang, Weizhen; Liu, Tian

    2016-05-20

    Highlights: • Platinum (Pt) and nitrogen-containing silane (NS) were introduced into silicone rubber. • The thermal stability was improved by Pt/NS both under nitrogen and air atmosphere. • The TG-FTIR of evolved gases during degradation was performed. • The synergistic effect and mechanism of Pt and NS were proposed. - Abstract: Platinum (Pt) catalyst and nitrogen-containing silane (NS) were introduced to improve the thermal stability of silicone rubber. The effects of Pt and NS on thermal stability and degradation mechanism of silicone rubber were investigated by thermogravimetry (TG), thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR), scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDXS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). A significant synergism was found between Pt and NS for improving the thermal stability of silicone rubber. When 6.67 ppm of Pt and 1.4 phr of NS were introduced, the temperature of 10% and 20% weight loss under nitrogen atmosphere were respectively increased by 36 °C and 119 °C. Meanwhile, the residue weight at 900 °C was doubled to 68% in the presence of Pt/NS. The synergistic mechanism might be that the nitrogen atom coordinated with Pt and improved the catalytic efficiency of Pt. Additionally, NS preserved the catalytic activity of Pt under air atmosphere. Hence, Pt/NS efficiently catalyzed thermal crosslinking and suppressed degradation of silicone chains. Moreover, it revealed that the presence of Pt/NS protected silicone chains from oxidation. Thus, the unzipping depolymerization by silanol groups was reduced significantly.

  16. High pressure study of a highly energetic nitrogen-rich carbon nitride, cyanuric triazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laniel, Dominique; Desgreniers, Serge [Laboratoire de physique des solides denses, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Downie, Laura E. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Smith, Jesse S. [High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Savard, Didier; Murugesu, Muralee [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-12-21

    Cyanuric triazide (CTA), a nitrogen-rich energetic material, was compressed in a diamond anvil cell up to 63.2 GPa. Samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman, and infrared spectroscopy. A phase transition occurring between 29.8 and 30.7 GPa was found by all three techniques. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative of the low pressure phase were determined by fitting the 300 K isothermal compression data to the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Due to the strong photosensitivity of CTA, synchrotron generated x-rays and visible laser radiation both lead to the progressive conversion of CTA into a two dimensional amorphous C=N network, starting from 9.2 GPa. As a result of the conversion, increasingly weak and broad x-ray diffraction lines were recorded from crystalline CTA as a function of pressure. Hence, a definite structure could not be obtained for the high pressure phase of CTA. Results from infrared spectroscopy carried out to 40.5 GPa suggest the high pressure formation of a lattice built of tri-tetrazole molecular units. The decompression study showed stability of the high pressure phase down to 13.9 GPa. Finally, two CTA samples, one loaded with neon and the other with nitrogen, used as pressure transmitting media, were laser-heated to approximately 1100 K and 1500 K while compressed at 37.7 GPa and 42.0 GPa, respectively. In both cases CTA decomposed resulting in amorphous compounds, as recovered at ambient conditions.

  17. Nitrogen-Rich Porous Polymers for Carbon Dioxide and Iodine Sequestration for Environmental Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoaty, Yomna H; Tessema, Tsemre-Dingel; Choudhury, Fatema Akthar; El-Kadri, Oussama M; El-Kaderi, Hani M

    2018-05-09

    The use of fossil fuels for energy production is accompanied by carbon dioxide release into the environment causing catastrophic climate changes. Meanwhile, replacing fossil fuels with carbon-free nuclear energy has the potential to release radioactive iodine during nuclear waste processing and in case of a nuclear accident. Therefore, developing efficient adsorbents for carbon dioxide and iodine capture is of great importance. Two nitrogen-rich porous polymers (NRPPs) derived from 4-bis-(2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine)-benzene building block were prepared and tested for use in CO 2 and I 2 capture. Copolymerization of 1,4-bis-(2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine)-benzene with terephthalaldehyde and 1,3,5-tris(4-formylphenyl)benzene in dimethyl sulfoxide at 180 °C afforded highly porous NRPP-1 (SA BET = 1579 m 2 g -1 ) and NRPP-2 (SA BET = 1028 m 2 g -1 ), respectively. The combination of high nitrogen content, π-electron conjugated structure, and microporosity makes NRPPs very effective in CO 2 uptake and I 2 capture. NRPPs exhibit high CO 2 uptakes (NRPP-1, 6.1 mmol g -1 and NRPP-2, 7.06 mmol g -1 ) at 273 K and 1.0 bar. The 7.06 mmol g -1 CO 2 uptake by NRPP-2 is the second highest value reported to date for porous organic polymers. According to vapor iodine uptake studies, the polymers display high capacity and rapid reversible uptake release for I 2 (NRPP-1, 192 wt % and NRPP-2, 222 wt %). Our studies show that the green nature (metal-free) of NRPPs and their effective capture of CO 2 and I 2 make this class of porous materials promising for environmental remediation.

  18. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Asma, E-mail: asmahayat@gcu.edu.pk; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Laser irradiation effects on Si surface have been explored. • An Excimer Laser was used as a source. • SEM analysis was performed to explore surface morphology. • Raman spectroscopy analysis was carried out to find crystallographical alterations. - Abstract: Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} and 4 J/cm{sup 2} resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm{sup 2}, laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly

  19. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser irradiation effects on Si surface have been explored. • An Excimer Laser was used as a source. • SEM analysis was performed to explore surface morphology. • Raman spectroscopy analysis was carried out to find crystallographical alterations. - Abstract: Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm 2 and 4 J/cm 2 resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm 2 under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm 2 , laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly dependent upon the

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption in a neotropical rain forest of a nutrient-rich soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Martínez-Sánchez

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests with nutrient-rich soil tree’s nutrient resorption from senesced leaves has not always been observed to be low. Perhaps this lack of consistence is partly owing to the nutrient resorption methods used. The aim of the study was to analyse N and P resorption proficiency from tropical rain forest trees in a nutrient-rich soil. It was hypothesised that trees would exhibit low nutrient resorption in a nutrient-rich soil. The soil concentrations of total N and extractable P, among other physical and chemical characteristics, were analysed in 30 samples in the soil surface (10 cm of three undisturbed forest plots at ‘Estación de Biología Los Tuxtlas’ on the east coast of Mexico (18°34’ - 18°36’ N, 95°04’ - 95°09’ W. N and P resorption proficiency were determined from senescing leaves in 11 dominant tree species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid. Soil was rich in total N (0.50%, n = 30 and extractable P (4.11 µg g-1, n = 30. As expected, trees showed incomplete N (1.13%, n = 11 and P (0.11%, n = 11 resorption. With a more accurate method of nutrient resorption assessment, it is possible to prove that a forest community with a nutrient-rich soil can have low levels of N and P resorption. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 353-359. Epub 2005 Oct 3.En las selvas tropicales con suelos fértiles se ha observado que la reabsorción de nutrientes de los arboles de las hojas seniles no siempre es baja. Esta falta de consistencia en el resultado es talvez debida en parte a la metodología de reabsorción de nutrientes utilizada. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la reabsorción final de N y P de arboles de la selva húmeda tropical en un suelo rico en nutrientes. La hipótesis planteada fue que en un suelo rico en nutrientes los arboles presentarían una baja reabsorción final de

  1. Distribution of species and Ga–N bonds in silicon co-implanted with gallium and nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surodin, S. I.; Nikolitchev, D. E.; Kryukov, R. N.; Belov, A. I.; Korolev, D. S.; Mikhaylov, A. N.; Tetelbaum, D. I.

    2016-01-01

    The concentration profiles of species in silicon subjected to gallium and nitrogen co-implantation and subsequent annealing have been investigated by the method of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with the layer-by-layer ion etching of the implanted layer. It is shown that practically entire implanted gallium undergoes out-diffusion, but the preliminary implantation of nitrogen for the synthesis of a barrier SiN_x layer makes it possible to avoid the essential loss of gallium. In this case, about 14 % of implanted gallium bond to nitrogen. The obtained data are discussed from the viewpoint of the possibility of ion synthesis of GaN inclusions in silicon matrix.

  2. Distribution of species and Ga–N bonds in silicon co-implanted with gallium and nitrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surodin, S. I., E-mail: surodin.bsn@mail.ru; Nikolitchev, D. E.; Kryukov, R. N.; Belov, A. I.; Korolev, D. S.; Mikhaylov, A. N.; Tetelbaum, D. I., E-mail: tetelbaum@phys.unn.ru [Lobachevsky University, 23 Prospekt Gagarina, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    The concentration profiles of species in silicon subjected to gallium and nitrogen co-implantation and subsequent annealing have been investigated by the method of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with the layer-by-layer ion etching of the implanted layer. It is shown that practically entire implanted gallium undergoes out-diffusion, but the preliminary implantation of nitrogen for the synthesis of a barrier SiN{sub x} layer makes it possible to avoid the essential loss of gallium. In this case, about 14 % of implanted gallium bond to nitrogen. The obtained data are discussed from the viewpoint of the possibility of ion synthesis of GaN inclusions in silicon matrix.

  3. Infrared defect dynamics—Nitrogen-vacancy complexes in float zone grown silicon introduced by electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naohisa; Kawamura, Yuichi

    2018-05-01

    The interaction of nitrogen and intrinsic point defects, vacancy (V) and self-interstitial (I), was examined by infrared absorption spectroscopy on the electron irradiated and post-annealed nitrogen doped float zone (FZ) silicon crystal. Various absorption lines were observed, at 551 cm-1 in as-grown samples, at 726 and 778 cm-1 in as-irradiated samples (Ir group), at 689 cm-1 after post-annealing at 400 °C and above (400 °C group), at 762 and 951 cm-1 after annealing at 600 °C (600 °C group), and at 714 cm-1 up to 800 °C (800 °C group). By irradiation, a part of N2 was changed into the Ir group. VN2 is the candidate for the origin of the Ir group. By the post annealing at 400 and 600 °C, a part of N2 and the Ir group were changed into the 400 °C group, to less extent at 600 °C. V2N2 is the candidate for the origin of the 400 °C group. By annealing at 600 °C, most of the Ir group turned into 400 °C and 600 °C groups. By annealing at 800 °C, N2 recovered almost completely, and most other complexes were not observed. Recently, lifetime degradation has been observed in the nitrogen doped FZ Si annealed at between 450 and 800 °C. The N-V interaction in the same temperature range revealed here will help to understand the lifetime degradation mechanism. The behavior of the 689 cm-1 line corresponded well to the lifetime degradation.

  4. Structural and optical properties of silicon rich oxide films in graded-stoichiometric multilayers for optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios-Huerta, L.; Aceves-Mijares, M. [Electronics Department, INAOE, Apdo. 51, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Cabañas-Tay, S. A.; Cardona-Castro, M. A.; Morales-Sánchez, A., E-mail: alfredo.morales@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C., Unidad Monterrey-PIIT, Apodaca, NL 66628, México (Mexico); Domínguez-Horna, C. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-07-18

    Silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs) are excellent candidates for the development of optoelectronic devices. Nevertheless, different strategies are still necessary to enhance their photo and electroluminescent properties by controlling their structural and compositional properties. In this work, the effect of the stoichiometry and structure on the optical properties of silicon rich oxide (SRO) films in a multilayered (ML) structure is studied. SRO MLs with silicon excess gradually increased towards the top and bottom and towards the center of the ML produced through the variation of the stoichiometry in each SRO layer were fabricated and confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Si-ncs with three main sizes were observed by a transmission electron microscope, in agreement with the stoichiometric profile of each SRO layer. The presence of the three sized Si-ncs and some oxygen related defects enhances intense violet/blue and red photoluminescence (PL) bands. The SRO MLs were super-enriched with additional excess silicon by Si{sup +} implantation, which enhanced the PL intensity. Oxygen-related defects and small Si-ncs (<2 nm) are mostly generated during ion implantation enhancing the violet/blue band to become comparable to the red band. The structural, compositional, and luminescent characteristics of the multilayers are the result of the contribution of the individual characteristics of each layer.

  5. Sponge-like Si-SiO2 nanocomposite—Morphology studies of spinodally decomposed silicon-rich oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, D.; Schmidt, B.; Heinig, K. H.; Liedke, B.; Mücklich, A.; Hübner, R.; Wolf, D.; Kölling, S.; Mikolajick, T.

    2013-09-01

    Sponge-like Si nanostructures embedded in SiO2 were fabricated by spinodal decomposition of sputter-deposited silicon-rich oxide with a stoichiometry close to that of silicon monoxide. After thermal treatment a mean feature size of about 3 nm was found in the phase-separated structure. The structure of the Si-SiO2 nanocomposite was investigated by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), EFTEM tomography, and atom probe tomography, which revealed a percolated Si morphology. It was shown that the percolation of the Si network in 3D can also be proven on the basis of 2D EFTEM images by comparison with 3D kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. Sponge-like Si-SiO2 nanocomposite—Morphology studies of spinodally decomposed silicon-rich oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, D.; Schmidt, B.; Heinig, K. H.; Liedke, B.; Mücklich, A.; Hübner, R.; Wolf, D.; Kölling, S.; Mikolajick, T.

    2013-01-01

    Sponge-like Si nanostructures embedded in SiO 2 were fabricated by spinodal decomposition of sputter-deposited silicon-rich oxide with a stoichiometry close to that of silicon monoxide. After thermal treatment a mean feature size of about 3 nm was found in the phase-separated structure. The structure of the Si-SiO 2 nanocomposite was investigated by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), EFTEM tomography, and atom probe tomography, which revealed a percolated Si morphology. It was shown that the percolation of the Si network in 3D can also be proven on the basis of 2D EFTEM images by comparison with 3D kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

  7. Strategy for designing stable and powerful nitrogen-rich high-energy materials by introducing boron atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; Chi, Wei-Jie; Li, Quan-Song; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    One of the most important aims in the development of high-energy materials is to improve their stability and thus ensure that they are safe to manufacture and transport. In this work, we theoretically investigated open-chain N 4 B 2 isomers using density functional theory in order to find the best way of stabilizing nitrogen-rich molecules. The results show that the boron atoms in these isomers are aligned linearly with their neighboring atoms, which facilitates close packing in the crystals of these materials. Upon comparing the energies of nine N 4 B 2 isomers, we found that the structure with alternating N and B atoms had the lowest energy. Structures with more than one nitrogen atom between two boron atoms had higher energies. The energy of N 4 B 2 increases by about 50 kcal/mol each time it is rearranged to include an extra nitrogen atom between the two boron atoms. More importantly, our results also show that boron atoms stabilize nitrogen-rich molecules more efficiently than carbon atoms do. Also, the combustion of any isomer of N 4 B 2 releases more heat than the corresponding isomer of N 4 C 2 does under well-oxygenated conditions. Our study suggests that the three most stable N 4 B 2 isomers (BN13, BN24, and BN34) are good candidates for high-energy molecules, and it outlines a new strategy for designing stable boron-containing high-energy materials. Graphical abstract The structural characteristics, thermodynamic stabilities, and exothermic properties of nitrogen-rich N 4 B 2 isomers were investigated by means of density functional theory.

  8. New routes to nitrogen-rich transition metal nitrides: Synthesis of novel polymorphs of Hf3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Ashkan; Hector, A.; Gray, B.; Kimber, S.; Bouvier, P.; McMillan, P.

    2013-06-01

    One of the most obvious features of transition metal nitride chemistry is that the maximum formal oxidation state of the metal is rarely as high as in the corresponding oxides or fluorides. Much of the interest in the high oxidation phases stems from the desire to identify the next generation of photocatalytic materials with tuneable bandgaps. Experiments in the laser heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) between the direct reaction of metals and nitrogen have previously produced a number of important new main group nitride phases. This technique has also demonstrated its potential for formation of new nitrogen-rich transition metal nitride phases. Alternative methods with the development of ``soft'' routes to new phases with high nitrogen content also offer the possibility of obtaining metastable phases through topotactic conversions. Using LHDAC in situ with synchrotron angle dispersive diffraction techniques we have crystallised at high pressures and temperatures two novel polymorphs of Hf3N4. Starting with an amide-derived nanocrystalline Hf3N4 sample we have identified a novel tetragonal (I4/ m) polymorph at 15 GPa and 1500K and a second high pressure orthorhombic (Pnma) polymorph at 30 GPa and 2000 K. This study demonstrates that the combination of precursor-based synthesis and high-pressure crystallization could be very productive in synthesis of such nitrogen-rich phases.

  9. Positron annihilation studies of silicon-rich SiO2 produced by high dose ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghislotti, G.; Nielsen, B.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Di Mauro, L.F.; Corni, F.; Tonini, R.

    1997-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is used to study Si-rich SiO 2 samples prepared by implantation of Si (160 keV) ions at doses in the range 3x10 16 endash 3x10 17 cm -2 and subsequent thermal annealing at high temperature (up to 1100 degree C). Samples implanted at doses higher than 5x10 16 cm -2 and annealed above 1000 degree C showed a PAS spectrum with an annihilation peak broader than the unimplanted sample. We discuss how these results are related to the process of silicon precipitation inside SiO 2 . copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. Oxidation Properties of Nitrogen-Doped Silicon Films Deposited from Si2H6 and NH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Emmanuel; Boyer, Pierre; Samitier, Josep; Hassani, Ahmed

    1994-03-01

    Si2H6/NH3 gas mixture was employed to obtain, by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) at low temperature, nitrogen-doped silicon (NIDOS) films with various N/Si ratios. Thermal oxide was grown in dry oxygen at 900°C and 1100°C on NIDOS films. The result indicates that the nitrogen content of NIDOS films, assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), greatly influences their oxidation rate.

  11. Characterization of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and refractory metals in binary and ternary silicon-based films using ion beam methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatri-Bouamrane, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ion beam methods (non Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reactions) have been carried out in order to characterize silicon-based films. The cross sections for the reactions 12 C(α,α), 14 N(α,α), 16 O(α,α), 28 Si(α,α) and 14 N(α,p) have been measured within 2 and 7 MeV. CVD beta SiC films could be analyzed and the interface between silicon carbide and the (100) silicon substrate was studied. The epitaxial growth of the beta SiC film could be modelled by comparing the results obtained with ion beam analysis, infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Moreover, the stoichiometry of low pressure CVD Me-Si-N (Me=Re, W, Ti, Ta) ternary systems was studied. The evolution of the nitrogen content in W-Si-N systems allowed to study their stability with respect to the annealing conditions. (N.T.)

  12. Effect of silicon on the structure, tribological behaviour, and mechanical properties of nitrogen-containing chromium-manganese austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, L.G.; Chernenko, N.L.; Gojkhenberg, Yu.N.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of silicon in quantity of 3.5-4.5 mass. % on tribological behaviour is studied for nitrogen-bearing (0.20-0.52 mass. % of nitrogen) chromium-manganese austenitic steels (10Kh15G23S4A0.20, 10Kh16G17N3S4A0.30, 10Kh19G20NS4A0.50, 12Kh19G19NS2A0.50, 10Kh18G19A0.50, 08Kh16G8N10S4A0.18). Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the steels are determined. Using metallographic, x-ray diffraction and electron microscopical methods a study is made into structural transformations running in the steels considered under friction and static tension. It is shown that additional silicon alloying of nitrogen-bearing chromium-manganese austenitic steels results in an essential increase of adhesion wear resistance of the materials on retention of low friction coefficient (f=0.25-0.33). A strong silicon effect on steel tribological behaviour is related with planar slip activation and with an increase of austenite strength and heat resistance [ru

  13. Silicon Promotes Growth of Brassica napus L. and Delays Leaf Senescence Induced by Nitrogen Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cylia Haddad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is the second most abundant element in soil and has several beneficial effects, especially in plants subjected to stress conditions. However, the effect of Si in preventing nitrogen (N starvation in plants is poorly documented. The aim of this work was to study the effect of a short Si supply duration (7 days on growth, N uptake, photosynthetic activity, and leaf senescence progression in rapeseed subjected (or not to N starvation. Our results showed that after 1 week of Si supply, Si improves biomass and increases N uptake and root expression of a nitrate transporter gene. After 12 days of N starvation, compared to -Si plants, mature leaf from +Si plants showed a high chlorophyll content, a maintain of net photosynthetic activity, a decrease of oxidative stress markers [hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA] and a significant delay in senescence. When N-deprived plants were resupplied with N, a greening again associated with an increase of photosynthetic activity was observed in mature leaves of plants pretreated with Si. Moreover, during the duration of N resupply, an increase of N uptake and nitrate transporter gene expression were observed in plants pretreated with Si. In conclusion, this study has shown a beneficial role of Si to alleviate damage associated with N starvation and more especially its role in delaying of leaf senescence.

  14. Linear and nonlinear characterization of low-stress high-confinement silicon-rich nitride waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krückel, Clemens J; Fülöp, Attila; Klintberg, Thomas; Bengtsson, Jörgen; Andrekson, Peter A; Torres-Company, Víctor

    2015-10-05

    In this paper we introduce a low-stress silicon enriched nitride platform that has potential for nonlinear and highly integrated optics. The manufacturing process of this platform is CMOS compatible and the increased silicon content allows tensile stress reduction and crack free layer growth of 700 nm. Additional benefits of the silicon enriched nitride is a measured nonlinear Kerr coefficient n(2) of 1.4·10(-18) m(2)/W (5 times higher than stoichiometric silicon nitride) and a refractive index of 2.1 at 1550 nm that enables high optical field confinement allowing high intensity nonlinear optics and light guidance even with small bending radii. We analyze the waveguide loss (∼1 dB/cm) in a spectrally resolved fashion and include scattering loss simulations based on waveguide surface roughness measurements. Detailed simulations show the possibility for fine dispersion and nonlinear engineering. In nonlinear experiments we present continuous-wave wavelength conversion and demonstrate that the material does not show nonlinear absorption effects. Finally, we demonstrate microfabrication of resonators with high Q-factors (∼10(5)).

  15. Energetic salts of the binary 5-cyanotetrazolate anion ([C2N5]-) with nitrogen-rich cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Margaret-Jane; Klapötke, Thomas M; Martin, Franz A; Miró Sabaté, Carles; Rusan, Magdalena

    2011-02-01

    The reaction of cyanogen (NC-CN) with MN(3) (M=Na, K) in liquid SO(2) leads to the formation of the 5-cyanotetrazolate anion as the monohemihydrate sodium (1·1.5 H(2)O) and potassium (2) salts, respectively. Both 1·1.5 H(2)O and 2 were used as starting materials for the synthesis of a new family of nitrogen-rich salts containing the 5-cyanotetrazolate anion and nitrogen-rich cations, namely ammonium (3), hydrazinium (4), semicarbazidium (5), guanidinium (6), aminoguanidinium (7), diaminoguanidinium (8), and triaminoguanidinium (9). Compounds 1-9 were synthesised in good yields and characterised by using analytical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, the crystal structures of 1·1.5 H(2)O, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 9·H(2)O were determined by using low-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction. An insight into the hydrogen bonding in the solid state is described in terms of graph-set analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry and sensitivity tests were used to assess the thermal stability and sensitivity against impact and friction of the materials, respectively. For the assessment of the energetic character of the nitrogen-rich salts 3-9, quantum chemical methods were used to determine the constant volume energies of combustion, and these values were used to calculate the detonation velocity and pressure of the salts using the EXPLO5 computer code. Additionally, the performances of formulations of the new compounds with ammonium nitrate and ammonium dinitramide were also predicted. Lastly, the ICT code was used to determine the gases and heats of explosion released upon decomposition of the 5-cyanotetrazolate salts. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Structural and Chemical Properties of the Nitrogen-Rich Energetic Material Triaminoguanidinium 1-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazolate under Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The structural and chemical properties of the bi-molecular, hydrogen-bonded, nitrogen-rich ener- getic...School Apprenticeship Program (ARO-HSAP), and the Depart- ment of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (Carnegie/DOE Alliance Center; DE-FC52...B. J. Baer, H. Cynn, W. J. Evans, V. Iota , and C. S. Yoo, Phys. Rev. B 76(1), 014113 (2007). 9T. M. Klapötke, J. Stierstorfer, and A. U. Wallek, Chem

  17. Determination of oxygen, nitrogen, and silicon in Nigerian fossil fuels by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, M.A.; Oluwole, A.F.; Kehinde, L.O.; Borisade, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Classification, assessment, and utilization of coal and crude oil extracts are enhanced by analysis of their oxygen content. Values of oxygen obtained 'by difference' from chemical analysis have proved inaccurate. The oxygen, nitrogen, and silicon content of Nigerian coal samples, crude oils, bitumen extracts, and tar sand samples were measured directly using instrumental fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). The total oxygen in the coal ranges from 5.20% to 23.3%, in the oil and extracts from 0.14% to 1.08%, and in the tar sands from 38% to 47%. The nitrogen content in the coal ranges from 0.54% to 1.35%, in the crude oil and bitumen extracts from ≤ 0.014% to 0.490%, and in the tar sands from 0.082% to 0.611%. The silicon content in the coal ranges from 1.50% to 8.86%; in the oil and the bitumen extracts it is <1%, and in the tar sands between 25.1% and 37.5%. The results show that Nigerian coals are mostly sub-bituminous. However, one of the samples showed bituminous properties as evidenced by the dry ash-free (daf) percent of carbon obtained. This same sample indicated a higher ash content resulting in a comparatively high percentage of silicon. In oils and tar sands from various locations, a comparison of elements is made. (author)

  18. Nitrogen-Rich Polyacrylonitrile-Based Graphitic Carbons for Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Pollack

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic substrate, which is devoid of expensive noble metals and enzymes for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, reduction reactions can be obtained via nitrogen doping of graphite. Here, we report a facile fabrication method for obtaining such nitrogen doped graphitized carbon using polyacrylonitrile (PAN mats and its use in H2O2 sensing. A high degree of graphitization was obtained with a mechanical treatment of the PAN fibers embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNT prior to the pyrolysis step. The electrochemical testing showed a limit of detection (LOD 0.609 µM and sensitivity of 2.54 µA cm−2 mM−1. The promising sensing performance of the developed carbon electrodes can be attributed to the presence of high content of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogens in the pyrolytic carbons, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reported results suggest that, despite their simple fabrication, the hydrogen peroxide sensors developed from pyrolytic carbon nanofibers are comparable with their sophisticated nitrogen-doped graphene counterparts.

  19. Effects of Reduced and Oxidised Nitrogen on Rich-Fen Mosses: a 4-Year Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulissen, Maurice P.C.P.; Bobbink, Roland; Robat, Sandra A.; Verhoeven, Jos T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dutch fens, subjected to high nitrogen (N) deposition levels with reduced N (NHy) highly dominating over oxidised N (NOx), have since the second half of the past century seen a significant decline of Scorpidium and other characteristic brown moss species, while several Sphagnum species have

  20. Complex Boron Redistribution in P+ Doped-polysilicon / Nitrogen Doped Silicon Bi-layers during Activation Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadli, S.; Mansour, F.; Perrera, E. Bedel

    We have investigated and modeled the complex phenomenon of boron (B) redistribution process in strongly doped silicon bilayers structure. A one-dimensional two stream transfer model well adapted to the particular structure of bi- layers and to the effects of strong-concentrations has been developed. This model takes into account the instantaneous kinetics of B transfer, trapping, clustering and segregation during the thermal B activation annealing. The used silicon bi-layers have been obtained by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method, using in-situ nitrogen- doped-silicon (NiDoS) layer and strongly B doped polycrystalline-silicon (P+) layer. To avoid long redistributions, thermal annealing was carried out at relatively lowtemperatures (600 °C and 700 °C) for various times ranging between 30 minutes and 2 hours. The good adjustment of the simulated profiles with the experimental secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) profiles allowed a fundamental understanding about the instantaneous physical phenomena giving and disturbing the complex B redistribution profiles-shoulders kinetics.

  1. Effects of the duration and inorganic nitrogen composition of a nutrient-rich patch on soil exploration by the roots of Lolium perenne in a heterogeneous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryoji; Kachi, N; Suzuki, J-I

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the growth of and soil exploration by Lolium perenne under a heterogeneous environment before its roots reached a nutrient-rich patch. Temporal changes in the distribution of inorganic nitrogen, i.e., NO(3)(-)-N and NH(4)(+)-N, in the heterogeneous environment during the experimental period were also examined. The results showed that roots randomly explored soil, irrespective of the patchy distribution of inorganic nitrogen and differences in the chemical composition of inorganic nitrogen distribution between heterogeneous and homogeneous environments. We have also elucidated the potential effects of patch duration and inorganic nitrogen distribution on soil exploration by roots and thus on plant growth.

  2. Growth and Nitrogen Fixation in Silicon and/or Potassium Fed Chickpeas Grown under Drought and Well Watered Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz Kurdali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si and/or potassium (K on plant growth, nitrogen uptake and N2-fixation in water stressed (FC1 and well watered (FC2 chickpea plants using 15N and 13C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si50, Si100 and Si200 and one fertilizer rate of K were used. For most of the growth parameters, it was found that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of almost all studied parameters. The Si100K+ (FC1 and Si50K+ (FC2 treatments gave high enough amounts of N2-fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N2-fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leave’s dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si50K- and Si100K- is associated with lower Δ13C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE. Hence, Δ13C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be also considered an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that the synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.

  3. Nitrogen uptake by heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton in the nitrate-rich Thames estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.

    2000-01-01

    The uptake of ammonium, nitrate, amino acids and urea was examined in the nitrate-rich Thames estuary and adjacent area in the North Sea during February 1999. The majority of uptake was by heterotrophic bacteria, as demonstrated by addition of a prokaryotic inhibitor that lowered uptake rates by 82,

  4. Down-conversion luminescence from (Ce, Yb) co-doped oxygen-rich silicon oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, C. L.; Wang, T.; Su, W. Y.; Wu, H. C.; Yin, P. G.; Finstad, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied down-conversion photoluminescence (PL) from (Ce, Yb) co-doped “oxygen rich” silicon oxide films prepared by sputtering and annealing. The Ce"3"+ ∼510 nm PL is sensitive to the Ce concentration of the films and is much stronger for 3 at. % Ce than for 2 at. % Ce after annealing at 1200 °C. The PL emission and excitation spectroscopy results indicate that the excitation of Yb"3"+ is mainly through an energy transfer from Ce"3"+ to Yb"3"+, oxide defects also play a role in the excitation of Yb"3"+ after lower temperature (∼800 °C) annealing. The Ce"3"+ 510 nm photon excites mostly only one Yb"3"+ 980 nm photon. Temperature-dependent PL measurements suggest that the energy transfer from Ce"3"+ to Yb"3"+ is partly thermally activated.

  5. Nitrogen-rich higher-molecular soil organic compounds patterned by lignin degradation products: Considerations on the nature of soil organic nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebner, Falk; Bertoli, Luca; Pour, Georg; Klinger, Karl; Ragab, Tamer; Rosenau, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    and NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, 15N), respectively. The reactions of hydroquinone, methyl hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone with ammonia and dimethyl-ammonium dimethylcarbamate - a source of dimethyl amine - affording the respective (substituted) 2,5-diamino-[1,4]benzoquinones under aerobic conditions have been studied by EPR spectroscopy for both oxygen-free and oxygen-rich conditions. 15N CPMAS NMR and XPS spectra of ammoxidized technical lignins and of ammoxidized low-molecular polyphenolic and quinoid products of the aerobic, microbial lignin degradation using 15N labeled aqueous ammonium hydroxide share many similarities, highly indicative for reaction sequences proceeding via common key intermediates. It has been demonstrated that 2,5-dihydroxy-[1,4]benzoquinone which can be surprisingly formed from both lignin and cellulose reacts with N nucleophiles to the respective 2,5-amino derivatives. The latter are semi-stable and react further to nitrogenous compounds of higher molecular weight. Hydroquinone and methoxy hydroquinone react even faster affording the respective 2,5-diamino-[1,4]benzoquinones. EPR experiments revealed that the reaction of hydroquinone with dimethyl amine proceed via radical intermediates. The results of this study strongly support the polyphenol theory and is hoped to contribute to a better understanding of nitrogen accumulation in soil organic matter. Acknowledgement The financial support by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency FFG (project FLIPPR: Future Lignin and Pulp Processing Research, 836650) and by The Austrian Science Fund FWF (project I154-N19) is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Growth, Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Nitrogen Uptake in Silicon and/or Potassium Fed barley Grown under Two Watering Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Kurdali, Fawaz; Al-Chammaa, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The present pot experiment was an attempt to monitor the beneficial effects of silicon (Si) and/or potassium (K) applications on growth and nitrogen uptake in barley plants grown under water (FC1) and non water (FC2) stress conditions using 15N and 13C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si 50, Si 100 and Si 200) and one fertilizer rate of K were used. Dry matter (DM) and N yield (NY) in different plant parts of barley plants was affected by Si and/ or K fertilization as well as by the wa...

  7. First-principles studies of a photovoltaic material based on silicon heavily codoped with sulfur and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao; Wang, Yongyong; Song, Xiaohui; Yang, Feng

    2018-03-01

    In silicon co-hyperdoped with nitrogen and sulfur, dopant atoms tend to form dimers in the near-equilibrium process. The dimer that contains substitutional N and S atoms has the lowest formation energy and can form an impurity band that overlaps with the conduction band (CB). When separating the two atoms far apart from each other, the impurity band is clearly isolated from the CB and becomes an intermediate band (IB). The sub-band-gap absorption decreases with the decrease in the substitutional atom distance. The sub-band-gap absorption of the material is the combined effect of the configurations with different N-S distances.

  8. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  9. Electronic structure and fine structural features of the air-grown UNxOy on nitrogen-rich uranium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhong; Zeng, Rongguang; Hu, Yin; Liu, Jing; Wang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Yawen; Luo, Zhipeng; Bai, Bin; Wang, Xiaofang; Liu, Kezhao

    2018-06-01

    Oxide formation on surface of nitrogen-rich uranium nitride film/particles was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) coupled with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). XPS and AES studies indicated that the oxidized layer on UN2-x film is ternary compound uranium oxynitride (UNxOy) in 5-10 nm thickness. TEM/HAADF-STEM and EELS studies revealed the UNxOy crystallizes in the FCC CaF2-type structure with the lattice parameter close to the CaF2-type UN2-x matrix. The work can provide further information to the oxidation mechanism of uranium nitride.

  10. Synthesis and theoretical studies on nitrogen-rich salts of bis[4-nitraminofurazanyl-3-azoxy]azofurazan (ADNAAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunmei; Chu, Yuting; Xu, Liwen; Lei, Wu; Wang, Fengyun; Xia, Mingzhu

    2017-01-01

    Multi-furazan compounds bis[4-nitramino- furazanyl-3-azoxy]azofurazan (ADNAAF) and its derivatives were first synthesized by our research group, and their structures were characterized by IR, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR spectrums, and element analysis. ADNAAF was synthesized by nitration reaction of bis[4-aminofurazanyl-3-azoxy]azofurazan (ADAAF), and then reacted with ammonium hydroxide, hydrazine hydrate, and guanidine nitrate to obtain three salts marked as salt 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The thermal stabilities of the three salts were supported by the results of DSC analysis, which shows the decomposition temperatures are all above 190 °C. Their densities, enthalpies of formation, and detonation properties were studied by density functional theory (DFT) method. Salt 1 has the best detonation pressure (P), 37.42 GPa, and detonation velocity (D), 8.88 km/s, while salt 2 has the best nitrogen content and heat of detonation (Q), 1.27 kcal mol -1 . The detonation properties of salt 1 is similar to that of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazineane (RDX). It means that the ammonium cation can provide the better D and P than the cation of hydrazine and guanidine. The three cations offer the enthalpies of formations in the order of hydrazinium > guanidinium > ammonium. Graphical Abstract Nitrogen-rich salts of bis[4-nitraminofurazanyl-3-azoxy]azofurazan(ADNAAF).

  11. Processing Adipose-Rich Mohs Samples: A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Pretreatment With Liquid Nitrogen Versus Flash Freezing Spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reserva, Jeave; Kozel, Zachary; Krol, Cindy; Speiser, Jodi; Adams, William; Tung, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    Processing of adipose-rich Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) specimens poses challenges that may preclude complete margin evaluation. In this setting, the value of additional freezing methods using various cooling agents has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study is to compare the frozen section quality of high-adipose Mohs specimens processed without additional cooling treatments versus those pretreated with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (TFE) or liquid nitrogen (LN2). A set of 3 sections were each taken from 24 adipose-rich Mohs micrographic surgery specimens. A section from each set was subjected to either no additional cooling treatment (control), two 10-second pulse sprays of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, or three 2-second pulse sprays of LN2. After staining, 2 blinded raters evaluated slide quality based on the presence or absence of the following features: margin completeness, nuclear clearing, epidermal or adipose folding, holes, or venetian blind-like artifacts. Pretreatment of the sample with LN2 produced a significantly (P < 0.001) greater number of high-quality slides (19/24) compared to pretreatment with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (1/24) and no additional treatment (0/24). The adjunctive use of LN2 spray before tissue embedding circumvents the challenges of processing "thick" (high-adipose) specimens and facilitates the production of high-quality frozen section slides during Mohs micrographic surgery.

  12. Nitrogen and silicon fertilization of upland rice Adubação nitrogenada e silicatada do arroz de terras altas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Mauad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is not considered an essential element for plant development and growth, but its absorption brings several benefits to some crops, especially rice, by increasing cellular wall thickness, providing mechanical resistance to the penetration of fungi, improving the opening angle of leaves and making them more erect, decreasing self-shading and increasing resistance to lodging, especially under high nitrogen rates. To evaluate the effects of nitrogen and silicon fertilization on vegetative and yield components, plant height, and yield of rice cultivar IAC 202, an experiment was carried out combining three nitrogen rates (5, 75 and 150 mg N kg-1 soil applied as urea, and four silicon rates (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg SiO2 kg-1 soil applied as calcium silicate. Trial was set up in a completely randomized design 3 ´ 4 factorial scheme, (N = 5. Nitrogen fertilization increased the number of stems and panicles per square meter and the total number of spikelets, reflecting on grain productivity. Excessive tillering caused by inadequate nitrogen fertilization reduced the percentage of fertile stalks, spikelet fertility and grain mass. Silicon fertilization reduced the number of blank spikelets per panicles and increased grain mass, but did not affect grain productivity.O silício não é considerado um elemento essencial para o crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas, entretanto, sua absorção traz inúmeros benefícios, principalmente ao arroz, como aumento da espessura da parede celular, conferindo resistência mecânica a penetração de fungos, melhora o ângulo de abertura das folhas tornando-as mais eretas, diminuindo o auto-sombreamento e aumentando a resistência ao acamamento, especialmente sob altas doses de nitrogênio. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada e silicatada nos componentes vegetativos, nos componentes da produção, na altura da planta e na produtividade da cultivar de arroz IAC

  13. Growth, Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Nitrogen Uptake in Silicon and/or Potassium Fed barley Grown under Two Watering Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurdali, Fawaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present pot experiment was an attempt to monitor the beneficial effects of silicon (Si and/or potassium (K applications on growth and nitrogen uptake in barley plants grown under water (FC1 and non water (FC2 stress conditions using 15N and 13C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si50, Si100 and Si200 and one fertilizer rate of K were used. Dry matter (DM and N yield (NY in different plant parts of barley plants was affected by Si and/ or K fertilization as well as by the watering regime level under which the plants have been grown. Solely added K or in combination with adequate rate of Si (Si 100 were more effective in alleviating water stress and producing higher yield in barley plants than solely added Si. However, the latter nutrient was found to be more effective than the former in producing higher spike's N yield. Solely added Si or in combination with K significantly reduced leaves ∆13 C reflecting their bifacial effects on water use efficiency (WUE, particularly in plants grown under well watering regime. This result indicated that Si might be involved in saving water loss through reducing transpiration rate and facilitating water uptake; consequently, increasing WUE. Although the rising of soil humidity generally increased fertilizer nitrogen uptake (Ndff and its use efficiency (%NUE in barley plants, applications of K or Si fertilizers to water stressed plants resulted in significant increments of these parameters as compared with the control. Our results highlight that Si or K is not only involved in amelioration of growth of barley plants, but can also improve nitrogen uptake and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency particularly under water deficit conditions.

  14. Hydrophobic recovery of repeatedly plasma-treated silicone rubber .2. A comparison of the hydrophobic recovery in air, water, or liquid nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaert, EP; VanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1996-01-01

    Surfaces of medical grade silicone rubber (Q7-4750, Dow Coming) were modified by repeated (six times) RF plasma treatments using various discharge gases: oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. The treated samples were stored for a period of 3 months in ambient air, water, or liquid nitrogen.

  15. Nitrogen assimilation and short term retention in a nutrient-rich tidal freshwater marsh – a whole ecosystem 15N enrichment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gribsholt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An intact tidal freshwater marsh system (3477 m2 was labelled by adding 15N-ammonium as a tracer to the flood water inundating the ecosystem. The appearance and retention of 15N-label in different marsh components (leaves, roots, sediment, leaf litter and invertebrate fauna was followed over 15 days. This allowed us to elucidate the direct assimilation and dependence on creek-water nitrogen on a relatively short term and provided an unbiased assessment of the relative importance of the various compartments within the ecosystem. Two separate experiments were conducted, one in spring/early summer (May 2002 when plants were young and building up biomass; the other in late summer (September 2003 when macrophytes were in a flowering or early senescent state. Nitrogen assimilation rate (per hour inundated was >3 times faster in May compared to September. On both occasions, however, the results clearly revealed that the less conspicuous compartments such as leaf litter and ruderal vegetations are more important in nitrogen uptake and retention than the prominent reed (Phragmites australis meadows. Moreover, short-term nitrogen retention in these nutrient rich marshes occurs mainly via microbial pathways associated with the litter and sediment. Rather than direct uptake by macrophytes, it is the large reactive surface area provided by the tidal freshwater marsh vegetation that is most crucial for nitrogen transformation, assimilation and short term retention in nutrient rich tidal freshwater marshes. Our results clearly revealed the dominant role of microbes in initial nitrogen retention in marsh ecosystems.

  16. Pyrolysis of high-ash sewage sludge in a circulating fluidized bed reactor for production of liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wu; Jin, Baosheng; Huang, Yaji; Sun, Yu; Li, Rui; Jia, Jiqiang

    2013-01-01

    A circulating fluidized bed reactor was used for pyrolyzing sewage sludge with a high ash content to produce liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds. GC/MS and FTIR analyses showed that heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds and hydrocarbons made up 38.5-61.21% and 2.24-17.48% of the pyrolysis liquids, respectively. A fluidized gas velocity of 1.13 m/s, a sludge feed rate of 10.78 kg/h and a particle size of 1-2mm promoted heterocyclic nitrogenated compound production. Utilizing heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds as chemical feedstock could be a way for offsetting the cost of sewage sludge treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rich soil carbon and nitrogen but low atmospheric greenhouse gas fluxes from North Sulawesi mangrove swamps in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang C; Ulumuddin, Yaya I; Pramudji, Sastro; Chen, Shun Y; Chen, Bin; Ye, Yong; Ou, Dan Y; Ma, Zhi Y; Huang, Hao; Wang, Jing K

    2014-07-15

    The soil to atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 and their relationships with soil characteristics were investigated in three tropical oceanic mangrove swamps (Teremaal, Likupang and Kema) in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Mangrove soils in North Sulawesi were rich in organic carbon and nitrogen, but the greenhouse gas fluxes were low in these mangroves. The fluxes ranged -6.05-13.14 μmol m(-2)h(-1), -0.35-0.61 μmol m(-2)h(-1) and -1.34-3.88 mmol m(-2)h(-1) for N2O, CH4 and CO2, respectively. The differences in both N2O and CH4 fluxes among different mangrove swamps and among tidal positions in each mangrove swamp were insignificant. CO2 flux was influenced only by mangrove swamps and the value was higher in Kema mangrove. None of the measured soil parameters could explain the variation of CH4 fluxes among the sampling plots. N2O flux was negatively related to porewater salinity, while CO2 flux was negatively correlated with water content and organic carbon. This study suggested that the low gas emissions due to slow metabolisms would lead to the accumulations of organic matters in North Sulawesi mangrove swamps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of nitrogen rich poultry manure: Impact of thermophilic biogas process on metal release and microbial resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Reshma; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Krakat, Niclas

    2017-02-01

    Poultry manure is a nitrogen rich fertilizer, which is usually recycled and spread on agricultural fields. Due to its high nutrient content, chicken manure is considered to be one of the most valuable animal wastes as organic fertilizer. However, when chicken litter is applied in its native form, concerns are raised as such fertilizers also include high amounts of antibiotic resistant pathogenic Bacteria and heavy metals. We studied the impact of an anaerobic thermophilic digestion process on poultry manure. Particularly, microbial antibiotic resistance profiles, mobile genetic elements promoting the resistance dissemination in the environment as well as the presence of heavy metals were focused in this study. The initiated heat treatment fostered a community shift from pathogenic to less pathogenic bacterial groups. Phenotypic and molecular studies demonstrated a clear reduction of multiple resistant pathogens and self-transmissible plasmids in the heat treated manure. That treatment also induced a higher release of metals and macroelements. Especially, Zn and Cu exceeded toxic thresholds. Although the concentrations of a few metals reached toxic levels after the anaerobic thermophilic treatment, the quality of poultry manure as organic fertilizer may raise significantly due to the elimination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and self-transmissible plasmids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simple synthesis of nitrogen-rich polymer network and its further amination with PEI for CO2 adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fengqin; Zhuang, Linzhou; Luo, Xianyong; Chen, Shuixia

    2018-03-01

    The nitrogen-rich polymer network (MF/PAM) was synthesized through interpenetration between the molecular chains of melamine-formaldehyde resin(MF) and polyacrylamide (PAM), to which the polyethylene imine (PEI) was grafted to obtain solid amine adsorbent (MF/PAM-g-PEI). Compared with MF, the swelling capacity of MF/PAM was greatly enhanced, it could swell rapidly and directly in water. Although the interpenetration of PAM into MF may reduce the porosity of MF/PAM, the CO2 capture capacity of the solid amine adsorbents (MF/PAM-g-PEI) could still reach 2.8 mmol/g at 273 K. The adsorbents also exhibited promising adsorption kinetics and regeneration performances. The kinetics observation showed that the Avrami model could better descript the CO2 adsorption process compared with the pseudo-first-order model and pseudo-second-order model. Meanwhile, the Avrami kinetic orders (na) range from 1.21 to 1.56, displaying that the both physisorption and chemisorption exist in the adsorption process and the PEI have successfully grafted onto the polymer network, which also can be confirmed by the adsorption activation energy value. After 18 adsorption-desorption recycles, the MF/PAM-g-PEI could preserve its initial capacity without any decrease. Our work provides a new method to achieve promising solid amine adsorbents with higher adsorption capacity and better regeneration performance.

  20. Nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon-silicon core-shell structures for high-power supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tali, S A Safiabadi; Soleimani-Amiri, S; Sanaee, Z; Mohajerzadeh, S

    2017-02-10

    We report successful deposition of nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon films to realize high-power core-shell supercapacitor electrodes. A catalyst-free method is proposed to deposit large-area stable, highly conformal and highly conductive nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) films by means of a direct-current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (DC-PECVD). This approach exploits C 2 H 2 and N 2 gases as the sources of carbon and nitrogen constituents and can be applied to various micro and nanostructures. Although as-deposited a-C:N films have a porous surface, their porosity can be significantly improved through a modification process consisting of Ni-assisted annealing and etching steps. The electrochemical analyses demonstrated the superior performance of the modified a-C:N as a supercapacitor active material, where specific capacitance densities as high as 42 F/g and 8.5 mF/cm 2 (45 F/cm 3 ) on silicon microrod arrays were achieved. Furthermore, this supercapacitor electrode showed less than 6% degradation of capacitance over 5000 cycles of a galvanostatic charge-discharge test. It also exhibited a relatively high energy density of 2.3 × 10 3  Wh/m 3 (8.3 × 10 6  J/m 3 ) and ultra-high power density of 2.6 × 10 8  W/m 3 which is among the highest reported values.

  1. Nitrogen-doped Sb-rich Si–Sb–Te phase-change material for high-performance phase-change memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xilin; Wu, Liangcai; Song, Zhitang; Cheng, Yan; Rao, Feng; Ren, Kun; Song, Sannian; Liu, Bo; Feng, Songlin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen doping on the phase-change performance of Sb-rich Si–Sb–Te materials are systemically investigated, focusing on the chemical state and the role of nitrogen upon crystallization. The tendency of N atoms to bond with Si (SiN x ) in the crystalline film is analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The microstructures of the materials mixed with Sb 2 Te crystal grains and amorphous Si/SiN x regions are elucidated via in situ transmission electron microscopy, from which a percolation behavior is demonstrated to possibly describe the random crystallization feature in the nucleation-dominated nanocomposite material. The phase-change memory cells based on N-doped Sb-rich Si–Sb–Te materials display more stable and reliable electrical performance than the nitrogen-free ones. An endurance characteristic in the magnitude of 10 7 cycles of the phase-change memory cells is realized with moderate nitrogen addition, meaning that the nitrogen incorporation into Si–Sb–Te material is a suitable method to achieve high-performance phase-change memory for commercial applications

  2. Richness, biomass, and nutrient content of a wetland macrophyte community affect soil nitrogen cycling in a diversity-ecosystem functioning experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Alicia R.; Ahn, Changwoo; Noe, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The development of soil nitrogen (N) cycling in created wetlands promotes the maturation of multiple biogeochemical cycles necessary for ecosystem functioning. This development proceeds from gradual changes in soil physicochemical properties and influential characteristics of the plant community, such as competitive behavior, phenology, productivity, and nutrient composition. In the context of a 2-year diversity experiment in freshwater mesocosms (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 richness levels), we assessed the direct and indirect impacts of three plant community characteristics – species richness, total biomass, and tissue N concentration – on three processes in the soil N cycle – soil net ammonification, net nitrification, and denitrification potentials. Species richness had a positive effect on net ammonification potential (NAP) through higher redox potentials and likely faster microbial respiration. All NAP rates were negative, however, due to immobilization and high rates of ammonium removal. Net nitrification was inhibited at higher species richness without mediation from the measured soil properties. Higher species richness also inhibited denitrification potential through increased redox potential and decreased nitrification. Both lower biomass and/or higher tissue ratios of carbon to nitrogen, characteristics indicative of the two annual plants, were shown to have stimulatory effects on all three soil N processes. The two mediating physicochemical links between the young macrophyte community and microbial N processes were soil redox potential and temperature. Our results suggest that early-successional annual plant communities play an important role in the development of ecosystem N multifunctionality in newly created wetland soils.

  3. Explosive decomposition of a melamine-cyanuric acid supramolecular assembly for fabricating defect-rich nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with significantly promoted catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongkui; Dai, Yitao; Ge, Guifang; Wang, Guiru

    2015-05-26

    A facile and scalable approach for fabricating structural defect-rich nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (MCSA-CNTs) through explosive decomposition of melamine-cyanuric acid supramolecular assembly is presented. In comparison to pristine carbon nanotubes, MCSA-CNT exhibits significantly enhanced catalytic performance in oxidant- and steam-free direct dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene, demonstrating the potential for metal-free clean and energy-saving styrene production. This finding also opens a new horizon for preparing highly-efficient carbocatalysts rich in structural defect sites for diverse transformations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Leaf and soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability in a neotropical rain forest of nutrient-rich soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Martínez-Sánchez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen and phosphorus supply in a lowland rain forest with a nutrient-rich soil was investigated by means of the leaf N/P quotient. It was hypothesised a high N and P supply to the forest ecosystem with a N and P rich soil. Total N and extractable P were determined in the surface (10 cm soil of three plots of the forest. Total N was analysed by the Kjeldahl method, and P was extracted with HCl and NH4F. The leaf N/P quotient was evaluated from the senesced leaves of 11 dominant tree species from the mature forest. Samples of 5 g of freshly fallen leaves were collected from three trees of each species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid, and determined by photometry. Concentrations of total N (0.50%, n = 30 and extractable P (4.11 μg g-1, n = 30 in the soil were high. As expected, P supply was sufficient, but contrary to expected, N supply was low (N/P = 11.8, n = 11. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 357-361. Epub 2006 Jun 01.A través del cociente foliar N/P, se investigó la disponibilidad de nitrógeno y fósforo en una selva húmeda tropical con suelo fértil. Como hipótesis se esperaba encontrar una alta disponibilidad de N y P en el ecosistema debido a un suelo rico en N y P. Se determinó el N total y el P extraible en el suelo superficial (10 cm en tres sitios de la selva. El N total se analizó por el método Kjeldahl y el P por extracción con HCl y NH4F. El cociente foliar N/P se evaluó a partir de hojas seniles de 11 especies arbóreas dominantes de la selva madura. Se recolectaron muestras de 5 g de hojas recién caídas de tres árboles de cada especie. El nitrógeno se analizó por digestión microkjeldahl con ácido sulfúrico y destilación con ácido bórico, y el fósforo por digestión con ácido nítrico y ácido perclórico, y determinación con fotometría. Las concetraciones de N

  5. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 13 companies at 23 plants in 16 states during 2009. Sixty percent of all U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana. Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2009, U.S. producers operated at about 83 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies — Koch Nitrogen Co.; Terra Industries Inc.; CF Industries Inc.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 80 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity. U.S. production was estimated to be 7.7 Mt (8.5 million st) of nitrogen (N) content in 2009 compared with 7.85 Mt (8.65 million st) of N content in 2008. Apparent consumption was estimated to have decreased to 12.1 Mt (13.3 million st) of N, a 10-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  6. Long-term nitrogen addition leads to loss of species richness due to litter accumulation and soil acidification in a temperate steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ying; Xun, Fen; Bai, Wenming; Zhang, Wenhao; Li, Linghao

    2012-01-01

    Although community structure and species richness are known to respond to nitrogen fertilization dramatically, little is known about the mechanisms underlying specific species replacement and richness loss. In an experiment in semiarid temperate steppe of China, manipulative N addition with five treatments was conducted to evaluate the effect of N addition on the community structure and species richness. Species richness and biomass of community in each plot were investigated in a randomly selected quadrat. Root element, available and total phosphorus (AP, TP) in rhizospheric soil, and soil moisture, pH, AP, TP and inorganic N in the soil were measured. The relationship between species richness and the measured factors was analyzed using bivariate correlations and stepwise multiple linear regressions. The two dominant species, a shrub Artemisia frigida and a grass Stipa krylovii, responded differently to N addition such that the former was gradually replaced by the latter. S. krylovii and A. frigida had highly-branched fibrous and un-branched tap root systems, respectively. S. krylovii had higher height than A. frigida in both control and N added plots. These differences may contribute to the observed species replacement. In addition, the analysis on root element and AP contents in rhizospheric soil suggests that different calcium acquisition strategies, and phosphorus and sodium responses of the two species may account for the replacement. Species richness was significantly reduced along the five N addition levels. Our results revealed a significant relationship between species richness and soil pH, litter amount, soil moisture, AP concentration and inorganic N concentration. Our results indicate that litter accumulation and soil acidification accounted for 52.3% and 43.3% of the variation in species richness, respectively. These findings would advance our knowledge on the changes in species richness in semiarid temperate steppe of northern China under N

  7. Loss of the nodule-specific cysteine rich peptide, NCR169, abolishes symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the Medicago truncatula dnf7 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Beatrix; Domonkos, Ágota; Kereszt, Attila; Szűcs, Attila; Ábrahám, Edit; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Bóka, Károly; Chen, Yuhui; Chen, Rujin; Murray, Jeremy D; Udvardi, Michael K; Kondorosi, Éva; Kaló, Péter

    2015-12-08

    Host compatible rhizobia induce the formation of legume root nodules, symbiotic organs within which intracellular bacteria are present in plant-derived membrane compartments termed symbiosomes. In Medicago truncatula nodules, the Sinorhizobium microsymbionts undergo an irreversible differentiation process leading to the development of elongated polyploid noncultivable nitrogen fixing bacteroids that convert atmospheric dinitrogen into ammonia. This terminal differentiation is directed by the host plant and involves hundreds of nodule specific cysteine-rich peptides (NCRs). Except for certain in vitro activities of cationic peptides, the functional roles of individual NCR peptides in planta are not known. In this study, we demonstrate that the inability of M. truncatula dnf7 mutants to fix nitrogen is due to inactivation of a single NCR peptide, NCR169. In the absence of NCR169, bacterial differentiation was impaired and was associated with early senescence of the symbiotic cells. Introduction of the NCR169 gene into the dnf7-2/NCR169 deletion mutant restored symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Replacement of any of the cysteine residues in the NCR169 peptide with serine rendered it incapable of complementation, demonstrating an absolute requirement for all cysteines in planta. NCR169 was induced in the cell layers in which bacteroid elongation was most pronounced, and high expression persisted throughout the nitrogen-fixing nodule zone. Our results provide evidence for an essential role of NCR169 in the differentiation and persistence of nitrogen fixing bacteroids in M. truncatula.

  8. Catalytic upgrading nitrogen-riched wood syngas to liquid hydrocarbon mixture over Fe-Pd/ZSM-5 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiangu Yan; Fei Yu; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Biomass like wood chips, switchgrass and other plant residues are first converted to syngas through gasification process using air, oxygen or steam. A downdraft gasifier is performed for syngas production in Mississippi State. The syngas from the gasifier contains up to 49% (vol) N2. High-level nitrogen-containing (nitrogen can be up to 60%)...

  9. Co-implantation of carbon and nitrogen into silicon dioxide for synthesis of carbon nitride materials

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, M B; Nuesca, G; Moore, R

    2002-01-01

    Materials synthesis of carbon nitride has been attempted with co-implantation of carbon and nitrogen into thermally grown SiO sub 2. Following implantation of C and N ions to doses of 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 , thermal annealing of the implanted SiO sub 2 sample was conducted at 1000 degree sign C in an N sub 2 ambient. As evidenced in Fourier transform infrared measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, different bonding configurations between C and N, including C-N single bonds, C=N double bonds and C=N triple bonds, were found to develop in the SiO sub 2 film after annealing. Chemical composition profiles obtained with secondary ion mass spectroscopy were correlated with the depth information of the chemical shifts of N 1s core-level electrons, allowing us to examine the formation of C-N bonding for different atomic concentration ratios between N and C. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed no sign of the formation of crystalline C sub 3 N sub 4 precipitates in the SiO ...

  10. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sekhar C.; Pong, W.F.; Papakonstantinou, P.

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp"3 network to sp"2 as evidenced by an increase of the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp"3-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp"3 and sp"2 contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  11. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Sekhar C., E-mail: Raysc@unisa.ac.za [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, Science Campus, Christiaan de Wet and Pioneer Avenue, Florida Park, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pong, W.F. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Papakonstantinou, P. [Nanotechnology and Integrated Bio-Engineering Centre, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp{sup 3} network to sp{sup 2} as evidenced by an increase of the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp{sup 3}-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  12. Base cation depletion, eutrophication and acidification of species-rich grasslands in response to long-term simulated nitrogen deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horswill, Paul [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Alfred Denny Building, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: paul.horswill@naturalengland.org.uk; O' Sullivan, Odhran; Phoenix, Gareth K.; Lee, John A.; Leake, Jonathan R. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Alfred Denny Building, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    Pollutant nitrogen deposition effects on soil and foliar element concentrations were investigated in acidic and limestone grasslands, located in one of the most nitrogen and acid rain polluted regions of the UK, using plots treated for 8-10 years with 35-140 kg N ha{sup -2} y{sup -1} as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}. Historic data suggests both grasslands have acidified over the past 50 years. Nitrogen deposition treatments caused the grassland soils to lose 23-35% of their total available bases (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) and they became acidified by 0.2-0.4 pH units. Aluminium, iron and manganese were mobilised and taken up by limestone grassland forbs and were translocated down the acid grassland soil. Mineral nitrogen availability increased in both grasslands and many species showed foliar N enrichment. This study provides the first definitive evidence that nitrogen deposition depletes base cations from grassland soils. The resulting acidification, metal mobilisation and eutrophication are implicated in driving floristic changes. - Nitrogen deposition causes base cation depletion, acidification and eutrophication of semi-natural grassland soils.

  13. Step-flow anisotropy of the m-plane GaN (1100) grown under nitrogen-rich conditions by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, Marta; Siekacz, Marcin; Skierbiszewski, Czeslaw; Turski, Henryk; Krysko, Marcin; DziePcielewski, Igor; Grzegory, Izabella; Smalc-Koziorowska, Julita

    2011-01-01

    The homoepitaxial growth of m-plane (1100) GaN was investigated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions. The surface morphologies as a function of sample miscut were studied, providing evidence for a strong growth anisotropy that is a consequence of the anisotropy of Ga adatom diffusion barriers on the m-plane surface recently calculated ab initio[Lymperakis and Neugebauer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 241308(R) (2009)]. We found that substrate miscut toward [0001] implies a step flow toward while substrate miscut toward [0001] causes formation of atomic steps either perpendicular or parallel to the [0001] direction, under N-rich conditions at 730 deg C. We describe the growth conditions for achieving atomically flat m-plane GaN layers with parallel atomic steps.

  14. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with encapsulated silicon pixel detector and readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.; George, K.A.; Girone, M.; Gys, T.; Jolly, S.; Piedigrossi, D.; Riedler, P.; Rozema, P.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings report on the performance of the latest prototype pixel hybrid photon detector in preparation for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The prototype encapsulates a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary read-out chip with short (25 ns) peaking time and low ( - ) detection threshold. A brief description of the prototype is given, followed by the preliminary results of the characterisation of the prototype behaviour when tested using a low intensity pulsed light emitting diode. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained using previous prototypes. The proceedings conclude with a summary of the current status and future plans

  15. The influence of silicate and sulphate anions on the anodic corrosion and the transpassivity of iron and silicon-rich steel in concentrated KOH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čekerevac, Milan; Simičić, Miloš; Bujanović, Ljiljana Nikolić; Popović, Negica

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anodic behaviour of Fe and steel in 10 M KOH with sulphate and silicate is examined. ► X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of Fe 3 (Si 1.32 Fe 0.68 )O 5 (OH) 4 in anodic layer. ► X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of Ba(Fe, S)O 4 at anodic oxidation. - Abstract: The effect of sulphate and silicate addition in a 10 M KOH electrolyte on the anodic corrosion and transpassivity of iron and steel rich in silicon are explored by cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry. Formation of ferrate(VI) in the iron transpassivity region is noticed in all explored electrolytes. The electrochemical sulphato- and silico-ferrate(VI) formation is discussed as a possible result of Fe 3 III (Si 1.32 Fe 0.68 )O 5 (OH) 4 and [Fe(II) 4 Fe(III) 2 (OH) 12 ]SO 4 oxidation in the 10 M KOH electrolytes with silicate and sulphate, respectively. The presence of Fe 3 (Si 1.32 Fe 0.68 )O 5 (OH) 4 in the anodic layer of silicon steel and the crystal structure of electrochemically synthesised Ba(Fe, S)O 4 have been revealed by XRD.

  16. Mitigation effects of silicon rich amendments on heavy metal accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted on multi-metal contaminated acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hai-Hong; Qiu, Hao; Tian, Tian; Zhan, Shu-Shun; Deng, Teng-Hao-Bo; Chaney, Rufus L; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Tang, Ye-Tao; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2011-05-01

    The mechanisms of stabilization by silicon-rich amendments of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead in a multi-metal contaminated acidic soil and the mitigation of metal accumulation in rice were investigated in this study. The results from a pot experiment indicated that the application of fly ash (20 and 40gkg(-1)) and steel slag (3 and 6gkg(-1)) increased soil pH from 4.0 to 5.0-6.4, decreased the phytoavailability of heavy metals by at least 60%, and further suppressed metal uptake by rice. Diffusion gradient in thin-film measurement showed the heavy metal diffusion fluxes from soil to solution decreased by greater than 84% after remediation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the mobile metals were mainly deposited as their silicates, phosphates and hydroxides in amended treatments. Moreover, it was found metal translocation from stem to leaf was dramatically restrained by adding amendments, which might be due to the increase of silicon concentration and co-precipitation with heavy metals in stem. Finally, a field experiment showed the trace element concentrations in polished rice treated with amendments complied with the food safety standards of China. These results demonstrated fly ash and steel slag could be effective in mitigating heavy metal accumulation in rice grown on multi-metal contaminated acidic soils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a quantitative multi-compound method for the detection of 14 nitrogen-rich adulterants by LC-MS/MS in food materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Nancy; Bessaire, Thomas; Tarres, Adrienne; Goyon, Alexandre; Delatour, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    The increasing number of food frauds using exogenous nitrogen-rich adulterants to artificially raise the protein content for economically motivated adulteration has demonstrated the need for a robust analytical methodology. This method should be applicable for quality control in operations covering a wide range of analyte concentrations to be able to analyse high levels as usually found in adulteration, as well as low levels due to contamination. The paper describes a LC-MS/MS method covering 14 nitrogen-rich adulterants using a simple and fast sample preparation based on dilution and clean-up by dispersive SPE. Quantification is carried out by isotopic dilution reaching LOQs of 0.05-0.20 mg/kg in a broad range of food matrices (infant formula, liquid milk, dairy ingredient, high protein meal, cereal, infant cereal, and meat/fish powder). Validation of seven commodity groups was performed according to SANCO 12571/2013, giving satisfactory results demonstrating the method's fitness for purpose at the validated range at contamination level. Method ruggedness was further assessed by transferring the developed method into another laboratory devoted to routine testing for quality control. Next to the method description, emphasis is placed on challenges and problems appearing during method development as well as validation. They are discussed in detail and solutions are provided.

  18. Layer-by-layer composition and structure of silicon subjected to combined gallium and nitrogen ion implantation for the ion synthesis of gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, D. S.; Mikhaylov, A. N.; Belov, A. I.; Vasiliev, V. K.; Guseinov, D. V.; Okulich, E. V. [Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation); Shemukhin, A. A. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Surodin, S. I.; Nikolitchev, D. E.; Nezhdanov, A. V.; Pirogov, A. V.; Pavlov, D. A.; Tetelbaum, D. I., E-mail: tetelbaum@phys.unn.ru [Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The composition and structure of silicon surface layers subjected to combined gallium and nitrogen ion implantation with subsequent annealing have been studied by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, electron spin resonance, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. A slight redistribution of the implanted atoms before annealing and their substantial migration towards the surface during annealing depending on the sequence of implantations are observed. It is found that about 2% of atoms of the implanted layer are replaced with gallium bonded to nitrogen; however, it is impossible to detect the gallium-nitride phase. At the same time, gallium-enriched inclusions containing ∼25 at % of gallium are detected as candidates for the further synthesis of gallium-nitride inclusions.

  19. Multi-mode interference revealed by two photon absorption in silicon rich SiO2 waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, S.; Ramiro-Manzano, F.; Mancinelli, M.; Turri, F.; Pavesi, L.; Ghulinyan, M.; Pucker, G.

    2015-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) from Si nanocrystals (NCs) excited by two-photon absorption (TPA) has been observed in Si nanocrystal-based waveguides fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The TPA excited photoluminescence emission resembles the one-photon excited photoluminescence arising from inter-band transitions in the quantum confined Si nanocrystals. By measuring the non-linear transmission of waveguides, a large TPA coefficient of β up to 10 −8  cm/W has been measured at 1550 nm. These values of β depend on the Si NCs size and are two orders of magnitude larger than the bulk silicon value. Here, we propose to use the TPA excited visible PL emission as a tool to map the spatial intensity profile of the 1550 nm propagating optical modes in multimode waveguides. In this way, multimode interference has been revealed experimentally and confirmed through a finite element simulation

  20. Convenient and large-scale synthesis of nitrogen-rich hierarchical porous carbon spheres for supercapacitors and CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Binbin; Zhang, Shouren; Yin, Hang; Yang, Baocheng

    2017-08-01

    Herein, considering the great potential of nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbons in energy storage and CO2 capture, we designed a convenient and easily large-scale production strategy for preparing nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere (NHPCS) materials. In this synthesis route, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins were selected as carbon precursor, and then the ZnCl2-impregnated RF resin spheres were carbonized in a NH3 atmosphere at a temperature range of 600-800 °C. During the one-step heat-treatment process, nitrogen atom could be efficiently incorporated into the carbon skeleton, and the interconnected and hierarchical pore structure with different micro/mesopore proportion could be generated and tuned by adjusting the activating agent ZnCl2 dosage and carbonization temperature. The resultant nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere materials exhibited a satisfactory charge storage capacity, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-2-8 with a high mesopore proportion obtained at 800 °C with a ZnCl2/RF mass ratio of 2:1 presented a specific capacitance of 273.8 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. More importantly, the assembled NHPCS-2-8-based symmetric capacitor displayed a high energy density of 17.2 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 178.9 W kg-1 within a voltage window of 0 ∼ 1.8 V in 0.5 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. In addition, the CO2 capture application of these NHPCS materials was also explored, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-0-8 with a large micropore proportion prepared at 800 °C exhibited an exceptional CO2 uptake capacity at ambient pressures of up to 4.23 mmol g-1 at 0 °C.

  1. Mg doping of GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Meng; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Guo Wei; Banerjee, Animesh

    2010-01-01

    Acceptor doping of GaN with Mg during plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, under N-rich conditions and a relatively high growth temperature of 740 deg. C, was investigated. The p-doping level steadily increases with increasing Mg flux. The highest doping level achieved, determined from Hall measurements, is 2.1x10 18 cm -3 . The corresponding doping efficiency and hole mobility are ∼4.9% and 3.7 cm 2 /V s at room temperature. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements confirm good crystalline and optical quality of the Mg-doped layers. An InGaN/GaN quantum dot light emitting diode (λ peak =529 nm) with p-GaN contact layers grown under N-rich condition exhibits a low series resistance of 9.8 Ω.

  2. Modification of Light Emission in Si-Rich Silicon Nitride Films Versus Stoichiometry and Excitation Light Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchynska, T.; Khomenkova, L.; Slaoui, A.

    2018-04-01

    Si-rich SiN x films with different stoichiometry were grown on Si substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The Si content was varied by changing the NH3/SiH4 gas flow ratio from 0.45 up to 1.0. Conventional furnace annealing at 1100°C for 30 min was applied to produce the Si quantum dots (QDs) in the SiN x films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the SiN x films that allowed estimating the film's stoichiometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been also used to confirm the stoichiometry and microstructure. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Si-rich SiN x films are complex. A non-monotonous variation of the different PL peaks versus Si excess contents testifies to the competition of different radiative channels. The analysis of PL spectra, measured at the different excitation light energies and variable temperatures, has revealed that the PL bands with the peaks within the range 2.1-3.0 eV are related to the carrier recombination via radiative native defects in the SiN x host. Simultaneously, the PL bands with the peaks at 1.5-2.0 eV are caused by the exciton recombination in the Si QDs of different sizes. The way to control the SiN x emission is discussed.

  3. Convenient and large-scale synthesis of nitrogen-rich hierarchical porous carbon spheres for supercapacitors and CO_2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Binbin; Zhang, Shouren; Yin, Hang; Yang, Baocheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Convenient and large-scale synthesis route for N-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere. • The resultant own spherical morphology, tunable hierarchical porosity, high surface area. • The optimal material exhibits a high CO_2 capture capacity of 4.23 mmol g"−"1. • It shows a large voltage window of 1.8 V for symmetric cell in 0.5 M Na_2SO_4. - Abstract: Herein, considering the great potential of nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbons in energy storage and CO_2 capture, we designed a convenient and easily large-scale production strategy for preparing nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere (NHPCS) materials. In this synthesis route, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins were selected as carbon precursor, and then the ZnCl_2-impregnated RF resin spheres were carbonized in a NH_3 atmosphere at a temperature range of 600–800 °C. During the one-step heat-treatment process, nitrogen atom could be efficiently incorporated into the carbon skeleton, and the interconnected and hierarchical pore structure with different micro/mesopore proportion could be generated and tuned by adjusting the activating agent ZnCl_2 dosage and carbonization temperature. The resultant nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere materials exhibited a satisfactory charge storage capacity, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-2-8 with a high mesopore proportion obtained at 800 °C with a ZnCl_2/RF mass ratio of 2:1 presented a specific capacitance of 273.8 F g"−"1 at a current density of 0.5 A g"−"1. More importantly, the assembled NHPCS-2-8-based symmetric capacitor displayed a high energy density of 17.2 Wh kg"−"1 at a power density of 178.9 W kg"−"1 within a voltage window of 0 ∼ 1.8 V in 0.5 M Na_2SO_4 aqueous electrolyte. In addition, the CO_2 capture application of these NHPCS materials was also explored, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-0-8 with a large micropore proportion prepared at 800 °C exhibited an exceptional CO_2 uptake

  4. Biochar amendment for batch composting of nitrogen rich organic waste: Effect on degradation kinetics, composting physics and nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mayur Shirish; Jambhulkar, Rohit; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2018-04-01

    Composting is an efficient technology to reduce pathogenic bodies and stabilize the organic matter in organic wastes. This research work investigates an effect of biochar as amendment to improve the composting efficiency and its effect on degradation kinetics, physical and nutritional properties. Biochar (2.5, 5 and 10% (w/w)) were added into a mixture of Hydrilla verticillata, cow dung and sawdust having ratio of 8:1:1 (control), respectively. Biochar addition resulted in advanced thermophilic temperatures (59 °C) and could improve the physical properties of composting process. Owing to addition of 5% biochar as a bulking agent in composting mixture, the final product from composting, total nitrogen increased by 45% compared to the other trials, and air-filled porosity decreased by 39% and was found to be within recommended range from literature studies. Considering temperature, degradation rate and nitrogen transformation the amendment of 5% biochar is recommended for Hydrilla verticillata composting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitrogen-rich salts of 5,5‧-bistetrazole-1,1‧-diolate: Syntheses, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Gozin, Michael

    2018-03-01

    A series of new nitrogen-rich energetic salts containing 1H,1‧H-[5,5‧-bitetrazole]-1,1‧-diol (BTO) anion and ethane-1,2-diaminium (1), 1-amino-1H-1,2,3-triazol-3-ium (2), 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium (3) and 4,5-diamino-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium (4) cations were synthesized by direct salt formation or by metathesis strategy. The structures of energetic salts 1-4 were comprehensively characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, IR and NMR spectroscopies and by X-ray crystallography. DSC and TGA methods were used to study thermal properties of these salts. Additionally, the non-isothermal kinetic parameters and thermodynamic parameters were calculated by utilizing the Kissinger's and Ozawa-Doyle's methods. The enthalpies of formation for all target compounds in this study were calculated, and their sensitivity to mechanical impact and friction was tested according to BAM guidelines. We found these new energetic salts exhibit good thermal stability and have typical decomposition temperatures above 230 °C, except for the salt 2. All our salts have highly-positive enthalpies of formation (311.1-473.6 kJ mol-1) and are insensitive to impact and friction stimuli (>40 J, 120 N). With a high nitrogen-rich content, high enthalpy of formation, good thermostability and very low sensitivity to impact, some of these new salts may have a potential for application in the field of environmentally friendly insensitive energetic materials.

  6. Surface Modification of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via Hemoglobin-Derived Iron and Nitrogen-Rich Carbon Nanolayers for the Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The great challenge of boosting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR activity of non-noble-metal electrocatalysts is how to achieve effective exposure and full utilization of nitrogen-rich active sites. To realize the goals of high utilization of active sites and fast electron transport, here we report a new strategy for synthesis of an iron and nitrogen co-doped carbon nanolayers-wrapped multi-walled carbon nanotubes as ORR electrocatalyst (N-C@CNT-Fe via using partially carbonized hemoglobin as a single-source precursor. The onset and half-wave potentials for ORR of N-C@CNT-Fe are only 45 and 54 mV lower than those on a commercial Pt/C (20 wt.% Pt catalyst, respectively. Besides, this catalyst prepared in this work has been confirmed to follow a four-electron reaction mechanism in ORR process, and also displays ultra-high electrochemical cycling stability in both acidic and alkaline electrolytes. The enhancement of ORR activity can be not only attributed to full exposure and utilization of active site structures, but also can be resulted from the improvement of electrical conductivity owing to the introduction of CNT support. The analysis of X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy shows that both Fe–N and graphitic-N species may be the ORR active site structures of the prepared catalyst. Our study can provide a valuable idea for effective improvement of the electrocatalytic activity of non-noble-metal ORR catalysts.

  7. Nitrogen and oxygen co-doped carbon nanofibers with rich sub-nanoscale pores as self-supported electrode material of high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qun; Xie, Wenhe; Liu, Dequan; Wang, Qi; He, Deyan

    2016-01-01

    Self-supported porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) network has been prepared by electrospinning technology assisted with template method. The as-prepared material is rich in sub-nanoscale pores and nitrogen and oxygen functional groups, which can serve as a fast conductive network with abundant electrochemical active sites and greatly facilitates the transport of electrons and ions. When the porous CNFs network is used as an electrode for supercapacitor in a three electrode system, it displays a high capacitance of 233.1 F/g at 0.2 A/g, and a capacitance of 130.2 F/g even at 14 A/g. It maintains a capacitance of 154.0 F/g with 90.17% retention after 4000 cycles at 2 A/g. Moreover, the assembled symmetric supercapacitor not only exhibits excellent rate capability and cycle performance, but also delivers an energy density of 4.17 Wh/kg and a power density of 2500 W/kg. The experimental results demonstrate that the prepared N, O co-doped carbon nanofibers with rich sub-nanoscale pores are a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  8. Impacts of delayed addition of N-rich and acidic substrates on nitrogen loss and compost quality during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishao; Kang, Kang; Chen, Dan; Liu, Ningning

    2018-02-01

    Delayed addition of Nitrogen (N)-rich and acidic substrates was investigated to evaluate its effects on N loss and compost quality during the composting process. Three different delayed adding methods of N-rich (pig manure) and acidic substrates (phosphate fertilizer and rotten apples) were tested during the pig manure and wheat straw is composting. The results showed that delayed addition of pig manure and acidic materials led two temperature peaks, and the durations of two separate thermophilic phase were closely related to the amount of pig manure. Delayed addition reduced total N loss by up to 14% when using superphosphate as acidic substrates, and by up to 12% when using rotten apples as acidic substrates, which is mainly due to the decreased NH 3 emissions. At the end of composting, delayed the addition of pig manure caused a significant increase in the HS (humus substance) content, and the highest HS content was observed when 70% of the pig manure was applied at day 0 and the remaining 30% was applied on day 27. In the final compost, the GI in all treatments almost reached the maturity requirement by exceeding 80%. The results suggest that delayed addition of animal manure and acidic substrates could prevent the N loss during composting and improve the compost quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial distribution of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers in the littoral buffer zone of a nitrogen-rich lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Guibing; Ye, Lei; Feng, Xiaojuan; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Yin, Chengqing

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution and diversity of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers (AOA and AOB) were evaluated targeting amoA genes in the gradient of a littoral buffer zone which has been identified as a hot spot for N cycling. Here we found high spatial heterogeneity in the nitrification rate and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the five sampling sites. The bacterial amoA gene was numerically dominant in most of the surface soil but decreased dramatically in deep layers. Higher nitrification potentials were detected in two sites near the land/water interface at 4.4-6.1 microg NO(2-)-N/(g dry weight soil x hr), while only 1.0-1.7 microg NO(2-)-N/(g dry weight soil x hr) was measured at other sites. The potential nitrification rates were proportional to the amoA gene abundance for AOB, but with no significant correlation with AOA. The NH4+ concentration was the most determinative parameter for the abundance of AOB and potential nitrification rates in this study. Higher richness in the surface layer was found in the analysis of biodiversity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the bacterial amoA sequences in surface soil were affiliated with the genus of Nitrosopira while the archaeal sequences were almost equally affiliated with Candidatus 'Nitrososphaera gargensis' and Candidatus 'Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii'. The spatial distribution of AOA and AOB indicated that bacteria may play a more important role in nitrification in the littoral buffer zone of a N-rich lake.

  10. Protection against corrosion to high temperature by means of rich silicon coatings; Proteccion contra corrosion a alta temperatura por medio de recubrimientos ricos en silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcayo Calderon, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this research work the study of the process of corrosion by molten salts of sodium sulphate-vanadium pentoxide and its prevention by means of metallic coatings rich in silicon was contemplated. The research encompassed the development of the coating system, the chemical and thermochemical analysis of the system sodium sulphate - vanadium pentoxide, the evaluation of the resistance to the corrosion of the coating system by gravimetric and electrochemistry techniques, and the study of the stability of the coating system - substrate. [Spanish] En este trabajo de investigacion se contempla el estudio del proceso de corrosion por sales fundidas de sulfato de sodio - pentoxido de vanadio y su prevencion por medio de recubrimientos metalicos ricos en silicio. La investigacion abarca el desarrollo del sistema de recubrimientos, el analisis quimico y termoquimico del sistema sulfato de sodio - pentoxido de vanadio, la evaluacion de la resistencia a la corrosion del sistema de recubrimientos por tecnicas gravimetricas y electroquimicas, y el estudio de la estabilidad del sistema recubrimiento - sustrato.

  11. Multi-Composite Bioactive Osteogenic Sponges Featuring Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Platelet-Rich Plasma, Nanoporous Silicon Enclosures, and Peptide Amphiphiles for Rapid Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Fan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel bioactive sponge was created with a composite of type I collagen sponges or porous poly(e-caprolactone (PCL scaffolds, platelet-rich plasma (PRP, BMP2-loaded nanoporous silicon enclosure (NSE microparticles, mineralizing peptide amphiphiles (PA, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC. Primary MSC from cortical bone (CB  tissue proved to form more and larger colony units, as well as produce more mineral matrix under osteogenic differentiation, than MSC from bone marrow (BM. Coating pre-treatments were optimized for maximum cell adhesion and mineralization, while a PRP-based gel carrier was created to efficiently deliver and retain MSC and  microparticles within a porous scaffold while simultaneously promoting cell recruitment, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Components and composite sponges were evaluated for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Osteogenic sponges were loaded with MSC, PRP, PA, and NSE and implanted subcutaneously in rats to evaluate the formation of bone tissue and angiogenesis in vivo. It was found that the combination of a collagen sponge with CB MSC, PRP, PA, and the BMP2-releasing NSE formed the most bone and was most vascularized by four weeks compared to analogous composites featuring BM MSC or PCL or lacking PRP, PA, and NSE. This study indicates that CB MSC should be considered as an alternative to marrow as a source of stem cells, while the PRP-PA cell and microparticle delivery system may be utilized for diverse tissue engineering applications.

  12. Dry matter yield, carbon isotope discrimination and nitrogen uptake in silicon and/ or potassium fed chickpea and barley plants grown under water and non-water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd Ali, F.; Al-Chammaa, M.; Mouasess, A.

    2012-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si) and/or potassium (K) on dry matter yield, nitrogen uptake and carbon isotope discrimination Δ 13 C in water stressed (FC1) and well watered (FC2) chickpea plants using 15 N and 13 C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si 5 0, Si 1 00 and Si 2 00) and one fertilizer rate of K were used. The results showed that: In chickpeas, it was found, for most of the growth parameters, that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of most studied parameters. The Si 1 00K + (FC1) and Si 5 0K + (FC2) treatments gave high enough amounts of N 2 -fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N 2 -fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leaves dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si 5 0K - and Si 1 00K - ) is associated with lower Δ 13 C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE). Hence, Δ 13 C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be considered as an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.In barley plants, solely added K or in combination with adequate rate of Si (Si 1 00) were more effective in alleviating water stress and producing higher yield in barley plants than solely added Si. However, the latter nutrient was found to be more effective than the former in producing

  13. Influence of N-Oxide Introduction on the Stability of Nitrogen-Rich Heteroaromatic Rings: A Quantum Chemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jia; Long, Xinping; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2016-12-01

    N-Oxidization is an important strategy for enhancing the density and energy of energetic materials. Nevertheless, the influence of N + -O - introduction on molecular stability remains relatively unknown. Thus, the present work comprehensively studied 102 basic N-rich ring structures, including azoles, furazans, and azines, as well as their N-oxides by quantum chemical calculations. The introduction of N + -O - weakens molecular stability in most cases because the process elongates chemical bonds, decreases ring aromaticity, narrows the gaps between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and increases the photochemical reactivity. Besides, the easy H transfer to the neighboring O atom, which forms a N-OH isomer in azoles, renders the stabilization by N-oxide introduction ineffective. However, N-oxide introduction can enhance the molecular stability of 1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide and tetrazino-tetrazine 1,3,6,8-tetraoxide by promoting σ-π separation and relieving lone-pair repulsion. Moreover, the alternate arrangement of positive and negative charges is another factor stabilizing the 1,2,3,4-tetrazine ring by 1,3-dioxidation. Finally, we assess the accessibility of N-oxidized azoles and azines by regarding N 2 O and H 2 O 2 as oxidizers. We find that all the oxidations were exothermic, thermodynamically spontaneous, and kinetically feasible. After an overall evaluation, we propose 19 N-oxides as basic structures for high-energy materials with considerable stability.

  14. The effect of novel nitrogen-rich plasma polymer coatings on the phenotypic profile of notochordal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wertheimer Michael R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The loss of the notochordal cells from the nucleus pulposus is associated with ageing and disc degeneration. However, understanding the mechanisms responsible for the loss of these cells has been hampered in part due to the difficulty of culturing and maintaining their phenotype. Furthermore, little is known about the influence of the substratum on the molecular markers of notochordal cells. Methods Notochordal cells were isolated from lumbar spine of non-chondrodystrophoid dogs and cultured on N-rich plasma polymer layers, so-called "PPE:N" (N-doped plasma-polymerised ethylene, containing up to 36% [N] surfaces, for 3, 7 or 14 days. Gene expression of vimentin (VIM, pleiotrophin (PTN, matrix Gla protein (MGP, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP, keratin 18 (KRT 18, aggrecan (AGG, collagen type 1 (COL1A2, collagen type 2 (COL2A1 was analyzed through semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results Notochordal cells were maintained in culture on PPE:N for up to 14 days with no loss in cell viability. Except for VIM, gene expression varied depending on the culture periods and [N] concentration of the substratum. Generally, PPE:N surfaces altered gene expression significantly when cells were cultured for 3 or 7 days. Conclusion The present study has shown that notochordal cells from dogs can attach to and grow on PPE:N surfaces. Analysis of the expression of different genes in these cells cultured on different N-functionalized surfaces indicates that cellular behaviour is gene-specific and time-dependent. Further studies are required to better understand the roles of specific surface functionalities on receptor sites, and their effects on cellular phenotypes.

  15. One-step synthesis of 3D sulfur/nitrogen dual-doped graphene supported nano silicon as anode for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruihong; Li, Junli; Qi, Kaiyu; Ge, Xin; Zhang, Qiwei; Zhang, Bangwen

    2018-03-01

    Silicon is one of the most promising candidates for next-generation anode of Lithium-ion batteries. However, poor electrical conductivity and large volume change during alloying/dealloying hinder its practical use. Here we reported a three-dimensional (3D) nitrogen and sulfur codoped graphene supported silicon nanoparticles composite (SN-G/Si) through one-step hydrothermal self-assembly. The obtained SN-G/Si was investigated in term of instrumental characterizations and electrochemical properties. The results show that SN-G/Si as a freestanding anode in LIBs delivers a reversible capacity of 2020 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with coulombic efficiency of nearly 97%. The excellent electrochemical performance is associated with the unique structure and the synergistic effect of SN-G/Si, in which SN-G provides volume buffer for nano Si as the flexible loader, short paths/fast channels for electron/Li ion transport as porous skeleton, and low charge-transfer resistance.

  16. Synthesis of low-oxide blue luminescent alkyl-functionalized silicon nanoparticles with no nitrogen containing surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Jason A.; Ashby, Shane P.; Huld, Frederik; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Chao, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Of ever growing interest in the fields of physical chemistry and materials science, silicon nanoparticles show a great deal of potential. Methods for their synthesis are, however, often hazardous, expensive or otherwise impractical. In the literature, there is a safe, fast and cheap inverse micelle-based method for the production of alkyl-functionalized blue luminescent silicon nanoparticles, which nonetheless found limitations, due to undesirable Si-alkoxy and remaining Si–H functionalization. In the following work, these problems are addressed, whereby an optimisation of the reaction mechanism encourages more desirable capping, and the introduction of alcohol is replaced by the use of anhydrous copper (II) chloride. The resulting particles, when compared with their predecessors through a myriad of spectroscopic techniques, are shown to have greatly reduced levels of ‘undesirable’ capping, with a much lower surface oxide level; whilst also maintaining long-term air stability, strong photoluminescence and high yields

  17. Synthesis of low-oxide blue luminescent alkyl-functionalized silicon nanoparticles with no nitrogen containing surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jason A.; Ashby, Shane P.; Huld, Frederik [University of East Anglia, School of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Pennycook, Timothy J. [SuperSTEM Laboratory, STFC Daresbury Campus (United Kingdom); Chao, Yimin, E-mail: y.chao@uea.ac.uk [University of East Anglia, School of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    Of ever growing interest in the fields of physical chemistry and materials science, silicon nanoparticles show a great deal of potential. Methods for their synthesis are, however, often hazardous, expensive or otherwise impractical. In the literature, there is a safe, fast and cheap inverse micelle-based method for the production of alkyl-functionalized blue luminescent silicon nanoparticles, which nonetheless found limitations, due to undesirable Si-alkoxy and remaining Si–H functionalization. In the following work, these problems are addressed, whereby an optimisation of the reaction mechanism encourages more desirable capping, and the introduction of alcohol is replaced by the use of anhydrous copper (II) chloride. The resulting particles, when compared with their predecessors through a myriad of spectroscopic techniques, are shown to have greatly reduced levels of ‘undesirable’ capping, with a much lower surface oxide level; whilst also maintaining long-term air stability, strong photoluminescence and high yields.

  18. Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hänninen, Tuomas, E-mail: tuoha@ifm.liu.se; Schmidt, Susann; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse.

  19. Biochar application mode influences nitrogen leaching and NH3 volatilization losses in a rice paddy soil irrigated with N-rich wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijun; Min, Ju; Zhang, Hailin; Feng, Yanfang; Lu, Kouping; Shi, Weiming; Yu, Min; Li, Xuewen

    2017-07-11

    Impacts of biochar application mode on nitrogen (N) leaching, ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilization, rice grain yield and N use efficiency (NUE) are not well understood. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate those impacts in a rice paddy soil received 225 kg N ha -1 from either urea or N-rich wastewater. One treatment received 10 t ha -1 biochar with the basal fertilization, and the other received same total amount of biochar but split applied with the three split N applications with same ratio as N fertilizer split ratio (40%, 30% and 30%). Results showed that N leaching loads were 4.20-6.22 kg ha -1 . Biochar one-time application reduced N leaching by 23.1%, and biochar split application further reduced N leaching by 32.4%. Total NH 3 volatilization loss was 15.5-24.5 kg ha -1 . Biochar one-time application did not influence the NH 3 volatilization, but biochar split application stimulated the cumulative NH 3 volatilization by 57.7%. Both biochar treatments had no influence on NUE and rice grain yield. In conclusion, biochar application mode indeed influences the N leaching and NH 3 volatilization in rice paddy soils, and biochar one-time application should be recommended for reducing N leaching without increasing NH 3 volatilization.

  20. Nitrogen-rich functional groups carbon nanoparticles based fluorescent pH sensor with broad-range responding for environmental and live cells applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bingfang; Su, Yubin; Zhang, Liangliang; Liu, Rongjun; Huang, Mengjiao; Zhao, Shulin

    2016-08-15

    A nitrogen-rich functional groups carbon nanoparticles (N-CNs) based fluorescent pH sensor with a broad-range responding was prepared by one-pot hydrothermal treatment of melamine and triethanolamine. The as-prepared N-CNs exhibited excellent photoluminesence properties with an absolute quantum yield (QY) of 11.0%. Furthermore, the N-CNs possessed a broad-range pH response. The linear pH response range was 3.0 to 12.0, which is much wider than that of previously reported fluorescent pH sensors. The possible mechanism for the pH-sensitive response of the N-CNs was ascribed to photoinduced electron transfer (PET). Cell toxicity experiment showed that the as-prepared N-CNs exhibited low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility with the cell viabilities of more than 87%. The proposed N-CNs-based pH sensor was used for pH monitoring of environmental water samples, and pH fluorescence imaging of live T24 cells. The N-CNs is promising as a convenient and general fluorescent pH sensor for environmental monitoring and bioimaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Zinc Bioavailability from Phytate-Rich Foods and Zinc Supplements. Modeling the Effects of Food Components with Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Donor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-10-04

    Aqueous solubility of zinc phytate (K sp = (2.6 ± 0.2) × 10 -47 mol 7 /L 7 ), essential for zinc bioavailability from plant foods, was found to decrease with increasing temperature corresponding to ΔH dis of -301 ± 22 kJ/mol and ΔS dis of -1901 ± 72 J/(mol K). Binding of zinc to phytate was found to be exothermic for the stronger binding site and endothermic for the weaker binding site. The solubility of the slightly soluble zinc citrate and insoluble zinc phytate was found to be considerably enhanced by the food components with oxygen donor, nitrogen donor, and sulfur donor ligands. The driving force for the enhanced solubility is mainly due to the complex formation between zinc and the investigated food components rather than ligand exchange and ternary complex formation as revealed by quantum mechanical calculations and isothermal titration calorimetry. Histidine and citrate are promising ligands for improving zinc absorption from phytate-rich foods.

  2. Silicon heterojunction transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Oh-uchi, N.; Hayashi, H.; Yamoto, H.

    1979-01-01

    SIPOS (Semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon) which is used as a surface passivation layer for highly reliable silicon devices constitutes a good heterojunction for silicon. P- or B-doped SIPOS has been used as the emitter material of a heterojunction transistor with the base and collector of silicon. An npn SIPOS-Si heterojunction transistor showing 50 times the current gain of an npn silicon homojunction transistor has been realized by high-temperature treatments in nitrogen and low-temperature annealing in hydrogen or forming gas

  3. Photoluminescence and electrical properties of silicon oxide and silicon nitride superlattices containing silicon nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuleiko, D V; Ilin, A S

    2016-01-01

    Photoluminescence and electrical properties of superlattices with thin (1 to 5 nm) alternating silicon-rich silicon oxide or silicon-rich silicon nitride, and silicon oxide or silicon nitride layers containing silicon nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with subsequent annealing were investigated. The entirely silicon oxide based superlattices demonstrated photoluminescence peak shift due to quantum confinement effect. Electrical measurements showed the hysteresis effect in the vicinity of zero voltage due to structural features of the superlattices from SiOa 93 /Si 3 N 4 and SiN 0 . 8 /Si 3 N 4 layers. The entirely silicon nitride based samples demonstrated resistive switching effect, comprising an abrupt conductivity change at about 5 to 6 V with current-voltage characteristic hysteresis. The samples also demonstrated efficient photoluminescence with maximum at ∼1.4 eV, due to exiton recombination in silicon nanocrystals. (paper)

  4. Interactions and consequences of silicon, nitrogen, and Fusarium palustre on herbivory and DMSP levels of Spartina alterniflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Magalí; Elmer, Wade

    2017-11-01

    Sudden Vegetation Dieback (SVD) has been associated with multiple factors affecting the health of Spartina alterniflora. These include altered nutrition (N, Si and various metals), herbivory from the purple marsh crab, and the association with a fungal pathogen (Fusarium palustre). A metabolite produced by Spartina alterniflora that has been associated with plant health is dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), but little information exist on how these biotic stressors and nutrition interact to affect DMSP levels. Understanding how these factors might be interrelated might provide insight into the etiology of SVD. Surveys of a marsh affected by SVD confirmed lower levels of DMSP and higher concentrations of Si and other metals were present in Sp. alterniflora when compared to plants from marsh that exhibited no signs of SVD. In repeated greenhouse experiments, the application of Si to Sp. alterniflora had no effect on DMSP concentrations. However, when plants were inoculated with the pathogenic fungus, Fusarium palustre, and then treated with Si, DMSP levels were elevated 27%. Inoculation alone had no effect on DMSP levels. Si application neither favor growth nor suppress the stunting effect of disease by F. palustre. Furthermore, grazing by Sesarma reticulatum, a herbivorous crab, was not affected by Si nutrition. Grazing was increased by nitrogen fertilization and inoculation with F. palustre. Deciphering the role of Si nutrition in Sp. alterniflora and dieback remains unresolved, but no evidence suggests enhancing Si nutrition would directly favor marsh health.

  5. Threshold stoichiometry for beam induced nitrogen depletion of SiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmers, H.; Weijers, T.D.M.; Elliman, R.G.; Uribasterra, J.; Whitlow, H.J.; Sarwe, E.-L.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of the stoichiometry of silicon nitride films as a function of the number of incident ions using heavy ion elastic recoil detection (ERD) show that beam-induced nitrogen depletion depends on the projectile species, the beam energy, and the initial stoichiometry. A threshold stoichiometry exists in the range 1.3>N/Si≥1, below which the films are stable against nitrogen depletion. Above this threshold, depletion is essentially linear with incident fluence. The depletion rate correlates non-linearly with the electronic energy loss of the projectile ion in the film. Sufficiently long exposure of nitrogen-rich films renders the mechanism, which prevents depletion of nitrogen-poor films, ineffective. Compromising depth-resolution, nitrogen depletion from SiN films during ERD analysis can be reduced significantly by using projectile beams with low atomic numbers

  6. Nitrogen-Rich Energetic Metal-Organic Framework: Synthesis, Structure, Properties, and Thermal Behaviors of Pb(II Complex Based on N,N-Bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl-Amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangqiang Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of energetic materials is on searching for a high-energy, high-density, insensitive material. Previous investigations have shown that 3D energetic metal–organic frameworks (E-MOFs have great potential and advantages in this field. A nitrogen-rich E-MOF, Pb(bta·2H2O [N% = 31.98%, H2bta = N,N-Bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl-amine], was prepared through a one-step hydrothermal reaction in this study. Its crystal structure was determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complex has high heat denotation (16.142 kJ·cm−3, high density (3.250 g·cm−3, and good thermostability (Tdec = 614.9 K, 5 K·min−1. The detonation pressure and velocity obtained through theoretical calculations were 43.47 GPa and 8.963 km·s−1, respectively. The sensitivity test showed that the complex is an impact-insensitive material (IS > 40 J. The thermal decomposition process and kinetic parameters of the complex were also investigated through thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Non-isothermal kinetic parameters were calculated through the methods of Kissinger and Ozawa-Doyle. Results highlighted the nitrogen-rich MOF as a potential energetic material.

  7. Effect of nitrogen flow rate on structural, morphological and optical properties of In-rich In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films grown by plasma-assisted dual source reactive evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, M., E-mail: alizadeh_kozerash@yahoo.com [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ganesh, V.; Goh, B.T. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Dee, C.F.; Mohmad, A.R. [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, S.A., E-mail: saadah@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • In-rich In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N films were grown by Plasma-aided reactive evaporation. • Effect of nitrogen flow rate on the films properties was investigated. • The band gap of the films was varied from 1.17 to 0.90 eV. • By increasing N{sub 2} flow rate the In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N films tend to turn into amorphous state. • At higher N{sub 2} flow rate agglomeration of the particles is highly enhanced. - Abstract: In-rich In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films were deposited on quartz substrate at various nitrogen flow rates by plasma-assisted dual source reactive evaporation technique. The elemental composition, surface morphology, structural and optical properties of the films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectrophotometer and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. XPS results revealed that the indium composition (x) of the In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N films increases from 0.90 to 0.97 as the nitrogen flow rate is increased from 40 to 100 sccm, respectively. FESEM images of the surface and cross-sectional microstructure of the In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N films showed that by increasing the N{sub 2} flow rate, the grown particles are highly agglomerated. Raman and XRD results indicated that by increasing nitrogen flow rate the In-rich In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N films tend to turn into amorphous state. It was found that band gap energy of the films are in the range of 0.90–1.17 eV which is desirable for the application of full spectra solar cells.

  8. Landscape patterns of understory composition and richness across a moisture and nitrogen mineralization gradient in Ohio (U.S.A.) Quercus forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Hutchinson; Ralph E.J. Boerner; Louis R. Iverson; Steve Sutherland; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    1999-01-01

    This study quantified relationships of understory vascular plant species composition and richness along environmental gradients over a broad spatial scale in second-growth oak forests in eastern North America. Species frequencies were recorded in 108 25 x 25 m plots in four study sites extending over 70 km in southern Ohio, U.S.A. The plots were stratified into three...

  9. [Influence of an elevation of the temperature of water on the digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and energy of food distributed to the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Rich)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubert, G; Fauconneau, B; Luquet, P

    1982-01-01

    Rainbow trout adapted to a water temperature of 10 degrees C were subjected to an abrupt rise in temperature (from 10 to 18 degrees C) in a 24-h period. Fish maintained in recirculated water were fed to satiation twice a day and their feed intakes were recorded. Changes in dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility were measured each day at 10 degrees C and during the course of acclimatation to 18 degrees C. Low water temperature (10 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 1.84 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 62.15 p. 100, nitrogen 86.91 p. 100, energy 70.60 p. 100. High water temperature (18 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 3.75 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 66.08 p. 100, nitrogen 89.57 p. 100, energy 73.52 p. 100. The daily patterns in digestibility were affected by the rise in temperature. The digestibility values were stabilized by day 7 after the positive thermal shock.

  10. Nitrogen doping efficiency during vapor phase epitaxy of 4H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, L.B.; Brandt, C.D. [Northrop Grumman Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Burk, A.A. Jr. [Northrop Grumman Advanced Technology Lab., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1998-06-01

    This work examines the interrelationships among doping efficiency, mole fraction, and Si/C ratio for intentional doping of 4H-SiC during vapor phase epitaxy using N{sub 2}. For four Si/C ratios, the doping concentration increased linearly as a function of increasing N{sub 2} partial pressure with a slope of 1.0 {+-} 0.03. Variation of propane mole fraction while the SiH{sub 4} and N{sub 2} mole fractions were kept constant revealed two different modes of nitrogen incorporation, corresponding to carbon-rich and silicon-rich conditions. (orig.) 14 refs.

  11. Oxygen vacancy rich Cu2O based composite material with nitrogen doped carbon as matrix for photocatalytic H2 production and organic pollutant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lele; Xu, Xinxin; Yan, Jiaming; Shi, Fa-Nian; Huo, Yuqiu

    2018-02-06

    A nitrogen doped carbon matrix supported Cu 2 O composite material (Cu/Cu2O@NC) was fabricated successfully with a coordination polymer as precursor through calcination. In this composite material, Cu 2 O particles with a size of about 6-10 nm were dispersed evenly in the nitrogen doped carbon matrix. After calcination, some coordinated nitrogen atoms were doped in the lattice of Cu 2 O and replace oxygen atoms, thus generating a large number of oxygen vacancies. In Cu/Cu2O@NC, the existence of oxygen vacancies has been confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Under visible light irradiation, Cu/Cu2O@NC exhibits excellent H 2 production with the rate of 379.6 μmol h -1 g -1 . Its photocatalytic activity affects organic dyes, such as Rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO). In addition to photocatalysis, Cu/Cu2O@NC also exhibits striking catalytic activity in reductive conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol with in presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ). The conversion efficiency reaches almost 100% in 250 s with the quantity of Cu/Cu2O@NC as low as 5 mg. The outstanding H 2 production and organic pollutants removal are attributed to the oxygen vacancy. We expect that Cu/Cu2O@NC will find its way as a new resource for hydrogen energy as well as a promising material in water purification.

  12. Convenient and large-scale synthesis of nitrogen-rich hierarchical porous carbon spheres for supercapacitors and CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Binbin, E-mail: binbinchang@infm.hhstu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Nano-composite and Application, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Zhang, Shouren; Yin, Hang [Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Nano-composite and Application, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Yang, Baocheng, E-mail: baochengyang@yahoo.com [Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Nano-composite and Application, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Convenient and large-scale synthesis route for N-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere. • The resultant own spherical morphology, tunable hierarchical porosity, high surface area. • The optimal material exhibits a high CO{sub 2} capture capacity of 4.23 mmol g{sup −1}. • It shows a large voltage window of 1.8 V for symmetric cell in 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Herein, considering the great potential of nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbons in energy storage and CO{sub 2} capture, we designed a convenient and easily large-scale production strategy for preparing nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere (NHPCS) materials. In this synthesis route, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins were selected as carbon precursor, and then the ZnCl{sub 2}-impregnated RF resin spheres were carbonized in a NH{sub 3} atmosphere at a temperature range of 600–800 °C. During the one-step heat-treatment process, nitrogen atom could be efficiently incorporated into the carbon skeleton, and the interconnected and hierarchical pore structure with different micro/mesopore proportion could be generated and tuned by adjusting the activating agent ZnCl{sub 2} dosage and carbonization temperature. The resultant nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere materials exhibited a satisfactory charge storage capacity, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-2-8 with a high mesopore proportion obtained at 800 °C with a ZnCl{sub 2}/RF mass ratio of 2:1 presented a specific capacitance of 273.8 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}. More importantly, the assembled NHPCS-2-8-based symmetric capacitor displayed a high energy density of 17.2 Wh kg{sup −1} at a power density of 178.9 W kg{sup −1} within a voltage window of 0 ∼ 1.8 V in 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. In addition, the CO{sub 2} capture application of these NHPCS materials was also explored, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-0-8 with a large

  13. High Resolution Satellite Data reveals Massive Export of Carbon and Nitrogen-Rich Seagrass Wrack from Greater Florida Bay to the Open Ocean after Hurricane Irma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, H. M.; Hedley, J. D.; Russell, B. J.; Vaudrey, J. M.; Perry, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Episodic storms are known to be important drivers of ocean ecosystem processes, but the impacts are notoriously difficult to quantify with traditional sampling techniques. Here, we use stunning high spatial resolution satellite imagery from Sentinel 2A collected 13 September 2017, only days after Hurricane Irma passed directly over the Florida Keys, to quantify massive amounts of floating vegetative material. This Category 4 storm passed directly over the Florida Keys, bringing wind gusts over 35 m s-1 and creating turbulence in the water column that scoured the seafloor. The imagery reveals as initial estimate of 40 km2 of surface drifting material. Although the identity of the brown material cannot be fully determined without a hyperspectral sensor, the accumulations are consistent with our past research showing large aggregations of seagrass leaves or "wrack" advected under high winds from dense beds of Syringodium filiforme within Greater Florida Bay to the oceanic waters of the Atlantic. Using measurements of wrack collected from this area, we estimate that this single event corresponds to a total export of 9.7 x 1010 gC and 2.7 x 109 gN from the seagrass beds. This high amount of export is not considered typical for many types of tropical seagrass meadows that are thought to highly recycle nutrients within the beds. Elemental analysis of seagrass leaves from Greater Florida Bay is consistent with nitrogen-fixation in the beds, which could provide the means to sustain a large export of nitrogen from the meadows. As the wrack travels at the sea surface, some of these nutrients are exuded into the surrounding waters providing a nutrient subsidy of dissolved and particulate carbon and nitrogen and making the wrack an ecological hot spot for organisms. Although wrack can potentially remain floating for months, the ultimate fate of the wrack is to either wash ashore, providing connectivity between marine and terrestrial ecosystems, or sink to the seafloor. If most

  14. Use of by-products rich in carbon and nitrogen as a nutrient source to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner)-based bio pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valicente, Fernando H.; Mourao, Andre H.C.

    2008-01-01

    The amount and sources of carbon and nitrogen used to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner)-based biopesticide may influence the quality of the fi nal product. The objective of this research was to test different levels of carbon and nitrogen: medium 1 - 1.5% maize glucose + 0.5% soy fl our, medium 2 - 3.0% maize glucose + 1.0% soy flour, medium 3 - 1.0% maize glucose + 3.0% soy fl our and medium 4 - Luria Bertani (LB) + salts (FeSO 4 , ZnSO 4 , MnSO 4 , MgSO 4 ). The seed culture was produced in LB medium plus salt, under agitation (200 rpm) for 18h at 30 deg C. The strain 344 of Bt was used (B. thuringiensis var tolworthi - belonging to the EMBRAPA's Bt Bank). The pH was measured at regular intervals, and After culturing for 96h, the pH of the four tested media was basified (6.91 and 8.15), the number of spores yielded 4.39 x 10 9 spores/ml in medium 3, where the amount of protein is high. The dry biomass weight accumulated in media 3 was 39.3 g/l. Mortality of 2-day-old larvae Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) was 100% when using Bt produced in media 3 and 4. CL 50 for medium 3 was 8.4 x 10 6 spores/ml. All tested media were satisfactory to Bt growth, and medium 3 was the most promising to be used on a large scale Bt-based biopesticide production. (author)

  15. Use of by-products rich in carbon and nitrogen as a nutrient source to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner)-based bio pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicente, Fernando H. [EMBRAPA Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: valicent@cnpms.embrapa.br; Mourao, Andre H.C. [Curso de Meio Ambiente, Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    The amount and sources of carbon and nitrogen used to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner)-based biopesticide may influence the quality of the fi nal product. The objective of this research was to test different levels of carbon and nitrogen: medium 1 - 1.5% maize glucose + 0.5% soy fl our, medium 2 - 3.0% maize glucose + 1.0% soy flour, medium 3 - 1.0% maize glucose + 3.0% soy fl our and medium 4 - Luria Bertani (LB) + salts (FeSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4}, MnSO{sub 4}, MgSO{sub 4}). The seed culture was produced in LB medium plus salt, under agitation (200 rpm) for 18h at 30 deg C. The strain 344 of Bt was used (B. thuringiensis var tolworthi - belonging to the EMBRAPA's Bt Bank). The pH was measured at regular intervals, and After culturing for 96h, the pH of the four tested media was basified (6.91 and 8.15), the number of spores yielded 4.39 x 10{sup 9} spores/ml in medium 3, where the amount of protein is high. The dry biomass weight accumulated in media 3 was 39.3 g/l. Mortality of 2-day-old larvae Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) was 100% when using Bt produced in media 3 and 4. CL{sub 50} for medium 3 was 8.4 x 10{sup 6} spores/ml. All tested media were satisfactory to Bt growth, and medium 3 was the most promising to be used on a large scale Bt-based biopesticide production. (author)

  16. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  17. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of nitrogen-rich surface layers on AISI 304 stainless steel by rapid nitriding in a hollow cathode discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Yongyong; Zhang, Shangzhou; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yijie

    2018-01-01

    Nitriding treatments have been successfully applied to austenitic stainless steels to improve their hardness and tribological properties. However, at temperatures above 450 °C, conventional plasma nitriding processes decrease the corrosion resistance due to the formation of CrN phases within the modified layer. In this work, AISI 304 austenitic stainless steels were efficiently treated by rapid plasma nitriding at a high temperature of 530 °C in a hollow cathode discharge. The enhanced ionization obtained in the hollow cathode configuration provided a high current density and, consequently, a high temperature could be attained in a short time. The nitrided layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the dual-layer structure of the nitrided layer consists of a high-N face-centered cubic structure with a free CrN precipitate outer (top) layer and a nitrogen-expanded austenite S-phase bottom layer. The rapid nitriding-assisted hollow cathode discharge technique permits the use of high temperatures, as high as 530 °C, without promoting degradation in the corrosion resistance of stainless steel.

  18. Effects of feeding polyphenol-rich winery wastes on digestibility, nitrogen utilization, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and oxidative stress in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kyohei; Kishi, Yosuke; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2015-03-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the availability of two types of winery wastes, winery sediment and grape pomace, as ruminant feeds possessing antioxidant activities. Each wether was assigned to one of the following four treatments: (i) 75 g/kg winery sediment (WS) on a dry matter (DM) basis; (ii) 166 g/kg DM winery grape pomace (WP); (iii) control diet (CD; 17 g/kg DM soybean meal);and (iv) only tall fescue hay (TFH; no additive). Winery sediment and grape pomace had high levels of polyphenols and of radical scavenging activities. Feeding with winery sediment and grape pomace did not negatively affect the intake, but it depressed crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with CD (P = 0.052 and P winery wastes decreased ruminal ammonia production (P = 0.089 and P winery sediment and grape pomace decreased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG; an index of oxidative damages) excretion per day (P winery sediment and grape pomace could alter nitrogen metabolism and/or act as new antioxidants for ruminants. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Macroalgal blooms favor heterotrophic diazotrophic bacteria in nitrogen-rich and phosphorus-limited coastal surface waters in the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Song, Yanjing; Liu, Dongyan; Keesing, John K.; Gong, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Macroalgal blooms may lead to dramatic changes in physicochemical variables and biogeochemical cycling in affected waters. However, little is known about the effects of macroalgal blooms on marine bacteria, especially those functioning in nutrient cycles. We measured environmental factors and investigated bacterial diazotrophs in two niches, surface waters that were covered (CC) and non-covered (CF) with massive macroalgal canopies of Ulva prolifera, in the Yellow Sea in the summer of 2011 using real-time PCR and clone library analysis of nifH genes. We found that heterotrophic diazotrophs (Gammaproteobacteria) dominated the communities and were mostly represented by Vibrio-related phylotypes in both CC and CF. Desulfovibrio-related phylotypes were only detected in CC. There were significant differences in community composition in these two environments (p diazotrophic abundance and community composition and that vibrios and Desulfovibrio-related heterotrophic diazotrophs adapt well to the (N-rich but P-limited) environment during blooming. Potential ecological and microbiological mechanisms behind this scenario are discussed.

  20. LIGHT ECHOES FROM η CARINAE'S GREAT ERUPTION: SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC EVOLUTION AND THE RAPID FORMATION OF NITROGEN-RICH MOLECULES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, J. L.; Knapp, G. R.; Rest, A.; Walborn, N. R.; Bianco, F. B.; Matheson, T.; Smith, N.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Campillay, A.; Contreras, C.; González, C.; Morrell, N.; Phillips, M. M.; Chornock, R.; Paredes Álvarez, L.; James, D.; Smith, R. C.; Kunder, A.; Margheim, S.; Welch, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    We present follow-up optical imaging and spectroscopy of one of the light echoes of η Carinae's nineteenth century Great Eruption discovered by Rest et al. By obtaining images and spectra at the same light echo position between 2011 and 2014, we follow the evolution of the Great Eruption on a 3 yr timescale. We find remarkable changes in the photometric and spectroscopic evolution of the echo light. The i-band light curve shows a decline of ∼0.9 mag in ∼1 yr after the peak observed in early 2011 and a flattening at later times. The spectra show a pure-absorption early G-type stellar spectrum at peak, but a few months after peak the lines of the Ca II triplet develop strong P-Cygni profiles and we see the appearance of [Ca II] 7291, 7324 doublet in emission. These emission features and their evolution in time resemble those observed in the spectra of some Type IIn supernovae and supernova impostors. Most surprisingly, starting ∼300 days after peak brightness, the spectra show strong molecular transitions of CN at ≳ 6800 Å. The appearance of these CN features can be explained if the ejecta are strongly nitrogen enhanced, as is observed in modern spectroscopic studies of the bipolar Homunculus nebula. Given the spectroscopic evolution of the light echo, velocities of the main features, and detection of strong CN, we are likely seeing ejecta that contributes directly to the Homunculus nebula

  1. Selective carbon dioxide sorption by a new breathing three-dimensional Zn-MOF with Lewis basic nitrogen-rich channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Huh, Seong; Lee, Do Nam; Kim, Youngmee

    2018-04-03

    Lewis basic heteroatoms orderly located inside the well-defined channels of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are potentially ideal active sites for selective gas sorption and catalysis. To develop functional MOFs with Lewis basic sites inside channels, a new C2h-symmetric dicarboxylate-based bridging ligand, 3,3'-(pyrazine-2,5-diyl)dibenzoic acid (3,3'-PDBA), was prepared by a Suzuki coupling reaction. Subsequently, two new Zn-MOFs containing the C2h-symmetric 3,3'-PDBA bridging ligand and two different bis(pyridyl)-based pillars, 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (bpa) or 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (bpe), were prepared through a thermal reaction in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The resulting two Zn-MOFs of the general formula of three-dimensional (3D) [Zn2(μ4-3,3'-PDBA)2(μ2-bpa)]3·(DMF)5(H2O)13 (1) or 3D-like 2D [Zn2(μ4-3,3'-PDBA)2(μ2-bpe)]·(H2O) (2) displayed primitive cubic pcu net and 2D sql net, respectively. Both Zn-MOFs 1 and 2 contain uncoordinated Lewis basic pyrazinyl nitrogen atoms in the frameworks. The solvent-free 1 with flexible bpa linkers only showed a potential porosity of 15.9% by PLATON analysis. Zn-MOF 1 with openly accessible Lewis basic sites exhibited selective sorption of CO2 over N2, H2, and CH4 at low temperature. The adsorption and desorption isotherms for CO2 sorption at 196 K showed phenomenal hysteretic behaviour indicative of a breathing process through an adsorbate-discriminatory gate-opening process toward CO2 at a low gas pressure.

  2. Uncoupling of silicon compared with carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and the role of the cell cycle in continuous cultures of Thalassiosira pseudonana (Bacillariophyceae) under light, nitrogen and phosphorus control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claquin, P.; Martin-Jézéquel, V.R.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Veldhuis, M.; Kraay, G.W.

    2002-01-01

    The elemental composition and the cell cycle stages of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana Hasle and Heimdal were studied in continuous cultures over a range of different light- (E), nitrogen- (N), and phosphorus- (P) limited growth rates. In all growth conditions investigated, the decrease

  3. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Leroy, C; Glaser, M

    2002-01-01

    %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

  4. Biomass saccharification is largely enhanced by altering wall polymer features and reducing silicon accumulation in rice cultivars harvested from nitrogen fertilizer supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor; Sun, Dan; Li, Ying; Wang, Jing; Tu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yanting; Hu, Zhen; Zhou, Shiguang; Wang, Lingqiang; Xie, Guosheng; Huang, Jianliang; Alam, Aftab; Peng, Liangcai

    2017-11-01

    In this study, two rice cultivars were collected from experimental fields with seven nitrogen fertilizer treatments. All biomass samples contained significantly increased cellulose contents and reduced silica levels, with variable amounts of hemicellulose and lignin from different nitrogen treatments. Under chemical (NaOH, CaO, H 2 SO 4 ) and physical (hot water) pretreatments, biomass samples exhibited much enhanced hexoses yields from enzymatic hydrolysis, with high bioethanol production from yeast fermentation. Notably, both degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose and xylose/arabinose (Xyl/Ara) ratio of hemicellulose were reduced in biomass residues, whereas other wall polymer features (cellulose crystallinity and monolignol proportion) were variable. Integrative analysis indicated that cellulose DP, hemicellulosic Xyl/Ara and silica are the major factors that significantly affect cellulose crystallinity and biomass saccharification. Hence, this study has demonstrated that nitrogen fertilizer supply could largely enhance biomass saccharification in rice cultivars, mainly by reducing cellulose DP, hemicellulosic Xyl/Ara and silica in cell walls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and refractory metals in binary and ternary silicon-based films using ion beam methods; Caracterisation des elements: carbone, azote, oxygene et metal refractaire dans des depots binaires et ternaires a base de silicium par methodes d'analyse utilisant les faisceaux d'ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somatri-Bouamrane, R. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire]|[Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1996-12-19

    Ion beam methods (non Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reactions) have been carried out in order to characterize silicon-based films. The cross sections for the reactions {sup 12}C({alpha},{alpha}), {sup 14}N({alpha},{alpha}), {sup 16}O({alpha},{alpha}), {sup 28}Si({alpha},{alpha}) and {sup 14}N({alpha},p) have been measured within 2 and 7 MeV. CVD beta SiC films could be analyzed and the interface between silicon carbide and the (100) silicon substrate was studied. The epitaxial growth of the beta SiC film could be modelled by comparing the results obtained with ion beam analysis, infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Moreover, the stoichiometry of low pressure CVD Me-Si-N (Me=Re, W, Ti, Ta) ternary systems was studied. The evolution of the nitrogen content in W-Si-N systems allowed to study their stability with respect to the annealing conditions. (N.T.)

  6. Diamond deposition on siliconized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, F.; Reinoso, M.; Huck, H.; Rosenbusch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon diffusion layers in AISI 304 and AISI 316 type stainless steels were investigated as an alternative to surface barrier coatings for diamond film growth. Uniform 2 μm thick silicon rich interlayers were obtained by coating the surface of the steels with silicon and performing diffusion treatments at 800 deg. C. Adherent diamond films with low sp 2 carbon content were deposited on the diffused silicon layers by a modified hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Characterization of as-siliconized layers and diamond coatings was performed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Minimization of spin-lattice relaxation time with highly viscous solvents for acquisition of natural abundance nitrogen-15 and silicon-29 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bammel, B.P.; Evilia, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    The use of high viscosity solution conditions to decrease T 1 of 15 N and 29 Si nuclei so that natural abundance NMR spectra can be acquired in reasonable times is illustrated. Significant T 1 decreases with negligible increases in peak width are observed. No spectral shifts are observed in any of the cases studied. Highly viscous solutions are produced by using glycerol as a solvent for water-soluble molecules and a mixed solvent consisting of toluene saturated with polystyrene for organic-soluble molecules. The microviscosity in the latter solvent is found to be much less than the observed macroviscosity. Hydrogen bonding of glycerol to the NH 2 of 2-aminopyridine results in a greater than predicted decrease in T 1 for this nitrogen. The technique appears to be a useful alternative to paramagnetic relaxation reagents

  8. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  9. Nitrogen Control in VIM Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, P. D.; Hawk, J. A.

    NETL has developed a design and control philosophy for the addition of nitrogen to austenitic and ferritic steels. The design approach uses CALPHAD as the centerpiece to predict the level to which nitrogen is soluble in both the melt and the solid. Applications of this technique have revealed regions of "exclusion" in which the alloy, while within specification limits of prescribed, cannot be made by conventional melt processing. Furthermore, other investigations have found that substantial retrograde solubility of nitrogen exists, which can become problematic during subsequent melt processing and/or other finishing operations such as welding. Additionally, the CALPHAD method has been used to adjust primary melt conditions. To that end, nitrogen additions have been made using chrome nitride, silicon nitride, high-nitrogen ferrochrome as well as nitrogen gas. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach will be discussed and NETL experience in this area will be summarized with respect to steel structure.

  10. Density functional calculations of hypothetical neutral hollow octahedral molecules with a 48-atom framework: Hydrides and oxides of boron, carbon, nitrogen, aluminum, and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaViolette, Randall A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 (United States); Benson, Michael T. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 (United States)

    2000-06-01

    We computed via first-principles density functional theory calculations (employing both the local density and generalized gradient approximations) the dimensions, bond lengths and angles, binding energy, and HOMO-LUMO gap of the following hypothetical neutral hollow octahedral molecules: B{sub 48}H{sub 24}, C{sub 48}H{sub 48}, C{sub 96}H{sub 80} (formed by bonding two C{sub 48}H{sub 48} molecules), N{sub 48}H{sub 24}, Al{sub 48}H{sub 24}, and Si{sub 48}H{sub 48}; B{sub 24}O{sub 24}, C{sub 24}O{sub 24}, N{sub 24}O{sub 24}, Al{sub 24}O{sub 24}, and Si{sub 24}O{sub 24}. Each molecule consists of a large hollow framework of six puckered eight-membered rings whose planes are either mutually perpendicular or parallel, so that each molecule possesses only eight- and nine-membered rings. The hydrides have their hydrogen atoms attached only to the two-atom bridging sites on the framework. The oxides have their oxygen atoms occupying exclusively the two-atom bridging sites of the framework alternating with the (B, C, N, Al, Si) atoms exclusively occupying the three-atom bridging sites. We also calculated the infrared spectra of the C{sub 48}H{sub 48} and the C{sub 24}O{sub 24} molecules. For the sake of comparison, we also examined the hypothetical octahedral C{sub 48} fullerene cuboctohedron (possessing four-, six-, and eight-membered rings) studied by Dunlap and Taylor. The molecules based on carbon would be the most stable; those based on nitrogen would be the least stable, if at all. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Density functional calculations of hypothetical neutral hollow octahedral molecules with a 48-atom framework: Hydrides and oxides of boron, carbon, nitrogen, aluminum, and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaViolette, Randall A.; Benson, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    We computed via first-principles density functional theory calculations (employing both the local density and generalized gradient approximations) the dimensions, bond lengths and angles, binding energy, and HOMO-LUMO gap of the following hypothetical neutral hollow octahedral molecules: B 48 H 24 , C 48 H 48 , C 96 H 80 (formed by bonding two C 48 H 48 molecules), N 48 H 24 , Al 48 H 24 , and Si 48 H 48 ; B 24 O 24 , C 24 O 24 , N 24 O 24 , Al 24 O 24 , and Si 24 O 24 . Each molecule consists of a large hollow framework of six puckered eight-membered rings whose planes are either mutually perpendicular or parallel, so that each molecule possesses only eight- and nine-membered rings. The hydrides have their hydrogen atoms attached only to the two-atom bridging sites on the framework. The oxides have their oxygen atoms occupying exclusively the two-atom bridging sites of the framework alternating with the (B, C, N, Al, Si) atoms exclusively occupying the three-atom bridging sites. We also calculated the infrared spectra of the C 48 H 48 and the C 24 O 24 molecules. For the sake of comparison, we also examined the hypothetical octahedral C 48 fullerene cuboctohedron (possessing four-, six-, and eight-membered rings) studied by Dunlap and Taylor. The molecules based on carbon would be the most stable; those based on nitrogen would be the least stable, if at all. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  12. Forest fuel reduces the nitrogen load - calculations of nitrogen flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstroem, F.; Johansson, Jan.

    1995-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition in Sweden has increased strongly during recent decades, particularly in southern Sweden. Nitrogen appears to be largely accumulated in biomass and in the soil. It is therefore desirable to check the accumulation of nitrogen in the forest. The most suitable way of doing this is to remove more nitrogen-rich biomass from the forest, i.e., increase the removal of felling residues from final fellings and cleanings. An ecological condition for intensive removal of fuel is that the ashes are returned. The critical load for nitrogen, CL(N), indicates the level of nitrogen deposition that the forest can withstand without leading to ecological changes. Today, nitrogen deposition is higher than the CL(N) in almost all of Sweden. CL(N) is calculated in such a manner that nitrogen deposition should largely be balanced by nitrogen losses through harvesting during a forest rotation. The value of CL(N) thus largely depends on how much nitrogen is removed with the harvested biomass. When both stems and felling residues are harvested, the CL(N) is about three times higher than in conventional forestry. The increase is directly related to the amount of nitrogen in the removed biofuel. Use of biofuel also causes a certain amount of nitrogen emissions. From the environmental viewpoint there is no difference between the sources of the nitrogen compounds. An analysis of the entire fuel chain shows that, compared with the amount of nitrogen removed from the forest with the fuel, about 5 % will be emitted as nitrogen oxides or ammonia during combustion, and a further ca 5 % during handling and transports. A net amount of about 90 % of biomass nitrogen is removed from the system and becomes inert nitrogen (N 2 ). 60 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs, 11 appendices

  13. DEPOSITION AND PROPERTY CHARACTERISATION OF TaN COATINGS DEPOSITED WITH DIFFERENT NITROGEN CONTENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Bejarano Gaitán

    Full Text Available This study focused on the study of the influence of nitrogen content on the microstructure, chemical composition, mechanical and tribological properties of TaN coatings deposited on 420 stainless steel and silicon samples (100 using the magnetron sputtering technique. For the deposition of the TaN coatings an argon/nitrogen atmosphere was used, varying the nitrogen flux between 12% and 25%. For the coating characterization, scanning electron microscopy, energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy, a microhardness tester, and a ball on disc tribometer were used. A refining of the columnar structure of the coatings, accompanied by a decrease in their thickness with the increased nitrogen content was observed. Initially, fcc-TaN (111 cubic phase growth was observed; this phase was changed to the fcc-TaN (200 above N2 12%. For contents greater than N2 18%, another nitrogen-rich phase was formed and the system tended towards amorphicity, particularly for a coating with N2 25% content. The TaN-1sample deposited with N2 12% in the gas mixture presented the highest micro-hardness value with 21.3GPa and the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate with 0.02 and 1.82x10-7 (mm³/Nm, respectively. From the obtained results, an important relationship between the microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties of the coated samples and their nitrogen content was observed.

  14. Teores de silício no solo e na planta de arroz de terras altas com diferentes doses de adubação silicatada e nitrogenada Silicon contents in soil and in highland rice plants under different doses of silicon and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mauad

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O Si não é elemento essencial para o crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas, porém sua absorção pode trazer inúmeros benefícios para culturas acumuladoras de Si, como o arroz. Entretanto, considerando o avançado grau de intemperização em que se encontram os solos tropicais, os teores de Si disponível nestes solos são baixos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, na cultura do arroz de terras altas sob condições de túnel plástico, o efeito de doses de Si e de N na produção de matéria seca, na produtividade de grãos, no teor de N, nos teores de Si no solo e na planta e na quantidade de Si extraído do solo. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três doses de N (5, 75 e 150 mg kg-1 de N, tendo como fonte a uréia e quatro doses de Si (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg kg-1 de SiO2 tendo como fonte o silicato de cálcio (Wollastonita. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com cinco repetições. O acúmulo de matéria seca, a produtividade de grãos e os teores de N na planta não foram influenciados pelas doses de Si. O incremento da adubação nitrogenada aumentou a produção de matéria seca, a produtividade de grãos e o teor de N na planta, porém nenhum efeito foi encontrado para os teores de Si no solo. Houve interação N x Si para os teores de Si na planta e para a quantidade de Si acumulado pelas plantas.The element Silicon is not deemed essential for plant growth and development, but its absorption can benefit cumulative cultures like rice greatly. The Si content of tropical soils, however, is very low, due to the advanced weathering degree. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth of rice plants in highlands under plastic tunnels and the effects of nitrogen (N and Si doses on dry matter production, grain productivity, N content; Si soil and plant contents; and on the amount of extracted silicon. The treatments consisted of three doses of N (5, 75, and 150

  15. Nitrogen in rock: Occurrences and biogeochemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J.M.; Dahlgren, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of bedrock in global nitrogen cycling and potential for increased ecosystem sensitivity to human impacts in terrains with elevated background nitrogen concentrations. Nitrogen-bearing rocks are globally distributed and comprise a potentially large pool of nitrogen in nutrient cycling that is frequently neglected because of a lack of routine analytical methods for quantification. Nitrogen in rock originates as organically bound nitrogen associated with sediment, or in thermal waters representing a mixture of sedimentary, mantle, and meteoric sources of nitrogen. Rock nitrogen concentrations range from trace levels (>200 mg N kg -1) in granites to ecologically significant concentrations exceeding 1000 mg N kg -1 in some sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks. Nitrate deposits accumulated in arid and semi-arid regions are also a large potential pool. Nitrogen in rock has a potentially significant impact on localized nitrogen cycles. Elevated nitrogen concentrations in water and soil have been attributed to weathering of bedrock nitrogen. In some environments, nitrogen released from bedrock may contribute to nitrogen saturation of terrestrial ecosystems (more nitrogen available than required by biota). Nitrogen saturation results in leaching of nitrate to surface and groundwaters, and, where soils are formed from ammonium-rich bedrock, the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate may result in soil acidification, inhibiting revegetation in certain ecosystems. Collectively, studies presented in this article reveal that geologic nitrogen may be a large and reactive pool with potential for amplification of human impacts on nitrogen cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Strong Photoluminescence Enhancement of Silicon Oxycarbide through Defect Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Ford

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The following study focuses on the photoluminescence (PL enhancement of chemically synthesized silicon oxycarbide (SiCxOy thin films and nanowires through defect engineering via post-deposition passivation treatments. SiCxOy materials were deposited via thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD, and exhibit strong white light emission at room-temperature. Post-deposition passivation treatments were carried out using oxygen, nitrogen, and forming gas (FG, 5% H2, 95% N2 ambients, modifying the observed white light emission. The observed white luminescence was found to be inversely related to the carbonyl (C=O bond density present in the films. The peak-to-peak PL was enhanced ~18 and ~17 times for, respectively, the two SiCxOy matrices, oxygen-rich and carbon-rich SiCxOy, via post-deposition passivations. Through a combinational and systematic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and PL study, it was revealed that proper tailoring of the passivations reduces the carbonyl bond density by a factor of ~2.2, corresponding to a PL enhancement of ~50 times. Furthermore, the temperature-dependent and temperature-dependent time resolved PL (TDPL and TD-TRPL behaviors of the nitrogen and forming gas passivated SiCxOy thin films were investigated to acquire further insight into the ramifications of the passivation on the carbonyl/dangling bond density and PL yield.

  17. Preparation of aluminum nitride-silicon carbide nanocomposite powder by the nitridation of aluminum silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itatani, K.; Tsukamoto, R.; Delsing, A.C.A.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.; Okada, I.

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN)-silicon carbide (SiC) nanocomposite powders were prepared by the nitridation of aluminum-silicon carbide (Al4SiC4) with the specific surface area of 15.5 m2·g-1. The powders nitrided at and above 1400°C for 3 h contained the 2H-phases which consisted of AlN-rich and SiC-rich

  18. Structural behaviour of nitrogen in oxide ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    The solubility of nitrogen in molten oxides has significant consideration for two quite different types of engineering materials. The implication of a knowledge of the role of nitrogen in these oxides for refining high nitrogen steels in obvious but similar nitrogen-bearing oxide melts are of critical importance in the densification of silicon nitride ceramics. Present paper discusses structural behaviour and phase equilibria qualitatively in the light of knowledge available on slag structure through infrared and x-ray diffraction. Nitrogen solubility in glasses and related sialon based ceramics may be of paramount importance to understand the role of nitrogen in these materials as these oxides are similar in composition, structure and characteristics to sintering glasses in nitrogen ceramics. It is quite logical to infer that the same oxide model can be applied in order to massively produce nitrogen alloyed steels which are actively competing to be the materials of the next century. (author)

  19. Modification of silicon nitride and silicon carbide surfaces for food and biosensor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon-rich silicon nitride (SixN4, x > 3) is a robust insulating material widely used for the coating of microdevices: its high chemical and mechanical inertness make it a material of choice for the reinforcement of fragile microstructures (e.g. suspended microcantilevers, micro-fabricated

  20. Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1993-01-01

    Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

  1. Environmental effects on the tensile strength of chemically vapor deposited silicon carbide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Kraitchman, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The room temperature and elevated temperature tensile strengths of commercially available chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) silicon carbide fibers were measured after 15 min heat treatment to 1600 C in various environments. These environments included oxygen, air, argon and nitrogen at one atmosphere and vacuum at 10/9 atmosphere. Two types of fibers were examined which differed in the SiC content of their carbon-rich coatings. Threshold temperature for fiber strength degradation was observed to be dependent on the as-received fiber-flaw structure, on the environment and on the coating. Fractographic analyses and flexural strength measurements indicate that tensile strength losses were caused by surface degradation. Oxidation of the surface coating is suggested as one possible degradation mechanism. The SiC fibers containing the higher percentage of SiC near the surface of the carbon-rich coating show better strength retention and higher elevated temperature strength.

  2. Nitrogen concentration profiles in oxy-nitrited high-speed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcz, A.; Turos, A.; Wielunski, L.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear microanalysis has been applied for the determination of in-depth concentration profiles of nitrogen in oxy-nitrided high-speed steel. The concentration profiles were deduced from measurements of the nitrogen content, determined by means of the 14 N(d,α) 12 C reaction for the set of initially identical samples after the removal of surface layers of sequentially increasing thicknesses. The 1.2 MeV deuterons were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Research Van de Graaf accelerator LECH. The α-particles produced in the 14 N(d,α) 12 C reaction were detected by means of silicon surface barrier detector mounted at 150 deg C. Strong blocking of the nitrogen diffusion due to the presence of oxygen has been observed. The accuracy of nitrogen detection is of the order of 5% for nitrogen-rich regions and 10% for the matrix. However, the local non-uniformity of the steel may cause a spread of about 20% of the measured values. (T.G.)

  3. Ion beam studied of silicon oxynitride and silicon nitroxide thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oude Elferink, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    In this the processes occurring during high temperature treatments of silicon oxynitride and silicon oxide layers are described. Oxynitride layers with various atomic oxygen to nitrogen concentration ration (O/N) are considered. The high energy ion beam techniques Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection and nuclear reaction analysis have been used to study the layer structures. A detailed discussion of these ion beam techniques is given. Numerical methods used to obtain quantitative data on elemental compositions and depth profiles are described. The electrical compositions and depth profiles are described. The electrical properties of silicon nitride films are known to be influenced by the behaviour of hydrogen in the film during high temperature anneling. Investigations of the behaviour of hydrogen are presented. Oxidation of silicon (oxy)nitride films in O 2 /H 2 0/HCl and nitridation of silicon dioxide films in NH 3 are considered since oxynitrides are applied as an oxidation mask in the LOCOS (Local oxidation of silicon) process. The nitridation of silicon oxide layers in an ammonia ambient is considered. The initial stage and the dependence on the oxide thickness of nitrogen and hydrogen incorporation are discussed. Finally, oxidation of silicon oxynitride layers and of silicon oxide layers are compared. (author). 76 refs.; 48 figs.; 1 tab

  4. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  5. Release of low molecular weight silicones and platinum from silicone breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykissa, E D; Kala, S V; Hurley, J B; Lebovitz, R M

    1997-12-01

    We have conducted a series of studies addressing the chemical composition of silicone gels from breast implants as well as the diffusion of low molecular weight silicones (LM-silicones) and heavy metals from intact implants into various surrounding media, namely, lipid-rich medium (soy oil), aqueous tissue culture medium (modified Dulbecco's medium, DMEM), or an emulsion consisting of DMEM plus 10% soy oil. LM-silicones in both implants and surrounding media were detected and quantitated using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with atomic emission (GC-AED) as well as mass spectrometric (GC/MS) detectors, which can detect silicones in the nanogram range. Platinum, a catalyst used in the preparation of silicone gels, was detected and quantitated using inductive argon-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), which can detect platinum in the parts per trillion range. Our results indicate that GC-detectable low molecular weight silicones contribute approximately 1-2% to the total gel mass and consist predominantly of cyclic and linear poly-(dimethylsiloxanes) ranging from 3 to 20 siloxane [(CH3)2-Si-O] units (molecular weight 200-1500). Platinum can be detected in implant gels at levels of approximately 700 micrograms/kg by ICP-MS. The major component of implant gels appears to be high molecular weight silicone polymers (HM-silicones) too large to be detected by GC. However, these HM-silicones can be converted almost quantitatively (80% by mass) to LM-silicones by heating implant gels at 150-180 degrees C for several hours. We also studied the rates at which LM-silicones and platinum leak through the intact implant outer shell into the surrounding media under a variety of conditions. Leakage of silicones was greatest when the surrounding medium was lipid-rich, and up to 10 mg/day LM-silicones was observed to diffuse into a lipid-rich medium per 250 g of implant at 37 degrees C. This rate of leakage was maintained over a 7-day experimental period. Similarly, platinum was

  6. Silicon Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, Thaddeus D. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States); Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Silicon is a promising material candidate for qubits due to the combination of worldwide infrastructure in silicon microelectronics fabrication and the capability to drastically reduce decohering noise channels via chemical purification and isotopic enhancement. However, a variety of challenges in fabrication, control, and measurement leaves unclear the best strategy for fully realizing this material’s future potential. In this article, we survey three basic qubit types: those based on substitutional donors, on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures, and on Si/SiGe heterostructures. We also discuss the multiple schema used to define and control Si qubits, which may exploit the manipulation and detection of a single electron charge, the state of a single electron spin, or the collective states of multiple spins. Far from being comprehensive, this article provides a brief orientation to the rapidly evolving field of silicon qubit technology and is intended as an approachable entry point for a researcher new to this field.

  7. Research on the enhancement of biological nitrogen removal at low temperatures from ammonium-rich wastewater by the bio-electrocoagulation technology in lab-scale systems, pilot-scale systems and a full-scale industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Qian, Guangsheng; Ye, Linlin; Hu, Xiaomin; Yu, Xin; Lyu, Weijian

    2018-04-17

    In cold areas, nitrogen removal performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) declines greatly in winter. This paper systematically describes the enhancement effect of a periodic reverse electrocoagulation technology on biological nitrogen removal at low temperatures. The study showed that in the lab-scale systems, the electrocoagulation technology improved the biomass amount, enzyme activity and the amount of nitrogen removal bacteria (Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Paracoccus, Thauera and Enterobacter). This enhanced nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge at low temperatures. In the pilot-scale systems, the electrocoagulation technology increased the relative abundance of cold-adapted microorganisms (Luteimonas and Trueperaceae) at low temperatures. In a full-scale industrial WWTP, comparison of data from winter 2015 and winter 2016 showed that effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH 4 + -N, and NO 3 - -N reduced by 10.37, 3.84, and 136.43 t, respectively, throughout the winter, after installation of electrocoagulation devices. These results suggest that the electrocoagulation technology is able to improve the performance of activated sludge under low-temperature conditions. This technology provides a new way for upgrading of the performance of WWTPs in cold areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased carrier lifetimes in epitaxial silicon layers on buried silicon nitride produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorupa, W.; Kreissig, U.; Hensel, E.; Bartsch, H.

    1984-01-01

    Carrier lifetimes were measured in epitaxial silicon layers deposited on buried silicon nitride produced by high-dose nitrogen implantation at 330 keV. The values were in the range 20-200 μs. The results are remarkable taking into account the high density of crystal defects in the epitaxial layers. Comparing with other SOI technologies the measured lifetimes are higher by 1-2 orders of magnitude. (author)

  9. Influence of silicon on void nucleation in irradiated alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmailzadeh, B.; Kumar, A.; Garner, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The addition of silicon to pure nickel, Ni-Cr alloys and Fe-Ni-Cr alloys raises the diffusivity of each of the alloy components. The resultant increase in the effective vacancy diffusion coefficient causes large reductions in the nucleation rate of voids during irradiation. This extends the transient regime of swelling, which is controlled not only by the amount of silicon in solution but also by the precipitation kinetics of precipitates rich in nickel and silicon

  10. Fabrication of functional structures on thin silicon nitride membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkels, P.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Brugger, J.P.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A process to fabricate functional polysilicon structures above large (4×4 mm2) thin (200 nm), very flat LPCVD silicon rich nitride membranes was developed. Key features of this fabrication process are the use of low-stress LPCVD silicon nitride, sacrificial layer etching, and minimization of

  11. Corrosion of silicon nitride in high temperature alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Liyan, E-mail: liyan.qiu@cnl.ca; Guzonas, Dave A.; Qian, Jing

    2016-08-01

    The corrosion of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) in alkaline solutions was studied at temperatures from 60 to 300 °C. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} experienced significant corrosion above 100 °C. The release rates of silicon and nitrogen follow zero order reaction kinetics and increase with increasing temperature. The molar ratio of dissolved silicon and nitrogen species in the high temperature solutions is the same as that in the solid phase (congruent dissolution). The activation energy for silicon and nitrogen release rates is 75 kJ/mol which agrees well with that of silica dissolution. At 300 °C, the release of aluminum is observed and follows first order reaction kinetics while other minor constituents including Ti and Y are highly enriched on the corrosion films due to the low solubility of their oxides.

  12. Studies of the composition, tribology and wetting behavior of silicon nitride films formed by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zh.Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Wang, J.; Wen, F.; Leng, Y.X.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon nitride films were formed by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering of high purity Si targets in an Ar-N 2 mixture. The effects of N 2 fraction on the chemical composition, and tribological and wetting behaviors were investigated. The films deposited at a high N 2 fraction were consistently N-rich. The surface microstructure changed from continuous granular surrounded by tiny void regions to a homogeneous and dense microstructure, and densitied as the N 2 fraction is increased. The as-deposited films have a relatively low friction coefficient and better wear resistance than 316L stainless steel under dry sliding friction and experienced only abrasive wear. The decreased surface roughness and increased nitrogen incorporation in the film give rise to increased contact angle with double-stilled water from 24 deg. to 49.6 deg. To some extent, the silicon nitride films deposited are hydrophilic in nature

  13. Synthesis of Novel Reactive Disperse Silicon-Containing Dyes and Their Coloring Properties on Silicone Rubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel red and purple reactive disperse silicon-containing dyes were designed and synthesized using p-nitroaniline and 6-bromo-2,4-dinitro-aniline as diazonium components, the first condensation product of cyanuric chloride and 3-(N,N-diethylamino-aniline as coupling component, and 3-aminopropylmethoxydimethylsilane, 3-aminopropylmethyldimethoxysilane, and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane as silicone reactive agents. These dyes were characterized by UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, FT-IR, and MS. The obtained reactive disperse silicon-containing dyes were used to color silicone rubbers and the color fastness of the dyes were evaluated. The dry/wet rubbing and washing fastnesses of these dyes all reached 4–5 grade and the sublimation fastness was also above 4 grade, indicating outstanding performance in terms of color fastness. Such colored silicone rubbers showed bright and rich colors without affecting its static mechanical properties.

  14. Photo-Electrical Characterization of Silicon Micropillar Arrays with Radial p/n Junctions Containing Passivation and Anti-Reflection Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijselaar, Wouter; Elbersen, R.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-01-01

    In order to assess the contributions of anti-reflective and passivation effects in microstructured silicon-based solar light harvesting devices, thin layers of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicon-rich silicon nitride (SiNx), and indium tin oxide (ITO), with a thickness ranging

  15. Geochemistry of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Tiping; Li, Yanhe; Gao, Jianfei; Hu, Bin [Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mineral Resources; Jiang, Shaoyong [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China).

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth and silicon isotope geochemistry is important in identifying the silicon source for various geological bodies and in studying the behavior of silicon in different geological processes. This book starts with an introduction on the development of silicon isotope geochemistry. Various analytical methods are described and compared with each other in detail. The mechanisms of silicon isotope fractionation are discussed, and silicon isotope distributions in various extraterrestrial and terrestrial reservoirs are updated. Besides, the applications of silicon isotopes in several important fields are presented.

  16. Silicon photomultiplier as a detector of Cherenkov photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpar, S.; Dolenec, R.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Krizan, P.; Mazuka, Y.; Pestotnik, R.; Stanovnik, A.; Yamaoka, M.

    2008-01-01

    A novel photon detector-i.e. the silicon photomultiplier-whose main advantage over conventional photomultiplier tubes is the operation in high magnetic fields, has been tested as a photon detector in a proximity focusing RICH with aerogel radiator. This type of RICH counter is proposed for the upgrade of the Belle detector at the KEK B-factory. Recently produced silicon photomultipliers show less noise and have larger size, which are important issues for a large area photon detector. We measured the single photon pulse height distribution, the timing resolution and the position sensitivity for different silicon photomultipliers (Hamamatsu MPPC HC025, HC050, and HC100). The silicon photomultipliers were then used to detect Cherenkov photons emitted by cosmic ray particles in a proximity focusing aerogel RICH. Various light guides were investigated in order to increase the detection efficiency

  17. Forest fuel reduces the nitrogen load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, A.

    1993-03-01

    A study of the literature was made on the basis of the following hypothesis: ''If nitrogen-rich felling residues are removed from the forest, the nitrogen load on the forest ecosystem is decreased and the risk of nitrogen saturation also decreases''. The study was designed to provide information on how the nitrogen situation is influenced if felling residues are removed from nitrogen-loaded forests and used as fuel. Felling residues release very little nitrogen during the first years after felling. They can immobilize nitrogen from the surroundings, make up a considerable addition to the nitrogen store in the soil, but also release nitrogen in later stages of degradation. The slash has an influence on the soil climate and thus on soil processes. Often there is an increase in the mineralization of litter and humus below the felling residues. At the same time, nitrification is favoured, particularly if the slash is left in heaps. Felling residues contain easily soluble nutrients that stimulate the metabolization of organic matter that otherwise is rather resistant to degradation. The slash also inhibits the clear-cut vegetation and its uptake of nitrogen. These effects result in increased leaching of nitrogen and minerals if the felling residues are left on the site. (99 refs.)

  18. Electron and ion beam degradation effects in AES analysis of silicon nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransen, F.; Vanden Berghe, R.; Vlaeminck, R.; Hinoul, M.; Remmerie, J.; Maes, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Silicon nitride films are currently investigated by AES combined with ion profiling techniques for their stoichiometry and oxygen content. During this analysis, ion beam and primary electron effects were observed. The effect of argon ion bombardment is the preferential sputtering of nitrogen, forming 'covalent' silicon at the surface layer (AES peak at 91 eV). The electron beam irradiation results in a decrease of the covalent silicon peak, either by an electron beam annealing effect in the bulk of the silicon nitride film, or by an ionization enhanced surface diffusion process of the silicon (electromigration). By the electron beam annealing, nitrogen species are liberated in the bulk of the silicon nitride film and migrate towards the surface where they react with the covalent silicon. The ionization enhanced diffusion originates from local charging of the surface, induced by the electron beam. (author)

  19. Double stabilization of nanocrystalline silicon: a bonus from solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolyagin, Y. G.; Zakharov, V. N.; Yatsenko, A. V.; Paseshnichenko, K. A.; Savilov, S. V.; Aslanov, L. A., E-mail: aslanov.38@mail.ru [Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Double stabilization of the silicon nanocrystals was observed for the first time by {sup 29}Si and {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectroscopy. The role of solvent, 1,2-dimethoxyethane (glyme), in formation and stabilization of silicon nanocrystals as well as mechanism of modification of the surface of silicon nanocrystals by nitrogen-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) was studied in this research. It was shown that silicon nanocrystals were stabilized by the products of cleavage of the C–O bonds in ethers and similar compounds. The fact of stabilization of silicon nanoparticles with NHC ligands in glyme was experimentally detected. It was demonstrated that MAS NMR spectroscopy is rather informative for study of the surface of silicon nanoparticles but it needs very pure samples.

  20. The Effect of Polymer Char on Nitridation Kinetics of Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Rickmond C.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of polymer char on nitridation kinetics of attrition milled silicon powder have been investigated from 1200 to 1350 C. Results indicate that at and above 1250 C, the silicon compacts containing 3.5 wt percent polymer char were fully converted to Si3N4 after 24 hr exposure in nitrogen. In contrast, the silicon compacts without polymer char could not be fully converted to Si3N4 at 1350 C under similar exposure conditions. At 1250 and 1350 C, the silicon compacts with polymer char showed faster nitridation kinetics than those without the polymer char. As the polymer char content is increased, the amount of SiC in the nitrided material is also increased. By adding small amounts (approx. 2.5 wt percent) of NiO, the silicon compacts containing polymer char can be completely nitrided at 1200 C. The probable mechanism for the accelerated nitridation of silicon containing polymer char is discussed.

  1. Organic Nitrate Chemistry and Its Implications for Nitrogen Budgets in an Isoprene- and Monoterpene-Rich Atmosphere: Constraints From Aircraft (SEAC4RS) and Ground-Based (SOAS) Observations in the Southeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny; Jacob, D. J.; Travis, K. R.; Kim, P. S.; Marais, E. A.; Miller, C. Chan; Yu, K.; Zhu, L.; Yantosca, R. M.; Sulprizio, M. P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Formation of organic nitrates (RONO2) during oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs: isoprene, monoterpenes) is a significant loss pathway for atmospheric nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx), but the chemistry of RONO2 formation and degradation remains uncertain. Here we implement a new BVOC oxidation mechanism (including updated isoprene chemistry, new monoterpene chemistry, and particle uptake of RONO2) in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with approximately 25 times 25 km(exp 2) resolution over North America. We evaluate the model using aircraft (SEAC4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations of NOx, BVOCs, and RONO2 from the Southeast US in summer 2013. The updated simulation successfully reproduces the concentrations of individual gas- and particle-phase RONO2 species measured during the campaigns. Gas-phase isoprene nitrates account for 2550 of observed RONO2 in surface air, and we find that another 10 is contributed by gas-phase monoterpene nitrates. Observations in the free troposphere show an important contribution from long-lived nitrates derived from anthropogenic VOCs. During both campaigns, at least 10 of observed boundary layer RONO2 were in the particle phase. We find that aerosol uptake followed by hydrolysis to HNO3 accounts for 60 of simulated gas-phase RONO2 loss in the boundary layer. Other losses are 20 by photolysis to recycle NOx and 15 by dry deposition. RONO2 production accounts for 20 of the net regional NOx sink in the Southeast US in summer, limited by the spatial segregation between BVOC and NOx emissions. This segregation implies that RONO2 production will remain a minor sink for NOx in the Southeast US in the future even as NOx emissions continue to decline. XXXX We have used airborne and ground-based observations from two summer 2013 campaigns in the Southeast US (SEAC4RS, SOAS) to better understand the chemistry and impacts of alkyl and multi-functional organic nitrates (RONO2). We used the observations, along

  2. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  3. Excitation dependence of photoluminescence in silicon quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiaoming; Lap Van Dao; Hannaford, Peter; Cho, E-C; Cho, Young H; Green, Martin A

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the optical properties of silicon quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a silicon oxide matrix using photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL. A broad luminescence band is observed in the red region, in which the time evolution exhibits a stretched exponential decay. With increasing excitation intensity a significant saturation effect is observed. Direct electron-hole recombination is the dominant effect in the red band. A relatively narrow peak appears around 1.5 eV, which is attributed to the interface states overlapping with transition from the ground state of the silicon QDs. The saturation factor increases slowly with detection photon energy between 1.5 and 1.8 eV, which is attributed to the emission from zero-phonon electron-hole recombination. At higher photon energies the significantly increased saturation factor suggests a different emission mechanism, most likely the defect states from silicon, silicon oxide or silicon rich oxide

  4. Nitrogen solubility in the deep mantle and the origin of Earth's primordial nitrogen budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Takahiro; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Shcheka, Svyatoslav; Keppler, Hans

    2018-04-01

    The solubility of nitrogen in the major minerals of the Earth's transition zone and lower mantle (wadsleyite, ringwoodite, bridgmanite, and Ca-silicate perovskite) coexisting with a reduced, nitrogen-rich fluid phase was measured. Experiments were carried out in multi-anvil presses at 14 to 24 GPa and 1100 to 1800 °C close to the Fe-FeO buffer. Starting materials were enriched in 15N and the nitrogen concentrations in run products were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Observed nitrogen (15N) solubilities in wadsleyite and ringwoodite typically range from 10 to 250 μg/g and strongly increase with temperature. Nitrogen solubility in bridgmanite is about 20 μg/g, while Ca-silicate perovskite incorporates about 30 μg/g under comparable conditions. Partition coefficients of nitrogen derived from coexisting phases are DNwadsleyite/olivine = 5.1 ± 2.1, DNringwoodite/wadsleyite = 0.49 ± 0.29, and DNbridgmanite/ringwoodite = 0.24 (+ 0.30 / - 0.19). Nitrogen solubility in the solid, iron-rich metal phase coexisting with the silicates was also measured and reached a maximum of nearly 1 wt.% 15N at 23 GPa and 1400 °C. These data yield a partition coefficient of nitrogen between iron metal and bridgmanite of DNmetal/bridgmanite ∼ 98, implying that in a lower mantle containing about 1% of iron metal, about half of the nitrogen still resides in the silicates. The high nitrogen solubility in wadsleyite and ringwoodite may be responsible for the low nitrogen concentrations often observed in ultradeep diamonds from the transition zone. Overall, the solubility data suggest that the transition zone and the lower mantle have the capacity to store at least 33 times the mass of nitrogen presently residing in the atmosphere. By combining the nitrogen solubility data in minerals with data on nitrogen solubility in silicate melts, mineral/melt partition coefficients of nitrogen can be estimated, from which the behavior of nitrogen during magma ocean crystallization can

  5. Attenuation of Thermal Neutrons by Crystalline Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Ashry, A.; Fathalla, M.

    2002-01-01

    A simple formula is given which allows to calculate the contribution of the total neutron cross - section including the Bragg scattering from different (hkt) planes to the neutron * transmission through a solid crystalline silicon. The formula takes into account the silicon form of poly or mono crystals and its parameters. A computer program DSIC was developed to provide the required calculations. The calculated values of the total neutron cross-section of perfect silicon crystal at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures were compared with the experimental ones. The obtained agreement shows that the simple formula fits the experimental data with sufficient accuracy .A good agreement was also obtained between the calculated and measured values of polycrystalline silicon in the energy range from 5 eV to 500μ eV. The feasibility study on using a poly-crystalline silicon as a cold neutron filter and mono-crystalline as a thermal neutron one is given. The optimum crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature and cutting plane for efficiently transmitting the thermal reactor neutrons, while rejecting both fast neutrons and gamma rays accompanying the thermal ones for the mono crystalline silicon are also given

  6. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  7. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  8. Thermogravimetric analysis of silicon carbide-silicon nitride polycarbosilazane precursor during pyrolysis from ambient to 1000 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, F. E., III; Daniels, J. G.; Clemons, J. M.; Hundley, N. H.; Penn, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis data are presented on the unmeltable polycarbosilazane precursor of silicon carbide-silicon nitride fibers, over the room temperature-1000 C range in a nitrogen atmosphere, in order to establish the weight loss at various temperatures during the precursor's pyrolysis to the fiber material. The fibers obtained by this method are excellent candidates for use in applications where the oxidation of carbon fibers (above 400 C) renders them unsuitable.

  9. Bonding silicon nitride using glass-ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobedoe, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon nitride has been successfully bonded to itself using magnesium-aluminosilicate glass and glass-ceramic. For some samples, bonding was achieved using a diffusion bonder, but in other instances, following an initial degassing hold, higher temperatures were used in a nitrogen atmosphere with no applied load. For diffusion bonding, a small applied pressure at a temperature below which crystallisation occurs resulted in intimate contact. At slightly higher temperatures, the extent of the reaction at the interface and the microstructure of the glass-ceramic joint was highly sensitive to the bonding temperature. Bonding in a nitrogen atmosphere resulted in a solution-reprecipitation reaction. A thin layer of glass produced a ''dry'', glass-free joint, whilst a thicker layer resulted in a continuous glassy join across the interface. The chromium silicide impurities within the silicon nitride react with the nucleating agent in the glass ceramic, which may lead to difficulty in producing a fine glass-ceramic microstructure. Slightly lower temperatures in nitrogen resulted in a polycrystalline join but the interfacial contact was poor. It is hoped that one of the bonds produced may be developed to eventually form part of a graded joint between silicon nitride and a high temperature nickel alloy. (orig.)

  10. Silicon (100)/SiO2 by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Madaan, Nitesh; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-25

    Silicon (100) wafers are ubiquitous in microfabrication and, accordingly, their surface characteristics are important. Herein, we report the analysis of Si (100) via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using monochromatic Al K radiation. Survey scans show that the material is primarily silicon and oxygen, and the Si 2p region shows two peaks that correspond to elemental silicon and silicon dioxide. Using these peaks the thickness of the native oxide (SiO2) was estimated using the equation of Strohmeier.1 The oxygen peak is symmetric. The material shows small amounts of carbon, fluorine, and nitrogen contamination. These silicon wafers are used as the base material for subsequent growth of templated carbon nanotubes.

  11. The Role of Silicon under Biotic and Abiotic Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay YAVAŞ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stress factors can adversely affect the agricultural productivity leading to physiological and biochemical damage to crops. Therefore, the most effective way is to increase the resistance to stresses. Silicon plays a ro le in reducing the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses (drought, salt stress, disease and insect stress etc. on plants. Silicon is accumulated in the cell walls and intercellular spaces and thus it has beneficial effects on disease infestations in especially small grains. The application of silicon may reduce the effects of environmental stresses on plants while making effective use of plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Also, silicon may reduce the toxic effects of heavy metals in soil. I t may protect the foliage and increase light uptake and reduce respiration. Therefore, in this review, we discussed the effects of silicon on abiotic and biotic stresses in especially field crops.

  12. Research: Rags to Rags? Riches to Riches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    Everyone has read about what might be called the "gold gap"--how the rich in this country are getting richer and controlling an ever-larger share of the nation's wealth. The Century Foundation has started publishing "Reality Check", a series of guides to campaign issues that sometimes finds gaps in these types of cherished delusions. The guides…

  13. Biome-scale nitrogen fixation strategies selected by climatic constraints on nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffer, Efrat; Batterman, Sarah A; Levin, Simon A; Hedin, Lars O

    2015-11-23

    Dinitrogen fixation by plants (in symbiosis with root bacteria) is a major source of new nitrogen for land ecosystems(1). A long-standing puzzle(2) is that trees capable of nitrogen fixation are abundant in nitrogen-rich tropical forests, but absent or restricted to early successional stages in nitrogen-poor extra-tropical forests. This biome-scale pattern presents an evolutionary paradox(3), given that the physiological cost(4) of nitrogen fixation predicts the opposite pattern: fixers should be out-competed by non-fixers in nitrogen-rich conditions, but competitively superior in nitrogen-poor soils. Here we evaluate whether this paradox can be explained by the existence of different fixation strategies in tropical versus extra-tropical trees: facultative fixers (capable of downregulating fixation(5,6) by sanctioning mutualistic bacteria(7)) are common in the tropics, whereas obligate fixers (less able to downregulate fixation) dominate at higher latitudes. Using a game-theoretic approach, we assess the ecological and evolutionary conditions under which these fixation strategies emerge, and examine their dependence on climate-driven differences in the nitrogen cycle. We show that in the tropics, transient soil nitrogen deficits following disturbance and rapid tree growth favour a facultative strategy and the coexistence of fixers and non-fixers. In contrast, sustained nitrogen deficits following disturbance in extra-tropical forests favour an obligate fixation strategy, and cause fixers to be excluded in late successional stages. We conclude that biome-scale differences in the abundance of nitrogen fixers can be explained by the interaction between individual plant strategies and climatic constraints on the nitrogen cycle over evolutionary time.

  14. Ion beam induces nitridation of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petravic, M.; Williams, J.S.; Conway, M.

    1998-01-01

    High dose ion bombardment of silicon with reactive species, such as oxygen and nitrogen, has attracted considerable interest due to possible applications of beam-induced chemical compounds with silicon. For example, high energy oxygen bombardment of Si is now routinely used to form buried oxide layers for device purposes, the so called SIMOX structures. On the other hand, Si nitrides, formed by low energy ( 100 keV) nitrogen beam bombardment of Si, are attractive as oxidation barriers or gate insulators, primarily due to the low diffusivity of many species in Si nitrides. However, little data exists on silicon nitride formation during bombardment and its angle dependence, in particular for N 2 + bombardment in the 10 keV range, which is of interest for analytical techniques such as SIMS. In SIMS, low energy oxygen ions are more commonly used as bombarding species, as oxygen provides stable ion yields and enhances the positive secondary ion yield. Therefore, a large body of data can be found in the literature on oxide formation during low energy oxygen bombardment. Nitrogen bombardment of Si may cause similar effects to oxygen bombardment, as nitrogen and oxygen have similar masses and ranges in Si, show similar sputtering effects and both have the ability to form chemical compounds with Si. In this work we explore this possibility in some detail. We compare oxide and nitride formation during oxygen and nitrogen ion bombardment of Si under similar conditions. Despite the expected similar behaviour, some large differences in compound formation were found. These differences are explained in terms of different atomic diffusivities in oxides and nitrides, film structural differences and thermodynamic properties. (author)

  15. Shrinking of silicon nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous silicon oxide matrix during rapid thermal annealing in a forming gas atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sebille, M.; Fusi, A.; Xie, L.; Ali, H.; van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.; Leifer, K.; Zeman, M.

    2016-09-01

    We report the effect of hydrogen on the crystallization process of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon oxide matrix. We show that hydrogen gas during annealing leads to a lower sub-band gap absorption, indicating passivation of defects created during annealing. Samples annealed in pure nitrogen show expected trends according to crystallization theory. Samples annealed in forming gas, however, deviate from this trend. Their crystallinity decreases for increased annealing time. Furthermore, we observe a decrease in the mean nanocrystal size and the size distribution broadens, indicating that hydrogen causes a size reduction of the silicon nanocrystals.

  16. Enhanced light emission in photonic crystal nanocavities with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, Maria; Sih, Vanessa; Vuckovic, Jelena; Warga, Joe; Li Rui; Dal Negro, Luca

    2008-01-01

    Photonic crystal nanocavities are fabricated in silicon membranes covered by thermally annealed silicon-rich nitride films with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals. Silicon nitride films were deposited by sputtering on top of silicon on insulator wafers. The nanocavities were carefully designed in order to enhance emission from the nanocrystal sensitized Erbium at the 1540 nm wavelength. Experimentally measured quality factors of ∼6000 were found to be consistent theoretical predictions. The Purcell factor of 1.4 was estimated from the observed 20-fold enhancement of Erbium luminescence

  17. A novel microalgal system for energy production with nitrogen cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minowa, T.; Sawayama, S. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, could grow in the recovered solution from the low temperature catalytic gasification of itself, by which methane rich fuel gas was obtained. All nitrogen in the microalga was converted to ammonia during the gasification, and the recovered solution, in which ammonia was dissolved, could be used as nitrogen nutrient. The result of the energy evaluation indicated that the novel microalgal system for energy production with nitrogen cycling could be created. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Kings Today, Rich Tomorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattoum, Asma

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the King vs. Rich dilemma that founder-CEOs face at IPO. When undertaking IPO, founders face two options. They can either get rich, but then run the risk of losing the control over their firms; or they can remain kings by introducing defensive mechanisms, but this is likel...

  19. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.

    1996-01-01

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  20. Silicon: electrochemistry and luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst Stefan

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemistry of crystalline and porous silicon and the luminescence from porous silicon has been studied. One chapter deals with a model for the anodic dissolution of silicon in HF solution. In following chapters both the electrochemistry and various ways of generating visible

  1. Nonlinear Silicon Photonic Signal Processing Devices for Future Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Lacava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a review on silicon-based nonlinear devices for all optical nonlinear processing of complex telecommunication signals. We discuss some recent developments achieved by our research group, through extensive collaborations with academic partners across Europe, on optical signal processing using silicon-germanium and amorphous silicon based waveguides as well as novel materials such as silicon rich silicon nitride and tantalum pentoxide. We review the performance of four wave mixing wavelength conversion applied on complex signals such as Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM and 64-QAM that dramatically enhance the telecom signal spectral efficiency, paving the way to next generation terabit all-optical networks.

  2. Influence of Chemical Composition and Structure in Silicon Dielectric Materials on Passivation of Thin Crystalline Silicon on Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calnan, Sonya; Gabriel, Onno; Rothert, Inga; Werth, Matteo; Ring, Sven; Stannowski, Bernd; Schlatmann, Rutger

    2015-09-02

    In this study, various silicon dielectric films, namely, a-SiOx:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiOxNy:H, grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were evaluated for use as interlayers (ILs) between crystalline silicon and glass. Chemical bonding analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that high values of oxidant gases (CO2 and/or N2), added to SiH4 during PECVD, reduced the Si-H and N-H bond density in the silicon dielectrics. Various three layer stacks combining the silicon dielectric materials were designed to minimize optical losses between silicon and glass in rear side contacted heterojunction pn test cells. The PECVD grown silicon dielectrics retained their functionality despite being subjected to harsh subsequent processing such as crystallization of the silicon at 1414 °C or above. High values of short circuit current density (Jsc; without additional hydrogen passivation) required a high density of Si-H bonds and for the nitrogen containing films, additionally, a high N-H bond density. Concurrently high values of both Jsc and open circuit voltage Voc were only observed when [Si-H] was equal to or exceeded [N-H]. Generally, Voc correlated with a high density of [Si-H] bonds in the silicon dielectric; otherwise, additional hydrogen passivation using an active plasma process was required. The highest Voc ∼ 560 mV, for a silicon acceptor concentration of about 10(16) cm(-3), was observed for stacks where an a-SiOxNy:H film was adjacent to the silicon. Regardless of the cell absorber thickness, field effect passivation of the buried silicon surface by the silicon dielectric was mandatory for efficient collection of carriers generated from short wavelength light (in the vicinity of the glass-Si interface). However, additional hydrogen passivation was obligatory for an increased diffusion length of the photogenerated carriers and thus Jsc in solar cells with thicker absorbers.

  3. Modeling Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Richness Using Landscape Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S. Meixler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a rapid, repeatable, and inexpensive geographic information system (GIS approach to predict aquatic macroinvertebrate family richness using the landscape attributes stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and water quality. Stream segments in the Allegheny River basin were classified into eight habitat classes using these three landscape attributes. Biological databases linking macroinvertebrate families with habitat classes were developed using life habits, feeding guilds, and water quality preferences and tolerances for each family. The biological databases provided a link between fauna and habitat enabling estimation of family composition in each habitat class and hence richness predictions for each stream segment. No difference was detected between field collected and modeled predictions of macroinvertebrate families in a paired t-test. Further, predicted stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment classifications matched observed classifications much more often than by chance alone. High gradient streams with forested riparian zones and good water quality were predicted to have the greatest macroinvertebrate family richness and changes in water quality were predicted to have the greatest impact on richness. Our findings indicate that our model can provide meaningful landscape scale macroinvertebrate family richness predictions from widely available data for use in focusing conservation planning efforts.

  4. Sustainable development in an N-rich/n-poor world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrings, Charles; Kinzig, Ann; Halkos, George

    2014-11-01

    Sustainable development requires that per capita inclusive wealth-produced, human, and natural capital-does not decline over time. We investigate the impact of changes in nitrogen on inclusive wealth. There are two sides to the nitrogen problem. Excess use of nitrogen in some places gives rise to N-pollution, which can cause environmental damage. Insufficient replacement of nitrogen in other places gives rise to N-depletion, or loss of nutrient stocks. Neither is explicitly accounted for in current wealth measures, but both affect wealth. We calculate an index of net N-replacement, and investigate its relationship to wealth. In countries with low levels of relative N-loss, we find that the uncompensated loss of soil nitrogen in poorer countries is associated with declining rates of growth of inclusive per capita wealth. What is less intuitive is that increasing fertilizer application in both rich and poor countries can increase per capita inclusive wealth.

  5. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald

    1975-01-01

    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  6. Silicon Microspheres Photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpenguzel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Electrophotonic integrated circuits (EPICs), or alternatively, optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEICs) are the natural evolution of the microelectronic integrated circuit (IC) with the addition of photonic capabilities. Traditionally, the IC industry has been based on group IV silicon, whereas the photonics industry on group III-V semiconductors. However, silicon based photonic microdevices have been making strands in siliconizing photonics. Silicon microspheres with their high quality factor whispering gallery modes (WGMs), are ideal candidates for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications in the standard near-infrared communication bands. In this work, we will discuss the possibility of using silicon microspheres for photonics applications in the near-infrared

  7. Tightening the nitrogen cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, B.T.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of nitrogen to crop plants is a universally important aspect of soil quality, and often nitrogen represents the immediate limitation to crop productivity in modern agriculture. Nitrogen is decisive for the nutritive value of plant products and plays a key role in the environmental impact of agricultural production. The fundamental doctrine of nitrogen management is to optimise the nitrogen use efficiency of both introduced and native soil nitrogen by increasing the temporal a...

  8. Nitrogen fixation in denitrified marine waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Fernandez

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation is an essential process that biologically transforms atmospheric dinitrogen gas to ammonia, therefore compensating for nitrogen losses occurring via denitrification and anammox. Currently, inputs and losses of nitrogen to the ocean resulting from these processes are thought to be spatially separated: nitrogen fixation takes place primarily in open ocean environments (mainly through diazotrophic cyanobacteria, whereas nitrogen losses occur in oxygen-depleted intermediate waters and sediments (mostly via denitrifying and anammox bacteria. Here we report on rates of nitrogen fixation obtained during two oceanographic cruises in 2005 and 2007 in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP, a region characterized by the presence of coastal upwelling and a major permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. Our results show significant rates of nitrogen fixation in the water column; however, integrated rates from the surface down to 120 m varied by ∼30 fold between cruises (7.5±4.6 versus 190±82.3 µmol m(-2 d(-1. Moreover, rates were measured down to 400 m depth in 2007, indicating that the contribution to the integrated rates of the subsurface oxygen-deficient layer was ∼5 times higher (574±294 µmol m(-2 d(-1 than the oxic euphotic layer (48±68 µmol m(-2 d(-1. Concurrent molecular measurements detected the dinitrogenase reductase gene nifH in surface and subsurface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of the nifH sequences showed the presence of a diverse diazotrophic community at the time of the highest measured nitrogen fixation rates. Our results thus demonstrate the occurrence of nitrogen fixation in nutrient-rich coastal upwelling systems and, importantly, within the underlying OMZ. They also suggest that nitrogen fixation is a widespread process that can sporadically provide a supplementary source of fixed nitrogen in these regions.

  9. Nitrogen Fixation in Denitrified Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Camila; Farías, Laura; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation is an essential process that biologically transforms atmospheric dinitrogen gas to ammonia, therefore compensating for nitrogen losses occurring via denitrification and anammox. Currently, inputs and losses of nitrogen to the ocean resulting from these processes are thought to be spatially separated: nitrogen fixation takes place primarily in open ocean environments (mainly through diazotrophic cyanobacteria), whereas nitrogen losses occur in oxygen-depleted intermediate waters and sediments (mostly via denitrifying and anammox bacteria). Here we report on rates of nitrogen fixation obtained during two oceanographic cruises in 2005 and 2007 in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP), a region characterized by the presence of coastal upwelling and a major permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Our results show significant rates of nitrogen fixation in the water column; however, integrated rates from the surface down to 120 m varied by ∼30 fold between cruises (7.5±4.6 versus 190±82.3 µmol m−2 d−1). Moreover, rates were measured down to 400 m depth in 2007, indicating that the contribution to the integrated rates of the subsurface oxygen-deficient layer was ∼5 times higher (574±294 µmol m−2 d−1) than the oxic euphotic layer (48±68 µmol m−2 d−1). Concurrent molecular measurements detected the dinitrogenase reductase gene nifH in surface and subsurface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of the nifH sequences showed the presence of a diverse diazotrophic community at the time of the highest measured nitrogen fixation rates. Our results thus demonstrate the occurrence of nitrogen fixation in nutrient-rich coastal upwelling systems and, importantly, within the underlying OMZ. They also suggest that nitrogen fixation is a widespread process that can sporadically provide a supplementary source of fixed nitrogen in these regions. PMID:21687726

  10. High damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueju; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Wang, Haoran; Tao, Siyu; Yang, Avery; Liu, Yang; Beng Chew, Huck; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical degradation and resultant capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance rechargeable batteries. Despite tremendous efforts devoted to the study of the electro–chemo–mechanical behaviours of high-capacity electrode materials, their fracture properties and mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we report a nanomechanical study on the damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon. Our in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments reveal a striking contrast of brittle fracture in pristine silicon versus ductile tensile deformation in fully lithiated silicon. Quantitative fracture toughness measurements by nanoindentation show a rapid brittle-to-ductile transition of fracture as the lithium-to-silicon molar ratio is increased to above 1.5. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings of the brittle-to-ductile transition governed by atomic bonding and lithiation-induced toughening. Our results reveal the high damage tolerance in amorphous lithium-rich silicon alloys and have important implications for the development of durable rechargeable batteries. PMID:26400671

  11. Stable Protein-Repellent Zwitterionic Polymer Brushes Grafted from Silicon Nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, A.T.; Baggerman, J.; Paulusse, J.M.J.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2011-01-01

    Zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine acrylamide) (SBMAA) brushes were grafted from silicon-rich silicon nitride (SixN4, x > 3) surfaces by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and studied in protein adsorption experiments. To this aim ATRP initiators were immobilized onto SixN4 through stable

  12. Stable Protein-Repellent Zwitterionic Polymer Brushes Grafted from Silicon Nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Ai T.; Baggerman, Jacob; Paulusse, Jos Marie Johannes; van Rijn, Cees J.M.; Zuilhof, Han

    2011-01-01

    Zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine acrylamide) (SBMAA) brushes were grafted from silicon-rich silicon nitride (SixN4, x > 3) surfaces by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and studied in protein adsorption experiments. To this aim ATRP initiators were immobilized onto SixN4 through stable Si−C

  13. Bacterial nitrogen fixation in sand bioreactors treating winery wastewater with a high carbon to nitrogen ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, Pamela J; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Braun, Lorenz; Vikram, Surendra; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize

    2018-02-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria proliferate in organic-rich environments and systems containing sufficient essential nutrients. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the nutrients required in the highest concentrations. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen is an important consideration for wastewater bioremediation because insufficient nitrogen may result in decreased treatment efficiency. It has been shown that during the treatment of effluent from the pulp and paper industry, bacterial nitrogen fixation can supplement the nitrogen requirements of suspended growth systems. This study was conducted using physicochemical analyses and culture-dependent and -independent techniques to ascertain whether nitrogen-fixing bacteria were selected in biological sand filters used to treat synthetic winery wastewater with a high carbon to nitrogen ratio (193:1). The systems performed well, with the influent COD of 1351 mg/L being reduced by 84-89%. It was shown that the nitrogen fixing bacterial population was influenced by the presence of synthetic winery effluent in the surface layers of the biological sand filters, but not in the deeper layers. It was hypothesised that this was due to the greater availability of atmospheric nitrogen at the surface. The numbers of culture-able nitrogen-fixing bacteria, including presumptive Azotobacter spp. exhibited 1-2 log increases at the surface. The results of this study confirm that nitrogen fixation is an important mechanism to be considered during treatment of high carbon to nitrogen wastewater. If biological treatment systems can be operated to stimulate this phenomenon, it may obviate the need for nitrogen addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The silicon-silicon oxide multilayers utilization as intrinsic layer on pin solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colder, H.; Marie, P.; Gourbilleau, F.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanostructures are promising candidate for the intrinsic layer on pin solar cells. In this work we report on new material: silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO) deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering of a pure silica target and an interesting structure: multilayers consisting of a stack of SRSO and pure silicon oxide layers. Two thicknesses of the SRSO sublayer, t SRSO , are studied 3 nm and 5 nm whereas the thickness of silica sublayer is maintaining at 3 nm. The presence of nanocrystallites of silicon, evidenced by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), leads to photoluminescence (PL) emission at room temperature due to the quantum confinement of the carriers. The PL peak shifts from 1.3 eV to 1.5 eV is correlated to the decreasing of t SRSO from 5 nm down to 3 nm. In the purpose of their potential utilization for i-layer, the optical properties are studied by absorption spectroscopy. The achievement a such structures at promising absorption properties. Moreover by favouring the carriers injection by the tunnel effect between silicon nanograins and silica sublayers, the multilayers seem to be interesting for solar cells

  15. Compressive creep of silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.R.M. da; Melo, F.C.L. de; Cairo, C.A.; Piorino Neto, F.

    1990-01-01

    Silicon nitride samples were formed by pressureless sintering process, using neodymium oxide and a mixture of neodymium oxide and yttrio oxide as sintering aids. The short term compressive creep behaviour was evaluated over a stress range of 50-300 MPa and temperature range 1200 - 1350 0 C. Post-sintering heat treatments in nitrogen with a stepwise decremental variation of temperature were performed in some samples and microstructural analysis by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the secondary crystalline phase which form from the remnant glass are dependent upon composition and percentage of aditives. Stress exponent values near to unity were obtained for materials with low glass content suggesting grain boundary diffusion accommodation processes. Cavitation will thereby become prevalent with increase in stress, temperature and decrease in the degree of crystallization of the grain boundary phase. (author) [pt

  16. The impact of nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands in the Atlantic region of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Carly J.; Dupre, Cecilia; Dorland, Edu; Gaudnik, Cassandre; Gowing, David J.G.; Bleeker, Albert; Diekmann, Martin; Alard, Didier; Bobbink, Roland; Fowler, David; Corcket, Emmanuel; Mountford, J. Owen; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 153 acid grasslands from the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is changing plant species composition and soil and plant-tissue chemistry. Across the deposition gradient (2-44 kg N ha -1 yr -1 ) grass richness as a proportion of total species richness increased whereas forb richness decreased. Soil C:N ratio increased, but soil extractable nitrate and ammonium concentrations did not show any relationship with nitrogen deposition. The above-ground tissue nitrogen contents of three plant species were examined: Agrostis capillaris (grass), Galium saxatile (forb) and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (bryophyte). The tissue nitrogen content of neither vascular plant species showed any relationship with nitrogen deposition, but there was a weak positive relationship between R. squarrosus nitrogen content and nitrogen deposition. None of the species showed strong relationships between above-ground tissue N:P or C:N and nitrogen deposition, indicating that they are not good indicators of deposition rate. - Highlights: → N deposition is negatively correlated with forb richness as a proportion of species richness. → Soil C:N ratio increased with increasing N deposition. → Soil extractable nitrate and ammonium were not related to nitrogen deposition. → Plant-tissue N content was not a good indicator of N deposition. - Atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects soils, plant-tissue chemistry and plant species composition in acid grasslands in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe.

  17. The impact of nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands in the Atlantic region of Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Carly J., E-mail: c.j.stevens@open.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Dupre, Cecilia [Institute of Ecology, FB 2, University of Bremen, Leobener Str., DE-28359 Bremen (Germany); Dorland, Edu [Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Department of Biology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.058, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands); Gaudnik, Cassandre [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Gowing, David J.G. [Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bleeker, Albert [Department of Air Quality and Climate Change, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Diekmann, Martin [Institute of Ecology, FB 2, University of Bremen, Leobener Str., DE-28359 Bremen (Germany); Alard, Didier [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Bobbink, Roland [B-WARE Research Centre, Radboud University, PO Box 9010, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Fowler, David [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Corcket, Emmanuel [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Mountford, J. Owen [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, MacLean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Vandvik, Vigdis [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Box 7800, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2011-10-15

    A survey of 153 acid grasslands from the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is changing plant species composition and soil and plant-tissue chemistry. Across the deposition gradient (2-44 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) grass richness as a proportion of total species richness increased whereas forb richness decreased. Soil C:N ratio increased, but soil extractable nitrate and ammonium concentrations did not show any relationship with nitrogen deposition. The above-ground tissue nitrogen contents of three plant species were examined: Agrostis capillaris (grass), Galium saxatile (forb) and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (bryophyte). The tissue nitrogen content of neither vascular plant species showed any relationship with nitrogen deposition, but there was a weak positive relationship between R. squarrosus nitrogen content and nitrogen deposition. None of the species showed strong relationships between above-ground tissue N:P or C:N and nitrogen deposition, indicating that they are not good indicators of deposition rate. - Highlights: > N deposition is negatively correlated with forb richness as a proportion of species richness. > Soil C:N ratio increased with increasing N deposition. > Soil extractable nitrate and ammonium were not related to nitrogen deposition. > Plant-tissue N content was not a good indicator of N deposition. - Atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects soils, plant-tissue chemistry and plant species composition in acid grasslands in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe.

  18. Utilization of protein-rich residues in biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Venus, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    A drawback of biotechnological processes, where microorganisms convert biomass constituents, such as starch, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lipids, and proteins, into wanted products, is the economic feasibility. Particularly the cost of nitrogen sources in biotechnological processes can make up a large fraction of total process expenses. To further develop the bioeconomy, it is of considerable interest to substitute cost-intensive by inexpensive nitrogen sources. The aim of this mini-review was to provide a comprehensive insight of utilization methods of protein-rich residues, such as fish waste, green biomass, hairs, and food waste. The methods described include (i) production of enzymes, (ii) recovery of bioactive compounds, and/or (iii) usage as nitrogen source for microorganisms in biotechnological processes. In this aspect, the utilization of protein-rich residues, which are conventionally considered as waste, allows the development of value-adding processes for the production of bioactive compounds, biomolecules, chemicals, and materials.

  19. Nitrogen and protein contents in some aquatic plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Bytniewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and protein contents in higher aquatic plants deriving from a natural habitat were determined. The following plants were examined: Spirodela polyrrhiza (L. Schleid., Elodea canadensis Rich., Riccia fluitans L. Total nitrogen and nitrogen of respective fractions were determined by the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen compounds were fractionated according to Thimann et al. Protein was extracted after Fletcher and Osborne and fractionated after Osborne. It was found, that total protein content in the plants under examination constitutes 18 to 25%o of dry matter. Albumins and glutelins are the most abundant protein fractions.

  20. Effect of additive gases and injection methods on chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F2 remote plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y. B.; Park, S. M.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, N.-E.; Kim, K. S.; Bae, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of various additive gases and different injection methods on the chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F 2 remote plasmas. N 2 and N 2 +O 2 gases in the F 2 /Ar/N 2 and F 2 /Ar/N 2 /O 2 remote plasmas effectively increased the etch rate of the layers. The addition of direct-injected NO gas increased the etch rates most significantly. NO radicals generated by the addition of N 2 and N 2 +O 2 or direct-injected NO molecules contributed to the effective removal of nitrogen and oxygen in the silicon nitride and oxide layers, by forming N 2 O and NO 2 by-products, respectively, and thereby enhancing SiF 4 formation. As a result of the effective removal of the oxygen, nitrogen, and silicon atoms in the layers, the chemical dry etch rates were enhanced significantly. The process regime for the etch rate enhancement of the layers was extended at elevated temperature

  1. Understanding Nitrogen Fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul J. Chirik

    2012-05-25

    The purpose of our program is to explore fundamental chemistry relevant to the discovery of energy efficient methods for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into more value-added nitrogen-containing organic molecules. Such transformations are key for domestic energy security and the reduction of fossil fuel dependencies. With DOE support, we have synthesized families of zirconium and hafnium dinitrogen complexes with elongated and activated N-N bonds that exhibit rich N{sub 2} functionalization chemistry. Having elucidated new methods for N-H bond formation from dihydrogen, C-H bonds and Broensted acids, we have since turned our attention to N-C bond construction. These reactions are particularly important for the synthesis of amines, heterocycles and hydrazines with a range of applications in the fine and commodity chemicals industries and as fuels. One recent highlight was the discovery of a new N{sub 2} cleavage reaction upon addition of carbon monoxide which resulted in the synthesis of an important fertilizer, oxamide, from the diatomics with the two strongest bonds in chemistry. Nitrogen-carbon bonds form the backbone of many important organic molecules, especially those used in the fertilizer and pharamaceutical industries. During the past year, we have continued our work in the synthesis of hydrazines of various substitution patterns, many of which are important precursors for heterocycles. In most instances, the direct functionalization of N{sub 2} offers a more efficient synthetic route than traditional organic methods. In addition, we have also discovered a unique CO-induced N{sub 2} bond cleavage reaction that simultaneously cleaves the N-N bond of the metal dinitrogen compound and assembles new C-C bond and two new N-C bonds. Treatment of the CO-functionalized core with weak Broensted acids liberated oxamide, H{sub 2}NC(O)C(O)NH{sub 2}, an important slow release fertilizer that is of interest to replace urea in many applications. The

  2. SOI MESFETs on high-resistivity, trap-rich substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Payam; Zhang, Xiong; Lepkowski, William; Li, Chaojiang; Thornton, Trevor J.

    2018-04-01

    The DC and RF characteristics of metal-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MESFETs) on conventional CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates are compared to nominally identical devices on high-resistivity, trap-rich SOI substrates. While the DC transfer characteristics are statistically identical on either substrate, the maximum available gain at GHz frequencies is enhanced by ∼2 dB when using the trap-rich substrates, with maximum operating frequencies, fmax, that are approximately 5-10% higher. The increased fmax is explained by the reduced substrate conduction at GHz frequencies using a lumped-element, small-signal model.

  3. Chiral silicon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E.; Fahlteich, J.; Hoeche, Th.; Wagner, G.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2006-01-01

    Glancing angle ion beam assisted deposition is used for the growth of amorphous silicon nanospirals onto [0 0 1] silicon substrates in a temperature range from room temperature to 475 deg. C. The nanostructures are post-growth annealed in an argon atmosphere at various temperatures ranging from 400 deg. C to 800 deg. C. Recrystallization of silicon within the persisting nanospiral configuration is demonstrated for annealing temperatures above 800 deg. C. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the silicon samples prior and after temperature treatment

  4. Silicon web process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  5. 15N abundance in Antarctica: origin of soil nitrogen and ecological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, E.; Shibata, R.; Torii, T

    1981-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the nitrogen cycle in Antartica are reported which show that nitrate in Antarctic soils is extremely depleted in 15 N compared with biogenic nitrogen and that algae collected from a nitrate-rich saline pond and from a penguin rookery exhibit, respectively, the lowest and the highest 15 N/ 14 N ratios among terrestrial biogenic nitrogen so far observed. The possible causes of these extreme nitrogen isotopic compositions are discussed. (U.K.)

  6. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Boldyreva, N. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [University Gießen (Germany); Eom, J. [Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Eschke, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Höhne, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kleipa, V. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kochenda, L. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kolb, B. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kopfer, J. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kravtsov, P. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E. [University Gießen (Germany); Leonova, E. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); and others

    2014-12-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will study the properties of super dense nuclear matter by means of heavy ion collisions at the future FAIR facility. An integral detector component is a large Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector with CO{sub 2} gas radiator, which will mainly serve for electron identification and pion suppression necessary to access rare dileptonic probes like e{sup +}e{sup −} decays of light vector mesons or J/Ψ. We describe the design of this future RICH detector and focus on results obtained by building a CBM RICH detector prototype tested at CERN-PS.

  7. Doping of silicon carbide by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimbert, J.

    1999-01-01

    It appeared that in some fields, as the hostile environments (high temperature or irradiation), the silicon compounds showed limitations resulting from the electrical and mechanical properties. Doping of 4H and 6H silicon carbide by ion implantation is studied from a physicochemical and electrical point of view. It is necessary to obtain n-type and p-type material to realize high power and/or high frequency devices, such as MESFETs and Schottky diodes. First, physical and electrical properties of silicon carbide are presented and the interest of developing a process technology on this material is emphasised. Then, physical characteristics of ion implantation and particularly classical dopant implantation, such as nitrogen, for n-type doping, and aluminium and boron, for p-type doping are described. Results with these dopants are presented and analysed. Optimal conditions are extracted from these experiences so as to obtain a good crystal quality and a surface state allowing device fabrication. Electrical conduction is then described in the 4H and 6H-SiC polytypes. Freezing of free carriers and scattering processes are described. Electrical measurements are carried out using Hall effect on Van der Panw test patterns, and 4 point probe method are used to draw the type of the material, free carrier concentrations, resistivity and mobility of the implanted doped layers. These results are commented and compared to the theoretical analysis. The influence of the technological process on electrical conduction is studied in view of fabricating implanted silicon carbide devices. (author)

  8. LPCVD silicon-rich silicon nitride films for applications in micromechanics, studied with statistical experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Tilmans, H.A.C.; Tilmans, H.A.C.; Visser, C.C.G.

    A systematic investigation of the influence of the process parameters temperature, pressure, total gas flow, and SiH2Cl2:NH3 gas flow ratio on the residual stress, the refractive index, and its nonuniformity across a wafer, the growth rate, the film thickness nonuniformity across a wafer, and the

  9. Neutron rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, R.

    1979-01-01

    If some β - emitters are particularly interesting to study in light, medium, and heavy nuclei, another (and also) difficult problem is to know systematically the properties of these neutron rich nuclei far from the stability line. A review of some of their characteristics is presented. How far is it possible to be objective in the interpretation of data is questioned and implications are discussed

  10. Formation of nanocrystals embedded in a silicon nitride film at a low temperature ({<=}200 deg. C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Tae-Hwan [Department of Nano Science and Technology, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Wan-Shick [Department of Nano Science and Technology, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: wshong@uos.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Silicon-rich silicon nitride films with embedded silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) were fabricated successfully on plastic substrates at a low temperature by catalytic chemical vapor deposition. A mixture of SiH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} was used as a source gas. Formation of the silicon nanocrystals was analyzed by photoluminescence spectra and was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The formation of Si NCs required an H{sub 2}/SiH{sub 4} mixture ratio that was higher than four.

  11. Hydrogen isotopic substitution experiments in nanostructured porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, W.D. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura - (UNNE), Avenida Libertad 5500, 3400 Corrientes (Argentina); Koropecki, R.R. [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail: rkoro@intec.ceride.gov.ar; Arce, R.D. [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Busso, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura - (UNNE), Avenida Libertad 5500, 3400 Corrientes (Argentina)

    2008-04-30

    Nanostructured porous silicon is usually prepared by electrochemical anodization of monocrystalline silicon using a fluorine-rich electrolyte. As a result of this process, the silicon atoms conserve their original crystalline location, and many of the dangling bonds appearing on the surface of the nanostructure are saturated by hydrogen coming from the electrolyte. This work presents an IR study of the effects produced by partial substitution of water in the electrolytic solution by deuterium oxide. The isotopic effects on the IR spectra are analyzed for the as-prepared samples and for the samples subjected to partial thermal effusion of hydrogen and deuterium. We demonstrate that, although deuterium is chemically indistinguishable from hydrogen, it presents a singular behaviour when used in porous silicon preparation. We found that deuterium preferentially bonds forming Si-DH groups. A possible explanation of the phenomenon is presented, based on the different diffusivities of hydrogen and deuterium.

  12. Hydrogen isotopic substitution experiments in nanostructured porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, W.D.; Koropecki, R.R.; Arce, R.D.; Busso, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured porous silicon is usually prepared by electrochemical anodization of monocrystalline silicon using a fluorine-rich electrolyte. As a result of this process, the silicon atoms conserve their original crystalline location, and many of the dangling bonds appearing on the surface of the nanostructure are saturated by hydrogen coming from the electrolyte. This work presents an IR study of the effects produced by partial substitution of water in the electrolytic solution by deuterium oxide. The isotopic effects on the IR spectra are analyzed for the as-prepared samples and for the samples subjected to partial thermal effusion of hydrogen and deuterium. We demonstrate that, although deuterium is chemically indistinguishable from hydrogen, it presents a singular behaviour when used in porous silicon preparation. We found that deuterium preferentially bonds forming Si-DH groups. A possible explanation of the phenomenon is presented, based on the different diffusivities of hydrogen and deuterium

  13. Effect of Silicon in U-10Mo Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, Elizabeth J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kovarik, Libor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    This document details a method for evaluating the effect of silicon impurity content on U-10Mo alloys. Silicon concentration in U-10Mo alloys has been shown to impact the following: volume fraction of precipitate phases, effective density of the final alloy, and 235-U enrichment in the gamma-UMo matrix. This report presents a model for calculating these quantities as a function of Silicon concentration, which along with fuel foil characterization data, will serve as a reference for quality control of the U-10Mo final alloy Si content. Additionally, detailed characterization using scanning electron microscope imaging, transmission electron microscope diffraction, and atom probe tomography showed that Silicon impurities present in U-10Mo alloys form a Si-rich precipitate phase.

  14. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  15. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  16. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  17. Memristive behaviour of Si-Al oxynitride thin films: the role of oxygen and nitrogen vacancies in the electroforming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, O.; Martín, G.; Camps, I.; Mariscal, A.; López-Vidrier, J.; Ramírez, J. M.; Hernández, S.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Serna, R.; Garrido, B.

    2018-06-01

    The resistive switching properties of silicon-aluminium oxynitride (SiAlON) based devices have been studied. Electrical transport mechanisms in both resistance states were determined, exhibiting an ohmic behaviour at low resistance and a defect-related Poole‑Frenkel mechanism at high resistance. Nevertheless, some features of the Al top-electrode are generated during the initial electroforming, suggesting some material modifications. An in-depth microscopic study at the nanoscale has been performed after the electroforming process, by acquiring scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. The direct observation of the devices confirmed features on the top electrode with bubble-like appearance, as well as some precipitates within the SiAlON. Chemical analysis by electron energy loss spectroscopy has demonstrated that there is an out-diffusion of oxygen and nitrogen ions from the SiAlON layer towards the electrode, thus forming silicon-rich paths within the dielectric layer and indicating vacancy change to be the main mechanism in the resistive switching.

  18. A New Understanding of Near-Threshold Damage for 200 keV Irradiation In Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard, Nathan; Duscher, Gerd J.M.; Windl, Wolfgang; Rozgonyi, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently we reported room temperature point defect creation and subsequent extended defect nucleation in nitrogen-doped silicon during 200 kV electron irradiation, while identical irradiation of nitrogen-free silicon produced no effect. In this paper, first principles calculations are combined with new transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations to support a new model for elastic electron-silicon interactions in the TEM, which encompasses both nitrogen doped and nitrogen free silicon. Specifically, the nudged elastic band method was used to study the energetics along the diffusion path during an electron collision event in the vicinity of a nitrogen pair. It was found that the 0 K estimate for the energy barrier of a knock-on event is lowered from ∼12 to 6.2 eV. However, this is still inadequate to explain the observations. We therefore propose an increase in the energy barrier for Frenkel pair recombination associated with N 2 -V bonding. Concerning pure silicon, stacking fault formation near irradiation-induced holes demonstrates the participation of bulk processes. In low oxygen float zone material, 2--5 nm voids were formed, while oxygen precipitation in Czochralski Si has been verified by electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Models of irradiation-induced point defect aggregation are presented and it is concluded that these must be bulk and not surface mediated phenomena.

  19. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  20. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed; Rubin, Andrew; Refaat, Mohamed; Sedky, Sherif; Abdo, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  1. Second-harmonic generation in substoichiometric silicon nitride layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Emanuele; Capretti, Antonio; Miano, Giovanni; Dal Negro, Luca

    2013-03-01

    Harmonic generation in optical circuits offers the possibility to integrate wavelength converters, light amplifiers, lasers, and multiple optical signal processing devices with electronic components. Bulk silicon has a negligible second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility owing to its crystal centrosymmetry. Silicon nitride has its place in the microelectronic industry as an insulator and chemical barrier. In this work, we propose to take advantage of silicon excess in silicon nitride to increase the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) efficiency. Thin films have been grown by reactive magnetron sputtering and their nonlinear optical properties have been studied by femtosecond pumping over a wide range of excitation wavelengths, silicon nitride stoichiometry and thermal processes. We demonstrate SHG in the visible range (375 - 450 nm) using a tunable 150 fs Ti:sapphire laser, and we optimize the SH emission at a silicon excess of 46 at.% demonstrating a maximum SHG efficiency of 4x10-6 in optimized films. Polarization properties, generation efficiency, and the second order nonlinear optical susceptibility are measured for all the investigated samples and discussed in terms of an effective theoretical model. Our findings show that the large nonlinear optical response demonstrated in optimized Si-rich silicon nitride materials can be utilized for the engineering of nonlinear optical functions and devices on a Si chip.

  2. Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Ranganath; Datta, Moni K; Krishnan, Rahul; Parker, Thomas C; Lu, Toh-Ming; Kumta, Prashant N; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are integral to today's information-rich, mobile society. Currently they are one of the most popular types of battery used in portable electronics because of their high energy density and flexible design. Despite their increasing use at the present time, there is great continued commercial interest in developing new and improved electrode materials for lithium ion batteries that would lead to dramatically higher energy capacity and longer cycle life. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity and is the second most abundant element on earth. However, silicon anodes have limited applications because of the huge volume change associated with the insertion and extraction of lithium. This causes cracking and pulverization of the anode, which leads to a loss of electrical contact and eventual fading of capacity. Nanostructured silicon anodes, as compared to the previously tested silicon film anodes, can help overcome the above issues. As arrays of silicon nanowires or nanorods, which help accommodate the volume changes, or as nanoscale compliant layers, which increase the stress resilience of silicon films, nanoengineered silicon anodes show potential to enable a new generation of lithium ion batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity and longer cycle life.

  3. Species richness and soil properties in Pinus ponderosa forests: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, D.C.; Abella, S.R.; Covington, W.W.; Grace, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Question: How are the effects of mineral soil properties on understory plant species richness propagated through a network of processes involving the forest overstory, soil organic matter, soil nitrogen, and understory plant abundance? Location: North-central Arizona, USA. Methods: We sampled 75 0.05-ha plots across a broad soil gradient in a Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) forest ecosystem. We evaluated multivariate models of plant species richness using structural equation modeling. Results: Richness was highest at intermediate levels of understory plant cover, suggesting that both colonization success and competitive exclusion can limit richness in this system. We did not detect a reciprocal positive effect of richness on plant cover. Richness was strongly related to soil nitrogen in the model, with evidence for both a direct negative effect and an indirect non-linear relationship mediated through understory plant cover. Soil organic matter appeared to have a positive influence on understory richness that was independent of soil nitrogen. Richness was lowest where the forest overstory was densest, which can be explained through indirect effects on soil organic matter, soil nitrogen and understory cover. Finally, model results suggest a variety of direct and indirect processes whereby mineral soil properties can influence richness. Conclusions: Understory plant species richness and plant cover in P. ponderosa forests appear to be significantly influenced by soil organic matter and nitrogen, which are, in turn, related to overstory density and composition and mineral soil properties. Thus, soil properties can impose direct and indirect constraints on local species diversity in ponderosa pine forests. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  4. Nitrogen recycling from fuel-extracted algal biomass: residuals as the sole nitrogen source for culturing Scenedesmus acutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huiya; Nagle, Nick; Pienkos, Philip T; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the reuse of nitrogen from fuel-extracted algal residues was investigated. The alga Scenedesmus acutus was found to be able to assimilate nitrogen contained in amino acids, yeast extracts, and proteinaceous alga residuals. Moreover, these alternative nitrogen resources could replace nitrate in culturing media. The ability of S. acutus to utilize the nitrogen remaining in processed algal biomass was unique among the promising biofuel strains tested. This alga was leveraged in a recycling approach where nitrogen is recovered from algal biomass residuals that remain after lipids are extracted and carbohydrates are fermented to ethanol. The protein-rich residuals not only provided an effective nitrogen resource, but also contributed to a carbon "heterotrophic boost" in subsequent culturing, improving overall biomass and lipid yields relative to the control medium with only nitrate. Prior treatment of the algal residues with Diaion HP20 resin was required to remove compounds inhibitory to algal growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Akishin, P. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear research (JINR-LIT), Dubna (Russian Federation); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bendarouach, J. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Boldyreva, N. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Eschke, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Förtsch, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Heep, J.; Höhne, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); and others

    2017-02-11

    The CBM RICH detector is an integral component of the future CBM experiment at FAIR, providing efficient electron identification and pion suppression necessary for the measurement of rare dileptonic probes in heavy ion collisions. The RICH design is based on CO{sub 2} gas as radiator, a segmented spherical glass focussing mirror with Al+MgF{sub 2} reflective coating, and Multianode Photomultipliers for efficient Cherenkov photon detection. Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs have recently been selected as photon sensors, following an extensive sensor evaluation, including irradiation tests to ensure sufficient radiation hardness of the MAPMTs. A brief overview of the detector design and concept is given, results on the radiation hardness of the photon sensors are shown, and the development of a FPGA-TDC based readout chain is discussed.

  6. The CLEO RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artuso, M.; Ayad, R.; Bukin, K.; Efimov, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Dambasuren, E.; Kopp, S.; Li, Ji; Majumder, G.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Wang, J.C.; Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Maravin, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J.; Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and performance of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH) constructed to identify charged particles in the CLEO experiment. Cherenkov radiation occurs in LiF crystals, both planar and ones with a novel 'sawtooth'-shaped exit surface. Photons in the wavelength interval 135-165nm are detected using multi-wire chambers filled with a mixture of methane gas and triethylamine vapor. Excellent π/K separation is demonstrated

  7. CBM RICH geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Tariq; Hoehne, Claudia [II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 2-11 AGeV (SIS100) beam energy. The main electron identification detector in the CBM experiment will be a RICH detector with a CO{sub 2} gaseous-radiator, focusing spherical glass mirrors, and MAPMT photo-detectors being placed on a PMT-plane. The RICH detector is located directly behind the CBM dipole magnet. As the final magnet geometry is now available, some changes in the RICH geometry become necessary. In order to guarantee a magnetic field of 1 mT at maximum in the PMT plane for effective operation of the MAPMTs, two measures have to be taken: The PMT plane is moved outwards of the stray field by tilting the mirrors by 10 degrees and shielding boxes have been designed. In this contribution the results of the geometry optimization procedure are presented.

  8. Process for making silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  9. Hydrogen in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peercy, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The structural aspects of amorphous silicon and the role of hydrogen in this structure are reviewed with emphasis on ion implantation studies. In amorphous silicon produced by Si ion implantation of crystalline silicon, the material reconstructs into a metastable amorphous structure which has optical and electrical properties qualitatively similar to the corresponding properties in high-purity evaporated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen studies further indicate that these structures will accomodate less than or equal to 5 at.% hydrogen and this hydrogen is bonded predominantly in a monohydride (SiH 1 ) site. Larger hydrogen concentrations than this can be achieved under certain conditions, but the excess hydrogen may be attributed to defects and voids in the material. Similarly, glow discharge or sputter deposited amorphous silicon has more desirable electrical and optical properties when the material is prepared with low hydrogen concentration and monohydride bonding. Results of structural studies and hydrogen incorporation in amorphous silicon were discussed relative to the different models proposed for amorphous silicon

  10. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  11. FROM LAND TO RICHES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hepp, Catherine Maria

    , comparisons made are broad and included only as a chapter in this thesis. The effect of upland agricultural intensification through the shortening of fallows is addressed by two studies: i) one conducted at a laboratory-level to validate the permanganate method for the quantification of a more labile soil...... will not influence the validity of the permanganate oxidation method and, thus, is suitable for the quantification of an oxidizable fraction of the labile carbon sub pool in soils managed under shifting cultivation (Manuscript 1). Soil carbon and total nitrogen levels of threeyear fallows seemingly reach a plateau...

  12. Silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ralf

    1997-09-01

    This work gives an overview of silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes. Market perspectives and fields of application are pointed out. The advantage of using silicon micromachining is discussed and estimations of the desired performance, especially for automobiles are given. The general principle of vibrating gyroscopes is explained. Vibrating silicon gyroscopes can be divided into seven classes. for each class the characteristic principle is presented and examples are given. Finally a specific sensor, based on a tuning fork for automotive applications with a sensitivity of 250(mu) V/degrees is described in detail.

  13. Porous silicon gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Pitts, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The authors have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that uses the large surface areas produced by a porous-silicon etch as gettering sites. The annealing step of the gettering used a high-flux solar furnace. They found that a high density of photons during annealing enhanced the impurity diffusion to the gettering sites. The authors used metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si) prepared by directional solidification casing as the starting material. They propose to use porous-silicon-gettered MG-Si as a low-cost epitaxial substrate for polycrystalline silicon thin-film growth.

  14. Silicon etch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.J.; White, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A silicon etch process wherein an area of silicon crystal surface is passivated by radiation damage and non-planar structure produced by subsequent anisotropic etching. The surface may be passivated by exposure to an energetic particle flux - for example an ion beam from an arsenic, boron, phosphorus, silicon or hydrogen source, or an electron beam. Radiation damage may be used for pattern definition and/or as an etch stop. Ethylenediamine pyrocatechol or aqueous potassium hydroxide anisotropic etchants may be used. The radiation damage may be removed after etching by thermal annealing. (author)

  15. Silicon integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-01

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  16. Silicon integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-15

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  17. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.; Peters, Craig; Brongersma, Mark; Cui, Yi; McGehee, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  18. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.

    2010-06-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. SAR11 bacteria linked to ocean anoxia and nitrogen loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsementzi, Despina; Wu, Jieying; Deutsch, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the SAR11 clade constitute up to one half of all microbial cells in the oxygen-rich surface ocean. SAR11 bacteria are also abundant in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), where oxygen falls below detection and anaerobic microbes have vital roles in converting bioavailable nitrogen to N2 gas...... activity. These results link SAR11 to pathways of ocean nitrogen loss, redefining the ecological niche of Earth’s most abundant organismal group....

  20. Joining elements of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of joining together at least two silicon carbide elements (e.g.in forming a heat exchanger) is described, comprising subjecting to sufficiently non-oxidizing atmosphere and sufficiently high temperature, material placed in space between the elements. The material consists of silicon carbide particles, carbon and/or a precursor of carbon, and silicon, such that it forms a joint joining together at least two silicon carbide elements. At least one of the elements may contain silicon. (author)

  1. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  2. Polyenergy ion beam synthesis of buried oxynitride layer in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabanenkov, M.Yu. E-mail: barab@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Mordkovich, V.N.; Pustovit, A.N.; Vyatkin, A.F.; Zinenko, V.I

    2000-11-01

    The efficiency of silicon oxynitride synthesis in silicon crystals implanted with substoichiometric doses of oxygen and nitrogen ions is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Si crystals are implanted with oxygen and nitrogen ions with doses of 1.5 and 4.5x10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}, respectively, at fixed oxygen ion energy of 150 keV and nitrogen ion energies varied from 80 to 180 keV. The samples annealed at 1200 deg C for 2 h were analysed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Theoretically, a `diffusion-alternative sinks' model is applied to the annealing stage of ion beam synthesis of a buried layer of a new phase in solids. It is shown that the maximum of the ternary phase production is attained when nitrogen ions are implanted deeper than oxygen ions. An explanation of this fact is given in terms of that (i) the segregation of oxygen and nitrogen species on the surface of oxide nuclei removes the kinetic restriction of nuclei growth, characteristic of oxide growth, at the expense of only oxygen atoms, and (ii) the higher the implantation energy the smoother the shape of ion range distribution in the target, which, in its turn, causes the predominance of the impurity sink over the impurity diffusion.

  3. Polyenergy ion beam synthesis of buried oxynitride layer in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanenkov, M.Yu.; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Mordkovich, V.N.; Pustovit, A.N.; Vyatkin, A.F.; Zinenko, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of silicon oxynitride synthesis in silicon crystals implanted with substoichiometric doses of oxygen and nitrogen ions is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Si crystals are implanted with oxygen and nitrogen ions with doses of 1.5 and 4.5x10 17 cm -2 , respectively, at fixed oxygen ion energy of 150 keV and nitrogen ion energies varied from 80 to 180 keV. The samples annealed at 1200 deg C for 2 h were analysed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Theoretically, a `diffusion-alternative sinks' model is applied to the annealing stage of ion beam synthesis of a buried layer of a new phase in solids. It is shown that the maximum of the ternary phase production is attained when nitrogen ions are implanted deeper than oxygen ions. An explanation of this fact is given in terms of that (i) the segregation of oxygen and nitrogen species on the surface of oxide nuclei removes the kinetic restriction of nuclei growth, characteristic of oxide growth, at the expense of only oxygen atoms, and (ii) the higher the implantation energy the smoother the shape of ion range distribution in the target, which, in its turn, causes the predominance of the impurity sink over the impurity diffusion

  4. On the use of silicon as thermal neutron filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Ashry, A.; Fathalla, M.

    2003-01-01

    A simple formula is given which allows to calculate the contribution of the total neutron cross-section including the Bragg scattering from different (hkl) planes to the neutron transmission through a solid crystalline silicon. The formula takes into account the silicon form of poly or mono crystals and its parameters. A computer program DSIC was developed to provide the required calculations. The calculated values of the total neutron cross-section of perfect silicon crystal at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures were compared with the experimental ones. The obtained agreement shows that the simple formula fits the experimental data with sufficient accuracy. A good agreement was also obtained between the calculated and measured values of polycrystalline silicon in the energy range from 5 eV to 500 μeV. The feasibility study on using a poly-crystalline silicon as a cold neutron filter and mono-crystalline as a thermal neutron one is given. The optimum crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature and cutting plane for efficiently transmitting the thermal reactor neutrons, while rejecting both fast neutrons and gamma rays accompanying the thermal ones for the mono crystalline silicon are also given

  5. On the use of silicon as thermal neutron filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Ashry, A.; Fathalla, M. E-mail: mohamedfathalla@hotmail.com

    2003-12-01

    A simple formula is given which allows to calculate the contribution of the total neutron cross-section including the Bragg scattering from different (hkl) planes to the neutron transmission through a solid crystalline silicon. The formula takes into account the silicon form of poly or mono crystals and its parameters. A computer program DSIC was developed to provide the required calculations. The calculated values of the total neutron cross-section of perfect silicon crystal at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures were compared with the experimental ones. The obtained agreement shows that the simple formula fits the experimental data with sufficient accuracy. A good agreement was also obtained between the calculated and measured values of polycrystalline silicon in the energy range from 5 eV to 500 {mu}eV. The feasibility study on using a poly-crystalline silicon as a cold neutron filter and mono-crystalline as a thermal neutron one is given. The optimum crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature and cutting plane for efficiently transmitting the thermal reactor neutrons, while rejecting both fast neutrons and gamma rays accompanying the thermal ones for the mono crystalline silicon are also given.

  6. Is torrefaction of polysaccharides-rich biomass equivalent to carbonization of lignin-rich biomass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, E; Yaman, S; Haykiri-Acma, H; Kucukbayrak, S

    2016-01-01

    Waste biomass species such as lignin-rich hazelnut shell (HS) and polysaccharides-rich sunflower seed shell (SSS) were subjected to torrefaction at 300°C and carbonization at 600°C under nitrogen. The structural variations in torrefied and carbonized biomasses were compared. Also, the burning characteristics under dry air and pure oxygen (oxy-combustion) conditions were investigated. It was concluded that the effects of carbonization on HS are almost comparable with the effects of torrefaction on SSS in terms of devolatilization and deoxygenation potentials and the increases in carbon content and the heating value. Consequently, it can be proposed that torrefaction does not provide efficient devolatilization from the lignin-rich biomass while it is relatively more efficient for polysaccharides-rich biomass. Heat-induced variations in biomass led to significant changes in the burning characteristics under both burning conditions. That is, low temperature reactivity of biomass reduced considerably and the burning shifted to higher temperatures with very high burning rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Advances in silicon nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Pu, Minhao

    Silicon has long been established as an ideal material for passive integrated optical circuitry due to its high refractive index, with corresponding strong optical confinement ability, and its low-cost CMOS-compatible manufacturability. However, the inversion symmetry of the silicon crystal lattice.......g. in high-bit-rate optical communication circuits and networks, it is vital that the nonlinear optical effects of silicon are being strongly enhanced. This can among others be achieved in photonic-crystal slow-light waveguides and in nano-engineered photonic-wires (Fig. 1). In this talk I shall present some...... recent advances in this direction. The efficient coupling of light between optical fibers and the planar silicon devices and circuits is of crucial importance. Both end-coupling (Fig. 1) and grating-coupling solutions will be discussed along with polarization issues. A new scheme for a hybrid III...

  8. Integrated silicon optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Horst

    2000-01-01

    'Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics'assembles optoelectronics and microelectronics The book concentrates on silicon as the major basis of modern semiconductor devices and circuits Starting from the basics of optical emission and absorption and from the device physics of photodetectors, the aspects of the integration of photodetectors in modern bipolar, CMOS, and BiCMOS technologies are discussed Detailed descriptions of fabrication technologies and applications of optoelectronic integrated circuits are included The book, furthermore, contains a review of the state of research on eagerly expected silicon light emitters In order to cover the topic of the book comprehensively, integrated waveguides, gratings, and optoelectronic power devices are included in addition Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension 'Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics'will be of value to engineers, physicists, and scientists in industry and at universities The book is also recommendable for graduate students speciali...

  9. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed

  10. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  11. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  12. Porous Silicon Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999

  13. Amorphous silicon prepared from silane-hydrogen mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietruszko, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    Amorphous silicon films prepared from a d.c. discharge of 10% SiH 4 - 90% H 2 mixture are found to have properties similar to those made from 100% SiH 4 . These films are found to be quite stable against prolonged light exposure. The effect of nitrogen on the properties of these films was investigated. It was found that instead of behaving as a classical donor, nitrogen introduces deep levels in the material. Field effect experiments on a-Si:H films at the bottom (film-substrate interface) and the top (film-vacuum interface) of the film are also reported. (author)

  14. Nanostructured silicon for thermoelectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranz, A.; Kähler, J.; Waag, A.; Peiner, E.

    2011-06-01

    Thermoelectric modules convert thermal energy into electrical energy and vice versa. At present bismuth telluride is the most widely commercial used material for thermoelectric energy conversion. There are many applications where bismuth telluride modules are installed, mainly for refrigeration. However, bismuth telluride as material for energy generation in large scale has some disadvantages. Its availability is limited, it is hot stable at higher temperatures (>250°C) and manufacturing cost is relatively high. An alternative material for energy conversion in the future could be silicon. The technological processing of silicon is well advanced due to the rapid development of microelectronics in recent years. Silicon is largely available and environmentally friendly. The operating temperature of silicon thermoelectric generators can be much higher than of bismuth telluride. Today silicon is rarely used as a thermoelectric material because of its high thermal conductivity. In order to use silicon as an efficient thermoelectric material, it is necessary to reduce its thermal conductivity, while maintaining high electrical conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient. This can be done by nanostructuring into arrays of pillars. Fabrication of silicon pillars using ICP-cryogenic dry etching (Inductive Coupled Plasma) will be described. Their uniform height of the pillars allows simultaneous connecting of all pillars of an array. The pillars have diameters down to 180 nm and their height was selected between 1 micron and 10 microns. Measurement of electrical resistance of single silicon pillars will be presented which is done in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with nanomanipulators. Furthermore, measurement of thermal conductivity of single pillars with different diameters using the 3ω method will be shown.

  15. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G.; Boero, M.; Manfredotti, C.; Icardi, M.; Gabutti, A.; Bagnolatti, E.; Monticone, E.

    1990-01-01

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm 2 ), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  16. Subwavelength silicon photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheben, P.; Bock, P.J.; Schmid, J.H.; Lapointe, J.; Janz, S.; Xu, D.-X.; Densmore, A.; Delage, A.; Lamontagne, B.; Florjanczyk, M.; Ma, R.

    2011-01-01

    With the goal of developing photonic components that are compatible with silicon microelectronic integrated circuits, silicon photonics has been the subject of intense research activity. Silicon is an excellent material for confining and manipulating light at the submicrometer scale. Silicon optoelectronic integrated devices have the potential to be miniaturized and mass-produced at affordable cost for many applications, including telecommunications, optical interconnects, medical screening, and biological and chemical sensing. We review recent advances in silicon photonics research at the National Research Council Canada. A new type of optical waveguide is presented, exploiting subwavelength grating (SWG) effect. We demonstrate subwavelength grating waveguides made of silicon, including practical components operating at telecom wavelengths: input couplers, waveguide crossings and spectrometer chips. SWG technique avoids loss and wavelength resonances due to diffraction effects and allows for single-mode operation with direct control of the mode confinement by changing the refractive index of a waveguide core over a range as broad as 1.6 - 3.5 simply by lithographic patterning. The light can be launched to these waveguides with a coupling loss as small as 0.5 dB and with minimal wavelength dependence, using coupling structures similar to that shown in Fig. 1. The subwavelength grating waveguides can cross each other with minimal loss and negligible crosstalk which allows massive photonic circuit connectivity to overcome the limits of electrical interconnects. These results suggest that the SWG waveguides could become key elements for future integrated photonic circuits. (authors)

  17. Silicon microphotonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta'eed, V.; Steel, M.J.; Grillet, C.; Eggleton, B.; Du, J.; Glasscock, J.; Savvides, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Silicon microphotonic devices have been drawing increasing attention in the past few years. The high index-difference between silicon and its oxide (Δn = 2) suggests a potential for high-density integration of optical functions on to a photonic chip. Additionally, it has been shown that silicon exhibits strong Raman nonlinearity, a necessary property as light interaction can occur only by means of nonlinearities in the propagation medium. The small dimensions of silicon waveguides require the design of efficient tapers to couple light to them. We have used the beam propagation method (RSoft BeamPROP) to understand the principles and design of an inverse-taper mode-converter as implemented in several recent papers. We report on progress in the design and fabrication of silicon-based waveguides. Preliminary work has been conducted by patterning silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using optical lithography and reactive ion etching. Thus far, only rib waveguides have been designed, as single-mode ridge-waveguides are beyond the capabilities of conventional optical lithography. We have recently moved to electron beam lithography as the higher resolutions permitted will provide the flexibility to begin fabricating sub-micron waveguides

  18. Amorphous silicon crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells deals with some typical properties of heterojunction solar cells, such as their history, the properties and the challenges of the cells, some important measurement tools, some simulation programs and a brief survey of the state of the art, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for all those interested in the subject. This book helps to "fill in the blanks" on heterojunction solar cells. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of the principles, structures, processing techniques and the current developmental states of the devices. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang R. Fahrner is a professor at the University of Hagen, Germany and Nanchang University, China.

  19. Oxygen defect processes in silicon and silicon germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.; Sgourou, E. N.; Londos, C. A.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Silicon and silicon germanium are the archetypical elemental and alloy semiconductor materials for nanoelectronic, sensor, and photovoltaic applications. The investigation of radiation induced defects involving oxygen, carbon, and intrinsic defects is important for the improvement of devices as these defects can have a deleterious impact on the properties of silicon and silicon germanium. In the present review, we mainly focus on oxygen-related defects and the impact of isovalent doping on their properties in silicon and silicon germanium. The efficacy of the isovalent doping strategies to constrain the oxygen-related defects is discussed in view of recent infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory studies.

  20. Colloidal characterization of ultrafine silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Pamela K.; Feke, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of various powder treatment strategies on the colloid chemistry of aqueous dispersions of silicon carbide and silicon nitride are examined using a surface titration methodology. Pretreatments are used to differentiate between the true surface chemistry of the powders and artifacts resulting from exposure history. Silicon nitride powders require more extensive pretreatment to reveal consistent surface chemistry than do silicon carbide powders. As measured by titration, the degree of proton adsorption from the suspending fluid by pretreated silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders can both be made similar to that of silica.

  1. Oxygen defect processes in silicon and silicon germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.

    2015-06-18

    Silicon and silicon germanium are the archetypical elemental and alloy semiconductor materials for nanoelectronic, sensor, and photovoltaic applications. The investigation of radiation induced defects involving oxygen, carbon, and intrinsic defects is important for the improvement of devices as these defects can have a deleterious impact on the properties of silicon and silicon germanium. In the present review, we mainly focus on oxygen-related defects and the impact of isovalent doping on their properties in silicon and silicon germanium. The efficacy of the isovalent doping strategies to constrain the oxygen-related defects is discussed in view of recent infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory studies.

  2. An FPGA-based silicon neuronal network with selectable excitability silicon neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eLi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a digital silicon neuronal network which simulates the nerve system in creatures and has the ability to execute intelligent tasks, such as associative memory. Two essential elements, the mathematical-structure-based digital spiking silicon neuron (DSSN and the transmitter release based silicon synapse, allow the network to show rich dynamic behaviors and are computationally efficient for hardware implementation. We adopt mixed pipeline and parallel structure and shift operations to design a sufficient large and complex network without excessive hardware resource cost. The network with $256$ full-connected neurons is built on a Digilent Atlys board equipped with a Xilinx Spartan-6 LX45 FPGA. Besides, a memory control block and USB control block are designed to accomplish the task of data communication between the network and the host PC. This paper also describes the mechanism of associative memory performed in the silicon neuronal network. The network is capable of retrieving stored patterns if the inputs contain enough information of them. The retrieving probability increases with the similarity between the input and the stored pattern increasing. Synchronization of neurons is observed when the successful stored pattern retrieval occurs.

  3. Fifth workshop on the role of impurities and defects in silicon device processing. Extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.; Luque, A.; Sopori, B.; Swanson, D.; Gee, J.; Kalejs, J.; Jastrzebski, L.; Tan, T.

    1995-08-01

    This workshop dealt with engineering aspects and material properties of silicon electronic devices. Crystalline silicon growth, modeling, and properties are discussed in general and as applied to solar cells. Topics considered in discussions of silicon growth include: casting, string ribbons, Al backside contacts, ion implantation, gettering, passivation, and ultrasound treatments. Properties studies include: Electronic properties of defects and impurities, dopant and carrier concentrations, structure and bonding, nitrogen effects, degradation of bulk diffusion length, and recombination parameters. Individual papers from the workshop are indexed separately on the Energy Data Bases.

  4. Transformation of nitrogen and distribution of nitrogen-related bacteria in a polluted urban stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y; Jin, W B; Zhao, Q L; Zhang, G D; Yan, Y; Wan, J

    2009-01-01

    Most researchers focused on either nitrogen species or microbial community for polluted urban stream while ignoring the interaction between them and its effect on nitrogen transformation, which restricted the rational selection of an effective and feasible remediation technology. Taking Buji stream in Shenzhen (China) as target stream, the distribution of nitrogen-related bacteria was investigated by most probable number (MPN) besides analysis of nitrogen species etc. The nitrogen-related bacteria in sediment were 10(2) times richer than those in water. Owing to their faster growth, the MPN of ammonifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria were 10(5) and 10(2) times higher than those of nitrifying bacteria, respectively. The ammonifying bacteria numbers were significantly related to BOD5 in water, while nitrifying bacteria in sediment correlated well with nitrate in water. Thus, nitrification occurred mainly in sediment surface and was limited by low proportion of nitrifying bacteria. The denitrifying bacteria in sediment had good relationship with BOD5 and nitrite and nitrate in water. Low DO and rich organic compounds were beneficial to denitrification but unfavourable to nitrification. Denitrification was restricted by low nitrite and nitrate concentration. These results could be served as a reference for implementing the remediation scheme of nitrogen polluted urban stream.

  5. Developments in nitrogen generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, C.L.; Abrardo, J.M.; Himmelberger, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Three process cycles for the production of nitrogen by the cryogenic separation of air are described in detail. These cycles are: (1) a waste expander cycle; (2) an air expander cycle; and (3) a cycle for producing large quantities of gaseous nitrogen. Each cycle has distinct advantages for various production ranges and delivery pressures. A dicussion of key parameters that must be considered when selecting a cycle to meet specific product requirements is presented. The importance of high plant reliability and a dependable liquid nitrogen back up system is also presented. Lastly, a discussion of plant safety dealing with the hazards of nitrogen, enriched oxygen, and hydrocarbons present in the air is reviewed

  6. Methane, Ethane, and Nitrogen Stability on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J.; Grundy, W. M.; Thompson, G.; Dustrud, S.; Pearce, L.; Lindberg, G.; Roe, H. G.; Tegler, S.

    2017-12-01

    Many outer solar system bodies are likely to have a combination of methane, ethane and nitrogen. In particular the lakes of Titan are known to consist of these species. Understanding the past and current stability of these lakes requires characterizing the interactions of methane and ethane, along with nitrogen, as both liquids and ices. Our cryogenic laboratory setup allows us to explore ices down to 30 K through imaging, and transmission and Raman spectroscopy. Our recent work has shown that although methane and ethane have similar freezing points, when mixed they can remain liquid down to 72 K. Concurrently with the freezing point measurements we acquire transmission or Raman spectra of these mixtures to understand how the structural features change with concentration and temperature. Any mixing of these two species together will depress the freezing point of the lake below Titan's surface temperature, preventing them from freezing. We will present new results utilizing our recently acquired Raman spectrometer that allow us to explore both the liquid and solid phases of the ternary system of methane, ethane and nitrogen. In particular we will explore the effect of nitrogen on the eutectic of the methane-ethane system. At high pressure we find that the ternary creates two separate liquid phases. Through spectroscopy we determined the bottom layer to be nitrogen rich, and the top layer to be ethane rich. Identifying the eutectic, as well as understanding the liquidus and solidus points of combinations of these species, has implications for not only the lakes on the surface of Titan, but also for the evaporation/condensation/cloud cycle in the atmosphere, as well as the stability of these species on other outer solar system bodies. These results will help interpretation of future observational data, and guide current theoretical models.

  7. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  8. Modelling the X-ray powder diffraction of nitrogen-expanded austenite using the Debye formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Christiansen, Thomas; Ståhl, Kenny

    2008-01-01

    Stress-free and homogeneous samples of nitrogen-expanded austenite, a defect-rich f.c.c. structure with a high interstitial nitrogen occupancy (between 0.36 and 0.61), have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and Debye simulations. The simulations confirm the presence of deformation...... to be indistinguishable to X-ray powder diffraction....

  9. Uptake of fertilizer nitrogen and soil nitrogen by rice using 15N-labelled nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.R.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Data from five field experiments using labelled nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine the relative effects of soil nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen on rice yield. Yield of grain was closely correlated with total aboveground nitrogen uptake (soil + fertilizer), less closely correlated with soil nitrogen uptake and not significantly correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake. When yield increase rather than yield was correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake, the correlation coefficient was statistically significant. (orig.)

  10. Performance improvement of silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhafarov T. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the method is shown to improve the photovoltaic parameters of screen-printed silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon film formation on the frontal surface of the cell using the electrochemical etching. The possible mechanisms responsible for observed improvement of silicon solar cell performance are discussed.

  11. Tribological studies of ultrahigh dose nitrogen-implanted iron and stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, R.; Wilbur, P.J.; Ozturk, O.; Williamson, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen implantation to doses as high as 1x10 19 ions/cm 2 on the sliding wear resistance and nitrogen concentration depth profiles are examined experimentally. By maintaining the proper implantation temperature, increases in dose induce the formation of thicker nitrogen-rich, wear-resistant layers. Several microns thick layers are demonstrated for both iron and stainless steel. (orig.)

  12. The LHCb RICH system; detector description and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanestis, A., E-mail: antonis.papanestis@stfc.ac.uk

    2014-12-01

    Two RICH detectors provide positive charged hadron identification in the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. RICH 1 covers the full acceptance of the spectrometer and contains two radiators: aerogel and C{sub 4}F{sub 10}. RICH 2 covers half the acceptance and uses CF{sub 4} as a Cherenkov radiator. Photon detection is performed by the Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs), with silicon pixel sensors and bump-bonded readout encapsulated in a vacuum tube for efficient, low-noise single photon detection. The LHCb RICH detectors form a complex system of three radiators, 120 mirrors and 484 photon detectors operating in the very challenging environment of the LHC. The high performance of the system in pion and kaon identification in the momentum range of 2–100 GeV/c is reached only after careful calibration of many parameters. Operational efficiency above 99% was achieved by a high level of automatization in the operation of the detectors, from switching-on to error recovery. The challenges of calibrating and operating such a system will be presented. - Highlights: • This paper describes the operation and calibration of the LHCb RICH detectors. • The scintillation of CF{sub 4} was successfully suppressed with CO{sub 2}. • The refractive index of the gas radiators was calibrated with data to an accuracy better than 0.1%. • The Hybrid Photons Detectors were calibrated for operation in a magnetic field without loss of resolution.

  13. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  14. Silicon containing copolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Sahar; Amiri, Sanam

    2014-01-01

    Silicones have unique properties including thermal oxidative stability, low temperature flow, high compressibility, low surface tension, hydrophobicity and electric properties. These special properties have encouraged the exploration of alternative synthetic routes of well defined controlled microstructures of silicone copolymers, the subject of this Springer Brief. The authors explore the synthesis and characterization of notable block copolymers. Recent advances in controlled radical polymerization techniques leading to the facile synthesis of well-defined silicon based thermo reversible block copolymers?are described along with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), a technique utilized to develop well-defined functional thermo reversible block copolymers. The brief also focuses on Polyrotaxanes and their great potential as stimulus-responsive materials which produce poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) based thermo reversible block copolymers.

  15. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  16. Floating Silicon Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  17. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Mark, E-mail: Mark.Tobin@epfl.ch

    2016-09-21

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to the study of heavy flavour physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The primary goal of the experiment is to search for indirect evidence of new physics via measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The LHCb detector has a large-area silicon micro-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet, and three tracking stations with silicon micro-strip detectors in the innermost region downstream of the magnet. These two sub-detectors form the LHCb Silicon Tracker (ST). This paper gives an overview of the performance and operation of the ST during LHC Run 1. Measurements of the observed radiation damage are shown and compared to the expectation from simulation.

  18. Clathrates and beyond: Low-density allotropy in crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beekman, Matt [Department of Physics, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California 93407 (United States); Wei, Kaya; Nolas, George S., E-mail: gnolas@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    In its common, thermodynamically stable state, silicon adopts the same crystal structure as diamond. Although only a few alternative allotropic structures have been discovered and studied over the past six decades, advanced methods for structure prediction have recently suggested a remarkably rich low-density phase space that has only begun to be explored. The electronic properties of these low-density allotropes of silicon, predicted by first-principles calculations, indicate that these materials could offer a pathway to improving performance and reducing cost in a variety of electronic and energy-related applications. In this focus review, we provide an introduction and overview of recent theoretical and experimental results related to low-density allotropes of silicon, highlighting the significant potential these materials may have for technological applications, provided substantial challenges to their experimental preparation can be overcome.

  19. Tailoring of silicon crystals for relativistic-particle channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidi, V.; Antonini, A.; Baricordi, S.; Logallo, F.; Malagu, C.; Milan, E.; Ronzoni, A.; Stefancich, M.; Martinelli, G.; Vomiero, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the last years, the research on channeling of relativistic particles has progressed considerably. A significant contribution has been provided by the development of techniques for quality improvement of the crystals. In particular, a planar etching of the surfaces of the silicon crystals proved useful to remove the superficial layer, which is a region very rich in imperfections, in turn leading to greater channeling efficiency. Micro-fabrication techniques, borrowed from silicon technology, may also be useful: micro-indentation and deposition of tensile or compressive layers onto silicon samples allow one to impart an even curvature to the samples. In this way, different topologies may be envisaged, such as a bent crystal for deflection of protons and ions or an undulator to force coherent oscillations of positrons and electrons

  20. Removal of inclusions from silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftja, Arjan; Engh, Thorvald Abel; Tangstad, Merete; Kvithyld, Anne; Øvrelid, Eivind Johannes

    2009-11-01

    The removal of inclusions from molten silicon is necessary to satisfy the purity requirements for solar grade silicon. This paper summarizes two methods that are investigated: (i) settling of the inclusions followed by subsequent directional solidification and (infiltration by ceramic foam filters. Settling of inclusions followed by directional solidification is of industrial importance for production of low-cost solar grade silicon. Filtration is reported as the most efficient method for removal of inclusions from the top-cut silicon scrap.

  1. Silicon photonic integration in telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Richard Doerr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon photonics is the guiding of light in a planar arrangement of silicon-based materials to perform various functions. We focus here on the use of silicon photonics to create transmitters and receivers for fiber-optic telecommunications. As the need to squeeze more transmission into a given bandwidth, a given footprint, and a given cost increases, silicon photonics makes more and more economic sense.

  2. Silicon Tracking Upgrade at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, M.C.

    1998-04-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is scheduled to begin recording data from Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron in early 2000. The silicon tracking upgrade constitutes both the upgrade to the CDF silicon vertex detector (SVX II) and the new Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) located at radii just beyond the SVX II. Here we review the design and prototyping of all aspects of these detectors including mechanical design, data acquisition, and a trigger based on silicon tracking

  3. Silicon microphones - a Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouwstra, Siebe; Storgaard-Larsen, Torben; Scheeper, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Two application areas of microphones are discussed, those for precision measurement and those for hearing instruments. Silicon microphones are under investigation for both areas, and Danish industry plays a key role in both. The opportunities of silicon, as well as the challenges and expectations......, are discussed. For precision measurement the challenge for silicon is large, while for hearing instruments silicon seems to be very promising....

  4. CMS silicon tracker developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civinini, C.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Della Marina, R.D.R.; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2002-01-01

    The CMS Silicon tracker consists of 70 m 2 of microstrip sensors which design will be finalized at the end of 1999 on the basis of systematic studies of device characteristics as function of the most important parameters. A fundamental constraint comes from the fact that the detector has to be operated in a very hostile radiation environment with full efficiency. We present an overview of the current results and prospects for converging on a final set of parameters for the silicon tracker sensors

  5. Silicon hybrid integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianyao; Yuan Taonu; Shao Shiqian; Shi Zujun; Wang Yi; Yu Yude; Yu Jinzhong

    2011-01-01

    Recently,much attention has concentrated on silicon based photonic integrated circuits (PICs), which provide a cost-effective solution for high speed, wide bandwidth optical interconnection and optical communication.To integrate III-V compounds and germanium semiconductors on silicon substrates,at present there are two kinds of manufacturing methods, i.e., heteroepitaxy and bonding. Low-temperature wafer bonding which can overcome the high growth temperature, lattice mismatch,and incompatibility of thermal expansion coefficients during heteroepitaxy, has offered the possibility for large-scale heterogeneous integration. In this paper, several commonly used bonding methods are reviewed, and the future trends of low temperature wafer bonding envisaged. (authors)

  6. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  7. Deformation mechanisms of silicon during nanoscratching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassilloud, R.; Gasser, P.; Buerki, G.; Michler, J. [EMPA, Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Ballif, C. [University of Neuchatel, A.-L. Breguet 2, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2005-12-01

    The deformation mechanisms of silicon {l_brace}001{r_brace} surfaces during nanoscratching were found to depend strongly on the loading conditions. Nanoscratches with increasing load were performed at 2 {mu}m/s (low velocity) and 100 {mu}m/s (high velocity). The load-penetration-distance curves acquired during the scratching process at low velocity suggests that two deformation regimes can be defined, an elasto-plastic regime at low loads and a fully plastic regime at high loads. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of the damaged location shows that the residual scratch morphologies are strongly influenced by the scratch velocity and the applied load. Micro-Raman spectroscopy shows that after pressure release, the deformed volume inside the nanoscratch is mainly composed of amorphous silicon and Si-XII at low scratch speeds and of amorphous silicon at high speeds. Transmission electron microscopy shows that Si nanocrystals are embedded in an amorphous matrix at low speeds, whereas at high speeds the transformed zone is completely amorphous. Furthermore, the extend of the transformed zone is almost independent of the scratching speed and is delimited by a dislocation rich area that extends about as deep as the contact radius into the surface. To explain the observed phase and defect distribution a contact mechanics based decompression model that takes into account the load, the velocity, the materials properties and the contact radius in scratching is proposed. It shows that the decompression rate is higher at low penetration depth, which is consistent with the observation of amorphous silicon in this case. The stress field under the tip is computed using an elastic contact mechanics model based on Hertz's theory. The model explains the observed shape of the transformed zone and suggests that during load increase, phase transformation takes place prior to dislocation nucleation. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Nitrogen trading tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen cycle is impacted by human activities, including those that increase the use of nitrogen in agricultural systems, and this impact can be seen in effects such as increased nitrate (NO3) levels in groundwater or surface water resources, increased concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O) in th...

  9. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for communications about resource use efficiency and for measures to increase the use efficiency of nutrients in relation to food production. This holds especially for nitrogen. Nitrogen (N) is essential for life and a main nutrient element. It is needed in relatively large

  10. LHCB RICH gas system proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Bosteels, Michel; Haider, S

    2001-01-01

    Both LHCb RICH will be operated with fluorocarbon as gas radiator. RICH 1 will be filled with 4m^3 of C4F10 and RICH 2 with 100m^3 of CF4. The gas systems will run as a closed loop circulation and a gas recovery system within the closed loop is planned for RICH 1, where the recovery of the CF4 will only be realised during filling and emptying of the detector. Inline gas purification is foreseen for the gas systems in order to limit water and oxygen impurities.

  11. Experimental and theoretical rationalization of the growth mechanism of silicon quantum dots in non-stoichiometric SiN x : role of chlorine in plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon-Pérez, E; Salazar, J; Ramos, E; Salazar, J Santoyo; Suárez, A López; Dutt, A; Santana, G; Monroy, B Marel

    2016-11-11

    Silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) embedded in an insulator matrix are important from a technological and application point of view. Thus, being able to synthesize them in situ during the matrix growth process is technologically advantageous. The use of SiH 2 Cl 2 as the silicon precursor in the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process allows us to obtain Si-QDs without post-thermal annealing. Foremost in this work, is a theoretical rationalization of the mechanism responsible for Si-QD generation in a film including an analysis of the energy released by the extraction of HCl and the insertion of silylene species into the terminal surface bonds. From the results obtained using density functional theory (DFT), we propose an explanation of the mechanism responsible for the formation of Si-QDs in non-stoichiometric SiN x starting from chlorinated precursors in a PECVD system. Micrograph images obtained through transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of Si-QDs, even in nitrogen-rich (N-rich) samples. The film stoichiometry was controlled by varying the growth parameters, in particular the NH 3 /SiH 2 Cl 2 ratio and hydrogen dilution. Experimental and theoretical results together show that using a PECVD system, along with chlorinated precursors it is possible to obtain Si-QDs at a low substrate temperature without annealing treatment. The optical property studies carried out in the present work highlight the prospects of these thin films for down shifting and as an antireflection coating in silicon solar cells.

  12. Experimental and theoretical rationalization of the growth mechanism of silicon quantum dots in non-stoichiometric SiN x : role of chlorine in plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon-Pérez, E.; Salazar, J.; Ramos, E.; Santoyo Salazar, J.; López Suárez, A.; Dutt, A.; Santana, G.; Marel Monroy, B.

    2016-11-01

    Silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) embedded in an insulator matrix are important from a technological and application point of view. Thus, being able to synthesize them in situ during the matrix growth process is technologically advantageous. The use of SiH2Cl2 as the silicon precursor in the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process allows us to obtain Si-QDs without post-thermal annealing. Foremost in this work, is a theoretical rationalization of the mechanism responsible for Si-QD generation in a film including an analysis of the energy released by the extraction of HCl and the insertion of silylene species into the terminal surface bonds. From the results obtained using density functional theory (DFT), we propose an explanation of the mechanism responsible for the formation of Si-QDs in non-stoichiometric SiN x starting from chlorinated precursors in a PECVD system. Micrograph images obtained through transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of Si-QDs, even in nitrogen-rich (N-rich) samples. The film stoichiometry was controlled by varying the growth parameters, in particular the NH3/SiH2Cl2 ratio and hydrogen dilution. Experimental and theoretical results together show that using a PECVD system, along with chlorinated precursors it is possible to obtain Si-QDs at a low substrate temperature without annealing treatment. The optical property studies carried out in the present work highlight the prospects of these thin films for down shifting and as an antireflection coating in silicon solar cells.

  13. Elite silicon and solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasamanov, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The article is of popular character, the following issues being considered: conversion of solar energy into electric one, solar batteries in space and on the Earth, growing of silicon large-size crystals, source material problems relating to silicon monocrystals production, outlooks of solar silicon batteries production [ru

  14. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  15. Enhancing biological nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danso, S.K.A.; Eskew, D.L. (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    Several co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) conducted by the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have concentrated on finding the most efficient way of applying nitrogen fertilizers to various crops, using nitrogen-15 (/sup 15/N) as a tracer. The findings of these studies have been adopted in many countries around the world, resulting in savings of nitrogen fertilizers worth many millions of dollars every year. More recently, the Section's CRPs have focused on enhancing the natural process of biological di-nitrogen fixation. The /sup 15/N isotope technique has proven to be very valuable in studies of the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, allowing many more experiments than before to be done and yielding much new practical information. The Soils Section is now working to extend the use of the technique to other nitrogen-fixing symbioses.

  16. Demonstrating Paramagnetism Using Liquid Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Ray; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes how liquid nitrogen is attracted to the poles of neodymium magnets. Nitrogen is not paramagnetic, so the attraction suggests that the liquid nitrogen contains a small amount of oxygen, which causes the paramagnetism. (MVL)

  17. Structural and electronic properties of boron-doped double-walled silicon carbide nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Somayeh, E-mail: somayeh.behzad@gmail.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, Rostam [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Computational Physical Science Research Laboratory, Department of Nano Science, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chegel, Raad [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-01

    The effects of boron doping on the structural and electronic properties of (6,0)-(14,0) double-walled silicon carbide nanotube (DWSiCNT) are investigated by using spin-polarized density functional theory. It is found that boron atom could be more easily doped in the inner tube. Our calculations indicate that a Si site is favorable for B under C-rich condition and a C site is favorable under Si-rich condition. Additionally, B-substitution at either single carbon or silicon atom site in DWSiCNT could induce spontaneous magnetization.

  18. Structural and electronic properties of boron-doped double-walled silicon carbide nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzad, Somayeh; Moradian, Rostam; Chegel, Raad

    2010-01-01

    The effects of boron doping on the structural and electronic properties of (6,0)-(14,0) double-walled silicon carbide nanotube (DWSiCNT) are investigated by using spin-polarized density functional theory. It is found that boron atom could be more easily doped in the inner tube. Our calculations indicate that a Si site is favorable for B under C-rich condition and a C site is favorable under Si-rich condition. Additionally, B-substitution at either single carbon or silicon atom site in DWSiCNT could induce spontaneous magnetization.

  19. Structural and electronic properties of boron-doped double-walled silicon carbide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Somayeh; Moradian, Rostam; Chegel, Raad

    2010-12-01

    The effects of boron doping on the structural and electronic properties of (6,0)@(14,0) double-walled silicon carbide nanotube (DWSiCNT) are investigated by using spin-polarized density functional theory. It is found that boron atom could be more easily doped in the inner tube. Our calculations indicate that a Si site is favorable for B under C-rich condition and a C site is favorable under Si-rich condition. Additionally, B-substitution at either single carbon or silicon atom site in DWSiCNT could induce spontaneous magnetization.

  20. Information rich display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles the

  1. Optical and passivating properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for application on silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, Daniel Nilsen

    2008-07-01

    quality, etch rate. The response of these parameters to high temperature anneals were correlated with structural changes in the silicon nitride films as measured by using the hydrogen bond concentration. Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition allows continuous variation in nearly all deposition parameters. The parameters studied in this work are the gas flow ratios and excitation power. In both direct and remote deposition systems, the increase in deposition power density lead to higher activation of ammonia which in turn lead to augmented incorporation of nitrogen into the films and thus lower refractive index. For a direct system, the same parameter change lead to a drastic fall in passivation quality of Czochralski silicon attributed to an increase in ion bombardment as well as the general observation that as deposited passivation tends to increase with refractive index. Silicon nitride films with variations in refractive index were also made by varying the silane-to-ammonia gas flow ratio. This simple parameter adjustment makes plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride applicable to double layer anti-reflective coatings simulated in this work. The films were found to have an etch rate in 5% hydrofluoric acid that decreased with increasing refractive index. This behaviour is attributed to the decreasing concentration of nitrogen-to-hydrogen bonds in the films. Such bonds at the surface of silicon nitride have been suggested to be involved in the main reaction mechanism when etching silicon nitride in hydrofluoric acid. Annealing the films lead to a drastic fall in etch rates and was linked to the release of hydrogen from the nitrogen-hydrogen bonds. (author). 115 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Nanopores creation in boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadifar, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Rouzbeh; Nezhad Shirazi, Ali Hossein; Alajlan, Naif; Rabczuk, Timon

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, molecular dynamic simulations have been conducted to investigate the nanopores creation on 10% of boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene by silicon and diamond nanoclusters. Two types of nanoclusters based on silicon and diamond are used to investigate their effect for the fabrication of nanopores. Therefore, three different diameter sizes of the clusters with five kinetic energies of 10, 50, 100, 300 and 500 eV/atom at four different locations in boron or nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene nanosheets have been perused. We also study the effect of 3% and 6% of boron doped polycrystalline graphene with the best outcome from 10% of doping. Our results reveal that the diamond cluster with diameter of 2 and 2.5 nm fabricates the largest nanopore areas on boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene, respectively. Furthermore, the kinetic energies of 10 and 50 eV/atom can not fabricate nanopores in some cases for silicon and diamond clusters on boron doped polycrystalline graphene nanosheets. On the other hand, silicon and diamond clusters fabricate nanopores for all locations and all tested energies on nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene. The area sizes of nanopores fabricated by silicon and diamond clusters with diameter of 2 and 2.5 nm are close to the actual area size of the related clusters for the kinetic energy of 300 eV/atom in all locations on boron doped polycrystalline graphene. The maximum area and the average maximum area of nanopores are fabricated by the kinetic energy of 500 eV/atom inside the grain boundary at the center of the nanosheet and in the corner of nanosheet with diameters of 2 and 3 nm for silicon and diamond clusters on boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene.

  3. Selective formation of porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pattern of porous silicon is produced in the surface of a silicon substrate by forming a pattern of crystal defects in said surface, preferably by applying an ion milling beam through openings in a photoresist layer to the surface, and then exposing said surface to a stain etchant, such as HF:HNO3:H2O. The defected crystal will preferentially etch to form a pattern of porous silicon. When the amorphous content of the porous silicon exceeds 70 percent, the porous silicon pattern emits visible light at room temperature.

  4. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Sevilla, Galo T.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Inayat, Salman Bin; Ahmed, Sally; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In today's traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100

  5. Silicon nitride nanosieve membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, D.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Gadgil, V.J.; Bostan, C.G.; Berenschot, Johan W.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    An array of very uniform cylindrical nanopores with a pore diameter as small as 25 nm has been fabricated in an ultrathin micromachined silicon nitride membrane using focused ion beam (FIB) etching. The pore size of this nanosieve membrane was further reduced to below 10 nm by coating it with

  6. OPAL Silicon Tungsten Luminometer

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. The Silicon Tungsten Luminometer was part of OPAL's calorimeter which was used to measure the energy of particles. Most particles end their journey in calorimeters. These detectors measure the energy deposited when particles are slowed down and stopped.

  7. Silicon graphene Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Domenech, David; Muñoz, Pascual

    2014-03-10

    We propose the use of interleaved graphene sections on top of a silicon waveguide to implement tunable Bragg gratings. The filter central wavelength and bandwidth can be controlled changing the chemical potential of the graphene sections. Apodization techniques are also presented.

  8. On nanostructured silicon success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    Recent Letters by Piggott et al. 1 and Shen et al. 2 claim the smallest ever dielectric wave length and polarization splitters. The associated News & Views article by Aydin3 states that these works “are the first experimental demonstration of on-chip, silicon photonic components based on complex...

  9. Silicon oxynitride based photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worhoff, Kerstin; Klein, E.J.; Hussein, M.G.; Driessen, A.; Marciniak, M.; Jaworski, M.; Zdanowicz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon oxynitride is a very attractive material for integrated optics. Besides possessing excellent optical properties it can be deposited with refractive indices varying over a wide range by tuning the material composition. In this contribution we will summarize the key properties of this material

  10. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  11. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  12. DELPHI Silicon Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    DELPHI was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. The silicon tracking detector was nearest to the collision point in the centre of the detector. It was used to pinpoint the collision and catch short-lived particles.

  13. Enhanced nitrogen removal in trickling filter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Y; Constantinou, A; Griffiths, P

    2013-01-01

    The Beaudesert Sewage Treatment Plant (STP), originally built in 1966 and augmented in 1977, is a typical biological trickling filter (TF) STP comprising primary sedimentation tanks (PSTs), TFs and humus tanks. The plant, despite not originally being designed for nitrogen removal, has been consistently achieving over 60% total nitrogen reduction and low effluent ammonium concentration of less than 5 mg NH3-N/L. Through the return of a NO3(-)-rich stream from the humus tanks to the PSTs and maintaining an adequate sludge age within the PSTs, the current plant is achieving a substantial degree of denitrification. Further enhanced denitrification has been achieved by raising the recycle flows and maintaining an adequate solids retention time (SRT) within the PSTs. This paper describes the approach to operating a TF plant to achieve a high degree of nitrification and denitrification. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated through the pilot plant trial. The results from the pilot trial demonstrate a significant improvement in nitrogen removal performance whilst maximising the asset life of the existing infrastructure. This shows great potential as a retrofit option for small and rural communities with pre-existing TFs that require improvements in terms of nitrogen removal.

  14. The nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-02-08

    Nitrogen is the fourth most abundant element in cellular biomass, and it comprises the majority of Earth's atmosphere. The interchange between inert dinitrogen gas (N2) in the extant atmosphere and 'reactive nitrogen' (those nitrogen compounds that support, or are products of, cellular metabolism and growth) is entirely controlled by microbial activities. This was not the case, however, in the primordial atmosphere, when abiotic reactions likely played a significant role in the inter-transformation of nitrogen oxides. Although such abiotic reactions are still important, the extant nitrogen cycle is driven by reductive fixation of dinitrogen and an enzyme inventory that facilitates dinitrogen-producing reactions. Prior to the advent of the Haber-Bosch process (the industrial fixation of N2 into ammonia, NH3) in 1909, nearly all of the reactive nitrogen in the biosphere was generated and recycled by microorganisms. Although the Haber-Bosch process more than quadrupled the productivity of agricultural crops, chemical fertilizers and other anthropogenic sources of fixed nitrogen now far exceed natural contributions, leading to unprecedented environmental degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. NOx reduction and NO2 emission characteristics in rich-lean combustion of hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Shudo, Toshio; Omori, Kento; Hiyama, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen is a clean alternative to conventional hydrocarbon fuels, but it is very important to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions generated by hydrogen combustion. The rich-lean combustion or staged combustion is known to reduce NOx emissions from continuous combustion burners such as gas turbines and boilers, and NOx reduction effects have been demonstrated for hydrocarbon fuels. The authors applied rich-lean combustion to a hydrogen gas turbine and showed its NOx reduction effect in...

  16. Observing the morphology of single-layered embedded silicon nanocrystals by using temperature-stable TEM membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gutsch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We use high-temperature-stable silicon nitride membranes to investigate single layers of silicon nanocrystal ensembles by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy. The silicon nanocrystals are prepared from the precipitation of a silicon-rich oxynitride layer sandwiched between two SiO2 diffusion barriers and subjected to a high-temperature annealing. We find that such single layers are very sensitive to the annealing parameters and may lead to a significant loss of excess silicon. In addition, these ultrathin layers suffer from significant electron beam damage that needs to be minimized in order to image the pristine sample morphology. Finally we demonstrate how the silicon nanocrystal size distribution develops from a broad to a narrow log-normal distribution, when the initial precipitation layer thickness and stoichiometry are below a critical value.

  17. Arsenic implantation into polycrystalline silicon and diffusion to silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, K.; Akasaka, Y.; Horie, K.

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic implantation into polycrystalline silicon and drive-in diffusion to silicon substrate have been investigated by MeV He + backscattering analysis and also by electrical measurements. The range distributions of arsenic implanted into polycrystalline silicon are well fitted to Gaussian distributions over the energy range 60--350 keV. The measured values of R/sub P/ and ΔR/sub P/ are about 10 and 20% larger than the theoretical predictions, respectively. The effective diffusion coefficient of arsenic implanted into polycrystalline silicon is expressed as D=0.63 exp[(-3.22 eV/kT)] and is independent of the arsenic concentration. The drive-in diffusion of arsenic from the implanted polycrystalline silicon layer into the silicon substrate is significantly affected by the diffusion atmosphere. In the N 2 atmosphere, a considerable amount of arsenic atoms diffuses outward to the ambient. The outdiffusion can be suppressed by encapsulation with Si 3 N 4 . In the oxidizing atmosphere, arsenic atoms are driven inward by growing SiO 2 due to the segregation between SiO 2 and polycrystalline silicon, and consequently the drive-in diffusion of arsenic is enhanced. At the interface between the polycrystalline silicon layer and the silicon substrate, arsenic atoms are likely to segregate at the polycrystalline silicon side

  18. Silicon epitaxy on textured double layer porous silicon by LPCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Hong; Shen Honglie; Zhang Lei; Huang Haibin; Lu Linfeng; Tang Zhengxia; Shen Jiancang

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial silicon thin film on textured double layer porous silicon (DLPS) was demonstrated. The textured DLPS was formed by electrochemical etching using two different current densities on the silicon wafer that are randomly textured with upright pyramids. Silicon thin films were then grown on the annealed DLPS, using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). The reflectance of the DLPS and the grown silicon thin films were studied by a spectrophotometer. The crystallinity and topography of the grown silicon thin films were studied by Raman spectroscopy and SEM. The reflectance results show that the reflectance of the silicon wafer decreases from 24.7% to 11.7% after texturing, and after the deposition of silicon thin film the surface reflectance is about 13.8%. SEM images show that the epitaxial silicon film on textured DLPS exhibits random pyramids. The Raman spectrum peaks near 521 cm -1 have a width of 7.8 cm -1 , which reveals the high crystalline quality of the silicon epitaxy.

  19. White light emission from engineered silicon carbide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide indirect bandgap semiconductor. The light emission efficiency is low in nature. But this material has very unique physical properties like good thermal conductivity, high break down field etc in addition to its abundance. Therefore it is interesting to engineer its...... light emission property so that to take fully potential applications of this material. In this talk, two methods, i.e. doping SiC heavily by donor-acceptor pairs and making SiC porous are introduced to make light emission from SiC. By co-doping SiC with nitrogen and boron heavily, strong yellow emission...... is demonstrated. After optimizing the passivation conditions, strong blue-green emission from porous SiC is demonstrated as well. When combining the yellow emission from co-doped SiC and blue-green from porous SiC, a high color rendering index white light source is achieved....

  20. Study of the main parameters involved in carbothermal reduction reaction of silica aiming to obtain silicon nitride powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, J.C. da; Greca, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of main parameters involved in the method of silicon nitride attainment by carbothermal reduction of silica followed by nitridation were studied in isothermal experiments of fine powder mixtures of silica and graphite in a nitrogen gas flow. The time, temperature, rate C/SiO 2 and flow of nitrogen were varied since they are the main parameters involved in this kind of reaction. The products of reaction were analysed by X-ray diffraction to identify the crystalline phases and as a result was obtained the nucleation of silicon nitride phase. Meanwhile, corroborating prior results, we verified to be difficult the progress of the reaction and the inhibition of formation of silicon carbide phase, the last one being associated to the formation of silicon nitride phase due to thermodynamic matters [pt

  1. Impact of Temporary Nitrogen Deprivation on Tomato Leaf Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Gautier

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the use of pesticides represents a major challenge of modern agriculture. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that participate in the resistance to parasites. The aim of this study was to test: (1 the impact of nitrogen deficiency on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum leaf composition and more particularly on two phenolic molecules (chlorogenic acid and rutin as well as on the general plant biomass; and (2 whether this effect continued after a return to normal nitrogen nutrition. Our results showed that plants deprived of nitrogen for 10 or 19 days contained higher levels of chlorogenic acid and rutin than control plants. In addition, this difference persisted when the plants were once again cultivated on a nitrogen-rich medium. These findings offer interesting perspectives on the use of a short period of deprivation to modulate the levels of compounds of interest in a plant.

  2. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all animal and plant proteins. As a part of the DNA and RNA molecules, nitrogen is an essential constituent of each individual's genetic blueprint. As an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, nitrogen is vital to a plant's ability to photosynthesize. Some crop plants, such as alfalfa, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by a process referred to as 'fixation.' Most of the nitrogen that is available for crop production, however, comes from decomposing animal and plant waste or from commercially produced fertilizers. Commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen in the form of ammonium and/or nitrate or in a form that is quickly converted to the ammonium or nitrate form once the fertilizer is applied to the soil. Ammonia is generally the source of nitrogen in fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is commercially produced by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen under high temperatures and pressures. The source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is almost 80 percent nitrogen. Hydrogen is derived from a variety of raw materials, which include water, and crude oil, coal, and natural gas hydrocarbons. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are produced from ammonia feedstocks through a variety of chemical processes. Small quantities of nitrates are produced from mineral resources principally in Chile. In 2002, anhydrous ammonia and other nitrogen materials were produced in more than 70 countries. Global ammonia production was 108 million metric tons (Mt) of contained nitrogen. With 28 percent of this total, China was the largest producer of ammonia. Asia contributed 46 percent of total world ammonia production, and countries of the former U.S.S.R. represented 13 percent. North America also produced 13 percent of the total; Western Europe, 9 percent; the Middle East, 7 percent; Central America and South America, 5 percent; Eastern Europe, 3 percent; and Africa and Oceania

  3. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  4. The AQUA-RICH atmospheric neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Antonioli, P; Bellagamba, L; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Cindolo, F; De Pasquale, S; Ekelöf, T J C; Garbini, M; Giusti, P; Grossheim, A; Pesci, A; Learned, J G; Margotti, A; Pinfold, James L; Sartorelli, G; Séguinot, Jacques; Tarantino, A; Weilhammer, Peter; Ypsilantis, Thomas; Zichichi, A; Zuber, K

    1999-01-01

    We describe a 125 m diameter spherical detector containing 1 Mt of water, capable of high rate observation of atmospheric neutrino events (30000/y). The ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) technique is used to measure velocity, momentum and direction of particles produced by neutrinos interacting in water. The detector will be sited outdoors (under a 50 m water shield) in a natural (further excavated) pit, probably in Sicily. Spherical reflecting mirrors focus Cherenkov light produced by secondaries from interacting neutrinos. Photons are detected by 5310 hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) of 1 m diameter each with 396 pads of 45*45 mm/sup 2/ on the photocathode surface, demagnified to 9*9 mm/sup 2/ on the silicon sensor. For most tracks the ring width will be dominated by multiple scattering which should allow momentum to be determined. Hadrons of momentum p

  5. Composite silicon nanostructure arrays fabricated on optical fibre by chemical etching of multicrystal silicon film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Ning, Lixin; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wanxia; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Integrating nanostructures onto optical fibers presents a promising strategy for developing new-fashioned devices and extending the scope of nanodevices’ applications. Here we report the first fabrication of a composite silicon nanostructure on an optical fiber. Through direct chemical etching using an H 2 O 2 /HF solution, multicrystal silicon films with columnar microstructures are etched into a vertically aligned, inverted-cone-like nanorod array embedded in a nanocone array. A faster dissolution rate of the silicon at the void-rich boundary regions between the columns is found to be responsible for the separation of the columns, and thus the formation of the nanostructure array. The morphology of the nanorods primarily depends on the microstructure of the columns in the film. Through controlling the microstructure of the as-grown film and the etching parameters, the structural control of the nanostructure is promising. This fabrication method can be extended to a larger length scale, and it even allows roll-to-roll processing. (paper)

  6. Composite silicon nanostructure arrays fabricated on optical fibre by chemical etching of multicrystal silicon film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Ning, Lixin; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wanxia; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hong

    2015-04-17

    Integrating nanostructures onto optical fibers presents a promising strategy for developing new-fashioned devices and extending the scope of nanodevices' applications. Here we report the first fabrication of a composite silicon nanostructure on an optical fiber. Through direct chemical etching using an H2O2/HF solution, multicrystal silicon films with columnar microstructures are etched into a vertically aligned, inverted-cone-like nanorod array embedded in a nanocone array. A faster dissolution rate of the silicon at the void-rich boundary regions between the columns is found to be responsible for the separation of the columns, and thus the formation of the nanostructure array. The morphology of the nanorods primarily depends on the microstructure of the columns in the film. Through controlling the microstructure of the as-grown film and the etching parameters, the structural control of the nanostructure is promising. This fabrication method can be extended to a larger length scale, and it even allows roll-to-roll processing.

  7. Porous silicon-based passivation and gettering in polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimassi, W.; Bouaiecha, M.; Saadoun, M.; Bessaies, B.; Ezzaouia, H.; Bennaceur, R.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we report on the effect of introducing a superficial porous silicon (PS) layer on the electrical characteristics of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. The PS layer was formed using a vapour etching (VE)-based method. In addition to its known anti-reflecting action, the forming hydrogen-rich PS layer acts as a passivating agent for the surface of the cell. As a result we found an improvement of the I-V characteristics in dark conditions and AM1 illumination. We show that when the formation of a superficial PS layer is followed by a heat treatment, gettering of impurities from the polycrystalline silicon material is possible. After the removal of the PS layer and the formation of the photovoltaic (PV) structure, we observed an increase of the light-beam-induced-current (LBIC) for treatment temperatures not exceeding 900 deg. C. An improvement of the bulk minority carrier diffusion length and the grain boundary (GB) recombination velocity were observed as the temperature rises, although a global decrease of the LBIC current was observed for temperatures greater than 900 deg. C

  8. Brucella, nitrogen and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, Severin; Moussa, Simon; Barbier, Thibault; Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Zuniga-Ripa, Amaia; Moriyon, Ignacio; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2016-08-01

    The brucellae are α-Proteobacteria causing brucellosis, an important zoonosis. Although multiplying in endoplasmic reticulum-derived vacuoles, they cause no cell death, suggesting subtle but efficient use of host resources. Brucellae are amino-acid prototrophs able to grow with ammonium or use glutamate as the sole carbon-nitrogen source in vitro. They contain more than twice amino acid/peptide/polyamine uptake genes than the amino-acid auxotroph Legionella pneumophila, which multiplies in a similar vacuole, suggesting a different nutritional strategy. During these two last decades, many mutants of key actors in nitrogen metabolism (transporters, enzymes, regulators, etc.) have been described to be essential for full virulence of brucellae. Here, we review the genomic and experimental data on Brucella nitrogen metabolism and its connection with virulence. An analysis of various aspects of this metabolism (transport, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, respiration and regulation) has highlighted differences and similarities in nitrogen metabolism with other α-Proteobacteria. Together, these data suggest that, during their intracellular life cycle, the brucellae use various nitrogen sources for biosynthesis, catabolism and respiration following a strategy that requires prototrophy and a tight regulation of nitrogen use.

  9. Erbium doped stain etched porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Diaz-Herrera, B.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.; Mendez-Ramos, J.; Rodriguez, V.D.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, C.; Martinez-Duart, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work a simple erbium doping process applied to stain etched porous silicon layers (PSLs) is proposed. This doping process has been developed for application in porous silicon solar cells, where conventional erbium doping processes are not affordable because of the high processing cost and technical difficulties. The PSLs were formed by immersion in a HF/HNO 3 solution to properly adjust the porosity and pore thickness to an optimal doping of the porous structure. After the formation of the porous structure, the PSLs were analyzed by means of nitrogen BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) area measurements and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the PSLs were immersed in a saturated erbium nitrate solution in order to cover the porous surface. Then, the samples were subjected to a thermal process to activate the Er 3+ ions. Different temperatures and annealing times were used in this process. The photoluminescence of the PSLs was evaluated before and after the doping processes and the composition was analyzed by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy

  10. Oxidation-enhanced diffusion of boron in very low-energy N2+-implanted silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlatos, D.; Tsamis, C.; Perego, M.; Fanciulli, M.

    2005-06-01

    In this article we study the interstitial injection during oxidation of very low-energy nitrogen-implanted silicon. Buried boron δ layers are used to monitor the interstitial supersaturation during the oxidation of nitrogen-implanted silicon. No difference in boron diffusivity enhancement was observed compared to dry oxidation of nonimplanted samples. This result is different from our experience from N2O oxynitridation study, during which a boron diffusivity enhancement of the order of 20% was observed, revealing the influence of interfacial nitrogen on interstitial kinetics. A possible explanation may be that implanted nitrogen acts as an excess interstitial sink in order to diffuse towards the surface via a non-Fickian mechanism. This work completes a wide study of oxidation of very low-energy nitrogen-implanted silicon related phenomena we performed within the last two years [D. Skarlatos, C. Tsamis, and D. Tsoukalas, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1832 (2003); D. Skarlatos, E. Kapetanakis, P. Normand, C. Tsamis, M. Perego, S. Ferrari, M. Fanciulli, and D. Tsoukalas, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 300 (2004)].

  11. Improvement in switching characteristics and long-term stability of Zn-O-N thin-film transistors by silicon doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tsuji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of silicon doping on the properties of Zn-O-N (ZnON films and on the device characteristics of ZnON thin-film transistors (TFTs were investigated by co-sputtering silicon and zinc targets. Silicon doping was effective at decreasing the carrier concentration in ZnON films; therefore, the conductivity of the films can be controlled by the addition of a small amount of silicon. Doped silicon atoms also form bonds with nitrogen atoms, which suppresses nitrogen desorption from the films. Furthermore, Si-doped ZnON-TFTs are demonstrated to exhibit less negative threshold voltages, smaller subthreshold swings, and better long-term stability than non-doped ZnON-TFTs.

  12. The CMS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Della Marina, R.; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Leubelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B.Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Rizzo, F.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Silicon microstrip Tracker of the CMS experiment at LHC. It consists of a barrel part with 5 layers and two endcaps with 10 disks each. About 10 000 single-sided equivalent modules have to be built, each one carrying two daisy-chained silicon detectors and their front-end electronics. Back-to-back modules are used to read-out the radial coordinate. The tracker will be operated in an environment kept at a temperature of T=-10 deg. C to minimize the Si sensors radiation damage. Heavily irradiated detectors will be safely operated due to the high-voltage capability of the sensors. Full-size mechanical prototypes have been built to check the system aspects before starting the construction

  13. Undepleted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancoita, P.G.; Seidman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Large-size silicon detectors employing relatively low resistivity material can be used in electromagnetic calorimetry. They can operate in strong magnetic fields, under geometric constraints and with microstrip detectors a high resolution can be achieved. Low noise large capacitance oriented electronics was developed to enable good signal-to-noise ratio for single relativistic particles traversing large area detectors. In undepleted silicon detectors, the charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated by comparing the expected peak position (from the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. Furthermore, the undepleted detectors have been employed in a prototype of Si/W electromagnetic colorimeter. The sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one

  14. Silicon nanowire transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the n and p-channel Silicon Nanowire Transistor (SNT) designs with single and dual-work functions, emphasizing low static and dynamic power consumption. The authors describe a process flow for fabrication and generate SPICE models for building various digital and analog circuits. These include an SRAM, a baseband spread spectrum transmitter, a neuron cell and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in the digital domain, as well as high bandwidth single-stage and operational amplifiers, RF communication circuits in the analog domain, in order to show this technology’s true potential for the next generation VLSI. Describes Silicon Nanowire (SNW) Transistors, as vertically constructed MOS n and p-channel transistors, with low static and dynamic power consumption and small layout footprint; Targets System-on-Chip (SoC) design, supporting very high transistor count (ULSI), minimal power consumption requiring inexpensive substrates for packaging; Enables fabrication of different types...

  15. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  16. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Ultra-shallow arsenic implant depth profiling using low-energy nitrogen beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearn, Sarah; Chater, Richard; McPhail, David

    2004-01-01

    Sputtering of silicon by low-energy nitrogen primary ion beams has been studied by a number of authors to characterize the altered layer, ripple formation and the sputtered yields of secondary ions [Surf. Sci. 424 (1999) 299; Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 53 (1991) 179; Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 (1998) 1287]. This study examines the application of low-energy nitrogen primary ion beams for the possible depth profiling of ultra-shallow arsenic implants into silicon. The emphasis of this work is on the matrix silicon signals in the pre-equilibrium surface region that are used for dose calibration. Problems with these aspects of the concentration depth profiling can give significant inconsistencies well outside the error limits of the quoted dose for the arsenic implantation as independently verified by CV profiling. This occurs during depth profiling with either oxygen primary ion beams (with and without oxygen leaks) or cesium primary ion beams

  18. Electrometallurgy of Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    wind, plants, and water impounded in elevated reservoirs. Photovoltaic or solar cells, which convert sunlight directly to electricity, belongs tc, the...on record is that of St. Claire DeVille, who claimed that silicon was produced by electrolysing an impure melt of NaAlC14, but his material did not...this composition and purified melts were electrolysed at about 14500C in graphite crucible and using graphite electrodes. Applied potentials were

  19. Liquid Silicon Pouch Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Number 15/696,426 Filing Date 6 September 2017 Inventor Charles J. Patrissi et al Address any questions concerning this matter to the...silicon-based anodes during cycling, lithium insertion and deinsertion. Mitigation of this problem has long been sought and will result in improved...design shown. [0032] It will be understood that many additional changes in the details, materials, steps and arrangement of parts, which have been

  20. The CMS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessandro, R.; Biggeri, U.; Bruzzi, M.; Catacchini, E.; Civinini, C.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Meschini, M.; Parrini, G.; Pieri, M.; Albergo, S.; Boemi, D.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Angarano, M.; Creanza, D.; Palma, M. de; Fiore, L.; Maggi, G.; My, S.; Raso, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Tempesta, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Candelori, A.; Castro, A.; Da Rold, M.; Giraldo, A.; Martignon, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Stavitsky, I.; Babucci, E.; Bartalini, P.; Bilei, G.M.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Passeri, D.; Santocchia, A.; Servoli, L.; Wang, Y.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Bosi, F.; Borello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Castaldi, R.; Dell'Orso, R.; Giassi, A.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Sguazzoni, G.; Starodumov, A.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Xie, Z.; Breuker, H.; Caner, A.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Glessing, B.; Hammerstrom, R.; Huhtinen, M.; Mannelli, M.; Marchioro, A.; Schmitt, B.; Stefanini, G.; Connotte, J.; Gu, W.H.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Pandoulas, D.; Siedling, R.; Wittmer, B.; Della Marina, R.; Freudenreich, K.; Lustermann, W.; Viertel, G.; Eklund, C.; Karimaeki, V.; Skog, K.; French, M.; Hall, G.; Mc Evoy, B.; Raymond, M.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Piperov, S.; Tuuva, T.; Watts, S.; Silvestris, L.

    1998-01-01

    The new silicon tracker layout (V4) is presented. The system aspects of the construction are discussed together with the expected tracking performance. Because of the high radiation environment in which the detectors will operate, particular care has been devoted to the study of the characteristics of heavily irradiated detectors. This includes studies on performance (charge collection, cluster size, resolution, efficiency) as a function of the bias voltage, integrated fluence, incidence angle and temperature. (author)

  1. Selfsupported epitaxial silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarovici, D.; Popescu, A.

    1975-01-01

    The methods of removing the p or p + support of an n-type epitaxial silicon layer using electrochemical etching are described. So far, only n + -n junctions have been processed. The condition of anodic dissolution for some values of the support and layer resistivity are given. By this method very thin single crystal selfsupported targets of convenient areas can be obtained for channeling - blocking experiments

  2. Silicon and Civilization,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-04

    of a diamond. 7. The particular physical and chemical properties of silicon resulted in the fact that in the periodic system it was found in the III...small quantities. Silica is found in blades of grass and grain, in reed and bamboo shoots, where it serves to stiffen the stalk. 2. Diatomite ... properties desired in technology. Quartz glass is very resistant to temperature change since it has a very small coefficient of thermal expansion, is

  3. Plasma-enhanced growth, composition, and refractive index of silicon oxy-nitride films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    1995-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry and refractive index measurements have been carried out on silicon oxy-nitride produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Nitrous oxide and ammonia were added to a constant flow of 2% silane in nitrogen, to produce oxy-nitride films with atomic...... nitrogen concentrations between 2 and 10 at. %. A simple atomic valence model is found to describe both the measured atomic concentrations and published material compositions for silicon oxy-nitride produced by PECVD. A relation between the Si–N bond concentration and the refractive index is found......-product. A model, that combine the chemical net reaction and the stoichiometric rules, is found to agree with measured deposition rates for given material compositions. Effects of annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere has been investigated for the 400 °C– 1100 °C temperature range. It is observed that PECVD oxy...

  4. Root Ideotype Influences Nitrogen Transport and Assimilation in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Dechorgnat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays, L. yield is strongly influenced by external nitrogen inputs and their availability in the soil solution. Overuse of nitrogen-fertilizers can have detrimental ecological consequences through increased nitrogen pollution of water and the release of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide. To improve yield and overall nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, a deeper understanding of nitrogen uptake and utilization is required. This study examines the performance of two contrasting maize inbred lines, B73 and F44. F44 was selected in Florida on predominantly sandy acidic soils subject to nitrate leaching while B73 was selected in Iowa on rich mollisol soils. Transcriptional, enzymatic and nitrogen transport analytical tools were used to identify differences in their N absorption and utilization capabilities. Our results show that B73 and F44 differ significantly in their genetic, enzymatic, and biochemical root nitrogen transport and assimilatory pathways. The phenotypes show a strong genetic relationship linked to nitrogen form, where B73 showed a greater capacity for ammonium transport and assimilation whereas F44 preferred nitrate. The contrasting phenotypes are typified by differences in root system architecture (RSA developed in the presence of both nitrate and ammonium. F44 crown roots were longer, had a higher surface area and volume with a greater lateral root number and density than B73. In contrast, B73 roots (primary, seminal, and crown were more abundant but lacked the defining features of the F44 crown roots. An F1 hybrid between B73 and F44 mirrored the B73 nitrogen specificity and root architecture phenotypes, indicating complete dominance of the B73 inbred. This study highlights the important link between RSA and nitrogen management and why both variables need to be tested together when defining NUE improvements in any selection program.

  5. Porous silicon: silicon quantum dots for photonic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavesi, L.; Guardini, R.

    1996-01-01

    Porous silicon formation and structure characterization are briefly illustrated. Its luminescence properties rae presented and interpreted on the basis of exciton recombination in quantum dot structures: the trap-controlled hopping mechanism is used to describe the recombination dynamics. Porous silicon application to photonic devices is considered: porous silicon multilayer in general, and micro cavities in particular are described. The present situation in the realization of porous silicon LEDs is considered, and future developments in this field of research are suggested. (author). 30 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  6. Photovoltaic characteristics of porous silicon /(n+ - p) silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhafarov, T.D.; Aslanov, S.S.; Ragimov, S.H.; Sadigov, M.S.; Nabiyeva, A.F.; Yuksel, Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : The purpose of this work is to improve the photovoltaic parameters of the screen-printed silicon solar cells by formation the nano-porous silicon film on the frontal surface of the cell. The photovoltaic characteristics of two type silicon solar cells with and without porous silicon layer were measured and compared. A remarkable increment of short-circuit current density and the efficiency by 48 percent and 20 percent, respectively, have been achieved for PS/(n + - pSi) solar cell comparing to (n + - p)Si solar cell without PS layer

  7. Application of plasma silicon nitride to crystalline thin-film silicon solar cells. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.; Oberbeck, L.; Rinke, T.J.; Berge, C.; Bergmann, R.B.

    2002-07-01

    We use plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition to deposit silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) films at low temperature(400 C) onto the front surface of two different types of crystalline thin-film Si solar cells. The silicon nitride acts as an excellent antireflection coating on Si and provides a very high degree of electronic surface passivation over a wide range of compositions, including near-stoichiometric and Si-rich SiN{sub x}. Application of stoichiometric SiN{sub x} to non-textured thin-film cells, epitaxially grown at low temperature by ion-assisted deposition onto a monocrystalline Si substrate, results in an open-circuit voltage of 622 mV, a short-circuit current density of 26.6 mA/cm{sup 2} and an efficiency of 12.7%. It is shown that the SiN{sub x}-passivated in-situ grown n{sup +}-emitter of this cell type allows to reach open-circuit voltages of up to 667 mV. Silicon-rich SiN{sub x} is applied to the phosphorus-diffused n{sup +}-emitter of a textured thin-film cell on a glass superstrate fabricated by layer-transfer. The emitter saturation current density of these cells is only 40-64 fA/cm{sup 2}, which allows for open-circuit voltages of up to 699 mV. An impressively high open-circuit voltage of 638 mV and a short-circuit current density of 32.0 mA/cm{sup 2} are obtained for a 25 {mu}m thick SiN{sub x}-passivated, random pyramid-textured transfer cell. A transfer cell efficiency of 15.3% is independently confirmed.

  8. System tests of the LHCb RICH detectors in a charged particle beam

    CERN Document Server

    Skottowe, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    The RICH detectors of the LHCb experiment will provide efficient particle identification over the momentum range 1-100 GeV=c. Results are presented from a beam test of the LHCb RICH system using final production pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors, the final readout electronics and an adapted version of LHCb RICH reconstruction software. Measurements of the photon yields and Cherenkov angle resolutions for both nitrogen and C4F10 radiators agree well with full simulations. The quality of the data and the results obtained demonstrate that all aspects meet the stringent physics requirements of the experiment are now ready for first data.

  9. Optically induced paramagnetism in amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, W.L.; Kanicki, J.; Buchwald, W.R.; Rong, F.C.; Harmatz, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the creation mechanisms of Si and N dangling bond defect centers in amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride thin films by ultra-violet (UV) illumination are investigated. The creation efficiency and density of Si centers in the N-rich films are independent of illumination temperature, strongly suggesting that the creation mechanism of the spins in electronic in nature, i.e., a charge transfer mechanism. However, our results suggest that the creation of the Si dangling bond in the Si-rich films are different. Last, we find that the creation of the N dangling-bond in N-rich films can be fit to a stretched exponential time dependence, which is characteristic of dispersive charge transport

  10. Temporal-spatial dynamics in orthoptera in relation to nutrient availability and plant species richness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob J J Hendriks

    Full Text Available Nutrient availability in ecosystems has increased dramatically over the last century. Excess reactive nitrogen deposition is known to negatively impact plant communities, e.g. by changing species composition, biomass and vegetation structure. In contrast, little is known on how such impacts propagate to higher trophic levels. To evaluate how nitrogen deposition affects plants and herbivore communities through time, we used extensive databases of spatially explicit historical records of Dutch plant species and Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets, a group of animals that are particularly susceptible to changes in the C:N ratio of their resources. We use robust methods that deal with the unstandardized nature of historical databases to test whether nitrogen deposition levels and plant richness changes influence the patterns of richness change of Orthoptera, taking into account Orthoptera species functional traits. Our findings show that effects indeed also propagate to higher trophic levels. Differences in functional traits affected the temporal-spatial dynamics of assemblages of Orthoptera. While nitrogen deposition affected plant diversity, contrary to our expectations, we could not find a strong significant effect of food related traits. However we found that species with low habitat specificity, limited dispersal capacity and egg deposition in the soil were more negativly affected by nitrogen deposition levels. Despite the lack of significant effect of plant richness or food related traits on Orthoptera, the negative effects of nitrogen detected within certain trait groups (e.g. groups with limited disperse ability could be related to subtle changes in plant abundance and plant quality. Our results, however, suggest that the changes in soil conditions (where many Orthoptera species lay their eggs or other habitat changes driven by nitrogen have a stronger influence than food related traits. To fully evaluate the negative effects of nitrogen

  11. Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Deen, M Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...

  12. An Improved Cluster Richness Estimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U.; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; McKay, Timothy; /Michigan U.; Hao, Jiangang; /Michigan U.; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /SLAC; Hansen, Sarah; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Sheldon, Erin; /New York U.; Johnston, David; /Houston U.; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Bleem, Lindsey; /Chicago U.; Scranton, Ryan; /Pittsburgh U.

    2009-08-03

    Minimizing the scatter between cluster mass and accessible observables is an important goal for cluster cosmology. In this work, we introduce a new matched filter richness estimator, and test its performance using the maxBCG cluster catalog. Our new estimator significantly reduces the variance in the L{sub X}-richness relation, from {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.86 {+-} 0.02){sup 2} to {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.69 {+-} 0.02){sup 2}. Relative to the maxBCG richness estimate, it also removes the strong redshift dependence of the richness scaling relations, and is significantly more robust to photometric and redshift errors. These improvements are largely due to our more sophisticated treatment of galaxy color data. We also demonstrate the scatter in the L{sub X}-richness relation depends on the aperture used to estimate cluster richness, and introduce a novel approach for optimizing said aperture which can be easily generalized to other mass tracers.

  13. Porous Silicon Hydrogen Sensor at Room Temperature: The Effect of Surface Modification and Noble Metal Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayita KANUNGO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon (PS was fabricated by anodization of p-type crystalline silicon of resistivity 2-5 Ω cm. After formation, the PS surface was modified by the solution containing noble metal like Pd. Pd-Ag catalytic contact electrodes were deposited on porous silicon and on p-Silicon to fabricate Pd-Ag/PS/p-Si/Pd-Ag sensor structure to carry out the hydrogen sensing experiments. The Sensor was exposed to 1% hydrogen in nitrogen as carrier gas at room temperature (270C. Pd modified sensor showed minimum fluctuations and consistent performance with 86% response, response time and recovery time of 24 sec and 264 sec respectively. The stability experiments were studied for both unmodified and Pd modified sensor structures for a period of about 24 hours and the modified sensors showed excellent durability with no drift in response behavior.

  14. Amorphous silicon based particle detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, N.; Franco, A.; Riesen, Y.; Despeisse, M.; Dunand, S.; Powolny, F.; Jarron, P.; Ballif, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hard monolithic particle sensors can be fabricated by a vertical integration of amorphous silicon particle sensors on top of CMOS readout chip. Two types of such particle sensors are presented here using either thick diodes or microchannel plates. The first type based on amorphous silicon diodes exhibits high spatial resolution due to the short lateral carrier collection. Combination of an amorphous silicon thick diode with microstrip detector geometries permits to achieve micromete...

  15. Characterization of Czochralski Silicon Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Luukka, Panja-Riina; Haerkoenen, Jaakko

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of irradiated and non-irradiated segmenteddetectors made of high-resistivity (>1 kΩcm) magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon. It isshown that the radiation hardness (RH) of the protons of these detectors is higher thanthat of devices made of traditional materials such as Float Zone (FZ) silicon or DiffusionOxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon due to the presence of intrinsic oxygen (> 5 x1017 cm-3). The MCZ devices therefore present an interesting alter...

  16. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-01-01

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrog...

  17. The recent performance of the Omega RICH detector in experiment WA89 at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Beusch, W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Boss, M [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Engelfried, J [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Gerassimov, S G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Klempt, W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Lennert, P [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Martens, K [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Newbold, D [Department of Physics, Univ., Bristol (United Kingdom); Rieseberg, H [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Siebert, H W [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Smith, V J [Department of Physics, Univ., Bristol (United Kingdom); Thilmann, O [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Waelder, G [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.

    1996-03-01

    The hyperon beam experiment WA89 at CERN uses the upgraded Omega RICH detector for identification of {pi}, K and p/p from {Sigma}{sup -}-N reactions. Cherenkov photons from a 5 m long nitrogen radiator are detected in drift chambers with TMAE-loaded ethane. Recent results on the performance of the detector are presented. (orig.).

  18. Laboratory course on silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Crescio, E; Roe, S; Rudge, A

    2003-01-01

    The laboratory course consisted of four different mini sessions, in order to give the student some hands-on experience on various aspects of silicon sensors and related integrated electronics. The four experiments were. 1. Characterisation of silicon diodes for particle detection 2. Study of noise performance of the Viking readout circuit 3. Study of the position resolution of a silicon microstrip sensor 4. Study of charge transport in silicon with a fast amplifier The data in the following were obtained during the ICFA school by the students.

  19. Silicon processing for photovoltaics II

    CERN Document Server

    Khattak, CP

    2012-01-01

    The processing of semiconductor silicon for manufacturing low cost photovoltaic products has been a field of increasing activity over the past decade and a number of papers have been published in the technical literature. This volume presents comprehensive, in-depth reviews on some of the key technologies developed for processing silicon for photovoltaic applications. It is complementary to Volume 5 in this series and together they provide the only collection of reviews in silicon photovoltaics available.The volume contains papers on: the effect of introducing grain boundaries in silicon; the

  20. Nitrogen Cascade: An Opportunity to Integrate Biogeochemistry and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, J. N.; Moomaw, W. R.; Theis, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    It began with micro-organisms millions of years ago, was enhanced by the burning of fossil carbon in the last several hundred years, and was magnified by a patent filed one hundred years ago. Today, the combined actions of cultivation-induced biological nitrogen fixation, fossil fuel combustion and the Haber-Bosch process have exceeded natural terrestrial processes in converting N22 to nitrogen compounds that are biologically, chemically or physically reactive (reactive nitrogen, Nr). While the benefits of Nr are well understood, many of the adverse consequences of excessive Nr are invisible from a policy perspective. Over the past century, the fundamental knowledge on nitrogen processes has advanced to the point where we have a good understanding of nitrogen's biogeochemical cycle, the role of humans in altering the cycle, and the consequences of the alterations. This knowledge has collectively led us to two conclusions-the consequences of intensive human influence on the nitrogen cycle leads to a cascade of ecosystem and human effects which need to be managed. Secondly, the management is complicated by the facts that it not only has to be integrated, but it also has to take into account that the management should not lower the ability of managed ecosystems to produce food for the world's peoples. The framework of the nitrogen cascade provides us with a structure for better identifying intervention points, and more effective policies, technologies and measures to prevent or mitigate the adverse impacts of reactive nitrogen, while enhancing its beneficial uses. We can now begin to use our understanding of science to set priorities and craft new policy strategies. For many regions of the world, the science is strong enough to manage nitrogen and there are existing tools to do so. However, the tools are not integrated, critical tools are missing and most importantly, there are nitrogen-rich regions of the world where the science is lacking, and nitrogen-poor regions

  1. Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kay-Uwe; Stühmer, Roland; Dörflinger, Jörg; Rahmani, Tirdad; Thomas, Susan; Stojanovic, Ljiljana

    Rich Internet Applications significantly raise the user experience compared with legacy page-based Web applications because of their highly responsive user interfaces. Although this is a tremendous advance, it does not solve the problem of the one-size-fits-all approach1 of current Web applications. So although Rich Internet Applications put the user in a position to interact seamlessly with the Web application, they do not adapt to the context in which the user is currently working. In this paper we address the on-the-fly personalization of Rich Internet Applications. We introduce the concept of ARRIAs: Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications and elaborate on how they are able to adapt to the current working context the user is engaged in. An architecture for the ad hoc adaptation of Rich Internet Applications is presented as well as a holistic framework and tools for the realization of our on-the-fly personalization approach. We divided both the architecture and the framework into two levels: offline/design-time and online/run-time. For design-time we explain how to use ontologies in order to annotate Rich Internet Applications and how to use these annotations for conceptual Web usage mining. Furthermore, we describe how to create client-side executable rules from the semantic data mining results. We present our declarative lightweight rule language tailored to the needs of being executed directly on the client. Because of the event-driven nature of the user interfaces of Rich Internet Applications, we designed a lightweight rule language based on the event-condition-action paradigm.2 At run-time the interactions of a user are tracked directly on the client and in real-time a user model is built up. The user model then acts as input to and is evaluated by our client-side complex event processing and rule engine.

  2. Effect of post-deposition implantation and annealing on the properties of PECVD deposited silicon nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams, Q.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that memory-quality silicon nitride can be deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Nitrogen implantation and post-deposition annealing resulted in improved memory properties of MNOS devices. The primary objective of the work described here is the continuation of the above work. Silicon nitride films were deposited using argon as the carrier gas and evaluated in terms of memory performance as the charge-trapping layer in the metal-nitride-oxide-silicon (MNOS) capacitor structure. The bonding structure of PECVD silicon nitride was modified by annealing in different ambients at temperatures higher than the deposition temperature. Post-deposition ion implantation was used to introduce argon into the films in an attempt to influence the transfer, trapping, and emission of charge during write/erase exercising of the MNOS devices. Results show that the memory performance of PECVD silicon nitride is sensitive to the deposition parameters and post-deposition processing

  3. Electrical leakage phenomenon in heteroepitaxial cubic silicon carbide on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepkumar, Aiswarya; Zielinski, Marcin; Bosi, Matteo; Verzellesi, Giovanni; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Iacopi, Francesca

    2018-06-01

    Heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films on silicon substrates are of technological interest as enablers to integrate the excellent electrical, electronic, mechanical, thermal, and epitaxial properties of bulk silicon carbide into well-established silicon technologies. One critical bottleneck of this integration is the establishment of a stable and reliable electronic junction at the heteroepitaxial interface of the n-type SiC with the silicon substrate. We have thus investigated in detail the electrical and transport properties of heteroepitaxial cubic silicon carbide films grown via different methods on low-doped and high-resistivity silicon substrates by using van der Pauw Hall and transfer length measurements as test vehicles. We have found that Si and C intermixing upon or after growth, particularly by the diffusion of carbon into the silicon matrix, creates extensive interstitial carbon traps and hampers the formation of a stable rectifying or insulating junction at the SiC/Si interface. Although a reliable p-n junction may not be realistic in the SiC/Si system, we can achieve, from a point of view of the electrical isolation of in-plane SiC structures, leakage suppression through the substrate by using a high-resistivity silicon substrate coupled with deep recess etching in between the SiC structures.

  4. Light emitting structures porous silicon-silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastyrskii, L.S.; Olenych, I.B.; Panasjuk, M.R.; Savchyn, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    The research of spectroscopic properties of porous silicon has been done. Complex of photoluminescence, electroluminescence, cathodoluminescence, thermostimulated depolarisation current analyte methods have been applied to study of geterostructures and free layers of porous silicon. Light emitting processes had tendency to decrease. The character of decay for all kinds of luminescence were different

  5. Indentation fatigue in silicon nitride, alumina and silicon carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Repeated indentation fatigue (RIF) experiments conducted on the same spot of different structural ceramics viz. a hot pressed silicon nitride (HPSN), sintered alumina of two different grain sizes viz. 1 m and 25 m, and a sintered silicon carbide (SSiC) are reported. The RIF experiments were conducted using a Vicker's ...

  6. The atomic and electronic structure of amorphous silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, F.; Valladares, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Using a novel approach to the ab initio generation of random networks we constructed two nearly stoichiometric samples of amorphous silicon nitride with the same content x= 1.29. The two 64-atom periodically-continued cubic diamond-like cells contain 28 silicons and 36 nitrogens randomly substituted, and were amorphized with a 6 f s time step by heating them to just below their melting temperature with a Harris-functional based, molecular dynamics code in the LDA approximation. The averaged total radial distribution function (RDF) obtained is compared with some existing Tersoff-like potential simulations and with experiment; ours agree with experiment. All the partial radial features are calculated and the composition of the second peak also agrees with experiment. The electronic structure is calculated and the optical gaps obtained using both a HOMO-LUMO approach and the Tauc-like procedure developed recently that gives reasonable gaps. (Author)

  7. Surface topography and morphology characterization of PIII irradiated silicon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Satinder K.; Barthwal, Sumit

    2008-01-01

    The effect of plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment on silicon surfaces was investigated by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. The surface damage was given by the implantation of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and argon ions using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source at low pressure. AFM studies show that surface topography of the PIII treated silicon wafers depend on the physical and chemical nature of the implanted species. Micro-Raman spectra indicate that the significant reduction of intensity of Raman peak after PIII treatment. Plasma immersion ion implantation is a non-line-of-sight ion implantation method, which allows 3D treatment of materials. Therefore, PIII based surface modification and plasma immersion ion deposition (PIID) coatings are applied in a wide range of situations.

  8. The nitrogen cycle: Atmosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric interactions involving the nitrogen species are varied and complex. These interactions include photochemical reactions, initiated by the absorption of solar photons and chemical kinetic reactions, which involve both homogeneous (gas-to-gas reactions) and heterogeneous (gas-to-particle) reactions. Another important atmospheric interaction is the production of nitrogen oxides by atmospheric lightning. The nitrogen cycle strongly couples the biosphere and atmosphere. Many nitrogen species are produced by biogenic processes. Once in the atmosphere nitrogen oxides are photochemically and chemically transformed to nitrates, which are returned to the biosphere via precipitation, dry deposition and aerosols to close the biosphere-atmosphere nitrogen cycle. The sources, sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of the nitrogen species; atmospheric nitrogen species; souces and sinks of nitrous oxide; sources; sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of ammonia; seasonal variation of the vertical distribution of ammonia in the troposphere; surface and atmospheric sources of the nitrogen species, and seasonal variation of ground level ammonia are summarized.

  9. Synthesis of N-rich microporous carbon materials from chitosan by alkali activation using Na_2CO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilnicka, Anna; Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The novel manufacturing procedure of nitrogen-rich carbon materials. • The biopolymer chitosan can be activated by sodium carbonate. • The effect of the addition of activator and the temperature of carbonization was investigated. • The N-rich carbon materials exhibit high specific surface area and microporous structure. - Abstract: The paper presents the first systematic study on the synthesis of nitrogen-rich nanoporous activated carbons by chitosan carbonization in the presence of a hard template (activator), i.e. Na_2CO_3. Carbonization process was carried out in the range of 600–900 °C under a flow of nitrogen. The effect of the addition of different volumes of activator and the temperature of carbonization on the development of specific surface area and pore structure (pore volume and median pore diameter) of the activated carbons was investigated. Additionally, the nitrogen content and nitrogen-containing surface species were determined by means of XPS and combustion elemental analysis. The nitrogen content was placed in the range of 2.4–13.1 wt.%. On the grounds of the low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen, it was found that obtained adsorption isotherms were of type-I, based on the IUPAC classification, which is typical for microporous materials.

  10. Characteristics of fracture during the approach process and wear mechanism of a silicon AFM tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Koo-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Ha; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2005-01-01

    The wear of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is one of the crucial issues in AFM as well as in other probe-based applications. In this work, wear tests under extremely low normal load using an AFM were conducted. Also, in order to understand the nature of silicon tip wear, the wear characteristics of crystal silicon and amorphous silicon oxide layer were investigated by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). It was found that fracture of the tip readily occurred due to impact during the approach process. Experimental results showed that the impact should be below 0.1 nN s to avoid significant fracture of the tip. Also, it was observed that wear of the amorphous layer, formed at the end of the tip, occurred at the initial stage of the silicon tip damage process. Based on Archard's wear law, the wear coefficient of the amorphous layer was in the range of 0.009-0.014. As for the wear characteristics of the silicon tip, it was shown that wear occurred gradually under light normal load and the wear rate decreased with increase in the sliding distance. As for the wear mechanism of the silicon tip, oxidation wear was identified to be the most significant. It was shown that the degree of oxidation was higher under high normal load and in a nitrogen environment, oxidation of the silicon tip was reduced

  11. Micro-cutting of silicon implanted with hydrogen and post-implantation thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenković, Emil V.; To, Suet; Sundaravel, B.; Xiao, Gaobo; Huang, Hu

    2016-07-01

    It was reported that non-amorphizing implantation by hydrogen has a potential in improving silicon machining. Post-implantation high-temperature treatment will affect implantation-induced damage, which can have impact on silicon machining. In this article, a relation of a thermal annealing of hydrogen implanted in silicon to micro-cutting experiment is investigated. Hydrogen ions were implanted into 4″ silicon wafers with 175 keV, 150 keV, 125 keV and doses of 2 × 1016 cm-2, 2 × 1016 cm-2 and 3 × 1016 cm-2, respectively. In this way, low hydrogen atom-low defect concentration was created in the region less than ~0.8 μm deep and high hydrogen atom-high defect concentration was obtained at silicon depth of ~0.8-1.5 μm. The post-implantation annealing was carried out at 300 and 400 °C in nitrogen for 1 h. Physical and electrical properties of implanted and annealed samples were characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nanoindentation. Plunge cutting experiment was carried out in and silicon crystal direction. The critical depth of cut and cutting force were monitored and found to be influenced by the annealing. The limits of hydrogen implantation annealing contribution to the cutting characteristics of silicon are discussed in light of implantation process and redistribution of hydrogen and defects generation during annealing process.

  12. Effect of ultraviolet illumination and ambient gases on the photoluminescence and electrical properties of nanoporous silicon layer for organic vapor sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiwongsangthong, Narin

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this research, the nanoporous silicon layer were fabricated and investigated the physical properties such as photoluminescence and the electrical properties in order to develop organic vapor sensor by using nanoporous silicon. The Changes in the photoluminescence intensity of nanoporous silicon samples are studied during ultraviolet illumination in various ambient gases such as nitrogen, oxigen and vacuum. In this paper, the nanoporous silicon layer was used as organic vapor adsorption and sensing element. The advantage of this device are simple process compatible in silicon technology and usable in room temperature. The structure of this device consists of nanoporous silicon layer which is formed by anodization of silicon wafer in hydrofluoric acid solution and aluminum electrode which deposited on the top of nanoporous silicon layer by evaporator. The nanoporous silicon sensors were placed in a gas chamber with various organic vapor such as ethanol, methanol and isopropyl alcohol. From studying on electrical characteristics of this device, it is found that the nanoporous silicon layer can detect the different organic vapor. Therefore, the nanoporous silicon is important material for organic vapor sensor and it can develop to other applications about gas sensors in the future.

  13. Influence of hydrogen effusion from hydrogenated silicon nitride layers on the regeneration of boron-oxygen related defects in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilking, S.; Ebert, S.; Herguth, A.; Hahn, G.

    2013-01-01

    The degradation effect boron doped and oxygen-rich crystalline silicon materials suffer from under illumination can be neutralized in hydrogenated silicon by the application of a regeneration process consisting of a combination of slightly elevated temperature and carrier injection. In this paper, the influence of variations in short high temperature steps on the kinetics of the regeneration process is investigated. It is found that hotter and longer firing steps allowing an effective hydrogenation from a hydrogen-rich silicon nitride passivation layer result in an acceleration of the regeneration process. Additionally, a fast cool down from high temperature to around 550 °C seems to be crucial for a fast regeneration process. It is suggested that high cooling rates suppress hydrogen effusion from the silicon bulk in a temperature range where the hydrogenated passivation layer cannot release hydrogen in considerable amounts. Thus, the hydrogen content of the silicon bulk after the complete high temperature step can be increased resulting in a faster regeneration process. Hence, the data presented here back up the theory that the regeneration process might be a hydrogen passivation of boron-oxygen related defects

  14. Verteerbaarheid (ileaal en faecaal) van biologisch geteelde eiwitrijke voedergrondstoffen bij varkens = Digestibility (ileal and faecal) of organically-grown protein-rich raw materials in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this research the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and amino acids and the faecal digestibility of organic matter, nitrogen, fat, non-starch polysaccharides, energy and phosphorus of protein-rich organicallygrown feed raw materials were evaluated in pigs. The products were rapeseed meal expeller,

  15. Coal pyrolysis under hydrogen-rich gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, H.; Sun, C.; Li, B.; Liu, Z. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1998-04-01

    To improve the economy of the pyrolysis process by reducing the hydrogen cost, it is suggested to use cheaper hydrogen-rich gases such as coke-oven gas (COG) or synthesis gas (SG) instead of pure hydrogen. The pyrolysis of Chinese Xianfeng lignite which was carried out with real COG and SG at 3-5 MPa, a final temperature of 650{degree}C and a heating rate of 5{degree}C/min in a 10g fixed-bed reactor is compared with coal pyrolysis with pure hydrogen and nitrogen under the same conditions. The results indicate that compared with hydropyrolysis at the same total pressure, the total conversion and tar yields from coal pyrolysis with COG and SG decreases while the unwanted water increases. However, at the same H{sub 2} partial pressure, the tar yields and yields of BBTX, PCX and naphthalene from the pyrolysis of coal with COG and SG are all significantly higher than those of hydropyrolysis. Therefore, it is possible to use COG and SG instead of pure hydrogen. 8 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Nanostructured silicon nitride from wheat and rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qadri, S. B.; Rath, B. B.; Gorzkowski, E. P.; Wollmershauser, J. A.; Feng, C. R. [Materials Science and Component Technology Directorate, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Nanoparticles, submicron-diameter tubes, and rods of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were synthesized from the thermal treatment of wheat and rice husks at temperatures at and above 1300 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. The whole pattern Rietveld analysis of the observed diffraction data from treatments at 1300 °C showed the formation of only hexagonal α-phase of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with an R-factor of 1%, whereas samples treated at 1400 °C and above showed both α- and β-phases with an R-factor of 2%. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of tubes, rods, and nanoparticles of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. In a two-step process, where pure SiC was produced first from rice or wheat husk in an argon atmosphere and subsequently treated in a nitrogen atmosphere at 1450 °C, a nanostructured composite material having α- and β-phases of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} combined with cubic phase of SiC was formed. The thermodynamics of the formation of silicon nitride is discussed in terms of the solid state reaction between organic matter (silica content), which is inherently present in the wheat and rice husks, with the nitrogen from the furnace atmosphere. Nanostructures of silicon nitride formed by a single direct reaction or their composites with SiC formed in a two-step process of agricultural byproducts provide an uncomplicated sustainable synthesis route for silicon nitride used in mechanical, biotechnology, and electro-optic nanotechnology applications.

  17. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Elsasser, Ch; Gallas Torreira, A; Pérez Trigo, A; Rodríguez Pérez, P; Bay, A; Blanc, F; Dupertuis, F; Haefeli, G; Komarov, I; Märki, R; Muster, B; Nakada, T; Schneider, O; Tobin, M; Tran, M T; Anderson, J; Bursche, A; Chiapolini, N; Saornil, S; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Vollhardt, A; Britsch, M; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb experiment is to study rare heavy quark decays and CP vio- lation with the high rate of beauty and charmed hadrons produced in $pp$ collisions at the LHC. The detector is designed as a single-arm forward spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification performance. The Silicon Tracker is a key part of the tracking system to measure the particle trajectories to high precision. This paper reports the performance as well as the results of the radiation damage monitoring based on leakage currents and on charge collection efficiency scans during the data taking in the LHC Run I.

  18. Photovoltaics: sunshine and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirzaker, Mike

    2006-05-15

    Spain's photovoltaic sector grew rapidly in 2004 only to slow down in 2005. While a State-guaranteed feed-in tariff is in place to drive a take-off, some of the smaller administrative cogs are buckling under the pressure. Projects are being further slowed by soaring world silicon prices and module shortages. Nevertheless, market volume is higher than ever before, and bio capital from both home and abroad is betting that the Spanish take-off is around the corner. (Author)

  19. Molecular nitrogen fixation and nitrogen cycle in nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, A I

    1952-01-01

    The origin of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere is discussed. Evidently only a small proportion of the nitrate-and nitrite-nitrogen found in the precipitation is formed through electric discharges from molecular nitrogen, photochemical nitrogen fixation being probably of greater importance. Formation of nitrate nitrogen through atmospheric oxidation of nitrous oxide (N/sub 2/O) evaporating from the soil is also considered likely. Determination of nitrogen compounds at different altitudes is indispensable for gaining information of the N/sub 2/-fixation in the atmosphere and, in general, of the origin of nitrogen oxides and their decomposition. International cooperation is needed for this as well as for the quantitative determination of the nitrogen compounds removed from the soil by leaching and brought by waters into the seas.

  20. Controlled localised melting in silicon by high dose germanium implantation and flash lamp annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelskow, Matthias; Skorupa, Wolfgang; Pezoldt, Joerg; Kups, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    High intensity light pulse irradiation of monocrystalline silicon wafers is usually accompanied by inhomogeneous surface melting. The aim of the present work is to induce homogeneous buried melting in silicon by germanium implantation and subsequent flash lamp annealing. For this purpose high dose, high energy germanium implantation has been employed to lower the melting temperature of silicon in a predetermined depth region. Subsequent flash lamp irradiation at high energy densities leads to local melting of the germanium rich buried layer, whereby the thickness of the molten layer depends on the irradiation energy density. During the cooling down epitaxial crystallization takes place resulting in a largely defect-free layer. The combination of buried melting and dopant segregation has the potential to produce unusually buried doping profiles or to create strained silicon structures.

  1. Magnetically retained silicone facial prosthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-09

    Jun 9, 2013 ... Prosthetic camouflaging of facial defects and use of silicone maxillofacial material are the alternatives to the surgical retreatment. Silicone elastomers provide more options to clinician for customization of the facial prosthesis which is simple, esthetically good when coupled with bio magnets for retention.

  2. Impurity doping processes in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1981-01-01

    This book introduces to non-experts several important processes of impurity doping in silicon and goes on to discuss the methods of determination of the concentration of dopants in silicon. The conventional method used is the discussion process, but, since it has been sufficiently covered in many texts, this work describes the double-diffusion method.

  3. Radiation hard cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Abreu, M.C.; Bell, W.H.; Berglund, P.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chapuy, S.; Cindro, V.; Collins, P.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.; Dezillie, B.; Dimcovski, Z.; Eremin, V.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Konorov, I.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Mikuz, M.; Niinikoski, T.O.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Palmieuri, V.G.; Paul, S.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rato, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Verbitskaya, E.; Watts, S.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently observed that heavily irradiated silicon detectors, no longer functional at room temperature, 'resuscitate' when operated at temperatures below 130 K. This is often referred to as the 'Lazarus effect'. The results presented here show that cryogenic operation represents a new and reliable solution to the problem of radiation tolerance of silicon detectors

  4. Recent developments in silicon calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, J.E.

    1990-11-01

    We present a survey of some of the recent calorimeter applications of silicon detectors. The numerous attractive features of silicon detectors are summarized, with an emphasis on those aspects important to calorimetry. Several of the uses of this technology are summarized and referenced. We consider applications for electromagnetic calorimetry, hadronic calorimetry, and proposals for the SSC

  5. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  6. Flowmeter with silicon flow tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Haneveld, J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2009-01-01

    A flowmeter comprising a system chip with a silicon substrate provided on a carrier, in an opening whereof at least one silicon flow tube is provided for transporting a medium whose flow rate is to be measured, said tube having two ends that issue via a wall of the opening into channels coated with

  7. Luneburg lens in silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Falco, Andrea; Kehr, Susanne C; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-03-14

    The Luneburg lens is an aberration-free lens that focuses light from all directions equally well. We fabricated and tested a Luneburg lens in silicon photonics. Such fully-integrated lenses may become the building blocks of compact Fourier optics on chips. Furthermore, our fabrication technique is sufficiently versatile for making perfect imaging devices on silicon platforms.

  8. Enthalpy of sublimation as measured using a silicon oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Hamza; Pomeroy, J. M.

    In this study, we report the enthalpy of sublimation of common gases (nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, neon, krypton, xenon, and water vapor) using a large area silicon oscillator with a sub-ng (~0.027 ng/cm2) mass sensitivity. The double paddle oscillator design enables high frequency stability (17 ppb) at cryogenic temperatures and provides a consistent technique for enthalpy measurements. The enthalpies of sublimation are derived from the rate of mass loss during programmed thermal desorption and are detected as a change in the resonance frequency of the self-tracking oscillator. These measured enthalpy values show excellent agreement with the accepted literature values.

  9. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  10. Chitin: 'Forgotten' Source of Nitrogen: From Modern Chitin to Thermally Mature Kerogen: Lessons from Nitrogen Isotope Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Wintsch, R.P.; Lewan, M.D.; DeNiro, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Chitinous biomass represents a major pool of organic nitrogen in living biota and is likely to have contributed some of the fossil organic nitrogen in kerogen. We review the nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of chitin and present preliminary results suggesting interaction between kerogen and ammonium during thermal maturation. Modern arthropod chitin may shift its nitrogen isotope ratio by a few per mil depending on the chemical method of chitin preparation, mostly because N-containing non-amino-sugar components in chemically complex chitin cannot be removed quantitatively. Acid hydrolysis of chemically complex chitin and subsequent ion-chromatographic purification of the "deacetylated chitin-monomer" D-glucosamine (in hydrochloride form) provides a chemically well-defined, pure amino-sugar substrate for reproducible, high-precision determination of ??15N values in chitin. ??15N values of chitin exhibited a variability of about one per mil within an individual's exoskeleton. The nitrogen isotope ratio differed between old and new exoskeletons by up to 4 per mil. A strong dietary influence on the ??15N value of chitin is indicated by the observation of increasing ??15N values of chitin from marine crustaceans with increasing trophic level. Partial biodegradation of exoskeletons does not significantly influence ??15N values of remaining, chemically preserved amino sugar in chitin. Diagenesis and increasing thermal maturity of sedimentary organic matter, including chitin-derived nitrogen-rich moieties, result in humic compounds much different from chitin and may significantly change bulk ??15N values. Hydrous pyrolysis of immature source rocks at 330??C in contact with 15N-enriched NH4Cl, under conditions of artificial oil generation, demonstrates the abiogenic incorporation of inorganic nitrogen into carbon-bound nitrogen in kerogen. Not all organic nitrogen in natural, thermally mature kerogen is therefore necessarily derived from original organic matter, but may

  11. Nitrogen Fixation in Cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that are widespread in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments and many of them are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. But ironically, nitrogenase, the enzyme that is responsible for the reduction of N2, is extremely sensitive to O2.

  12. Replaceable liquid nitrogen piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasujima, Yasuo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masataka; Hongo, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This liquid nitrogen piping with total length of about 50 m was made and installed to supply the liquid nitrogen for heat insulating shield to three superconducting magnets for deflection and large super-conducting magnet for detection in the π-meson beam line used for high energy physics experiment in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The points considered in the design and manufacture stages are reported. In order to minimize the consumption of liquid nitrogen during transport, vacuum heat insulation method was adopted. The construction period and cost were reduced by the standardization of the components, the improvement of welding works and the elimination of ineffective works. For simplifying the maintenance, spare parts are always prepared. The construction and the procedure of assembling of the liquid nitrogen piping are described. The piping is of double-walled construction, and its low temperature part was made of SUS 316L. The super-insulation by aluminum vacuum evaporation and active carbon were attached on the external surface of the internal pipe. The final leak test and the heating degassing were performed. The tests on evacuation, transport capacity and heat entry are reported. By making the internal pipe into smaller size, the piping may be more efficient. (Kako, I.)

  13. Nitrogen availability for nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria upon growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120 is able to convert dinitrogen to ammonia in the absence of combined nitrogen. The expression of 20% of coding sequences from all major metabolic categories was examined in nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing growth conditions. The expression data were correlated ...

  14. Chalcogen donnors in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scolfaro, L.M.R.

    1985-01-01

    The electronic stucture of chalcogen impurities in silicon which give rise to deep levels in the forbidden band gap of that semiconductor is studied. The molecular cluster model within the formalism of the multiple scattering method in the Xα local density approximation was used . The surface orbitals were treated by using the Watson sphere model. Studies were carried out for the isolated substitutional sulfur and selenium impurities (Si:S and Si:Se). A pioneer investigation was performed for the nearest-neighbor impurity pairs of sulfur and selenium (Si:S 2 and Si:Se 2 ). All the systems were also analysed in the positive charge states (Si:S + , Si:Se + and Si:Se 2 + ) and for the isolated impurities the calculations were carried out to the spin polarized limit. The obtained results were used to interpret recent photoconductivity, photocapitance, EPR and DLTS data on these centers. It was observed that the adopted model is able to provide a satisfactory description of the electronic structure of the chalcogen impurity centers in silicon. (autor) [pt

  15. Flexible silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakers, A.W.; Armour, T. [Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    In order to be useful for certain niche applications, crystalline silicon solar cells must be able to sustain either one-time flexure or multiple non-critical flexures without significant loss of strength or efficiency. This paper describes experimental characterisation of the behaviour of thin crystalline silicon solar cells, under either static or repeated flexure, by flexing samples and recording any resulting changes in performance. Thin SLIVER cells were used for the experiment. Mechanical strength was found to be unaffected after 100,000 flexures. Solar conversion efficiency remained at greater than 95% of the initial value after 100,000 flexures. Prolonged one-time flexure close to, but not below, the fracture radius resulted in no significant change of properties. For every sample, fracture occurred either on the first flexure to a given radius of curvature, or not at all when using that radius. In summary, for a given radius of curvature, either the flexed solar cells broke immediately, or they were essentially unaffected by prolonged or multiple flexing. (author)

  16. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Haefner, Petra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), made up from silicon micro-strip detectors is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. TWEPP Summary In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton- proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signal from the strips is processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data i...

  17. Sorption Properties of Aerogel in Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley L.

    2006-01-01

    Aerogel products are now available as insulation materials of the future. The Cryogenics Test Laboratory at the NASA Kennedy Space Center is developing aerogel-based thermal insulation systems for space launch applications. Aerogel beads (Cabot Nanogel ) and aerogel blankets (Aspen Aerogels Spaceloft ) have outstanding ambient pressure thermal performance that makes them useful for applications where sealing is not possible. Aerogel beads are open-celled silicone dioxide and have tiny pores that run throughout the body of the bead. It has also recently been discovered that aerogel beads can be used as a filtering device for aqueous compounds at room temperature. With their hydrophobic covering, the beads absorb any non-polar substance and they can be chemically altered to absorb hot gases. The combination of the absorption and cryogenic insulating properties of aerogel beads have never been studied together. For future cryogenic insulation applications, it is crucial to know how the beads react while immersed in cryogenic liquids, most notably liquid nitrogen. Aerogel beads in loose-fill situation and aerogel blankets with composite fiber structure have been tested for absorption properties. Depending on the type of aerogel used and the preparation, preliminary results show the material can absorb up to seven times its own weight of liquid nitrogen, corresponding to a volumetric ratio of 0.70 (unit volume nitrogen per unit volume aerogel). These tests allow for an estimate on how much insulation is needed in certain situations. The theory behind the different processes of sorption is necessary for a better understanding of the preparation of the beads before they are used in an insulation system.

  18. Tunnel Oxides Formed by Field-Induced Anodisation for Passivated Contacts of Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingnan Tong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel silicon oxides form a critical component for passivated contacts for silicon solar cells. They need to be sufficiently thin to allow carriers to tunnel through and to be uniform both in thickness and stoichiometry across the silicon wafer surface, to ensure uniform and low recombination velocities if high conversion efficiencies are to be achieved. This paper reports on the formation of ultra-thin silicon oxide layers by field-induced anodisation (FIA, a process that ensures uniform oxide thickness by passing the anodisation current perpendicularly through the wafer to the silicon surface that is anodised. Spectroscopical analyses show that the FIA oxides contain a lower fraction of Si-rich sub-oxides compared to wet-chemical oxides, resulting in lower recombination velocities at the silicon and oxide interface. This property along with its low temperature formation highlights the potential for FIA to be used to form low-cost tunnel oxide layers for passivated contacts of silicon solar cells.

  19. The Global Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    Once upon a time nitrogen did not exist. Today it does. In the intervening time the universe was formed, nitrogen was created, the Earth came into existence, and its atmosphere and oceans were formed! In this analysis of the Earth's nitrogen cycle, I start with an overview of these important events relative to nitrogen and then move on to the more traditional analysis of the nitrogen cycle itself and the role of humans in its alteration.The universe is ˜15 Gyr old. Even after its formation, there was still a period when nitrogen did not exist. It took ˜300 thousand years after the big bang for the Universe to cool enough to create atoms; hydrogen and helium formed first. Nitrogen was formed in the stars through the process of nucleosynthesis. When a star's helium mass becomes great enough to reach the necessary pressure and temperature, helium begins to fuse into still heavier elements, including nitrogen.Approximately 10 Gyr elapsed before Earth was formed (˜4.5 Ga (billion years ago)) by the accumulation of pre-assembled materials in a multistage process. Assuming that N2 was the predominate nitrogen species in these materials and given that the temperature of space is -270 °C, N2 was probably a solid when the Earth was formed since its boiling point (b.p.) and melting point (m.p.) are -196 °C and -210 °C, respectively. Towards the end of the accumulation period, temperatures were probably high enough for significant melting of some of the accumulated material. The volcanic gases emitted by the resulting volcanism strongly influenced the surface environment. Nitrogen was converted from a solid to a gas and emitted as N2. Carbon and sulfur were probably emitted as CO and H2S (Holland, 1984). N2 is still the most common nitrogen volcanic gas emitted today at a rate of ˜2 TgN yr-1 (Jaffee, 1992).Once emitted, the gases either remained in the atmosphere or were deposited to the Earth's surface, thus continuing the process of biogeochemical cycling. The rate of

  20. Ion induced segregation in gold nanostructured thin films on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, J.; Satyam, P.V.

    2008-01-01

    We report a direct observation of segregation of gold atoms to the near surface regime due to 1.5 MeV Au 2+ ion impact on isolated gold nanostructures deposited on silicon. Irradiation at fluences of 6 x 10 13 , 1 x 10 14 and 5 x 10 14 ions cm -2 at a high beam flux of 6.3 x 10 12 ions cm -2 s -1 show a maximum transported distance of gold atoms into the silicon substrate to be 60, 45 and 23 nm, respectively. At a lower fluence (6 x 10 13 ions cm -2 ) transport has been found to be associated with the formation of gold silicide (Au 5 Si 2 ). At a high fluence value of 5 x 10 14 ions cm -2 , disassociation of gold silicide and out-diffusion lead to the segregation of gold to defect - rich surface and interface regions.

  1. Towards neuromorphic electronics: Memristors on foldable silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2014-11-01

    The advantages associated with neuromorphic computation are rich areas of complex research. We address the fabrication challenge of building neuromorphic devices on structurally foldable platform with high integration density. We present a CMOS compatible fabrication process to demonstrate for the first time memristive devices fabricated on bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) which is next transformed into a flexible thin sheet of silicon fabric with all the pre-fabricated devices. This process preserves the ultra-high integration density advantage unachievable on other flexible substrates. In addition, the memristive devices are of the size of a motor neuron and the flexible/folded architectural form factor is critical to match brain cortex\\'s folded pattern for ultra-compact design.

  2. The STAR-RICH Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lasiuk, B; Braem, André; Cozza, D; Davenport, M; De Cataldo, G; Dell'Olio, L; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Dunlop, J C; Finch, E; Fraissard, Daniel; Franco, A; Gans, J; Ghidini, B; Harris, J W; Horsley, M; Kunde, G J; Lasiuk, B; Lesenechal, Y; Majka, R D; Martinengo, P; Morsch, Andreas; Nappi, E; Paic, G; Piuz, François; Posa, F; Raynaud, J; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Santiard, Jean-Claude; Satinover, J; Schyns, E M; Smirnov, N; Van Beelen, J; Williams, T D; Xu, Z

    2002-01-01

    The STAR-RICH detector extends the particle idenfication capabilities of the STAR spectrometer for charged hadrons at mid-rapidity. It allows identification of pions and kaons up to ~3 GeV/c and protons up to ~5 GeV/c. The characteristics and performance of the device in the inaugural RHIC run are described.

  3. SOFTWARE SUPPORT FOR RICH PICTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Rich pictures (RP) are common in object-oriented analysis and design courses, but students seem to have problems in integrating them in their projects' workflow. A new software tool is being developed, specific for RP authoring. To better understand students' issues and working practice with RP...

  4. Recent Optical and SEM Characterization of Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator Diamond on Silicon Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Ross, D. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; McNamara, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the 4 Genesis solar wind concentrator collectors was a silicon substrate coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in which to capture solar wind. This material was designed for analysis of solar nitrogen and noble gases [1, 2]. This particular collector fractured during landing, but about 80% of the surface was recovered, including a large piece which was subdivided in 2012 [3, 4, 5]. The optical and SEM imaging and analysis described below supports the subdivision and allocation of the diamond-on-silicon (DOS) concentrator collector.

  5. Effect of Etching Parameter on Pore Size and Porosity of Electrochemically Formed Nanoporous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common fabrication technique of porous silicon (PS is electrochemical etching of a crystalline silicon wafer in a hydrofluoric (HF acid-based solution. The electrochemical process allows for precise control of the properties of PS such as thickness of the porous layer, porosity, and average pore diameter. The control of these properties of PS was shown to depend on the HF concentration in the used electrolyte, the applied current density, and the thickness of PS. The change in pore diameter, porosity, and specific surface area of PS was investigated by measuring nitrogen sorption isotherms.

  6. Nanodiamonds with silicon vacancy defects for nontoxic photostable fluorescent labeling of neural precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Tobias D; Castelletto, Stefania; Aharonovich, Igor; Turbic, Alisa; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Turnley, Ann M

    2013-10-15

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) containing silicon vacancy (SiV) defects were evaluated as a potential biomarker for the labeling and fluorescent imaging of neural precursor cells (NPCs). SiV-containing NDs were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition and silicon ion implantation. Spectrally, SiV-containing NDs exhibited extremely stable fluorescence and narrow bandwidth emission with an excellent signal to noise ratio exceeding that of NDs containing nitrogen-vacancy centers. NPCs labeled with NDs exhibited normal cell viability and proliferative properties consistent with biocompatibility. We conclude that SiV-containing NDs are a promising biomedical research tool for cellular labeling and optical imaging in stem cell research.

  7. Relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Nakai, K.; Itoh, C.; Horikiri, J.; Sera, K.; Sato, M.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon levels in dialysis patients are markedly increasing. Using PIXE we determined the relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance in 30 samples. Urine silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.001). And also serum silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.0001). (author)

  8. Luminescence of porous silicon doped by erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, V.P.; Vorozov, N.N.; Dolgij, L.N.; Dorofeev, A.M.; Kazyuchits, N.M.; Leshok, A.A.; Troyanova, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of the 1.54 μm intensive luminescence in the silicon dense porous layers, doped by erbium, with various structures is shown. Low-porous materials of both porous type on the p-type silicon and porous silicon with wood-like structure on the n + type silicon may be used for formation of light-emitting structures

  9. Apparatus for making molten silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  10. Silicon Telescope Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

    2005-01-01

    The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

  11. Silicon radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benc, I.; Kerhart, J.; Kopecky, J.; Krca, P.; Veverka, V.; Weidner, M.; Weinova, H.

    1992-01-01

    The silicon radiation detector, which is designed for the detection of electrons with energies above 500 eV and of radiation within the region of 200 to 1100 nm, comprises a PIN or PNN + type photodiode. The active acceptor photodiode is formed by a detector surface of shallow acceptor diffusion surrounded by a collector band of deep acceptor diffusion. The detector surface of shallow P-type diffusion with an acceptor concentration of 10 15 to 10 17 atoms/cm 3 reaches a depth of 40 to 100 nm. One sixth to one eighth of the collector band width is overlapped by the P + collector band at a width of 150 to 300 μm with an acceptor concentration of 10 20 to 10 21 atoms/cm 3 down a depth of 0.5 to 3 μm. This band is covered with a conductive layer, of NiCr for instance. (Z.S.)

  12. Zirconates heteroepitaxy on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fompeyrine, Jean; Seo, Jin Won; Seigwart, Heinz; Rossel, Christophe; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2002-03-01

    In the coming years, agressive scaling in CMOS technology will probably trigger the transition to more advanced materials, for example alternate gate dielectrics. Epitaxial thin films are attractive candidates, as long as the difficult chemical and structural issues can be solved, and superior properties can be obtained. Since very few binary oxides can match the electrical, physical and structural requirements which are needed, a combination of those binaries are used here to investigate other lattice matched oxides. We will report on the growth of crystalline zirconium oxide thin films stabilized with different cationic substitutions. All films have been grown in an oxide-MBE system by direct evaporation of the elements on silicon substrates and exposure to molecular or atomic oxygen. The conditions required to obtain epitaxial thin films will be discussed, and successful examples will be presented.

  13. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    Silicon (Si) is known to be a beneficial element for plants. However, when plant residues are to be used as feedstock for second generation bioenergy, Si may reduce the suitability of the biomass for biochemical or thermal conversion technologies. The objective of this PhD study was to investigate......, a mutant in Si influx transporter BdLsi1 was identified. BdLsi1 belongs to the major intrinsic protein family. The mutant BdLsi1 protein had an amino acid change from proline to serine in the highly conserved NPA motif. The mutation caused a defect in channeling of Si as well as other substrates...... such as germanium and arsenite. The Si concentration in the mutant plant was significantly reduced by more than 80 %. Rice mutants defective in Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 also showed significantly lower straw Si concentration. It is concluded that the quality of straw biomass for bioenergy purposes can...

  14. Muonium states in silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.D.; Baumeler, H.; Keller, H.; Kiefl, R.F.; Kuendig, W.; Odermatt, W.; Schneider, J.W.; Estle, T.L.; Spencer, D.P.; Savic, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    Implanted muons in samples of silicon carbide have been observed to form paramagnetic muonium centers (μ + e - ). Muonium precession signals in low applied magnetic fields have been observed at 22 K in a granular sample of cubic β-SiC, however it was not possible to determine the hyperfine frequency. In a signal crystal sample of hexagonal 6H-SiC, three apparently isotropic muonium states were observed at 20 K and two at 300 K, all with hyperfine frequencies intermediate between those of the isotropic muonium centers in diamond and silicon. No evidence was seen of an anisotropic muonium state analogous to the Mu * state in diamond and silicon. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of Czochralski silicon detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Luukka, Panja-Riina

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of irradiated and non-irradiated segmented detectors made of high-resistivity (>1 kΩcm) magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon. It is shown that the radiation hardness (RH) of the protons of these detectors is higher than that of devices made of traditional materials such as Float Zone (FZ) silicon or Diffusion Oxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon due to the presence of intrinsic oxygen (> 5 × 1017 cm−3). The MCZ devices therefore present an interesting ...

  16. Polycrystalline Silicon Gettered by Porous Silicon and Heavy Phosphorous Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zuming(刘祖明); Souleymane K Traore; ZHANG Zhongwen(张忠文); LUO Yi(罗毅)

    2004-01-01

    The biggest barrier for photovoltaic (PV) utilization is its high cost, so the key for scale PV utilization is to further decrease the cost of solar cells. One way to improve the efficiency, and therefore lower the cost, is to increase the minority carrier lifetime by controlling the material defects. The main defects in grain boundaries of polycrystalline silicon gettered by porous silicon and heavy phosphorous diffusion have been studied. The porous silicon was formed on the two surfaces of wafers by chemical etching. Phosphorous was then diffused into the wafers at high temperature (900℃). After the porous silicon and diffusion layers were removed, the minority carrier lifetime was measured by photo-conductor decay. The results show that the lifetime's minority carriers are increased greatly after such treatment.

  17. Phosphate glasses, containing nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsyna, E.A.; Khalilev, V.D.; Koryavin, A.A.; Goncharova, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities of nitrogen-containing glass synthesis by the introduction into the charge of ammonium salts, as well as aluminium nitride, are studied. Zinc alumoyttrium phosphate glass (mol. %) Zn(PO 3 ) 2 - 4O, Al(PO 3 ) 3 - 3O, Y(PO 3 ) 3 -3O is suggested as a matrix. It is shown that the effect of amide and imide groups on the properties of the glass is less noticeable than the effect of nitride groups. Direct introduction of nitride constituent was realized using AlN, but aluminium introduction was taken into account so that the oxide was subtracted. The attempt to introduce more than 2.5 mass % of nitrogen into initial matrix by aluminium nitride has failed due to repeated restoration of glass with amorphous phosphorus isolation

  18. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R A; Halstead, E H

    1974-07-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  19. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.; Halstead, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  20. Nitrogen-doped porous “green carbon” derived from shrimp shell: Combined effects of pore sizes and nitrogen doping on the performance of lithium sulfur battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jiangying, E-mail: qujy@lnnu.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029 (China); Carbon Research Laboratory, Center for Nano Materials and Science, School of Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Lv, Siyuan; Peng, Xiyue; Tian, Shuo; Wang, Jia [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029 (China); Gao, Feng, E-mail: fenggao2003@163.com [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029 (China); Carbon Research Laboratory, Center for Nano Materials and Science, School of Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

    2016-06-25

    Nitrogen-rich porous “green carbons” derived from abundant shrimp shell shows good performance for Li–S batteries. The strategy in this work is highlighted to selective removal of intrinsic CaCO{sub 3} in shrimp shell followed by KOH activation to tune the pore sizes of the obtained carbons. On the basis of the different porous structures, the discharge capacity of the obtained carbons as Li–S cathodes follows the order of micro-mesoporous carbon>mesoporous carbon>microporous carbon. The high capacity of the micro-mesoporous carbon is attributed to its positive characters such as the coexistence of micro-mesoporous structure, the large pore volume and the high specific surface area. Furthermore, well-dispersed nitrogen in the porous carbons is naturally doped and inherited from shrimp shell, and can help to enhance cycle stability when used as cathodes. As a result, all carbon cathodes exhibit the good cycle stability (>78%) due to their nitrogen doping induced chemical adsorption of sulfur on the surface areas of the porous carbons. Among them, mesoporous carbon cathode shows the best cycle stability with 90% retention within 100 cycles, which is mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of its both large pore size (5.12 nm) and high nitrogen content (6.67 wt %). - Highlights: • Nitrogen-rich porous “green carbons” derived from abundant shrimp shell shows good performance for Li–S batteries. • Intrinsic CaCO{sub 3} in shrimp shell as the natural template plays an important role on tailoring of the pore sizes of the porous carbons. • Nitrogen containing polysaccharide in shrimp shell benefits to produce nitrogen-rich carbons. • The effects of pore sizes on the electrochemical performance are investigated in detail. • The carbon-sulfur cathodes exhibit the good cycle stability because of nitrogen doping induced chemical adsorption of sulfur.

  1. Nitrogen-doped porous “green carbon” derived from shrimp shell: Combined effects of pore sizes and nitrogen doping on the performance of lithium sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jiangying; Lv, Siyuan; Peng, Xiyue; Tian, Shuo; Wang, Jia; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-rich porous “green carbons” derived from abundant shrimp shell shows good performance for Li–S batteries. The strategy in this work is highlighted to selective removal of intrinsic CaCO_3 in shrimp shell followed by KOH activation to tune the pore sizes of the obtained carbons. On the basis of the different porous structures, the discharge capacity of the obtained carbons as Li–S cathodes follows the order of micro-mesoporous carbon>mesoporous carbon>microporous carbon. The high capacity of the micro-mesoporous carbon is attributed to its positive characters such as the coexistence of micro-mesoporous structure, the large pore volume and the high specific surface area. Furthermore, well-dispersed nitrogen in the porous carbons is naturally doped and inherited from shrimp shell, and can help to enhance cycle stability when used as cathodes. As a result, all carbon cathodes exhibit the good cycle stability (>78%) due to their nitrogen doping induced chemical adsorption of sulfur on the surface areas of the porous carbons. Among them, mesoporous carbon cathode shows the best cycle stability with 90% retention within 100 cycles, which is mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of its both large pore size (5.12 nm) and high nitrogen content (6.67 wt %). - Highlights: • Nitrogen-rich porous “green carbons” derived from abundant shrimp shell shows good performance for Li–S batteries. • Intrinsic CaCO_3 in shrimp shell as the natural template plays an important role on tailoring of the pore sizes of the porous carbons. • Nitrogen containing polysaccharide in shrimp shell benefits to produce nitrogen-rich carbons. • The effects of pore sizes on the electrochemical performance are investigated in detail. • The carbon-sulfur cathodes exhibit the good cycle stability because of nitrogen doping induced chemical adsorption of sulfur.

  2. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do; Tahereh Fanaei Sheikholeslami; Hassan Azarkish

    2016-01-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW) is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW), is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method fo...

  3. Efficiency Enhancement of Silicon Solar Cells by Porous Silicon Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus SHATKOVSKIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon solar cells produced by a usual technology in p-type, crystalline silicon wafer were investigated. The manufactured solar cells were of total thickness 450 mm, the junction depth was of 0.5 mm – 0.7 mm. Porous silicon technologies were adapted to enhance cell efficiency. The production of porous silicon layer was carried out in HF: ethanol = 1 : 2 volume ratio electrolytes, illuminating by 50 W halogen lamps at the time of processing. The etching current was computer-controlled in the limits of (6 ÷ 14 mA/cm2, etching time was set in the interval of (10 ÷ 20 s. The characteristics and performance of the solar cells samples was carried out illuminating by Xenon 5000 K lamp light. Current-voltage characteristic studies have shown that porous silicon structures produced affect the extent of dark and lighting parameters of the samples. Exactly it affects current-voltage characteristic and serial resistance of the cells. It has shown, the formation of porous silicon structure causes an increase in the electric power created of solar cell. Conversion efficiency increases also respectively to the initial efficiency of cell. Increase of solar cell maximum power in 15 or even more percent is found. The highest increase in power have been observed in the spectral range of Dl @ (450 ÷ 850 nm, where ~ 60 % of the A1.5 spectra solar energy is located. It has been demonstrated that porous silicon technology is effective tool to improve the silicon solar cells performance.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2428

  4. Nitrogen Research Programme STOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.; Van der Eerden, L.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen pollution is one of the main threats to the environment now in the Netherlands as well as other parts of Europe. In order to address the main gaps on the issues of nitrogen pollution related to the local scale, the Ministries of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment (VROM) and of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries (LNV) have initiated a research programme, the Dutch Nitrogen Research Programme (STOP), which aims to provide a scientific basis to develop and implement policy on a local scale for the realisation and conservation of the EHS ('Dutch Mainframe of Natural Landscapes'). The results of the programme show that the description of emissions from manure in the field is difficult to describe and show large uncertainties. On the contrary, emissions from housings could be modelled well, if local actual data were available. The OPS model to describe the dispersion and deposition was evaluated with the measurements and the limitations were quantified. It appears that the model works well on the long term, whereas on the short term (hours) and short distance (tenths of meters) there is large uncertainty, especially in complex terrain. Critical loads for nitrogen for ecosystems were evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of management options was quantified. A method to determine critical loads as a function of soil conditions, such as acidification and water availability was derived. This resulted in a combination of the soil model SMART and the so-called 'nature planner' (Natuurplanner). It was concluded that the combination of SMART, the nature planner and OPS provide a good tool to develop and support policy on the local scale. 4 refs

  5. Radiation resistant passivation of silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, R.M.; Gan, J.Y.; Gruenbaum, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a silicon solar cell having improved stability when exposed to concentrated solar radiation. It comprises a body of silicon material having a major surface for receiving radiation, a plurality of p and n conductivity regions in the body for collecting electrons and holes created by impinging radiation, and a passivation layer on the major surface including a first layer of silicon oxide in contact with the body and a polycrystalline silicon layer on the first layer of silicon oxide

  6. Is nitrogen the next carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battye, William; Aneja, Viney P.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2017-09-01

    Just as carbon fueled the Industrial Revolution, nitrogen has fueled an Agricultural Revolution. The use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and the cultivation of nitrogen-fixing crops both expanded exponentially during the last century, with most of the increase occurring after 1960. As a result, the current flux of reactive, or fixed, nitrogen compounds to the biosphere due to human activities is roughly equivalent to the total flux of fixed nitrogen from all natural sources, both on land masses and in the world's oceans. Natural fluxes of fixed nitrogen are subject to very large uncertainties, but anthropogenic production of reactive nitrogen has increased almost fivefold in the last 60 years, and this rapid increase in anthropogenic fixed nitrogen has removed any uncertainty on the relative importance of anthropogenic fluxes to the natural budget. The increased use of nitrogen has been critical for increased crop yields and protein production needed to keep pace with the growing world population. However, similar to carbon, the release of fixed nitrogen into the natural environment is linked to adverse consequences at local, regional, and global scales. Anthropogenic contributions of fixed nitrogen continue to grow relative to the natural budget, with uncertain consequences.

  7. Soil and fertilizer nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the intensified practices and effectively diminishing land resources per capita, increasing weights of both native soil- and added fertilizer-nitrogen will be lost to agriculture and its products, and will find their way into the environment. Soil-nitrogen levels and contingent productivity can nevertheless be maintained in the face of these losses on the basis of improved soil-N management. In some local situations nitrate levels in water for drinking purposes are likely to continue rising. In some cases agriculture and clearance practices are only one of several sources. In others they are clearly mainly responsible. In developing countries these losses represent those of a relatively increasingly costly input. This is due to the fact that industrial fertilizer nitrogen production is a particularly high energy-consuming process. In the more advanced industrialized countries they represent an addition to the problems and costs of environmental quality and health protection. The programmes, information and data reviewed here suggest that these problems can be contained by improved and extended soil and water management in agriculture on the basis of existing technology. In particular there appears to be enormous scope for the better exploitation of existing legumes both as non-legume crop alternatives or as biofertilizers which also possess more desirable C:N ratios than chemical fertilizer

  8. Computer simulation for the formation of the insulator layer of silicon-on-insulator devices by N sup + and O sup + Co-implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Lin Qing; Xie Xin Yun; Lin Chenglu; Liu Xiang Hua

    2002-01-01

    A buried sandwiched layer consisting of silicon dioxide (upper part), silicon oxynitride (medium part) and silicon nitride (lower part) is formed by N sup + and O sup + co-implantation in silicon wafers at a constant temperature of 550 degree C. The microstructure is performed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. To predict the quality of the buried sandwiched layer, the authors study the computer simulation for the formation of the SIMON (separated by implantation of oxygen and nitrogen) structure. The simulation program for SIMOX (separated by implantation of oxygen) is improved in order to be applied in O sup + and N sup + co-implantation on the basis of different formation mechanism between SIMOX and SIMNI (separated by implantation of nitrogen) structures. There is a good agreement between experiment and simulation results verifying the theoretical model and presumption in the program

  9. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon coatings may modulate gingival cell response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussano, F.; Genova, T.; Laurenti, M.; Munaron, L.; Pirri, C. F.; Rivolo, P.; Carossa, S.; Mandracci, P.

    2018-04-01

    Silicon-based materials present a high potential for dental implant applications, since silicon has been proven necessary for the correct bone formation in animals and humans. Notably, the addition of silicon is effective to enhance the bioactivity of hydroxyapatite and other biomaterials. The present work aims to expand the knowledge of the role exerted by hydrogen in the biological interaction of silicon-based materials, comparing two hydrogenated amorphous silicon coatings, with different hydrogen content, as means to enhance soft tissue cell adhesion. To accomplish this task, the films were produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on titanium substrates and their surface composition and hydrogen content were analyzed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) respectively. The surface energy and roughness were measured through optical contact angle analysis (OCA) and high-resolution mechanical profilometry respectively. Coated surfaces showed a slightly lower roughness, compared to bare titanium samples, regardless of the hydrogen content. The early cell responses of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were tested on the above mentioned surface modifications, in terms of cell adhesion, viability and morphometrical assessment. Films with lower hydrogen content were endowed with a surface energy comparable to the titanium surfaces. Films with higher hydrogen incorporation displayed a lower surface oxidation and a considerably lower surface energy, compared to the less hydrogenated samples. As regards mean cell area and focal adhesion density, both a-Si coatings influenced fibroblasts, but had no significant effects on keratinocytes. On the contrary, hydrogen-rich films increased manifolds the adhesion and viability of keratinocytes, but not of fibroblasts, suggesting a selective biological effect on these cells.

  10. Modelling nitrogen saturation and carbon accumulation in heathland soils under elevated nitrogen deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.D.; Caporn, S.J.M.; Carroll, J.A.; Pilkington, M.G.; Wilson, D.B.; Ray, N.; Cresswell, N.

    2006-01-01

    A simple model of nitrogen (N) saturation, based on an extension of the biogeochemical model MAGIC, has been tested at two long-running heathland N manipulation experiments. The model simulates N immobilisation as a function of organic soil C/N ratio, but permits a proportion of immobilised N to be accompanied by accumulation of soil carbon (C), slowing the rate of C/N ratio change and subsequent N saturation. The model successfully reproduced observed treatment effects on soil C and N, and inorganic N leaching, for both sites. At the C-rich upland site, N addition led to relatively small reductions in soil C/N, low inorganic N leaching, and a substantial increase in organic soil C. At the C-poor lowland site, soil C/N ratio decreases and N leaching increases were much more dramatic, and soil C accumulation predicted to be smaller. The study suggests that (i) a simple model can effectively simulate observed changes in soil and leachate N; (ii) previous model predictions based on a constant soil C pool may overpredict future N leaching; (iii) N saturation may develop most rapidly in dry, organic-poor, high-decomposition systems; and (iv) N deposition may lead to significantly enhanced soil C sequestration, particularly in wet, nutrient-poor, organic-rich systems. - Enhanced carbon sequestration may slow the rate of nitrogen saturation in heathlands

  11. Surface Area, and Oxidation Effects on Nitridation Kinetics of Silicon Powder Compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Palczer, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Commercially available silicon powders were wet-attrition-milled from 2 to 48 hr to achieve surface areas (SA's) ranging from 1.3 to 70 sq m/g. The surface area effects on the nitridation kinetics of silicon powder compacts were determined at 1250 or 1350 C for 4 hr. In addition, the influence of nitridation environment, and preoxidation on nitridation kinetics of a silicon powder of high surface area (approximately equals 63 sq m/g) was investigated. As the surface area increased, so did the percentage nitridation after 4 hr in N2 at 1250 or 1350 C. Silicon powders of high surface area (greater than 40 sq m/g) can be nitrided to greater than 70% at 1250 C in 4 hr. The nitridation kinetics of the high-surface-area powder compacts were significantly delayed by preoxidation treatment. Conversely, the nitridation environment had no significant influence on the nitridation kinetics of the same powder. Impurities present in the starting powder, and those accumulated during attrition milling, appeared to react with the silica layer on the surface of silicon particles to form a molten silicate layer, which provided a path for rapid diffusion of nitrogen and enhanced the nitridation kinetics of high surface area silicon powder.

  12. Evanescent field phase shifting in a silicon nitride waveguide using a coupled silicon slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Asger Sellerup; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Green, William M. J.

    2015-01-01

    An approach for electrical modulation of low-loss silicon nitride waveguides is proposed, using a silicon nitride waveguide evanescently loaded with a thin silicon slab. The thermooptic phase-shift characteristics are investigated in a racetrack resonator configuration....

  13. Effect of mixture ratios and nitrogen carrier gas flow rates on the morphology of carbon nanotube structures grown by CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malgas, GF

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by thermal Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and investigates the effects of nitrogen carrier gas flow rates and mixture ratios on the morphology of CNTs on a silicon substrate by vaporizing...

  14. Imprinted silicon-based nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate and optically characterize silicon-on-insulator based nanophotonic devices fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. In our demonstration, we have realized ordinary and topology-optimized photonic crystal waveguide structures. The topology-optimized structures require lateral pattern ...

  15. Ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W., E-mail: hartmut@scipp.ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Petersen, B.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F. [INFN Torino, Torino (Italy); Bruzzi, M.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Vinattieri, A. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    We propose to develop a fast, thin silicon sensor with gain capable to concurrently measure with high precision the space (∼10 μm) and time (∼10 ps) coordinates of a particle. This will open up new application of silicon detector systems in many fields. Our analysis of detector properties indicates that it is possible to improve the timing characteristics of silicon-based tracking sensors, which already have sufficient position resolution, to achieve four-dimensional high-precision measurements. The basic sensor characteristics and the expected performance are listed, the wide field of applications are mentioned and the required R and D topics are discussed. -- Highlights: •We are proposing thin pixel silicon sensors with 10's of picoseconds time resolution. •Fast charge collection is coupled with internal charge multiplication. •The truly 4-D sensors will revolutionize imaging and particle counting in many applications.

  16. Vibrational modes of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra, M.; Naddaf, M.

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of theoretical and experimental investigations, the origin of room temperature photoluminescence (PL) from porous silicon is found to related to chemical complexes constituted the surface, in particular, SiHx, SiOx and SiOH groups. Ab initio atomic and molecular electronic structure calculations on select siloxane compounds were used for imitation of infrared (IR) spectra of porous silicon. These are compared to the IR spectra of porous silicon recorded by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). In contrast to linear siloxane, the suggested circular siloxane terminated with linear siloxane structure is found to well-imitate the experimental spectra. These results are augmented with EDX (energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy) measurements, which showed that the increase of SiOx content in porous silicon due to rapid oxidation process results in considerable decrease in PL peak intensity and a blue shift in the peak position. (author)

  17. Silicon pressure transducers: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves M, M.; Sandoval I, F.

    1994-01-01

    We present a review of the pressure sensors, which use the silicon piezo resistive effect and micro machining technique. Typical pressure sensors, applications, design and other different structures are presented. (Author)

  18. Scattering characteristics from porous silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sabet-Dariani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   Porous silicon (PS layers come into existance as a result of electrochemical anodization on silicon. Although a great deal of research has been done on the formation and optical properties of this material, the exact mechanism involved is not well-understood yet.   In this article, first, the optical properties of silicon and porous silicon are described. Then, previous research and the proposed models about reflection from PS and the origin of its photoluminescence are reveiwed. The reflecting and scattering, absorption and transmission of light from this material, are then investigated. These experiments include,different methods of PS sample preparation their photoluminescence, reflecting and scattering of light determining different characteristics with respect to Si bulk.

  19. Silicon Solar Cell Turns 50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, J.

    2004-08-01

    This short brochure describes a milestone in solar (or photovoltaic, PV) research-namely, the 50th anniversary of the invention of the first viable silicon solar cell by three researchers at Bell Laboratories.

  20. Total dose hardening of buried insulator in implanted silicon-on-insulator structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, B.Y.; Chen, C.E.; Pollack, G.; Hughes, H.L.; Davis, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Total dose characteristics of the buried insulator in implanted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates have been studied using MOS transistors. The threshold voltage shift of the parasitic back channel transistor, which is controlled by charge trapping in the buried insulator, is reduced by lowering the oxygen dose as well as by an additional nitrogen implant, without degrading the front channel transistor characteristics. The improvements in the radiation characteristics of the buried insulator are attributed to the decrease in the buried oxide thickness or to the presence of the interfacial oxynitride layer formed by the oxygen and nitrogen implants