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Sample records for silicon photomultiplier sipm

  1. Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as novel photodetectors for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Guerra, Alberto; Belcari, Nicola; Giuseppina Bisogni, Maria; Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Guerra, Pedro; Marcatili, Sara; Santos, Andres; Sportelli, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    Next generation PET scanners should fulfill very high requirements in terms of spatial, energy and timing resolution. Modern scanner performances are inherently limited by the use of standard photomultiplier tubes. The use of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) is proposed for the construction of a 4D-PET module of 4.8x4.8 cm 2 aimed to replace the standard PMT based PET block detector. The module will be based on a LYSO continuous crystal read on two faces by Silicon Photomultipliers. A high granularity detection surface made by SiPM matrices of 1.5 mm pitch will be used for the x-y photon hit position determination with submillimetric accuracy, while a low granularity surface constituted by 16 mm 2 SiPM pixels will provide the fast timing information (t) that will be used to implement the Time of Flight technique (TOF). The spatial information collected by the two detector layers will be combined in order to measure the Depth of Interaction (DOI) of each event (z). The use of large area multi-pixel Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors requires the development of a multichannel Data Acquisition system (DAQ) as well as of a dedicated front-end in order not to degrade the intrinsic detector capabilities and to manage many channels. The paper describes the progress made on the development of the proof of principle module under construction at the University of Pisa.

  2. Development of gamma spectrometer using silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Kyu

    2011-02-01

    Gamma spectroscopy is used to determine the identity and quantity of gamma-emitters in nuclear physics, geochemistry and astrophysics. The scintillation detectors are being used as a gamma spectrometer generally, because of their higher gamma-ray detection efficiency and cheaper price than germanium semi-conductor detectors. A typical scintillation detector is composed of a scintillator, a window, and a photodetector. The photomultiplier (PM) tube has been the most widely used as a photodetector because of its advantages like high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio, and wide dynamic range. Recently, the Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) is being studied as a substitute of PM tube. The SiPM has almost same performance compared to PM tube but it has additional advantages; low operating voltage, small volume, and cheap production cost. In this research, the gamma spectrometer using SiPM instead of PM tube is developed. The use of SiPM as a photodetector makes the gamma spectrometer smaller, cheaper, easier to use. For photon transport and collection from the large area scintillator to the small area SiPM, a light guide is applied in this gamma spectrometer system. Before fabrication of light guide, DETECT simulation is performed to study and prospect characteristics of light guide structure. And actual light guides are fabricated on the basis of this simulation result. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is chosen as material of light guide, 5 sample light guides are fabricated in different lengths and coatings. As a scintillator crystal, same NaI(Tl) crystal is chosen. For measurement and analysis of gamma spectrometer system, 3 gamma spectrometer systems are composed: PM tube-based system, PM tube-based system with the light guide, SiPM-based system with the light guide. Through comparison between the results of each gamma spectrometer, the performances of gamma spectrometer system are analyzed by each component. Measurement results of the second system is well

  3. Characteristics of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, N; Barrillon, P; Bazin, C; Bondil-Blin, S; Chaumat, V; Taille, C De La; Puill, V; Vagnucci, J F; Belcari, N; Bisogni, M G; Guerra, A Del; Llosa, G; Marcatili, S; Boscardin, M; Melchiorri, M; Piemonte, C; Tarolli, A; Zorzi, N; Collazuol, G

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the electrical (static and dynamic) as well as on the optical characteristics of a prototype matrix of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The prototype matrix consists of 4 x 4 SiPM's on the same substrat fabricated at FBK-irst (Trento, Italy). Each SiPM of the matrix has an area of 1 x 1mm 2 and it is composed of 625 microcells connected in parallel. Each microcell of the SiPM is a GM-APD (n + /p junction on P+ substrate) with an area of 40 x 40 μm 2 connected in series with its integrated polysilicon quenching resistance. The static characteristics as breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, post-breakdown dark current as well as the dynamic characteristics as gain and dark count rate have been analysed. The photon detection efficiency as a function of wavelength and operation voltage has been also estimated.

  4. Development of high performance readout ASICs for silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are novel kind of solid state photon detectors with extremely high photon detection resolution. They are composed of hundreds or thousands of avalanche photon diode pixels connected in parallel. These avalanche photon diodes are operated in Geiger Mode. SiPMs have the same magnitude of multiplication gain compared to the conventional photomultipliers (PMTs). Moreover, they have a lot of advantages such as compactness, relatively low bias voltage and magnetic field immunity etc. Special readout electronics are required to preserve the high performance of the detector. KLauS and STiC are two CMOS ASIC chips designed in particular for SiPMs. KLauS is used for SiPM charge readout applications. Since SiPMs have a much larger detector capacitance compared to other solid state photon detectors such as PIN diodes and APDs, a few special techniques are used inside the chip to make sure a descent signal to noise ratio for pixel charge signal can be obtained. STiC is a chip dedicated to SiPM time-of-flight applications. High bandwidth and low jitter design schemes are mandatory for such applications where time jitter less than tens of picoseconds is required. Design schemes and error analysis as well as measurement results are presented in the thesis.

  5. Characteristics of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinu, N; Barrillon, P; Bazin, C; Bondil-Blin, S; Chaumat, V; Taille, C De La; Puill, V; Vagnucci, J F [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Belcari, N; Bisogni, M G; Guerra, A Del; Llosa, G; Marcatili, S [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); Boscardin, M; Melchiorri, M; Piemonte, C; Tarolli, A; Zorzi, N [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy); Collazuol, G [Scuola Normale Superiore (SNS), 56127 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: dinu@lal.in2p3.fr

    2009-03-15

    This work reports on the electrical (static and dynamic) as well as on the optical characteristics of a prototype matrix of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The prototype matrix consists of 4 x 4 SiPM's on the same substrat fabricated at FBK-irst (Trento, Italy). Each SiPM of the matrix has an area of 1 x 1mm{sup 2} and it is composed of 625 microcells connected in parallel. Each microcell of the SiPM is a GM-APD (n{sup +}/p junction on P+ substrate) with an area of 40 x 40 {mu}m{sup 2} connected in series with its integrated polysilicon quenching resistance. The static characteristics as breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, post-breakdown dark current as well as the dynamic characteristics as gain and dark count rate have been analysed. The photon detection efficiency as a function of wavelength and operation voltage has been also estimated.

  6. Immersion cooling of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) for nuclear medicine imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, R.R.; Stolin, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are compact, high amplification light detection devices that have recently been incorporated into magnetic field-compatible positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. To take full advantage of these devices, it is preferable to cool them below room temperature. Most current methods are limited to the cooling of individual detector modules, increasing complexity and cost of scanners made-up of a large number of modules. In this work we investigated a new method of cooling, immersion of the detector modules in non-electrically conductive, cooled liquid. A small-scale prototype system was constructed to cool a relatively large area SiPM-based, scintillator detector module by immersing it in a circulating bath of mineral oil. Testing demonstrated that the system rapidly decreased and stabilized the temperature of the device. Operation of the detector illustrated the expected benefits of cooling, with no apparent degradation of performance attributable to immersion in fluid. - Highlights: • Immersion cooling is new, simple and inexpensive method to cool solid state based nuclear medicine scanner. • Method successfully tested on a scaled version of an SiPM-based PET detector module. • Can be scaled up to cool a complete PET scanner.

  7. Silicon photomultipliers for scintillating trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabaioli, S., E-mail: simone.rabaioli@gmail.com [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria, Via Valleggio, 11 - 22100 Como (Italy); Berra, A.; Bolognini, D. [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria, Via Valleggio, 11 - 22100 Como (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Universita degli Studi di Trieste and INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Ciano, S.; Iugovaz, D. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Lietti, D. [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria, Via Valleggio, 11 - 22100 Como (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Penzo, A. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Prest, M. [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria, Via Valleggio, 11 - 22100 Como (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Rashevskaya, I.; Reia, S. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Stoppani, L. [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria, Via Valleggio, 11 - 22100 Como (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2012-12-11

    In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have been proposed as a new kind of readout device for scintillating detectors in many experiments. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected pixels, which are independent photon counters working in Geiger mode with very high gain ({approx}10{sup 6}). This contribution presents the use of an array of eight SiPMs (manufactured by FBK-irst) for the readout of a scintillating bar tracker (a small size prototype of the Electron Muon Ranger detector for the MICE experiment). The performances of the SiPMs in terms of signal to noise ratio, efficiency and time resolution will be compared to the ones of a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) connected to the same bars. Both the SiPMs and the MAPMT are interfaced to a VME system through a 64 channel MAROC ASIC.

  8. Silicon photomultipliers for scintillating trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaioli, S.; Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Bonvicini, V.; Bosisio, L.; Ciano, S.; Iugovaz, D.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Rashevskaya, I.; Reia, S.; Stoppani, L.; Vallazza, E.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have been proposed as a new kind of readout device for scintillating detectors in many experiments. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected pixels, which are independent photon counters working in Geiger mode with very high gain (∼106). This contribution presents the use of an array of eight SiPMs (manufactured by FBK-irst) for the readout of a scintillating bar tracker (a small size prototype of the Electron Muon Ranger detector for the MICE experiment). The performances of the SiPMs in terms of signal to noise ratio, efficiency and time resolution will be compared to the ones of a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) connected to the same bars. Both the SiPMs and the MAPMT are interfaced to a VME system through a 64 channel MAROC ASIC.

  9. Time-Based Readout of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET)

    CERN Document Server

    Powolny, F; Brunner, S E; Hillemanns, H; Meyer, T; Garutti, E; Williams, M C S; Auffray, E; Shen, W; Goettlich, M; Jarron, P; Schultz-Coulon, H C

    2011-01-01

    Time of flight (TOF) measurements in positron emission tomography (PET) are very challenging in terms of timing performance, and should ideally achieve less than 100 ps FWHM precision. We present a time-based differential technique to read out silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) which has less than 20 ps FWHM electronic jitter. The novel readout is a fast front end circuit (NINO) based on a first stage differential current mode amplifier with 20 Omega input resistance. Therefore the amplifier inputs are connected differentially to the SiPM's anode and cathode ports. The leading edge of the output signal provides the time information, while the trailing edge provides the energy information. Based on a Monte Carlo photon-generation model, HSPICE simulations were run with a 3 x 3 mm(2) SiPM-model, read out with a differential current amplifier. The results of these simulations are presented here and compared with experimental data obtained with a 3 x 3 x 15 mm(3) LSO crystal coupled to a SiPM. The measured time coi...

  10. Analysis of photon statistics with Silicon Photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ascenzo, N.; Saveliev, V.; Wang, L.; Xie, Q.

    2015-01-01

    The Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) is a novel silicon-based photodetector, which represents the modern perspective of low photon flux detection. The aim of this paper is to provide an introduction on the statistical analysis methods needed to understand and estimate in quantitative way the correct features and description of the response of the SiPM to a coherent source of light

  11. Cherenkov TOF PET with silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenec, R.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Pestotnik, R.

    2015-12-01

    As previously demonstrated, an excellent timing resolution below 100 ps FWHM is possible in time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) if the detection method is based on the principle of detecting photons of Cherenkov light, produced in a suitable material and detected by microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCP PMTs). In this work, the silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were tested for the first time as the photodetectors in Cherenkov TOF PET. The high photon detection efficiency (PDE) of SiPMs led to a large improvement in detection efficiency. On the other hand, the time response of currently available SiPMs is not as good as that of MCP PMTs. The SiPM dark counts introduce a new source of random coincidences in Cherenkov method, which would be overwhelming with present SiPM technology at room temperature. When the apparatus was cooled, its performance significantly improved.

  12. Simulation of Silicon Photomultiplier Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Stefan; van Dam, Herman T.; Huizenga, Jan; Vinke, Ruud; Dendooven, Peter; Lohner, Herbert; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2009-12-01

    In a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), also referred to as multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC), many Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) are connected in parallel so as to combine the photon counting capabilities of each of these so-called microcells into a proportional light sensor. The discharge of a single microcell is relatively well understood and electronic models exist to simulate this process. In this paper we introduce an extended model that is able to simulate the simultaneous discharge of multiple cells. This model is used to predict the SiPM signal in response to fast light pulses as a function of the number of fired cells, taking into account the influence of the input impedance of the SiPM preamplifier. The model predicts that the electronic signal is not proportional to the number of fired cells if the preamplifier input impedance is not zero. This effect becomes more important for SiPMs with lower parasitic capacitance (which otherwise is a favorable property). The model is validated by comparing its predictions to experimental data obtained with two different SiPMs (Hamamatsu S10362-11-25u and Hamamatsu S10362-33-25c) illuminated with ps laser pulses. The experimental results are in good agreement with the model predictions.

  13. Silicon Photomultiplier charaterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Leonel; Osornio, Leo; Para, Adam

    2014-03-01

    Silicon Photo Multiples (SiPM's) are relatively new photon detectors. They offer many advantages compared to photo multiplier tubes (PMT's) such as insensitivity to magnetic field, robustness at varying lighting levels, and low cost. The SiPM output wave forms are poorly understood. The experiment conducted collected waveforms of responses of Hamamatsu SiPM to incident laser pulse at varying temperatures and bias voltages. Ambient noise was characterized at all temperatures and bias voltages by averaging the waveforms. Pulse shape of the SiPM response was determined under different operating conditions: the pulse shape is nearly independent of the bias voltage but exhibits strong variation with temperature, consistent with the temperature variation of the quenching resistor. Amplitude of responses of the SiPM to low intensity laser light shows many peaks corresponding to the detection of 1,2,3 etc. photons. Amplitude of these pulses depends linearly on the bias voltage, enabling determination of the breakdown voltage at each temperature. Poisson statistics has been used to determine the average number of detected photons at each operating conditions. Department of Education Grant No. P0315090007 and the Department of Energy/ Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  14. LYSO crystal calorimeter readout with silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berra, A., E-mail: alessandro.berra@gmail.com [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Cecchi, C.; Germani, S. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Guffanti, D. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); Lietti, D. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Lubrano, P.; Manoni, E. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Prest, M. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Rossi, A. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Large area Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) are the new frontier of the development of readout systems for scintillating detectors. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected silicon micropixels operating in limited Geiger–Muller avalanche mode, and thus working as independent photon counters with a very high gain (∼10{sup 6}). This contribution presents the performance in terms of linearity and energy resolution of an electromagnetic homogeneous calorimeter composed of 9∼18X{sub 0} LYSO crystals. The crystals were readout by 36 4×4 mm{sup 2} SiPMs (4 for each crystal) produced by FBK-irst. This calorimeter was tested at the Beam Test Facility at the INFN laboratories in Frascati with a single- and multi-particle electron beam in the 100–500 MeV energy range.

  15. Application of CMOS Technology to Silicon Photomultiplier Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Ascenzo, Nicola; Zhang, Xi; Xie, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    We use the 180 nm GLOBALFOUNDRIES (GF) BCDLite CMOS process for the production of a silicon photomultiplier prototype. We study the main characteristics of the developed sensor in comparison with commercial SiPMs obtained in custom technologies and other SiPMs developed with CMOS-compatible processes. We support our discussion with a transient modeling of the detection process of the silicon photomultiplier as well as with a series of static and dynamic experimental measurements in dark and illuminated environments. PMID:28946675

  16. An Educational Kit Based On a Modular Silicon Photomultiplier System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caccia, Massimo; Chmill, Valery; Ebolese, Amedeo; Martemyanov, Alexander; Risigo, Fabio; Santoro, Romualdo; Locatelli, Marco; Pieracci, Maura; Tintori, Carlo

    2013-06-01

    Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM) are state of the art light detectors with unprecedented single photon sensitivity and photon number resolving capability, representing a breakthrough in several fundamental and applied Science domains. An educational experiment based on a SiPM set-up is proposed in this article, guiding the student towards a comprehensive knowledge of this sensor technology while experiencing the quantum nature of light and exploring the statistical properties of the light pulses emitted by a LED. (authors)

  17. Radiation Damage Studies of Silicon Photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Bohn, P; Hazen, E.; Heering, A.; Rohlf, J.; Freeman, J.; Los, Sergey V.; Cascio, E.; Kuleshov, S.; Musienko, Y.; Piemonte, C.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the radiation hardness of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) manufactured by Fondazione Bruno Kessler in Italy (1 mm$^2$ and 6.2 mm$^2$), Center of Perspective Technology and Apparatus in Russia (1 mm$^2$ and 4.4 mm$^2$), and Hamamatsu Corporation in Japan (1 mm$^2$). The SiPMs were irradiated using a beam of 212 MeV protons at Massachusetts General Hospital, receiving fluences of up to $3 \\times 10^{10}$ protons per cm$^2$ with the SiPMs at operating voltage. Leakage currents were read continuously during the irradiation. The delivery of the protons was paused periodically to record scope traces in response to calibrated light pulses to monitor the gains, photon detection efficiencies, and dark counts of the SiPMs. The leakage current and dark noise are found to increase with fluence. Te leakage current is found to be proportional to the mean square deviation of the noise distribution, indicating the dark counts are due to increased random individual pixel activation, while SiPM...

  18. Improved SPICE electrical model of silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, D., E-mail: davide.marano@oact.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Bonanno, G.; Belluso, M.; Billotta, S.; Grillo, A.; Garozzo, S.; Romeo, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Catalano, O.; La Rosa, G.; Sottile, G.; Impiombato, D.; Giarrusso, S. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy)

    2013-10-21

    The present work introduces an improved SPICE equivalent electrical model of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors, in order to simulate and predict their transient response to avalanche triggering events. In particular, the developed circuit model provides a careful investigation of the magnitude and timing of the read-out signals and can therefore be exploited to perform reliable circuit-level simulations. The adopted modeling approach is strictly related to the physics of each basic microcell constituting the SiPM device, and allows the avalanche timing as well as the photodiode current and voltage to be accurately simulated. Predictive capabilities of the proposed model are demonstrated by means of experimental measurements on a real SiPM detector. Simulated and measured pulses are found to be in good agreement with the expected results. -- Highlights: • An improved SPICE electrical model of silicon photomultipliers is proposed. • The developed model provides a truthful representation of the physics of the device. • An accurate charge collection as a function of the overvoltage is achieved. • The adopted electrical model allows reliable circuit-level simulations to be performed. • Predictive capabilities of the adopted model are experimentally demonstrated.

  19. The performance of silicon photomultipliers in Cherenkov TOF PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolenec, Rok; Korpar, Samo; Krizan, Peter; Pestotink, Rok

    2015-01-01

    In time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) one of the main factors limiting the time resolution is the time evolution of the scintillation process. This can be avoided by using exclusively the Cherenkov light produced in a suitable material. Sub 100 ps FWHM timing has already been experimentally demonstrated but with a drawback of relatively low detection efficiency due to the photodetectors used. In this work silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are considered as a photodetector in Cherenkov TOF PET. The detection efficiency can be significantly improved by using SiPMs, however, at room temperature the SiPM dark counts introduce a significant source of fake coincidences. SiPM samples from different producers were tested in a simple back-to-back setup in combination with lead fluoride Cherenkov radiators. Results for coincidence timing, detection efficiency and effects of dark counts at different temperatures and SiPM overvoltages are presented.

  20. Evaluation of performance of silicon photomultipliers in lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Sergey L.

    2017-05-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are a well-recognized new generation of photon number resolving avalanche photodetectors. Many advantages - a high gain with an ultra-low excess noise of multiplication, multi-pixel architecture, relatively low operating voltage - make SiPMs very competitive in a growing number of applications. Challenging demands of LIDAR applications for a receiver having high sensitivity starting from single photons, superior time-offlight resolution, robustness including surviving at bright light flashes, solid-state compactness and more, are expected to be feasible for the SiPMs. Despite some known drawbacks, namely crosstalk, afterpulsing, dark noise, limited dynamic range, SiPMs are already considered as promising substitutes for conventional APDs and PMTs in LIDAR applications. However, these initial considerations are based on a rather simplified representation of the SiPM as a generic LIDAR receiver described by generic expressions. This study is focused on a comprehensive evaluation of a SiPM potential considering essential features of this new technology, which could affect applicability and performance of SiPMs as LIDAR receivers. Namely, an excess noise due to correlated processes of crosstalk and afterpulsing, are included into account utilizing the well-established framework of analytical probabilistic models. The analysis of SiPM performance in terms of a photon number and time resolution clarifies their competitiveness over conventional APD and PMT and anticipates the development of next SiPM generations.

  1. Silicon photomultipliers in AMIGA muon counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botti, Ana Martina [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Instituto de Tecnologias en Deteccion y Astroparticulas (ITeDA) (Argentina); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The project AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) aims to extend the energy range at the Pierre Auger Observatory to observe cosmic rays of lower energies (down to ∝10{sup 17} eV) and to study the transition from extragalactic to galactic cosmic rays. AMIGA is compounded by an infill of surface detectors (employing Cherenkov radiation detection in water) and muon counters. The AMIGA muon counters consist of an array of buried modules composed of 64 scintillator bars, a multi-pixel Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) and the corresponding electronic of acquisition which works along with the surface detector. Currently, ITeDA is evaluating the feasibility of replacing PMTs with silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) without performing any substantial modification in the digital readout nor in the mechanical design. I present calibration results of a prototype module associated to the surface detector Toune of the Pierre Auger Observatory using a SiPM Hamamatsu S1257-100C plugged to the standard AMIGA front-end electronics. In addition, a study concerning gain stability and temperature variation has also been performed and is reported. I finally discuss a comparison between traces measured by both photodetectors (PMT and SiPM) for modules associated to the surface detector Toune.

  2. Characterization of silicon photomultipliers and validation of the electrical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Qiang, Yi; Ross, Steve; Burr, Kent

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a systematic way to measure most features of the silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). We implement an efficient two-laser procedure to measure the recovery time. Avalanche probability was found to play an important role in explaining the right behavior of the SiPM recovery process. Also, we demonstrate how equivalent circuit parameters measured by optical tests can be used in SPICE modeling to predict details of the time constants relevant to the pulse shape. The SiPM properties measured include breakdown voltage, gain, diode capacitor, quench resistor, quench capacitor, dark count rate, photodetection efficiency, cross-talk and after-pulsing probability, and recovery time. We apply these techniques on the SiPMs from two companies: Hamamatsu and SensL.

  3. Study of silicon photomultipliers fast amplifier and thermoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'antone, I.; Fabbri, L.; Foschi, E.; Guandalini, C.; Laurenti, G.; Lax, I.; Levi, G.; Quadrani, L.; Sbarra, Ca.; Sbarra, Cr.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Zuffa, M.

    2011-01-01

    The silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are adopted in various physical applications, from medical physics to astrophysics, for their advantages in terms of cost and weight with respect to traditional photo detectors. Their low bias voltage supply (about 30 V), hardiness and resistance to magnetic field are ideal characteristics for space application. In the frame of INFN-Irst collaboration, some of them have been developed and produced at FBK (Trento-Italy), and have been characterized in the INFN laboratories of Bologna (DaSiPM2 collaboration). The SiPM can be used in conjunction with fibres and counters in high energy physics experiments. To exploit the SiPM time resolution, a fast amplifier has been studied. The SiPM gain depends critically on temperature and a thermal stabilization is also necessary. The use of a thermoelectric cooler module based on a Peltier cell has been investigated, and the results are shown.

  4. Silicon Photomultiplier Performance in High ELectric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, J.; Morad, J.

    2016-12-01

    Roughly 27% of the universe is thought to be composed of dark matter. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) relies on the emission of light from xenon atoms after a collision with a dark matter particle. After a particle interaction in the detector, two things can happen: the xenon will emit light and charge. The charge (electrons), in the liquid xenon needs to be pulled into the gas section so that it can interact with gas and emit light. This allows LUX to convert a single electron into many photons. This is done by applying a high voltage across the liquid and gas regions, effectively ripping electrons out of the liquid xenon and into the gas. The current device used to detect photons is the photomultiplier tube (PMT). These devices are large and costly. In recent years, a new technology that is capable of detecting single photons has emerged, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). These devices are cheaper and smaller than PMTs. Their performance in a high electric fields, such as those found in LUX, are unknown. It is possible that a large electric field could introduce noise on the SiPM signal, drowning the single photon detection capability. My hypothesis is that SiPMs will not observe a significant increase is noise at an electric field of roughly 10kV/cm (an electric field within the range used in detectors like LUX). I plan to test this hypothesis by first rotating the SiPMs with no applied electric field between two metal plates roughly 2 cm apart, providing a control data set. Then using the same angles test the dark counts with the constant electric field applied. Possibly the most important aspect of LUX, is the photon detector because it's what detects the signals. Dark matter is detected in the experiment by looking at the ratio of photons to electrons emitted for a given interaction in the detector. Interactions with a low electron to photon ratio are more like to be dark matter events than those with a high electron to photon ratio. The ability to

  5. Strategies for shortening the output pulse of silicon photomultipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Antoranz Canales, Pedro; Miranda Pantoja, José Miguel; Yebras Rivera, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    In this work, three strategies for shortening the output pulse of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) are reported. The first strategy is passive filtering, where band-pass filtering removes the lowest frequency components in the signal, getting a noticeable reduction in pulse width (a compression ratio of 10: 1 was obtained). In the second place, a reflectometric scheme is proposed where the amplified signal coming from the SiPM is injected into a signal splitter with one of its stubs connected...

  6. New method for determining avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov-Zorin, I.

    2017-01-01

    The avalanche breakdown and Geiger mode of the silicon p-n junction is considered. A precise physically motivated method is proposed for determining the avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The method is based on measuring the dependence of the relative photon detection efficiency (PDE rel ) on the bias voltage when one type of carriers (electron or hole) is injected into the avalanche multiplication zone of the p-n junction. The injection of electrons or holes from the base region of the SiPM semiconductor structure is performed using short-wave or long-wave light. At a low overvoltage (1-2 V) the detection efficiency is linearly dependent on the bias voltage; therefore, extrapolation to zero PDE rel value determines the SiPM avalanche breakdown voltage with an accuracy within a few millivolts. [ru

  7. Characterization of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinu, N. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France)], E-mail: dinu@lal.in2p3.fr; Barrillon, P.; Bazin, C. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Bondil-Blin, S. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy); Chaumat, V. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Collazuol, G. [Scuola Normale Superiore (SNS), 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); De La Taille, C. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Del Guerra, A. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Llosa, G. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); Marcatili, S. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Melchiorri, M.; Piemonte, C. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy); Puill, V. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Tarolli, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy); Vagnucci, J.F. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy)

    2009-10-21

    This work reports on the electrical as well as the optical characterizations of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM). The electrical test consists of the measurement of the static (breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, post-breakdown dark current) as well as the dynamic characteristics (gain, dark count rate). The optical test consists of the estimation of the photon detection efficiency as a function of wavelength as well as operation voltage.

  8. Characterization of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, N.; Barrillon, P.; Bazin, C.; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G.; Bondil-Blin, S.; Boscardin, M.; Chaumat, V.; Collazuol, G.; De La Taille, C.; Del Guerra, A.; Llosa, G.; Marcatili, S.; Melchiorri, M.; Piemonte, C.; Puill, V.; Tarolli, A.; Vagnucci, J.F.; Zorzi, N.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the electrical as well as the optical characterizations of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM). The electrical test consists of the measurement of the static (breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, post-breakdown dark current) as well as the dynamic characteristics (gain, dark count rate). The optical test consists of the estimation of the photon detection efficiency as a function of wavelength as well as operation voltage.

  9. Optimization of Performance Parameters for Large Area Silicon Photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Kathryn

    2008-10-01

    The goal of the GlueX experiment is to search for exotic hybrid mesons as evidence of gluonic excitations in an effort to better understand confinement. A key component of the GlueX detector is the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter (BCAL) located immediately inside a superconducting solenoid of approximately 2.5T. Because of this arrangement, traditional vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) which are affected significantly by magnetic fields cannot be used on the BCAL. The use of Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) as front-end detectors has been proposed. While the largest SiPMs that have been previously employed by other experiments are 1x1 mm^2, GlueX proposes to use large area SiPMs each composed of 16 - 3x3 mm^2 cells in a 4x4 array. This puts the GlueX collaboration in the unique position of driving the technology for larger area sensors. In this talk I will discuss tests done in Regina regarding performance parameters of prototype SiPM arrays delivered by SensL, a photonics research and development company based in Ireland, as well as sample 1x1 mm^2 and 3x3 mm^2 SiPMs.

  10. Ultra-fast photon counting with a passive quenching silicon photomultiplier in the charge integration regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Lina, Liu

    2018-02-01

    An ultra-fast photon counting method is proposed based on the charge integration of output electrical pulses of passive quenching silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). The results of the numerical analysis with actual parameters of SiPMs show that the maximum photon counting rate of a state-of-art passive quenching SiPM can reach ~THz levels which is much larger than that of the existing photon counting devices. The experimental procedure is proposed based on this method. This photon counting regime of SiPMs is promising in many fields such as large dynamic light power detection.

  11. Silicon photomultipliers. Properties and applications in a highly granular calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feege, Nils

    2008-12-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are novel semiconductor-based photodetectors operated in Geiger mode. Their response is not linear, and both their gain and their photon detection efficiency depend on the applied bias voltage and on temperature. The CALICE collaboration investigates several technology options for highly granular calorimeters for the future ILC. The prototype of a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter with analogue readout for hadrons constructed at DESY and successfully operated in testbeam experiments at DESY, CERN and FNAL by this collaboration is the first large scale application for 7608 SiPMs developed by MEPhI. This thesis deals with properties of the SiPMs used in the calorimeter prototype. The effective numer of pixels of the SiPMs, which influences their saturation behaviour, is extracted from in situ measurements and compared to results obtained for the bare SiPMs. In addition, the effects of temperature and voltage changes on the parameters necessary for the calibration of the SiPMs and the detector are determined. Methods which allow for correcting or compensating these effects are evaluated. An approach to improve the absolute calibration of the temperature sensors in the prototype is described and temperature profiles are studied. Finally, a procedure to adjust the light yield of the cells of the prototype is presented. The results of the application of this procedure during the commissioning of the detector at FNAL are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Silicon photomultipliers. Properties and applications in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feege, Nils

    2008-12-15

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are novel semiconductor-based photodetectors operated in Geiger mode. Their response is not linear, and both their gain and their photon detection efficiency depend on the applied bias voltage and on temperature. The CALICE collaboration investigates several technology options for highly granular calorimeters for the future ILC. The prototype of a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter with analogue readout for hadrons constructed at DESY and successfully operated in testbeam experiments at DESY, CERN and FNAL by this collaboration is the first large scale application for 7608 SiPMs developed by MEPhI. This thesis deals with properties of the SiPMs used in the calorimeter prototype. The effective numer of pixels of the SiPMs, which influences their saturation behaviour, is extracted from in situ measurements and compared to results obtained for the bare SiPMs. In addition, the effects of temperature and voltage changes on the parameters necessary for the calibration of the SiPMs and the detector are determined. Methods which allow for correcting or compensating these effects are evaluated. An approach to improve the absolute calibration of the temperature sensors in the prototype is described and temperature profiles are studied. Finally, a procedure to adjust the light yield of the cells of the prototype is presented. The results of the application of this procedure during the commissioning of the detector at FNAL are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Study of the radiation damage of silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, Michael; Chmill, Valery; Garutti, Erika; Klanner, Robert; Schwandt, Joern [Institute for Experimental Physics, Hamburg University, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Radiation damage significantly changes the performance of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). In this work, we first have characterized KETEK SiPMs with a pixel size of 15 x 15 μm{sup 2} using I-V (current-voltage), C/G-V/f (capacitance/impedance-voltage/frequency) and Q-V (charge-voltage) measurements with and without illumination with blue light of 470 nm from an LED. The SiPM parameters determined are DCR (dark count rate), relative PDE (photon detection efficiency), G (Gain), XT (cross-talk), Geiger breakdown characteristics, C{sub pix} (pixel capacitance) and R{sub q} (quenching resistance). Following this first characterization, the SiPMs were irradiated using reactor neutrons with fluences of 10{sup 9}, 10{sup 10}, 10{sup 11}, 5 . 10{sup 11}, and 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}. Afterwards, the same measurements were repeated, and the dependence of the SiPM parameters on neutron fluence was determined. The results are used to optimize the radiation tolerance of SiPMs.

  14. Characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, Adam Nepomuk, E-mail: otte@gatech.edu; Garcia, Distefano; Nguyen, Thanh; Purushotham, Dhruv

    2017-02-21

    We report about the optical and electrical characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive Silicon photomultipliers from FBK, Hamamatsu, and SensL. Key features of the tested devices when operated at 90% breakdown probability are peak photon detection efficiencies between 40% and 55%, temperature dependencies of gain and PDE that are less than 1%/°C, dark rates of ∼50 kHz/mm{sup 2} at room temperature, afterpulsing of about 2%, and direct optical crosstalk between 6% and 20%. The characteristics of all three devices impressively demonstrate how the Silicon-photomultiplier technology has improved over the past ten years. It is further demonstrated how the voltage and temperature characteristics of a number of quantities can be parameterized on the basis of physical models. The models provide a deeper understanding of the device characteristics over a wide bias and temperature range. They also serve as examples how producers could provide the characteristics of their SiPMs to users. A standardized parameterization of SiPMs would enable users to find the optimal SiPM for their application and the operating point of SiPMs without having to perform measurements thus significantly reducing design and development cycles.

  15. Characterization and optimization of Silicon Photomultipliers and small size scintillator tiles for future calorimeter applications

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2095312; Horváth, Ákos

    For the active layers of highly granular sampling calorimeters, small scintillator tiles read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) can be an interesting and cost effective alternative to silicon sensors. At CERN a test setup was realized for the development of new generations of calorimeters to characterize new types of Silicon Photomultipliers in terms of gain, noise, afterpulses and crosstalk and to study the impact of scintillator wrappings and the tile size on the measured light yield and uniformity. In this thesis work, the experimental setup is described and the steps for commissioning the equipment are discussed. Then, the temperature dependence of the Silicon Photomultiplier response will be investigated, including the dependence of bare Silicon Photomultipliers as well as Silicon Photomultipliers coupled to scintillator tiles. Finally, the tile-photomultiplier response for different tile sizes and coating options will be evaluated. The experimental setup will be extended to allow for the characteri...

  16. Analysis of transit time spread on FBK silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acerbi, F.; Gola, A.; Ferri, A.; Zorzi, N.; Paternoster, G.; Piemonte, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we studied one of the aspects potentially limiting the single-photon time-resolution (SPTR) of the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM): the transit time spread (TTS). We illuminated the SiPM in different positions with a fast-pulsed laser collimated to a circular spot of 0.2 mm-diameter and acquired bi-dimensional maps of the avalanche-signal arrival time of RGB and RGB-HD SiPMs, produced at FBK. We studied the effect of both the number of bonding wires connecting the device to the package and the layout of the top-metal connection (on the device). We found that the TTS does not simply depend on the trace length between the cell and the bonding pad and it could vary in the range between tens of picoseconds (with 3 bonding connections) to more than one hundred of picoseconds (with one connection)

  17. The upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter with silicon photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Strobbe, N

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the hadron calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently underway. The endcap sections will be upgraded in the winter of 2016–2017 and the barrel sections during the second LHC long shutdown in 2019. The existing photosensors will be replaced with about 16 000 new silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), resulting in the first large installation of SiPMs in a radiation environment. All associated front-end electronics will also be upgraded. This paper discusses the motivation for the upgrade and provides a description 17 of the new system, including the SiPMs with associated control electronics and the front-end readout cards.

  18. Pulse shape discrimination based on fast signals from silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhao; Wei, Zhiyong; Fang, Meihua; Zhang, Zixia; Cheng, Can; Wang, Yi; Su, Huiwen; Ran, Youquan; Zhu, Qingwei; Zhang, He; Duan, Kai; Chen, Ming; Liu, Meng

    2018-06-01

    Recent developments in organic plastic scintillators capable of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) enable a breakthrough in discrimination between neutrons and gammas. Plastic scintillator detectors coupled with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer many advantages, such as lower power consumption, smaller volume, and especially insensitivity to magnetic fields, compared with conventional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). A SensL SiPM has two outputs: a standard output and a fast output. It is known that the charge injected into the fast output electrode is typically approximately 2% of the total charge generated during the avalanche, whereas the charge injected into the standard output electrode is nearly 98% of the total. Fast signals from SiPMs exhibit better performance in terms of timing and time-correlated measurements compared with standard signals. The pulse duration of a standard signal is on the order of hundreds of nanoseconds, whereas the pulse duration of the main monopole waveform of a fast signal is a few tens of nanoseconds. Fast signals are traditionally thought to be suitable for photon counting at very high speeds but unsuitable for PSD due to the partial charge collection. Meanwhile, the standard outputs of SiPMs coupled with discriminating scintillators have yielded nice PSD performances, but there have been no reports on PSD using fast signals. Our analysis shows that fast signals can also provide discrimination if the rate of charge injection into the fast output electrode is fixed for each event, even though only a portion of the charge is collected. In this work, we achieved successful PSD using fast signals; meanwhile, using a coincidence timing window of less 3 nanoseconds between the readouts from both ends of the detector reduced the influence of the high SiPM dark current. We experimentally achieved good timing performance and PSD capability simultaneously.

  19. The recent development and study of silicon photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saveliev, Valeri

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments and results from the study of a Silicon Solid State Photomultiplier (Si-PM) are presented. The basis of this new type of photodetector is a fine structure of microcells operating in the Geiger mode with an internal gain greater than 106. Common signal output allows for the detector to be operated in the proportional mode, and to reach a dynamic range of 1.5x103. Such photodetectors have shown single photon response at room temperature with a fast timing of ∼100ps. They are compact, robust and non-sensitive to magnetic fields. Results show the detection of low-intensity light in single photon mode and the detection of minimal ionizing particles using a scintillation tile for hadron calorimetry. The silicon photomultiplier is suitable for wide application in scintillation calorimetry, medical application, etc

  20. Performance study of Philips digital silicon photomultiplier coupled to scintillating crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Z.; Auffray, E.; Lecoq, P.; Paganoni, M.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and scintillators are often arranged in the shape of arrays in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems. Digital SiPMs provide signal readout in single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) level. From the photon count rate measurement of each SPAD cell of digital SiPM, we found that the output scintillating photons distribute in an area larger than the scintillator physical coupling area. Taking advantage of the possibility to enable/disable individual cells of the digital SiPM, a group of Lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals with different dimensions coupled to a digital SiPM was used to study the influence of using different SiPM active area on the number of photons detected, energy resolution and coincidence time resolution (CTR). For the same crystal coupled to the digital SiPM, the larger the active area of digital SiPM, the higher the number of photons detected. The larger active area of the digital SiPM also results in a better energy resolution after saturation...

  1. VUV-sensitive silicon-photomultipliers for the nEXO-experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrede, Gerrit; Bayerlein, Reimund; Hufschmidt, Patrick; Jamil, Ako; Schneider, Judith; Wagenpfeil, Michael; Ziegler, Tobias; Hoessl, Juergen; Anton, Gisela; Michel, Thilo [ECAP, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The nEXO (next Enriched Xenon Observatory) experiment will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of Xe-136 with a liquid xenon TPC (Time ProjectionChamber). The sensitivity of the experiment is related to the energy resolution, which itself depends on the accuracies of the measurements of the amount of drifting electrons and the number of scintillation photons with their wavelength being in the vacuum ultraviolet band. Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) shall be used for the detection of the scintillation light, since they can be produced extremely radiopure. Commercially available SiPM do not fulfill all requirements of the nEXO experiment, thus a dedicated development is necessary. To characterize the silicon photomultipliers, we have built a test apparatus for xenon liquefaction, in which a VUV-sensitive photomultiplier tube can be operated together with the SiPM. In this contribution we present our apparatus for the SiPM characterization measurements and our latest results on the test of the silicon photomultipliers for the detection of xenon scintillation light.

  2. Dark noise rates in irradiated silicon photomultiplier arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Sebastian; Comerma, Albert; Gerick, David; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Kecke, Matthieu; Leverington, Blake; Mazorra de Cos, Jose; Mitzel, Dominik; Neuner, Max; Uwer, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: LHCb-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The planned downstream tracking system - the Scintillating Fibre Tracker - for the LHCb upgrade uses silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays of 128 channels to read out mats made of 250 μm diameter scintillating fibres. In the LHCb environment the neutron flux degrades the silicon detectors to the edge of an acceptable performance in terms of DCR. Studies have shown that the dark count rate (DCR) of the SiPMs increases linearly with the neutron flux. Towards the end of the designed lifetime of the experiment the DCR per SiPM channel operated at T = -40 C is expected to reach a few MHz after partial annealing. To reduce the impact of the DCR - while at the same time provide efficient hit reconstruction - a clustering algorithm is developed to separate signal from noise. A brief introduction into the custom designed read-out ASIC and the cluster algorithm are presented along with the studies of the dark count cluster rate dependency on the neutron flux, the DCR per channel and the effects of the applied signal thresholds for the clustering algorithm.

  3. A digital silicon photomultiplier with multiple time-to-digital converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garutti, Erika [University Hamburg (Germany); Silenzi, Alessandro [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Xu, Chen [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); University Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) with pixel level signal digitization and column-wise connected time-to-digital converters (TDCs) has been developed for an endoscopic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detector. A digital SiPM has pixels consist of a single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) and circuit elements to optimize overall dark counts and temporal response. Compared with conventional analog SiPM, digital SiPM's direct signal route from SPAD to TDC improves single photon time resolution. In addition, using multiple TDCs can perform the statistical estimation of the time-of-arrival in multiple photon detection case such as readout of scintillation crystals. Characterization measurements of the prototype digital SiPM and a Monte-Carlo simulation to predict the timing performance of the PET detector are shown.

  4. Study of the photo-detection efficiency of FBK High-Density silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappalà, G.; Regazzoni, V.; Acerbi, F.; Ferri, A.; Gola, A.; Paternoster, G.; Zorzi, N.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a study of the factors contributing to the Photo-Detection Efficiency of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs): Quantum Efficiency, Triggering Probability and Fill Factor. Two different SiPM High-Density technologies are tested, NUV-HD, based on n-on-p junction, and RGB-HD, based on p-on-n junction, developed at FBK, Trento. The quantum efficiency was measured on photodiodes produced along with the SiPMs. The triggering probability, as a function of wavelength and bias voltage, was measured on circular Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) with 100% fill factor. Square SPADs, having the same layout of single SiPM cells, were studied to measure the effective fill factor and compare it to the nominal value. The comparison of the circular and square SPADs allows to get the transition region size between the effective active area of the cell and the one defined by the layout.

  5. New method for evaluating effective recovery time and single photoelectron response in silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodzicka, Martyna, E-mail: m.grodzicka@ncbj.gov.pl; Szczęśniak, Tomasz; Moszyński, Marek; Szawłowski, Marek; Grodzicki, Krystian

    2015-05-21

    The linearity of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) response depends on the number of APD cells and its effective recovery time and it is related to the intensity and duration of the detected light pulses. The aim of this study was to determine the effective recovery time on the basis of the measured SiPM response to light pulses of different durations. A closer analysis of the SiPM response to the light pulses shorter than the effective recovery time of APD cells led to a method for the evaluation of the single photoelectron response of the devices where the single photoelectron peak cannot be clearly measured. This is necessary in the evaluation of the number of fired APD cells (or the number of photoelectrons) in measurements with light pulses of various durations. Measurements were done with SiPMs manufactured by two companies: Hamamatsu and SensL.

  6. Modeling crosstalk in silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, L; Rosado, J; Blanco, F; Arqueros, F

    2013-01-01

    Optical crosstalk seriously limits the photon-counting resolution of silicon photomultipliers. In this work, realistic analytical models to describe the crosstalk effects on the response of these photodetectors are presented and compared with experimental data. The proposed models are based on the hypothesis that each pixel of the array has a finite number of available neighboring pixels to excite via crosstalk. Dead-time effects and geometrical aspects of the propagation of crosstalk between neighbors are taken into account in the models for different neighborhood configurations. Simple expressions to account for crosstalk effects on the pulse-height spectrum as well as to evaluate the excess noise factor due to crosstalk are also given. Dedicated measurements were carried out under both dark-count conditions and pulsed illumination. Moreover, the influence of afterpulsing on the measured pulse-height spectrum was studied, and a measurement of the recovery time of pixels was reported. High-resolution pulse-height spectra were obtained by means of a detailed waveform analysis, and the results have been used to validate our crosstalk models.

  7. Towards Optical Partial Discharge Detection with Micro Silicon Photomultipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical detection is reliable in intrinsically characterizing partial discharges (PDs. Because of the great volume and high-level power supply of the optical devices that can satisfy the requirements in photosensitivity, optical PD detection can merely be used in laboratory studies. To promote the practical application of the optical approach in an actual power apparatus, a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM-based PD sensor is introduced in this paper, and its basic properties, which include the sensitivity, pulse resolution, correlation with PD severity, and electromagnetic (EM interference immunity, are experimentally evaluated. The stochastic phase-resolved PD pattern (PRPD for three typical insulation defects are obtained by SiPM PD detector and are compared with those obtained using a high-frequency current transformer (HFCT and a vacuum photomultiplier tube (PMT. Because of its good performances in the above aspects and its additional advantages, such as the small size, low power supply, and low cost, SiPM offers great potential in practical optical PD monitoring.

  8. Study of the silicon photomultipliers and their applications in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chen

    2014-05-01

    This thesis deals with silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) used in scintillation detectors and their applications in positron emission tomography (PET). The study of the SiPM is mainly focused on the application to the proposed EndoTOFPET-US detector, which is a multi-modality PET detector facilitating the development of new biomarkers for pancreas and prostate cancers. A Monte Carlo simulation tool is developed for the optimization of the detector's single channel design. In order to obtain a 200 ps system coincidence time resolution and maximize the detector sensitivity, the requirements for the crystal geometry, light yield and SiPM photon detection efficiency are specified based on the simulation study. In addition, the nonlinear response of the SiPM can be corrected by the simulation tool and the energy resolution of the detector is extracted. A series of measurements are established to characterize SiPMs in a fast and reliable way with high precision. The static characterization measures the value of different components in the derived electrical model of the SiPM, whereas the dynamic characterization extracts parameters that is crucial for the operation of the SiPM. Several SiPM samples are tested and their characteristics are compared. The developed setup and the precision of the measurement fulfill the requirements of the quality assurance test for the commissioning of the EndoTOFPET-US detector. The test foresees large quantities of SiPMs to be characterized. In addition, the developed measuring procedure has contributed to the study of X-ray induced surface damage of a SiPM from Hamamatsu. Characteristics of the device are measured before and after irradiating the SiPM with different X-ray doses, the results are compared and discussed. A comparative study of a digital and an analog SiPM in gamma spectroscopy with the inorganic scintillator is presented. The characteristics of a prototype digital SiPM that is developed for the EndoTOFPETUS detector is

  9. Analysis of single-photon time resolution of FBK silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acerbi, Fabio; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We characterized and analyzed an important feature of silicon photomultipliers: the single-photon time resolution (SPTR). We characterized the SPTR of new RGB (Red–Green–Blue) type Silicon Photomultipliers and SPADs produced at FBK (Trento, Italy), studying its main limiting factors. We compared time resolution of 1×1 mm 2 and 3×3 mm 2 SiPMs and a single SiPM cell (i.e. a SPAD with integrated passive-quenching), employing a mode-locked pulsed laser with 2-ps wide pulses. We estimated the contribution of front-end electronic-noise, of cell-to-cell uniformity, and intrinsic cell time-resolution. At a single-cell level, we compared the results obtained with different layouts. With a circular cell with a top metallization covering part of the edge and enhancing the signal extraction, we reached ~20 ps FWHM of time resolution

  10. Analysis of single-photon time resolution of FBK silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acerbi, Fabio, E-mail: acerbi@fbk.eu; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio

    2015-07-01

    We characterized and analyzed an important feature of silicon photomultipliers: the single-photon time resolution (SPTR). We characterized the SPTR of new RGB (Red–Green–Blue) type Silicon Photomultipliers and SPADs produced at FBK (Trento, Italy), studying its main limiting factors. We compared time resolution of 1×1 mm{sup 2} and 3×3 mm{sup 2} SiPMs and a single SiPM cell (i.e. a SPAD with integrated passive-quenching), employing a mode-locked pulsed laser with 2-ps wide pulses. We estimated the contribution of front-end electronic-noise, of cell-to-cell uniformity, and intrinsic cell time-resolution. At a single-cell level, we compared the results obtained with different layouts. With a circular cell with a top metallization covering part of the edge and enhancing the signal extraction, we reached ~20 ps FWHM of time resolution.

  11. Silicon photomultiplier arrays for the LHCb scintillating fibre tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Girard, Olivier Goran; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Stramaglia, Maria Elena

    2017-01-01

    For the LHCb detector upgrade in 2019, a large scale scintillating fibre tracker read out with silicon photomultipliers is under construction. The harsh radiation environment (neutron and ionising radiation), the 40MHz read-out rate of the trigger less system and the large detector surface of 320m2 impose many challenges. We present the results from lab tests with 1MeV electrons and from the SPS test facility at CERN for the mulitchannel SiPM array that combines peak photo-detection efficiency of 48% and extremely low correlated noise. The measurements were performed with detectors irradiated with neutrons up to a fluence of 12*1011 neq/cm2 and single photon detection was maintained. First results of the characterization of the pre-series of 500 detectors delivered by Hamamatsu and irradiation studies on a large sample will be included.

  12. A study of timing properties of Silicon Photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella, Paola; De Santo, Antonella; Lohstroh, Annika; Sajjad, Muhammad T.; Sellin, Paul J.

    2012-12-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are solid-state pixelated photodetectors. Lately these sensors have been investigated for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (ToF-PET) applications, where very good coincidence time resolution of the order of hundreds of picoseconds imply spatial resolution of the order of cm in the image reconstruction. The very fast rise time typical of the avalanche discharge improves the time resolution, but can be limited by the readout electronics and the technology used to construct the device. In this work the parameters of the equivalent circuit of the device that directly affect the pulse shape, namely the quenching resistance and capacitance and the diode and parasitic capacitances, were calculated. The mean rise time obtained with different preamplifiers was also measured.

  13. A silicon photomultiplier readout for time of flight neutron spectroscopy with {gamma}-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Occhialini' ' and CNISM, Universita Degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Festa, G.; Andreani, C.; De Pascale, M. P.; Reali, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro NAST, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133, Roma (Italy); Grazzi, F. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano n.10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Schooneveld, E. M. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is a recently developed photosensor used in particle physics, e.g., for detection of minimum ionizing particles and/or Cherenkov radiation. Its performance is comparable to that of photomultiplier tubes, but with advantages in terms of reduced volume and magnetic field insensitivity. In the present study, the performance of a gamma ray detector made of an yttrium aluminum perovskite scintillation crystal and a SiPM-based readout is assessed for use in time of flight neutron spectroscopy. Measurements performed at the ISIS pulsed neutron source demonstrate the feasibility of {gamma}-detection based on the new device.

  14. First results in the application of silicon photomultiplier matrices to small animal PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llosa, G. [University of Pisa, Department of Physics, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: gabriela.llosa@pi.infn.it; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G. [University of Pisa, Department of Physics, Pisa (Italy); INFN Pisa (Italy); Collazuol, G. [University of Pisa, Department of Physics, Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Marcatili, S. [University of Pisa, Department of Physics, Pisa (Italy); INFN Pisa (Italy); Boscardin, M.; Melchiorri, M.; Tarolli, A.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N. [FBK irst, Trento (Italy); Barrillon, P.; Bondil-Blin, S.; Chaumat, V.; La Taille, C. de; Dinu, N.; Puill, V.; Vagnucci, J-F. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay (France); Del Guerra, A. [University of Pisa, Department of Physics, Pisa (Italy); INFN Pisa (Italy)

    2009-10-21

    A very high resolution small animal PET scanner that employs matrices of silicon photomultipliers as photodetectors is under development at the University of Pisa and INFN Pisa. The first SiPM matrices composed of 16 (4x4)1mmx1mm pixel elements on a common substrate have been produced at FBK-irst, and are being evaluated for this application. The MAROC2 ASIC developed at LAL-Orsay has been employed for the readout of the SiPM matrices. The devices have been tested with pixelated and continuous LYSO crystals. The results show the good performance of the matrices and lead to the fabrication of matrices with 64 SiPM elements.

  15. First results in the application of silicon photomultiplier matrices to small animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosa, G.; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G.; Collazuol, G.; Marcatili, S.; Boscardin, M.; Melchiorri, M.; Tarolli, A.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N.; Barrillon, P.; Bondil-Blin, S.; Chaumat, V.; La Taille, C. de; Dinu, N.; Puill, V.; Vagnucci, J-F.; Del Guerra, A.

    2009-01-01

    A very high resolution small animal PET scanner that employs matrices of silicon photomultipliers as photodetectors is under development at the University of Pisa and INFN Pisa. The first SiPM matrices composed of 16 (4x4)1mmx1mm pixel elements on a common substrate have been produced at FBK-irst, and are being evaluated for this application. The MAROC2 ASIC developed at LAL-Orsay has been employed for the readout of the SiPM matrices. The devices have been tested with pixelated and continuous LYSO crystals. The results show the good performance of the matrices and lead to the fabrication of matrices with 64 SiPM elements.

  16. The Strip Silicon Photo-Multiplier: An innovation for enhanced time and position measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroud, K., E-mail: Katayoun.Doroud@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Williams, M.C.S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Yamamoto, K. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2017-05-01

    There is considerable R&D concerning precise time measurement from a variety of detectors, and in particular for the Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM). In this paper we discuss a new geometry for the SiPM in the form of a strip. A strip can be read out at both end, with each end coupled to an individual TDC (time to digital converter). The time difference is related to the position of the firing SPAD along the length of the strip, while the average of the two times gives the time of the hit. Results from the testing of the first prototype Strip SiPMs are presented in this paper.

  17. Cherenkov luminescence measurements with digital silicon photomultipliers: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarrocchi, Esther; Belcari, Nicola; Guerra, Alberto Del [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); INFN, section of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Cherry, Simon R. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Lehnert, Adrienne; Hunter, William C. J.; McDougald, Wendy; Miyaoka, Robert S.; Kinahan, Paul E. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-11-16

    A feasibility study was done to assess the capability of digital silicon photomultipliers to measure the Cherenkov luminescence emitted by a β source. Cherenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is possible with a charge coupled device (CCD) based technology, but a stand-alone technique for quantitative activity measurements based on Cherenkov luminescence has not yet been developed. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are photon counting devices with a fast impulse response and can potentially be used to quantify β-emitting radiotracer distributions by CLI. In this study, a Philips digital photon counting (PDPC) silicon photomultiplier detector was evaluated for measuring Cherenkov luminescence. The PDPC detector is a matrix of avalanche photodiodes, which were read one at a time in a dark count map (DCM) measurement mode (much like a CCD). This reduces the device active area but allows the information from a single avalanche photodiode to be preserved, which is not possible with analog SiPMs. An algorithm to reject the noisiest photodiodes and to correct the measured count rate for the dark current was developed. The results show that, in DCM mode and at (10–13) °C, the PDPC has a dynamic response to different levels of Cherenkov luminescence emitted by a β source and transmitted through an opaque medium. This suggests the potential for this approach to provide quantitative activity measurements. Interestingly, the potential use of the PDPC in DCM mode for direct imaging of Cherenkov luminescence, as a opposed to a scalar measurement device, was also apparent. We showed that a PDPC tile in DCM mode is able to detect and image a β source through its Cherenkov radiation emission. The detector’s dynamic response to different levels of radiation suggests its potential quantitative capabilities, and the DCM mode allows imaging with a better spatial resolution than the conventional event-triggered mode. Finally, the same acquisition procedure and data processing could

  18. Cherenkov luminescence measurements with digital silicon photomultipliers: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarrocchi, Esther; Belcari, Nicola; Guerra, Alberto Del; Cherry, Simon R.; Lehnert, Adrienne; Hunter, William C. J.; McDougald, Wendy; Miyaoka, Robert S.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    A feasibility study was done to assess the capability of digital silicon photomultipliers to measure the Cherenkov luminescence emitted by a β source. Cherenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is possible with a charge coupled device (CCD) based technology, but a stand-alone technique for quantitative activity measurements based on Cherenkov luminescence has not yet been developed. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are photon counting devices with a fast impulse response and can potentially be used to quantify β-emitting radiotracer distributions by CLI. In this study, a Philips digital photon counting (PDPC) silicon photomultiplier detector was evaluated for measuring Cherenkov luminescence. The PDPC detector is a matrix of avalanche photodiodes, which were read one at a time in a dark count map (DCM) measurement mode (much like a CCD). This reduces the device active area but allows the information from a single avalanche photodiode to be preserved, which is not possible with analog SiPMs. An algorithm to reject the noisiest photodiodes and to correct the measured count rate for the dark current was developed. The results show that, in DCM mode and at (10–13) °C, the PDPC has a dynamic response to different levels of Cherenkov luminescence emitted by a β source and transmitted through an opaque medium. This suggests the potential for this approach to provide quantitative activity measurements. Interestingly, the potential use of the PDPC in DCM mode for direct imaging of Cherenkov luminescence, as a opposed to a scalar measurement device, was also apparent. We showed that a PDPC tile in DCM mode is able to detect and image a β source through its Cherenkov radiation emission. The detector’s dynamic response to different levels of radiation suggests its potential quantitative capabilities, and the DCM mode allows imaging with a better spatial resolution than the conventional event-triggered mode. Finally, the same acquisition procedure and data processing could

  19. Development of Silicon Photomultipliers and their Applications to GlueX Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Elton S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The GlueX experiment is a photoproduction experiment in Hall D at Jefferson Lab that is being commissioned for use with the new 12 GeV accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to search for Hybrid mesons, which are mesons with quark and gluon degrees of freedom. The barrel calorimeter of GlueX is instrumented with 4000 large-area (1.2 x1.2 cm2) silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). These photon sensors have properties similar to vacuum photomultipliers, but are unaffected by high magnetic fields. In our experiment they operate in magnetic fields exceeding 1T. After extensive tests with a variety of sensors, we chose the S12045(X) custom SiPM arrays manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation, also known as multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). We will give an overview of this new technology as well as the experience gained during two commissioning periods with beam.

  20. Development of silicon photomultipliers and their applications to GlueX calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Elton S., E-mail: elton@jlab.org [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    The GlueX experiment is a photoproduction experiment in Hall D at Jefferson Lab that is being commissioned for use with the new 12 GeV accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to search for Hybrid mesons, which are mesons with quark and gluon degrees of freedom. The barrel calorimeter of GlueX is instrumented with 4000 large-area (1.2 × 1.2 cm{sup 2}) silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). These photon sensors have properties similar to vacuum photomultipliers, but are unaffected by high magnetic fields. In our experiment they operate in magnetic fields exceeding 1T. After extensive tests with a variety of sensors, we chose the S12045(X) custom SiPM arrays manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation, also known as multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). We will give an overview of this new technology as well as the experience gained during two commissioning periods with beam.

  1. Operation and first results of the NEXT-DEMO prototype using a silicon photomultiplier tracking array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Ferrario, P; Gil, A; Borges, F I G; Conde, C A N; Dias, T H V T; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Egorov, M; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Ferreira, A L

    2013-01-01

    NEXT-DEMO is a high-pressure xenon gas TPC which acts as a technological test-bed and demonstrator for the NEXT-100 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. In its current configuration the apparatus fully implements the NEXT-100 design concept. This is an asymmetric TPC, with an energy plane made of photomultipliers and a tracking plane made of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) coated with TPB. The detector in this new configuration has been used to reconstruct the characteristic signature of electrons in dense gas, demonstrating the ability to identify the MIP and ''blob'' regions. Moreover, the SiPM tracking plane allows for the definition of a large fiducial region in which an excellent energy resolution of 1.82% FWHM at 511 keV has been measured (a value which extrapolates to 0.83% at the xenon Q ββ )

  2. Performance study of Philips digital silicon photomultiplier coupled to scintillating crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Pizzichemi, M.; Paganoni, M.; Auffray, E.; Lecoq, P.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and scintillators are often arranged in the shape of arrays in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems. Digital SiPMs provide signal readout in single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) level. From the photon count rate measurement of each SPAD cell of digital SiPM, we found that the output scintillating photons distribute in an area larger than the scintillator physical coupling area. Taking advantage of the possibility to enable/disable individual cells of the digital SiPM, a group of Lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals with different dimensions coupled to a digital SiPM was used to study the influence of using different SiPM active area on the number of photons detected, energy resolution and coincidence time resolution (CTR). For the same crystal coupled to the digital SiPM, the larger the active area of digital SiPM, the higher the number of photons detected. The larger active area of the digital SiPM also results in a better energy resolution after saturation correction. The best energy resolution full width half maximum (FWHM) obtained for the 2×2×5mm 3 , 2×2×10 mm 3 , 2×2×15mm 3 , 2×2×20mm 3 LYSO crystals was 10.7%, 11.6%, 12.1%, 12.5%, respectively. For crystals with different cross sections coupled to the digital SiPM, we found that the larger the cross section of coupling area, the more photons were detected and thus a better energy resolution was obtained. The CTR of crystals fully wrapped with Teflon or without wrapping was measured by positioning two identical crystals facing each other. A larger area of digital SiPM improves the CTR and the CTR reaches the plateau when the active area is larger than 2.2×2.2mm 2 with both two configurations of wrapping. The best CTR value for the 2×2×5mm 3 , 2×2×10mm 3 , 2×2×15mm 3 , 2×2×20mm 3 LYSO crystals was 128.9 ps, 148.4 ps, 171.6 ps, 177.9 ps, respectively. The measurements performed lead us to conclude that optimising the coupling between crystal

  3. A new detector concept for silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadigov, A., E-mail: saazik@yandex.ru [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Ahmadov, F.; Ahmadov, G. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Ariffin, A.; Khorev, S. [Zecotek Photonics Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Sadygov, Z. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Suleymanov, S. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Zerrouk, F. [Zecotek Photonics Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Madatov, R. [Institute of Radiation Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2016-07-11

    A new design and principle of operation of silicon photomultipliers are presented. The new design comprises a semiconductor substrate and an array of independent micro-phototransistors formed on the substrate. Each micro-phototransistor comprises a photosensitive base operating in Geiger mode and an individual micro-emitter covering a small part of the base layer, thereby creating, together with this latter, a micro-transistor. Both micro-emitters and photosensitive base layers are connected with two respective independent metal grids via their individual micro-resistors. The total value of signal gain in the proposed silicon photomultiplier is a result of both the avalanche gain in the base layer and the corresponding gain in the micro-transistor. The main goals of the new design are: significantly lower both optical crosstalk and after-pulse effects at high signal amplification, improve speed of single photoelectron pulse formation, and significantly reduce the device capacitance.

  4. Modeling crosstalk and afterpulsing in silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado, J.; Aranda, V.M.; Blanco, F.; Arqueros, F.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental method to characterize the crosstalk and afterpulsing in silicon photomultipliers has been developed and applied to two detectors fabricated by Hamamatsu. An analytical model of optical crosstalk that we presented in a previous publication has been compared with new measurements, confirming our results. Progresses on a statistical model to describe afterpulsing and delayed crosstalk are also shown and compared with preliminary experimental data

  5. Modeling crosstalk and afterpulsing in silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, J., E-mail: jaime_ros@fis.ucm.es; Aranda, V.M.; Blanco, F.; Arqueros, F.

    2015-07-01

    An experimental method to characterize the crosstalk and afterpulsing in silicon photomultipliers has been developed and applied to two detectors fabricated by Hamamatsu. An analytical model of optical crosstalk that we presented in a previous publication has been compared with new measurements, confirming our results. Progresses on a statistical model to describe afterpulsing and delayed crosstalk are also shown and compared with preliminary experimental data.

  6. Gain compensation technique by bias correction in arrays of Silicon Photomultipliers using fully differential fast shaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baszczyk, M., E-mail: baszczyk@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Krakow (Poland); Dorosz, P.; Glab, S.; Kucewicz, W. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Krakow (Poland); Mik, L. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Krakow (Poland); State Higher Vocational School, Tarnow (Poland); Sapor, M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Krakow (Poland)

    2016-07-11

    Proposed algorithm compensates the gain by changing the bias voltage of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The signal from SiPM is amplified in fully differential preamplifier then is formed in time by the fully differential fast shaper. The compensation method was tested with four channels common cathode multi-pixel photon counter from Hamamatsu. The measurement system requires only one high voltage power supply. The polarization voltage is adjusted individually in each channel indirectly by tuning the output common mode voltage (VOCM) of fully differential amplifier. The changes of VOCM affect the input voltage through the feedback network. Actual gain of the SiPM is calculated by measuring the mean amplitude of the signal resulting from detection of single photoelectron. The VOCM is adjusted by DAC so as to reach the desired value of gain by each channel individually. The advantage of the algorithm is the possibility to set the bias of each SiPM in the array independently so they all could operate in very similar conditions (have similar gain and dark count rate). The algorithm can compensate the variations of gain of SiPM by using thermally generated pulses. There is no need to use additional current to voltage conversion which could introduce extra noises.

  7. Gain compensation technique by bias correction in arrays of Silicon Photomultipliers using fully differential fast shaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baszczyk, M.; Dorosz, P.; Glab, S.; Kucewicz, W.; Mik, L.; Sapor, M.

    2016-07-01

    Proposed algorithm compensates the gain by changing the bias voltage of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The signal from SiPM is amplified in fully differential preamplifier then is formed in time by the fully differential fast shaper. The compensation method was tested with four channels common cathode multi-pixel photon counter from Hamamatsu. The measurement system requires only one high voltage power supply. The polarization voltage is adjusted individually in each channel indirectly by tuning the output common mode voltage (VOCM) of fully differential amplifier. The changes of VOCM affect the input voltage through the feedback network. Actual gain of the SiPM is calculated by measuring the mean amplitude of the signal resulting from detection of single photoelectron. The VOCM is adjusted by DAC so as to reach the desired value of gain by each channel individually. The advantage of the algorithm is the possibility to set the bias of each SiPM in the array independently so they all could operate in very similar conditions (have similar gain and dark count rate). The algorithm can compensate the variations of gain of SiPM by using thermally generated pulses. There is no need to use additional current to voltage conversion which could introduce extra noises.

  8. A Compact Cosmic Ray Telescope using Silicon Photomultipliers for use in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luis; Elizondo, Leonardo; Shelor, Mark; Cervantes, Omar; Fan, Sewan; Ritt, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Over the years, the QuarkNet and the LBL Cosmic Ray Project have helped trained thousands of high school students and teachers to explore cosmic ray physics. To get high school students in the Salinas, CA area also excited about cosmic rays, we constructed a cosmic ray telescope as a physics outreach apparatus. Our apparatus includes a pair of plastic scintillators coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) and a coincidence circuit board. We designed and constructed custom circuit boards for mounting the SiPM detectors, the high voltage power supplies and coincidence AND circuit. The AND logic signals can be used for triggering data acquisition devices including an oscilloscope, a waveform digitizer or an Arduino microcontroller. To properly route the circuit wire traces, the circuit boards were layout in Eagle and fabricated in-house using a circuit board maker from LPKF LASER, model Protomat E33. We used a Raspberry Pi computer to control a fast waveform sampler, the DRS4 to digitize the SiPM signal waveforms. The CERN PAW software package was used to analyze the amplitude and time distributions of SiPM detector signals. At this conference, we present our SiPM experimental setup, circuit board fabrication procedures and the data analysis work flow. AIP Megger's Award, Dept. of Ed. Title V Grant PO31S090007.

  9. Gain compensation technique by bias correction in arrays of Silicon Photomultipliers using fully differential fast shaper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baszczyk, M.; Dorosz, P.; Glab, S.; Kucewicz, W.; Mik, L.; Sapor, M.

    2016-01-01

    Proposed algorithm compensates the gain by changing the bias voltage of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The signal from SiPM is amplified in fully differential preamplifier then is formed in time by the fully differential fast shaper. The compensation method was tested with four channels common cathode multi-pixel photon counter from Hamamatsu. The measurement system requires only one high voltage power supply. The polarization voltage is adjusted individually in each channel indirectly by tuning the output common mode voltage (VOCM) of fully differential amplifier. The changes of VOCM affect the input voltage through the feedback network. Actual gain of the SiPM is calculated by measuring the mean amplitude of the signal resulting from detection of single photoelectron. The VOCM is adjusted by DAC so as to reach the desired value of gain by each channel individually. The advantage of the algorithm is the possibility to set the bias of each SiPM in the array independently so they all could operate in very similar conditions (have similar gain and dark count rate). The algorithm can compensate the variations of gain of SiPM by using thermally generated pulses. There is no need to use additional current to voltage conversion which could introduce extra noises.

  10. Experimental evaluation of Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce (GAGG:Ce) single crystals coupled to a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) under high gamma ray irradiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinos, A.; Kefalidis, E.; Kandarakis, I.; David, S.

    2017-11-01

    Cerium (Ce) ion doped scintillators are of high interest in Medical Imaging systems and radiation monitoring devices, due to their very fast response and very good emission characteristics. In this study, a series of measurements regarding the energy resolution, photofraction, sensitivity, as well as the figure of merit, of Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce (GAGG:Ce) scintillator crystals, is presented. All GAGG:Ce crystals have a surface area of 3x3 mm2 with varying thicknesses, from 4 up to 20 mm (4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 mm). These crystals were exposed to γ radiation, using two different radioactive sources: 137Cs (0.662 MeV) and 60Co (1.173 MeV and 1.332 MeV). Each crystal was measured individually and was optically coupled to a KETEK PM3350 SiPM, an optical sensor with high gain, suitable to operate in room temperature. The digitization of the pulses was accomplished using CAEN DT5720 desktop digitizer and its corresponding digital pulse processing (DPP) firmware. Each measurement was performed in a light-tight box and had duration of 30 min. The best energy resolution value was measured for the GAGG:Ce crystal with dimensions 3x3x15mm3, equal to 3.9% at 1.332 MeV. Results were evaluated and compared to previous published data.

  11. In-depth study of single photon time resolution for the Philips digital silicon photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Pizzichemi, M.; Ghezzi, A.; Paganoni, M.; Gundacker, S.; Auffray, E.; Lecoq, P.

    2016-01-01

    The digital silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) has been commercialised by Philips as an innovative technology compared to analog silicon photomultiplier devices. The Philips digital SiPM, has a pair of time to digital converters (TDCs) connected to 12800 single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). Detailed measurements were performed to understand the low photon time response of the Philips digital SiPM. The single photon time resolution (SPTR) of every single SPAD in a pixel consisting of 3200 SPADs was measured and an average value of 85 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) was observed. Each SPAD sends the signal to the TDC with different signal propagation time, resulting in a so called trigger network skew. This distribution of the trigger network skew for a pixel (3200 SPADs) has been measured and a variation of 50 ps FWHM was extracted. The SPTR of the whole pixel is the combination of SPAD jitter, trigger network skew, and the SPAD non-uniformity. The SPTR of a complete pixel was 103 ps FWHM at 3.3 V above breakdown voltage. Further, the effect of the crosstalk at a low photon level has been studied, with the two photon time resolution degrading if the events are a combination of detected (true) photons and crosstalk events. Finally, the time response to multiple photons was investigated.

  12. Geneva University - Silicon photomultiplier : features and applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92   Wednesday 7 March 2012 SEMINAIRE DE PHYSIQUE CORPUSCULAIRE 11.15 a.m. - Science II, Auditoire 1S081, 30, quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 SILICON PHOTOMULTIPLIER : FEATURES AND APPLICATIONS Dr Giulio SARACINO   University of Naples, Federico II   Silicon photomultipliers were developed about ten years ago and their use, unlike traditional photomultiplier tubes, is increasing more and more. They are an evolution of the avalanche photodiode working in Geiger mode regime. Hundreds of such diodes are connected in parallel, allowing single photon response, high detection efficiency, high gain at low bias voltage and very good timing performance. In spite of their Geiger regime, they can be considered linear devices, until the number of photon...

  13. Replacement of a photomultiplier tube in a 2-inch thallium-doped sodium iodide gamma spectrometer with silicon photomultipliers and a light guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chankyu Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The thallium-doped sodium iodide [NaI(Tl] scintillation detector is preferred as a gamma spectrometer in many fields because of its general advantages. A silicon photomultiplier (SiPM has recently been developed and its application area has been expanded as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs. It has merits such as a low operating voltage, compact size, cheap production cost, and magnetic resonance compatibility. In this study, an array of SiPMs is used to develop an NaI(Tl gamma spectrometer. To maintain detection efficiency, a commercial NaI(Tl 2′ × 2′ scintillator is used, and a light guide is used for the transport and collection of generated photons from the scintillator to the SiPMs without loss. The test light guides were fabricated with polymethyl methacrylate and reflective materials. The gamma spectrometer systems were set up and included light guides. Through a series of measurements, the characteristics of the light guides and the proposed gamma spectrometer were evaluated. Simulation of the light collection was accomplished using the DETECT 97 code (A. Levin, E. Hoskinson, and C. Moison, University of Michigan, USA to analyze the measurement results. The system, which included SiPMs and the light guide, achieved 14.11% full width at half maximum energy resolution at 662 keV.

  14. Performance evaluation of neuro-PET using silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jiwoong; Choi, Yong, E-mail: ychoi@sogang.ac.kr; Jung, Jin Ho, E-mail: jinho1115@gmail.com; Kim, Sangsu; Im, Ki Chun

    2016-05-21

    Recently, we have developed the second prototype Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for human brain imaging. The PET system was comprised of detector block which consisted of 4×4 SiPMs and 4×4 Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate arrays, charge signal transmission method, high density position decoder circuit and FPGA-embedded ADC boards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the newly developed neuro-PET system. The energy resolution, timing resolution, spatial resolution, sensitivity, stability of the photo-peak position and count rate performance were measured. Tomographic image of 3D Hoffman brain phantom was also acquired to evaluate imaging capability of the neuro-PET. The average energy and timing resolutions measured for 511 keV gamma rays were 17±0.1% and 3±0.3 ns, respectively. Spatial resolution and sensitivity at the center of field of view (FOV) were 3.1 mm and 0.8%, respectively. The average scatter fraction was 0.4 with an energy window of 350–650 keV. The maximum true count rate and maximum NECR were measured as 43.3 kcps and 6.5 kcps at an activity concentration of 16.7 kBq/ml and 5.5 kBq/ml, respectively. Long-term stability results show that there was no significant change in the photo-peak position, energy resolution and count rate for 60 days. Phantom imaging studies were performed and they demonstrated the feasibility for high quality brain imaging. The performance tests and imaging results indicate that the newly developed PET is useful for brain imaging studies, if the axial FOV is extended to improve the system sensitivity.

  15. Extending the dynamic range of silicon photomultipliers without increasing pixel count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Kurtis F.

    2010-01-01

    A silicon photomultiplier, sometimes called 'multipixel photon counter', which we here refer to as a 'SiPM', is a photo-sensitive device built from an avalanche photodiode array of pixels on a common silicon substrate, such that it can detect single photon events. The dimensions of a pixel may vary from 20 to 100 μm and their density can be greater than 1000 per square millimeter. Each pixel in a SiPM operates in Geiger mode and is coupled to the output by a quenching resistor. Although each pixel operates in digital mode, the SiPM is an analog device because all the pixels are read in parallel, making it possible to generate signals within a dynamic range from a single photon to a large number of photons, ultimately limited by the number of pixels on the chip. In this note we describe a simple and general method of increasing the dynamic range of a SiPM beyond that one may naively assume from the shape of the cumulative distribution function of the SiPM response to the average number of photons per pixel. We show that by rendering the incoming flux of photons to be non-uniform in a prescribed manner, a significant increase in dynamic range is achievable. Such re-distribution of the incoming flux may be accomplished with simple, non-focusing lenses, prisms, interference films, mirrors or attenuating films. Almost any optically non-inert interceding device can increase the dynamic range of the SiPM.

  16. First results of systematic studies done with silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosio, C.; Gentile, S.; Kuznetsova, E.; Meddi, F.

    2008-01-01

    Multicell avalanche photodiode structure operated in Geiger mode usually referred as silicon photomultiplier is a new intensively developing technology for photon detection. Insensitivity to magnetic fields, low operation voltage and small size make silicon photomultipliers very attractive for high-energy physics, astrophysics and medical applications. The presented results are obtained during the first steps taken in order to develop a setup and measurement procedures which allow to compare properties of diverse samples of silicon photomultipliers available on market. The response to low-intensity light was studied for silicon photomultipliers produced by CPTA (Russia), Hamamatsu (Japan), ITC-irst (Italy) and SensL (Ireland).

  17. Silicon photomultipliers for positron emission tomography detectors with depth of interaction encoding capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghibakhsh, Farhad; Reznik, Alla; Rowlands, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are receiving increasing attention in the field of positron emission tomography (PET) detectors. Compared to photomultiplier tubes, they offer novel detector configurations for the extraction of depth of interaction (DOI) information, or enable emerging medical imaging modalities such as simultaneous PET-magnetic resonant imaging (MRI). In this article, we used 2x2x20 mm 3 LYSO scintillator crystals coupled to SiPMs on both ends (dual-ended readout configuration) to evaluate the detector performance for DOI-PET applications. We investigated the effect of scintillator crystal surface finishing on sensitivity and resolution of DOI, as well as on energy and timing resolution. Measurements indicate DOI sensitivity and resolution of 7.1% mm -1 and 2.1±0.6 mm for saw-cut, and 1.3% mm -1 and 9.0±1.5 mm, for polished scintillator crystals, respectively. Energy resolution varies from 19% when DOI is in the center, to 15% with DOI at either end of the saw-cut crystal, while it remains constant at ∼14% for polished scintillators. Based on our results we conclude that 2x2x20 mm 3 saw-cut (without any special side wall polishing) LYSO crystals coupled to 2x2 mm 2 silicon photomultipliers are optimal for isotropic 2 mm resolution DOI-PET applications.

  18. Sulfide Species Optical Monitoring by a Miniaturized Silicon Photomultiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Petralia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of water-soluble pollutants is receiving a growing interest from the scientific community. In this context, sulfide anion species S2− and HS− are particularly relevant since they can cause acute and chronic toxicity including neurological effects and at high concentrations, even death. In this study, a new strategy for fast and sensitive optical detection of sulfide species in water samples is described. The method uses an integrated silicon photomultiplier (SiPM device coupled with the appropriate analytical strategy applied in a plastic microchip with dried reagents on board. More specifically, all sulfide species (H2S, HS− and S2− in water samples are detected by the fluorescence signal emitted upon the reaction with N,N-dimethyl-phenylenediamine sulfate in the presence of Fe3+, leading to the formation of the fluorescent methylene blue (MB species. It has been proven that the system herein proposed is able to measure sulfide concentration in a linear range from 0–10 mg L−1 with a sensitivity value of about 6.7 µA mg−1 L and a detection limit of 0.5 mg L−1. A comparison with conventional UV-Vis detection method has been also carried out. Data show a very good linear correlation (R2 = 0.98093, proving the effectiveness of the method. Results pave the way toward the development of portable and low-cost device systems for water-soluble sulfide pollutants.

  19. Development of large-area silicon photomultiplier detectors for PET applications at FBK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorzi, Nicola, E-mail: zorzi@fbk.eu [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento Povo (Italy); Melchiorri, Mirko; Piazza, Alessandro; Piemonte, Claudio; Tarolli, Alessandro [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento Povo (Italy)

    2011-04-21

    This paper reports on the development of large-area silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors specifically designed for positron emission tomography (PET) instruments. The sensors under study are monolithic arrays of two different types: a 2x2 array of {approx}4x4 mm{sup 2} elements and an 8x8 array of 1.5x1.5 mm{sup 2} pixels. These devices are characterized at wafer level by means of an automatic test procedure, consisting of current-voltage curves in forward and reverse bias. The tests allowed selection of functioning devices and evaluation of the uniformity of basic parameters. Results of the electrical characterization are reported showing that acceptable values of yield together with rather uniform distribution of parameters have been obtained. Reliability of produced SiPMs has been proved by long-term accelerated stress tests.

  20. Development of large-area silicon photomultiplier detectors for PET applications at FBK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzi, Nicola; Melchiorri, Mirko; Piazza, Alessandro; Piemonte, Claudio; Tarolli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of large-area silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors specifically designed for positron emission tomography (PET) instruments. The sensors under study are monolithic arrays of two different types: a 2x2 array of ∼4x4 mm 2 elements and an 8x8 array of 1.5x1.5 mm 2 pixels. These devices are characterized at wafer level by means of an automatic test procedure, consisting of current-voltage curves in forward and reverse bias. The tests allowed selection of functioning devices and evaluation of the uniformity of basic parameters. Results of the electrical characterization are reported showing that acceptable values of yield together with rather uniform distribution of parameters have been obtained. Reliability of produced SiPMs has been proved by long-term accelerated stress tests.

  1. Signal encoding method for a time-of-flight PET detector using a silicon photomultiplier array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sun Il; Lee, Jae Sung

    2014-10-01

    The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is a promising photosensor for magnetic resonance (MR) compatible time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. The compact size of the SiPM allows direct one-to-one coupling between the scintillation crystal and the photosensor, yielding better timing and energy resolutions than the light sharing methods that have to be used in photomultiplier tube (PMT) PET systems. However, the one-to-one coupling scheme requires a huge volume of readout and processing electronics if no electric signal multiplexing or encoding scheme is properly applied. In this paper, we develop an electric signal encoding scheme for SiPM array based TOF PET detector blocks with the aim of reducing the complexity and volume of the signal readout and processing electronics. In an M×N SiPM array, the output signal of each channel in the SiPM array is divided into two signal lines. These output lines are then tied together in row and column lines. The row and column signals are used to measure the energy and timing information (or vice versa) of each incident gamma-ray event, respectively. Each SiPM channel was directly coupled to a 3×3×20 mm3 LGSO crystal. The reference detector, which was used to measure timing, consisted of an R9800 PMT and a 4×4×10 mm3 LYSO crystal and had a single time resolution of ~200 ps (FWHM). Leading edge discriminators were used to determine coincident events. Dedicated front-end electronics were developed, and the timing and energy resolutions of SiPM arrays with different array sizes (4×4, 8×8, and 12×12) were compared. Breakdown voltage of each SiPM channel was measured using energy spectra within various bias voltages. Coincidence events were measured using a 22Na point source. The average coincidence time resolution of 4×4, 8×8, and 12×12 SiPM arrays were 316 ps, 320 ps, and 335 ps (FWHM), respectively. The energy resolution of 4×4, 8×8, and 12×12 SiPM arrays were 11.8%, 12.5%, and 12.8% (FWHM

  2. Pulse Shape Analysis and Discrimination for Silicon-Photomultipliers in Helium-4 Gas Scintillation Neutron Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Cathleen; Zhu, Ting; Rolison, Lucas; Kiff, Scott; Jordan, Kelly; Enqvist, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Using natural helium (helium-4), the Arktis 180-bar pressurized gas scintillator is capable of detecting and distinguishing fast neutrons and gammas. The detector has a unique design of three optically separated segments in which 12 silicon-photomultiplier (SiPM) pairs are positioned equilaterally across the detector to allow for them to be fully immersed in the helium-4 gas volume; consequently, no additional optical interfaces are necessary. The SiPM signals were amplified, shaped, and readout by an analog board; a 250 MHz, 14-bit digitizer was used to examine the output pulses from each SiPMpair channel. The SiPM over-voltage had to be adjusted in order to reduce pulse clipping and negative overshoot, which was observed for events with high scintillation production. Pulse shaped discrimination (PSD) was conducted by evaluating three different parameters: time over threshold (TOT), pulse amplitude, and pulse integral. In order to differentiate high and low energy events, a 30ns gate window was implemented to group pulses from two SiPM channels or more for the calculation of TOT. It was demonstrated that pulses from a single SiPM channel within the 30ns window corresponded to low-energy gamma events while groups of pulses from two-channels or more were most likely neutron events. Due to gamma pulses having lower pulse amplitude, the percentage of measured gamma also depends on the threshold value in TOT calculations. Similarly, the threshold values were varied for the optimal PSD methods of using pulse amplitude and pulse area parameters. Helium-4 detectors equipped with SiPMs are excellent for in-the-field radiation measurement of nuclear spent fuel casks. With optimized PSD methods, the goal of developing a fuel cask content monitoring and inspection system based on these helium-4 detectors will be achieved.

  3. Pulse shape discrimination using EJ-299-33 plastic scintillator coupled with a Silicon Photomultiplier array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Can; Yang, Haori

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in organic plastic scintillators capable of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) have gained much interest. Novel photon detectors, such as Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), offer numerous advantages and can be used as an alternative to conventional photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) in many applications. In this work, we evaluate the PSD performance of the EJ-299-33 plastic scintillator coupled with a SiPM array. 2D PSD plots as well as the Figure of Merit (FOM) parameters are presented to demonstrate the PSD capability of EJ-299-33 using a SiPM as the light sensor. The best FOM of 0.76 was observed with a 1.0 MeVee (MeV-electron-equivalent) energy threshold, despite the high noise level of the SiPM array. A high-speed digital oscilloscope was used to acquire data, which was then processed offline in MATLAB. A performance comparison between two different PSD algorithms was carried out. The dependence of PSD quality on the sampling rate was also evaluated, stimulated by the interest to implement this setup for handheld applications where power consumption is crucial

  4. Characterization of scintillating plastic fibers and silicon photomultipliers for their usage in a particle telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruefer, Lea; Losekamm, Martin; Poeschl, Thomas; Greenwald, Daniel; Paul, Stephan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Multi-purpose Active-target Particle Telescope (MAPT) is a newly developed compact charged-particle detector. It can be used for space applications, such as radiation monitoring on spacecraft or for stratospheric research balloons. Its core consists of scintillating plastic fibers coupled to silicon photomultiplier (SiPMs). The energy reconstruction of the incoming particles is based on an extended Bragg curve spectroscopy technique, requiring a good measurement of the energy deposition. Therefore, non-linearities of the measured light output -such as quenching effects of the scintillating material or saturation of the SiPMs at high light yields- have to be known quantitatively. To investigate these effects, two scaled-down prototypes were built, consisting of 128 and 16 channels. The first one was tested at a stationary proton beam at Paul Scherrer Institute. We determine Birk's coefficient describing the ionization quenching of the scintillator and calculate the characteristic photon detection efficiency of the SiPMs. We explain the results of the first prototype tests and the characterization of the SiPMs.

  5. Silicon photomultiplier as a detector of Cherenkov photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpar, S.; Dolenec, R.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Krizan, P.; Mazuka, Y.; Pestotnik, R.; Stanovnik, A.; Yamaoka, M.

    2008-01-01

    A novel photon detector-i.e. the silicon photomultiplier-whose main advantage over conventional photomultiplier tubes is the operation in high magnetic fields, has been tested as a photon detector in a proximity focusing RICH with aerogel radiator. This type of RICH counter is proposed for the upgrade of the Belle detector at the KEK B-factory. Recently produced silicon photomultipliers show less noise and have larger size, which are important issues for a large area photon detector. We measured the single photon pulse height distribution, the timing resolution and the position sensitivity for different silicon photomultipliers (Hamamatsu MPPC HC025, HC050, and HC100). The silicon photomultipliers were then used to detect Cherenkov photons emitted by cosmic ray particles in a proximity focusing aerogel RICH. Various light guides were investigated in order to increase the detection efficiency

  6. Muon tracking system with Silicon Photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Dahal, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; Pazos Clemens, L.; Candela, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Sablone, D.; Franchi, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the characterisation and performance of a low cost muon tracking system consisting of plastic scintillator bars and Silicon Photomultipliers equipped with a customised front-end electronics based on a fast preamplifier network. This system can be used as a detector test bench for astroparticle physics and for educational and outreach purposes. We investigated the device behaviour in self-trigger and coincidence mode, without using LED and pulse generators, showing that with a relatively simple set up a complete characterisation work can be carried out. A high definition oscilloscope, which can easily be found in many university physics or engineering departments, has been used for triggering and data acquisition. Its capabilities have been exploited to discriminate real particles from the background

  7. Muon tracking system with Silicon Photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Dahal, S. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Di Giovanni, A., E-mail: adriano.digiovanni@nyu.edu [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Pazos Clemens, L. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Candela, A.; D' Incecco, M.; Sablone, D. [Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN, Assergi (Italy); Franchi, G. [AGE Scientific Srl, Capezzano Pianore (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    We report the characterisation and performance of a low cost muon tracking system consisting of plastic scintillator bars and Silicon Photomultipliers equipped with a customised front-end electronics based on a fast preamplifier network. This system can be used as a detector test bench for astroparticle physics and for educational and outreach purposes. We investigated the device behaviour in self-trigger and coincidence mode, without using LED and pulse generators, showing that with a relatively simple set up a complete characterisation work can be carried out. A high definition oscilloscope, which can easily be found in many university physics or engineering departments, has been used for triggering and data acquisition. Its capabilities have been exploited to discriminate real particles from the background.

  8. Characterization studies of Silicon Photomultipliers and crystals matrices for a novel time of flight PET detector

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette; Cortinovis, Daniele; Doroud, Katayoun; Garutti, Erika; Lecoq, Paul; Liu, Zheng; Martinez, Rosana; Paganoni, Marco; Pizzichemi, Marco; Silenzi, Alessandro; Xu, Chen; Zvolský, Milan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the characterization of crystal matrices and silicon photomultiplier arrays for a novel Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detector, namely the external plate of the EndoTOFPET-US system. The EndoTOFPET-US collaboration aims to integrate Time-Of-Flight PET with ultrasound endoscopy in a novel multimodal device, capable to support the development of new biomarkers for prostate and pancreatic tumors. The detector consists in two parts: a PET head mounted on an ultrasound probe and an external PET plate. The challenging goal of 1 mm spatial resolution for the PET image requires a detector with small crystal size, and therefore high channel density: 4096 LYSO crystals individually readout by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) make up the external plate. The quality and properties of these components must be assessed before the assembly. The dark count rate, gain, breakdown voltage and correlated noise of the SiPMs are measured, while the LYSO crystals are evaluated in terms of light yield and en...

  9. A novel Silicon Photomultiplier with bulk integrated quench resistors: utilization in optical detection and tracking applications for particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovics, Stefan, E-mail: stp@hll.mpg.de [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck Gesellschaft, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Andricek, Ladislav [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck Gesellschaft, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Diehl, Inge; Hansen, Karsten [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Jendrysik, Christian [Infineon Technologies AG, Am Campeon 1-12, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Krueger, Katja [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Lehmann, Raik; Ninkovic, Jelena [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck Gesellschaft, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Reckleben, Christian [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Richter, Rainer; Schaller, Gerhard; Schopper, Florian [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck Gesellschaft, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Sefkow, Felix [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are a promising candidate for replacing conventional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in many applications, thanks to ongoing developments and advances in their technology. Conventional SiPMs are generally an array of avalanche photo diodes, operated in Geiger mode and read out in parallel, thus leading to the necessity of a high ohmic quenching resistor. This resistor enables passive quenching and is usually located on top of the array, limiting the fill factor of the device. In this paper, a novel detector concept with a bulk integrated quenching resistor will be recapped. In addition, due to other advantages of this novel detector design, a new concept, in which these devices will be utilized as tracking detectors for particle physics applications will be introduced, as well as first simulation studies and experimental measurements of this new approach. - Highlights: • A novel SiPM concept with bulk integrated quenching resistor is shown. • First prototypes of these SiPMs as tracking detectors are proposed. • Simulations of the Geiger efficiency suggest feasible operations at low overbias. • First measurements of the electron detection efficiency show promising results. • Measurements are in good agreement with the simulations.

  10. The STiC ASIC. High precision timing with silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harion, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Silicon Photomultipliers are being increasingly used for Time of Flight measurements in particle detectors. To utilize the high intrinsic time resolution of these sensors in detector systems, the development of specialized, highly integrated readout electronics is required. In this thesis, a mixed-signal application specific integrated circuit, named STiC, has been developed, characterized and integrated in a detector system. STiC has been specifically designed for high precision timing measurements with SiPMs, and is in particular dedicated to the EndoTOFPET-US project, which aims to achieve a coincidence time resolution of 200 ps FWHM and an energy resolution of less than 20% in an endoscopic positron emission tomography system. The chip integrates 64 high precision readout channels for SiPMs together with a digital core logic to process, store and transfer the recorded events to a data acquisition system. The performance of the chip has been validated in coincidence measurements using detector modules consisting of 3.1 x 3.1 x 15 mm 3 LYSO crystals coupled to Silicon Photomultipliers from Hamamatsu. The measurements show an energy resolution of 15% FWHM for the detection of 511 keV photons. A coincidence time resolution of 213 ps FWHM has been measured, which is among the best resolution values achieved to date with this detector topology. STiC has been integrated in the EndoTOFPET-US detector system and has been chosen as the baseline design for the readout of SiPM sensors in the Mu3e experiment.

  11. Optimization of performance parameters for large area silicon photomultipliers for use in the GlueX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Kathryn Louise

    Largely because of their resistance to magnetic fields, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are being considered as the readout for the GlueX Barrel Calorimeter, a key component of the GlueX detector located immediately inside a 2.2 T superconducting solenoid. SiPMs with active area 1 x 1 mm2 have been investigated for use in other experiments, but detectors with larger active areas are required for the GlueX BCAL. This puts the GlueX collaboration in the unique position of being pioneers in the use of this frontend detection revolution by driving the technology for larger area sensors. SensL, a photonics research and development company in Ireland, has been collaborating with the University of Regina GlueX group to develop prototype large area SiPMs comprising 16 - 3x3 mm2 cells assembled in a close-packed matrix. Performance parameters of individual SensL 1x1 mm2 and 3x3 mm2 SiPMs along with prototype SensL SiPM arrays are tested, including current versus voltage characteristics, photon detection efficiency, and gain uniformity, in an effort to determine the suitability of these detectors to the GlueX BCAL readout.

  12. Sub-aquatic response of a scintillator, fibre optic and silicon photomultiplier based radiation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Sarah F., E-mail: s.f.jackson@lancaster.ac.uk [Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Monk, Stephen D., E-mail: s.monk@lancaster.ac.uk [Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Stanley, Steven J., E-mail: steven.j.stanley@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, A709 Springfields, Preston (United Kingdom); Lennox, Kathryn, E-mail: kathryn.lennox@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, A709 Springfields, Preston (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    We describe an attempt at the utilisation of two low level light sensors to improve on the design of a dose monitoring system, specifically for underwater applications with consideration for the effects of water attenuation. The gamma radiation ‘RadLine{sup ®}’ detector consists of an inorganic scintillating crystal coupled to a fibre optic cable which transports scintillation photons, up to hundreds of metres, to an optical sensor. Analysed here are two contemporary technologies; SensL's MiniSL a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and a Sens-Tech photon counting photomultiplier tube (PMT). A clinical radiotherapy linear accelerator (linac) is implemented as test beam, subjecting the RadLine{sup ®} to a highly controlled dose rate (ranging from 0 Sv h{sup −1} to 320 Sv h{sup −1}), averaging at 2 MeV in energy. The RadLine's underwater dose monitoring capabilities are tested with the aid of epoxy resin ‘solid water’ phantom blocks, used as a substitute for water. Our results show that the MiniSL SiPM is unsuitable for this application due to extremely high background noise levels, however the Sens-Tech PMT performs satisfactorily and the detected dose rate due to the effects of water attenuation compares strongly with MCNP simulation data and NIST database values. We conclude that the PMT shows promise for its ultimate use in the First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP) on the Sellafield site. - Highlights: • RadLine{sup ®} consists of a scintillating crystal coupled to a fibre optic cable and photon detector. • Here the dose monitoring system is trialled with SiPM and PMT type photon detectors. • A clinical linear accelerator (linac) is used as a test beam. • Sub-aquatic response is compared to Monte Carlo simulations and the NIST database.

  13. Evaluation of Matrix9 silicon photomultiplier array for small-animal PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junwei; Schmall, Jeffrey P.; Yang, Yongfeng; Di, Kun; Roncali, Emilie; Mitchell, Gregory S.; Buckley, Steve; Jackson, Carl; Cherry, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The MatrixSL-9-30035-OEM (Matrix9) from SensL is a large-area silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) photodetector module consisting of a 3 × 3 array of 4 × 4 element SiPM arrays (total of 144 SiPM pixels) and incorporates SensL’s front-end electronics board and coincidence board. Each SiPM pixel measures 3.16 × 3.16 mm2 and the total size of the detector head is 47.8 × 46.3 mm2. Using 8 × 8 polished LSO/LYSO arrays (pitch 1.5 mm) the performance of this detector system (SiPM array and readout electronics) was evaluated with a view for its eventual use in small-animal positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Measurements of noise, signal, signal-to-noise ratio, energy resolution, flood histogram quality, timing resolution, and array trigger error were obtained at different bias voltages (28.0–32.5 V in 0.5 V intervals) and at different temperatures (5 °C–25 °C in 5 °C degree steps) to find the optimal operating conditions. Results: The best measured signal-to-noise ratio and flood histogram quality for 511 keV gamma photons were obtained at a bias voltage of 30.0 V and a temperature of 5 °C. The energy resolution and timing resolution under these conditions were 14.2% ± 0.1% and 4.2 ± 0.1 ns, respectively. The flood histograms show that all the crystals in the 1.5 mm pitch LSO array can be clearly identified and that smaller crystal pitches can also be resolved. Flood histogram quality was also calculated using different center of gravity based positioning algorithms. Improved and more robust results were achieved using the local 9 pixels for positioning along with an energy offset calibration. To evaluate the front-end detector readout, and multiplexing efficiency, an array trigger error metric is introduced and measured at different lower energy thresholds. Using a lower energy threshold greater than 150 keV effectively eliminates any mispositioning between SiPM arrays. Conclusions: In summary, the Matrix9 detector system can resolve

  14. Evaluation of Matrix9 silicon photomultiplier array for small-animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Junwei; Schmall, Jeffrey P.; Yang, Yongfeng; Di, Kun; Roncali, Emilie; Mitchell, Gregory S.; Buckley, Steve; Jackson, Carl; Cherry, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The MatrixSL-9-30035-OEM (Matrix9) from SensL is a large-area silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) photodetector module consisting of a 3 × 3 array of 4 × 4 element SiPM arrays (total of 144 SiPM pixels) and incorporates SensL’s front-end electronics board and coincidence board. Each SiPM pixel measures 3.16 × 3.16 mm 2 and the total size of the detector head is 47.8 × 46.3 mm 2 . Using 8 × 8 polished LSO/LYSO arrays (pitch 1.5 mm) the performance of this detector system (SiPM array and readout electronics) was evaluated with a view for its eventual use in small-animal positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Measurements of noise, signal, signal-to-noise ratio, energy resolution, flood histogram quality, timing resolution, and array trigger error were obtained at different bias voltages (28.0–32.5 V in 0.5 V intervals) and at different temperatures (5 °C–25 °C in 5 °C degree steps) to find the optimal operating conditions. Results: The best measured signal-to-noise ratio and flood histogram quality for 511 keV gamma photons were obtained at a bias voltage of 30.0 V and a temperature of 5 °C. The energy resolution and timing resolution under these conditions were 14.2% ± 0.1% and 4.2 ± 0.1 ns, respectively. The flood histograms show that all the crystals in the 1.5 mm pitch LSO array can be clearly identified and that smaller crystal pitches can also be resolved. Flood histogram quality was also calculated using different center of gravity based positioning algorithms. Improved and more robust results were achieved using the local 9 pixels for positioning along with an energy offset calibration. To evaluate the front-end detector readout, and multiplexing efficiency, an array trigger error metric is introduced and measured at different lower energy thresholds. Using a lower energy threshold greater than 150 keV effectively eliminates any mispositioning between SiPM arrays. Conclusions: In summary, the Matrix9 detector system can

  15. SensL B-Series and C-Series silicon photomultipliers for time-of-flight positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, K., E-mail: koneill@sensl.com; Jackson, C., E-mail: cjackson@sensl.com

    2015-07-01

    Silicon photomultipliers from SensL are designed for high performance, uniformity and low cost. They demonstrate peak photon detection efficiency of 41% at 420 nm, which is matched to the output spectrum of cerium doped lutetium orthosilicate. Coincidence resolving time of less than 220 ps is demonstrated. New process improvements have lead to the development of C-Series SiPM which reduces the dark noise by over an order of magnitude. In this paper we will show characterization test results which include photon detection efficiency, dark count rate, crosstalk probability, afterpulse probability and coincidence resolving time comparing B-Series to the newest pre-production C-Series. Additionally we will discuss the effect of silicon photomultiplier microcell size on coincidence resolving time allowing the optimal microcell size choice to be made for time of flight positron emission tomography systems.

  16. Vacuum ultra-violet and ultra-violet scintillation light detection by means of silicon photomultipliers at cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, A., E-mail: andrea.falcone@pv.infn.it [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bertoni, R. [INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Boffelli, F. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bonesini, M. [INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Cervi, T. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Menegolli, A. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Montanari, C.; Prata, M.C.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rossella, M.; Simonetta, M. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Spanu, M. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Torti, M. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Zani, A. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    We tested the performance of two types of silicon photomultipliers, AdvanSiD ASD-NUV-SiPM3S-P and Hamamatsu 3×3 MM-50 UM VUV2, both at room (300 K) and at liquid nitrogen (77 K) temperature: breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, signal shape, gain and dark counts rate have been studied as function of temperature. The response of the devices to ultra-violet light is also studied. - Highlights: • We tested 2 SiPMs both at room and at cryogenic temperature. • Breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, gain and dark rate were measured. • Efficiency for VUV light detection was measured.

  17. A study on development of fast silicon photomultipliers for TOF-PET Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chae Hun

    2011-02-01

    The PET technique is based on the fact that the radioisotopes introduced to the body as labels tracer molecules emitting positrons. To improve the image quality of PET, the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) technique was proposed, so it reduces the statistical noise by confining the Line-Of-Response using the information measuring the time difference between two opposite PET detectors. Nowadays, the components of PET detectors such as scintillation crystals, photo-sensors, and their readout electronics were well developed. Despite major improvement in imaging detector technologies, solid- state photo-sensors have not been replaced instead of the vacuum type PM tubes whose performance is still superior to others, even though they have some disadvantages such as mal-function in magnetic field, high operating bias, bulkiness, and high cost. One of the candidates for the photo-sensor in TOF-PET detectors to replace the PMTs is 'Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM)' which has high gain comparable to PMTs, high photon detection efficiency, non-sensitive to MR, low operating bias about 30 V, and low cost. To apply the SiPM in TOF-PET, the timing characteristics should be improved more. In this study, SiPM was studied to improve the timing performance. In PET detectors, the timing resolution is directly related to the amplitude to the rise time ratio. As the ratio increases, the timing performance can be enhanced. PDE of SiPM was modeled to increase the amplitude of PET detectors based on SiPM with dynamic range consideration. The optimum micro-pixel size, consequently the number of micro-pixels for TOF-PET detectors were calculated from PDE modeling. To shorten the rise time of PET detector, the single photon pulse shape of SiPM is needed to modify. To do this, a quenching capacitor in a micro-pixel of SiPM was integrated. Circuit modeling was done in order to know how it affects the pulse shape. SiPM was fabricated at National NanoFab Center with the modeling results. A SiPM pixel has 1912

  18. A New Fast Silicon Photomultiplier Photometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Meddi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Crab pulsar is one of the most intensively studied X-ray/optical objects, but up to now only a small number of research groups have based their photometers on SiPM technology. In early February 2011, the Crab pulsar signal was observed with our photometer prototype. With low-cost instrumentation, the results of the analysis are very significant: the processed data acquired on the Crab pulsar gave both a good light curve and a good power spectrum, in comparison with the data analysis results of other more expensive photometer instrumentation.

  19. Scalable gamma-ray camera for wide-area search based on silicon photomultipliers array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Manhee; Van, Benjamin; Wells, Byron T.; D'Aries, Lawrence J.; Hammig, Mark D.

    2018-03-01

    Portable coded-aperture imaging systems based on scintillators and semiconductors have found use in a variety of radiological applications. For stand-off detection of weakly emitting materials, large volume detectors can facilitate the rapid localization of emitting materials. We describe a scalable coded-aperture imaging system based on 5.02 × 5.02 cm2 CsI(Tl) scintillator modules, each partitioned into 4 × 4 × 20 mm3 pixels that are optically coupled to 12 × 12 pixel silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) arrays. The 144 pixels per module are read-out with a resistor-based charge-division circuit that reduces the readout outputs from 144 to four signals per module, from which the interaction position and total deposited energy can be extracted. All 144 CsI(Tl) pixels are readily distinguishable with an average energy resolution, at 662 keV, of 13.7% FWHM, a peak-to-valley ratio of 8.2, and a peak-to-Compton ratio of 2.9. The detector module is composed of a SiPM array coupled with a 2 cm thick scintillator and modified uniformly redundant array mask. For the image reconstruction, cross correlation and maximum likelihood expectation maximization methods are used. The system shows a field of view of 45° and an angular resolution of 4.7° FWHM.

  20. Radiation Hardness tests with neutron flux on different Silicon photomultiplier devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, P. W.; Cervi, T.; Menegolli, A.; Oddone, M.; Prata, M.; Prata, M. C.; Rossella, M.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation hardness is an important requirement for solid state readout devices operating in high radiation environments common in particle physics experiments. The MEG II experiment, at PSI, Switzerland, investigates the forbidden decay μ+ → e+ γ. Exploiting the most intense muon beam of the world. A significant flux of non-thermal neutrons (kinetic energy Ek>= 0.5 MeV) is present in the experimental hall produced along the beam-line and in the hall itself. We present the effects of neutron fluxes comparable to the MEG II expected doses on several Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPMs). The tested models are: AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P50 (used in MEG II experiment), AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P40, AdvanSiD ASD-RGB3S-P40, Hamamatsu and Excelitas C30742-33-050-X. The neutron source is the thermal Sub-critical Multiplication complex (SM1) moderated with water, located at the University of Pavia (Italy). We report the change of SiPMs most important electric parameters: dark current, dark pulse frequency, gain, direct bias resistance, as a function of the integrated neutron fluency.

  1. SENTIRAD-An innovative personal radiation detector based on a scintillation detector and a silicon photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osovizky, A.; Ginzburg, D.; Manor, A.; Seif, R.; Ghelman, M.; Cohen-Zada, I.; Ellenbogen, M.; Bronfenmakher, V.; Pushkarsky, V.; Gonen, E.; Mazor, T.; Cohen, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The alarming personal radiation detector (PRD) is a device intended for Homeland Security (HLS) applications. This portable device is designed to be worn or carried by security personnel to detect photon-emitting radioactive materials for the purpose of crime prevention. PRD is required to meet the scope of specifications defined by various HLS standards for radiation detection. It is mandatory that the device be sensitive and simultaneously small, pocket-sized, of robust mechanical design and carriable on the user's body. To serve these specialized purposes and requirements, we developed the SENTIRAD, a new radiation detector designed to meet the performance criteria established for counterterrorist applications. SENTIRAD is the first commercially available PRD based on a CsI(Tl) scintillation crystal that is optically coupled with a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) serving as a light sensor. The rapidly developing technology of SiPM, a multipixel semiconductor photodiode that operates in Geiger mode, has been thoroughly investigated in previous studies. This paper presents the design considerations, constraints and radiological performance relating to the SENTIRAD radiation sensor.

  2. The development of a high-resolution scintillating fiber tracker with silicon photomultiplier readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper Yearwood, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    In this work I present the design and test results for a novel, modular tracking detector from scintillating fibers which are read out by silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays. The detector modules consist of 0.25 mm thin scintillating fibers which are closely packed in five-layer ribbons. Two ribbons are fixed to both sides of a carbon-fiber composite structure. Custom made SiPM arrays with a photo-detection efficiency of about 50% read out the fibers. Several 860 mm long and 32 mm wide tracker modules were tested in a secondary 12 GeV/c beam at the PS facilities, CERN in November of 2009. During this test a spatial resolution better than 0.05 mm at an average light yield of about 20 photons for a minimum ionizing particle was determined. This work details the characterization of scintillating fibers and silicon photomultipliers of different make and model. It gives an overview of the production of scintillating fiber modules. The behavior of detector modules during the test-beam is analyzed in detail and different options for the front-end electronics are compared. Furthermore, the implementation of the proposed tracking detector from scintillating fibers within the scope of the PERDaix experiment is discussed. The PERDaix detector is a permanent magnet spectrometer with a weight of 40 kg. It consists of 8 tracking detector layers from scintillating fibers, a time-of-flight detector from plastic scintillator bars with silicon photomultiplier readout and a transition radiation detector from an irregular fleece radiator and Xe/CO 2 filled proportional counting tubes. The PERDaix detector was launched with a helium balloon within the scope of the ''Balloon-Experiments for University Students'' (BEXUS) program from Kiruna, Sweden in November 2010. For a few hours PERDaix reached an altitude of 33 km and measured cosmic rays. In May 2011, the PERDaix detector was characterized during a test-beam at the PS-facilities at CERN. This work introduces methods for event

  3. Characterization of New-Generation Silicon Photomultipliers for Nuclear Security Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonders Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon photomultipliers have received a great deal of interest recently for use in applications spanning a wide variety of fields, including nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. For nuclear-related applications, the ability of silicon photomultipliers to discriminate neutrons from gamma rays using pulse shape discrimination when coupled with certain organic scintillators is a characteristic of utmost importance. This work reports on progress characterizing the performance of twenty different silicon photomultipliers from five manufacturers with an emphasis on pulse shape discrimination performance and timing. Results are presented on pulse shape discrimination performance as a function of overvoltage for 6-mm x 6-mm silicon photomultipliers, and the time response to stilbene is characterized for silicon photomultipliers of three different sizes. Finally, comparison with a photomultiplier tube shows that some new-generation silicon photomultipliers can perform as well as photomultiplier tubes in neutron-gamma ray discrimination.

  4. Characterization of New-Generation Silicon Photomultipliers for Nuclear Security Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonders, Marc A.; Chichester, David L.; Flaska, Marek

    2018-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers have received a great deal of interest recently for use in applications spanning a wide variety of fields, including nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. For nuclear-related applications, the ability of silicon photomultipliers to discriminate neutrons from gamma rays using pulse shape discrimination when coupled with certain organic scintillators is a characteristic of utmost importance. This work reports on progress characterizing the performance of twenty different silicon photomultipliers from five manufacturers with an emphasis on pulse shape discrimination performance and timing. Results are presented on pulse shape discrimination performance as a function of overvoltage for 6-mm x 6-mm silicon photomultipliers, and the time response to stilbene is characterized for silicon photomultipliers of three different sizes. Finally, comparison with a photomultiplier tube shows that some new-generation silicon photomultipliers can perform as well as photomultiplier tubes in neutron-gamma ray discrimination.

  5. Studies on a silicon-photomultiplier-based camera for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, C.; Corti, D.; De Angelis, A.; Doro, M.; Manea, C.; Mariotti, M.; Rando, R.; Reichardt, I.; Tescaro, D.

    2017-12-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) represent a class of instruments which are dedicated to the ground-based observation of cosmic VHE gamma ray emission based on the detection of the Cherenkov radiation produced in the interaction of gamma rays with the Earth atmosphere. One of the key elements of such instruments is a pixelized focal-plane camera consisting of photodetectors. To date, photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have been the common choice given their high photon detection efficiency (PDE) and fast time response. Recently, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are emerging as an alternative. This rapidly evolving technology has strong potential to become superior to that based on PMTs in terms of PDE, which would further improve the sensitivity of IACTs, and see a price reduction per square millimeter of detector area. We are working to develop a SiPM-based module for the focal-plane cameras of the MAGIC telescopes to probe this technology for IACTs with large focal plane cameras of an area of few square meters. We will describe the solutions we are exploring in order to balance a competitive performance with a minimal impact on the overall MAGIC camera design using ray tracing simulations. We further present a comparative study of the overall light throughput based on Monte Carlo simulations and considering the properties of the major hardware elements of an IACT.

  6. Silicon Photomultipliers: Dark Current and its Statistical Spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto PAGANO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to investigate on a statistical basis at the wafer level the relationship existing among the dark currents of the single pixel compared to the whole Silicon Photomultiplier array. This is the first time to our knowledge that such a comparison is made, crucial to pass this new technology to the semiconductor manufacturing standards. In particular, emission microscopy measurements and current measurements allowed us to conclude that optical trenches strongly improve the device performances.

  7. Challenges of arbitrary waveform signal detection by Silicon Photomultipliers as readout for Cherenkov fibre based beam loss monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vinogradov, Sergey; Nebot del Busto, Eduardo; Kastriotou, Maria; Welsch, Carsten P

    2016-01-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are well recognised as very competitive photodetectors due to their exceptional photon number and time resolution, room-temperature low-voltage operation, insensitivity to magnetic fields, compactness, and robustness. Detection of weak light pulses of nanosecond time scale appears to be the best area for SiPM applications because in this case most of the SiPM drawbacks have a rather limited effect on its performance. In contrast to the more typical scintillation and Cherenkov detection applications, which demand information on the number of photons and/or the arrival time of the light pulse only, beam loss monitoring (BLM) systems utilising Cherenkov fibres with photodetector readout have to precisely reconstruct the temporal profile of the light pulse. This is a rather challenging task for any photon detector especially taking into account the high dynamic range of incident signals (100K – 1M) from a few photons to a few percents of destructive losses in a beam line and pre...

  8. Silicon photomultipliers as readout elements for a Compton effect polarimeter: the COMPASS project

    CERN Document Server

    Del Monte, E; Brandonisio, A; Muleri, F; Soffitta, P; Costa, E; di Persio, G; Cosimo, S Di; Massaro, E; Morbidini, A; Morelli, E; Pacciani, L; Fabiani, S; Michilli, D; Giarrusso, S; Catalano, O; Impiombato, D; Mineo, T; Sottile, G; Billotta, S

    2016-01-01

    COMpton Polarimeter with Avalanche Silicon readout (COMPASS) is a research and development project that aims to measure the polarization of X-ray photons through Compton Scattering. The measurement is obtained by using a set of small rods of fast scintillation materials with both low-Z (as active scatterer) and high-Z (as absorber), all read-out with Silicon Photomultipliers. By this method we can operate scattering and absorbing elements in coincidence, in order to reduce the background. In the laboratory we are characterising the SiPMs using different types of scintillators and we are optimising the performances in terms of energy resolution, energy threshold and photon tagging efficiency. We aim to study the design of two types of satellite-borne instruments: a focal plane polarimeter to be coupled with multilayer optics for hard X-rays and a large area and wide field of view polarimeter for transients and Gamma Ray Bursts. In this paper we describe the status of the COMPASS project, we report about the la...

  9. A small animal PET prototype based on Silicon Photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcatili, S; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G.; Del Guerra, A.; Collazuol, G.; Pedreschi, E.; Spinella, F.; Sportelli, G.; Marzocca, C.

    2011-01-01

    Next generation PET scanners should full fill very high requirements in terms of spatial, energy and timing resolution. Modern scanner performances are inherently limited by the use of standard photomultiplier tubes. The use of Silicon Photomultiplier (Si P M) matrices is proposed for the construction of a small animal PET system consisting of two detector heads based on Lyso continuos crystals. The use of large area multi-pixel Silicon Photomultiplier (Si P M) detectors requires the development of a multichannel Digital Acquisition system (DAQ) as well as of a dedicated front-end in order not to degrade the intrinsic detector capabilities. At the University of Pisa and INFN Pisa we developed a DAQ board for the read-out of 2 64-pixel Si P M matrices in time coincidence for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. The proof of principles is based on 64-pixel detectors, but the whole system has been conceived to be easily scalable to a higher number of channels. Here we describe the Group-V INFN DASi P M 2 (Development and Application of Si P M) project and related results.

  10. Testing and simulation of silicon photomultiplier readouts for scintillators in high-energy astronomy and solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloser, P. F.; Legere, J. S.; Bancroft, C. M.; Jablonski, L. F.; Wurtz, J. R.; Ertley, C. D.; McConnell, M. L.; Ryan, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    Space-based gamma-ray detectors for high-energy astronomy and solar physics face severe constraints on mass, volume, and power, and must endure harsh launch conditions and operating environments. Historically, such instruments have usually been based on scintillator materials due to their relatively low cost, inherent ruggedness, high stopping power, and radiation hardness. New scintillator materials, such as LaBr3:Ce, feature improved energy and timing performance, making them attractive for future astronomy and solar physics space missions in an era of tightly constrained budgets. Despite this promise, the use of scintillators in space remains constrained by the volume, mass, power, and fragility of the associated light readout device, typically a vacuum photomultiplier tube (PMT). In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have emerged as promising alternative light readout devices that offer gains and quantum efficiencies similar to those of PMTs, but with greatly reduced mass and volume, high ruggedness, low voltage requirements, and no sensitivity to magnetic fields. In order for SiPMs to replace PMTs in space-based instruments, however, it must be shown that they can provide comparable performance, and that their inherent temperature sensitivity can be corrected for. To this end, we have performed extensive testing and modeling of a small gamma-ray spectrometer composed of a 6 mm×6 mm SiPM coupled to a 6 mm×6 mm ×10 mm LaBr3:Ce crystal. A custom readout board monitors the temperature and adjusts the bias voltage to compensate for gain variations. We record an energy resolution of 5.7% (FWHM) at 662 keV at room temperature. We have also performed simulations of the scintillation process and optical light collection using Geant4, and of the SiPM response using the GosSiP package. The simulated energy resolution is in good agreement with the data from 22 keV to 662 keV. Above ~1 MeV, however, the measured energy resolution is systematically worse than

  11. Testing and simulation of silicon photomultiplier readouts for scintillators in high-energy astronomy and solar physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloser, P.F.; Legere, J.S.; Bancroft, C.M.; Jablonski, L.F.; Wurtz, J.R.; Ertley, C.D.; McConnell, M.L.; Ryan, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Space-based gamma-ray detectors for high-energy astronomy and solar physics face severe constraints on mass, volume, and power, and must endure harsh launch conditions and operating environments. Historically, such instruments have usually been based on scintillator materials due to their relatively low cost, inherent ruggedness, high stopping power, and radiation hardness. New scintillator materials, such as LaBr 3 :Ce, feature improved energy and timing performance, making them attractive for future astronomy and solar physics space missions in an era of tightly constrained budgets. Despite this promise, the use of scintillators in space remains constrained by the volume, mass, power, and fragility of the associated light readout device, typically a vacuum photomultiplier tube (PMT). In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have emerged as promising alternative light readout devices that offer gains and quantum efficiencies similar to those of PMTs, but with greatly reduced mass and volume, high ruggedness, low voltage requirements, and no sensitivity to magnetic fields. In order for SiPMs to replace PMTs in space-based instruments, however, it must be shown that they can provide comparable performance, and that their inherent temperature sensitivity can be corrected for. To this end, we have performed extensive testing and modeling of a small gamma-ray spectrometer composed of a 6 mm×6 mm SiPM coupled to a 6 mm×6 mm ×10 mm LaBr 3 :Ce crystal. A custom readout board monitors the temperature and adjusts the bias voltage to compensate for gain variations. We record an energy resolution of 5.7% (FWHM) at 662 keV at room temperature. We have also performed simulations of the scintillation process and optical light collection using Geant4, and of the SiPM response using the GosSiP package. The simulated energy resolution is in good agreement with the data from 22 keV to 662 keV. Above ∼1 MeV, however, the measured energy resolution is systematically

  12. Testing and simulation of silicon photomultiplier readouts for scintillators in high-energy astronomy and solar physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloser, P.F., E-mail: Peter.Bloser@unh.edu; Legere, J.S.; Bancroft, C.M.; Jablonski, L.F.; Wurtz, J.R.; Ertley, C.D.; McConnell, M.L.; Ryan, J.M.

    2014-11-01

    Space-based gamma-ray detectors for high-energy astronomy and solar physics face severe constraints on mass, volume, and power, and must endure harsh launch conditions and operating environments. Historically, such instruments have usually been based on scintillator materials due to their relatively low cost, inherent ruggedness, high stopping power, and radiation hardness. New scintillator materials, such as LaBr{sub 3}:Ce, feature improved energy and timing performance, making them attractive for future astronomy and solar physics space missions in an era of tightly constrained budgets. Despite this promise, the use of scintillators in space remains constrained by the volume, mass, power, and fragility of the associated light readout device, typically a vacuum photomultiplier tube (PMT). In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have emerged as promising alternative light readout devices that offer gains and quantum efficiencies similar to those of PMTs, but with greatly reduced mass and volume, high ruggedness, low voltage requirements, and no sensitivity to magnetic fields. In order for SiPMs to replace PMTs in space-based instruments, however, it must be shown that they can provide comparable performance, and that their inherent temperature sensitivity can be corrected for. To this end, we have performed extensive testing and modeling of a small gamma-ray spectrometer composed of a 6 mm×6 mm SiPM coupled to a 6 mm×6 mm ×10 mm LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal. A custom readout board monitors the temperature and adjusts the bias voltage to compensate for gain variations. We record an energy resolution of 5.7% (FWHM) at 662 keV at room temperature. We have also performed simulations of the scintillation process and optical light collection using Geant4, and of the SiPM response using the GosSiP package. The simulated energy resolution is in good agreement with the data from 22 keV to 662 keV. Above ∼1 MeV, however, the measured energy resolution is

  13. Performance of ultra-small silicon photomultiplier array with active area of 0.12 mm×0.12 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Wang; Zongde, Chen; Chenhui, Li; Ran, He; Shenyuan, Wang; Baicheng, Li; Ruiheng, Wang; Kun, Liang, E-mail: lk@bnu.edu.cn; Ru, Yang; Dejun, Han

    2015-07-01

    We report the performance of an ultra-small silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) line array with 7 elements of 0.12×0.12 mm{sup 2} in active area, 0.2 mm in pitch and 120 micro cells in one element. The device features an epitaxial bulk quenching resistor concept, demonstrated high geometrical fill factor of 41% and photon detection efficiency (PDE) of 25.4% in the wavelength region between 430 nm and 480 nm while retaining high micro cell density around 10 000 mm{sup −2} and ~3 ns FWHM of dark pulses width; it also demonstrated dark count rate of less than 28.7 kHz, optical crosstalk of the order of 2% to 4%, and excellent photon number discrimination. A 0.15 mm×1.6 mm×1.6 mm lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystal, corresponding to the width, length and height respectively, was successfully coupled to the 1×7 SiPM array for possible ultra-highly resolved positron emission tomography (PET) applications. This novel type of device has advantages particularly for small active area since the performances, such as PDE and response speed is one of the best among SiPMs with similarly high density of micro cells. It may pave a way for this type of SiPM as a promising pixel position sensitive device in imaging sensor applications. - Highlights: • The ultra-small SiPM line array with active area of 0.12 mm×0.12 mm was presented. • The ultra-small SiPM employs the bulk silicon structure as quenching resistor. • A considerable dynamic range and PDE over 25.4% @ 430 nm to 480 nm were characterized.

  14. A depth-encoding PET detector that uses light sharing and single-ended readout with silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Zhonghua; Yang, Qian; Wang, Xiaohui; Fu, Xin; Ren, Ning; Sang, Ziru; Wu, San; Zheng, Yunfei; Zhang, Xianming; Hu, Zhanli; Du, Junwei; Liang, Dong; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Yang, Yongfeng

    2018-02-01

    Detectors with depth-encoding capability and good timing resolution are required to develop high-performance whole-body or total-body PET scanners. In this work, depth-encoding PET detectors that use light sharing between two discrete crystals and single-ended readout with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were manufactured and evaluated. The detectors consisted of two unpolished 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 LYSO crystals with different coupling materials between them and were read out by Hamamatsu 3  ×  3 mm2 SiPMs with one-to-one coupling. The ratio of the energy of one SiPM to the total energy of two SiPMs was used to measure the depth of interaction (DOI). Detectors with different coupling materials in-between the crystals were measured in the singles mode in an effort to obtain detectors that can provide good DOI resolution. The DOI resolution and energy resolution of three types of detector were measured and the timing resolution was measured for the detector with the best DOI and energy resolution. The optimum detector, with 5 mm optical glue, a 9 mm triangular ESR and a 6 mm rectangular ESR in-between the unpolished crystals, provides a DOI resolution of 2.65 mm, an energy resolution of 10.0% and a timing resolution of 427 ps for events of E  >  400 keV. The detectors simultaneously provide good DOI and timing resolution, and show great promise for the development of high-performance whole-body and total-body PET scanners.

  15. A readout circuit dedicated for the detection of chemiluminescence using a silicon photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baszczyk, M.; Dorosz, P.; Mik, L.; Kucewicz, W.; Reczynski, W.; Sapor, M.

    2018-05-01

    A readout circuit dedicated for the detection of the chemiluminescence phenomenon using a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is presented. During chemiluminescence, light is generated as a result of chemical reaction. Chemiluminescence is used in many applications within medicine, chemistry, biology and biotechnology, and is one of the most important sensing techniques in biomedical science and clinical medicine. The front-end electronics consist of a preamplifier and a fast shaper—this produces pulses, the peaking time which is 3.6 ns for a single photon and the FWHM is 3.8 ns. The system has been optimised to measure chemiluminescence—it is sensitive at the level of single photons, it generates a low number of overlapping pulses and is accurate. Two methods of signal detection are analysed and compared: the counting of events and amplitude detection. The relationship between the chemiluminescence light intensity and the concentration of the chemical compound (luminol) is linear in the range of the tested concentrations and has strong linearity parameters and low prediction intervals.

  16. Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauscher, M.; Lebrun, P.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Naranjo, I.; Navas, S.; Nellen, L.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollant, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Strafella, F.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Torri, M.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valbuena-Delgado, A.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yelos, D.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.

    2017-03-01

    AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory designed to extend its energy range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the cosmic ray primary particle showers. The array will be formed by an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors associated with buried scintillation counters employed for muon counting. Each counter is composed of three scintillation modules, with a 10 m2 detection area per module. In this paper, a new generation of detectors, replacing the current multi-pixel photomultiplier tube (PMT) with silicon photo sensors (aka. SiPMs), is proposed. The selection of the new device and its front-end electronics is explained. A method to calibrate the counting system that ensures the performance of the detector is detailed. This method has the advantage of being able to be carried out in a remote place such as the one where the detectors are deployed. High efficiency results, i.e. 98% efficiency for the highest tested overvoltage, combined with a low probability of accidental counting (~2%), show a promising performance for this new system.

  17. A depth-of-interaction PET detector using mutual gain-equalized silicon photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, W.; Weisenberger, A.G.; Dong, H.; Kross, Brian; Lee, S.; McKisson, J.; Zorn, Carl

    2012-01-01

    We developed a prototype high resolution, high efficiency depth-encoding detector for PET applications based on dual-ended readout of LYSO array with two silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Flood images, energy resolution, and depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution were measured for a LYSO array - 0.7 mm in crystal pitch and 10 mm in thickness - with four unpolished parallel sides. Flood images were obtained such that individual crystal element in the array is resolved. The energy resolution of the entire array was measured to be 33%, while individual crystal pixel elements utilizing the signal from both sides ranged from 23.3% to 27%. By applying a mutual-gain equalization method, a DOI resolution of 2 mm for the crystal array was obtained in the experiments while simulations indicate ∼1 mm DOI resolution could possibly be achieved. The experimental DOI resolution can be further improved by obtaining revised detector supporting electronics with better energy resolutions. This study provides a detailed detector calibration and DOI response characterization of the dual-ended readout SiPM-based PET detectors, which will be important in the design and calibration of a PET scanner in the future.

  18. Silicon photomultiplier readout of a monolithic 270 x 5 x 5 cm{sup 3} plastic scintillator bar for time of flight applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, Marko; Bemmerer, Daniel; Heidel, Klaus; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas; Weinberger, David [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Reinicke, Stefan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The detection of 200-1000 MeV neutrons requires large amounts of detector material because of the long nuclear interaction length of these particles. In the example of the NeuLAND neutron time-of-flight detector at FAIR, this is accomplished by using 3000 scintillator bars of 270 x 5 x 5 cm{sup 3} size made of the fast plastic polyvinyltoluene. In the present work, we investigated whether silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) photosensors can replace fast timing photomultiplier tubes. The response of the system consisting of scintillator, SiPM, and preamplifier was studied using 30 MeV single electrons provided by the ELBE superconducting electron linac. The results were interpreted by a simple Monte Carlo simulation, and the time resolution was found to obey an inverse-square-root scaling law with the number of fired pixels. In the electron beam tests, a time resolution of σ{sub t}=136 ps was reached with a pure SiPM readout, well within the design parameters for NeuLAND.

  19. Optimization of the digital Silicon Photomultiplier for Cherenkov light detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frach, T

    2012-01-01

    The Silicon Photomultiplier is a promising alternative to fast vacuum photodetectors. We developed a fully digital implementation of the Silicon Photomultiplier. The sensor is based on a single photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) integrated in a standard CMOS process. Photons are detected directly by sensing the voltage at the SPAD anode using a dedicated cell electronics block next to each diode. This block also contains active quenching and recharge circuits as well as a one bit memory for the selective inhibit of detector cells. A balanced trigger network is used to propagate the trigger signal from all cells to the integrated time-to-digital converter. Photons are detected and counted as digital signals, thus making the sensor less susceptible to temperature variations and electronic noise. The integration with CMOS logic has the added benefit of low power consumption and possible integration of data post-processing in the sensor. In this paper, we discuss the sensor architecture together with its characteristics, and its possible optimizations for applications requiring the detection of Cherenkov light.

  20. Method of signal detection from silicon photomultipliers using fully differential Charge to Time Converter and fast shaper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baszczyk, M.; Dorosz, P.; Glab, S.; Kucewicz, W.; Mik, L.; Sapor, M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an implementation of fully differential readout method for Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). Front-end electronics consists of a fast and slow path. The former creates the trigger signal while the latter produces a pulse of width proportional to the input charge. The fast shaper generates unipolar pulse and utilizes the pole-zero cancelation circuit. The peaking time for single photoelectron is equal to 3.6 ns and the FWHM is 3.8 ns. The pulse width of the Charge to Time Converter (QTC) depends on the number of photons entering the SiPM at the moment of measurement. The QTC response is nonlinear but it allows us to work with signals in a wide dynamic range. The proposed readout method is effective in measurements of random signals where frequent events tend to pile-up. Thermal generation and afterpulses have a strong influence on the width of pulses from QTC. The proposed method enables us to distinguish those overlapping signals and get the reliable information on the number of detected photons.

  1. Method of signal detection from silicon photomultipliers using fully differential Charge to Time Converter and fast shaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baszczyk, M., E-mail: baszczyk@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Krakow (Poland); Dorosz, P.; Glab, S.; Kucewicz, W. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Krakow (Poland); Mik, L. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Krakow (Poland); State Higher Vocational School, Tarnow (Poland); Sapor, M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Krakow (Poland)

    2016-07-11

    The paper presents an implementation of fully differential readout method for Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). Front-end electronics consists of a fast and slow path. The former creates the trigger signal while the latter produces a pulse of width proportional to the input charge. The fast shaper generates unipolar pulse and utilizes the pole-zero cancelation circuit. The peaking time for single photoelectron is equal to 3.6 ns and the FWHM is 3.8 ns. The pulse width of the Charge to Time Converter (QTC) depends on the number of photons entering the SiPM at the moment of measurement. The QTC response is nonlinear but it allows us to work with signals in a wide dynamic range. The proposed readout method is effective in measurements of random signals where frequent events tend to pile-up. Thermal generation and afterpulses have a strong influence on the width of pulses from QTC. The proposed method enables us to distinguish those overlapping signals and get the reliable information on the number of detected photons.

  2. Novel scintillators and silicon photomultipliers for nuclear physics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, David

    2015-01-01

    Until comparatively recently, scintillator detectors were seen as an old-fashioned tool of nuclear physics with more attention being given to areas such as gamma-ray tracking using high-purity germanium detectors. Next-generation scintillator detectors, such as lanthanum bromide, which were developed for the demands of space science and gamma- ray telescopes, are found to have strong applicability to low energy nuclear physics. Their excellent timing resolution makes them very suitable for fast timing measurements and their much improved energy resolution compared to conventional scintillators promises to open up new avenues in nuclear physics research which were presently hard to access. Such 'medium-resolution' spectroscopy has broad interest across several areas of contemporary interest such as the study of nuclear giant resonances. In addition to the connections to space science, it is striking that the demands of contemporary medical imaging have strong overlap with those of experimental nuclear physics. An example is the interest in PET-MRI combined imaging which requires putting scintillator detectors in a high magnetic field environment. This has led to strong advances in the area of silicon photomultipliers, a solid-state replacement for photomultiplier tubes, which are insensitive to magnetic fields. Broad application to nuclear physics of this technology may be foreseen. (paper)

  3. Parameters of the preproduction series SiPMs for the CMS HCAL phase I upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heering, A., E-mail: Adriaan.Heering@cern.ch [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Musienko, Yu., E-mail: Iouri.Musienko@cern.ch [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Institute for Nuclear Research RAS, pr. 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ruchti, R.; Wayne, M. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Karneyeu, A.; Postoev, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research RAS, pr. 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-11

    In 2012 the HCAL SiPM photo sensor upgrade was approved for the increased luminosity (5*10{sup 34}) of SLHC. The upgrade will replace the current hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) with multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, also known as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). A key aspect of the upgrade to SiPMs is to add longitudinal segmentation and improve signal to noise to compensate for scintillator radiation damage. After 5 years of R&D with multiple companies we developed custom large dynamic range SiPMs with large PDE and small ENC. To ensure good mechanical alignment and easy handling of the large number of production channels (>20,000) we have developed a custom ceramic package with a very thin 0.3 mm quartz window with Kyocera. Each package holds 8 channels of SiPMs. Here we report on the final SiPM parameters of the 2014 preproduction run from Hamamatsu (HPK) who has produced a series of 175 arrays with a total of 1400 SiPMs. An overview of our QA results and measurements of the photon detection efficiency, spectral response, crosstalk and cell recovery time will be discussed. - Highlights: • Uniformity of large scale SiPM production. • Small cell size SiPMs with high photo detection efficiency. • Fast recovery time SiPMs. • Custom packaging of SiPMs in High Energy Physics experiments.

  4. SiPM properties at cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biroth, Maik; Achenbach, Patrick; Thomas, Andreas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Downie, Evangeline [George Washington University, DC (United States); Collaboration: A2-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    At the electron accelerator Mainzer Mikrotron (MAMI) an active target build of polarizable scintillators will be operated at approximately 25 mK. To read out the scintillation light, the photodetectors have to withstand cryogenic temperatures of 4 K and high count rates. Therefore the properties of different types of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were studied at cryogenic temperatures. In liquid nitrogen at 77 K, problems with quenching in Hamamatsu SiPMs and with the protective epoxy layer covering Zecotek SiPMs were observed. Tests with one Zecotek SiPM were successful after removal of the epoxy layer in liquid helium at 4 K and no after-pulses could be observed. Fundamental parameters like break-down voltage, single-pixel gain, crosstalk probability and the dark-count rate were measured and compared to room temperature. The photon detection efficiency was estimated by SiPMs response to short LED pulses. All these parameters were extracted by curve-fitting of SiPM charge spectra with a new analytical function.

  5. Correction of SiPM temperature dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a high granular analogue hadronic calorimeter (AHCAL) using scintillator tiles with built-in Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) readout is reported. A muon beam is used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) based calibration of the single cells. The calibration chain including corrections for the non-linearity of the SiPM is presented. The voltage and temperature dependencies of the SiPM signal have been investigated using the versatile LED system of the AHCAL. Monitoring and correction methods are discussed. Measurements from the operation 2006 and 2007 at the CERN SPS test beam and data provided by the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Moscow are compared.

  6. Sensitivity encoded silicon photomultiplier--a new sensor for high-resolution PET-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Volkmar; Berker, Yannick; Berneking, Arne; Omidvari, Negar; Kiessling, Fabian; Gola, Alberto; Piemonte, Claudio

    2013-07-21

    Detectors for simultaneous positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in particular with sub-mm spatial resolution are commonly composed of scintillator crystal arrays, readout via arrays of solid state sensors, such as avalanche photo diodes (APDs) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Usually a light guide between the crystals and the sensor is used to enable the identification of crystals which are smaller than the sensor elements. However, this complicates crystal identification at the gaps and edges of the sensor arrays. A solution is to use as many sensors as crystals with a direct coupling, which unfortunately increases the complexity and power consumption of the readout electronics. Since 1997, position-sensitive APDs have been successfully used to identify sub-mm crystals. Unfortunately, these devices show a limitation in their time resolution and a degradation of spatial resolution when placed in higher magnetic fields. To overcome these limitations, this paper presents a new sensor concept that extends conventional SiPMs by adding position information via the spatial encoding of the channel sensitivity. The concept allows a direct coupling of high-resolution crystal arrays to the sensor with a reduced amount of readout channels. The theory of sensitivity encoding is detailed and linked to compressed sensing to compute unique sparse solutions. Two devices have been designed using one- and two-dimensional linear sensitivity encoding with eight and four readout channels, respectively. Flood histograms of both devices show the capability to precisely identify all 4 × 4 LYSO crystals with dimensions of 0.93 × 0.93 × 10 mm(3). For these crystals, the energy and time resolution (MV ± SD) of the devices with one (two)-dimensional encoding have been measured to be 12.3 · (1 ± 0.047)% (13.7 · (1 ± 0.047)%) around 511 keV with a paired coincidence time resolution (full width at half maximum) of 462 · (1 ± 0.054) ps (452 · (1 ± 0

  7. Timing resolution performance comparison of different SiPM devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinsky, Sergei, E-mail: dolinsky@ge.com; Fu, Geng; Ivan, Adrian

    2015-11-21

    Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices with improved parameters were recently introduced by several vendors. In addition to published manufacturer performance specifications, different research groups have reported on measurements of the available SiPMs in different operating conditions and using different test setups. In this work we performed a consistent set of test procedures for SiPM devices from various vendors, with focus on Time-of-Flight (TOF) PET detectors applications. SiPMs from Hamamatsu (HPK), SensL, Ketek, and Excelitas were tested. The same experimental setup and procedures were used for comparison of timing resolution for small (3×3 mm{sup 2}) and large (6×6 mm{sup 2} or 4×6 mm{sup 2}) devices coupled to short (3×3×10 mm{sup 3}) and long (4×4×25 mm{sup 3}) LYSO crystals. The potential opportunities for TOF PET detectors are also evaluated.

  8. Fabrication, characterization and testing of silicon photomultipliers for the Muon Portal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rocca, P.; Billotta, S.; Blancato, A.A.; Bonanno, D.; Bonanno, G.; Fallica, G.; Garozzo, S.; Lo Presti, D.; Marano, D.; Pugliatti, C.; Riggi, F.; Romeo, G.; Santagati, G.; Valvo, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Muon Portal is a recently started Project aiming at the construction of a large area tracking detector that exploits the muon tomography technique to inspect the contents of traveling cargo containers. The detection planes will be made of plastic scintillator strips with embedded wavelength-shifting fibres. Special designed silicon photomultipliers will read the scintillation light transported by the fibres along the strips and a dedicated electronics will combine signals from different strips to reduce the overall number of channels, without loss of information. Different silicon photomultiplier prototypes, both with the p-on-n and n-on-p technologies, have been produced by STMicroelectronics during the last years. In this paper we present the main characteristics of the silicon photomultipliers designed for the Muon Portal Project and describe the setup and the procedure implemented for the characterization of these devices, giving some statistical results obtained from the test of a first batch of silicon photomultipliers

  9. Fabrication, characterization and testing of silicon photomultipliers for the Muon Portal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rocca, P., E-mail: paola.larocca@ct.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - Catania (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Catania (Italy); Billotta, S. [INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy); Blancato, A.A.; Bonanno, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - Catania (Italy); Bonanno, G. [INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy); Fallica, G. [STMicroelectronics - Catania (Italy); Garozzo, S. [INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - Catania (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Catania (Italy); Marano, D. [INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy); Pugliatti, C.; Riggi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - Catania (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Catania (Italy); Romeo, G. [INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy); Santagati, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - Catania (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Catania (Italy); Valvo, G. [STMicroelectronics - Catania (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The Muon Portal is a recently started Project aiming at the construction of a large area tracking detector that exploits the muon tomography technique to inspect the contents of traveling cargo containers. The detection planes will be made of plastic scintillator strips with embedded wavelength-shifting fibres. Special designed silicon photomultipliers will read the scintillation light transported by the fibres along the strips and a dedicated electronics will combine signals from different strips to reduce the overall number of channels, without loss of information. Different silicon photomultiplier prototypes, both with the p-on-n and n-on-p technologies, have been produced by STMicroelectronics during the last years. In this paper we present the main characteristics of the silicon photomultipliers designed for the Muon Portal Project and describe the setup and the procedure implemented for the characterization of these devices, giving some statistical results obtained from the test of a first batch of silicon photomultipliers.

  10. Characterization of Silicon Photomultiplier Detectors using Cosmic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Favian; Castro, Juan; Niduaza, Rexavalmar; Wedel, Zachary; Fan, Sewan; Ritt, Stefan; Fatuzzo, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The silicon photomultiplier light detector has gained a lot of attention lately in fields such as particle physics, astrophysics, and medical physics. Its popularity stems from its lower cost, compact size, insensitivity to magnetic fields, and its excellent ability to distinguish a quantized number of photons. They are normally operated at room temperature and biased above their breakdown voltages. As such, they may also exhibit properties that may hinder their optimal operation which include a thermally induced high dark count rate, after pulse effects, and cross talk from photons in nearby pixels. At this poster session, we describe our data analysis and our endeavor to characterize the multipixel photon counter (MPPC) detectors from Hamamatsu under different bias voltages and temperature conditions. Particularly, we describe our setup which uses cosmic rays to induce scintillation light delivered to the detector by wavelength shifting optical fibers and the use of a fast 1 GHz waveform sampler, the domino ring sampler (DRS4) digitizer board. Department of Education grant number P031S90007.

  11. SiPM as photon counter for Cherenkov detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, B.J.; Orth, H.; Schwarz, C.; Wilms, A.; Peters, K.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very new type of photon counting devices that show great promise to be used as detection device in combination with scintillators/ Cherenkov radiators. SiPM is essentially an avalanche photo-diode operated in limited Geiger mode. They have been considered as potential readout devices for DIRC counter of the PANDA detector which is one of the large experiment at FAIR- the new international facility to be built at GSI, Darmstadt. In addition, the potential use of SiPM includes medical diagnosis, fluorescence measurement and high energy physics experiments. The SiPM module is a photon counting device capable of low light level detection. It is essentially an opto-semiconductor device with excellent photon counting capability and possesses great advantages over the conventional PMTs because of low voltage operation and insensitivity to magnetic fields. In many of the high energy physics experiments, the photon sensors are required to operate in high magnetic fields precluding the use of conventional PMTs. This problem can be over come with the use of SiPMs. With this motivation in mind, we have developed a SiPM test facility and have tested several commercially available SiPM for their performance study and comparison with other photon counting devices

  12. Multichannel Digital Silicon Photomultipliers for Time-of-Flight PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandai, S.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis discusses the potential of CMOS based SiPMs, especially for TOF PET applications, in a systematic and comprehensive fashion. CMOS based SPADs are still need to be designed carefully to improve fill factor, TDCs be improved from the point of the area and power consumption, and the

  13. Characterization of 1.2×1.2 mm2 silicon photomultipliers with Ce:LYSO, Ce:GAGG, and Pr:LuAG scintillation crystals as detector modules for positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, N.; Sharma, R.; Ganka, T. R.; Schneider, F. R.; Paul, S.; Ziegler, S. I.

    2017-04-01

    The design of a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner is specially challenging since it should not compromise high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, high count-rate capability, and good energy and time resolution. The geometrical design of the system alongside the characteristics of the individual PET detector modules contributes to the overall performance of the scanner. The detector performance is mainly influenced by the characteristics of the photo-detector and the scintillation crystal. Although silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have already proven to be promising photo-detectors for PET, their performance is highly influenced by micro-cell structure and production technology. Therefore, five types of SiPMs produced by KETEK with an active area size of 1.2 × 1.2 mm2 were characterized in this study. The SiPMs differed in the production technology and had micro-cell sizes of 25, 50, 75, and 100 μm. Performance of the SiPMs was evaluated in terms of their breakdown voltage, temperature sensitivity, dark count rate, and correlated noise probability. Subsequently, energy resolution and coincidence time resolution (CTR) of the SiPMs were measured with five types of crystals, including two Ce:LYSO, two Ce:GAGG, and one Pr:LuAG. Two crystals with a geometry of 1.5 × 1.5 × 6 mm3 were available from each type. The best CTR achieved was ~ 240 ps, which was obtained with the Ce:LYSO crystals coupled to the 50 μm SiPM produced with the trench technology. The best energy resolution for the 511 keV photo-peak was ~ 11% and was obtained with the same SiPM coupled to the Ce:GAGG crystals.

  14. Characterization of 1.2×1.2 mm2 silicon photomultipliers with Ce:LYSO, Ce:GAGG, and Pr:LuAG scintillation crystals as detector modules for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omidvari, N.; Sharma, R.; Schneider, F.R.; Ziegler, S.I.; Ganka, T.R.; Paul, S.

    2017-01-01

    The design of a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner is specially challenging since it should not compromise high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, high count-rate capability, and good energy and time resolution. The geometrical design of the system alongside the characteristics of the individual PET detector modules contributes to the overall performance of the scanner. The detector performance is mainly influenced by the characteristics of the photo-detector and the scintillation crystal. Although silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have already proven to be promising photo-detectors for PET, their performance is highly influenced by micro-cell structure and production technology. Therefore, five types of SiPMs produced by KETEK with an active area size of 1.2 × 1.2 mm 2 were characterized in this study. The SiPMs differed in the production technology and had micro-cell sizes of 25, 50, 75, and 100 μm. Performance of the SiPMs was evaluated in terms of their breakdown voltage, temperature sensitivity, dark count rate, and correlated noise probability. Subsequently, energy resolution and coincidence time resolution (CTR) of the SiPMs were measured with five types of crystals, including two Ce:LYSO, two Ce:GAGG, and one Pr:LuAG. Two crystals with a geometry of 1.5 × 1.5 × 6 mm 3 were available from each type. The best CTR achieved was ∼ 240 ps, which was obtained with the Ce:LYSO crystals coupled to the 50 μm SiPM produced with the trench technology. The best energy resolution for the 511 keV photo-peak was ∼ 11% and was obtained with the same SiPM coupled to the Ce:GAGG crystals.

  15. Silicon photomultipliers in scintillation detectors used for gamma ray energies up to 6.1 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzicka-Kobylka, M.; Szczesniak, T.; Moszyński, M.; Swiderski, L.; Szawłowski, M.

    2017-12-01

    Majority of papers concerning scintillation detectors with light readout by means of silicon photomultipliers refer to nuclear medicine or radiation monitoring devices where energy of detected gamma rays do not exceed 2 MeV. Detection of gamma radiation with higher energies is of interest to e.g. high energy physics and plasma diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to study applicability (usefulness) of SiPM light readout in detection of gamma rays up to 6.1 MeV in combination with various scintillators. The reported measurements were made with 3 samples of one type of Hamamatsu TSV (Through-Silicon Via technology) MPPC arrays. These 4x4 channel arrays have a 50 × 50 μm2 cell size and 12 × 12 mm2 effective active area. The following scintillators were used: CeBr3, NaI:Tl, CsI:Tl. During all the tests detectors were located in a climatic chamber. The studies are focused on optimization of the MPPC performance for practical use in detection of high energy gamma rays. The optimization includes selection of the optimum operating voltage in respect to the required energy resolution, dynamic range, linearity and pulse amplitude. The presented temperature tests show breakdown voltage dependence on the temperature change and define requirements for a power supply and gain stabilization method. The energy spectra for energies between 511 keV and 6.1 MeV are also presented and compared with data acquired with a classic photomultiplier XP5212B readout. Such a comparison allowed study of nonlinearity of the tested MPPCs, correction of the energy spectra and proper analysis of the energy resolution.

  16. Time-resolved single-photon detection module based on silicon photomultiplier: A novel building block for time-correlated measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinenghi, E., E-mail: edoardo.martinenghi@polimi.it; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Sanzaro, M. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Pifferi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm{sup 2} together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).

  17. Time-resolved single-photon detection module based on silicon photomultiplier: A novel building block for time-correlated measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinenghi, E.; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A.; Sanzaro, M.; Pifferi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm"2 together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).

  18. Interference between PET and MRI sub-systems in a silicon-photomultiplier-based PET/MRI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun; Aoki, Masaaki; Sugiyama, Eiji; Watabe, Tadashi; Imaizumi, Masao; Shimosegawa, Eku

    2011-01-01

    The silicon-photomultiplier (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector, especially for integrated PET/MRI systems, due to its small size, high gain, and low sensitivity to static magnetic fields. The major problem using a Si-PM-based PET system within the MRI system is the interference between the PET and MRI units. We measured the interference by combining a Si-PM-based PET system with a permanent-magnet MRI system. When the RF signal-induced pulse height exceeded the lower energy threshold level of the PET system, interference between the Si-PM-based PET system and MRI system was detected. The prompt as well as the delayed coincidence count rates of the Si-PM-based PET system increased significantly. These noise counts produced severe artifacts on the reconstructed images of the Si-PM-based PET system. In terms of the effect of the Si-PM-based PET system on the MRI system, although no susceptibility artifact was observed on the MR images, electronic noise from the PET detector ring was detected by the RF coil and reduced the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the MR images. The S/N degradation of the MR images was reduced when the distance between the RF coil and the Si-PM-based PET system was increased. We conclude that reducing the interference between the PET and MRI systems is essential for achieving the optimum performance of integrated Si-PM PET/MRI systems.

  19. Radiation hardness test of un-doped CsI crystals and Silicon Photomultipliers for the Mu2e calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.; Cordelli, M.; Diociaiuti, E.; Donghia, R.; Giovannella, S.; Loreti, S.; Miscetti, S.; Pillon, M.; Sarra, I.

    2017-11-01

    The Mu2e calorimeter is composed by 1400 un-doped CsI crystals coupled to large area UV extended Silicon Photomultipliers arranged in two annular disks. This calorimeter has to provide precise information on energy, timing and position. It should also be fast enough to handle the high rate background and it must operate and survive in a high radiation environment. Simulation studies estimated that, in the hottest regions, each crystal will absorb a dose of 300 Gy and will be exposed to a neutron fluency of 6 × 1011 n/cm2 in 3 years of running. Test of un-doped CsI crystals irradiated up to 900 Gy and to a neutron fluency up to 9 × 1011 n/cm2 have been performed at CALLIOPE and FNG ENEA facilities in Italy. We present our study on the variation of light yield (LY) and longitudinal response uniformity (LRU) of these crystals after irradiation. The ionization dose does not modify LRU while a 20% reduction in LY is observed at 900 Gy. Similarly, the neutron flux causes an acceptable LY deterioration (≤ 15%). A neutron irradiation test on different types of SIPMs (two different array models from Hamamatsu and one from FBK) have also been carried out by measuring the variation of the leakage current and the charge response to an ultraviolet led. We concluded that, in the experiment, we will need to cool down the SIPMs to 0 °C reduce the leakage current to an acceptable level.

  20. SiPM based readout system for PbWO4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Bonfanti, S.; Bonvicini, V.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Stoppani, L.; Vallazza, E.

    2013-08-01

    Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) consist of a matrix of small passively quenched silicon avalanche photodiodes operated in limited Geiger-mode (GM-APDs) and read out in parallel from a common output node. Each pixel (with a typical size in the 20-100 μm range) gives the same current response when hit by a photon; the SiPM output signal is the sum of the signals of all the pixels, which depends on the light intensity. The main advantages of SiPMs with respect to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are essentially the small dimensions, the insensitivity to magnetic fields and a low bias voltage. This contribution presents the performance of a SiPM based readout system for crystal calorimeters developed in the framework of the FACTOR/TWICE collaboration. The SiPM used for the test is a new device produced by FBK-irst which consists in a matrix of four sensors embedded in the same silicon substrate, called QUAD. The SiPM has been coupled to a lead tungstate crystal, an early-prototype version of the crystals developed for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment. New tests are foreseen using a complete module consisting of nine crystals, each one readout by two QUADs.

  1. SiPM based readout system for PbWO4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Bonfanti, S.; Bonvicini, V.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Stoppani, L.; Vallazza, E.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) consist of a matrix of small passively quenched silicon avalanche photodiodes operated in limited Geiger-mode (GM-APDs) and read out in parallel from a common output node. Each pixel (with a typical size in the 20–100 μm range) gives the same current response when hit by a photon; the SiPM output signal is the sum of the signals of all the pixels, which depends on the light intensity. The main advantages of SiPMs with respect to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are essentially the small dimensions, the insensitivity to magnetic fields and a low bias voltage. This contribution presents the performance of a SiPM based readout system for crystal calorimeters developed in the framework of the FACTOR/TWICE collaboration. The SiPM used for the test is a new device produced by FBK-irst which consists in a matrix of four sensors embedded in the same silicon substrate, called QUAD. The SiPM has been coupled to a lead tungstate crystal, an early-prototype version of the crystals developed for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment. New tests are foreseen using a complete module consisting of nine crystals, each one readout by two QUADs

  2. SiPM based readout system for PbWO{sub 4} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berra, A., E-mail: alessandro.berra@gmail.com [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria e INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca, Via Valleggio, 11-22100 Como (Italy); Bolognini, D.; Bonfanti, S. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria e INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca, Via Valleggio, 11-22100 Como (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Lietti, D. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria e INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca, Via Valleggio, 11-22100 Como (Italy); Penzo, A. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Prest, M.; Stoppani, L. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria e INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca, Via Valleggio, 11-22100 Como (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) consist of a matrix of small passively quenched silicon avalanche photodiodes operated in limited Geiger-mode (GM-APDs) and read out in parallel from a common output node. Each pixel (with a typical size in the 20–100 μm range) gives the same current response when hit by a photon; the SiPM output signal is the sum of the signals of all the pixels, which depends on the light intensity. The main advantages of SiPMs with respect to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are essentially the small dimensions, the insensitivity to magnetic fields and a low bias voltage. This contribution presents the performance of a SiPM based readout system for crystal calorimeters developed in the framework of the FACTOR/TWICE collaboration. The SiPM used for the test is a new device produced by FBK-irst which consists in a matrix of four sensors embedded in the same silicon substrate, called QUAD. The SiPM has been coupled to a lead tungstate crystal, an early-prototype version of the crystals developed for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment. New tests are foreseen using a complete module consisting of nine crystals, each one readout by two QUADs.

  3. Neutron irradiation study of silicon photomultipliers from different vendors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kushpil, Vasilij; Mikhaylov, Vasily; Kugler, Andrej; Kushpil, Svetlana; Ladygin, V. P.; Reznikov, S. G.; Svoboda, Ondřej; Tlustý, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 845, FEB (2017), s. 114-117 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA MŠk LG14004; GA MŠk LM2015049; GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : SiPM detector * calorimeter * Si * avalanche * doping impurities Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  4. Study of SiPM as a potential photodetector for scintillator readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, D.J.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Belcari, N.; Del Guerra, A.; Morsani, F.; Saveliev, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) APD represents an interesting advance in photodetection and could soon be a rival to traditional PMTs in many applications. The SiPM is effectively a densely packed 2D array of Geiger-mode APD microcells, each having individual resistive quenching and multiplexed outputs. In this way the SiPM acts as a linear, high-gain photodetector for moderate photon flux (N photon cells ). The Metal-Resistor-Silicon (MRS) structure SiPM, produced by CPTA Russia, has been characterised and tested for scintillator light detection in medical applications such as PET. We present a summary of measurements of the device's primary operating characteristics and results of the application to scintillator readout

  5. STiC — a mixed mode silicon photomultiplier readout ASIC for time-of-flight applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harion, T; Briggl, K; Chen, H; Gil, A; Kiworra, V; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Shen, W; Stankova, V; Fischer, P; Ritzert, M

    2014-01-01

    STiC is an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for the readout of silicon photomultipliers. The chip has been designed to provide a very high timing resolution for time-of-flight applications in medical imaging and particle physics. It is dedicated in particular to the EndoToFPET-US project, which is developing an endoscopic PET detector combined with ultrasound imaging for early pancreas and prostate cancer detection. This PET system aims to provide a spatial resolution of 1 mm and a time-of-flight resolution of 200 ps FWHM. The analog frontend of STiC can use either a differential or single ended connection to the SiPM. The time and energy information of the detector signal is encoded into two time stamps. A special linearized time-over-threshold method is used to obtain a linear relation between the signal charge and the measured signal width, improving the energy resolution. The trigger signals are digitized by an integrated TDC module with a resolution of less than 20 ps. The TDC data is stored in an internal memory and transfered over a 160 MBit/s serial link using 8/10 bit encoding. First coincidence measurements using a 3.1 × 3.1 × 15 mm 3 LYSO crystal and a S10362-33-50 Hamamtsu MPPC show a coincidence time resolution of less than 285 ps. We present details on the chip design as well as first characterization measurements

  6. Segmented scintillation detectors with silicon photomultiplier readout for measuring antiproton annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Sótér, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Barna, D.; Horváth, D.; Hori, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons (ASACUSA) experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility of CERN constructed segmented scintillators to detect and track the charged pions which emerge from antiproton annihilations in a future superconducting radiofrequency Paul trap for antiprotons. A system of 541 cast and extruded scintillator bars were arranged in 11 detector modules which provided a spatial resolution of 17 mm. Green wavelength-shifting fibers were embedded in the scintillators, and read out by silicon photomultipliers which had a sensitive area of 1 x 1 mm^2. The photoelectron yields of various scintillator configurations were measured using a negative pion beam of momentum p ~ 1 GeV/c. Various fibers and silicon photomultipliers, fiber end terminations, and couplings between the fibers and scintillators were compared. The detectors were also tested using the antiproton beam of the AD. Nonlinear effects due to the saturation of the silicon photomultiplier were seen a...

  7. Compact Quantum Random Number Generator with Silicon Nanocrystals Light Emitting Device Coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisadi, Zahra; Acerbi, Fabio; Fontana, Giorgio; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    A small-sized photonic quantum random number generator, easy to be implemented in small electronic devices for secure data encryption and other applications, is highly demanding nowadays. Here, we propose a compact configuration with Silicon nanocrystals large area light emitting device (LED) coupled to a Silicon photomultiplier to generate random numbers. The random number generation methodology is based on the photon arrival time and is robust against the non-idealities of the detector and the source of quantum entropy. The raw data show high quality of randomness and pass all the statistical tests in national institute of standards and technology tests (NIST) suite without a post-processing algorithm. The highest bit rate is 0.5 Mbps with the efficiency of 4 bits per detected photon.

  8. Compact Quantum Random Number Generator with Silicon Nanocrystals Light Emitting Device Coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bisadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A small-sized photonic quantum random number generator, easy to be implemented in small electronic devices for secure data encryption and other applications, is highly demanding nowadays. Here, we propose a compact configuration with Silicon nanocrystals large area light emitting device (LED coupled to a Silicon photomultiplier to generate random numbers. The random number generation methodology is based on the photon arrival time and is robust against the non-idealities of the detector and the source of quantum entropy. The raw data show high quality of randomness and pass all the statistical tests in national institute of standards and technology tests (NIST suite without a post-processing algorithm. The highest bit rate is 0.5 Mbps with the efficiency of 4 bits per detected photon.

  9. Imaging with SiPMs in noble-gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahlali, N; González, K; Fernandes, L M P; Garcia, A N C; Soriano, A

    2013-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are photosensors widely used for imaging in a variety of high energy and nuclear physics experiments. In noble-gas detectors for double-beta decay and dark matter experiments, SiPMs are attractive photosensors for imaging. However they are insensitive to the VUV scintillation emitted by the noble gases (xenon and argon). This difficulty is overcome in the NEXT experiment by coating the SiPMs with tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) to convert the VUV light into visible light. TPB requires stringent storage and operational conditions to prevent its degradation by environmental agents. The development of UV sensitive SiPMs is thus of utmost interest for experiments using electroluminescence of noble-gas detectors. It is in particular an important issue for a robust and background free ββ0ν experiment with xenon gas aimed by NEXT. The photon detection efficiency (PDE) of UV-enhanced SiPMs provided by Hamamatsu was determined for light in the range 250–500 nm. The PDE of standard SiPMs of the same model (S10362-33-50C), coated and non-coated with TPB, was also determined for comparison. In the UV range 250–350 nm, the PDE of the standard SiPM is shown to decrease strongly, down to about 3%. The UV-enhanced SiPM without window is shown to have the maximum PDE of 44% at 325 nm and 30% at 250 nm. The PDE of the UV-enhanced SiPM with silicon resin window has a similar trend in the UV range, although it is about 30% lower. The TPB-coated SiPM has shown to have about 6 times higher PDE than the non-coated SiPM in the range 250–315 nm. This is however below the performance of the UV-enhanced prototypes in the same wavelength range. Imaging in noble-gas detectors using UV-enhanced SiPMs is discussed.

  10. Time Of Flight Detectors: From phototubes to SiPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Foschi, E.; Guandalini, C.; Quadrani, L.; Sbarra, C.; Zuffa, M.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of Silicon Photomultipliers was tested because they looked promising for future space missions: low consumption, low weight, resistance to radiation damage and insensitivity to magnetic fields. They have been studied in laboratory by means of the same characterization methods adopted to calibrate the fine mesh photomultipliers used by the Time Of Flight of the AMS-02 experiment. A detailed simulation was made to reproduce the SiPM response to the various experimental conditions. A possible counter design has been studied with front end electronics card equipped with SiPMs and Peltier cell for thermoregulation. A proper simulation based on COMSOL Multiphysics package reproduces quite well the Peltier cell nominal cooling capability

  11. Silicon photomultiplier's gain stabilization by bias correction for compensation of the temperature fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorosz, P., E-mail: pdorosz@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Baszczyk, M.; Glab, S. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kucewicz, W., E-mail: kucewicz@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Mik, L.; Sapor, M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, Department of Electronics, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2013-08-01

    Gain of the silicon photomultiplier is strongly dependent on the value of bias voltage and temperature. This paper proposes a method for gain stabilization just by compensation of temperature fluctuations by bias correction. It has been confirmed that this approach gives good results and the gain can be kept very stable.

  12. Silicon photomultiplier's gain stabilization by bias correction for compensation of the temperature fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorosz, P.; Baszczyk, M.; Glab, S.; Kucewicz, W.; Mik, L.; Sapor, M.

    2013-01-01

    Gain of the silicon photomultiplier is strongly dependent on the value of bias voltage and temperature. This paper proposes a method for gain stabilization just by compensation of temperature fluctuations by bias correction. It has been confirmed that this approach gives good results and the gain can be kept very stable

  13. Silicon Photo-Multiplier Radiation Hardness Tests with a White Neutron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanari, A.; Tosi, N.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Malaguti, R.; Santoro, V.; Tellarini, G.; Tomassetti, L.; De Donato, C.; Reali, E.

    2013-06-01

    We report radiation hardness tests performed, with a white neutron beam, at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator in Belgium on silicon Photo-Multipliers. These are semiconductor photon detectors made of a square matrix of Geiger-Mode Avalanche photo-diodes on a silicon substrate. Several samples from different manufacturers have been irradiated integrating up to about 6.2 x 10 9 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm 2 . (authors)

  14. Quality control of the SiPM in the application of large HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongzheng; Cheng Yue; Wang Kaijun; Li Bocheng; Liang Kun; Yang Ru; Han Dejun

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale high-energy physics (HEP) experiments have strict requirements on the reliability, consistency and service life for the detectors, it is imperative to set up a quality control system for the involved Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The essential parameters of the SiPMs are numerous, including reversed leakage current, breakdown voltage, dark count rate, gain, photon detection efficiency, pulse high distribution, temperature coefficient and optical crosstalk etc., characterizing of SiPM should follow an optimal measurement procedures and rules to realize the rapid screening and strict quality control. This paper will introduce the new progress of 1 mm × 1 mm large dynamic range SiPM developed in the Novel Device Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, as well as the measurement guidelines and procedures from chips to packaged devices. (authors)

  15. Electrical characterization and simulation of SiPMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuch, Florian, E-mail: scheuch@physik.rwth-aachen.de; Führen, Daniel; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are versatile and sensitive photon detectors that experience a fast growing variety of use in particle physics and related fields of application. These photo detectors have a very promising photon detection efficiency and are therefore interesting for very low light flux applications such as scintillation and fluorescence light detection. As a semiconductor device the SiPM's gain and time response strongly depend on the operating temperature and voltage. Thus they have to be understood for a proper use of the SiPM. Therefore, accurate electrical simulations of the SiPM's behavior involving electrical readout and front-end electronics help to improve the design of experimental setups, since several different designs can be tested and simulated with a manageable amount of effort. To perform these simulations, a detailed equivalent circuit of the SiPM has to be used containing a set of well-defined parameters. For this purpose, SPICE simulations of SiPMs and readout electronics have been performed. These simulations utilize an improved SiPM model consisting of resistors, capacitances and inductances. The SiPM parameters for these simulations have been determined by measuring the impedance over a wide frequency range while applying a DC voltage in forward direction and various DC voltages from zero up to the SiPM breakdown voltage in order to determine the behavior under operating conditions. The impedance measurements, the electrical model and the resulting simulations are presented. The impact of different setups and the electrical properties of the SiPM is discussed.

  16. Petiroc and Citiroc: front-end ASICs for SiPM read-out and ToF applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, J; Ahmad, S; Callier, S; Taille, C de La; Seguin, N; Thienpont, D; Dulucq, F; Martin, G

    2014-01-01

    Petiroc and Citiroc are the two latest ASIC from Weeroc dedicated to SiPM read-out. Petiroc is a 16-channel front-end ASIC designed to readout silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) for particle time-of-flight measurement applications. It combines a very fast and low-jitter trigger with an accurate charge measurement. Citiroc is a 32-channel front-end ASIC designed to readout silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). It allows triggering down to 1/3 pe and provides the charge measurement with a good noise rejection. Moreover, Citiroc outputs the 32-channel triggers with a high accuracy (100 ps). Each channel of both ASICs combines a trigger path with an accurate charge measurement path. An adjustment of the SiPM high voltage is possible using a channel-by-channel input DAC. That allows a fine SiPM gain and dark noise adjustment at the system level to correct for the non-uniformity of SiPMs. Timing measurement down to 16 ps RMS jitter for Petiroc and 100 ps RMS for Citiroc is possible along with 1% linearity energy measurement up to 2500 pe. The power consumption is around 3.5 mW/channel for Petiroc and 3 mW/channel for Citiroc, excluding ASICs outing buffer

  17. Characterization and simulation of different SiPM structures produced at FBK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piazza, A., E-mail: piazza@fbk.e [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-IRST), Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-IRST), Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Melchiorri, M.; Piemonte, C.; Tarolli, A.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-IRST), Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is one of the most interesting solid-state detectors for very low-level light detection featuring extremely fast timing response. In FBK we manufactured SiPMs with different micro-cell proprieties such as: size, layout and epi-layer thickness. We characterized both statically and dynamically all devices to understand the impact of each parameter on the signal shape and charge. In this paper we report on the impact of the metal layer layout on the signal shape and gain. We will show both experimental results as well as SPICE simulations.

  18. Characterization and simulation of different SiPM structures produced at FBK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Del Guerra, A.; Melchiorri, M.; Piemonte, C.; Tarolli, A.; Zorzi, N.

    2010-01-01

    The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is one of the most interesting solid-state detectors for very low-level light detection featuring extremely fast timing response. In FBK we manufactured SiPMs with different micro-cell proprieties such as: size, layout and epi-layer thickness. We characterized both statically and dynamically all devices to understand the impact of each parameter on the signal shape and charge. In this paper we report on the impact of the metal layer layout on the signal shape and gain. We will show both experimental results as well as SPICE simulations.

  19. An innovative silicon photomultiplier digitizing camera for gamma-ray astronomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heller, M.; Schioppa, E.jr.; Porcelli, A.; Pujadas, I.T.; Zietara, K.; della Volpe, D.; Montaruli, T.; Cadoux, F.; Favre, Y.; Aguilar, J.A.; Christov, A.; Prandini, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Bilnik, W.; Blocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Borkowski, J.; Bulik, T.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzinska, M.; Idzkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Lyard, E.; Mach, E.; Mandát, Dušan; Marszalek, A.; Medina Miranda, L. D.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Pasko, P.; Pech, Miroslav; Schovánek, Petr; Seweryn, K.; Sliusar, V.; Skowron, K.; Stawarz, L.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Walter, R.; Wiecek, M.; Zagdanski, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-31, č. článku 47. ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LE13012; GA MŠk LG14019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon photomultiplier * digitizing camera * gamma-ray astronomy Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 5.331, year: 2016

  20. Silicon photo-multiplier radiation hardness tests with a beam controlled neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Faccini, R.; Pinci, D.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Malaguti, R.; Pozzati, M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation hardness tests were performed at the Frascati Neutron Generator on silicon Photo-Multipliers that were made of semiconductor photon detectors built from a square matrix of avalanche photo-diodes on a silicon substrate. Several samples from different manufacturers have been irradiated, integrating up to 7x10 10 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm 2 . Detector performance was recorded during the neutron irradiation, and a gradual deterioration of their properties began after an integrated fluence of the order of 10 8 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm 2 was reached.

  1. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A.; Mazin, D.; Bangale, P.; Dettlaff, A.; Fink, D.; Grundner, F.; Haberer, W.; Maier, R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Podkladkin, S.; Teshima, M.; Wetteskind, H.

    2017-02-01

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges.

  2. First characterization of the SPADnet sensor: a digital silicon photomultiplier for PET applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros-Daillon, E.; Maingault, L.; André, L.; Reboud, V.; Verger, L.; Charbon, E.; Bruschini, C.; Veerappan, C.; Stoppa, D.; Massari, N.; Perenzoni, M.; Braga, L. H. C.; Gasparini, L.; Henderson, R. K.; Walker, R.; East, S.; Grant, L.; Jatekos, B.; Lorincz, E.; Ujhelyi, F.; Erdei, G.; Major, P.; Papp, Z.; Nemeth, G.

    2013-12-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers have the ability to replace photomultiplier tubes when used as light sensors in scintillation gamma-ray detectors. Their timing properties, compactness, and magnetic field compatibility make them interesting for use in Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Imaging compatible Positron Emission Tomography. In this paper, we present a new fully digital Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) based detector fabricated in CMOS image sensor technology. It contains 16x8 pixels with a pitch of 610x571.2 μm2. The Dark Count Rate and the Photon Detection Probability of each SPAD has been measured and the homogeneity of these parameters in the entire 92000 SPAD array is shown. The sensor has been optically coupled to a single LYSO needle and a LYSO array. The scintillator crystal was irradiated with several gamma sources and the resulting images and energy spectra are presented.

  3. Studies on surface-mounted SiPMs in 2015 testbeam of a highly granular hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Sascha [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    To achieve excellent jet energy resolution, a highly granular hadronic calorimeter is being developed within the CALICE collaboration. Therefore, about 8 million detector units consisting of scintillator tiles and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) will be installed in the final HCAL design. The usage of surface-mounted (SMD) SiPMs allows an automated mass assembly. During CERN SPS testbeam 2015, data for a prototype consisting of up to 11 layers of HCAL base units (HBU) was collected using electron, muon and pion beams. One of the layers was equipped with the first SMD HBU. Results and performance, especially of the SMD HBU are presented.

  4. Photoelectron yields of scintillation counters with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers read out with silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artikov, Akram; Baranov, Vladimir; Blazey, Gerald C.; Chen, Ningshun; Chokheli, Davit; Davydov, Yuri; Dukes, E. Craig; Dychkant, Alexsander; Ehrlich, Ralf; Francis, Kurt; Frank, M. J.; Glagolev, Vladimir; Group, Craig; Hansen, Sten; Magill, Stephen; Oksuzian, Yuri; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Rubinov, Paul; Simonenko, Aleksandr; Song, Enhao; Stetzler, Steven; Wu, Yongyi; Uzunyan, Sergey; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2018-05-01

    Photoelectron yields of extruded scintillation counters with titanium dioxide coating and embedded wavelength shifting fibers read out by silicon photomultipliers have been measured at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility using 120\\,GeV protons. The yields were measured as a function of transverse, longitudinal, and angular positions for a variety of scintillator compositions and reflective coating mixtures, fiber diameters, and photosensor sizes. Timing performance was also studied. These studies were carried out by the Cosmic Ray Veto Group of the Mu2e collaboration as part of their R\\&D program.

  5. Photoelectron yields of scintillation counters with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers read out with silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artikov, Akram; Baranov, Vladimir; Blazey, Gerald C.; Chen, Ningshun; Chokheli, Davit; Davydov, Yuri; Dukes, E. Craig; Dychkant, Alexsander; Ehrlich, Ralf; Francis, Kurt; Frank, M. J.; Glagolev, Vladimir; Group, Craig; Hansen, Sten; Magill, Stephen; Oksuzian, Yuri; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Rubinov, Paul; Simonenko, Aleksandr; Song, Enhao; Stetzler, Steven; Wu, Yongyi; Uzunyan, Sergey; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2018-05-01

    Photoelectron yields of extruded scintillation counters with titanium dioxide coating and embedded wavelength shifting fibers read out by silicon photomultipliers have been measured at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility using 120 GeV protons. The yields were measured as a function of transverse, longitudinal, and angular positions for a variety of scintillator compositions, reflective coating mixtures, and fiber diameters. Timing performance was also studied. These studies were carried out by the Cosmic Ray Veto Group of the Mu2e collaboration as part of their R&D program.

  6. POSSuMUS: a position sensitive scintillating muon SiPM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ruschke, Alexander

    The development of a modular designed large scale scintillation detector with a two-dimensional position sensitivity is presented in this thesis. This novel POsition Sensitive Scintillating MUon SiPM Detector is named POSSuMUS. The POSSuMUS detector is capable to determine the particle’s position in two space dimensions with a fast trigger capability. Each module is constructed from two trapezoidal shaped plastic scintillators to form one rectangular shaped detector module. Both trapezoids are optically insulated against each other. In both trapezoids the scintillation light is collected by plastic fibers and guided towards silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). SiPMs are light sensors which are capable to detect even smallest amounts of light. By combining several detector modules, position sensitive areas from 100 cm2 to few m2 are achievable with few readout channels. Therefore, POSSuMUS provides a cost effective detector concept. The position sensitivity along the trapezoidal geometry of one detector module ...

  7. SiPMs coated with TPB: coating protocol and characterization for NEXT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V; Agramunt, J; Ball, M; Bayarri, J; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Batallé, M; Borges, F I G; Conde, C A N; Dias, T H V T; Bolink, H; Brine, H; Carmona, J M; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Catalá, J M; Esteve, R; Chan, D

    2012-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are the photon detectors chosen for the tracking readout in NEXT, a neutrinoless ββ decay experiment which uses a high pressure gaseous xenon time projection chamber (TPC). The reconstruction of event track and topology in this gaseous detector is a key handle for background rejection. Among the commercially available sensors that can be used for tracking, SiPMs offer important advantages, mainly high gain, ruggedness, cost-effectiveness and radio-purity. Their main drawback, however, is their non sensitivity in the emission spectrum of the xenon scintillation (peak at 175 nm). This is overcome by coating these sensors with the organic wavelength shifter tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB). In this paper we describe the protocol developed for coating the SiPMs with TPB and the measurements performed for characterizing the coatings as well as the performance of the coated sensors in the UV-VUV range.

  8. SiPM response to long and intense light pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, S., E-mail: Sergey.Vinogradov@liverpool.ac.uk [University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Leninskiy prospekt 53, Moscow (Russian Federation); Arodzero, A. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); RadiaBeam Technologies Inc., 1717 Stewart St., Santa Monica, CA 90404 (United States); Lanza, R.C. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Welsch, C.P. [University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Recently Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) have become well recognized as the detector of choice for various applications which demand good photon number resolution and time resolution of short weak light pulses in the nanosecond time scale. In the case of longer and more intensive light pulses, SiPM performance gradually degrades due to dark noise, afterpulsing, and non-instant cell recovering. Nevertheless, SiPM benefits are expected to overbalance their drawbacks in applications such as X-ray cargo inspection using Scintillation-Cherenkov detectors and accelerator beam loss monitoring with Cherenkov fibres, where light pulses of a microsecond time scale have to be detected with good amplitude and timing resolution in a wide dynamic range of 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6}. This report is focused on transient characteristics of a SiPM response on a long rectangular light pulse with special attention to moderate and high light intensities above the linear dynamic range. An analytical model of the transient response and an initial consideration of experimental results in comparison with the model are presented.

  9. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, A., E-mail: ahahn@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Mazin, D., E-mail: mazin@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277–8582 (Japan); Bangale, P., E-mail: priya@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Dettlaff, A., E-mail: todettl@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Fink, D., E-mail: fink@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Grundner, F., E-mail: grundner@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Haberer, W., E-mail: haberer@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Maier, R., E-mail: rma@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); and others

    2017-02-11

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges. - Highlights: • The design of the first SiPM large-size IACT pixel is described. • The simulation of the light concentrators is presented. • The temperature stability of the detector module is demonstrated. • The calibration procedure of SiPM device in the field is described.

  10. Comparison of SensL and Hamamatsu 4×4 channel SiPM arrays in gamma spectrometry with scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodzicka-Kobylka, M., E-mail: m.grodzicka@ncbj.gov.pl; Szczesniak, T.; Moszyński, M.

    2017-06-01

    The market of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) consists of many manufacturers that produce their detectors in different technology. Hamamatsu (Japan) and SensL (Ireland) seems to be the most popular companies that produce large SiPM arrays. The aim of this work is characterization and comparison of 4×4 channel SiPM arrays produced by these two producers. Both of the tested SiPMs are made in through-silicon via (TSV) technology, consist of 16, 3×3 mm avalanche photodiode (APD) cells and have fill factor slightly above 60%. The largest difference is a single APD cell size and hence total number of APD cells (55,424 for Hamamatsu, 76,640 for SensL). In the case of SensL SiPM, its spectral response characteristics is shifted slightly toward shorter wavelengths with maximum at 420 nm (450 nm for Hamamatsu). The presented measurements cover selection of the SiPM optimum operating voltage (in respect to energy resolution), verification of the excess noise factor and check of the linearity characteristics. Moreover, the gamma spectrometry with LSO, BGO and CsI:Tl scintillators together with pulse characteristics for these crystals (rise time and fall time) is reported, as well as temperature dependence. The presented measurements show better performance of the SensL array comparing to the Hamamatsu detector.

  11. A CMOS ASIC Design for SiPM Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Samrat; Banks, Lushon; Chen, Shaw-Pin; Xu, Wenbin; Lewellen, Thomas K; Miyaoka, Robert S; Rudell, Jacques C

    2011-12-01

    Our lab has previously reported on novel board-level readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array featuring row/column summation technique to reduce the hardware requirements for signal processing. We are taking the next step by implementing a monolithic CMOS chip which is based on the row-column architecture. In addition, this paper explores the option of using diagonal summation as well as calibration to compensate for temperature and process variations. Further description of a timing pickoff signal which aligns all of the positioning (spatial channels) pulses in the array is described. The ASIC design is targeted to be scalable with the detector size and flexible to accommodate detectors from different vendors. This paper focuses on circuit implementation issues associated with the design of the ASIC to interface our Phase II MiCES FPGA board with a SiPM array. Moreover, a discussion is provided for strategies to eventually integrate all the analog and mixed-signal electronics with the SiPM, on either a single-silicon substrate or multi-chip module (MCM).

  12. SiPM optical crosstalk amplification due to scintillator crystal: effects on timing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gola, Alberto; Ferri, Alessandro; Tarolli, Alessandro; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    For a given photon detection efficiency (PDE), the primary, Poisson distributed, dark count rate of the detector (DCR 0 ) is one of the most limiting factors affecting the timing resolution of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) in the scintillation light readout. If the effects of DCR 0  are removed through a suitable baseline compensation algorithm or by cooling, it is possible to clearly observe another phenomenon that limits the PDE, and thus the timing resolution of the detector. It is caused by the optical crosstalk of the SiPM, which is significantly increased by the presence of the scintillator. In this paper, we describe this phenomenon, which is also easily observed from the reverse I–V curve of the device, and we relate it to the measured coincidence resolving time in 511 keV γ-ray measurements. We discuss its consequences on the SiPM design and, in particular, we observe that there is an optimal cell size, dependent on both SiPM and crystal parameters, that maximizes the PDE in presence of optical crosstalk. Finally, we report on a crosstalk simulator developed to study the phenomenon and we compare the simulation results obtained for different SiPM technologies, featuring different approaches to the reduction of the crosstalk. (paper)

  13. Set-up and methods for SiPM Photo-Detection Efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappalà, G.; Acerbi, F.; Ferri, A.; Gola, A.; Paternoster, G.; Zorzi, N.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a compact set-up and three different methods to measure the Photo-Detection Efficiency (PDE) of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) and Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) are presented. The methods, based on either continuous or pulsed light illumination, are discussed in detail and compared in terms of measurement precision and time. For the SiPM, these methods have the feature of minimizing the effect of both the primary and correlated noise on the PDE estimation. The PDE of SiPMs (produced at FBK, Trento, Italy) was measured in a range from UV to NIR, obtaining similar results with all the methods. Furthermore, the advantages of measuring, when possible, the PDE of SPADs (of the same technology and with the same layout of a single SiPM cell) instead of larger devices are also discussed and a direct comparison between measurement results is shown. Using a SPAD, it is possible to reduce the measurement complexity and uncertainty since the correlated noise sources are reduced with respect to the SiPM case.

  14. A custom front-end ASIC for the readout and timing of 64 SiPM photosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, M.G.; Avanzini, C.; Bigongiari, G.; Cecchi, R.; Kim, M.Y.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Morsani, F.

    2011-01-01

    A new class of instruments - based on Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) photosensors - are currently under development for the next generation of Astroparticle Physics experiments in future space missions. A custom front-end ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) for the readout of 64 SiPM sensors was specified in collaboration with GM-IDEAS (Norway) that designed and manufactured the ASIC. Our group developed a custom readout board equipped with a 16 bit ADC for the digitization of both pulse height and time information. A time stamp, generated by the ASIC in correspondence of the threshold crossing time, is digitized and recorded for each channel. This allows to define a narrow time window around the physics event that reduces significantly the background due to the SiPM dark count rate. In this paper, we report on the preliminary test results obtained with the readout board prototype.

  15. Characterization and modeling of crosstalk and afterpulsing in Hamamatsu silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado, J.; Hidalgo, S.

    2015-01-01

    The crosstalk and afterpulsing in Hamamatsu silicon photomultipliers, called Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs), have been studied in depth. Several components of the correlated noise have been identified according to their different possible causes and their effects on the signal. In particular, we have distinguished between prompt and delayed crosstalk as well as between trap-assisted and hole-induced afterpulsing. The prompt crosstalk has been characterized through the pulse amplitude spectrum measured at dark conditions. The newest MPPC series, which incorporate isolating trenches between pixels, exhibit a very low prompt crosstalk, but a small component remains likely due to secondary photons reflected on the top surface of the device and photon-generated minority carriers diffusing in the silicon substrate.We present a meticulous procedure to characterize the afterpulsing and delayed crosstalk through the amplitude and delay time distributions of secondary pulses. Our results indicate that both noise components are due to minority carriers diffusing in the substrate and that this effect is drastically reduced in the new MPPC series as a consequence of an increase of one order of magnitude in the doping density of the substrate.Finally, we have developed a Monte Carlo simulation to study the different components of the afterpulsing and crosstalk. The simulation results support our interpretation of the experimental data. They also demonstrate that trenches longer than those employed in the Hamamatsu MPPCs would reduce the crosstalk to a much greater extent

  16. Time over threshold readout method of SiPM based small animal PET detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valastyan, I.; Gal, J.; Hegyesi, G.; Kalinka, G.; Nagy, F.; Kiraly, B.; Imrek, J.; Molnar, J.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The aim of the work was to design a readout concept for silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) sensor array used in small animal PET scanner. The detector module consist of LYSO 35x35 scintillation crystals, 324 SiPM sensors (arranged in 2x2 blocks and those quads in a 9x9 configuration) and FPGA based readout electronics. The dimensions of the SiPM matrix are area: 48x48 mm 2 and the size of one SiPM sensor is 1.95x2.2 mm 2 . Due to the high dark current of the SiPM, conventional Anger based readout method does not provide sufficient crystal position maps. Digitizing the 324 SiPM channels is a straightforward way to obtain proper crystal position maps. However handling hundreds of analogue input channels and the required DSP resources cause large racks of data acquisition electronics. Therefore coding of the readout channels is required. Proposed readout method: The coding of the 324 SiPMs consists two steps: Step 1) Reduction of the channels from 324 to 36: Row column readout, SiPMs are connected to each other in column by column and row-by row, thus the required channels are 36. The dark current of 18 connected SiPMs is small in off for identifying pulses coming from scintillating events. Step 2) Reduction of the 18 rows and columns to 4 channels: Comparators were connected to each rows and columns, and the level was set above the level of dark noise. Therefore only few comparators are active when scintillation light enters in the tile. The output of the comparator rows and columns are divided to two parts using resistor chains. Then the outputs of the resistor chains are digitized by a 4 channel ADC. However instead of the Anger method, time over threshold (ToT) was used. Figure 1 shows the readout concept of the SiPM matrix. In order to validate the new method and optimize the front-end electronics of the detector, the analogue signals were digitized before the comparators using a CAEN DT5740 32 channel digitizer, then the

  17. Performance of a monolithic LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal coupled to an array of silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyanov, Alexei, E-mail: alexey.uliyanov@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Morris, Oran [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Department of Computer Science & Applied Physics, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway (Ireland); Hanlon, Lorraine; McBreen, Sheila; Foley, Suzanne; Roberts, Oliver J.; Tobin, Isaac; Murphy, David; Wade, Colin [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Nelms, Nick; Shortt, Brian [European Space Agency, ESTEC, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Slavicek, Tomas; Granja, Carlos; Solar, Michael [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2016-02-21

    A gamma-ray detector composed of a single 28×28×20 mm{sup 3} LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystal coupled to a custom built 4×4 array of silicon photomultipliers was tested over an energy range of 30 keV to 9.3 MeV. The silicon photomultipliers were initially calibrated using 20 ns light pulses generated by a light emitting diode. The photodetector responses measured as a function of the number of incident photons were found to be non-linear and consistent with model predictions. Using corrections for the non-linearity of the silicon photomultipliers, the detector showed a linear response to gamma-rays with energies from 100 keV to the maximum available energy of 9.3 MeV. The energy resolution was found to be 4% FWHM at 662 keV. Despite the large thickness of the scintillator (20 mm) and a 5 mm thick optical window, the detector was capable of measuring the positions of the gamma-ray interaction points. The position resolution was measured at 356 keV and was found to be 8 mm FWHM in the detector plane and 11 mm FWHM for the depth of interaction. The detector can be used as a building block of a larger calorimeter system that is capable of measuring gamma-ray energies up to tens of MeV.

  18. Time resolving characteristics of HPK and FBK silicon photomultipliers for TOF and PET applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, G.; Azzarello, P.; Battiston, R.; Di Lorenzo, G.; Ionica, M.; Pignatel, G.U.; Piemonte, C.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Del Guerra, A.

    2010-01-01

    In time-of-flight measurements, or positron emission tomography experiments where two gamma rays are detected in coincidence, the time resolution of the photodetector is of primary importance. SiPMs are very promising devices for these applications, since their intrinsic response time can be less than 1 ns. However the actual timing resolution of SiPM is affected by the area (capacitance) of the device, by the type of used to pre-amplify the signal, by the dark count rate which is revealed as pure noise, and other second order effects like cross-talk and after pulsing. In this work we report the characteristics of different samples of Hamamatsu Photonics (HPK) and Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) SiPM, with pixel size ranging from 40 to 100 μm. In particular, we have investigated their time response when stimulated with O(50) ps pulsed laser at wavelengths in the range 400-800 nm.

  19. Parameter Extraction Method for the Electrical Model of a Silicon Photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciulli, Francesco; Marzocca, Cristoforo

    2016-10-01

    The availability of an effective electrical model, able to accurately reproduce the signals generated by a Silicon Photo-Multiplier coupled to the front-end electronics, is mandatory when the performance of a detection system based on this kind of detector has to be evaluated by means of reliable simulations. We propose a complete extraction procedure able to provide the whole set of the parameters involved in a well-known model of the detector, which includes the substrate ohmic resistance. The technique allows achieving very good quality of the fit between simulation results provided by the model and experimental data, thanks to accurate discrimination between the quenching and substrate resistances, which results in a realistic set of extracted parameters. The extraction procedure has been applied to a commercial device considering a wide range of different conditions in terms of input resistance of the front-end electronics and interconnection parasitics. In all the considered situations, very good correspondence has been found between simulations and measurements, especially for what concerns the leading edge of the current pulses generated by the detector, which strongly affects the timing performance of the detection system, thus confirming the effectiveness of the model and the associated parameter extraction technique.

  20. An innovative silicon photomultiplier digitizing camera for gamma-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, M. [DPNC-Universite de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Schioppa, E. Jr; Porcelli, A.; Pujadas, I.T.; Della Volpe, D.; Montaruli, T.; Cadoux, F.; Favre, Y.; Christov, A.; Rameez, M.; Miranda, L.D.M. [DPNC-Universite de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Zietara, K.; Idzkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Ostrowski, M.; Stawarz, L.; Zagdanski, A. [Jagellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Aguilar, J.A. [DPNC-Universite de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Universite Libre Bruxelles, Faculte des Sciences, Brussels (Belgium); Prandini, E.; Lyard, E.; Neronov, A.; Walter, R. [Universite de Geneve, Department of Astronomy, Geneva (Switzerland); Rajda, P.; Bilnik, W.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Wiecek, M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Blocki, J.; Mach, E.; Michalowski, J.; Niemiec, J.; Skowron, K.; Stodulski, M. [Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej im. H. Niewodniczanskiego Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Krakow (Poland); Bogacz, L. [Jagiellonian University, Department of Information Technologies, Krakow (Poland); Borkowski, J.; Frankowski, A.; Janiak, M.; Moderski, R. [Polish Academy of Science, Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warsaw (Poland); Bulik, T.; Grudzinska, M. [University of Warsaw, Astronomical Observatory, Warsaw (Poland); Mandat, D.; Pech, M.; Schovanek, P. [Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Marszalek, A.; Stodulska, M. [Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej im. H. Niewodniczanskiego Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Krakow (Poland); Jagellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Pasko, P.; Seweryn, K. [Centrum Badan Kosmicznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Warsaw (Poland); Sliusar, V. [Universite de Geneve, Department of Astronomy, Geneva (Switzerland); Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Astronomical Observatory, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2017-01-15

    The single-mirror small-size telescope (SST-1M) is one of the three proposed designs for the small-size telescopes (SSTs) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project. The SST-1M will be equipped with a 4 m-diameter segmented reflector dish and an innovative fully digital camera based on silicon photo-multipliers. Since the SST sub-array will consist of up to 70 telescopes, the challenge is not only to build telescopes with excellent performance, but also to design them so that their components can be commissioned, assembled and tested by industry. In this paper we review the basic steps that led to the design concepts for the SST-1M camera and the ongoing realization of the first prototype, with focus on the innovative solutions adopted for the photodetector plane and the readout and trigger parts of the camera. In addition, we report on results of laboratory measurements on real scale elements that validate the camera design and show that it is capable of matching the CTA requirements of operating up to high moonlight background conditions. (orig.)

  1. A design of a valid signal selecting and position decoding ASIC for PET using silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.; Lim, K.-T.; Kim, J.; Lee, C.; Cho, G.; Kim, H.; Yeom, J.-Y.; Choi, H.

    2017-01-01

    In most cases, a PET system has numerous electrical components and channel circuits and thus it would rather be a bulky product. Also, most existing systems receive analog signals from detectors which make them vulnerable to signal distortions. For these reasons, channel reduction techniques are important. In this work, an ASIC for PET module is being proposed. An ASIC chip for 16 PET detector channels, VSSPDC, has been designed and simulated. The main function of the chip is 16-to-1 channel reduction, i.e., finding the position of only the valid signals, signal timing, and magnitudes in all 16 channels at every recorded event. The ASIC comprises four of 4-channel modules and a 2 nd 4-to-1 router. A single channel module comprises a transimpedance amplifier for the silicon photomultipliers, dual comparators with high and low level references, and a logic circuitry. While the high level reference was used to test the validity of the signal, the low level reference was used for the timing. The 1-channel module of the ASIC produced an energy pulse by time-over-threshold method and it also produced a time pulse with a fixed delayed time. Since the ASIC chip outputs only a few digital pulses and does not require an external clock, it has an advantage over noise properties. The cadence simulation showed the good performance of the chip as designed.

  2. Digital silicon photomultiplier readout of a new fast and bright scintillation crystal (Ce:GFAG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong-Seok [Department of Bio-convergence Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Leem, Hyun-Tae [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yamamoto, Seiichi [Department of Medical Technology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Choi, Yong, E-mail: ychoi@sogang.ac.kr [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kamada, Kei [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); C& A corporation, Sendai (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); C& A corporation, Sendai (Japan); Institute for Material Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Park, Sang-Geon [Department of Electrical & Electronics, Silla University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Jung-Yeol, E-mail: jungyeol@korea.ac.kr [Department of Bio-convergence Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    A new Gadolinium Fine Aluminum Gallate (Ce:GFAG) scintillation crystal with both high energy resolution and fast timing properties has successfully been grown. Compared to Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Ce:GAGG), this new inorganic scintillation crystal has a high luminosity similar to and a faster decay time. In this paper, we report on the timing and energy performance results of the new GFAG scintillation crystal read out with digital silicon photomultipliers (dSiPM) for positron emission tomography (PET) application. The best coincidence resolving time (FWHM) of polished 3×3×5 mm{sup 3} crystals was 223±6 ps for GFAG crystals compared to 396±28 ps for GAGG crystals and 131±3 ps for LYSO crystals respectively. An energy resolution (511 keV peak of Na-22) of 10.9±0.2% was attained with GFAG coupled to dSiPM after correcting for saturation effect, compared to 9.5±0.3% for Ce:GAGG crystals and 11.9±0.4% for LYSO crystals respectively. It is expected that this new scintillator may be competitive in terms of overall properties such as energy resolution, timing resolution and growing (raw material) cost, compared to existing scintillators for positron emission tomography (PET).

  3. Radiation hardness tests of SiPMs for the JLab Hall D Barrel calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Yi; Zorn, Carl; Barbosa, Fernando; Smith, Elton

    2013-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the neutron radiation hardness of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation in Japan and SensL in Ireland. Samples from both companies were irradiated by neutrons created by a 1 GeV electron beam hitting a thin lead target at Jefferson Lab Hall A. More tests regarding the temperature dependence of the neutron radiation damage and self-annealing were performed on Hamamatsu SiPMs using a calibrated Am–Be neutron source from the Jefferson Lab Radiation Control group. As the result of irradiation both dark current and dark rate increase linearly as a function of the 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence and a temperature dependent self-annealing effect is observed.

  4. A CMOS front-end for SiPM devices aimed to TOF applications with adjustable threshold and high dynamical range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badoni, D.; Gonnella, F.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Archilli, F.; Iafolla, L.

    2010-01-01

    In recent works we presented the results of the characterization and the study of performance of several Silicon Photomultipliers delivered from MEPHI (Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute) and we proposed an electrical model of the SiPM to be used in analog simulations for the VLSI design of the pilot chip with 0.35μm technology produced. The results of the simulations was also presented. In this work we present the results of several test performed on the SiPM connected to the pilot chip. We also describe the prototype board with a micro-controller designed to adjust the parameters of the chip and to provide an adjustable and temperature controlled power supply to the SiPM. The results of the tests obtained allow us to refine the circuits design for the next chip. This chip has been developed inside the ALTCRISS and KLOE collaboration.

  5. Analytical model of SiPM time resolution and order statistics with crosstalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Time resolution is the most important parameter of photon detectors in a wide range of time-of-flight and time correlation applications within the areas of high energy physics, medical imaging, and others. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) have been initially recognized as perfect photon-number-resolving detectors; now they also provide outstanding results in the scintillator timing resolution. However, crosstalk and afterpulsing introduce false secondary non-Poissonian events, and SiPM time resolution models are experiencing significant difficulties with that. This study presents an attempt to develop an analytical model of the timing resolution of an SiPM taking into account statistics of secondary events resulting from a crosstalk. Two approaches have been utilized to derive an analytical expression for time resolution: the first one based on statistics of independent identically distributed detection event times and the second one based on order statistics of these times. The first approach is found to be more straightforward and “analytical-friendly” to model analog SiPMs. Comparisons of coincidence resolving times predicted by the model with the known experimental results from a LYSO:Ce scintillator and a Hamamatsu MPPC are presented

  6. Analytical model of SiPM time resolution and order statistics with crosstalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, S., E-mail: Sergey.Vinogradov@liverpool.ac.uk [University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Leninskiy Prospekt 53, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Time resolution is the most important parameter of photon detectors in a wide range of time-of-flight and time correlation applications within the areas of high energy physics, medical imaging, and others. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) have been initially recognized as perfect photon-number-resolving detectors; now they also provide outstanding results in the scintillator timing resolution. However, crosstalk and afterpulsing introduce false secondary non-Poissonian events, and SiPM time resolution models are experiencing significant difficulties with that. This study presents an attempt to develop an analytical model of the timing resolution of an SiPM taking into account statistics of secondary events resulting from a crosstalk. Two approaches have been utilized to derive an analytical expression for time resolution: the first one based on statistics of independent identically distributed detection event times and the second one based on order statistics of these times. The first approach is found to be more straightforward and “analytical-friendly” to model analog SiPMs. Comparisons of coincidence resolving times predicted by the model with the known experimental results from a LYSO:Ce scintillator and a Hamamatsu MPPC are presented.

  7. Front-end circuit for position sensitive silicon and vacuum tube photomultipliers with gain control and depth of interaction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, Vicente; Colom, Ricardo; Gadea, Rafael; Lerche, Christoph W.; Cerda, Joaquin; Sebastia, Angel; Benlloch, Jose M.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers, though still under development for mass production, may be an alternative to traditional Vacuum Photomultipliers Tubes (VPMT). As a consequence, electronic front-ends initially designed for VPMT will need to be modified. In this simulation, an improved architecture is presented which is able to obtain impact position and depth of interaction of a gamma ray within a continuous scintillation crystal, using either kind of PM. A current sensitive preamplifier stage with individual gain adjustment interfaces the multi-anode PM outputs with a current division resistor network. The preamplifier stage allows to improve front-end processing delay and temporal resolution behavior as well as to increase impact position calculation resolution. Depth of interaction (DOI) is calculated from the width of the scintillation light distribution, which is related to the sum of voltages in resistor network input nodes. This operation is done by means of a high-speed current mode scheme

  8. A comprehensive study of temperature stability of Silicon PhotoMultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, A; Acerbi, F; Gola, A; Paternoster, G; Piemonte, C; Zorzi, N

    2014-01-01

    The temperature stability of the SiPM signal output can be a crucial aspect in many applications. In a typical scenario where the detector is biased at a constant voltage, a temperature fluctuation determines a change in the breakdown voltage and consequently in the applied over-voltage. The latter impacts on all the parameters that determine the output signal such as gain, PDE and correlated noise probability. In this paper we show a detailed analysis of the dependence of these parameters versus the temperature. In particular, we analyze two cases in which the quantity of interest is the integrated charge or the signal amplitude, respectively. The model is applied to a 1 × 1 mm 2 FBK RGB SiPM with 50 × 50 μm 2 cells showing a good agreement with the experimental data

  9. Development and characterisation of silicon photomultipliers with bulk-integrated quench resistors for future applications in particle and astroparticle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrysik, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development and characterisation of a novel silicon photomultiplier concept with bulk-integrated quench resistors. The approach allows the realisation of a free entrance window and high fill factors, which leads to an improvement of the detection efficiency. With first prototype productions a proof of concept was possible. A full characterisation provided promising results, in particular with respect to the photon detection efficiency. By customising the simulation tools, a reliable description of the devices was achieved. In addition, conceptual studies of the next device generation demonstrated the possibility of single cell readout, expanding the application range of those detectors to particle tracking.

  10. Characterization of a DAQ system for the readout of a SiPM based shashlik calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, A.; Bonvicini, V.; Bosisio, L.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Rabaioli, S.; Rashevskaya, I.; Vallazza, E.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) are a recently developed type of silicon photodetector characterized by high gain and insensitivity to magnetic fields, which make them a suitable detector for the next generation high energy and space physics experiments. This paper presents the performance of a readout system for SiPMs based on the MAROC3 ASIC. The ASIC consists of 64 channels working in parallel, each one with a variable gain pre-amplifier, a tunable slow shaper with a sample and hold circuit for the analog readout and a tunable fast shaper for the digital one. In the tests described in this paper, only the analog part of the ASIC has been used. A frontend board based on the MAROC3 ASIC has been tested at CERN coupled to a scintillator-lead shashlik calorimeter, readout with 36 large area SiPMs. The performance of the system has been characterized in terms of linearity and energy resolution on the CERN PS-T9 and SPS-H2 beamlines, using different configurations of the ASIC parameters

  11. SiPMs characterization and selection for the DUNE far detector photon detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Maricic, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) together with the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) hosted at the Fermilab will provide a unique, world-leading program for the exploration of key questions at the forefront of neutrino physics and astrophysics. CP violation in neutrino flavor mixing is one of its most important potential discoveries. Additionally, the experiment will determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and precisely measure the neutrino mixing parameters which may potentially reveal new fundamental symmetries of nature. Moreover, the DUNE is also designed for the observation of nucleon decay and supernova burst neutrinos. The photon detection (PD) system in the DUNE far detector provides trigger for cosmic backgrounds, enhances supernova burst trigger efficiency and improves the energy resolution of the detector. The DUNE adopts the technology of liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) that requires the PD sensors, silicon photomultipliers (SiPM), to be carefully chosen to not only work properly in LAr temperature, but also meet certain specifications for the life of the experiment. A comprehensive testing of SiPMs in cryostat is necessary since the datasheet provided by the manufactures in the market does not cover this temperature regime. This paper gives the detailed characterization results of SenSL C-Series 60035 SiPMs, including gain, dark count rate (DCR), cross-talk and after-pulse rate. Characteristic studies on SiPMs from other vendors are also discussed in order to avoid any potential problems associated with using a single source. Moreover, the results of the ongoing mechanical durability tests are shown for the current candidate, SenSL B/C-Series 60035 SiPMs.

  12. Fast SiPM Readout of the PANDA TOF Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhm, M.; Lehmann, A.; Motz, S.; Uhlig, F.

    2016-01-01

    For the identification of low momentum charged particles and for event timing purposes a barrel Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector surrounding the interaction point is planned for the PANDA experiment at FAIR . Since the boundary conditions in terms of available radial space and radiation length are quite strict the favored layout is a hodoscope composed of several thousand small scintillating tiles (SciTils) read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). A time resolution of well below 100 ps is aimed for. With the originally proposed 30 × 30 × 5 mm 3 SciTils read out by two single 3 × 3 mm 2 SiPMs at the rims of the scintillator the targeted time resolution can be just reached, but with a considerable position dependence across the scintillator surface. In this paper we discuss other design options to further improve the time resolution and its homogeneity. It will be shown that wide scintillating rods (SciRods) with a size of, e.g., 50 × 30 × 5 mm 3 or longer and read out at opposite sides by a chain of four serially connected SiPMs a time resolution down to 50 ps can be reached without problems. In addition, the position dependence of the time resolution is negligible. These SciRods were tested in the laboratory with electrons of a 90 Sr source and under real experimental conditions in a particle beam at CERN. The measured time resolutions using fast BC418 or BC420 plastic scintillators wrapped in aluminum foil were consistently between 45 and 75 ps dependent on the SciRod design. This is a significant improvement compared to the original SciTil layout.

  13. A Systematic Study to Optimize SiPM Photo-Detectors for Highest Time Resolution in PET

    CERN Document Server

    Gundacker, S.; Frisch, B.; Hillemanns, H.; Jarron, P.; Meyer, T.; Pauwels, K.; Lecoq, P.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a systematic study of time resolution made with three different commercial silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) (Hamamatsu MPPC S10931-025P, S10931-050P, and S10931-100P) and two LSO scintillating crystals. This study aimed to determine the optimum detector conditions for highest time resolution in a prospective time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) system. Measurements were based on the time over threshold method in a coincidence setup using the ultrafast amplifier-discriminator NINO and a fast oscilloscope. Our tests with the three SiPMs of the same area but of different SPAD sizes and fill factors led to best results with the Hamamatsu type of 50×50×μm2 single-pixel size. For this type of SiPM and under realistic geometrical PET scanner conditions, i.e., with 2×2×10×mm3 LSO crystals, a coincidence time resolution of 220 ±4 ps FWHM could be achieved. The results are interpreted in terms of SiPM photon detection efficiency (PDE), dark noise, and photon yield.

  14. Experimental investigation of silicon photomultipliers as compact light readout systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocente, M., E-mail: massimo.nocente@mib.infn.it; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Fazzi, A.; Lorenzoli, M.; Pirovano, C. [Dipartimento di Energia, CeSNEF, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Cazzaniga, C.; Rebai, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Uboldi, C.; Varoli, V. [Dipartimento di Energia, CeSNEF, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    A matrix of Silicon Photo Multipliers has been developed for light readout from a large area 1 in. × 1 in. LaBr{sub 3} crystal. The system has been characterized in the laboratory and its performance compared to that of a conventional photo multiplier tube. A pulse duration of 100 ns was achieved, which opens up to spectroscopy applications at high counting rates. The energy resolution measured using radioactive sources extrapolates to 3%–4% in the energy range E{sub γ} = 3–5 MeV, enabling gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at good energy resolution. The results reported here are of relevance in view of the development of compact gamma-ray detectors with spectroscopy capabilities, such as an enhanced gamma-ray camera for high power fusion plasmas, where the use of photomultiplier is impeded by space limitation and sensitivity to magnetic fields.

  15. Iterative reconstruction of SiPM light response functions in a square-shaped compact gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A.; Alves, F.; Marcos, J.; Martins, R.; Pereira, L.; Solovov, V.; Chepel, V.

    2017-05-01

    Compact gamma cameras with a square-shaped monolithic scintillator crystal and an array of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are actively being developed for applications in areas such as small animal imaging, cancer diagnostics and radiotracer guided surgery. Statistical methods of position reconstruction, which are potentially superior to the traditional centroid method, require accurate knowledge of the spatial response of each photomultiplier. Using both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data obtained with a camera prototype, we show that the spatial response of all photomultipliers (light response functions) can be parameterized with axially symmetric functions obtained iteratively from flood field irradiation data. The study was performed with a camera prototype equipped with a 30  ×  30  ×  2 mm3 LYSO crystal and an 8  ×  8 array of SiPMs for 140 keV gamma rays. The simulations demonstrate that the images, reconstructed with the maximum likelihood method using the response obtained with the iterative approach, exhibit only minor distortions: the average difference between the reconstructed and the true positions in X and Y directions does not exceed 0.2 mm in the central area of 22  ×  22 mm2 and 0.4 mm at the periphery of the camera. A similar level of image distortions is shown experimentally with the camera prototype.

  16. Development of a Gamma Spectrometer using a Large NaI Scintillator and SiPMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chankyu; Yoo, Hyunjun; Kim, Yewon and others

    2014-01-01

    A typical scintillation gamma spectrometer is composed of a NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal and a PM tube. From last years, a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) is being developed and expanding its application area as a substitute of PM tube due to its advantages like low operating voltage, small volume, and cheap production cost, MR compatibility. This approach could make gamma spectrometer smaller, cheaper, easier to use, and these advantage are quite suitable to original purpose of scintillation gamma spectrometer. Gamma spectrometry and gamma spectrometer is used to analyze gamma source in nuclear science, geochemistry, and astrophysics. In this research, gamma spectrometer which uses SiPMs instead of PM tube is proposed. The proposed gamma spectrometer has advantages of low cost, small volume, low operation voltage; but it has disadvantages of performances. To reduce this loss in performances, a light guide of effective structure is required. (Material, reflection type, tapering angle) For design of the light guide, DETECT simulation was performed. And through DETECT simulation, the characteristics of light guide could be prospected. Actual light guide was manufactured on the basis of this simulation result. Using the light guide, gamma spectrometer system was composed and tested. In the test result, gamma spectrometer using SiPM shows degraded energy resolution. The reason of this degradation is being analyzed and the test system is under modification

  17. Ultrafast detection in particle physics and positron emission tomography using SiPMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenec, R.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Pestotnik, R.

    2017-12-01

    Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) photodetectors perform well in many particle and medical physics applications, especially where good efficiency, insensitivity to magnetic field and precise timing are required. In Cherenkov time-of-flight positron emission tomography the requirements for photodetector performance are especially high. On average only a couple of photons are available for detection and the best possible timing resolution is needed. Using SiPMs as photodetectors enables good detection efficiency, but the large sensitive area devices needed have somewhat limited time resolution for single photons. We have observed an additional degradation of the timing at very low light intensities due to delayed events in distribution of signals resulting from multiple fired micro cells. In this work we present the timing properties of AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P-40 SiPM at single photon level picosecond laser illumination and a simple modification of the time-walk correction algorithm, that resulted in reduced degradation of timing resolution due to the delayed events.

  18. First Compton telescope prototype based on continuous LaBr3-SiPM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosá, G.; Cabello, J.; Callier, S.; Gillam, J.E.; Lacasta, C.; Rafecas, M.; Raux, L.; Solaz, C.; Stankova, V.; La Taille, C. de; Trovato, M.; Barrio, J.

    2013-01-01

    A first prototype of a Compton camera based on continuous scintillator crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays has been successfully developed and operated. The prototype is made of two detector planes. The first detector is made of a continuous 16×18×5 mm 3 LaBr 3 crystal coupled to a 16-elements SiPM array. The elements have a size of 3×3 mm 3 in a 4.5×4.05 mm 2 pitch. The second detector, selected by availability, consists of a continuous 16×18×5 mm 3 LYSO crystal coupled to a similar SiPM array. The SPIROC1 ASIC is employed in the readout electronics. Data have been taken with a 22 Na source placed at different positions and images have been reconstructed with the simulated one-pass list-mode (SOPL) algorithm. Detector development for the construction of a second prototype with three detector planes is underway. LaBr 3 crystals of 32×36 mm 2 size and 5/10 mm thickness have been acquired and tested with a PMT. The resolution obtained is 3.5% FWHM at 511 keV. Each crystal will be coupled to four MPPC arrays. Different options are being tested for the prototype readout

  19. Possible application of silicon photomultiplier technology to detect the presence of spirit and intention: three proof-of-concept experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary E

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the survival of consciousness hypothesis has been hampered by the lack of an independent measure of the purported presence of spirit (POS). Although numerous anecdotes involving electronic devices (including tape recorders, answering machines, and computers) claim that POS can be detected with sensitive electromagnetic sensors, little systematic laboratory research has investigated this possibility. The purpose of this exploratory laboratory research was to test the feasibility of using a state-of-the-art silicon photomultiplier system to detect low photon levels potentially associated with POS. A PCDMini photon counting device manufactured by sensL provided a sensitive measure of sums of photons over time. Three proof-of-concept experiments were conducted. Each included multiple five-minute trials of "invited spirit" conditions as well as baseline controls. One experiment included a set of 10 noninvited control trials as well as controls for experimenter intention per se. Data were collected as part of a university laboratory devoted to researching advances in consciousness and health. The participants were purported spirits presumably motivated to participate in the research. The primary intervention was the experimenter's intention for purported spirits to enter the light-tight chamber on specified trials. In a light-tight chamber, the PCDMini device software counted and displayed individual sums of typically 13 to 25 photon detections per approximately 90-milliseconds time periods (in complete darkness, most time periods contained zero photons detected); the number of photon sums could be counted precisely in five-minute periods. The average number of photon sums was found to be significantly higher in purported POS trials compared with noninvited trials. Matched control trials as well as explicit experimenter intention trials showed no effects. Silicon photomultiplier devices may be sufficiently sensitive to investigate the POS and

  20. A high-granularity scintillator hadronic-calorimeter with SiPM readout for a linear collider detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.; Balagura, V; Bobchenko, B.

    2004-01-01

    We report upon the design, construction and operation of a prototype for a high-granularity tile hadronic calorimeter for a future international linear collider(ILC) detector. Scintillating tiles are read out via wavelength-shifting fibers which guides the scintillation light to a novel photodetector, the Silicon Photomultiplier. The prototype has been tested at DESY using a positron test beam. The results are compared with a reference prototype equipped with multichannel vacuum photomultipliers. Detector calibration, noise, linearity and stability are discussed, and the energy response in a 1-6 GeV positron beam is compared with simulation. The work presented serves to establish the application of SiPM for calorimetry, and leads to the choice of this device for the construction of a 1m 3 calorimeter prototype for tests in hadron beams. (orig.)

  1. Studies of a Next-Generation Silicon-Photomultiplier-Based Time-of-Flight PET/CT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, David F C; Ilan, Ezgi; Peterson, William T; Uribe, Jorge; Lubberink, Mark; Levin, Craig S

    2017-09-01

    This article presents system performance studies for the Discovery MI PET/CT system, a new time-of-flight system based on silicon photomultipliers. System performance and clinical imaging were compared between this next-generation system and other commercially available PET/CT and PET/MR systems, as well as between different reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Spatial resolution, sensitivity, noise-equivalent counting rate, scatter fraction, counting rate accuracy, and image quality were characterized with the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU-2 2012 standards. Energy resolution and coincidence time resolution were measured. Tests were conducted independently on two Discovery MI scanners installed at Stanford University and Uppsala University, and the results were averaged. Back-to-back patient scans were also performed between the Discovery MI, Discovery 690 PET/CT, and SIGNA PET/MR systems. Clinical images were reconstructed using both ordered-subset expectation maximization and Q.Clear (block-sequential regularized expectation maximization with point-spread function modeling) and were examined qualitatively. Results: The averaged full widths at half maximum (FWHMs) of the radial/tangential/axial spatial resolution reconstructed with filtered backprojection at 1, 10, and 20 cm from the system center were, respectively, 4.10/4.19/4.48 mm, 5.47/4.49/6.01 mm, and 7.53/4.90/6.10 mm. The averaged sensitivity was 13.7 cps/kBq at the center of the field of view. The averaged peak noise-equivalent counting rate was 193.4 kcps at 21.9 kBq/mL, with a scatter fraction of 40.6%. The averaged contrast recovery coefficients for the image-quality phantom were 53.7, 64.0, 73.1, 82.7, 86.8, and 90.7 for the 10-, 13-, 17-, 22-, 28-, and 37-mm-diameter spheres, respectively. The average photopeak energy resolution was 9.40% FWHM, and the average coincidence time resolution was 375.4 ps FWHM. Clinical image comparisons between the PET/CT systems demonstrated the high

  2. Efficiency studies for a tracking detector based on square 1.5 m long scintillating fibers read out by SiPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Majos, S.; Achenbach, P.; Pochodzalla, J.

    2009-01-01

    A tracking detector based on 1.5 m long scintillating fibers is being developed for the electron arm of the KAOS spectrometer at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. Measurements on light attenuation, particle detection efficiencies and accidental coincidence rates with a prototype set-up using 2x2mm 2 fibers read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) are presented. The highest efficiency at the lowest accidental coincidence rate was reached for high trigger thresholds at the largest SiPM bias voltages. The influence of signal attenuation and dispersion on detection efficiencies is discussed. The results are in good agreement with a Monte Carlo model that was used to predict detector characteristics for different fiber geometries.

  3. Design, development and evaluation of a resistor-based multiplexing circuit for a 20×20 SiPM array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhonghai; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Meier, Joseph; Zhou, Rong; Yang, Chaowen; Zhu, Xiaorong; Shao, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    One technical challenge in developing a large-size scintillator detector with multiple Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays is to read out a large number of detector output channels. To achieve this, different signal multiplexing circuits have been studied and applied with different performances and cost-effective tradeoffs. Resistor-based multiplexing circuits exhibit simplicity and signal integrity, but also present the disadvantage of timing shift among different channels. In this study, a resistor-based multiplexing circuit for a large-sized SiPM array readout was developed and evaluated by simulation and experimental studies. Similarly to a multiplexing circuit used for multi-anode PMT, grounding and branching resistors were connected to each SiPM output channel. The grounding resistor was used to simultaneously reduce the signal crosstalk among different channels and to improve timing performance. Both grounding and branching resistor values were optimized to maintain a balanced performance of the event energy, timing, and positioning. A multiplexing circuit was implemented on a compact PCB and applied for a flat-panel detector which consisted of a 32×32 LYSO scintillator crystals optically coupled to 5×5 SiPM arrays for a total 20×20 output channels. Test results showed excellent crystal identification for all 1024 LYSO crystals (each with 2×2×30 mm"3 size) with "2"2Na flood-source irradiation. The measured peak-to-valley ratio from typical crystal map profile is around 3:1 to 6.6:1, an average single crystal energy resolution of about 17.3%, and an average single crystal timing resolution of about 2 ns. Timing shift among different crystals, as reported in some other resistor-based multiplexing circuit designs, was not observed. In summary, we have designed and implemented a practical resistor-based multiplexing circuit that can be readily applied for reading out a large SiPM array with good detector performance.

  4. Design, development and evaluation of a resistor-based multiplexing circuit for a 20×20 SiPM array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhonghai [College of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tx (United States); Sun, Xishan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tx (United States); Lou, Kai [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Tx (United States); Meier, Joseph [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Tx (United States); Zhou, Rong; Yang, Chaowen [College of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Zhu, Xiaorong [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Tx (United States); Shao, Yiping [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tx (United States)

    2016-04-21

    One technical challenge in developing a large-size scintillator detector with multiple Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays is to read out a large number of detector output channels. To achieve this, different signal multiplexing circuits have been studied and applied with different performances and cost-effective tradeoffs. Resistor-based multiplexing circuits exhibit simplicity and signal integrity, but also present the disadvantage of timing shift among different channels. In this study, a resistor-based multiplexing circuit for a large-sized SiPM array readout was developed and evaluated by simulation and experimental studies. Similarly to a multiplexing circuit used for multi-anode PMT, grounding and branching resistors were connected to each SiPM output channel. The grounding resistor was used to simultaneously reduce the signal crosstalk among different channels and to improve timing performance. Both grounding and branching resistor values were optimized to maintain a balanced performance of the event energy, timing, and positioning. A multiplexing circuit was implemented on a compact PCB and applied for a flat-panel detector which consisted of a 32×32 LYSO scintillator crystals optically coupled to 5×5 SiPM arrays for a total 20×20 output channels. Test results showed excellent crystal identification for all 1024 LYSO crystals (each with 2×2×30 mm{sup 3} size) with {sup 22}Na flood-source irradiation. The measured peak-to-valley ratio from typical crystal map profile is around 3:1 to 6.6:1, an average single crystal energy resolution of about 17.3%, and an average single crystal timing resolution of about 2 ns. Timing shift among different crystals, as reported in some other resistor-based multiplexing circuit designs, was not observed. In summary, we have designed and implemented a practical resistor-based multiplexing circuit that can be readily applied for reading out a large SiPM array with good detector performance.

  5. Optimization of the coupling of optical fibers to an SiPM for a scintillator upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Julian; Bretz, Thomas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Meissner, Rebecca; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Peters, Christine; Schumacher, Johannes [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory successfully measures cosmic-ray air-showers at the highest energies by detecting both the fluorescence light produced in the atmosphere and the particle density of the shower at the ground. Nevertheless, this procedure does not allow for a precise measurement of the muon to electron ratio of a single shower. As this quantity is connected to the mass of the primary particle, it allows for a cosmic-ray mass composition measurement. To improve the ability of separating muons from the electromagnetic component, scintillator based detectors will be added to each surface detector station. The basic design will consist of several scintillator bars feeding the produced light into a bundle of wavelength shifting fibers. The light can be detected by photomultipliers (PMTs) or by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). The latter benefit from their higher photon detection efficiency and robustness. Due to the smaller area of the SiPMs compared to a PMT, the light detection efficiency of this system strongly depends on the quality of the optical coupling of the fiber bundle to the SiPM. Possible solutions are compared.

  6. Study of sampling rate influence on neutron-gamma discrimination with stilbene coupled to a silicon photomultiplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinglong; Moore, Michael E; Wang, Zhonghai; Rong, Zhou; Yang, Chaowen; Hayward, Jason P

    2017-10-01

    Choosing a digitizer with an appropriate sampling rate is often a trade-off between performance and economy. The influence of sampling rates on the neutron-gamma Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) with a solid stilbene scintillator coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier was investigated in this work. Sampling rates from 125MSPS to 2GSPS from a 10-bit digitizer were used to collect detector pulses produced by the interactions of a Cf-252 source. Due to the decreased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the PSD performance degraded with reduced sampling rates. The reason of PSD performance degradation was discussed. Then, an efficient combination of filtering and digital signal processing (DSP) was then applied to suppress the timing noise and electronic background noise. The results demonstrate an improved PSD performance especially at low sampling rates, down to 125MSPS. Using filtering and DSP, the ascribed Figure of Merit (FOM) at 125keV ee (± 10keV ee ) increased from 0.95 to 1.02 at 125MSPS. At 300keV ee and above, all the FOMs are better than 2.00. Our study suggests that 250MSPS is a good enough sampling rate for neutron-gamma discrimination in this system in order to be sensitive to neutrons at and above ~ 125keV ee . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SiPM application for a detector for UHE neutrinos tested at Sphinx station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iori, M.; Atakisi, I.O.; Chiodi, G.; Denizli, H.; Ferrarotto, F.; Kaya, M.; Yilmaz, A.; Recchia, L.; Russ, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present the preliminary test results of the prototype detector, working at Sphinx Observatory Center, Jungfraujoch (∼3800 m a.s.l.) HFSJG – Switzerland. This prototype detector is designed to measure large zenith angle showers produced by high energy neutrino interactions in the Earth crust. This station provides us an opportunity to understand if the prototype detector works safely (or not) under hard environmental conditions (the air temperature changes between −25 °C and −5 °C). The detector prototype is using silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) produced by SensL and DRS4 chip as read-out part. Measurements at different temperature at fixed bias voltage (∼29.5 V) were performed to reconstruct tracks by Time Of Flight

  8. SiPM application for a detector for UHE neutrinos tested at Sphinx station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, M.; Atakisi, I. O.; Chiodi, G.; Denizli, H.; Ferrarotto, F.; Kaya, M.; Yilmaz, A.; Recchia, L.; Russ, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present the preliminary test results of the prototype detector, working at Sphinx Observatory Center, Jungfraujoch (~3800 m a.s.l.) HFSJG - Switzerland. This prototype detector is designed to measure large zenith angle showers produced by high energy neutrino interactions in the Earth crust. This station provides us an opportunity to understand if the prototype detector works safely (or not) under hard environmental conditions (the air temperature changes between -25 °C and -5 °C). The detector prototype is using silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) produced by SensL and DRS4 chip as read-out part. Measurements at different temperature at fixed bias voltage (~29.5 V) were performed to reconstruct tracks by Time Of Flight.

  9. SiPM application for a detector for UHE neutrinos tested at Sphinx station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iori, M. [Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Atakisi, I.O. [University of Kafkas, 36100 Kars (Turkey); Chiodi, G. [INFN, Sezione Roma 1, Piazzale A. Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Denizli, H. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280 Bolu (Turkey); Ferrarotto, F. [INFN, Sezione Roma 1, Piazzale A. Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Kaya, M. [University of Kafkas, 36100 Kars (Turkey); Yilmaz, A. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280 Bolu (Turkey); Recchia, L. [INFN, Sezione Roma 1, Piazzale A. Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Russ, J. [Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We present the preliminary test results of the prototype detector, working at Sphinx Observatory Center, Jungfraujoch (∼3800 m a.s.l.) HFSJG – Switzerland. This prototype detector is designed to measure large zenith angle showers produced by high energy neutrino interactions in the Earth crust. This station provides us an opportunity to understand if the prototype detector works safely (or not) under hard environmental conditions (the air temperature changes between −25 °C and −5 °C). The detector prototype is using silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) produced by SensL and DRS4 chip as read-out part. Measurements at different temperature at fixed bias voltage (∼29.5 V) were performed to reconstruct tracks by Time Of Flight.

  10. Neutron-gamma discrimination via PSD plastic scintillator and SiPMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, M. P.; Payne, C.; Sellin, P. J.

    2016-10-01

    The reduction in availability and inevitable increase in cost of traditional neutron detectors based on the 3He neutron capture reaction has resulted in a concerted effort to seek out new techniques and detection media to meet the needs of national nuclear security. Traditionally, the alternative has been provided through pulse shape discrimination (PSD) using liquid scintillators. However, these are not without their own inherent issues, primarily concerning user safety and ongoing maintenance. A potential system devised to separate neutron and gamma ray pulses utilising the PSD technique takes advantage of recent improvements in silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) technology and the development of plastic scintillators exhibiting the PSD phenomena. In this paper we present the current iteration of this ongoing work having achieved a Figure of Merit (FoM) of 1.39 at 1.5 MeVee.

  11. Quality Assurance on a Custom SiPMs Array for the Mu2e Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanov, N.; et al.

    2017-11-20

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for the coherent $\\mu \\to e$ conversion on aluminum atoms. The detector system consists of a straw tube tracker and a crystal calorimeter. A pre-production of 150 Silicon Photomultiplier arrays for the Mu2e calorimeter has been procured. A detailed quality assur- ance has been carried out on each SiPM for the determination of its own operation voltage, gain, dark current and PDE. The measurement of the mean-time-to-failure for a small random sample of the pro-production group has been also completed as well as the determination of the dark current increase as a function of the ioninizing and non-ioninizing dose.

  12. A design of scintillator tiles read out by surface-mounted SiPMs for a future hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong; Bauss, Bruno; Buescher, Volker; Caudron, Julien; Chau, Phi; Degele, Reinhold; Geib, Karl-Heinrich; Masetti, Lucia; Schaefer, Ulrich; Tapprogge, Stefan; Wanke, Rainer [Institut fuer Physik and PRISMA Detector Lab, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Precision calorimetry using highly granular sampling calorimeters is being developed based on the particle flow concept within the CALICE collaboration. One design option of a hadron calorimeter is based on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) to detect photons generated in plastic scintillator tiles. Driven by the need of automated mass assembly of around ten millions of channels stringently required by the high granularity, we developed a design of scintillator tiles directly coupled with surface-mounted SiPMs. A cavity is created in the center of the bottom surface of each tile to provide enough room for the whole SiPM package and to improve collection of the light produced by incident particles penetrating the tile at different positions. The cavity design has been optimized using a GEANT4-based full simulation model to achieve high response to Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIPs) and also good areal uniformity. Cosmic-ray measurements confirms high 1-MIP response for scintillator tiles with an optimized cavity design. Uniformity measurements by scanning the tile area using focused electrons from a beta source show excellent response uniformity. This optimized design is well beyond the requirements for a precision hadron calorimeter.

  13. The new versatile general purpose surface-muon instrument (GPS) based on silicon photomultipliers for μSR measurements on a continuous-wave beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, A; Luetkens, H; Sedlak, K; Stoykov, A; Scheuermann, R; Elender, M; Raselli, A; Graf, D

    2017-09-01

    We report on the design and commissioning of a new spectrometer for muon-spin relaxation/rotation studies installed at the Swiss Muon Source (SμS) of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Switzerland). This new instrument is essentially a new design and replaces the old general-purpose surface-muon (GPS) instrument that has been for long the workhorse of the μSR user facility at PSI. By making use of muon and positron detectors made of plastic scintillators read out by silicon photomultipliers, a time resolution of the complete instrument of about 160 ps (standard deviation) could be achieved. In addition, the absence of light guides, which are needed in traditionally built μSR instrument to deliver the scintillation light to photomultiplier tubes located outside magnetic fields applied, allowed us to design a compact instrument with a detector set covering an increased solid angle compared with the old GPS.

  14. Performance evaluation of a sub-millimeter spatial resolution PET detector module using a digital silicon photomultiplier coupled LGSO array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leem, Hyun Tae [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong, E-mail: ychoi@sogang.ac.kr [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyu Bom; Lee, Sangwon [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yamamoto, Seiichi [Department of Medical Technology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Yeom, Jung-Yeol, E-mail: jungyeol@korea.ac.kr [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-21

    In positron emission tomography (PET) for breast, brain and small animal imaging, the spatial resolution of a PET detector is crucial to obtain high quality PET images. In this study, a PET detector for sub-millimeter spatial resolution imaging purpose was assembled using 4×4 pixels of a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM, DPC-3200-22-44, Philips) coupled with a 15×15 LGSO array with BaSO{sub 4} reflector, and a 1 mm thick acrylic light guide for light distribution between the dSiPM pixels. The active area of each dSiPM pixel was 3.2×3.9 mm{sup 2} and the size of each LGSO scintillator element was 0.7×0.7×6 mm{sup 3}. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated the performance of the PET detector by measuring the energy resolution, 2D flood map, peak to valley (P/V) ratio, and coincidence resolving time (CRT). All measurements were performed at a temperature of 10±1 ℃. The average energy resolution was 15.6% (without correcting for saturation effects) at 511 keV and the best CRT was 242±5 ps. The 2D flood map obtained with an energy window of 400–600 keV demonstrated clear identification of all pixels, and the average P/V ratio of the X- and Y-directions were 7.31 and 7.81, respectively. This study demonstrated that the PET detector could be suitable for application in high resolution PET while achieving good timing resolution.

  15. Mass test of AdvanSiD model ASD-NUV3S-P SiliconPMs for the Pixel Timing Counter of the MEG II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossella, M.; Bariani, S.; Barnaba, O.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cervi, T.; Menegolli, A.; Nardò, R.; Prata, M. C.; Romano, E.; Scagliotti, C.; Simonetta, M.; Vercellati, F.

    2017-02-01

    The MEG II Timing Counter will measure the positron time of arrival with a resolution of 30 ps relying on two arrays of scintillator pixels read out by 6144 Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) from AdvanSiD. They must be characterized, measuring their breakdown voltage, to assure that the gains of the SiPMs of each pixel are as uniform as possible, to maximize the pixel resolution. To do this an automatic test system that can measure sequentially the parameters of 32 devices has been developed.

  16. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  17. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  18. A silicon photo-multiplier signal readout using strip-line and waveform sampling for Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Chen, C.-T.; Eclov, N.; Ronzhin, A.; Murat, P.; Ramberg, E.; Los, S.; Kao, C.-M.

    2016-09-01

    A strip-line and waveform sampling based readout is a signal multiplexing method that can efficiently reduce the readout channels while fully exploiting the fast time characteristics of photo-detectors such as the SiPM. We have applied this readout method for SiPM-based time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) detectors. We have prototyped strip-line boards in which 8 SiPMs (pitch 5.2 mm) are connected by using a single strip-line, and the signals appearing at the ends of the strip-line are acquired by using the DRS4 waveform sampler at a nominal sampling frequency of 1-5 GS/s. Experimental tests using laser and LYSO scintillator are carried out to assess the performance of the strip-line board. Each SiPM position, which is inferred from the arrival time difference of the two signals at the ends of the strip-line, is well identified with 2.6 mm FWHM resolution when the SiPMs are coupled to LYSO crystals and irradiated by a 22Na source. The average energy and coincidence time resolution corresponding to 511 keV photons are measured to be ∼32% and ∼510 ps FWHM, respectively, at a 5.0 GS/s DRS4 sampling rate. The results show that the sampling rate can be lowered to 1.5 GS/s without performance degradation. These encouraging initial test results indicate that the strip-line and waveform sampling readout method is applicable for SiPM-based TOF PET development.

  19. Silicon photomultipliers for the detection of VUV scintillation light in LXe for the nEXO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, Tobias; Jamil, Ako; Bayerlein, Reimund; Hoessl, Juergen; Hufschmidt, Patrick; Schneider, Judith; Wagenpfeil, Michael; Wrede, Gerrit; Anton, Gisela; Michel, Thilo [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen 91058 (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The future nEXO (next Enriched Xenon Observatory) experiment with a single phase TPC design will use about 4 m{sup 2} of SiPMs for the detection of the VUV (vacuum ultraviolet) scintillation light (λ=175 nm) from LXe to search for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 136}Xe. Commercially available SiPMs are not sensitive to ultraviolet light, because of an antireflective coating on top of the sensitive area. In addition, they suffer from relatively high dark count rate at room temperature and correlated avalanches, such as crosstalk and afterpulsing. The core criteria, for having an energy resolution of about 1% (σ) at the Q-value of the 0νββ decay of {sup 136}Xe (2457.8 keV), are a photon detection efficiency (PDE) of at least 15% at 175 nm and a correlated avalanche probability (CAP) of less than 20% at -100 C. We considered different approaches for optimizing both PDE and CAP. These improved SiPMs from several vendors were tested in different test setups at temperatures of about -100 C with respect to the criteria required in the nEXO experiment.

  20. Studies of SiPM photosensors for time-of-flight detectors within PANDA at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, L.

    2014-01-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR is a planned particle physics experiment dedicated to strong interaction studies using proton-antiproton annihilations. The PANDA time-of-flight (TOF) system is foreseen as a Scintillator Tile (SciTil) Hodoscope, which will deliver valuable input for event timing and particle identification. The proposed detector is based on small plastic scintillator tiles with a size of about 30 x 30 x 5 mm 3 , which are read-out with directly attached Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The whole system is composed of 5760 scintillator tiles and twice the number of photodetectors, covering an area of about 5.2 m 2 in total. The requirements for the detector are a time resolution in the order of 100 ps sigma and a minimum use of material due to the limited space inside the PANDA spectrometer. SiPMs are extremely versatile photodetectors which tend to successively replace the ordinary vacuum Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) in many of the photosensing demands ranging from particle physics to medical imaging. Due to many advantages like good time resolution, high photon detection efficiency (PDE), compactness, low operating voltage, radiation hardness, low cost and, in contrast to PMTs, insensitivity to magnetic fields, SiPMs are well suited for applications in high energy physics like PANDA. Recently, Philips invented the first fully digital SiPM (DPC), which allows to exploit the quasi digital nature of single photon detection. The analog and digital SiPM, respectively, are the main detector technologies used within this work. This thesis describes a detailed study of SiPM properties in order to characterize the new devices and get a profound understanding of their functionality. The characterization studies have been carried out using various experimental setups employing pulsed pico- and femtosecond lasers. With regard to applications in high energy physics experiments, e.g. the PANDA TOF system, parameters like SiPM gain, dark count rate, time resolution

  1. POSSuMUS. A position sensitive scintillating muon SiPM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschke, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The development of a modular designed large scale scintillation detector with a two-dimensional position sensitivity is presented in this thesis. This novel POsition Sensitive Scintillating MUon SiPM Detector is named POSSuMUS. The POSSuMUS detector is capable to determine the particle's position in two space dimensions with a fast trigger capability. Each module is constructed from two trapezoidal shaped plastic scintillators to form one rectangular shaped detector module. Both trapezoids are optically insulated against each other. In both trapezoids the scintillation light is collected by plastic fibers and guided towards silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). SiPMs are light sensors which are capable to detect even smallest amounts of light. By combining several detector modules, position sensitive areas from 100 cm 2 to few m 2 are achievable with few readout channels. Therefore, POSSuMUS provides a cost effective detector concept. The position sensitivity along the trapezoidal geometry of one detector module is achieved by the path length dependent amount of detected light for crossing particles. The ratio of the light yields in both trapezoids is calculated. This value corresponds to the position of the particle traversing the detector. A spatial resolution in the order of several mm is foreseen. The position sensitivity along the scintillator module is determined by the propagation time of light to the SiPMs located on opposite sides of the detector. A spatial resolution of few cm is expected for this direction. The POSSuMUS detector is applicable as large area trigger detector with a two dimensional position information of crossing particles. This is suitable in detector tests of large area precesion detectors or for measuring the small angle scattering of cosmic muons. At the beginning of this thesis, the determination of important SiPM characteristics like the breakdown voltage is presented. In the course of this work the detector principle is proven by

  2. Time resolution of the plastic scintillator strips with matrix photomultiplier readout for J-PET tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, P.; Rundel, O.; Alfs, D.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Gajos, A.; Giergiel, K.; Gorgol, M.; Jasińska, B.; Kamińska, D.; Kapłon, Ł.; Korcyl, G.; Kowalski, P.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M.; Raczyński, L.; Rudy, Z.; Sharma, N. G.; Słomski, A.; Silarski, M.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Wiślicki, W.; Witkowski, P.; Zieliński, M.; Zoń, N.

    2016-03-01

    Recent tests of a single module of the Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomography system (J-PET) consisting of 30 cm long plastic scintillator strips have proven its applicability for the detection of annihilation quanta (0.511 MeV) with a coincidence resolving time (CRT) of 0.266 ns. The achieved resolution is almost by a factor of two better with respect to the current TOF-PET detectors and it can still be improved since, as it is shown in this article, the intrinsic limit of time resolution for the determination of time of the interaction of 0.511 MeV gamma quanta in plastic scintillators is much lower. As the major point of the article, a method allowing to record timestamps of several photons, at two ends of the scintillator strip, by means of matrix of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) is introduced. As a result of simulations, conducted with the number of SiPM varying from 4 to 42, it is shown that the improvement of timing resolution saturates with the growing number of photomultipliers, and that the 2× 5 configuration at two ends allowing to read twenty timestamps, constitutes an optimal solution. The conducted simulations accounted for the emission time distribution, photon transport and absorption inside the scintillator, as well as quantum efficiency and transit time spread of photosensors, and were checked based on the experimental results. Application of the 2× 5 matrix of SiPM allows for achieving the coincidence resolving time in positron emission tomography of ≈ 0.170 ns for 15 cm axial field-of-view (AFOV) and ≈ 0.365 ns for 100 cm AFOV. The results open perspectives for construction of a cost-effective TOF-PET scanner with significantly better TOF resolution and larger AFOV with respect to the current TOF-PET modalities.

  3. Study of a silicon photodetector thermal stabilization using a Peltier cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foschi, E.; Levi, G.; Quadrani, L.; Sbarra, C.; Guandalini, C.; Zuffa, M.; Sbarra, C.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years a new type of silicon photon detection device (SiPM) has been developed by many groups. These devices have strong advantages in comparison to normal photomultipliers tubes (PMT) but, being made by an array of avalanche photo diodes operated in Geiger mode, are much more sensitive to temperature changes than standard PMTs. Typical SiPM gain, in fact, varies from 3 to 5 percent per Celsius degree. In space environment, where operative temperature can change from -40 deg.C to 50 deg.C, a definitive temperature stabilization is needed. In order to use SiPMs in space we have developed a thermoelectric model of a Peltier cell that allows us to simulate the final detector circuit assembly predicting the operative temperatures and the adsorbed powers. The characteristics of the model and the obtained results are shown. (authors)

  4. On the comparison of analog and digital SiPM readout in terms of expected timing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundacker, S.; Auffray, E.; Jarron, P.; Meyer, T.; Lecoq, P.

    2015-01-01

    In time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) and in particular for the EndoTOFPET-US Project (Frisch, 2013 [1]), and other applications for high energy physics, the multi-digital silicon photomultiplier (MD-SiPM) was recently proposed (Mandai and Charbon, 2012 [2]), in which the time of every single photoelectron is being recorded. If such a photodetector is coupled to a scintillator, the largest and most accurate timing information can be extracted from the cascade of the scintillation photons, and the most probable time of positron emission determined. The readout concept of the MD-SiPM is very different from that of the analog SiPM, where the individual photoelectrons are merely summed up and the output signal fed into the readout electronics. We have developed a comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool that describes the timing properties of the photodetector and electronics, the scintillation properties of the crystal and the light transfer within the crystal. In previous studies we have compared MC simulations with coincidence time resolution (CTR) measurements and found good agreement within less than 10% for crystals of different lengths (from 3 mm to 20 mm) coupled to SiPMs from Hamamatsu. In this work we will use the developed MC tool to directly compare the highest possible time resolution for both the analog and digital readout of SiPMs with different scintillator lengths. The presented studies reveal that the analog readout of SiPMs with microcell signal pile-up and leading edge discrimination can lead to nearly the same time resolution as compared to the maximum likelihood time estimation applied to MD-SiPMs. Consequently there is no real preference for either a digital or analog SiPM for the sake of achieving highest time resolution. However, the best CTR in the analog SiPM is observed for a rather small range of optimal threshold values, whereas the MD-SiPM provides stable CTR after roughly 20 registered photoelectron timestamps in

  5. Development of a SiPM Camera for a Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Otte, A N; Dickinson, H.; Funk, S.; Jogler, T.; Johnson, C.A.; Karn, P.; Meagher, K.; Naoya, H.; Nguyen, T.; Okumura, A.; Santander, M.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Stier, A.; Tajima, H.; Tibaldo, L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Wakely, S.; Weinstein, A.; Williams, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the development of a novel 11328 pixel silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) camera for use with a ground-based Cherenkov telescope with Schwarzschild-Couder optics as a possible medium-sized telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The finely pixelated camera samples air-shower images with more than twice the optical resolution of cameras that are used in current Cherenkov telescopes. Advantages of the higher resolution will be a better event reconstruction yielding improved background suppression and angular resolution of the reconstructed gamma-ray events, which is crucial in morphology studies of, for example, Galactic particle accelerators and the search for gamma-ray halos around extragalactic sources. Packing such a large number of pixels into an area of only half a square meter and having a fast readout directly attached to the back of the sensors is a challenging task. For the prototype camera development, SiPMs from Hamamatsu with through silicon via (TSV) technology are used. We give ...

  6. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  7. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Philips. 150AVP. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  8. Time resolution below 100 ps for the SciTil detector of PANDA employing SiPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, S. E.; Gruber, L.; Marton, J.; Orth, H.; Suzuki, K.

    2014-03-01

    The barrel time-of-flight (TOF) detector for the bar PANDA experiment at FAIR in Darmstadt is planned as a scintillator tile hodoscope (SciTil) using 8000 small scintillator tiles. It will provide fast event timing for a software trigger in the otherwise trigger-less data acquisition scheme of bar PANDA, relative timing in a multiple track event topology as well as additional particle identification in the low momentum region. The goal is to achieve a time resolution of σ simeq 100 ps. We have conducted measurements using organic scintillators coupled to Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The results are encouraging such that we are confident to reach the required system time resolution.

  9. New developments at INFN-LNS on TOF–DOI PET based on SiPM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosentino, L.; Cusanno, F.; De Leo, R.; Di Venti, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Garibaldi, F.; Loddo, F.; Meddi, F.; Musico, P.; Pappalardo, A.; Perrino, R.; Ranieri, A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of an endorectal PET Time Of Flight (TOF) probe prototype compatible with MRI, is going to be carried out within the INFN project TOPEM. Time resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) will allow to significantly improve the image quality, by rejecting those events coming from the surrounding tissues and correcting the parallax error. The activity described in this paper is focused on the characterization of the single pixel detector of the probe, consisting of a LYSO finger scintillator read out at both ends by means of a pair of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). Energy, timing and DOI resolutions have been measured with a proper surface treatment and wrapping, finding very competitive results for DOI and timing

  10. Simulation of a detector prototype with direct SiPM read-out and comparison with measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kunsken, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The features of a novel muon detection system are studied in this thesis with the help of GEANT4 simulations. The detector consists of a 10 cm×10 cm scintillator on whose top 3 mm×3 mm silicon photomultipliers are mounted. The scintillator may optionally be wrapped in a reflector. In the simulations various properties of the scintillator and the wrapping are varied like the scintillator thickness or the kind of wrapping and its reflectivity. Subsequently, the number of photons arriving at the SiPM is analyzed to determine the influence of the varied properties. Finally, the results of the simulations are compared to results that come from measurements with the detector setup.

  11. Simulation, image reconstruction and SiPM characterisation for a novel endoscopic positron emission tomography detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvolsky, Milan

    2017-12-01

    In the scope of the EndoTOFPET-US project, a novel multimodal device for ultrasound (US) endoscopy and positron emission tomography (PET) is being developed. The project aims at detecting and quantifying morphologic and functional biomarkers and developing new biomarkers for pancreas and prostate oncology. The detector system comprises a small detector probe mounted on an ultrasound endoscope and an external detector plate. The detection of the gamma rays is realised by scintillator crystals with Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) read-out. For the characterisation of over 4000 SiPMs for the external plate, an automatised measurement and data analysis procedure is established. The key properties of the SiPMs like breakdown voltage and dark count rate (DCR) are extracted. This knowledge is needed both as a quality assurance as well as for the calibration of the detector. The spread between minimum and maximum breakdown voltage within a SiPM array of 4 x 4 is at maximum 0.43 V with a mean of 0.15 V and an RMS of 0.06 V. This assures the optimal biasing of each SiPM at its individual operating voltage. The mean DCR amounts to 1.49 MHz with an RMS of 0.54 MHz and is thus well below the acceptable threshold of 3 MHz. Two spare modules from the external plate are re-measured and analysed several years after the module assembly, revealing a potential alteration of the SiPM noise properties over time. For the characterisation of SiPMs from different vendors, a software framework for the automatic extraction of performance parameters from pulseheight spectra, including a t of the entire spectrum, is developed and tested. In order to facilitate the modelling of the response of the EndoTOFPET-US detector, a framework is developed which is built around the Geant4-based simulation toolkit GAMOS, to simulate and reconstruct realistic imaging scenarios with this asymmetric PET detector. The simulation studies are used to compare different possible detector designs, guide the

  12. Simulation, image reconstruction and SiPM characterisation for a novel endoscopic positron emission tomography detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvolsky, Milan

    2017-12-15

    In the scope of the EndoTOFPET-US project, a novel multimodal device for ultrasound (US) endoscopy and positron emission tomography (PET) is being developed. The project aims at detecting and quantifying morphologic and functional biomarkers and developing new biomarkers for pancreas and prostate oncology. The detector system comprises a small detector probe mounted on an ultrasound endoscope and an external detector plate. The detection of the gamma rays is realised by scintillator crystals with Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) read-out. For the characterisation of over 4000 SiPMs for the external plate, an automatised measurement and data analysis procedure is established. The key properties of the SiPMs like breakdown voltage and dark count rate (DCR) are extracted. This knowledge is needed both as a quality assurance as well as for the calibration of the detector. The spread between minimum and maximum breakdown voltage within a SiPM array of 4 x 4 is at maximum 0.43 V with a mean of 0.15 V and an RMS of 0.06 V. This assures the optimal biasing of each SiPM at its individual operating voltage. The mean DCR amounts to 1.49 MHz with an RMS of 0.54 MHz and is thus well below the acceptable threshold of 3 MHz. Two spare modules from the external plate are re-measured and analysed several years after the module assembly, revealing a potential alteration of the SiPM noise properties over time. For the characterisation of SiPMs from different vendors, a software framework for the automatic extraction of performance parameters from pulseheight spectra, including a t of the entire spectrum, is developed and tested. In order to facilitate the modelling of the response of the EndoTOFPET-US detector, a framework is developed which is built around the Geant4-based simulation toolkit GAMOS, to simulate and reconstruct realistic imaging scenarios with this asymmetric PET detector. The simulation studies are used to compare different possible detector designs, guide the

  13. Measurement of parameters of scintillating bars with wavelength-shifting fibres and silicon photomultiplier readout for the SHiP Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, Alessandro; Baldini, Wander; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Saputi, Alessandro; Khotyantsev, Alexey; Kudenko, Yury; Mefodev, Aleksandr; Mineev, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The light yield and the time resolution of different types of 3 m long scintillating bars instrumented with wavelength shifting fibres and read out by different models of silicon photomultipliers have been measured at a test beam at the T9 area at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The results obtained with different configurations are presented. A time resolution better than 800 ps, constant along the bar length within 20%, and a light yield of 140 (70) photo-electrons are obtained for bars 3 m long, 4.5 (5) cm wide and 2 (0.7) cm thick. These results nicely match the requirements for the Muon Detector of the SHiP experiment.

  14. Performance of a high-resolution depth-encoding PET detector module using linearly-graded SiPM arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junwei; Bai, Xiaowei; Gola, Alberto; Acerbi, Fabio; Ferri, Alessandro; Piemonte, Claudio; Yang, Yongfeng; Cherry, Simon R.

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this study was to exploit the excellent spatial resolution characteristics of a position-sensitive silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and develop a high-resolution depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector module. The detector consists of a 30  ×  30 array of 0.445  ×  0.445  ×  20 mm3 polished LYSO crystals coupled to two 15.5  ×  15.5 mm2 linearly-graded SiPM (LG-SiPM) arrays at both ends. The flood histograms show that all the crystals in the LYSO array can be resolved. The energy resolution, the coincidence timing resolution and the DOI resolution were 21.8  ±  5.8%, 1.23  ±  0.10 ns and 3.8  ±  1.2 mm, respectively, at a temperature of -10 °C and a bias voltage of 35.0 V. The performance did not degrade significantly for event rates of up to 130 000 counts s-1. This detector represents an attractive option for small-bore PET scanner designs that simultaneously emphasize high spatial resolution and high detection efficiency, important, for example, in preclinical imaging of the rodent brain with neuroreceptor ligands.

  15. Studies of an array of PbF2 Cherenkov crystals with large-area SiPM readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fienberg, A. T.; Alonzi, L. P.; Anastasi, A.; Bjorkquist, R.; Cauz, D.; Fatemi, R.; Ferrari, C.; Fioretti, A.; Frankenthal, A.; Gabbanini, C.; Gibbons, L. K.; Giovanetti, K.; Goadhouse, S. D.; Gohn, W. P.; Gorringe, T. P.; Hertzog, D. W.; Iacovacci, M.; Kammel, P.; Kaspar, J.; Kiburg, B.; Li, L.; Mastroianni, S.; Pauletta, G.; Peterson, D. A.; Počanić, D.; Smith, M. W.; Sweigart, D. A.; Tishchenko, V.; Venanzoni, G.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Wall, K. B.; Winter, P.; Yai, K.

    2015-05-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter for the new muon (g-2) experiment at Fermilab will consist of arrays of PbF2 Cherenkov crystals read out by large-area silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) sensors. We report here on measurements and simulations using 2.0 -- 4.5 GeV electrons with a 28-element prototype array. All data were obtained using fast waveform digitizers to accurately capture signal pulse shapes versus energy, impact position, angle, and crystal wrapping. The SiPMs were gain matched using a laser-based calibration system, which also provided a stabilization procedure that allowed gain correction to a level of 1e-4 per hour. After accounting for longitudinal fluctuation losses, those crystals wrapped in a white, diffusive wrapping exhibited an energy resolution sigma/E of (3.4 +- 0.1) % per sqrt(E/GeV), while those wrapped in a black, absorptive wrapping had (4.6 +- 0.3) % per sqrt(E/GeV). The white-wrapped crystals---having nearly twice the total light collection---display a generally wider and impact-position-dependent pulse shape owing to the dynamics of the light propagation, in comparison to the black-wrapped crystals, which have a narrower pulse shape that is insensitive to impact position.

  16. Evaluation of PET performance and MR compatibility of a preclinical PET/MR insert with digital silicon photomultiplier technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallen, Patrick; Schug, David; Wehner, Jakob [Department of Physics of Molecular Imaging Systems, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Weissler, Bjorn [Department of Chemical Application Research, Philips Research (Germany); Gebhardt, Pierre [Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King’s College London (United Kingdom); Goldschmidt, Benjamin [Department of Physics of Molecular Imaging Systems, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Salomon, Andre [Department of Oncology Solutions, Philips Research (Germany); Duppenbecker, Peter [Department of Physics of Molecular Imaging Systems, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Kiessling, Fabian [Institute for Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Schultz, Volkmar [Department of Physics of Molecular Imaging Systems, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    In this work we present detailed characterizations of our preclinical high resolution PET/MR insert based on the Hyperion-IID platform. The PET/MR insert consists of a ring of 10 singles detection modules, each comprising 2x3 scintillation detector stacks. Each detector stack features a 30x30 pixelated LYSO crystal array with a height of 12 mm and a pitch of 1 mm, coupled via a slit 2 mm light guide to a digital SiPM tile. The PET performance is stable under a wide range of operating points. The spatial resolution is below 1Ä,mm and the CRT reaches 260 or 450 ps depending on trigger settings. The energy resolution is 12.6% FWHM. The characterization of the MR compatibility showed no relevant degradation in PET performance during MRI operation. On the MRI side, we observe a degradation in B0 homogeneity from a VRMS of 0.03 ppm to 0.08 ppm with active shimming, while observing only minor degradations in the B0 field. The noise floor is slightly increased by 2-15% without any observable dependence on the activity. The Z gradients induces an observable eddy current inside the PET inserts which can lead to ghosting artifacts for EPI sequences. However, we don't observe any visible image degradation for widely used anatomical imaging sequences such as gradient echo and turbo spin echo sequences. To prove the viability of our PET/MR insert for in vivo small animal studies, we successfully performed a longitudinal mouse study with subcutaneously injected tumor model cells. The simultaneously acquired PET/MR images provide a high level of anatomical information and soft tissue contrast in the MR layer together with a high resolution image of the FDG tracer distribution in the PET layer.

  17. Multi-channel programmable power supply with temperature compensation for silicon sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, R. A.; Achanta, V. G.; Dugad, S. R.; Kurup, A. M.; Lokhandwala, S. S.; Prabhu, S. S.; Freeman, J.; Los, S.; Garde, C. S.; Khandekar, P. D.; Gupta, S. K.; Rakshe, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are increasingly becoming popular for discrete photon counting applications due to the wealth of advantages they offer over conventional photo-detectors such as photo-multiplier tubes and hybrid photo-diodes. SiPMs are used in variety of applications ranging from high energy physics and nuclear physics experiments to medical diagnostics. The gain of a SiPM is directly proportional to the difference between applied and breakdown voltage of the device. However, the breakdown voltage depends critically on the ambient temperature and has a large temperature co-efficient in the range of 40-60 mV/°C resulting in a typical gain variation of 3%-5%/°C [Dinu et al., in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and 17th Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (IEEE, 2010), p. 215]. We plan to use the SiPM as a replacement for PMT in the cosmic ray experiment (GRAPES-3) at Ooty [Gupta et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 540, 311 (2005)]. There the SiPMs will be operated in an outdoor environment subjected to temperature variation of about 15 °C over a day. A gain variation of more than 50% was observed for such large variations in the temperature. To stabilize the gain of the SiPM under such operating conditions, a low-cost, multi-channel programmable power supply (0-90 V) was designed that simultaneously provides the bias voltage to 16 SiPMs. The programmable power supply (PPS) was designed to automatically adjust the operating voltage for each channel with a built-in closed loop temperature feedback mechanism. The PPS provides bias voltage with a precision of 6 mV and measures the load current with a precision of 1 nA. Using this PPS, a gain stability of 0.5% for SiPM (Hamamatsu, S10931-050P) has been demonstrated over a wide temperature range of 15 °C. The design methodology of the PPS system, its validation, and the results of the tests carried out on the SiPM is presented in this

  18. Multi-channel programmable power supply with temperature compensation for silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, R. A.; Achanta, V. G.; Dugad, S. R., E-mail: dugad@cern.ch; Kurup, A. M.; Lokhandwala, S. S.; Prabhu, S. S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Freeman, J.; Los, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Garde, C. S.; Khandekar, P. D. [Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Pune 411048 (India); Gupta, S. K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); GRAPES-3 Experiment, Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Raj Bhavan, Ooty 643001 (India); Rakshe, P. S. [Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Pune 411048 (India); GRAPES-3 Experiment, Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Raj Bhavan, Ooty 643001 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are increasingly becoming popular for discrete photon counting applications due to the wealth of advantages they offer over conventional photo-detectors such as photo-multiplier tubes and hybrid photo-diodes. SiPMs are used in variety of applications ranging from high energy physics and nuclear physics experiments to medical diagnostics. The gain of a SiPM is directly proportional to the difference between applied and breakdown voltage of the device. However, the breakdown voltage depends critically on the ambient temperature and has a large temperature co-efficient in the range of 40-60 mV/°C resulting in a typical gain variation of 3%-5%/°C [Dinu et al., in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and 17th Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (IEEE, 2010), p. 215]. We plan to use the SiPM as a replacement for PMT in the cosmic ray experiment (GRAPES-3) at Ooty [Gupta et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 540, 311 (2005)]. There the SiPMs will be operated in an outdoor environment subjected to temperature variation of about 15 °C over a day. A gain variation of more than 50% was observed for such large variations in the temperature. To stabilize the gain of the SiPM under such operating conditions, a low-cost, multi-channel programmable power supply (0-90 V) was designed that simultaneously provides the bias voltage to 16 SiPMs. The programmable power supply (PPS) was designed to automatically adjust the operating voltage for each channel with a built-in closed loop temperature feedback mechanism. The PPS provides bias voltage with a precision of 6 mV and measures the load current with a precision of 1 nA. Using this PPS, a gain stability of 0.5% for SiPM (Hamamatsu, S10931-050P) has been demonstrated over a wide temperature range of 15 °C. The design methodology of the PPS system, its validation, and the results of the tests carried out on the SiPM is presented in this

  19. Advances in digital SiPMs and their application in biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaart, Dennis R., E-mail: d.r.schaart@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Radiation Science and Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Charbon, Edoardo [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Circuits and Systems, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Frach, Thomas [Philips Digital Photon Counting, Pauwelsstraße 17, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Schulz, Volkmar [Department for Physics of Molecular Imaging Systems, Institute for Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH Aachen University, Germany and Philips Research Europe, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-02-11

    Similar to analog silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), digital SiPMs (dSiPMs) essentially consist of an array of single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs). Instead of a passive quench resistor, however, an active quenching circuit is locally integrated with each SPAD, making the sensor response faster and less sensitive to the gains of the individual SPADs. Moreover, additional circuits for the fully digital acquisition, processing, and readout of optical signals are integrated within the sensor. As a result, dSiPMs offer high photo-detection efficiency, high single-photon time resolution (SPTR), and high uniformity, as well as many practical advantages, such as a very compact form factor, low voltage operation, magnetic field compatibility, high stability of operation, low gain drift, and a high degree of scalability. At the same time, dSiPMs represent a new paradigm in low-level light sensing technology. That is, their fully digital operation makes them true photon counting devices, preserving at least partly the discrete spatio-temporal structure of the information embedded in the optical signal. This means that the operation of dSiPMs can be fully understood only in statistical terms, but also opens up novel possibilities for extracting information from the measured data. So far, the main driver behind the development of dSiPMs has been the detection of scintillation pulses in detectors for time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET). Several types of dSiPM have been developed in recent years. Moreover, first imaging devices based on dSiPMs have been realized by various groups. This review summarizes the main dSiPM concepts and technologies currently under development, provides an overview of the results obtained recently with dSiPMs-based PET and SPECT devices, and presents a critical outlook on the challenges and chances for dSiPMs in future radiomolecular imaging systems.

  20. Evaluation of the optical cross talk level in the SiPMs adopted in ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov Camera using EASIROC front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impiombato, D; Giarrusso, S; Mineo, T; Agnetta, G; Biondo, B; Catalano, O; Gargano, C; Rosa, G La; Russo, F; Sottile, G; Belluso, M; Billotta, S; Bonanno, G; Garozzo, S; Marano, D; Romeo, G

    2014-01-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana), is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end prototype of the Small Size of Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, will adopt a wide field dual mirror optical system in a Schwarzschild-Couder configuration to explore the VHE range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The camera at the focal plane is based on Silicon Photo-Multipliers detectors which is an innovative solution for the detection astronomical Cherenkov light. This contribution reports some preliminary results on the evaluation of the optical cross talk level among the SiPM pixels foreseen for the ASTRI SST-2M camera

  1. Flattening the Energy Response of a Scintillator Based Gamma Dose Rate Meter Coupled to SiPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knafo, Y.; Manor, A.; Ginzburg, D.; Ellenbogen, M.; Osovizky, A.; Wengrowicz, U.; Ghelman, M.; Seif, R.; Mazor, T.; Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Among the newest emerging technologies that are used in the design of personal gamma radiation detection instruments, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) light sensor is playing an important role. This type of photo sensor is characterized by low power consumption, small dimensions and high gain. These special characteristics present applicable alternatives for the replacement of traditional gamma sensors based on scintillator coupled to Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or on Geiger-Muller(G.M.) sensors. For health physics applications, flat energy response is required for a wide range of radio-nuclides emitting gamma rays of different energies. Scintillation based radiation instrumentation provides count rate and amplitude of the measured pulses. These pulses can be split in different bins corresponding to the energy of the measured isotopes and their intensity. The count rate and the energy of the measured events are related to the dose rate. The conversion algorithm applys a different calibration factor for each energy bin in order to provide an accurate dose rate response for a wide range of gamma energies. This work describes the utilization of an innovative approach for dose rate conversion by using the abilities of newest 32-bit microcontroller based ARM core architecture

  2. Analytical models of probability distribution and excess noise factor of solid state photomultiplier signals with crosstalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM), also called Solid State Photomultipliers (SSPM), are based on Geiger mode avalanche breakdown that is limited by a strong negative feedback. An SSPM can detect and resolve single photons due to the high gain and ultra-low excess noise of avalanche multiplication in this mode. Crosstalk and afterpulsing processes associated with the high gain introduce specific excess noise and deteriorate the photon number resolution of the SSPM. The probabilistic features of these processes are widely studied because of its significance for the SSPM design, characterization, optimization and application, but the process modeling is mostly based on Monte Carlo simulations and numerical methods. In this study, crosstalk is considered to be a branching Poisson process, and analytical models of probability distribution and excess noise factor (ENF) of SSPM signals based on the Borel distribution as an advance on the geometric distribution models are presented and discussed. The models are found to be in a good agreement with the experimental probability distributions for dark counts and a few photon spectrums in a wide range of fired pixels number as well as with observed super-linear behavior of crosstalk ENF.

  3. Single and multichannel scintillating fiber dosimeter for radiotherapic beams with SiPM readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berra, A., E-mail: alessandro.berra@gmail.it [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria e INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Ferri, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (Italy); Novati, C. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria e INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Ostinelli, A. [Ospedale Sant' Anna, Servizio di Fisica Sanitaria (Italy); Paternoster, G.; Piemonte, C. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (Italy); Prest, M. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria e INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN Sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2016-12-01

    The treatment of many neoplastic diseases requires the use of radiotherapy, which consists in the irradiation of the tumor, identified as the target volume, with ionizing radiations generated both by administered radiopharmaceuticals or by linear particle accelerators (LINACs). The radiotherapy beam delivered to the patient must be regularly checked to assure the best tumor control probability: this task is performed with dosimeters, i.e. devices able to provide a measurement of the dose deposited in their sensitive volume. This paper describes the development of two scintillator dosimeter prototypes for radiotherapic applications based on plastic scintillating fibers read out by high dynamic range Silicon PhotoMultipliers. The first dosimeter, consisting of a single-channel prototype with a pair of optical fibers, a scintillating and a white one, read out by two SiPMs, has been fully characterized and led to the development of a second multi-channel dosimeter based on an array of scintillating fibers: this device represents the first step towards the assembly of a “one-shot” device, capable to perform some of the daily quality controls in a few seconds. The dosimeters characterization was performed with a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator at the Radiotherapy Department of the St. Anna Hospital in Como (IT).

  4. Performance evaluation of SiPM photodetectors for PET imaging in the presence of magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espana, S., E-mail: samuel@nuclear.fis.ucm.e [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Fraile, L.M.; Herraiz, J.L.; Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Desco, M.; Vaquero, J.J. [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-01

    The multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) or silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), recently introduced as a solid-state photodetector, consists of an array of Geiger-mode photodiodes (microcells). It is a promising device for PET due to its potential for high photon detection efficiency (PDE) and its foreseeable immunity to magnetic fields. It is also easy to use with simple read-outs, has a high gain and a small size. In this work we evaluate the in field performance of three 1x1 mm{sup 2} (with 100, 400 and 1600 microcells, respectively) and one 6x6 mm{sup 2} (arranged as a 2x2 array) Hamamatsu MPPCs for their use in PET imaging. We examine the dependence of the energy resolution and the gain of these devices on the temperature and reverse bias voltage, when coupled to LYSO scintillator crystals under conditions that one would find in a PET system. We find that the 400 and 1600 microcells models and the 2x2 array are suitable for small-size crystals, like those employed in high resolution small animal scanners. We have confirmed the good performance of these devices up to magnetic fields of 7 T as well as their suitability for performing PET acquisitions in the presence of fast switching gradients and high duty radiofrequency MRI sequences.

  5. Detector characterization and first coincidence tests of a Compton telescope based on LaBr3 crystals and SiPMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosá, G.; Barrio, J.; Cabello, J.; Crespo, A.; Lacasta, C.; Rafecas, M.; Callier, S.; La Taille, C. de; Raux, L.

    2012-01-01

    A Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy consisting of several layers of continuous LaBr 3 crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays is under development within the ENVISION project. In order to test the possibility of employing such detectors for the telescope, a detector head consisting of a continuous 16 mm×18 mm×5 mm LaBr 3 crystal coupled to a SiPM array has been assembled and characterized, employing the SPIROC1 ASIC as readout electronics. The best energy resolution obtained at 511 keV is 6.5% FWHM and the timing resolution is 3.1 ns FWHM. A position determination method for continuous crystals is being tested, with promising results. In addition, the detector has been operated in time coincidence with a second detector layer, to determine the coincidence capabilities of the system. The first tests are satisfactory, and encourage the development of larger detectors that will compose the telescope prototype.

  6. Characterization of Sensitivity Encoded Silicon Photomultiplier (SeSP) with 1-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional Encoding for High Resolution PET/MR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Negar; Schulz, Volkmar

    2015-06-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of a new type of PET detectors called sensitivity encoded silicon photomultiplier (SeSP), which allows a direct coupling of small-pitch crystal arrays to the detector with a reduction in the number of readout channels. Four SeSP devices with two separate encoding schemes of 1D and 2D were investigated in this study. Furthermore, both encoding schemes were manufactured in two different sizes of 4 ×4 mm2 and 7. 73 ×7. 9 mm2, in order to investigate the effect of size on detector parameters. All devices were coupled to LYSO crystal arrays with 1 mm pitch size and 10 mm height, with optical isolation between crystals. The characterization was done for the key parameters of crystal-identification, energy resolution, and time resolution as a function of triggering threshold and over-voltage (OV). Position information was archived using the center of gravity (CoG) algorithm and a least squares approach (LSQA) in combination with a mean light matrix around the photo-peak. The positioning results proved the capability of all four SeSP devices in precisely identifying all crystals coupled to the sensors. Energy resolution was measured at different bias voltages, varying from 12% to 18% (FWHM) and paired coincidence time resolution (pCTR) of 384 ps to 1.1 ns was obtained for different SeSP devices at about 18 °C room temperature. However, the best time resolution was achieved at the highest over-voltage, resulting in a noise ratio of 99.08%.

  7. Scintillator tiles with SiPM readout for calorimetry and fast timing in SuperKEKB commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windel, Hendrik [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CALICE collaboration is studying plastic scintillators coupled to silicon photomultipliers as sensors for calorimeters for future linear colliders like ILC and CLIC. Current detector concepts foresee up to ten million channels for the hadronic calorimeter. A larger number of different types of SiPMs and scintillator materials exist and their properties have to be investigated to provide best results. For these purposes a dedicated laboratory setup has been developed to provide high resolution scanning of the scintillator tiles with a radioactive source. The data acquisition of this setup as well as a fast online analysis has been implemented in LABVIEW. A modified version of this setup, together with hardware previously used for measuring timing properties of hardronic showers, will be used in the commissioning phase of the SuperKEKB accelerator. This contribution discusses results from detailed investigations of different scintillator tiles, including the study of different materials. Key performance criteria for their application in calorimetry and in background measurements with high time resolution at SuperKEKB are also presented. The CALICE collaboration is studying plastic scintillators coupled to silicon photomultipliers as sensors for calorimeters for future linear colliders like ILC and CLIC. Current detector concepts foresee up two ten million channels for the hadronic calorimeter. In the real detector several thousands of these plastic scintillators will be used. To provide comparability between each of them, investigations of homogeneity for different packaging types and scintillating materials are needed as well as different attempts in tile arrangement to take inter tile crosstalk into account. A larger number of different types of SiPMs and scintillator materials exist and their properties have to be investigated to provide best results. For these purposes a dedicated LABVIEW based setup consistent of data acquisition system (DAQ) and analysis

  8. Uso de fotomultiplicadores de silicio para medidas de alta velocidad y baja intensidad luminosa. Use of silicon photomultipliers for high speed and low and intensity measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Yebras Rivera, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis está dedicada al estudio de los nuevos fotodetectores de alta sensibilidad conocidos como fotomultiplicadores de silicio (SiPMs). Se ha desarrollado una extensa revisión bibliográfica relacionada con estos dispositivos orientada a conocer sus fundamentos, propiedades, dependencias, fenómenos y aplicaciones. Se han realizado medidas experimentales para la caracterización del fotomultiplicador de silicio utilizando para ello fuentes de luz incoherentes. Estos resultados, junto con la...

  9. Optimization of a large-area detector-block based on SiPM and pixelated LYSO crystal arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calva-Coraza, E; Alva-Sánchez, H; Murrieta-Rodríguez, T; Martínez-Dávalos, A; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M

    2017-10-01

    We present the performance evaluation of a large-area detector module based on the ArrayC-60035-64P, an 8×8 array of tileable, 7.2mm pitch, silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) by SensL, covering a total area of 57.4mm×57.4mm. We characterized the ArrayC-60035-64P, operating at room temperature, using LYSO pixelated crystal arrays of different pitch sizes (1.075, 1.430, 1.683, 2.080 and 2.280mm) to determine the resolvable crystal size. After an optimization process, a 7mm thick coupling light guide was used for all crystal pitches. To identify the interaction position a 16-channel (8 columns, 8 rows) symmetric charge division (SCD) readout board together with a center-of-gravity algorithm was used. Based on this, we assembled the detector modules using a 40×40 LYSO, 1.43mm pitch array, covering the total detector area. Calibration was performed using a 137 Cs source resulting in excellent crystal maps with minor geometric distortion, a mean 4.1 peak-to-valley ratio and 9.6% mean energy resolution for 662keV photons in the central region. The resolvability index was calculated in the x and y directions with values under 0.42 in all cases. We show that these large area SiPM arrays, combined with a 16-channel SCD readout board, can offer high spatial resolution, without processing a big number of signals, attaining excellent energy resolution and detector uniformity. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of a SiPM array detector coupled to a LFS-3 pixellated scintillator for PET/MR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Stratos; Fysikopoulos, Eleftherios; Georgiou, Maria; Loudos, George

    2015-01-01

    SiPM arrays are insensitive to magnetic fields and thus good candidates for hybrid PET/MR imaging systems. Moreover, due to their small size and flexibility can be used in dedicated small field of view small animal imaging detectors and especially in head PET/MR studies in mice. Co-doped LFS-3 scintillator crystals have higher light yield and slightly faster response than that of LSO:Ce mainly due to the co-doped activation of emission centers with varying materials such as Ce, Gd, Sc, Y, La, Tb, or Ca distributed at the molecular scale through the lutetium silicate crystal host. The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of the SensL ArraySL-4 (4x4 element array of 3x3 mm 2 silicon photomultipliers) optical detector coupled to a 6x6 LFS-3 scintillator array, with 2x2x5 mm 3 crystal size elements, for possible applications in small field of view PET/MR imaging detectors. We have designed a symmetric resistive charge division circuit to read out the signal outputs of 4x4 pixel SiPM array reducing the 16 pixel outputs of the photodetector to 4 position signals. The 4 position signals were digitized using free running Analog to Digital Converters. The ADCs sampling rate was 50 MHz. An FPGA (Spartan 6 LX150T) was used for triggering and digital signal processing of the pulses. Experimental evaluation was carried out with 22 Na radioactive source and the parameters studied where energy resolution and peak to valley ratio. The first preliminary results of the evaluation shows a clear visualization of the discrete 2x2x5 mm 3 LFS-3 scintillator elements. The mean peak to valley ratio of the horizontal profiles on the raw image was measured equal to 11 while the energy resolution was calculated equal to 30% at the central pixels.

  11. Comparison of three resistor network division circuits for the readout of 4×4 pixel SiPM arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratos, David; Maria, Georgiou; Eleftherios, Fysikopoulos; George, Loudos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of a flexible SensL's silicon photomultiplier array (SPMArray4) photodetector for possible applications in PET imaging. We have designed and evaluated three different resistor network division circuits to read out the signal outputs of a 4×4 pixel SiPM array. We have applied firstly (i) a symmetric resistive voltage division circuit, secondly (ii) a symmetric resistive charge division circuit and thirdly (iii) a charge division multiplexing resistor network reducing the 16 pixel outputs to 4 position signals. In the first circuit the SensL SPMArray4-A0 preamplification electronics and a SPMArray4-A1 evaluation board providing the 16 pixels voltage outputs were used, before the symmetric resistive voltage network. We reduced the 16 voltage signals firstly to 4X and 4Y coordinate signals. Then those signals were further reduced to 2X and 2Y position signals connected via a resistor network. In the second readout circuit we have used the same technique but without the preamplification stage. The third circuit is based on a discretized positioning circuit, which multiplexes the 16 signals from the SiPM array to 4 position signals. The 4 position signals (Xa, Xb, Yc and Yd) were digitized using a free running sampling technique. An FPGA (Spartan 6 LX16) was used for triggering and signal processing of the pulses. We acquired raw images and energy histograms of a BGO and a CsI:Na pixilated scintillator under 22 Na excitation. A clear visualization of the discrete 2×2×5 mm 3 pixilated BGO scintillator elements as well as the 1×1×5 mm 3 pixilated CsI:Na crystal array was achieved with all applied readout circuits. The symmetric resistive charge division circuit provides higher peak to valley ratio than the other readout circuits. Τhe sensitivity and the energy resolution remained almost constant for the three circuits

  12. Dimensionless parameterization of lidar for laser remote sensing of the atmosphere and its application to systems with SiPM and PMT detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishev, Ravil; Comerón, Adolfo; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Sicard, Michaël

    2014-05-20

    In this paper, we show a renewed approach to the generalized methodology for atmospheric lidar assessment, which uses the dimensionless parameterization as a core component. It is based on a series of our previous works where the problem of universal parameterization over many lidar technologies were described and analyzed from different points of view. The modernized dimensionless parameterization concept applied to relatively new silicon photomultiplier detectors (SiPMs) and traditional photomultiplier (PMT) detectors for remote-sensing instruments allowed predicting the lidar receiver performance with sky background available. The renewed approach can be widely used to evaluate a broad range of lidar system capabilities for a variety of lidar remote-sensing applications as well as to serve as a basis for selection of appropriate lidar system parameters for a specific application. Such a modernized methodology provides a generalized, uniform, and objective approach for evaluation of a broad range of lidar types and systems (aerosol, Raman, DIAL) operating on different targets (backscatter or topographic) and under intense sky background conditions. It can be used within the lidar community to compare different lidar instruments.

  13. Depth-of-interaction measurement in a single-layer crystal array with a single-ended readout using digital silicon photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Sun; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    We present the first experimental evaluation of a depth-of-interaction (DOI) positron emission tomography (PET) detector using a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM). To measure DOI information from a mono-layer array of scintillation crystals with a single-ended readout, our group has previously proposed and developed a new method based on light spread using triangular reflectors. Since this method relies on measurement of the light distribution, dSiPM, which has a fully digital interface, has several merits for our DOI measurement. The DOI PET detector comprised of a dSiPM sensor (DPC-3200-22-44) coupled with a 14   ×   14 array of 2 mm  ×  2 mm  ×  20 mm unpolished LGSO crystals. All crystals were covered with triangular reflectors. To obtain a good performance of the DOI PET detector, several parameters of detector were selected as a preliminary experiment. Detector performance was evaluated with the selected parameters and the optimal experimental setup, and a DOI measurement was conducted by irradiating the crystal block at five DOI positions spaced at intervals of 4 mm. Maximum-likelihood estimation was employed for DOI positioning and the optimal DOI estimation scheme was also investigated in this study. As a result, the DOI PET detector showed clear crystal identification. The energy resolution (full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)) averaged over all depths was 10.21%  ±  0.15% at 511 keV, and time resolution averaged over all depths was 1198.61   ±   39.70 ps FWHM. The average DOI positioning accuracy for all depths was 74.22%  ±  6.77%, which equates to DOI resolution of 4.67 mm. Energy and DOI resolutions were uniform over all crystal positions except for the back parts of the array. Furthermore, additional simulation studies were conducted to verify the results of our DOI measurement method that is combined with dSiPM technology. In conclusion, our continuous DOI PET detector

  14. Characterization of Hamamatsu 64-channel TSV SiPMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renschler, Max; Painter, William; Bisconti, Francesca; Haungs, Andreas; Huber, Thomas; Karus, Michael; Schieler, Harald; Weindl, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    The Hamamatsu UV-light enhanced 64-channel SiPM array of the newest generation (S13361-3050AS-08) has been examined for the purpose of being used for the Silicon Elementary Cell Add-on (SiECA) of the EUSO-SPB balloon experiment. At a room temperature of 19 . 5 °C, the average measured breakdown voltage of the array is (51 . 65 ± 0 . 11) V, the average gain is measured to (2 . 10 ± 0 . 07) ṡ 106 and the average photon detection efficiency results to (44 . 58 ± 1 . 80) % at a wavelength of (423 ± 8) nm and a bias voltage of 55 . 2V. The average dark-count rate is (0 . 69 ± 0 . 12) MHz, equivalent to a dark count rate per SiPM area of (57 ± 12) kHz /mm2, and the crosstalk probability is measured to (3 . 96 ± 0 . 64) %. These results confirm the information given by the manufacturer. Measurements performed with the newly installed Single Photon Calibration Stand at KIT (SPOCK) show the improved sensitivity to photons with wavelengths lower than 400 nm compared to the SiPM array S12642-0808PA-50, which was also investigated for comparison. Additional measurements confirm the strong temperature dependence of the SiPM characteristics as given in the data sheet. All the characterized parameters appear to be sufficiently uniform to build up a focal surface of SiPM arrays fulfilling the requirements for a telescope detecting photons in the UV range.

  15. The MU-RAY experiment. An application of SiPM technology to the understanding of volcanic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Basta, D.; Bonechi, L.; Brianzi, M.; Bross, A.; Callier, S.; Cassese, F.; Castellini, G.; Ciaranfi, R.; Cimmino, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; De Fazio, B.; La Taille, C. de; Garufi, F.; Iacobucci, G.; Martini, M.; Masone, V.; Mattone, C.; Miyamoto, S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the MU-RAY project is to develop an innovative approach to the study of volcanoes and their monitoring based on a particle physics approach. The test site is Vesuvio: one of the higher risk volcanoes in the world. In this context, muon radiography is an innovative method of enormous impact. This is an imaging technique which relies on the measurement, by means of a cosmic ray telescope, of the absorption in the volcano of muons with near-horizontal trajectories, produced by the interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere. Since 2003 this technique has been successfully used on volcanoes in Japan, providing pictures of their vertices with resolutions much better than those obtained with the traditional techniques based on gravimeters. Researchers from Naples and Florence are currently involved in the construction and testing of a prototype telescope based on the use of bars of plastic scintillator with a triangular section whose scintillation light is collected by special fibres (wave length shifters) and transported to SiPM (Silicon photomultipliers). A complete prototype telescope, consisting of three xy scintillation planes and 1 m 2 active area has been assembled and is now under test

  16. Performance characteristics of a personal gamma spectrometer based on a SiPM array for radiation monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalidis, E.; Kandarakis, I.; David, S.

    2017-11-01

    Due to the increased radiation pollution in the environment as a result of the often nuclear accidents taking place around the world, the need for efficient, reliable, smart and handheld radiation measurement systems has been born especially in daily routine. In this study it is evaluated the angular response of two crystal non-pixelated Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce (GAGG:Ce) scintillators with dimensions at 10x10x10mm3 & 10x10x20mm3 under 137Cs isotope emitting at 662 keV coupled to a 4x4 discrete silicon photomultiplier array (SiPM). A symmetric resistive voltage division matrix was applied reducing the array 16 outputs to 4 analog position signals which digitized by a 4 Channel 12 bit 250 MS/s desktop waveform digitizer. The number of the evaluated angles set at 5 (0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°) and a variety of measured values are presented (energy resolution, sensitivity, figure of merit etc). The encouraging results such as energy resolution about 9% and figure of merit equal to 4.11 for 10x10x10mm3 and 4.43 for 10x10x20mm3 crystal, prove that this system could build up to a compact radiation sensor for integration into mobile applications.

  17. The MU-RAY experiment. An application of SiPM technology to the understanding of volcanic phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasio, A. [INFN-Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Ambrosino, F. [INFN-Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Basta, D. [INFN-Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Bonechi, L. [INFN-Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Università degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [Università degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bross, A. [Fermilab (United States); Callier, S. [LAL, Orsay (France); Cassese, F. [INFN-Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Castellini, G. [CNR-IFAC, Firenze (Italy); Ciaranfi, R. [INFN-Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Cimmino, L. [Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); D' Alessandro, R., E-mail: candi@fi.infn.it [INFN-Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Università degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); De Fazio, B. [Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); La Taille, C. de [LAL, Orsay (France); Garufi, F. [Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Iacobucci, G. [INFN-Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Martini, M. [INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy); Masone, V. [INFN-Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Mattone, C. [INFN-Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Miyamoto, S. [Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo (Japan); and others

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the MU-RAY project is to develop an innovative approach to the study of volcanoes and their monitoring based on a particle physics approach. The test site is Vesuvio: one of the higher risk volcanoes in the world. In this context, muon radiography is an innovative method of enormous impact. This is an imaging technique which relies on the measurement, by means of a cosmic ray telescope, of the absorption in the volcano of muons with near-horizontal trajectories, produced by the interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere. Since 2003 this technique has been successfully used on volcanoes in Japan, providing pictures of their vertices with resolutions much better than those obtained with the traditional techniques based on gravimeters. Researchers from Naples and Florence are currently involved in the construction and testing of a prototype telescope based on the use of bars of plastic scintillator with a triangular section whose scintillation light is collected by special fibres (wave length shifters) and transported to SiPM (Silicon photomultipliers). A complete prototype telescope, consisting of three xy scintillation planes and 1 m{sup 2} active area has been assembled and is now under test.

  18. Photomultiplier gain stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Baud, P.; Sautiez, B.

    1958-07-01

    By the control and adjustment of magnetic deflection applied to the electron beam of a photomultiplier it has proved possible to flatten the gain curve, forming plateaux at levels dependent upon the voltage at intake. It should be possible to add this simple device to most photomultipliers on the market today. (author) [fr

  19. The photomultiplier handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, A G

    2017-01-01

    Photomultipliers are extremely sensitive light detectors that can detect single photons. In multiplying the charge produced by incident light by up to 100 million times, these devices are essential to a wide range of functions, from medical instrumentation to astronomical observations. This complete and authoritative guide will provide students, practitioners, and researchers with a deeper understanding of the operating principles of these devices. Authored by an experienced user and manufacturer of photomultipliers, this handbook gives the reader insights into photomultiplier behaviour as a means to optimize performance. Diffuse and low level light sources are best served with a photomultiplier for the detection of single photon emissions. Light detection and electron multiplication are statistical in nature and the mathematics of these processes is derived from first principles. The book covers other related topics such as scintillation counting, light guides, and large area detectors. The usually complicat...

  20. Evaluation of a SiPM array detector coupled to a LFS-3 pixellated scintillator for PET/MR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Stratos; Fysikopoulos, Eleftherios [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Georgiou, Maria [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Department of Medical School, University of Thessaly, Larissa (Greece); Loudos, George [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece)

    2015-05-18

    SiPM arrays are insensitive to magnetic fields and thus good candidates for hybrid PET/MR imaging systems. Moreover, due to their small size and flexibility can be used in dedicated small field of view small animal imaging detectors and especially in head PET/MR studies in mice. Co-doped LFS-3 scintillator crystals have higher light yield and slightly faster response than that of LSO:Ce mainly due to the co-doped activation of emission centers with varying materials such as Ce, Gd, Sc, Y, La, Tb, or Ca distributed at the molecular scale through the lutetium silicate crystal host. The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of the SensL ArraySL-4 (4x4 element array of 3x3 mm{sup 2} silicon photomultipliers) optical detector coupled to a 6x6 LFS-3 scintillator array, with 2x2x5 mm{sup 3} crystal size elements, for possible applications in small field of view PET/MR imaging detectors. We have designed a symmetric resistive charge division circuit to read out the signal outputs of 4x4 pixel SiPM array reducing the 16 pixel outputs of the photodetector to 4 position signals. The 4 position signals were digitized using free running Analog to Digital Converters. The ADCs sampling rate was 50 MHz. An FPGA (Spartan 6 LX150T) was used for triggering and digital signal processing of the pulses. Experimental evaluation was carried out with {sup 22}Na radioactive source and the parameters studied where energy resolution and peak to valley ratio. The first preliminary results of the evaluation shows a clear visualization of the discrete 2x2x5 mm{sup 3} LFS-3 scintillator elements. The mean peak to valley ratio of the horizontal profiles on the raw image was measured equal to 11 while the energy resolution was calculated equal to 30% at the central pixels.

  1. Assessment of MR-compatibility of SiPM PET insert using short optical fiber bundles for small animal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H.G.; Hong, S.J.; Ko, G.B.; Yoon, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Song, I.C.; Rhee, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide new perspectives in human disease research because of their complementary in-vivo imaging techniques. Previously, we have developed an MR-compatible PET insert based on optical fibers using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). However when echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence was performed, signal intensity was slowly decreased by −0.9% over the 5.5 minutes and significant geometrical distortion was observed as the PET insert was installed inside an MRI bore, indicating that the PET electronics and its shielding boxes might have been too close to an MR imaging object. In this paper, optical fiber bundles with a length of 54 mm instead of 31 mm were employed to minimize PET interference on MR images. Furthermore, the LYSO crystals with a size of 1.5 × 1.5 × 7.0 mm 3 were used instead of 2.47 × 2.74 × 20.0 mm 3 for preclinical PET/MR applications. To improve the MR image quality, two receive-only loop coils were used. The effects of the PET insert on the SNR of the MR image either for morphological or advanced MR pulse sequences such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), functional MRI (fMRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were investigated. The quantitative MR compatibility such as B 0 and B 1 field homogeneity without PET, with 'PET OFF', and with 'PET ON' was also evaluated. In conclusion, B 0 maps were not affected by the proposed PET insert whereas B 1 maps were significantly affected by the PET insert. The advanced MRI sequences such as DWI, EPI, and MRS can be performed without a significant MR image quality degradation

  2. Calibration and monitoring of a scintillator HCAL with SiPMs CALICE scintillator HCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaci-Timoce, Angela

    2009-01-01

    The operational experience with a highly-granular analogue hadronic calorimeter (AHCAL) consisting of 7608 individual scintillator tiles readout via Silicon-Photo-multipliers (SiPM) is presented. The calibration of each cell is based on minimum ionizing particle signals for which in general a muon beam is used. In addition, a correction for the non-linearity introduced by the finite number of pixels (1156) in the SiPM is applied. The aspects of temperature and voltage dependence of SiPM are addressed, and monitoring and calibration procedures are discussed. Such procedures are essential for the extrapolation of calibration factors over several days of data taking with the calorimeter. For this purpose a versatile UV-LED light distribution system was developed, capable of delivering light to all tiles with intensity from a few photo-electrons to the saturation of the SiPM. The procedures are tested using data collected with the AHCAL at the CERN SPS test beam.

  3. Color sensitive silicon photomultiplers with micro-cell level encoding for DOI PET detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazoe, Kenji; Koyama, Akihiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ganka, Thomas; Iskra, Peter; Marquez Seco, Alicia; Schneider, Florian; Wiest, Florian

    2017-11-01

    There have been many studies on Depth Of Interaction (DOI) identification for high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems, including those on phoswich detectors, double-sided readout, light sharing methods, and wavelength discrimination. The wavelength discrimination method utilizes the difference in wavelength of stacked scintillators and requires a color sensitive photodetector. Here, a new silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) coupled to a color filter (colorSiPM) was designed and fabricated for DOI detection. The fabricated colorSiPM has two anode readouts that are sensitive to blue and green color. The colorSiPM's response and DOI identification capability for stacked GAGG and LYSO crystals are characterized. The fabricated colorSiPM is sensitive enough to detect a peak of 662 keV from a 137 Cs source.

  4. Fast photomultiplier ELUP 151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, L.I.; Belokon', V.A.; Krasin, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    High-velocity photomultiplier is described. The latter is recommended to be used in nuclear physics, plasma physics, nuclear medical diagnostics and at measurement of fast-occurring process parameters. Main specifications are as follows: range of spectral sensitivity - 0.2-0.7 μm; limit of dinamic characteristic linearity - up to 5A; dark current at +20 deg C ambient temperature - maximum 10-8A, time of anode pulse growth - maximum 8 ns; photocathode quantum yield in the maximum of spectral characteristic (λ max =380-420 nm) - 24-26%; supply voltage - 4-5 kV

  5. Development of gaseous photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokanai, F.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sugiyama, H.; Okada, T.

    2014-01-01

    We have been developing gaseous photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with alkali photocathode combined with micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs). The potential advantage of the gaseous PMT is that it can achieve a very large effective area with adequate position and timing resolutions. In addition, it will be easily operated under a very high magnetic field, compared with the conventional vacuum-based PMT. To evaluate the gaseous PMTs filled with Ne and Ar based gas mixture, we have developed gaseous PMTs with an alkali photocathode combined with MPGDs such as a glass capillary plate, GEM, and Micromegas detector. We describe the recent development of the gaseous PMTs, particularly the production of the photocathode, gas gain, ion and photon feedbacks, quantum efficiency, and the characteristics in the magnetic field environment. (author)

  6. SiPM as miniaturised optical biosensor for DNA-microarray applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Santangelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized optical biosensor for low-level fluorescence emitted by DNA strands labelled with CY5 is showed. Aim of this work is to demonstrate that a Si-based photodetector, having a low noise and a high sensitivity, can replace traditional detection systems in DNA-microarray applications. The photodetector used is a photomultiplier (SiPM, with 25 pixels. It exhibits a higher sensitivity than commercial optical readers and we experimentally found a detection limit for spotted dried samples of ∼1 nM. We measured the fluorescence signal in different operating conditions (angle of analysis, fluorophores concentrations, solution volumes and support. Once fixed the angle of analysis, for samples spotted on Al-TEOS slide dried, the system is proportional to the concentration of the analyte in the sample and is linear in the range 1 nM–1 μM. For solutions, the range of linearity ranges from 100 fM to 10 nM. The system potentialities and the device low costs suggest it as basic component for the design and fabrication of a cheap, easy and portable optical system. Keywords: Optical Biosensor, SiPM, DNA microarray, Fluorophore detection

  7. Desarrollo de un circuito integrado de múltiples canales para Silicon fotomultiplicador arrays lectura

    CERN Document Server

    Comerma i Montells, Albert

    2013-10-31

    The aim of this thesis is to present a solution for the readout of Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) arrays improving currently implemented systems. Using as a starting point previous designs with similar objectives a novel current mode input stage has been designed and tested. To start with the design a valid model has been used to generate realistic output from the SiPMs depending on light input. Design has been performed in first place focusing in general applications for medical imaging Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and then using the same topology for a more constrained design in particle detectors (upgrade of Tracker detector at LHCb experiment). A 16 channel ASIC for PET applications including the novel input stage has demonstrated an excellent timing measurement with good energy resolution measurement and pile-up detection. This document starts with the analysis of the requirements needed to fit such a system. Followed by a detailed description of the input stage and analog processing. Signal is ...

  8. SiPM and ADD as advanced detectors for astro-particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmick; Dolgoshein, Boris; Holl, Peter; Klemin, Sergei; Merck, Christine; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Otte, Adam Nepomuk; Ninkovic, Jelena; Popova, Elena; Richter, Rainer; Teshima, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, a few scientific groups are developing a novel type light sensor. These so-called silicon photo multipliers (SiPM) operate at relatively low bias voltage of 20-60 V, show unprecedented amplitude resolution and already now can provide photon detection efficiencies (PDE) comparable to or better than that of classical photo multipliers (PMT). We are developing the novel sensors for the astro-particle physics experiments MAGIC [J. Albert, et al., Astrophys. Lett. 642 (2006) L119. ] and also for EUSO [M. Teshima, et al., EUSO (The Extreme Universe Space Observatory), in: Scientific Objectives Proceedings ICRC, 2003, p. 10690. ]. The front-illuminated SiPM are developing with the group from MEPhI in Moscow and the back-illuminated Avalanche Drift Diodes (ADD) with the semiconductor laboratory (HLL) attached to the MPI for Physics. Our goal is to produce 5-10 mm size ultra-fast, low-noise and very high PDE (60-80%) sensors operating in the wavelength range 300-600 nm. Together with MEPhI, we have already produced and successfully tested 1.3x1.3, 3x3 and 5x5 mm 2 size SiPMs. Very recently, the first ADD test structures were produced and are under evaluation at the HLL. In this report, we want to outline the main parameters of the new sensors for the needs of astro-particle physics experiments

  9. Photomultiplier protector for a fluorometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priarone, P.; St John, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The photometer is adapted for sensing radiation emitted by a chemical sample held in a cuvette received in a first compartment and includes a highly sensitive photomultiplier in a second compartment adjacent the first compartment for detecting fluorescent radiation emitted by the chemical sample and passing through an opening between the compartments. A mechanical protector assembly is provided for protecting the photomultiplier from ambient light and includes a movable light shield movable between a first position blocking the opening and a second position not blocking the opening. A knob is provided for moving the light shield to the first position to protect the photomultiplier from light entering from the first compartment when the first compartment is opened for insertion or removal of a cuvette, and for moving the light shield to the second position not blocking the opening to permit radiation emitted by the chemical sample to impinge upon the photomultiplier in the second compartment. The photometer also includes a mechanical interlocking assembly for ensuring that the first compartment cannot be opened unless the light shield is in the first position to prevent ambient light from entering the second compartment from the first compartment and reaching the photomultiplier

  10. Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Breskin, Amos; Buzulutskov, A F; Chechik, R; Garty, E; Shefer, G; Singh, B K

    2000-01-01

    Gas avalanche detectors, combining solid photocathodes with fast electron multipliers, provide an attractive solution for photon localization over very large sensitive areas and under high illumination flux. They offer single-photon sensitivity and the possibility of operation under very intense magnetic fields. We discuss the principal factors governing the operation of gas avalanche photomultipliers. We summarize the recent progress made in alkali-halide and CVD-diamond UV-photocathodes, capable of operation under gas multiplication, and novel thin-film protected alkali-antimonide photocathodes, providing, for the first time, the possibility of operating gas photomultipliers in the visible range. Electron multipliers, adequate for these photon detectors, are proposed and some applications are briefly discussed.

  11. Scintillation counter: photomultiplier tube alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into the sample receiving zone. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (auth)

  12. Hodoscope module with miniature photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'zer, L.I.; Gribushin, A.M.; Zhil'tsov, L.Ya.; Matveeva, E.N.; Philipenko, T.D.; Sinev, N.B.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental Scintillation Magnetic Spectrometer (SMS) installation, whose main element is an extended hodoscope system, is being built for the accelerator of the High Energy Laboratory of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The authors describe the scintillation hodoscope of the SMS installation and present the applicable amplitude and time characteristics of several types of miniature photomultipliers (FEU-58, FEU-60, FEU-114-1, FEU-147-1, and R-1635 (Hamamatsu, Japan)), which were obtained with a 106 Ru radioactive source and standard plastic scintillators of two types, based on oxazoles in polystyrene and in polymethylmethacrylate

  13. The CMS Outer HCAL SiPM Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HO) is the first large scale hadron collider detector to use SiPMs. By late January 2014 the installation of 1656 of 2376 channels was completed. The HO readout system provides for active temperature stabilisation of the SiPMs to less than 0.1$^\\circ$C using Peltier coolers, temperature measurement, and software feedback. Each channel has independently controlled bias voltage with a resolution of 25mV. Each SiPM is read out by 40MHz QIE ADCs. We report on the system design, schedule and progress. The next phase for the detector is commissioning during 2014 before the 2015 LHC run. We report on the status of commissioning and plans for operation. We discuss the calibration strategy with local cosmic ray runs using the HO's self trigger ability.

  14. The CMS Outer HCAL SiPM Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lobanov, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HO) is the first large scale hadron collider detector to use SiPMs. By late January 2014 the installation of 1656 of 2376 channels was completed. The HO readout system provides for active temperature stabilization of the SiPMs to less than 0.1$^\\circ$C using Peltier coolers, temperature measurement, and software feedback. Each channel has independently controlled bias voltage with a resolution of 25~mV. Each SiPM is read out by 40~MHz QIE ADCs. We report on the system design, schedule and progress. The next phase for the detector is commissioning during 2014 before the 2015 LHC run. We report on the status of commissioning and plans for operation. We discuss the calibration strategy with local cosmic ray runs using the HO's self trigger ability. We discuss the plans for a global CMS operations run in November 2014.

  15. Geant4 simulation of a scintillator-lead shashlik calorimeter with a SiPM readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, A.

    2011-01-01

    Shashlik calorimeters are sampling calorimeters which, in the last 20 years, have been used in many high-energy experiments: relatively cheap, they can be easily segmented and built in a large variety of geometries and they guarantee energy resolutions comparable to the ones achievable with homogeneous calorimeters. This article presents the complete optical simulation of a prototype of a scintillator lead shashlik calorimeter with silicon photomultipliers readout, characterized in terms of linearity, energy and spatial resolution. The simulation has been used to explain and validate the experimental data, obtained on the PS-T9 beamline at CERN, using electrons in the 1-7 GeV energy range.

  16. Scintillation probe with photomultiplier tube saturation indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, J.F.; Urban, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A photomultiplier tube saturation indicator is formed by supplying a supplemental light source, typically an light emitting diode (LED), adjacent to the photomultiplier tube. A switch allows the light source to be activated. The light is forwarded to the photomultiplier tube by an optical fiber. If the probe is properly light tight, then a meter attached to the indicator will register the light from the LED. If the probe is no longer light tight, and the saturation indicator is saturated, no signal will be registered when the LED is activated. 2 figs

  17. Characterization of the front-end EASIROC for read-out of SiPM in the ASTRI camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impiombato, D.; Giarrusso, S.; Belluso, M.; Billotta, S.; Bonanno, G.; Catalano, O.; Grillo, A.; La Rosa, G.; Marano, D.; Mineo, T.; Russo, F.; Sottile, G.

    2013-01-01

    The design and realization of a prototype for the Small-Size class Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array is one of the cornerstones of the ASTRI project. The prototype will adopt a focal plane camera based on Silicon Photo-Multiplier sensors that coupled with a dual mirror optics configuration represents an innovative solution for the detection of Atmospheric Cherenkov light. These detectors can be read by the Extended Analogue Silicon Photo-Multiplier Integrated Read Out Chip (EASIROC) equipped with 32-channels. In this paper, we report some preliminary results on measurements aimed to evaluate EASIROC capability of autotriggering and measurements of the trigger time walk, jitter, DAC linearity and trigger efficiency vs the injected charge. Moreover, the dynamic range of the ASIC is also reported

  18. Comparison of acrylic polymer adhesive tapes and silicone optical grease in light sharing detectors for positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Elburg, Devin J; Noble, Scott D; Hagey, Simone; Goertzen, Andrew L

    2018-02-26

    Optical coupling is an important factor in detector design as it improves optical photon transmission by mitigating internal reflections at light-sharing boundaries. In this work we compare optical coupling materials, namely double-sided acrylic polymer tapes and silicone optical grease (SiG), in the context of positron emission tomography. Four double-sided tapes from 3 M of varying thicknesses (0.229 mm-1.016 mm) and adhesive materials ('100MP', 'A100', and 'GPA') were characterized with spectrophotometer measurements as well as photopeak amplitude and energy resolution measurements using lutetium-yttrium oxy-orthosilicate (LYSO) coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Transmission spectra from the spectrophotometer showed over 80% transmission for all tapes at 420 nm and above, with 89.6% and 88.8% transmission for the 0.508 mm and 1.016 mm thick GPA tapes, respectively, at 420 nm. Measurements with single-pixel LYSO-PMT and 4  ×  4 array (one-to-one coupled) LYSO-SiPM setups determined that SiG had the greatest photopeak amplitude, with tapes showing 2.1%-14.8% reduction in photopeak amplitude with respect to SiG. Energy resolution changed by less than 4% on a relative basis between tapes and SiG with PMT measurements, however for the SiPM array measurements the energy resolution improved from 15.6%  ±  2.7% full-width at half-maximum to 11.4%  ±  1.2% for SiG and 1 mm GPA respectively. Data acquired with dual-layer offset LYSO arrays (light sharing detector designs) demonstrated that a detector coupled with 1 mm thick GPA tape produced equivalent detector flood histograms to those from a design coupled with SiG and a 1 mm thick glass lightguide. No significant degradation in photopeak amplitude and energy resolution was observed over five months of measurements, indicating the tapes maintain their coupling integrity over several months. Though minimal photopeak amplitude degradation

  19. Comparison of acrylic polymer adhesive tapes and silicone optical grease in light sharing detectors for positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Elburg, Devin J.; Noble, Scott D.; Hagey, Simone; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2018-03-01

    Optical coupling is an important factor in detector design as it improves optical photon transmission by mitigating internal reflections at light-sharing boundaries. In this work we compare optical coupling materials, namely double-sided acrylic polymer tapes and silicone optical grease (SiG), in the context of positron emission tomography. Four double-sided tapes from 3 M of varying thicknesses (0.229 mm-1.016 mm) and adhesive materials (‘100MP’, ‘A100’, and ‘GPA’) were characterized with spectrophotometer measurements as well as photopeak amplitude and energy resolution measurements using lutetium-yttrium oxy-orthosilicate (LYSO) coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Transmission spectra from the spectrophotometer showed over 80% transmission for all tapes at 420 nm and above, with 89.6% and 88.8% transmission for the 0.508 mm and 1.016 mm thick GPA tapes, respectively, at 420 nm. Measurements with single-pixel LYSO-PMT and 4  ×  4 array (one-to-one coupled) LYSO-SiPM setups determined that SiG had the greatest photopeak amplitude, with tapes showing 2.1%-14.8% reduction in photopeak amplitude with respect to SiG. Energy resolution changed by less than 4% on a relative basis between tapes and SiG with PMT measurements, however for the SiPM array measurements the energy resolution improved from 15.6%  ±  2.7% full-width at half-maximum to 11.4%  ±  1.2% for SiG and 1 mm GPA respectively. Data acquired with dual-layer offset LYSO arrays (light sharing detector designs) demonstrated that a detector coupled with 1 mm thick GPA tape produced equivalent detector flood histograms to those from a design coupled with SiG and a 1 mm thick glass lightguide. No significant degradation in photopeak amplitude and energy resolution was observed over five months of measurements, indicating the tapes maintain their coupling integrity over several months. Though minimal photopeak amplitude

  20. Timing coincidence studies with fast photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoof, M.A.; Raoof, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The time response of RCA C70045D photomultipliers was studied using a subnanosecond light flasher. The tubes, which have an output rise time of approximately 0.5 ns, were used in coincidence to study the variations in the fwhm of the time spectrum over a certain dynamic range of pulse amplitudes for both leading edge and constant fraction discrimination. A comparison has also been made for the measured time resolutions with some of the other fast photomultipliers. (orig.)

  1. SiPM Gain Stabilization Studies for Adaptive Power Supply

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074257; Zalieckas, Justas; Cvach, Jaroslav; Kvasnicka, Jiri; Polak, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    We present herein gain stabilization studies of SiPMs using a climate chamber at CERN. We present results for four detectors not tested before, three from Hamamatsu and one from KETEK. Two of the Hamamatsu SiPMs are novel sensors with trenches that reduce cross talk. We use an improved readout system with a digital oscilloscope controlled with a dedicated LabView program. We improved and automized the analysis to deal with large datasets. We have measured the gain-versus-bias-voltage dependence at fixed temperature and gain-versus-temperature dependence at fixed bias voltage to determine the bias voltage dependence on temperature $V(T)$ for stable gain. We show that the gain remains stable to better than $\\pm 0.5\\%$ in the $20^\\circ \\rm C - 30^\\circ C$ temperature range if the bias voltage is properly adjusted with temperature.

  2. Development of a hard x-ray focal plane compton polarimeter: a compact polarimetric configuration with scintillators and Si photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, T.; Vadawale, S. V.; Goyal, S. K.; Mithun, N. P. S.; Patel, A. R.; Shukla, R.; Ladiya, T.; Shanmugam, M.; Patel, V. R.; Ubale, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    X-ray polarization measurement of cosmic sources provides two unique parameters namely degree and angle of polarization which can probe the emission mechanism and geometry at close vicinity of the compact objects. Specifically, the hard X-ray polarimetry is more rewarding because the sources are expected to be intrinsically highly polarized at higher energies. With the successful implementation of Hard X-ray optics in NuSTAR, it is now feasible to conceive Compton polarimeters as focal plane detectors. Such a configuration is likely to provide sensitive polarization measurements in hard X-rays with a broad energy band. We are developing a focal plane hard X-ray Compton polarimeter consisting of a plastic scintillator as active scatterer surrounded by a cylindrical array of CsI(Tl) scintillators. The scatterer is 5 mm diameter and 100 mm long plastic scintillator (BC404) viewed by normal PMT. The photons scattered by the plastic scatterer are collected by a cylindrical array of 16 CsI(Tl) scintillators (5 mm × 5 mm × 150 mm) which are read by Si Photomultiplier (SiPM). Use of the new generation SiPMs ensures the compactness of the instrument which is essential for the design of focal plane detectors. The expected sensitivity of such polarimetric configuration and complete characterization of the plastic scatterer, specially at lower energies have been discussed in [11, 13]. In this paper, we characterize the CsI(Tl) absorbers coupled to SiPM. We also present the experimental results from the fully assembled configuration of the Compton polarimeter.

  3. Performances of multi-channel ceramic photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, G.; Karolak, M.; Piret, Y.; Mouly, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    Ceramic electron multipliers with real metal dynodes and independent channels ware constructed using multilayer ceramic technology. Tests of these prototypes show their capability to form sensitive detectors such as photomultipliers or light intensifiers. Here, we present results for the photocathode sensitivity, dynode activation, gain, linearity range and dynamic characteristics as well as the effect of 3-year aging of the main operational functions. The advantages provided by the ceramic components are discussed. These results motivate the development of a compact 256 pixel ceramic photomultiplier. (author)

  4. Amplitude and timing properties of a Geiger discharge in a SiPM cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, E., E-mail: elenap73@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409, Kashirskoe Shosse 31 (Russian Federation); Buzhan, P.; Pleshko, A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409, Kashirskoe Shosse 31 (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, S. [University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD, Cheshire (United Kingdom); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Stifutkin, A.; Ilyin, A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409, Kashirskoe Shosse 31 (Russian Federation); Besson, D. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409, Kashirskoe Shosse 31 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-2151 (United States); Mirzoyan, R. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The amplitude and timing properties of a Geiger discharge in a stand-alone SiPM cell have been investigated in detail. Use of a single stand-alone SiPM cell allows us to perform measurements with better accuracy than the multicell structure of conventional SiPMs. We have studied the dependence of the output charge and amplitude from an SiPM cell illuminated by focused light vs the number of primary photoelectrons. We propose a SPICE model which explains the amplitude over saturation (when the SiPM's amplitude is greater than the sum over all cells) characteristics of SiPM signals for more than one initial photoelectrons. The time resolutions of a SiPM cell have been measured for the case of single (SPTR) and multiphoton light pulses. The Full Width Half Max (FWHM) for SPTR has been found to be at the level of 30 ps for focused and 40 ps for unfocused light (100 μm cell size). - Highlights: • A stand-alone SiPM cell has been investigated in detail. • Amplitude and time properties have been measured with femtosecond 660 nm laser. • SPICE model for a Geiger discharge development has been proposed. • SPTR for a stand-alone 100 μm size SiPM cell has been found to be 40 ps FWHM.

  5. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strindehag, O.

    1965-03-01

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a β-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10 -12 input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10 -12 to 10 -9 input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses

  6. An anti-Cherenkov photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selove, W.; Cormell, L.R.; Dris, M.; Kononenko, W.; Robinson, B.; Yost, B.T.

    1982-01-01

    We have designed a special photomultiplier tube (PMT), with very much reduced sensitivity to Cherenkov light produced in the end window. These PMTs have been produced for us by EMI, and have been used in a modular calorimeter array. The design eliminates a 'hot-spot' problem which was of intolerable magnitude in our application. (orig.)

  7. Automatic test system of the photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiino, Kazuo; Kono, Koji; Ishii, Takanobu; Kasai, Seiji; Yamada, Sakue; Kitamura, Shoichi.

    1990-03-01

    A test system of R580 photomultipliers (PMTs) was constructed for the ZEUS experiment HERA. In this report, we will describe the general feature of the test system, each component of the setup, the procedure of the measurements, the data analyses and the results of the first 800 PMT measurements. (author)

  8. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strindehag, O

    1965-03-15

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a {beta}-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10{sup -12} input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -9} input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses.

  9. Study of a Digital SiPM for TOF-PET

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, M

    2013-01-01

    The digital Silicon Photomultipliers (dSiPM) from Philips have been used in a study aiming at the proof of principle of an axial positron emission tomography detector with time of flight capabilities. These novel detectors provide various features not present in analog devices. The readout chain is programmable and offers various options affecting the functioning of the device. For each application a characterization and an optimization of the settings must be done in order to get the best out of the sensor. The axial geometry already developed for the AX-PET demonstrator implies the readout of LYSO crystals (used for energy measurement and transaxial coordinate) and of wavelength shifting (WLS) strips (axial coordinate). The readout of these two types of scintillators requires dedicated operation modes of the dSiPM. This technical note describes the characterization of the sensors with the goal of an optimized performance for LYSO crystals and WLS strips.

  10. A SiPM based real time dosimeter for radiotherapic beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berra, A., E-mail: alessandro.berra@gmail.it [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria e INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca, Via Valleggio, 11 22100 Como (Italy); Conti, V. [Ospedale Sant' Anna, Servizio di Fisica Sanitaria, Como (Italy); Lietti, D.; Milan, L.; Novati, C. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria e INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca, Via Valleggio, 11 22100 Como (Italy); Ostinelli, A. [Ospedale Sant' Anna, Servizio di Fisica Sanitaria, Como (Italy); Prest, M.; Romanó, C. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria e INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca, Via Valleggio, 11 22100 Como (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2015-02-11

    This paper describes the development of a scintillator dosimeter prototype for radiotherapic applications based on plastic scintillating fibers readout by Silicon PhotoMultipliers. The dosimeter, whose probes are water equivalent, could be used for quality control measurements, beam characterization and in vivo dosimetry, allowing a real time measurement of the dose spatial distribution. This paper describes the preliminary percentual depth dose scan performed with clinical 6 and 18 MV photon beams, comparing the results with a reference curve. The measurements were performed using a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator at the Radiotherapy Department of the St. Anna Hospital in Como (IT). The prototype has given promising results, allowing real time measurements of relative dose without applying any correction factors.

  11. Precise analysis of the metal package photomultiplier single photoelectron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov-Zorin, I.E.; Fedorko, I.; Sykora, I.; Tokar, S.; Menzione, A.

    2000-01-01

    A deconvolution method based on a sophisticated photomultiplier response function was used to analyse the compact metal package photomultiplier spectra taken in single photoelectron mode. The spectra taken by Hamamtsu R5600 and R5900 photomultipliers have been analysed. The detailed analysis shows that the method appropriately describes the process of charge multiplication in these photomultipliers in a wide range of working regimes and the deconvoluted parameters are established with about 1% accuracy. The method can be used for a detailed analysis of photomultiplier noise and for calibration purposes

  12. Upgrade of the CMS Hadron Outer Calorimeter with SiPM sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The complete system of more than 2800 channels has been produced and is currently burned-in. The installation of the SiPM based readout will be performed during the first LHC long shutdown scheduled for 2013.

  13. Characterization of FBK SiPMs under illumination with very fast light pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarolli, A., E-mail: tarolli@fbk.e [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [University of Trento and INFN, Trento (Italy); Melchiorri, M.; Piazza, A.; Pancheri, L.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    A characterization of the response of SiPMs and SPADs produced at FBK-IRST Trento stimulated with fast laser pulses is presented. The tests were aimed at studying both the intrinsic timing proprieties (of SiPMs and SPADs) using the time-correlated single-photon counting technique and the dynamic range (of SiPMs). Measurements were carried out on devices with different cell size, namely, from 40x40 to 100x100 {mu}m{sup 2}. Concerning the timing resolution, all the devices exhibit a value less than 150 psec FWHM. The dynamic range of SiPMs shows a response linearity which is in line with the theory describing these devices.

  14. Characterization of FBK SiPMs under illumination with very fast light pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarolli, A.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Melchiorri, M.; Piazza, A.; Pancheri, L.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N.

    2010-01-01

    A characterization of the response of SiPMs and SPADs produced at FBK-IRST Trento stimulated with fast laser pulses is presented. The tests were aimed at studying both the intrinsic timing proprieties (of SiPMs and SPADs) using the time-correlated single-photon counting technique and the dynamic range (of SiPMs). Measurements were carried out on devices with different cell size, namely, from 40x40 to 100x100 μm 2 . Concerning the timing resolution, all the devices exhibit a value less than 150 psec FWHM. The dynamic range of SiPMs shows a response linearity which is in line with the theory describing these devices.

  15. SPIROC (SiPM Integrated Read-Out Chip) Dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with SiPM read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchel, Michel; Dulucq, Frédéric; Fleury, Julien; de La Taille, Christophe; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Raux, Ludovic

    2009-01-01

    The SPIROC chip is a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with Silicon photomultiplier (or MPPC) readout. This ASIC is due to equip a 10,000-channel demonstrator in 2009. SPIROC is an evolution of FLC_SiPM used for the ILC AHCAL physics prototype [1]. SPIROC was submitted in June 2007 and will be tested in September 2007. It embeds cutting edge features that fulfil ILC final detector requirements. It has been realized in 0.35m SiGe technology. It has been developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of readout channels needed. SPIROC is an auto-triggered, bi-gain, 36-channel ASIC which allows to measure on each channel the charge from one photoelectron to 2000 and the time with a 100ps accurate TDC. An analogue memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. A 12-bit Wilkinson ADC has been embedded to digitize the analogue memor...

  16. SPIROC (SiPM Integrated Read-Out Chip) Dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with SiPM read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchel, Michel; Fleury, Julien; de La Taille, Christophe; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Raux, Ludovic

    2007-01-01

    The SPIROC chip is a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with Silicon photomultiplier (or MPPC) readout. This ASIC is due to equip a 10,000-channel demonstrator in 2009. SPIROC is an evolution of FLC_SiPM used for the ILC AHCAL physics prototype [1]. SPIROC was submitted in June 2007 and will be tested in September 2007. It embeds cutting edge features that fulfil ILC final detector requirements. It has been realized in 0.35m SiGe technology. It has been developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of readout channels needed. SPIROC is an auto-triggered, bi-gain, 36-channel ASIC which allows to measure on each channel the charge from one photoelectron to 2000 and the time with a 100ps accurate TDC. An analogue memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. A 12-bit Wilkinson ADC has been embedded to digitize the analogue memor...

  17. Stabilization of the photomultiplier gain of a liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhazov, I.D.; Dmitriev, V.D.; Kuznetsov, A.V.; Malkin, L.Z.; Petrov, B.F.; Sheremet'ev, A.K.; Shpakov, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    A stabilization system of photomultiplier gain, where light-emitting diode flashes have been used to obtain a reference signal, is described. The diode is placed just in the liquid scintilllator volume. The stabilization system contains several (according to the number of photomultipliers) identical channels, which of them consists of a colorimeter, a control trigger and an integrator with an operational amplifier. Increase of photomultiplier stability is reached by changing voltage of photomultiplier power according to the reference signal amplitude. The level of background and efficiency of neutron detection by a scintillation counter are unchanged when using the stabilization system for 10 days of measurements

  18. Progress in GEM-based gaseous photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Chechik, R; Breskin, Amos; Buzulutskov, A F; Guedes, G P; Mörmann, D; Singh, B K

    2003-01-01

    We discuss recent progress in gaseous photomultipliers (GPMTs) comprising UV-to-visible spectral range photocathodes (PCs) coupled to multiple Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM). The PCs may be either semitransparent or reflective ones directly deposited on the first-GEM surface. These detectors provide high gain, even in noble gases, are sensitive to single photons, have nanosecond time resolution, and offer good localization. The operation of CsI-based GPMTs in CF sub 4 opens new applications in Cherenkov detectors, where both the radiator and the photosensor operate in the same gas. The latest results on sealed visible-light detectors, combining bialkali PCs and Kapton-made GEMs are presented.

  19. Performance of the hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, R.J. [B.V. Delft Electronische Producten, Roden (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    The HPMT, which may be an alternative for PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMT`s) in many applications, is a vacuum tube in which the latest technologies of photocathodes and photodiodes are combined. Photo-electrons are accelerated and bombarding a reversely biased PIN diode, where they create many electron-hole-pairs. The resulting charge pulse can be amplified and further processed. The HPMT shows many superior characteristics compared to regular PMT`s, because it does not suffer the statistical fluctuations common for electron multiplication processes. An energy resolution of up to 14 photo-electrons will be presented, together with striking figures for dynamic range and timing behavior.

  20. Sensitivity encoded silicon photomultiplier—a new sensor for high-resolution PET-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Volkmar; Berker, Yannick; Berneking, Arne; Omidvari, Negar; Kiessling, Fabian; Gola, Alberto; Piemonte, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Detectors for simultaneous positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in particular with sub-mm spatial resolution are commonly composed of scintillator crystal arrays, readout via arrays of solid state sensors, such as avalanche photo diodes (APDs) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Usually a light guide between the crystals and the sensor is used to enable the identification of crystals which are smaller than the sensor elements. However, this complicates crystal identification at the gaps and edges of the sensor arrays. A solution is to use as many sensors as crystals with a direct coupling, which unfortunately increases the complexity and power consumption of the readout electronics. Since 1997, position-sensitive APDs have been successfully used to identify sub-mm crystals. Unfortunately, these devices show a limitation in their time resolution and a degradation of spatial resolution when placed in higher magnetic fields. To overcome these limitations, this paper presents a new sensor concept that extends conventional SiPMs by adding position information via the spatial encoding of the channel sensitivity. The concept allows a direct coupling of high-resolution crystal arrays to the sensor with a reduced amount of readout channels. The theory of sensitivity encoding is detailed and linked to compressed sensing to compute unique sparse solutions. Two devices have been designed using one- and two-dimensional linear sensitivity encoding with eight and four readout channels, respectively. Flood histograms of both devices show the capability to precisely identify all 4 × 4 LYSO crystals with dimensions of 0.93 × 0.93 × 10 mm 3 . For these crystals, the energy and time resolution (MV ± SD) of the devices with one (two)-dimensional encoding have been measured to be 12.3 · (1 ± 0.047)% (13.7 · (1 ± 0.047)%) around 511 keV with a paired coincidence time resolution (full width at half maximum) of 462 · (1 ± 0.054) ps (452 · (1 ± 0

  1. Sensitivity encoded silicon photomultiplier—a new sensor for high-resolution PET-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Volkmar; Berker, Yannick; Berneking, Arne; Omidvari, Negar; Kiessling, Fabian; Gola, Alberto; Piemonte, Claudio

    2013-07-01

    Detectors for simultaneous positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in particular with sub-mm spatial resolution are commonly composed of scintillator crystal arrays, readout via arrays of solid state sensors, such as avalanche photo diodes (APDs) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Usually a light guide between the crystals and the sensor is used to enable the identification of crystals which are smaller than the sensor elements. However, this complicates crystal identification at the gaps and edges of the sensor arrays. A solution is to use as many sensors as crystals with a direct coupling, which unfortunately increases the complexity and power consumption of the readout electronics. Since 1997, position-sensitive APDs have been successfully used to identify sub-mm crystals. Unfortunately, these devices show a limitation in their time resolution and a degradation of spatial resolution when placed in higher magnetic fields. To overcome these limitations, this paper presents a new sensor concept that extends conventional SiPMs by adding position information via the spatial encoding of the channel sensitivity. The concept allows a direct coupling of high-resolution crystal arrays to the sensor with a reduced amount of readout channels. The theory of sensitivity encoding is detailed and linked to compressed sensing to compute unique sparse solutions. Two devices have been designed using one- and two-dimensional linear sensitivity encoding with eight and four readout channels, respectively. Flood histograms of both devices show the capability to precisely identify all 4 × 4 LYSO crystals with dimensions of 0.93 × 0.93 × 10 mm3. For these crystals, the energy and time resolution (MV ± SD) of the devices with one (two)-dimensional encoding have been measured to be 12.3 · (1 ± 0.047)% (13.7 · (1 ± 0.047)%) around 511 keV with a paired coincidence time resolution (full width at half maximum) of 462 · (1 ± 0.054) ps (452 · (1 ± 0

  2. The Scintillator Tile Hadronic Calorimeter Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinov, V.

    2006-01-01

    A high granularity scintillator hadronic calorimeter prototype is described. The calorimeter is based on a novel photodetector - Silicon Photo-Multiplier (SiPM). The main parameters of SiPM are discussed as well as readout cell construction and optimization. The experience with a small prototype production and testing is described. A new 8 k channel prototype is being manufactured now

  3. Gain stabilization circuit of measuring devices with photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seda, J.; Sabol, J.

    1974-01-01

    A circuit is designed for the stabilization of the gain of measuring devices with photomultipliers, suitable especially for the stabilization of scintillation detection systems, in which the correction signal is applied to the photomultiplier grid placed between the photocathode and the first dynode. (J.K.)

  4. Linearity measurement of the XP 1210 fast photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuze, G.; Sawine, P.

    1969-01-01

    A new X Y method of photomultipliers linearity measurement has been tested which is more suitable for fast photomultiplier tubes. The XP 1210 gives a linearity limit of 70 mA for the gain 10, i.e. 3.5 V for a 50 Ω charge impedance

  5. SiPM Photodetectors for Highest Time Resolution in PET

    CERN Document Server

    Gundacker, S; Meyer, T; Lecoq, P; Jarron, P; Frisch, B

    2012-01-01

    Mesh anode Vacuum Phototriodes (VPTs) are radiation resistant, single gain-stage photomultipliers which are designed to operate in a strong quasi-axial magnetic field. These VPTs are used in the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC to detect scintillation light from lead tungstate crystals. Short term dynamic response changes occur because of pulse rate variations during normal LHC operation cycles. Over the longer term the effect of increasing integrated charge taken from the photocathode causes an overall degradation of response. We have investigated these effects over time periods exceeding two years of simulated operation and discuss the implications for the long term performance of the VPTs in CMS.

  6. Characterization of new FBK SiPM technology for visible light detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, N; Ferri, A; Gola, A; Pro, T; Tarolli, A; Zorzi, N; Piemonte, C

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the new n-on-p SiPM technology developed at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK, Trento-Italy). Several device aspects such as dark count rate, photo detection efficiency, breakdown voltage uniformity, and temperature stability have been significantly improved with respect to the original FBK SiPM technology. The modifications introduced involve the internal device structure and are based on an electric-field engineering approach. We report on the dark characterization, the visible light detection efficiency and 511 keV gamma ray energy resolution, when reading out small LYSO or Ce:GAGG crystals, of the new devices. In parallel, a comparison to the original SiPMs is done in order to underline the main advancements that have been obtained. We refer this new technology to as RGB-SiPMs because of the high detection efficiency for the whole red, green, and blue part of the spectrum.

  7. Readout electronics for the SiPM tracking plane in the NEXT-1 prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, V.; Toledo, J.; Català, J.M.; Esteve, R.; Gil, A.; Lorca, D.; Monzó, J.M.; Sanchis, F.; Verdugo, A.

    2012-01-01

    NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a 100 kg radio-pure high-pressure gaseous xenon TPC with electroluminescence readout. A large-scale prototype with a SiPM tracking plane has been built. The primary electron paths can be reconstructed from time-resolved measurements of the light that arrives to the SiPM plane. Our approach is to measure how many photons have reached each SiPM sensor each microsecond with a gated integrator. We have designed and tested a 16-channel front-end board that includes the analog paths and a digital section. Each analog path consists of three different stages: a transimpedance amplifier, a gated integrator and an offset and gain control stage. Measurements show good linearity and the ability to detect single photoelectrons.

  8. Readout electronics for the SiPM tracking plane in the NEXT-1 prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, V. [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular I3M (Centro mixto CSIC-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-CIEMAT), 46022 Valencia (Spain); Toledo, J., E-mail: jtoledo@eln.upv.es [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular I3M (Centro mixto CSIC-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-CIEMAT), 46022 Valencia (Spain); Catala, J.M.; Esteve, R. [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular I3M (Centro mixto CSIC-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-CIEMAT), 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gil, A.; Lorca, D. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universidad de Valencia), 46980 Valencia (Spain); Monzo, J.M.; Sanchis, F. [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular I3M (Centro mixto CSIC-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-CIEMAT), 46022 Valencia (Spain); Verdugo, A. [CIEMAT-Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-11

    NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a 100 kg radio-pure high-pressure gaseous xenon TPC with electroluminescence readout. A large-scale prototype with a SiPM tracking plane has been built. The primary electron paths can be reconstructed from time-resolved measurements of the light that arrives to the SiPM plane. Our approach is to measure how many photons have reached each SiPM sensor each microsecond with a gated integrator. We have designed and tested a 16-channel front-end board that includes the analog paths and a digital section. Each analog path consists of three different stages: a transimpedance amplifier, a gated integrator and an offset and gain control stage. Measurements show good linearity and the ability to detect single photoelectrons.

  9. Proof of concept of an imaging system demonstrator for PET applications with SiPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrocchi, Matteo; Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Giuseppina Bisogni, Maria; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Santoni, Cristiano; Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito; Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres; Del Guerra, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    A PET imaging system demonstrator based on LYSO crystal arrays coupled to SiPM matrices is under construction at the University and INFN of Pisa. Two SiPM matrices, composed of 8×8 SiPM pixels, and 1,5 mm pitch, have been coupled one to one to a LYSO crystals array and read out by a custom electronics system. front-end ASICs were used to read 8 channels of each matrix. Data from each front-end were multiplexed and sent to a DAQ board for the digital conversion; a motherboard collects the data and communicates with a host computer through a USB port for the storage and off-line data processing. In this paper we show the first preliminary tomographic image of a point-like radioactive source acquired with part of the two detection heads in time coincidence

  10. Proof of concept of an imaging system demonstrator for PET applications with SiPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrocchi, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.morrocchi@pi.infn.it [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Giuseppina Bisogni, Maria [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Collazuol, Gianmaria [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Ambrosi, Giovanni; Santoni, Cristiano [INFN Sezione di Perugia, Perugia 06100 (Italy); Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito [Politecnico di Bari and INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari 70100 (Italy); Sportelli, Giancarlo [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Del Guerra, Alberto [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy)

    2013-08-21

    A PET imaging system demonstrator based on LYSO crystal arrays coupled to SiPM matrices is under construction at the University and INFN of Pisa. Two SiPM matrices, composed of 8×8 SiPM pixels, and 1,5 mm pitch, have been coupled one to one to a LYSO crystals array and read out by a custom electronics system. front-end ASICs were used to read 8 channels of each matrix. Data from each front-end were multiplexed and sent to a DAQ board for the digital conversion; a motherboard collects the data and communicates with a host computer through a USB port for the storage and off-line data processing. In this paper we show the first preliminary tomographic image of a point-like radioactive source acquired with part of the two detection heads in time coincidence.

  11. A high resolution TOF-PET concept with axial geometry and digital SiPM readout

    CERN Document Server

    Casella, C; Joram, C; Schneider, T

    2014-01-01

    The axial arrangement of long scintillation crystals is a promising concept in PET instrumentation to address the need for optimized resolution and sensitivity. Individual crystal readout and arrays of wavelength shifter strips placed orthogonally to the crystals lead to a 3D-detection of the annihilations photons. A fully operational demonstrator scanner, developed by the AX-PET collaboration, proved the potential of this concept in terms of energy and spatial resolution as well as sensitivity. This paper describes a feasibility study, performed on axial prototype detector modules with 100 mm long LYSO crystals, read out by the novel digital Silicon Photomultipliers (dSiPM) from Philips. With their highly integrated readout electronics and excellent intrinsic time resolution, dSiPMs allow for compact, axial detector modules which may extend the potential of the axial PET concept by time of fl ight capabilities (TOF-PET). A coincidence time resolution of 211 ps (FWHM) was achieved in the coincidence of two ax...

  12. A non-linear algorithm for current signal filtering and peak detection in SiPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putignano, M; Intermite, A; Welsch, C P

    2012-01-01

    Read-out of Silicon Photomultipliers is commonly achieved by means of charge integration, a method particularly susceptible to after-pulsing noise and not efficient for low level light signals. Current signal monitoring, characterized by easier electronic implementation and intrinsically faster than charge integration, is also more suitable for low level light signals and can potentially result in much decreased after-pulsing noise effects. However, its use is to date limited by the need of developing a suitable read-out algorithm for signal analysis and filtering able to achieve current peak detection and measurement with the needed precision and accuracy. In this paper we present an original algorithm, based on a piecewise linear-fitting approach, to filter the noise of the current signal and hence efficiently identifying and measuring current peaks. The proposed algorithm is then compared with the optimal linear filtering algorithm for time-encoded peak detection, based on a moving average routine, and assessed in terms of accuracy, precision, and peak detection efficiency, demonstrating improvements of 1÷2 orders of magnitude in all these quality factors.

  13. Time resolution performance studies of contemporary high speed photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The time resolution capabilities of prototype microchannel plate and static crossed-field photomultipliers have been investigated. Measurements were made of electron transit time, rise time, time response, single phtoelectron time spread and multiphotoelectron time spread for LEP HR350 proximity focused high gain curved microchannel plate and VPM-154A/1.6L static crossed-field photomultipliers. The experimental data have been compared with results obtained with conventionally designed high speed photomultipliers. Descriptions are given of both the measuring techniques and the measuring systems. 16 refs

  14. Time resolution performance studies of contemporary high speed photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The time resolution capabilities of prototype microchannel plate and static crossed-field photomultipliers have been investigated. Measurements were made of electron transit time, rise time, time response, single photoelectron time spread and multiphotoelectron time spread for LEP HR350 proximity focused high gain curved microchannel plate and VPM-154A/1.6L static crossed-field photomultipliers. The experimental data have been compared with results obtained with conventionally designed RCS 8850 and C31024 high speed photomultipliers. Descriptions are given of both the measuring techniques and the measuring systems

  15. Future photomultiplier assemblies and associated electrons in large experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duteil, P.; Hammarstroem, R.; Innocenti, P.G.; Michelini, A.; Smith, B.; Soso, F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of a working group study on reducing costs of proposed counter experiments in high-energy physics where several thousand photomultipliers are involved. Photomultiplier design is briefly discussed and new designs are presented for tube housings and high-voltage supplies. An outline presentation is given of a simplified electronics system, based on the Eurocard, for fast logic, data handling, and associated power supplies, suitable for photomultipliers or wire counters. Substantial savings in cost are shown to be possible without affecting performance but with some loss in convenience. (Auth.)

  16. Photomultiplier tube having a plurality of sensing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A single photomultiplier tube having four sensing areas each of which produces its own independent electrical signal that is related to the quantity of sensed matter that impinges on its area is described

  17. Substitution of photomultiplier tubes by photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, D.L.

    1990-04-01

    The application of Si semiconductors, either of the conventional or the avalanche type, as light amplifiers in radiation detection, has been studied aiming the substitution of photomultiplier (PM) tubes by photodiodes. The objective of this work is to compare the response of photodiodes and PM tubes when coupled to scintillation crystals. A Hamamatsu Si photodiode, model S 1337-66 B Q, was coupled to a Harshaw NaI (TI) scintillation crystal of window diameter equal to 25,4 mm. Its performance was evaluated by specially designed associated electronics, compatible with the photodiode characteristics. X-ray beams from 30 to 111 KeV were used to determine the response and the repeatability of the scintillator-photodiode and the scintillator-PM tube systems. The repeatability was found to be within 0,27% for the photodiode and 0,57% for the PM tube. This work confirmed that photodiodes can be used as light amplifiers, provided their characteristics, such as light spectrum response, are considered. It also shows that further studies are necessary in order to identify the applications in radiation detection where PM tubes might be replaced by photodiodes. (author)

  18. Charge reconstruction in large-area photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, M.; Montuschi, M.; Baldoncini, M.; Mantovani, F.; Ricci, B.; Andronico, G.; Antonelli, V.; Bellato, M.; Bernieri, E.; Brigatti, A.; Brugnera, R.; Budano, A.; Buscemi, M.; Bussino, S.; Caruso, R.; Chiesa, D.; Corti, D.; Dal Corso, F.; Ding, X. F.; Dusini, S.; Fabbri, A.; Fiorentini, G.; Ford, R.; Formozov, A.; Galet, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Giammarchi, M.; Giaz, A.; Insolia, A.; Isocrate, R.; Lippi, I.; Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Lombardi, P.; Marini, F.; Mari, S. M.; Martellini, C.; Meroni, E.; Mezzetto, M.; Miramonti, L.; Monforte, S.; Nastasi, M.; Ortica, F.; Paoloni, A.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pedretti, D.; Pelliccia, N.; Pompilio, R.; Previtali, E.; Ranucci, G.; Re, A. C.; Romani, A.; Saggese, P.; Salamanna, G.; Sawy, F. H.; Settanta, G.; Sisti, M.; Sirignano, C.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Strati, V.; Verde, G.; Votano, L.

    2018-02-01

    Large-area PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMT) allow to efficiently instrument Liquid Scintillator (LS) neutrino detectors, where large target masses are pivotal to compensate for neutrinos' extremely elusive nature. Depending on the detector light yield, several scintillation photons stemming from the same neutrino interaction are likely to hit a single PMT in a few tens/hundreds of nanoseconds, resulting in several photoelectrons (PEs) to pile-up at the PMT anode. In such scenario, the signal generated by each PE is entangled to the others, and an accurate PMT charge reconstruction becomes challenging. This manuscript describes an experimental method able to address the PMT charge reconstruction in the case of large PE pile-up, providing an unbiased charge estimator at the permille level up to 15 detected PEs. The method is based on a signal filtering technique (Wiener filter) which suppresses the noise due to both PMT and readout electronics, and on a Fourier-based deconvolution able to minimize the influence of signal distortions—such as an overshoot. The analysis of simulated PMT waveforms shows that the slope of a linear regression modeling the relation between reconstructed and true charge values improves from 0.769 ± 0.001 (without deconvolution) to 0.989 ± 0.001 (with deconvolution), where unitary slope implies perfect reconstruction. A C++ implementation of the charge reconstruction algorithm is available online at [1].

  19. A Fast Calibration System for SiPM Based Scintillator HCAL Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Polak, I

    2015-01-01

    with mid-range a fixed-intensity light pulse. The full SiPM response function is cross-checked by varying the light intensity from zero to the saturation level. In calibration systems we developed, we concentrate especially on the aspect a high dynamic range of pre...

  20. MUSIC: An 8 channel readout ASIC for SiPM arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Sergio; Gascón, David; Fernández, Gerard; Sanuy, Andreu; Mauricio, Joan; Graciani, Ricardo; Sanchez, David

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an 8 channel ASIC for SiPM anode readout based on a novel low input impedance current conveyor (under patent1). This Multiple Use SiPM Integrated Circuit (MUSIC) has been designed to serve several purposes, including, for instance, the readout of SiPM arrays for some of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) cameras. The current division scheme at the very front end part of the circuit splits the input current into differently scaled copies which are connected to independent current mirrors. The circuit contains a tunable pole zero cancellation of the SiPM recovery time constant to deal with sensors from different manufacturers. Decay times up to 100 ns are supported covering most of the available SiPM devices in the market. MUSIC offers three main features: (1) differential output of the sum of the individual input channels; (2) 8 individual single ended analog outputs and; (3) 8 individual binary outputs. The digital outputs encode the amount of collected charge in the duration of the digital signal using a time over threshold technique. For each individual channel, the user must select the analog or digital output. Each functionality, the signal sum and the 8 A/D outputs, include a selectable dual-gain configuration. Moreover, the signal sum implements dual-gain output providing a 15 bit dynamic range. Full die simulation results of the MUSIC designed using AMS 0.35 µm SiGe technology are presented: total die size of 9 mm2, 500 MHz bandwidth for channel sum and 150 MHz bandwidth for A/D channels, low input impedance (≍32 Ω), single photon output pulse width at half maximum (FWHM) between 5 and 10 ns and with a power consumption of ≍ 30 mW/ch plus ≍ 200 mW for the 8 ch sum. Encapsulated prototype samples of the MUSIC are expected by March 2016.

  1. UNCONTROLLED PHOTOMULTIPLIER CURRENT IN PHOTOEMISSION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Viazava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of photon energy from energy of photoelectron is base of photoemission radiation analysis. In such photoemission measurements except current of photocathode is always exist a reverse current from the collector of electrons to the photocathode in two-electrode sensors. There are various ways of reverse and uncontrolled current eliminating or reducing their influence. The constructive method is based on creating an electron-optical system of photoelectronic device, which would be a photoelectron energy analyzer. The second method – technological. However, it requires the manufacture of the photocathode and the dynode system in different vacuum chamber with subsequent connection to a single device in vacuum environment without exposure to the atmosphere. The purpose of this article is to determinate the effect of photoemission from photocathode chamber and the first dynode of photomultiplier on energy distribution of the photoelectrons from photocathode. To solve this problem authors obtained calibration curves for measuring pyrometer module ПИФ 4/2 with ФЭУ-114 as a sensor at supply voltage 1350 V and different decelerating voltages. The effect of illumination on the value of modulation coefficient on temperature k(T and wavelength k(λ is shown. In temperature measurements, this effect is evident in fact that at temperatures below 1400 K linear dependence ln k – T-1 is broken. Still this linear dependence is a necessary consequence of the fact that the measured temperature is color temperature. However, this calibration curve can be used to measure low temperature if the target measurements condition and calibration conditions are identical. In wavelength calibration, curve k(λ at λ > 760 nm is two-valued, that doesn’t allow to identify monochromatic radiation by this method and bring in errors in temperature measurements. 

  2. Light Production in the Double Chooz Photomultiplier Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Crespo, J. I.; Gil-Botella, I.; Jimenez, S.; Lopez, M.; Novella, P.; Palomares, C.; Santorelli, R.; Verdugo, A.

    2012-09-13

    In this document we present a study of the phenomenon of light emission (called glowing) in the bases of the Hamamatsu R7081MOD-ASSY photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) used in the Double Chooz experiment. The tests have been carried out at the CIEMAT laboratories over a photomultiplier tube of the same model. We have studied the phenomenon making first a characterization of it, and then focusing on the dependence of the rate and the amount of emitted light versus voltage and temperature. In addition, we have looked for the possible existence of an ultraviolet component in the light which would be harmful for the experiment because it could be able to excite the scintillator liquid. Finally, we propose and test a method to reduce the light emission using a cover on the base of the photomultiplier tube.. (Author)

  3. Noise in the Measurement of Light with Photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robben, F

    1968-05-15

    In order to be able to compare measurements derived from the anode current of a photomultiplier with measurement derived from photoelectron pulse counting, a systematic investigation of the properties of some photomultiplier tubes has been made. This has led to a correlation of the properties of a photomultiplier based on the quantum efficiency {eta}, the gain G, a photoelectron loss factor S and an effective dark rate D. In terms of these quantities the signal to noise ratio of an experimental measurement can be calculated, given the light flux and measurement technique. The fluctuations in a photomultiplier output are divided into two parts; Poisson fluctuations, and those due to excess noise. It is experimentally shown, from measurements on a 931A photomultiplier, that the excess noise exceeds the Poisson fluctuations only at very low frequencies, or long DC measurement times (> 10 s), for both pulse counting and anode current measurements. The Poisson fluctuations are found to be approximately the same for both pulse counting and anode current measurements, at both high light levels where the dark current, or dark pulses, are negligible, as well as at low light levels where the dark current is dominant. The excess noise is found to be somewhat greater in the case of anode current measurements. Thus both pulse counting and anode current measurement techniques have nearly identical noise properties, as far as the photomultiplier is concerned, and selection of either experimental technique depends primarily on the properties of the electronic equipment. By use of a synchronous detection technique, the variance of the pulse count was measured experimentally to an accuracy of {+-} 4 %, and was shown to be in agreement with that predicted by Poisson statistics.

  4. Position-sensitive gaseous photomultipliers research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Francke, Tom; Peskov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Gaseous photomultipliers are defined as gas-filled devices capable of recording single ultraviolet (UV) and visible photons with high position resolution. Used in a variety of research areas, these detectors can be paired with computers to treat and store imaging information of UV-light. Position-Sensitive Gaseous Photomultipliers: Research and Applications explores the advancement of gaseous detectors as applied for single photon detection. Emphasizing emerging perspectives and new ways to apply gaseous detectors across research fields, this research-based publication is an essential reference source for engineers, physicists, graduate-level students, and researchers.

  5. Scintillating fibre detectors using position-sensitive photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoritsas, V.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bing, O.; Bravar, A.; Ditta, J.; Drevenak, R.

    1995-01-01

    Scintillating fibre technology has made substantial progress, and has demonstrated great potential for fast tracking and triggering in high luminosity experiments in Particle Physics. Some recent issues of the RD-17 project at CERN are presented for fast and precise readout of scintillating fibre arrays, as well as for upgrade of position-sensitive photomultipliers. Excellent matching of the scintillating fibre and the position-sensitive photomultiplier, in particular in time characteristics, allowed to achieve excellent detector performances, typically a spatial resolution of ∼ 125 μm with time resolution better than 1 ns and detection efficiency greater than 95%. (author)10 refs.; 25 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Accuracy of single photoelectron time spread measurement of fast photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1975-01-01

    The accuracy of time spread measurements of fast photomultipliers was investigated, using single photoelectrons. The effect of the finite light pulse width on the measurement accuracy was determined and discussed. Experimental data were obtained on a special measuring system for light pulse widths ranging from 200 psec to 10 nsec, using fast photomultipliers 8850 and C31024 with optimized operating conditions for minimum transit time spread. A modified exponential function expression and curve-fitting parameters are given, which fit closely the experimentally obtained data over a wide dynamic range of light pulse widths. (U.S.)

  7. SiPM arrays and miniaturized readout electronics for compact gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinu, N., E-mail: dinu@lal.in2p3.fr [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Imando, T. Ait; Nagai, A. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Pinot, L. [Laboratory of Imaging and Modelisation in Neurobiology and Cancerology, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Puill, V. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Callier, S. [Omega Microelectronics Group, CNRS, Palaiseau (France); Janvier, B.; Esnault, C.; Verdier, M.-A. [Laboratory of Imaging and Modelisation in Neurobiology and Cancerology, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France); Raux, L. [Omega Microelectronics Group, CNRS, Palaiseau (France); Vandenbussche, V.; Charon, Y.; Menard, L. [Laboratory of Imaging and Modelisation in Neurobiology and Cancerology, IN2P3, CNRS, Orsay (France)

    2015-07-01

    This article reports on the design and features of a very compact and light gamma camera based on SiPM arrays and miniaturized readout electronics dedicated to tumor localization during radio-guided cancer surgery. This gamma camera, called MAGICS, is composed of four (2×2) photo-detection elementary modules coupled to an inorganic scintillator. The 256 channels photo-detection system covers a sensitive area of 54×53 m{sup 2}. Each elementary module is based on four (2×2) SiPM monolithic arrays, each array consisting of 16 SiPM photo-sensors (4×4) with 3×3 mm{sup 2} sensitive area, coupled to a miniaturized readout electronics and a dedicated ASIC. The overall dimensions of the electronics fit the size of the detector, enabling to assemble side-by-side several elementary modules in a close-packed arrangement. The preliminary performances of the system are very encouraging, showing an energy resolution of 9.8% and a spatial resolution of less than 1 mm at 122 keV.

  8. Photon counting with a FDIRC Cherenkov prototype readout by SiPM arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocchesi, P.S., E-mail: marrocchesi@pi.infn.it [Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bagliesi, M.G. [Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Basti, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bigongiari, G.; Bonechi, S.; Brogi, P. [Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Checchia, C.; Collazuol, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Padova, Italy, and INFN-Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); Maestro, P. [Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Morsani, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Piemonte, C. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), I-38122 Trento (Italy); Stolzi, F.; Suh, J.E; Sulaj, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    A prototype of a Focused Internal Reflection Cherenkov, equipped with 16 arrays of NUV-SiPM, was tested at CERN SPS in March 2015 with beams of relativistic ions at 13, 19 and 30 GeV/n obtained from fragmentation of an Ar primary beam. The detector, designed to identify cosmic nuclei, features a Fused Silica radiator bar optically connected to a cylindrical mirror of the same material and an imaging focal plane of dimensions ∼4 cm×3 cm covered with a total of 1024 SiPM photosensors. Thanks to the outstanding performance of the SiPM arrays, the detector could be operated in photon counting mode as a fully digital device. The Cherenkov pattern was recorded together with the total number of detected photoelectrons increasing as Z{sup 2} as a function of the atomic number Z of the beam particle. In this paper, we report on the characterization and test of the SiPM arrays and the performance of the Cherenkov prototype for the charge identification of the beam particles.

  9. Counting efficiency formulae for two, three or four photomultiplier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.

    1993-01-01

    Counting efficiency formulae as a function of the non-detection probability and the electron distributions for systems with two, three or dour photomultipliers are obtained in this paper. It is assumed that the photocathode electron emission follows the Poisson distribution. The obtained formulae are basic to compute the counting efficiency in liquid scintillation spectrometers

  10. TRitium Activity Measurements with a PhotomultipliEr in Liquids–The TRAMPEL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priester, Florian; Klein, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We have set up a new test device for measuring of tritiated water samples. • The device is very compact and easy and reliable in operation. • Easy integration in flow-through systems is possible. • The device has been operated at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe for several months. • The lower detection limit has been improved with regard to predecessors experiments. - Abstract: A common technique for the determination of the activity of tritiated water (HTO) is liquid scintillation counting (LSC). This implies sample taking, sample preparation and radioactive waste processing afterwards. When handling highly tritiated water special care has to be taken because of possible harmfulness of the sample. Furthermore, LSC devices are mostly large, heavy and expensive. The TRAMPEL experiment aims at measuring the activity of tritiated water in-line without sample taking. The device is intended to be easy to use and operate, quite inexpensive and compact. The measurement principle is based on electrons from β-decay which induce light in commercially available scintillation fibres. The light is detected by a small photomultiplier tube (PMT). A proof-of-principle was set up for static measurements using standard stainless steel parts. The complete device has a volume of less than 0.5 l.

  11. TRitium Activity Measurements with a PhotomultipliEr in Liquids–The TRAMPEL experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priester, Florian, E-mail: florian.priester@kit.edu; Klein, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We have set up a new test device for measuring of tritiated water samples. • The device is very compact and easy and reliable in operation. • Easy integration in flow-through systems is possible. • The device has been operated at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe for several months. • The lower detection limit has been improved with regard to predecessors experiments. - Abstract: A common technique for the determination of the activity of tritiated water (HTO) is liquid scintillation counting (LSC). This implies sample taking, sample preparation and radioactive waste processing afterwards. When handling highly tritiated water special care has to be taken because of possible harmfulness of the sample. Furthermore, LSC devices are mostly large, heavy and expensive. The TRAMPEL experiment aims at measuring the activity of tritiated water in-line without sample taking. The device is intended to be easy to use and operate, quite inexpensive and compact. The measurement principle is based on electrons from β-decay which induce light in commercially available scintillation fibres. The light is detected by a small photomultiplier tube (PMT). A proof-of-principle was set up for static measurements using standard stainless steel parts. The complete device has a volume of less than 0.5 l.

  12. Progress in ultrafast CsI-photocathode gaseous imaging photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagendorf, V.; Breskin, A.; Chechick, R.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.

    1991-04-01

    A large area low-pressure gas-filled UV-imaging photomultiplier with CsI photocathode is presented. The double step electron photomultiplier with a 10 torr CH 4 gas-filling enables stable high gain operation. The detection efficiency of photon in the wavelength range λ ∼ 170 nm (Xe scintilation light) is about 10% for 200 to 2000 nm thick photocathodes. We investigate the influence of various substrate materials, the thickness of the CsI-layer, the gas pressure and the gas composition on the performance of the photocathode. Furthermore we studied the stability of the photocathode under different operating conditions and its sensitivity to air. Measurements of the timing characteristic of the device yielded an ultimate time resolution of 350 ps (fwhm). (author)

  13. A superconducting supercollider calorimeter photomultiplier tube preamplifier circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panescu, D; Lackey, J; Robl, P; Smith, W H [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Physics Dept.

    1992-07-15

    This study presents the design of the front end amplifier for a scintillator calorimeter with photomultiplier tube (PMT) readout. The design is based on analytical computations and SPICE simulations, and is checked against tests performed on a prototyped circuit. We were looking to achieve (1) a very low droop within the 4 ns after the integration of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) signal was completed, (2) a very low noise figure for the whole amplifier in a 100 MHz bandwidth, (3) an input impedance optimized for the PMT which is actually used, (4) baseline restoration as quick as possible at the output of the clip amps, (5) no loss of information due to the saturation at intermediary stages (e.g. integrator), and (6) an output driving 100 {Omega} twisted pair cables, or 50 {Omega} coaxial cables, in order to transmit the signal to switched capacitor arrays for analog storage. (orig.).

  14. Application of large area SiPMs for the readout of a plastic scintillator based timing detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, C.; Blondel, A.; Brundler, R.; Dätwyler, A.; Favre, Y.; Gascon, D.; Gomez, S.; Korzenev, A.; Mermod, P.; Noah, E.; Serra, N.; Sgalaberna, D.; Storaci, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this study an array of eight 6 mm × 6 mm area SiPMs was coupled to the end of a long plastic scintillator counter which was exposed to a 2.5 GeV/c muon beam at the CERN PS. Timing characteristics of bars with dimensions 150 cm × 6 cm × 1 cm and 120 cm × 11 cm × 2.5 cm have been studied. An 8-channel SiPM anode readout ASIC (MUSIC R1) based on a novel low input impedance current conveyor has been used to read out and amplify SiPMs independently and sum the signals at the end. Prospects for applications in large-scale particle physics detectors with timing resolution below 100 ps are provided in light of the results.

  15. arXiv Application of large area SiPMs for the readout of a plastic scintillator based timing detector

    CERN Document Server

    Betancourt, C.; Brundler, R.; Dätwyler, A.; Favre, Y.; Gascon, D.; Gomez, S.; Korzenev, Alexander; Mermod, P.; Noah, E.; Serra, N.; Sgalaberna, D.; Storaci, B.

    2017-11-27

    In this study an array of eight 6 mm × 6 mm area SiPMs was coupled to the end of a long plastic scintillator counter which was exposed to a 2.5 GeV/c muon beam at the CERN PS. Timing characteristics of bars with dimensions 150 cm × 6 cm × 1 cm and 120 cm × 11 cm × 2.5 cm have been studied. An 8-channel SiPM anode readout ASIC (MUSIC R1) based on a novel low input impedance current conveyor has been used to read out and amplify SiPMs independently and sum the signals at the end. Prospects for applications in large-scale particle physics detectors with timing resolution below 100 ps are provided in light of the results.

  16. Dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with SiPM read-out

    CERN Document Server

    de La Taille, C

    2008-01-01

    The SPIROC chip is a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with Silicon photomultiplier (or MPPC) readout. This ASIC is due to equip a 10,000-channel demonstrator in 2009. SPIROC is an evolution of FLC_SiPM used for the ILC AHCAL physics prototype [1]. SPIROC was submitted in June 2007 and will be tested in September 2007. It embeds cutting edge features that fulfil ILC final detector requirements. It has been realized in 0.35m SiGe technology. It has been developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of readout channels needed. SPIROC is an auto-triggered, bi-gain, 36-channel ASIC which allows to measure on each channel the charge from one photoelectron to 2000 and the time with a 100ps accurate TDC. An analogue memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. A 12-bit Wilkinson ADC has been embedded to digitize the analogue memor...

  17. UVSiPM: A light detector instrument based on a SiPM sensor working in single photon counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sottile, G.; Russo, F.; Agnetta, G. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Belluso, M.; Billotta, S. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Biondo, B. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Bonanno, G. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Catalano, O.; Giarrusso, S. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Grillo, A. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Impiombato, D.; La Rosa, G.; Maccarone, M.C.; Mangano, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Marano, D. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Mineo, T.; Segreto, A.; Strazzeri, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Timpanaro, M.C. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    UVSiPM is a light detector designed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the 320–900 nm wavelength range. It has been developed in the framework of the ASTRI project whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end Small Size class Telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The UVSiPM instrument is composed by a multipixel Silicon Photo-Multiplier detector unit coupled to an electronic chain working in single photon counting mode with 10 nanosecond double pulse resolution, and by a disk emulator interface card for computer connection. The detector unit of UVSiPM is of the same kind as the ones forming the camera at the focal plane of the ASTRI prototype. Eventually, the UVSiPM instrument can be equipped with a collimator to regulate its angular aperture. UVSiPM, with its peculiar characteristics, will permit to perform several measurements both in lab and on field, allowing the absolute calibration of the ASTRI prototype.

  18. Dynamic range broadening for photomultipliers in kinetic spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumas, V.K.

    1983-01-01

    The circuit of switching on a photomultiplier with prestage modulation developed for kinetic spectrophotometry purposes is described. Distinguishing features of the scheme are wide range of control pulse duration (40 nc - 2.5 mc) and direct transistor photostart by laser light pulse. In the case of PM prestage modulation for the second dynode modulation depth attains 400 while PM opening time constitutes 40 nc

  19. An amplifier for VUV photomultiplier operating in cryogenic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Dahal, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Inzeo, M.; Franchi, G.; Pazos Clemens, L.

    2016-01-01

    We present the characterisation of an amplifier potentially interesting for noble liquid detectors. The design has been conceived considering the requirements of low power consumption (less than 30 mW), low noise, amplification factor of 10 at 100 MHz and use of commercial components. The amplifier has been integrated onto an electronic board with a voltage divider to operate an Hamamatsu R11410 photomultiplier tube (used in XENON1T, Aprile et al. (2014) [1] dark matter experiment).

  20. An amplifier for VUV photomultiplier operating in cryogenic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Dahal, S. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Di Giovanni, A., E-mail: adriano.digiovanni@nyu.edu [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); D' Inzeo, M.; Franchi, G. [Age Scientific srl – Capezzano Pianore (Italy); Pazos Clemens, L. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-07-11

    We present the characterisation of an amplifier potentially interesting for noble liquid detectors. The design has been conceived considering the requirements of low power consumption (less than 30 mW), low noise, amplification factor of 10 at 100 MHz and use of commercial components. The amplifier has been integrated onto an electronic board with a voltage divider to operate an Hamamatsu R11410 photomultiplier tube (used in XENON1T, Aprile et al. (2014) [1] dark matter experiment).

  1. Batch production of microchannel plate photo-multipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, Henry J.; Wetstein, Matthew; Elagin, Andrey

    2018-03-06

    In-situ methods for the batch fabrication of flat-panel micro-channel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT) detectors (MCP-PMTs), without transporting either the window or the detector assembly inside a vacuum vessel are provided. The method allows for the synthesis of a reflection-mode photocathode on the entrance to the pores of a first MCP or the synthesis of a transmission-mode photocathode on the vacuum side of a photodetector entrance window.

  2. Detector block based on arrays of 144 SiPMs and monolithic scintillators: A performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, A.J.; Conde, P.; Iborra, A.; Aguilar, A.; Bellido, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Hernández, L.; Moliner, L.; Rigla, J.P.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M.J.; Sánchez, F.; Seimetz, M.; Soriano, A.; Torres, J.; Vidal, L.F.; Benlloch, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a detector block composed by a monolithic LYSO scintillator coupled to a custom made 12×12 SiPMs array. The design is mainly focused to applications such as Positron Emission Tomography. The readout electronics is based on 3 identical and scalable Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). We have determined the main performance of the detector block namely spatial, energy, and time resolution but also the system capability to determine the photon depth of interaction, for different crystal surface treatments. Intrinsic detector spatial resolution values as good as 1.7 mm FWHM and energies of 15% for black painted crystals were measured

  3. High resolution detectors based on continuous crystals and SiPMs for small animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, J.; Barrillon, P.; Barrio, J.; Bisogni, M.G.; Del Guerra, A.; Lacasta, C.; Rafecas, M.; Saikouk, H.; Solaz, C.; Solevi, P.; La Taille, C. de; Llosá, G.

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity and spatial resolution are the two main factors to maximize in emission imaging. The improvement of one factor deteriorates the other with pixelated crystals. In this work we combine SiPM matrices with monolithic crystals, using an accurate γ-ray interaction position determination algorithm that provides depth of interaction. Continuous crystals provide higher sensitivity than pixelated crystals, while an accurate interaction position determination does not degrade the spatial resolution. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data show good agreement both demonstrating sub-millimetre intrinsic spatial resolution. A system consisting in two rotating detectors in coincidence is currently under operation already producing tomographic images

  4. Characterization of EASIROC as front-end for the readout of the SiPM at the focal plane of the Cherenkov telescope ASTRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impiombato, D.; Giarrusso, S.; Mineo, T.; Belluso, M.; Billotta, S.; Bonanno, G.; Catalano, O.; Grillo, A.; La Rosa, G.; Marano, D.; Sottile, G.

    2013-01-01

    The Extended Analogue Silicon Photo-multiplier Integrated Read Out Chip, EASIROC, is a chip proposed as front-end of the camera at the focal plane of the imaging Cherenkov ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype. This paper presents the results of the measurements performed to characterize EASIROC in order to evaluate its compliance with the ASTRI SST-2M focal plane requirements. In particular, we investigated the trigger time walk and the jitter effects as a function of the pulse amplitude. The EASIROC output signal is found to vary linearly as a function of the input pulse amplitude with very low level of electronic noise and cross-talk (<1%). Our results show that it is suitable as front-end chip for the camera prototype, although, specific modifications are necessary to adopt the device in the final version of the telescope

  5. Externally mounted radioactivity detector for MWD employing radial inline scintillator and photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, J.E.; Mumby, E.S.; Groeschel, V.E.

    1991-01-01

    Improved radioactivity well logging may be achieved by mounting a scintillator and photomultiplier tube in a single case interfacing with a hole extending through a drill collar at the lower end of a drill string so that measurements can be made while drilling. Radioactive sources (when required for well logging) are mounted in cavities which open to the exterior of the drill collar. Light from the scintillator is coupled directly to the aligned photomultiplier tube both of which are mounted in a case extending radially within the drill collar and sealingly engaging an electronics housing within the drill collar and the drill collar wall surrounding the hole. The scintillator is of greater diameter than the photomultiplier tube. A frustoconical light pipe connects the scintillator and the photomultiplier tube, channeling scintillation in the crystal to the photomultiplier to provide an amplified detection capability over that for a scintillator having the same diameter as the photomultiplier tube. (author)

  6. Study of a high gain microchannel plate photomultiplier having low statistical gain fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audier, M.

    1980-12-01

    A new photomultiplier configuration which synthesizes the performances of several models is proposed. The principles of microchannel plate photomultipliers are reviewed. The physical phenomena which limit the electron multiplication process in a microchannel and the detection efficiency of the microchannel plates are investigated. The operation of a herring-bone pattern device and of a system of two microchannel plate photomultipliers are described and characterized [fr

  7. Actively-stabilized photomultiplier tube base for vacuum operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, M.A; Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    An actively stabilized photomultiplier tube (PMT) base design for an Amperex XP-2262B PMT is described. Positive-negative-positive transistors are used as low-impedance current sources to maintain constant voltages on the last three dynodes. This technique results in a highly stable, low-power tube base ideal for use with low-duty-factor beams, such as those found at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. Furthermore, because of the low power usage of this large design, these bases can be sealed in a heat-conductive, electrically insulating material and used in a vacuum

  8. Wide aperture scintillation hodoscope with FEU-143 photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, L.G.; Ivanov, M.A.; Karpukhin, V.V.; Komarov, V.I.; Kulikov, A.V.; Yazkov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Scintillation hodoscopes with FEU-143 photomultipliers are described. Every of two hodoscopes consists of 8 elements each of length 1400 mm and cross section 56x56 mm. The time and amplitude characteristics were obtained in real conditions of the physical experiment at the Protvino U-70 accelerator. A resolution on time difference between hits of two hodoscopes is 224 ps. A separation of pions and protons by their ionization losses is also provided at momenta less than 1000 MeV/c. 5 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Fast readout of scintillating fibres using position-sensitive photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoritsas, V.; Akchurin, N.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bing, O.; Bravar, A.; Ditta, J.; Dufournaud, J.; Dyachenko, V.A.; Giacomich, R.; Gorin, A.M.; Kuroda, K.; Magaudda, D.; Newsom, C.; Okada, K.; Onel, Y.; Penzo, A.; Rakhmatov, V.Ye.; Rykalin, V.I.; Salvato, G.; Savin, A.A.; Schiavon, P.; Sillou, D.; Solovyov, Yu.A.; Takeutchi, F.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Vasilchenko, V.G.; Yoshida, T.; Zaychenko, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Major progress has recently been achieved in the fast readout of scintillating fibres using position-sensitive photomultipliers (PSPMs). Experimental results obtained with commercially available PSPMs already show a space resolution better than 200 μm, a time resolution of about 1.5 ns with a detection efficiency higher than 90%, and the possibility of separating double hits with a minimum distance of ∼3 mm. An upgrade of PSPMs based on new dynode structures is also in progress. Results obtained with one new PSPM prototype in a magnetic field are also presented. (orig.)

  10. On the prospects of application and development of solid-state photomultipliers for the task of analog detecting of pulsed optical signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Kolobov, N. A.; Levin, E. V.; Pozdnyakov, Y. I.; Shubin, V. E.; Shushakov, D. A.; Sitarsky, K. Yu.; Torgovnikov, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze the influence of the crosstalk level and the dynamic range on the basic characteristics of a silicon solid-state photomultiplier and demonstrate their importance for detecting of optical signals with backlight illumination, in particular, for LIDAR application. Experimental results obtained in the study of threshold and fluctuation parameters of detectors with different levels of crosstalk and dynamic range are presented. It is shown that the detector design combining a high dynamic range with a small crosstalk gives a noticeable advantage in such applications.

  11. Photocopia-A Unibody Mono-material Compact and Scalable Photomultiplier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulhollan, Gregory [Saxet Surface Science

    2014-12-01

    The Photocopia photomultiplier tube (PMT) takes advantage of two of the many unique properties of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium (a-SiGe) photoemitter material: its mechanical flexibility and mostly substrate-independent properties. The a-SiGe photoemitter has high secondary electron (SE) yield. It can be used both as the photocathode and as the gain medium. The active material can be grown on a flat, thin unibody substrate, formed and then “rolled up” ex situ. The completed structure would then be activated and sealed within a tube. The Ge component can be increased to enhance red-sensitivity. Compact sizes are possible, minimizing magnetic field effects. The Photocopia PMT will be a low cost alternative to MCPs for TOF detectors and provide better timing discrimination for Cherenkov detectors. Retention of the ability to activate to a normal photoyield state upon flexing (bending) the substrate of the a-SiGe material after growth, but prior to activation has been shown. The SE coefficient of the activated material has been characterized over the voltage range suitable for utilization as the gain material. The time response of the material is suited to PMT use.

  12. A photomultiplier-based secondary electron imaging system for a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, L.C.; Breese, M.B.H.; Silva, M.F. da; Soares, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to define, or recognise particular regions of interest or surface features is vital to the analysis and interpretation of spatially-resolved images collected with a nuclear microprobe. However, good topographic image contrast is difficult to accomplish using PIXE or RBS images due to their inherent insensitivity to topography, lack of elemental variation or poor statistics. Topographic image contrast is commonly obtained in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by detecting a large flux of secondary electrons produced by the focused keV electron beam. Similar systems have not been widely used on nuclear microprobes due to ion beam intensity fluctuations, which limit the minimum resolvable contrast and present a major limitation for this technique. This paper describes a secondary electron imaging system which has been developed on the Lisbon microprobe. It is based on a scintillator, a photomultiplier operated in a pulsed mode, a pulse shaping electronic chain and ADC, and requires no changes to the existing data acquisition system. Examples of the images obtained from materials such as patterned SiGe wafers and hydrogen-implanted silicon are given, and compared with SEM or optical images

  13. Characterization of high density SiPM non-linearity and energy resolution for prompt gamma imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzoni, V.; Acerbi, F.; Cozzi, G.; Ferri, A.; Fiorini, C.; Paternoster, G.; Piemonte, C.; Rucatti, D.; Zappalà, G.; Zorzi, N.; Gola, A.

    2017-07-01

    Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) (Trento, Italy) has recently introduced High Density (HD) and Ultra High-Density (UHD) SiPMs, featuring very small micro-cell pitch. The high cell density is a very important factor to improve the linearity of the SiPM in high-dynamic-range applications, such as the scintillation light readout in high-energy gamma-ray spectroscopy and in prompt gamma imaging for proton therapy. The energy resolution at high energies is a trade-off between the excess noise factor caused by the non-linearity of the SiPM and the photon detection efficiency of the detector. To study these effects, we developed a new setup that simulates the LYSO light emission in response to gamma photons up to 30 MeV, using a pulsed light source. We measured the non-linearity and energy resolution vs. energy of the FBK RGB-HD e RGB-UHD SiPM technologies. We considered five different cell sizes, ranging from 10 μm up to 25 μm. With the UHD technology we were able to observe a remarkable reduction of the SiPM non-linearity, less than 5% at 5 MeV with 10 μm cells, which should be compared to a non-linearity of 50% with 25 μm-cell HD-SiPMs. With the same setup, we also measured the different components of the energy resolution (intrinsic, statistical, detector and electronic noise) vs. cell size, over-voltage and energy and we separated the different sources of excess noise factor.

  14. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  15. Characterisation of the Hamamatsu photomultipliers for the KM3NeT Neutrino Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, S.; Akrame, S.E.; Amélineau, F.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aublin, J.; Avgitas, T.; Baars, M.; Bagatelas, C.; Barbarino, G.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Biernoth, C.; Bormuth, R.; Boumaaza, J.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Brânzas, H.; Briukhanova, N.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Buompane, R,; Busto, J.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Celli, S.; Chabab, M.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Molla, M.C.; Coniglione, R.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D’Onofrio, A.; Dallier, R.; De Sio, C.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz, A.F.; Distefano, C.; Domi, A.; Donà, R.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dörr, M.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ferrara, G.; Fusco, L.A.; Gal, T.; Garufi, F.; Gauchery, S.; Geißelsöder, S.; Gialanella, L.; Giorgio, E.; Giuliante, A.; Gozzini, S.R.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Grasso, D.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Hekalo, A.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hofestädt, J.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; Jongen, M.; Jongewaard, B.; de Jong, M.; de Jong, P.; Kadler, M.; Kalaczynski, P.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.F.; Khan Chowdhury, N.R.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E.N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Le Breton, A.; Leone, F.; Leonora, E.; Levi, G.; Lincetto, M.; Lonardo, A.; Longhitano, F.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maggi, G.; Manczak, J.; Mannheim, K.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Markou, C.; Martin, L.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Martini, A.; Marzaioli, F.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.W.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Mollo, C.M.; Morganti, M.; Moser, M.; Moussa, A.; Muller, R.; Musumeci, M.; Nauta, L.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C.A.; Nielsen, C.; Organokov, M.; Orlando, A.; Panagopoulos, V.; Papalashvili, G.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrini, G.; Pellegrino, C.; Pérez Romero, J.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Pisanti, O.; Poirè, C.; Polydefki, G.; Poma, G.E.; Popa, V.; Post, M.; Pradier, T.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Razzaque, S.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Richer, M.; Rovelli, A.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schermer, B.; Sciacca, V.; Seneca, J.; Sgura, I.; Shanidze, R.; Sharma, A.; Simeone, F.; Sinopoulou, A.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, D.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S.M.; Strandberg, B.; Stransky, D.; Stüven, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tatone, F.; Tayalati, Y.; Tenllado, E.; Thakore, T.; Timmer, P.; Trovato, A.; Tsagkli, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Tzanetatos, D.; Valieri, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; de Waardt, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2018-01-01

    The Hamamatsu R12199-02 3-inch photomultiplier tube is the photodetector chosen for the first phase of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. About 7000 photomultipliers have been characterised for dark count rate, timing spread and spurious pulses. The quantum efficiency, the gain and the peak-to-valley

  16. Scintillation hodoscope with working area of 50 x 50 cm based on hodoscopic photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borog, V.V.; Vasil'chenko, V.G.; Demekhin, A.V.; Dronov, V.V.; Rykalin, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    The choice of optimum designs for the sensitive elements of large hodoscopes based on hodoscopic photomultipliers is examined. The results of numerical calculations are confirmed by measurement results. The measured space resolution of one of the scintillation-hodoscope designs (with two hodoscopic photomultipliers) with a sensitive volume of 50 x 50 x 2 mm is ≤ +3 mm

  17. Evaluation of a timing integrated circuit architecture for continuous crystal and SiPM based PET systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzo, J M; Ros, A; Herrero-Bosch, V; Perino, I V; Aliaga, R J; Gadea-Girones, R; Colom-Palero, R J

    2013-01-01

    Improving timing resolution in positron emission tomography (PET), thus having fine time information of the detected pulses, is important to increase the reconstructed images signal to noise ratio (SNR) [1]. In the present work, an integrated circuit topology for time extraction of the incoming pulses is evaluated. An accurate simulation including the detector physics and the electronics with different configurations has been developed. The selected architecture is intended for a PET system based on a continuous scintillation crystal attached to a SiPM array. The integrated circuit extracts the time stamp from the first few photons generated when the gamma-ray interacts with the scintillator, thus obtaining the best time resolution. To get the time stamp from the detected pulses, a time to digital converter (TDC) array based architecture has been proposed as in [2] or [3]. The TDC input stage uses a current comparator to transform the analog signal into a digital signal. Individually configurable trigger levels allow us to avoid false triggers due to signal noise. Using a TDC per SiPM configuration results in a very area consuming integrated circuit. One solution to this problem is to join several SiPM outputs to one TDC. This reduces the number of TDCs but, on the other hand, the first photons will be more difficult to be detected. For this reason, it is important to simulate how the time resolution is degraded when the number of TDCs is reduced. Following this criteria, the best configuration will be selected considering the trade-off between achievable time resolution and the cost per chip. A simulation is presented that uses Geant4 for simulation of the physics process and, for the electronic blocks, spice and Matlab. The Geant4 stage simulates the gamma-ray interaction with the scintillator, the photon shower generation and the first stages of the SiPM. The electronics simulation includes an electrical model of the SiPM array and all the integrated circuitry

  18. Fast light pulse measurements and temporal fluctuations in photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews the results on time fluctuations in high gain first dynode photomultipliers used in single photon timing experiments; the theoretical analysis of the measurement of the shape of light pulses is recalled and the previously obtained results concerning time dispersion in the photocathode, first dynode space are discussed. In addition, the influence of the variations of the electron transit time in the multiplier on the time resolution curves of the detector is examined: the curves obtained by leading-edge triggering of the anodic pulse show a strong dependence on the threshold level of the discriminator. A single-photoelectron timing resolution of 270ps is measured using a low leading edge discrimination [fr

  19. Characterization of the Hamamatsu 8" R5912-MOD Photomultiplier tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptanoglu, Tanner

    2018-05-01

    Current and future neutrino and direct detection dark matter experiments hope to take advantage of improving technologies in photon detection. Many of these detectors are large, monolithic optical detectors that use relatively low-cost, large-area, and efficient photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). A candidate PMT for future experiments is a newly developed prototype Hamamatsu PMT, the R5912-MOD. In this paper we describe measurements made of the single photoelectron time and charge response of the R5912-MOD, as well as detail some direct comparisons to similar PMTs. Most of these measurements were performed on three R5912-MOD PMTs operating at gains close to 1 × 107. The transit time spread (σ) and the charge peak-to-valley were measured to be on average 680ps and 4.2 respectively. The results of this paper show the R5912-MOD is an excellent candidate for future experiments in several regards, particularly due to its narrow spread in timing.

  20. Measurement of amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    1961-01-01

    In order to measure amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier, two independent random variables are introduced which determine the shape of the anode pulse. The energy of each pulse, which depends directly on the gain and the variance, is the first variable; amplitude fluctuations, functions of the first variable, depend as well on the pulse width which in turn constitutes the second variable. The results obtained on the variations of the maximum impulse, using a steep-edged pulse broadening circuit, and those obtained on the statistical variations of the gain, are compared to show that the variance relative to the maximum amplitude of the signal is greater than that of the gain. Within the limits of these fluctuations are shown the contribution of the secondary emission coefficient of the first dynode, and that of the mean secondary emission coefficient of the multiplier. (author) [fr

  1. Modeling the low-light response of photomultiplier tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Patrick; Niculescu, Ioana

    2017-09-01

    A number of crucial experiments exploring the intricate tomography of protons and neutrons will be carried out in Hall A at Jefferson Lab using the SuperBigBite Spectrometer (SBS), a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer sporting 0.5% momentum and 0.5 mr angular resolution. As part of the standard SBS detector package the Gas Ring Imaging Cherenkov (GRINCH) detector will help identify particles produced in the experiments. To determine which photomultiplier (PMT) tubes would be used in GRINCH, more than 900 29 mm 9125B PMTs were tested. Two models, were used to fit test data. For the parameters relevant to this study, results from both models were found to be equivalent, and will be discussed here.

  2. Blocking of photomultiplier tubes; Blocage de tubes photomultiplicateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrivet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    Development of a very simple apparatus having a single transistor. The gain is reduced by a factor of 1.5 to 3 x 10{sup 2} for the photomultipliers XP 1002, and of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} for the photomultipliers 56-AVP and TVP. Blocking can be achieved in 40 ns if necessary (using a TRS-350 transistor), and the time required to return to the initial gain can be no longer than 40 ns with a TRS-200, for the blocking of several micro-seconds for example. 1000 {mu}s and above can be obtained with switching times which are longer but which can be less than 150 ns if needs be. An outside insulated supply can be avoided if the recurrence is low. A standard pulse generator is used for triggering. There is no other electronic equipment, and the device can be fitted easily into the space of the voltage divider. (author) [French] Etude et realisation d'un montage tres simple utilisant un seul transistor. Le gain est reduit d'un facteur 1.5 a 3.10{sup 2} sur des photomultiplicateurs XP 1002, et 10{sup 3} a 10{sup 4} sur les photomultiplicateurs 56 AVP et TVP. Le blocage peut etre atteint en 40 ns si necessaire (avec un transistor TRS-350), et le temps de retour au gain initial peut ne pas depasser 40 ns avec un TRS-200, pour des blocages de plusieurs micro-secondes, par exemple. On peut obtenir plus de 1000 {mu}s avec des temps de commutation plus importants, mais qui peuvent si besoin est ne pas etre superieurs a 150 ns. L'alimentation exterieure isolee peut etre evitee si la recurrence est faible. Pour le declenchement on utilise un generateur d'impulsions standard. Il n'y a aucune autre electronique, et le montage s'integre aisement dans l'encombrement du pont d'alimentation. (auteur)

  3. Evaluation of a Modular PET System Architecture with Synchronization over Data Links

    OpenAIRE

    Aliaga Varea, Ramón José; Herrero Bosch, Vicente; Monzó Ferrer, José María; Ros García, Ana; Gadea Gironés, Rafael; Colom Palero, Ricardo José

    2014-01-01

    A DAQ architecture for a PET system is presented that focuses on modularity, scalability and reusability. The system defines two basic building blocks: data acquisitors and concentra- tors, which can be replicated in order to build a complete DAQ of variable size. Acquisition modules contain a scintillating crystal and either a position-sensitive photomultiplier (PSPMT) or an array of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The detector signals are processed by AMIC, an integrated analog front-end t...

  4. Development of an MRI-compatible digital SiPM detector stack for simultaneous PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düppenbecker, Peter M; Weissler, Bjoern; Gebhardt, Pierre; Schug, David; Wehner, Jakob; Marsden, Paul K; Schulz, Volkmar

    2016-02-01

    Advances in solid-state photon detectors paved the way to combine positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into highly integrated, truly simultaneous, hybrid imaging systems. Based on the most recent digital SiPM technology, we developed an MRI-compatible PET detector stack, intended as a building block for next generation simultaneous PET/MRI systems. Our detector stack comprises an array of 8 × 8 digital SiPM channels with 4 mm pitch using Philips Digital Photon Counting DPC 3200-22 devices, an FPGA for data acquisition, a supply voltage control system and a cooling infrastructure. This is the first detector design that allows the operation of digital SiPMs simultaneously inside an MRI system. We tested and optimized the MRI-compatibility of our detector stack on a laboratory test bench as well as in combination with a Philips Achieva 3 T MRI system. Our design clearly reduces distortions of the static magnetic field compared to a conventional design. The MRI static magnetic field causes weak and directional drift effects on voltage regulators, but has no direct impact on detector performance. MRI gradient switching initially degraded energy and timing resolution. Both distortions could be ascribed to voltage variations induced on the bias and the FPGA core voltage supply respectively. Based on these findings, we improved our detector design and our final design shows virtually no energy or timing degradations, even during heavy and continuous MRI gradient switching. In particular, we found no evidence that the performance of the DPC 3200-22 digital SiPM itself is degraded by the MRI system.

  5. A fast preamplifier concept for SiPM-based time-of-flight PET detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, J.; Seifert, S.; Schreuder, F.; Dendooven, P.; Löhner, H.; Vinke, R.; Schaart, D. R.; van Dam, H.T.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer high gain and fast response to light, making them interesting for fast timing applications such as time-of-flight (TOF) PET. To fully exploit the potential of these photosensors, dedicated preamplifiers that do not deteriorate the rise time and signal-to-noise

  6. A novel, SiPM-array-based, monolithic scintillator detector for PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, Dennis R.; van Dam, Herman T.; Seifert, Stefan; Vinke, Ruud; Dendooven, Peter; Beekman, Freek J.; Löhner, H.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are of great interest to positron emission tomography (PET), as they enable new detector geometries, for e. g., depth-of-interaction (DOI) determination, are MR compatible, and offer faster response and higher gain than other solid-state photosensors such as

  7. BGO as a hybrid scintillator / Cherenkov radiator for cost-effective time-of-flight PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, S.E.K.; Schaart, D.R.

    2017-01-01

    Due to detector developments in the last decade, the time-of-flight (TOF) method is now commonly used to improve the quality of positron emission tomography (PET) images. Clinical TOF-PET systems based on L(Y)SO:Ce crystals and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) with coincidence resolving times

  8. The cross-talk problem in SiPMs and their use as light sensors for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzhan, P.; Dolgoshein, B.; Ilyin, A.; Kaplin, V.; Klemin, S.; Mirzoyan, R.; Popova, E.; Teshima, M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks of a SiPM is due to the so-called cross-talk effect. Often, one single photon in a chain reaction can generate more photons and thus can fire more than one micro-cell of a SiPM. This can be considered as a noise in the signal multiplication process and this degrades the signal/noise ratio. In self-trigger schemes this noise can be so high that it can make operating them difficult at low threshold settings. For the past few years, we have dwelt on this effect aiming to suppress it at the design stage. One can use (a) trenches around the micro-cells for suppressing the direct photon 'communication' channel and (b) the so-called double p-n junction for suppressing photon-induced charge 'communication' in neighbor pixels. The low cross-talk is mandatory, for example, for producing SiPM-based light sensor modules for the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique projects for ground-based gamma-ray astrophysics. We produced and tested a few modules consisting of 4 SiPMs, each with a size of 5 mmx5 mm of custom production type. We report here on the main parameters of these units.

  9. Triroc: A Multi-Channel SiPM Read-Out ASIC for PET/PET-ToF Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Salleh; Fleury, Julien; de la Taille, Christophe; Seguin-Moreau, Nathalie; Dulucq, Frederic; Martin-Chassard, Gisele; Callier, Stephane; Thienpont, Damien; Raux, Ludovic

    2015-06-01

    Triroc is the latest addition to SiPM readout ASICs family developed at Weeroc, a start-up company from the Omega microelectronics group of IN2P3/CNRS. This chip is developed under the framework TRIMAGE European project which is aimed for building a cost effective tri-modal PET/MR/EEG brain scan. To ensure the flexibility and compatibility with any SiPM in the market, the ASIC is designed to be capable of accepting negative and positive polarity input signals. This 64-channel ASIC, is suitable for SiPM readout which requires high accuracy timing and charge measurements. Targeted applications would be PET prototyping with time-of-flight capability. Main features of Triroc includes high dynamic range ADC up to 2500 photoelectrons and TDC fine time binning of 40 ps. Triroc requires very minimal external components which means it is a good contender for compact multichannel PET prototyping. Triroc is designed by using AMS 0.35 μm SiGe technology and it was submitted in March 2014. The detail design of this chip will be presented.

  10. Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, Mar (2017), 1-24, č. článku P03002. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015038; GA MŠk LG15014; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : pattern recognition * cluster finding * calibration and fitting methods * performance of high energy physics detectors * front-end electronics for detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  11. Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. Kuotb; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Lebrun, P.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Casado, A.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, S.; Naranjo, I.; Navas, S.; Nellen, L.; Neuser, J.; Nguyenu, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, H.; Nunez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pena-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollant, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenue, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Sima, O.; Smiaikowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanic, S.; Stasielak, J.; Strafella, F.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Duran, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Torri, M.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valbuena-Delgado, A.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynski, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yelos, D.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.; collaboration, Pierre Auger

    AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory designed to extend its energy range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the cosmic ray primary particle showers. The array will be formed by an infill of surface water-Cherenkov

  12. Silicon Photomultipliers and Monolithic Scintillators for Time-of-Flight PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, S.

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging modality. Its aim is to visualize the 3-dimensional distribution of a radiopharmaceutical (also called the tracer) within a patient (clinical PET) or test-animal (in case of preclinical investigations). The information that can be

  13. Study of large hemispherical photomultiplier tubes for the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F. E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Beltramelli, J.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Blanc, F.; de Botton, N.; Boulesteix, J.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brooks, C. B.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Burgio, G. F.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, P.; Circella, M.; Colnard, C.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; Deschamps, A.; de Marzo, C.; Denans, D.; Destelle, J.-J.; de Vita, R.; Dinkelspiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Drogou, J.-F.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferry, S.; Festy, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fopma, J.; Fuda, J.-L.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Girard, N.; Goret, P.; Graf, K.; Hallewell, G.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herrouin, G.; Hößl, J.; Hoffmann, C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kooijman, P.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kuch, S.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laschinsky, H.; Laubier, L.; Legou, T.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le van Suu, A.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Maron, C.; Massol, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Milovanovic, A.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Morel, J.-P.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nezri, E.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J.; Ogden, P.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pineau, J.-P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Potheau, R.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Real, D.; van Rens, B. A. P.; Réthoré, F.; Riccobene, G.; Rigaud, V.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Rolin, J.-F.; Romita, M.; Rose, H. J.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Saouter, S.; Sapienza, P.; Shanidze, R.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Sokalski, I.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Tilav, S.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Vallage, B.; Vernin, P.; Virieux, J.; de Vries, G.; de Witt Huberts, P.; de Wolf, E.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zakharov, V.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2005-12-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, to be immersed depth in the Mediterranean Sea, will consist of a three-dimensional matrix of 900 large area photomultiplier tubes housed in pressure-resistant glass spheres. The selection of the optimal photomultiplier was a critical step for the project and required an intensive phase of tests and developments carried out in close collaboration with the main manufacturers worldwide. This paper provides an overview of the tests performed by the collaboration and describes in detail the features of the photomultiplier tube chosen for ANTARES.

  14. Photomultiplier characteristics considerations for the deep underwater muon and neutrino detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the characteristics of photomultipliers for the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detection (DUMAND) System are discussed. The pulse-height resolution, the afterpulsing phenomena and the gain sensitivity to the ambient magnetic field have been determined for large photocathode area photomultipliers. Furthermore, the transient time difference, the single photoelectron time spread, and the collection and photocathode quantum efficiency uniformity as a function of the position of the photocathode sensing area have been reviewed. Finally, an attempt has been made to estimate the photomultiplier reliability and its lifetime

  15. Intelligent Front-end Electronics for Silicon photodetectors (IFES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerzopf, Clemens, E-mail: clemens.sauerzopf@oeaw.ac.at; Gruber, Lukas; Suzuki, Ken; Zmeskal, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard

    2016-05-21

    While high channel density can be easily achieved for big experiments using custom made microchips, providing something similar for small and medium size experiments imposes a challenge. Within this work we describe a novel and cost effective solution to operate silicon photodetectors such as silicon photo multipliers (SiPM). The IFES modules provide the bias voltage for the detectors, a leading edge discriminator featuring time over threshold and a differential amplifier, all on one printed circuit board. We demonstrate under realistic conditions that the module is usable for high resolution timing measurements exploiting both charge and time information. Furthermore we show that the modules can be easily used in larger detector arrays. All in all this confirms that the IFES modules are a viable option for a broad range of experiments if cost-effectiveness and small form factor are required.

  16. Intelligent Front-end Electronics for Silicon photodetectors (IFES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerzopf, Clemens; Gruber, Lukas; Suzuki, Ken; Zmeskal, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard

    2016-05-01

    While high channel density can be easily achieved for big experiments using custom made microchips, providing something similar for small and medium size experiments imposes a challenge. Within this work we describe a novel and cost effective solution to operate silicon photodetectors such as silicon photo multipliers (SiPM). The IFES modules provide the bias voltage for the detectors, a leading edge discriminator featuring time over threshold and a differential amplifier, all on one printed circuit board. We demonstrate under realistic conditions that the module is usable for high resolution timing measurements exploiting both charge and time information. Furthermore we show that the modules can be easily used in larger detector arrays. All in all this confirms that the IFES modules are a viable option for a broad range of experiments if cost-effectiveness and small form factor are required.

  17. Characterization of UV-enhanced SiPMs for Imaging in High Pressure Xenon Electroluminescent TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahlali, Nadia; Lorca, David; Fernandes, L.M.P.

    2013-06-01

    The possibility of recording charged particle tracks in an electro-luminescent xenon gas TPC is investigated using a SiPM-based tracking system, operated in the demonstrator prototype of the NEXT-100 ββ decay experiment. The tracks of the ββ0ν events from the decay of the 136 Xe isotope have a distinctive topology, which allows their discrimination against single-electron events from the natural radioactivity that populates the region of interest of the neutrinoless decay in the ββ energy spectrum. Combined to the near-intrinsic energy resolution of the gaseous detector, this tracking capability provides a powerful background rejection tool for the search of the neutrinoless ββ decay aimed by the experiment. The NEXT-100 detector concepts and sensitivity and the first results of its demonstrator prototype are presented. The characterization studies relevant for the operation of UV-enhanced SiPMs used for imaging in an electro-luminescent TPC are reviewed. (authors)

  18. In-beam test of a DIRC Cherenkov radiator with SiPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeck, B.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Foehl, K.; Merle, O.; Dueren, M.; Roy, B.J.; Peters, K.

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial points for any high energy physics experiment is to obtain a good pion/kaon separation i.e. particle identification (PID). For particles in minimum ionising range, the conventional methods of PID using energy loss and time of flight become insufficient. In such a situation, the measurement of velocity of particles using Cherenkov radiation is an effective tool for PID in combination with momentum information from a tracking detector. The PANDA experiment at FAIR/ GSI plans to use a novel technique for PID with detection of internally reflected Cherenkov (DIRC) light. DIRC uses, in contrast to the conventional gas Cherenkov detectors, a solid radiator and total internal reflection to guide Cherenkov photons onto a detection plane where it will be detected by advanced photon counters. A SiPM is a very new generation photon counter that has several advantages over conventional PMTs. Several prototype Cherenkov detectors with different readout systems are being developed for R and D studies. One such prototype detector with Geiger-APD readout has been built at Giessen and was tested in-beam at GSI. The present report provides details of the very first test measurement

  19. Preliminary studies of microchannel plate photomultiplier tube neutron detectors for flight test applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, K.W.

    1978-10-01

    Electrical, mechanical, thermal, and neutron response data indicate that microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are viable candidates as miniature, ruggedized neutron detectors for flight test applications in future weapon systems

  20. A method to stabilise the performance of negatively fed KM3NeT photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Buompane, R.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, L.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cobas, D.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Capua, F.; Di Palma, I.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Favaro, M.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Frascadore, G.; Furini, M.; Fusco, L. A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giacomini, F.; Gialanella, L.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C. M. F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U. F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E. N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Leisos, A.; Leonora, E.; Clark, M. Lindsey; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Margotti, A.; Marinelli, A.; Mariš, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Marzaioli, F.; Mele, R.; Melis, K. W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Pancaldi, G.; Paolucci, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaš, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrini, G.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Poma, G. E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Terrasi, F.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Timmer, P.; Töonnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Travaglini, R.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Versari, F.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Zachariadou, K.; Zani, S.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-12-01

    The KM3NeT research infrastructure, currently under construction in the Mediterranean Sea, will host neutrino telescopes for the identification of neutrino sources in the Universe and for studies of the neutrino mass hierarchy. These telescopes will house hundreds of thousands of photomultiplier tubes that will have to be operated in a stable and reliable fashion. In this context, the stability of the dark counts has been investigated for photomultiplier tubes with negative high voltage on the photocathode and held in insulating support structures made of 3D printed nylon material. Small gaps between the rigid support structure and the photomultiplier tubes in the presence of electric fields can lead to discharges that produce dark count rates that are highly variable. A solution was found by applying the same insulating varnish as used for the high voltage bases directly to the outside of the photomultiplier tubes. This transparent conformal coating provides a convenient and inexpensive method of insulation.

  1. Two-coordinate scintillation hodoscope based on hodoscopical photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevskij, N.K.; Ronzhin, A.I.; Semenov, V.K.; Khachaturov, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of investigations of scintillation hodoscope on the basis of hodoscopic photomultipliers (HPM) for simultaneous measuring two coordinates (x and y) of a particle. The hodoscope consists of scintillation electrodes bent at the angle of 135 deg C and made an angle of 90 deg with each other. For measuring X-coordinate the half part of the photocathode is used, the second part is used for measuring Y-coordinate. HPM provides for simultaneous measuring two coordinates of a particle in the working region of 90 mm at using the photocathode with 180 mm long working region along the photocathode. The discrete separation of neighbouring positions in relation to the photocathode is possible at the minimum size of scintillation electrode being equil to >= 2 mm. For suppression of multiparticle background at the information output from the hodoscope as well as for simultaneous observation at the amplitude analyser of spectra of reference signals or X and Y profiles a fast processor cicuit has been developed. High detecting efficiency (about 90%) and low background level have been observed at the processor operation where the presence only of one signal in each of X- or Y projections is required. The two-coordinate hodoscope based on HPM due to its compactness and mobility may be used for expedient and precision beam guidance onto a target, its position control, shape and dimensions directly in the region of a polarized target location

  2. A new hybrid photomultiplier tube as detector for scintillating crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Notaristefani, F.; Vittori, F.; Puertolas, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we have attentively studied the performance of a new hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT) as detector for photons from scintillating crystals. The HPMT is equipped with a YAP window in order to improve light collection and increase measured light response from scintillating crystals. Several measurements have been performed on BGO, LSO, CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) planar crystals having three different surface treatments as well as on YAP : Ce and CsI(Tl) matrices. Such crystals have been coupled to two HPMTs, one equipped with a YAP window (Y-HPMT) and the other with a conventional quartz window (Q-HPMT). Measurements on crystals coupled to the Y-HPMT have shown a consistent improvement of the light response, thanks to the presence of the YAP window. Indeed, the light response measured with the Y-HPMT was on average equal to 1.5, 2.1 and 2.6 times that obtained with the Q-HPMT for planar crystals with white painted (diffusive), fine ground and polished rear surfaces, respectively. With regards to crystal matrices, we measured a light response increase of about 1.2 times

  3. Characterization of Multianode Photomultiplier Tubes for a Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghoff, Morgen; Turisini, Matteo; Kim, Andrey; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Kubarovsky, Valery; Duquesne University Collaboration; Jefferson Lab Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    In the Fall of 2017, Jefferson Lab's CLAS12 (CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer) detector is expecting the addition of a RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which will allow enhanced particle identification in the momentum range of 3 to 8 GeV/c. RICH detectors measure the velocity of charged particles through the detection of produced Cherenkov radiation and the reconstruction of the angle of emission. The emitted Cherenkov photons are detected by a triangular-shaped grid of 391 multianode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) made by Hamamatsu. The custom readout electronics consist of MAROC (multianode read out chip) boards controlled by FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) boards, and adapters used to connect the MAROC boards and MAPMTs. The focus of this project is the characterization of the MAPMTs with the new front end electronics. To perform these tests, a black box setup with a picosecond diode laser was constructed with low and high voltage supplies. A highly automated procedure was developed to acquire data at different combinations of high voltage values, light intensities and readout electronics settings. Future work involves using the collected data in calibration procedures and analyzing that data to resolve the best location for each MAPMT. SULI, NSF.

  4. Solid-State Photomultiplier with Integrated Front End Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, James; Stapels, Christopher; Johnson, Erik; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Jie Chen, Xiao; Miskimen, Rory

    2009-10-01

    The instrumentation cost of physics experiments has been reduced per channel, by the use of solid-state detectors, but these cost-effective techniques have not been translated to scintillation-based detectors. When considering photodetectors, the cost per channel is determined by the use of high-voltage, analog-to-digital converters, BNC cables, and any other ancillary devices. The overhead associated with device operation limits the number of channels for the detector system, while potentially limiting the scope of physics that can be explored. The PRIMEX experiment at JLab, which is being designed to measure the radiative widths of the η and η' pseudo-scalar mesons for a more comprehensive understanding of QCD at low energies, is an example where CMOS solid-state photomultipliers (SSPMs) can be implemented. The ubiquitous nature of CMOS allows for on-chip signal processing to provide front-end electronics within the detector package. We present the results of the device development for the PRIMEX calorimeter, discussing the characteristics of SSPMs, the potential cost savings, and experimental results of on-chip signal processing.

  5. Testing of Photomultiplier Tubes in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Zachary; A1 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The A1 collaboration at MAMI in Mainz, Germany has designed a neutron detector that can be used in experiments to measure the electric form factor of the neutron. They will measure elastic scattering from the neutron, using the polarized electron beam from MAMI at A1's experimental hall. The detector will be composed of two walls of staggered scintillator bars which will be read out by photomultiplier tubes (PMT), connected to both ends of each scintillator via light guides. The experiment requires a magnetic field with strength of 1 Tesla, 2m away from the first scintillator wall. The resulting fringe field is sufficient to disrupt the PMTs, despite the addition of Mu Metal shielding. The effects of the fringe field on these PMTs was tested to optimize the amplification of the PMTs. A Helmholtz Coil was designed to generate a controlled magnetic field with equivalent strength to the field that the PMTs will encounter. The PMTs were read out using a multi-channel analyzer, were tested at various angles relative to the magnetic field in order to determine the optimal orientation to minimize signal disruption. Tests were also performed to determine: the neutron detector response to cosmic radiation; and the best method for measuring a magnetic field's strength in two dimensions. National Science Foundation Grant No. IIA-1358175.

  6. A new trend in photomultiplier techniques and its implications in future collider experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, K.

    1989-01-01

    A recent trend in photomultiplier techniques, characterized by immunity to magnetic fields and position sensitivity of modern photomultiplier tubes, would potentially have great importance in future collider experiments. This article presents a survey on the actual status of the art, and some implications of such new techniques in future high-energy experiments. As an example of applications, our recent project of constructing an ultrafast scintillating-fibre detector on the basis of upgraded position-sensitive PMTs is outlined. (orig.)

  7. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  8. Influence of the active area size and read-out method on the timing performance of SiPMs coupled to LYSO scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarolli, Alessandro, E-mail: tarolli@fbk.eu [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy); Gola, Alberto; Ferri, Alessandro; Pro, Tiziana; Serra, Nicola; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2013-02-21

    In this work we report on the coincidence resolving time performance of SiPMs with different sizes, produced at FBK, coupled to the same LYSO scintillators. The measurements are performed both with and without the differential leading edge discriminator at three different temperatures, 20 °C, 0 °C and −20 °C. The photo-detectors feature an active area of 2×2 mm{sup 2} and 4×4 mm{sup 2}. The scintillators have a cross-section of 1.8×1.8 mm{sup 2} and height of 10 mm. The measurements show that, once we eliminate the effect of noise on the timing measurements, we obtain similar coincidence resolving times for the two SiPM sizes considered. This means that the SiPM capacitance, at least up to 4×4 mm{sup 2}, is not a limiting factor.

  9. Influence of the active area size and read-out method on the timing performance of SiPMs coupled to LYSO scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarolli, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Ferri, Alessandro; Pro, Tiziana; Serra, Nicola; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report on the coincidence resolving time performance of SiPMs with different sizes, produced at FBK, coupled to the same LYSO scintillators. The measurements are performed both with and without the differential leading edge discriminator at three different temperatures, 20 °C, 0 °C and −20 °C. The photo-detectors feature an active area of 2×2 mm 2 and 4×4 mm 2 . The scintillators have a cross-section of 1.8×1.8 mm 2 and height of 10 mm. The measurements show that, once we eliminate the effect of noise on the timing measurements, we obtain similar coincidence resolving times for the two SiPM sizes considered. This means that the SiPM capacitance, at least up to 4×4 mm 2 , is not a limiting factor

  10. Performance studies of varian VPM-154D.6D VPM-154A/1.6L static crossed field photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.; Leskovar, B.

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics have been measured for the Varian VPM-154D.6D and VPM-154A/1.6L Static Crossed Field Photomultipliers. Some typical photomultiplier characteristics such as: gain, dark current, quantum efficiency, and rise-time--are compared with data provided by the manufacturer. Photomultiplier characteristics generally not available from the manufacturer, such as: transit time, FWHM of the output pulse, peak output current measurement and multiphotoelectron time resolution were measured and are discussed

  11. Development of analog solid-state photo-detectors for Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina, E-mail: giuseppina.bisogni@pi.infn.it; Morrocchi, Matteo

    2016-02-11

    Solid-state photo-detectors are one of the main innovations of past century in the field of sensors. First produced in the early forties with the invention of the p–n junction in silicon and the study of its optical properties, photo-detectors received a major boost in the sixties when the p-i-n (PIN) photodiode was developed and successfully used in several applications. The development of devices with internal gain, avalanche photodiodes (APD) first and then Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, named single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), leads to a substantial improvement in sensitivity and allowed single photon detection. Later on, thousands of SPADs have been assembled in arrays of few millimeters squared (named SiPM, silicon photo-multiplier) with single photon resolution. The high internal gain of SiPMs, together with other features peculiar of the silicon technology like compactness, speed and compatibility with magnetic fields, promoted SiPMs as the principal photo-detector competitor of photomultipliers in many applications from radiation detection to medical imaging. This paper provides a review of the properties of analog solid-state photo-detectors. Particular emphasis is given to latest advances on Positron Emission Tomography instrumentation boosted by the adoption of the silicon photo-detectors as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Special attention is dedicated to the SiPMs, which are playing a key role in the development of innovative scanners.

  12. Development of analog solid-state photo-detectors for Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina; Morrocchi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state photo-detectors are one of the main innovations of past century in the field of sensors. First produced in the early forties with the invention of the p–n junction in silicon and the study of its optical properties, photo-detectors received a major boost in the sixties when the p-i-n (PIN) photodiode was developed and successfully used in several applications. The development of devices with internal gain, avalanche photodiodes (APD) first and then Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, named single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), leads to a substantial improvement in sensitivity and allowed single photon detection. Later on, thousands of SPADs have been assembled in arrays of few millimeters squared (named SiPM, silicon photo-multiplier) with single photon resolution. The high internal gain of SiPMs, together with other features peculiar of the silicon technology like compactness, speed and compatibility with magnetic fields, promoted SiPMs as the principal photo-detector competitor of photomultipliers in many applications from radiation detection to medical imaging. This paper provides a review of the properties of analog solid-state photo-detectors. Particular emphasis is given to latest advances on Positron Emission Tomography instrumentation boosted by the adoption of the silicon photo-detectors as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Special attention is dedicated to the SiPMs, which are playing a key role in the development of innovative scanners.

  13. Characterization of Ca co-doped LSO:Ce scintillators coupled to SiPM for PET applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Collazuol, G.M.; Marcatili, S.; Melcher, C.L.; Del Guerra, A.

    2011-01-01

    Scintillators suitable for PET applications must be characterized by a high efficiency for gamma-ray detection, determined by a high density and atomic number of the crystal; a fast light signal that allows to achieve a good time resolution and to cope with high counting rates; a high light yield for a good energy and time resolution; a good linearity of the light output as a function of the energy to preserve the intrinsic energy resolution of the scintillator. Recently developed LSO:Ce scintillators, co-doped with Ca, have been produced by the University of Tennessee group. They are characterized by the improved performance of most the above-mentioned characteristics. The crystals, initially tested with PMTs, showed a higher light output, faster light pulse, improved energy resolution and reduced afterglow, as compared to the standard LSO:Ce crystals. Even though the PMTs still represent the gold standard photodetectors, the recently available SiPMs are now valid candidate to replace PMTs in the next generation of PET scanners thanks to their compactness, high spatial resolution performances, low bias operating voltage and, most important for combined PET/MRI systems, insensitivity to static and RF fields. In this work we present the performance of Ca co-doped LSO:Ce samples coupled to SiPMs and PMTs. In particular we have assessed their performances by evaluating the energy and time resolution.

  14. The front-end electronics for the 1.8-kchannel SiPM tracking plane in the NEW detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, J.; Lorca, D.; Monrabal, F.; Toledo, J.; Esteve, R.

    2015-01-01

    NEW is the first phase of NEXT-100 experiment, an experiment aimed at searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay. NEXT technology combines an excellent energy resolution with tracking capabilities thanks to a combination of optical sensors, PMTs for the energy measurement and SiPMs for topology reconstruction. Those two tools result in one of the highest background rejection potentials in the field. This work describes the tracking plane that will be constructed for the NEW detector which consists of close to 1800 sensors with a 1-cm pitch arranged in twenty-eight 64-SiPM boards. Then it focuses in the development of the electronics needed to read the 1800 channels with a front-end board that includes per-channel differential transimpedance input amplifier, gated integrator, automatic offset voltage compensation and 12-bit ADC. Finally, a description of how the FPGA buffers data, carries out zero suppression and sends data to the DAQ interface using CERN RD-51 SRS's DTCC link specification complements the description of the electronics of the NEW detector tracking plane

  15. Test beam studies of the light yield, time and coordinate resolutions of scintillator strips with WLS fibers and SiPM readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Dmitri [Fermilab, Batavia IL (United States); Evdokimov, Valery [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Lukić, Strahinja; Ujić, Predrag [Vinča Institute, University of Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-03-11

    Prototype scintilator+WLS strips with SiPM readout for large muon detection systems were tested in the muon beam of the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. Light yield of up to 137 photoelectrons per muon per strip has been observed , as well as time resolution of 330 ps and position resolution along the strip of 5.4 cm.

  16. Characterization of 1600 Hamamatsu 16-anode photomultipliers for the MINOS Far detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, K.; Day, J.; Eilerts, S.; Fuqua, S.; Guillen, A.; Kordosky, M.; Lang, M.; Liu, J.; Opaska, W.; Proga, M.; Vahle, P.; Winbow, A.; Drake, G.; Thomas, J.; Andreopoulos, C.; Saoulidou, N.; Stamoulis, P.; Tzanakos, G.; Zois, M.; Weber, A.; Michael, D.

    2005-01-01

    We are reporting results of the characterization of over 1600 multi-anode R5900-00-M16 photomultipliers manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., and installed in the MINOS Far detector. We have conducted extensive tests of the uniformity of gain and collection efficiency of individual anodes, the cross-talk among all 16 channels, the dark noise, and the linearity of response. In our studies we used a blue light-emitting diode to illuminate phototubes through 1.2 mm diameter optical fibers. In this paper, we present summaries of the main characteristics of the tested photomultipliers

  17. Reduction of space charge effects and tests of larger samples of photomultipliers for the EDDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerstaff, K.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bollmann, R.; Cloth, P.; Dohrmann, F.; Diehl, O.; Dorner, G.; Drüke, V.; Engelhardt, H. J.; Eisenhardt, S.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P. D.; Filges, D.; Fritz, S.; Gasthuber, M.; Gebel, R.; Gross, A.; Gross-Hardt, R.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Lahr, U.; Langkau, R.; Lippert, G.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Maschuw, R.; Mertler, G.; Metsch, B.; Mosel, F.; Paetz gen. Schieck, H.; Petry, H. R.; Prasuhn, D.; v. Przewoski, B.; Radtke, M.; Rohdjess, H.; Rosendaal, D.; von Rossen, P.; Scheid, H.; Schirm, N.; Schwandt, F.; Scobel, W.; Theis, D.; Weber, J.; Wiedmann, W.; Woller, K.; Ziegler, R.; EDDA Collaboration

    1993-10-01

    For the EDDA experiment at COSY, the response of the small, linear focused photomultipliers Hamamatsu R 1450 and R 1355 has been studied with fast light pulses generating yields up to 2 × 10 3 photoelectrons/cm 2 or peak currents of 24 mA. Linearity was obtained with a tapered bleeder chain at a tolerable loss of gain. The serial test of altogether 140 photomultipliers revealed the close correlation between single electron and amplitude resolution. The influence of the photoelectron statistics on this correlation is discussed.

  18. Photomultipliers gain monitoring at the one percent level with a blue light pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, J.; Bermond, M.; Besson, P.; Favier, J.; Pessard, H.; Poulet, M.

    1988-07-01

    We describe a method and an experimental layout allowing the monitoring of photomultipliers gain. We use artificial blue light (Spark-gap with filter: 436 ± 20 nm) and three reference detectors. Short term and long term measurements are presented. The results indicate a precision better than 0.5% for the short term and 1.4% for the long term determinations. This gain monitoring system has been developed for a new neutrino oscillation reactor experiment (600 photomultipliers) starting at the Bugey nuclear plant

  19. A simple method to improve the spatial uniformity of venetian-blind photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.M.F. dos; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Morgado, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    An improvement in the uniformity of venetian-blind photomultiplier tubes has been achieved by reducing the voltage difference between the first and second dynodes. The method has been applied to a gas proportional scintillation counter (GPSC) instrumented with a venetian-blind photomultiplier (PMT). When exposed to a 20-mm collimated 5.9-keV x-ray beam, an overall improvement in energy resolution for the GPSC/PMT combination from 20% to 11.5% was achieved. An alternative method that reduces the photocathode-to-first-dynode voltage was less effective and resulted in a severe degradation of detector energy resolution

  20. Characterization of the ETEL D784UKFLB 11 in. photomultiplier tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, N.; Kaptanoglu, T. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kimelman, B. [Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States); Klein, J.R. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Moore, E.; Nguyen, J. [University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Stavreva, K. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Svoboda, R., E-mail: rsvoboda@physics.ucdavis.edu [University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2017-04-21

    Water Cherenkov and scintillator detectors are a critical tool for neutrino physics. Their large size, low threshold, and low operational cost make them excellent detectors for long baseline neutrino oscillations, proton decay, supernova and solar neutrinos, double beta decay, and ultra-high energy astrophysical neutrinos. Proposals for a new generation of large detectors rely on the availability of large format, fast, cost-effective photomultiplier tubes. The Electron Tubes Enterprises, Ltd (ETEL) D784KFLB 11 in. Photomultiplier Tube has been developed for large neutrino detectors. We have measured the timing characteristics, relative efficiency, and magnetic field sensitivity of the first fifteen prototypes.

  1. Recent measurements on the Hamamatsu 13 in., R8055, PhotoMultiplier Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsagli, S.; Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Ball, A.E.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Ludvig, J.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L.K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris, T.; Tsagli, V.; Zhukov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    The key component of NESTOR, the deep-sea Cherenkov neutrino telescope, built in the Mediterranean, NW of Greece, is the optical module. The NESTOR Optical Module employs a PhotoMultiplier Tube (PMT) in a transparent glass pressure housing. The Hamamatsu PMT R8055-01, 13 in. photomultiplier was selected for NESTOR to replace the old 15'' Hamamatsu PMTs (R2018-03). Extensive tests have been made on the sensitivity, uniformity, time resolution and noise rates of 162 R8055-01 13 in. PMTs

  2. Study of the Light Emission Process from the Double Chooz Photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Crespo, J. I.; Gil-Botella, I.; Jimenez, S.; Lopez, M.; Novella, P.; Palomares, C.; Santorelli, R.; Verdugo, A.

    2012-09-13

    In this document we present a study of the light emitted by the base of a Hamamatsu R7081MOD-ASSY photomultiplier (PMT) of the same type used in the Double Chooz experiment. Several characteristic features of the light signal have been found in terms of amplitude, length and pulse shape. Additional investigations on the properties of the epoxy used to cover the photomultiplier base have been carried out. A possible explanation of the light emission process is discussed at the end of the study. (Author) 1 ref.

  3. A low cost network of spectrometer radiation detectors based on the ArduSiPM a compact transportable Software/Hardware Data Acquisition system with Arduino DUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Iacoangeli, Francesco; Nuccetelli, Massimo; Recchia, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The necessity to use Photo Multipliers (PM) as light detector limited in the past the use of crystals in radiation handled device preferring the Geiger approach. The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very small and cheap, solid photon detectors with good dynamic range and single photon detection capability, they are usable to supersede cumbersome and difficult to use Photo Multipliers (PM). A SiPM can be coupled with a scintillator crystal to build efficient, small and solid radiation detector. A cost effective and easily replicable Hardware software module for SiPM detector readout is made using the ArduSiPM solution. The ArduSiPM is an easily battery operable handled device using an Arduino DUE (an open Software/Hardware board) as processor board and a piggy-back custom designed board (ArduSiPM Shield), the Shield contains all the blocks features to monitor, set and acquire the SiPM using internet network. (authors)

  4. A low cost network of spectrometer radiation detectors based on the ArduSiPM a compact transportable Software/Hardware Data Acquisition system with Arduino DUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Iacoangeli, Francesco; Nuccetelli, Massimo; Recchia, Luigi [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo moro 2, Rome, I-00185 (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The necessity to use Photo Multipliers (PM) as light detector limited in the past the use of crystals in radiation handled device preferring the Geiger approach. The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very small and cheap, solid photon detectors with good dynamic range and single photon detection capability, they are usable to supersede cumbersome and difficult to use Photo Multipliers (PM). A SiPM can be coupled with a scintillator crystal to build efficient, small and solid radiation detector. A cost effective and easily replicable Hardware software module for SiPM detector readout is made using the ArduSiPM solution. The ArduSiPM is an easily battery operable handled device using an Arduino DUE (an open Software/Hardware board) as processor board and a piggy-back custom designed board (ArduSiPM Shield), the Shield contains all the blocks features to monitor, set and acquire the SiPM using internet network. (authors)

  5. Fast tracking detector with fiber scintillators and a position sensitive photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Li, V.; Smith, G.; Wu, Y.S.

    1988-11-01

    We have studied the properties of a tracking detector composed of 32 fiber scintillators coupled to a multianode photomultiplier placed in a pion beam at TRIUMF. We measured the efficiency of the detector, as well as its tracking capabilities and double hit resolution

  6. A method to stabilise the performance of negatively fed KM3NeT photomultipliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; Berg, A. van den; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Beveren, V. van; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.J.; Buompane, R.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, L.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cobas, D.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Capua, F.; Di Palma, I.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; Van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Favaro, M.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Frascadore, G.; Furini, M.; Fusco, L.A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giacomini, F.; Gialanella, L.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; Haren, H. van; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.M.F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; Jong, M. de; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E.N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Leisos, A.; Leonora, E.; Clark, M.L.; Liolios, A.; Alvarez, C.D.L.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Margotti, A.; Marinelli, A.; Mariš, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Martini, A.; Marzaioli, F.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C.M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C.A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Pancaldi, G.; Paolucci, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pǎvǎlaš, G.E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrini, G.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Poma, G.E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S.M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Terrasi, F.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Travaglini, R.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Versari, F.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; Wolf, E. de; Zachariadou, K.; Zani, S.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-01-01

    The KM3NeT research infrastructure, currently under construction in the Mediterranean Sea, will host neutrino telescopes for the identification of neutrino sources in the Universe and for studies of the neutrino mass hierarchy. These telescopes will house hundreds of thousands of photomultiplier

  7. Sensitivity of a multi-photomultiplier optical module for KM3NeT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhner, H.; Mjos, A.

    2009-01-01

    For the KM3NeT neutrino telescope an optical module with a number of small photomultiplier tubes (multi-PMT optical module) will be advantageous for various reasons, e.g. reduced background rate, a larger number of coincidence hits, and sensitivity to ultra-high energy neutrinos. The properties of

  8. Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprile, E.; et al., [Unknown; Alfonsi, M.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Tiseni, A.; Tunnell, C.

    2015-01-01

    The low-background, VUV-sensitive 3-inch diameter photomultiplier tube R11410 has been developed by Hamamatsu for dark matter direct detection experiments using liquid xenon as the target material. We present the results from the joint effort between the XENON collaboration and the Hamamatsu company

  9. Photomultiplier pulse Read Out system for the preshower detector of the LHCb experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaltouni, Z.; Bohner, G.; Cornat, R.; Deschamps, O.; Lecoq, J.; Monteil, S.; Perret, P.

    2003-01-01

    The second generation experiment for CP violation studies in B decays, LHCb, is a 20-m-long single-arm spectrometer to be installed on the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN. For its precision measurement purpose, it combines precise vertex location and particle identification, in addition to a performance trigger system able to cope with high flux. The first level of trigger is mainly based on the fast response of the calorimetric subsystem. Of major importance is the 6000 channels preshower detector that aims to validate the electromagnetic nature of calorimetric showers. It consists of two-radiation-length lead sheet in front of a scintillator plane. Scintillator signals are extracted from plastic cells using wavelength-shifting fibres coupled to multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. The preshower Read Out system has to cope with fluctuating photomultiplier pulses caused by small amounts of photoelectrons, in addition to strong constraints imposed by the 40 MHz LHC bunch-crossing frequency. A special Read Out electronics including perfect 40 MHz integrators able to shape fluctuating photomultiplier pulses has been designed, and successfully realized. The temporal shape of photomultiplier pulse and the upstream Read Out system for preshower are described in this document

  10. An efficient high-voltage power supply for a photomultiplier tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainutdinov, VM; Vonsovskii, NN; Kompaniets, KG; Kozyr, AI; Mikhailov, YV

    2003-01-01

    An adjustable power supply for a photomultiplier tube operating in the pulsed spectrometric mode with a wide range of linearity is described. The power consumed by the source is 50 mW. The output voltage is varied from 800 to 2000 V. The maximum ripple amplitude is 2.5 mV.

  11. Model independent approach to the single photoelectron calibration of photomultiplier tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha, R.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, Y.; Wester, T.

    2017-08-01

    The accurate calibration of photomultiplier tubes is critical in a wide variety of applications in which it is necessary to know the absolute number of detected photons or precisely determine the resolution of the signal. Conventional calibration methods rely on fitting the photomultiplier response to a low intensity light source with analytical approximations to the single photoelectron distribution, often leading to biased estimates due to the inability to accurately model the full distribution, especially at low charge values. In this paper we present a simple statistical method to extract the relevant single photoelectron calibration parameters without making any assumptions about the underlying single photoelectron distribution. We illustrate the use of this method through the calibration of a Hamamatsu R11410 photomultiplier tube and study the accuracy and precision of the method using Monte Carlo simulations. The method is found to have significantly reduced bias compared to conventional methods and works under a wide range of light intensities, making it suitable for simultaneously calibrating large arrays of photomultiplier tubes.

  12. Detection of cosmic ray tracks using scintillating fibers and position sensitive multi-anode photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Streets, J.; Wilcer, N.

    1998-02-01

    This experiment demonstrates detection of cosmic ray tracks by using Scintillating fiber planes and multi-anode photomultipliers (MA-PMTs). In a laboratory like this, cosmic rays provide a natural source of high-energy charged particles which can be detected with high efficiency and with nanosecond time resolution

  13. Comparative study of new 130mm diameter fast photomultipliers for neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moszynski, M.; Costa, G.J.; Guillaume, G.; Heusch, B.; Huck, A.; Mouatassim, S.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper is a summary of the test measurements carried out using new 130 mm diameter fast photomultiplier tubes manufactured by Philips (France), EMI (England) and Hamamatsu (Japan), along with a comparison to the results obtained with the well known XP 2041 Philips model. These tubes will be used in large size neutron detectors

  14. Characterization of the 10-stages R5900 Hamamatsu photomultipliers for the hadronic ATLAS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montarou, G.; Bouhemaid, N.; Grenier, Ph.; Crouau, M.; Muanza, G.S.; Poirot, S.; Vazeille, F.; Gil Botella, I.; Hoz, S.G. de la

    1997-01-01

    The measurements carried out, at Clermont on the R5900 Hamamatsu photomultipliers for the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter are summarised. The TILECAL specifications are given. Amplification measurements, dark current measurements, linearity, magnetic sensitivity and the voltage divider optimisation are presented. (K.A.)

  15. High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosá, G.; Barrillon, P.; Barrio, J.; Bisogni, M.G.; Cabello, J.; Del Guerra, A.; Etxebeste, A.; Gillam, J.E.; Lacasta, C.; Oliver, J.F.; Rafecas, M.; Solaz, C.; Stankova, V.; La Taille, C. de

    2013-01-01

    A high resolution PET detector head for small animal PET applications has been developed. The detector is composed of a 12mm×12mm continuous LYSO crystal coupled to a 64-channel monolithic SiPM matrix from FBK-irst. Crystal thicknesses of 5 mm and 10 mm have been tested, both yielding an intrinsic spatial resolution around 0.7 mm FWHM with a position determination algorithm that can also provide depth-of-interaction information. The detectors have been tested in a rotating system that makes it possible to acquire tomographic data and reconstruct images of 22 Na sources. An image reconstruction method specifically adapted for continuous crystals has been employed. The Full Width at Half Maximum measured from a point source reconstructed with ML–EM was 0.7 mm with the 5 mm crystal and 0.8 mm with the 10 mm crystal

  16. Characterization of large-area photomultipliers under low magnetic fields: Design and performance of the magnetic shielding for the Double Chooz neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Fernandez-Bedoya, C.; Gil-Botella, I.; Palomares, C.; Rodriguez, I.; Toral, F.; Verdugo, A.

    2010-01-01

    A precise quantitative measurement of the effect of low magnetic fields in Hamamatsu R7081 photomultipliers has been performed. These large-area photomultipliers will be used in the Double Chooz neutrino experiment. A magnetic shielding has been developed for these photomultipliers. Its design and performance is also reported in this paper.

  17. The Salinas Airshower Learning And Discovery Project (SALAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Victor; Niduaza, Rommel; Ruiz Castruita, Daniel; Knox, Adrian; Ramos, Daniel; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura

    2015-04-01

    The SALAD project partners community college and high school STEM students in order to develop and investigate cosmic ray detector telescopes and the physical concepts, using a new light sensor technology based on silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors. Replacing the conventional photomultiplier with the SiPM, offers notable advantages in cost and facilitates more in depth, hands-on learning laboratory activities. The students in the SALAD project design, construct and extensively evaluate the SiPM detector modules. These SiPM modules, can be completed in a short time utilizing cost effective components. We describe our research to implement SiPM as read out light detectors for plastic scintillators in a cosmic ray detector telescope for use in high schools. In particular, we describe our work in the design, evaluation and the assembly of (1) a fast preamplifier, (2) a simple coincidence circuit using fast comparators, to discriminate the SiPM noise signal pulses, and (3) a monovibrator circuit to shape the singles plus the AND logic pulses for subsequent processing. To store the singles and coincidence counts data, an Arduino micro-controller with program sketches can be implemented. Results and findings from our work would be described and presented. US Department of Education Title V Grant Award PO31S090007

  18. Optical coupling study of plastic scintillation detectors: evaluation of different silicon products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, M.M.; Madi Filho, T.; Mesquita, C.H. de

    1990-01-01

    Properties of different optical oils and greases in the range of 320-560 nm were studied. Several parameters as the transmitance, index of refraction, plastic scintillator fluorescence emission and its influence in the resolution and pulse height of the detection system were described. This paper shows a design to analyse the optical quality or adequacy of the silicon oils and greases in the coupling between the detector and the photocathode of the photomultiplier. (author) [pt

  19. Simulation and investigation of SiPM’s leakage currents at low voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parygin, P P; Popova, E V; Grachev, V M

    2017-01-01

    Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) allows us to use computers in order to develop semiconductor processing technologies and devices and optimize them. Within a framework of a study of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) a simulation of these devices has been made. The simulation was performed for the irradiated SiPMs and current-voltage characteristics were obtained for the modeled devices. Investigation of current-voltage curve below breakdown with regard to the simulated structure was performed. Obtained curves are presented. (paper)

  20. The front-end electronics and slow control of large area SiPM for the SST-1M camera developed for the CTA experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aguilar, J.A.; Bilnik, W.; Borkowski, J.; Mandát, Dušan; Pech, Miroslav; Schovánek, Petr

    Roč. 830, Sep (2016), s. 219-232 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015046; GA MŠk LE13012; GA MŠk LG14019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CTA * SiPM * G-APD * preamplifier * front-end * slow-control * compensation Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  1. Study of a photomultiplier for the measurement of low light flows by photon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haye, Kleber

    1964-01-01

    After a recall of the history of the discovery and use of the photoemission effect, a presentation of the main characteristics of photomultipliers, a discussion of performance and weaknesses of electron multiplier-based cells, this research thesis addresses the study of low light flows. The author tried to determine whether it was possible, at ambient temperature, to reduce the influence of the thermoelectric effect. In order to do so, he made a detailed study of the amplitude spectrum of pulses of photoelectric origin. In order to analyse the influence of temperature of photomultiplier characteristics, he studied, with respect to temperature, the variation of the counting rate corresponding to darkness, the variation of pulse amplitude spectrum, and relative variations of the quantum efficiency for various wavelengths. In parallel with the study by counting, a study has been performed by using the well known mean current measurement [fr

  2. Photomultiplier pulse Read Out system for the preshower detector of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Cornat, R; Deschamps, O; Lecoq, J; Monteil, S; Perret, P

    2003-01-01

    The second generation experiment for CP violation studies in B decays, LHCb, is a 20-m-long single-arm spectrometer to be installed on the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN. For its precision measurement purpose, it combines precise vertex location and particle identification, in addition to a performance trigger system able to cope with high flux. The first level of trigger is mainly based on the fast response of the calorimetric subsystem. Of major importance is the 6000 channels preshower detector that aims to validate the electromagnetic nature of calorimetric showers. It consists of two- radiation-length lead sheet in front of a scintillator plane. Scintillator signals are extracted from plastic cells using wavelength-shifting fibres coupled to multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. The preshower Read Out system has to cope with fluctuating photomultiplier pulses caused by small amounts of photoelectrons, in addition to strong constraints imposed by the 40 MHz LHC bunch- crossing frequency. A special Read...

  3. The LED and fiber based calibration system for the photomultiplier array of SNO+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, L.; Alves, R.; Andringa, S.; Bradbury, S.; Carvalho, J.; Clark, K.; Coulter, I.; Descamps, F.; Falk, L.; Gurriana, L.; Kraus, C.; Lefeuvre, G.; Maio, A.; Maneira, J.; Mottram, M.; Peeters, S.; Rose, J.; Sinclair, J.; Skensved, P.; Waterfield, J.; White, R.; Wilson, J.; SNO+ Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    A new external LED/fiber light injection calibration system was designed for the calibration and monitoring of the photomultiplier array of the SNO+ experiment at SNOLAB. The goal of the calibration system is to allow an accurate and regular measurement of the photomultiplier array's performance, while minimizing the risk of radioactivity ingress. The choice in SNO+ was to use a set of optical fiber cables to convey into the detector the light pulses produced by external LEDs. The quality control was carried out using a modified test bench that was used in QC of optical fibers for TileCal/ATLAS. The optical fibers were characterized for transmission, timing and angular dispersions. This article describes the setups used for the characterization and quality control of the system based on LEDs and optical fibers and their results.

  4. Stabilisation of photo-multiplying gain; Stabilisation du gain des pbotomultiplicateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretiakoff, O; Bailly du Bois, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    The use of photomultiplier tubes in experimental physics is thwarted by their high responsiveness to changes in the feeding tension. Their use can be extended a great deal by a simple efficient stabilizing device which allows them to work in the same way as Geiger-Mueller tubes without losing the advantageous characteristics of photomultiplier tubes. (author) [French] L'utilisation des tubes photomultiplicateurs en physique experimentale se heurte a l'obstacle que constitue leur extreme sensibilite aux variations de la tension d'alimentation. Un systeme de stabilisation simple et efficace, permettant d'apparenter leurs caracteristiques a celles des compteurs Geiger-Muller tout en conservant les avantages propres aux tubes photomultiplicateurs, peut elargir considerablement leur domaine d'emploi. (auteur)

  5. System for high-voltage control detectors with large number photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donskov, S.V.; Kachanov, V.A.; Mikhajlov, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive on-line system for hihg-voltage control which is designed for detectors with a large number of photomultipliers is developed and manufactured. It has been developed for the GAMC type hodoscopic electromagnetic calorimeters, comprising up to 4 thousand photomultipliers. High voltage variation is performed by a high-speed potentiometer which is rotated by a microengine. Block-diagrams of computer control electronics are presented. The high-voltage control system has been used for five years in the IHEP and CERN accelerator experiments. The operation experience has shown that it is quite simple and convenient in operation. In case of about 6 thousand controlled channels in both experiments no potentiometer and microengines failures were observed

  6. Test of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes for the LHCb scintillator pad detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aguiló, Ernest; Comerma-Montells, A; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Graciani, Ricardo; Grauges, Eugeni; Vilasis Cardona, Xavier; Xirgu, Xavier; Bohner, Gerard; Bonnefoy, Romeo; Borras, David; Cornat, Remi; Crouau, Michel; Deschamps, Olivier; Jacquet, Philippe; Lecoq, Jacques; Monteil, Stephane; Perret, Pascal; Reinmuth, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment (The LHCb Technical Proposal, CERN/LHCC 98-4) is designed to study B meson physics in the LHC proton-proton collider at CERN. The Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD) has been designed to complete the calorimeter information performing an e/gamma identification for the experiment level-0 trigger system. The detection technology consists in transmitting scintillation light by means of both Wavelength Shifting and clear fibers to fast multi- anode photomultiplier tubes. In this paper, it is described the instrumentation and setup used to characterize the baseline photomultiplier solution (Hamamatsu R5900-00-M64) together with the scintillators and optical fibers for the SPD at LHCb.

  7. Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Contreras, H.; Goetzke, L.W.; Fernandez, A.J.M.; Messina, M.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Agostini, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Bologna Univ., Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Arazi, L.; Budnik, R.; Duchovni, E.; Gross, E.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Priel, N.; Vitells, O. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Arisaka, K.; Lyashenko, A.; Meng, Y.; Pantic, E.; Teymourian, A.; Wang, H. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Arneodo, F.; Di Giovanni, A. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Auger, M.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Behrens, A.; Galloway, M.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F. [University of Zurich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Balan, C.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos [University of Coimbra, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Bauermeister, B.; Fattori, S.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Schindler, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Beltrame, P. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Brown, A.; Lang, R.F.; Macmullin, S.; Pienaar, J.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Brown, E.; Levy, C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Troy, NY (United States); Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Bruenner, S.; Hampel, W.; Kaether, F.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Rauch, L.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H.; Weber, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Schumann, M. [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Tiseni, A.; Tunnell, C. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cussonneau, J.P.; Le Calloch, M.; Masbou, J.; Lavina, L.S.; Thers, D. [Universite de Nantes, Subatech, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/In2p3, Nantes (France); Ferella, A.D.; Fulgione, W.; Laubenstein, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Fieguth, A.; Murra, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Weinheimer, C. [Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M. [Bologna Univ., Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Trinchero, G. [INFN-Torino and Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P.; Wall, R. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Houston, TX (United States); Orrigo, S.E.A. [University of Coimbra, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Persiani, R. [Universite de Nantes, Subatech, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/In2p3, Nantes (FR); Bologna Univ., Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (IT); INFN, Bologna (IT); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2015-11-15

    The low-background, VUV-sensitive 3-inch diameter photomultiplier tube R11410 has been developed by Hamamatsu for dark matter direct detection experiments using liquid xenon as the target material. We present the results from the joint effort between the XENON collaboration and the Hamamatsu company to produce a highly radio-pure photosensor (version R11410-21) for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. After introducing the photosensor and its components, we show the methods and results of the radioactive contamination measurements of the individual materials employed in the photomultiplier production. We then discuss the adopted strategies to reduce the radioactivity of the various PMT versions. Finally, we detail the results from screening 286 tubes with ultra-low background germanium detectors, as well as their implications for the expected electronic and nuclear recoil background of the XENON1T experiment. (orig.)

  8. Automated installation for several photomultiplier photocathode activation by means of one vacuum facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beschastnov, P.M.; Peryshkin, A.I.; Pyata, E.Eh.; Usov, Yu.V.

    1989-01-01

    An automated installation for simultaneous activation of up to four photocathodes of several photomultipliers by means of one vacuum station with the common furnace is described. Production technology of producing multialkaline photocathode makes up the basis for creating automated technology. The installation is produced on the base of the R110B industrial station and the Electronica-60 microcomputer. Software written in FORTRAN providing for control over all process stages is developed. 6 refs.; 2 figs

  9. A novel readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with pad matrix anode layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, Vladimir [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: Popov@jlab.org; Majewski, Stan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Welch, Benjamin L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a new analog readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with a pad matrix anode layout. This new readout technique is the result of a modification of a technique previously developed at the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab (V. Popov, US patent No: 6,747,263 B1) [V. Popov, S. Majewski, A.G. Weisenberger, Readout Electronics for Multianode Photomultiplier Tubes with Pad Matrix Anode Layout, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, IEEE 2003 Medical Imaging Conference Record, November 2003]. The new analog readout circuit provides the same analog conversion of matrix 2-D output into X and Y projective output with a significant reduction of analog outputs. The old readout network consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, and it provides decoupling of each anode output into two directions (one to X and one to Y coordinates), but a decoupling function that is carried out independent of photomultiplier tube gains nonuniformity. A newly developed readout network (US patent pending) also consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, but the new matrix includes an additional dumping resistor that provides an excess current from anode pad grounding. As a result, we subtract an extra current of high-gain pads in order to move the pads gain to an absolute minimum value for a given photomultiplier tube. This gain equalization procedure reduces image distortion related to gain nonuniformity. The new readout technique was used in several new radiation imaging detectors designed in the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab. It shows a visible readout uniformity and linearity improvement. The test results of an initial evaluation of this readout that is applied for data readout of four H8500 Hamamtsu PSPMT are presented.

  10. Thomson scattering measuring device using high sensitivity photomultipliers: 16% up to 860nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.

    1976-03-01

    Photomultipliers with high quantum efficiency were used to observe the entire rubis laser light spectrum scattered by a plasma. The optical and electronic acquisition device used to study this spectrum is described. The spectra obtained revealed a dissymmetry larger than that expected from relativistic theory. These results could not be interpreted. The diagnostic sensitivity allows the measurement of low electron densities (2.10 12 ecm -3 ) [fr

  11. Test of a position-sensitive photomultiplier for fast scintillating fiber detector read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, J.; Hoffmann, B.; Luedecke, H.; Nahnhauer, R.; Pohl, M.; Roloff, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    A position-sensitive photomultiplier with 256 anode pixels has been used to read out scintillating fibers excited by light emitting diodes, electrons from a β-source and a 5 GeV electron beam. Measurements have been done within a magnetic field up to 0.6 T. Tracking and electromagnetic shower detection capabilities of a simple fiber detector have been studied. (orig.)

  12. Influence of incident light wavelength on time jitter of fast photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moszynski, M.; Vacher, J.

    1977-01-01

    The study of the single photoelectron time resolution as a function of the wavelength of the incident light was performed for a 56 CVP photomultiplier having an S-1 photocathode. The light flash from the XP22 light emitting diode generator was passed through passband filters and illuminated the 5 mm diameter central part of the photocathode. A significant increase of the time resolution above 30% was observed when the wavelength of the incident light was changed from 790 nm to 580 nm. This gives experimental evidence that the time jitter resulting from the spread of the initial velocity of photoelectrons is proportional to the square root of the maximal initial energy of photoelectrons. Based on this conclusion the measured time jitter of C31024, RCA8850 and XP2020 photomultipliers with the use of the XP22 light emitting diode at 560 nm light wavelength was recalculated to estimate the time jitter at 400 nm near the maximum of the photocathode sensitivity. It shows an almost twice larger time spread at 400 nm for the C31024 and RCA8850 with a high gain first dynode and an about 1.5 times larger time spread for the XP2020 photomultiplier, than those measured at 560 nm. (Auth.)

  13. Modeling Photo-multiplier Gain and Regenerating Pulse Height Data for Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinall, Michael D.; Jones, Ashley R.

    2018-01-01

    Systems that adopt organic scintillation detector arrays often require a calibration process prior to the intended measurement campaign to correct for significant performance variances between detectors within the array. These differences exist because of low tolerances associated with photo-multiplier tube technology and environmental influences. Differences in detector response can be corrected for by adjusting the supplied photo-multiplier tube voltage to control its gain and the effect that this has on the pulse height spectra from a gamma-only calibration source with a defined photo-peak. Automated methods that analyze these spectra and adjust the photo-multiplier tube bias accordingly are emerging for hardware that integrate acquisition electronics and high voltage control. However, development of such algorithms require access to the hardware, multiple detectors and calibration source for prolonged periods, all with associated constraints and risks. In this work, we report on a software function and related models developed to rescale and regenerate pulse height data acquired from a single scintillation detector. Such a function could be used to generate significant and varied pulse height data that can be used to integration-test algorithms that are capable of automatically response matching multiple detectors using pulse height spectra analysis. Furthermore, a function of this sort removes the dependence on multiple detectors, digital analyzers and calibration source. Results show a good match between the real and regenerated pulse height data. The function has also been used successfully to develop auto-calibration algorithms.

  14. Stability and lifetime testing of photomultiplier detectors for the Earth observing system SOLSTICE program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, Joshua A.; van de Kop, Toni; Drake, Virginia A.; McClintock, William E.; Murphy, John; Rodgers, Paul

    1998-10-01

    The primary objective of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) is to accurately measure the absolute value of the solar UV irradiance at the top of the earth's atmosphere for a minimum mission lifetime of 5 years. To meet this objective, SOLSTICE employs a unique design to determine changes in instrument performance by routinely observing a series of early-type stars and comparing the irradiances directly with the solar value. Although the comparison techniques allows us to track instrument performance, the success of the SOLSTICE experiment depends upon photomultiplier detectors which have graceful degradation properties. Therefore, we have established a laboratory program to evaluate the characteristics of photomultiplier tubes which are exposed to long term fluxes similar to those we expected to encounter in flight. Three types of Hamamatsu photomultiplier tubes were tested as candidates for use in the EOS-SOLSTICE project. The results of these studies: pulse height distribution; quantum efficiency; surface maps,; and lifetime analysis are presented in this paper.

  15. First characterization of the Hamamatsu R11265 multi-anode photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvi, M.; Cassina, L.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Matteuzzi, C.; Pessina, G.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the new Hamamatsu R11265-103-M64 multi-anode photomultiplier tube is presented. The sample available in our laboratory was tested and in particular the response to single photon was extensively studied. The gain, the anode uniformity and the dark current were measured. The tube behaviour in a longitudinal magnetic field up to 100 G was studied and the gain loss due to the ageing was quantified. The characteristics and performance of the photomultiplier tube make the R11265-103-M64 particularly tailored for an application in high energy physics experiments, such as in the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector at LHC. - Highlights: • We tested the new Hamamatsu R11265-103-M64 multi-anode photomultiplier tube. • We studied the response to single photon, the gain and the anode uniformity. • The tube behaviour in a longitudinal magnetic field up to 100 G was studied. • The gain loss due to the aging was quantified

  16. Silicon Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, Thaddeus D. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States); Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Silicon is a promising material candidate for qubits due to the combination of worldwide infrastructure in silicon microelectronics fabrication and the capability to drastically reduce decohering noise channels via chemical purification and isotopic enhancement. However, a variety of challenges in fabrication, control, and measurement leaves unclear the best strategy for fully realizing this material’s future potential. In this article, we survey three basic qubit types: those based on substitutional donors, on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures, and on Si/SiGe heterostructures. We also discuss the multiple schema used to define and control Si qubits, which may exploit the manipulation and detection of a single electron charge, the state of a single electron spin, or the collective states of multiple spins. Far from being comprehensive, this article provides a brief orientation to the rapidly evolving field of silicon qubit technology and is intended as an approachable entry point for a researcher new to this field.

  17. Design and characterization of the SiPM tracking system of NEXT-DEMO, a demonstrator prototype of the NEXT-100 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V; Ball, M; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Ferrario, P; Borges, F I G; Conde, C A N; Dias, T H V T; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Garcia, A N C; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Egorov, M; Gehman, V M; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Ferreira, A L

    2013-01-01

    NEXT-100 experiment aims at searching the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the 136 Xe isotope using a TPC filled with a 100 kg of high-pressure gaseous xenon, with 90% isotopic enrichment. The experiment will take place at the Laboratorio Subterr and apos;aneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain. NEXT-100 uses electroluminescence (EL) technology for energy measurement with a resolution better than 1% FWHM. The gaseous xenon in the TPC additionally allows the tracks of the two beta particles to be recorded, which are expected to have a length of up to 30 cm at 10 bar pressure. The ability to record the topological signature of the ββ0ν events provides a powerful background rejection factor for the ββ experiment. In this paper, we present a novel 3D imaging concept using SiPMs coated with tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) for the EL read out and its first implementation in NEXT-DEMO, a large-scale prototype of the NEXT-100 experiment. The design and the first characterization measurements of the NEXT-DEMO SiPM tracking system are presented. The SiPM response uniformity over the tracking plane drawn from its gain map is shown to be better than 4%. An automated active control system for the stabilization of the SiPMs gain was developed, based on the voltage supply compensation of the gain drifts. The gain is shown to be stabilized within 0.2% relative variation around its nominal value, provided by Hamamatsu, in a temperature range of 10°C. The noise level from the electronics and the SiPM dark noise is shown to lay typically below the level of 10 photoelectrons (pe) in the ADC. Hence, a detection threshold at 10 pe is set for the acquisition of the tracking signals. The ADC full dynamic range (4096 channels) is shown to be adequate for signal levels of up to 200 pe/μs, which enables recording most of the tracking signals.

  18. Pilot tests of a PET detector using the TOF-PET ASIC based on monolithic crystals and SiPMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, A.; González-Montoro, A.; González, A.J.; Hernández, L.; Monzó, J.M.; Benlloch, J.M.; Bugalho, R.; Ferramacho, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we show pilot tests of PET detector blocks using the TOF-PET ASIC, coupled to SiPM detector arrays and different crystal configurations. We have characterized the main ASIC features running calibration processes to compensate the time dispersion among the different ASIC/SiPM paths as well as for the time walk on the arrival of optical photons. The aim of this work is to use of LYSO monolithic crystals and explore their photon Depth of Interaction (DOI) capabilities, keeping good energy and spatial resolutions. First tests have been carried out with crystal arrays. Here we made it possible to reach a coincidence resolving times (CRT) of 370 ps FWHM, with energy resolutions better than 20% and resolving well 2 mm sized crystal elements. When using monolithic crystals, a single-pixel LYSO reference crystal helped to explore the CRT performance. We studied different strategies to provide the best timestamp determination in the monolithic scintillator. Times around 1 ns FWHM have been achieved in these pilot studies. In terms of spatial and energy resolution, values of about 3 mm and better than 30% were found, respectively. We have also demonstrated the capability of this system (monolithic and ASIC) to return accurate DOI information.

  19. First data from IceAct, an imaging air Cherenkov telescope with SiPMs at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffenberg, Jan; Bretz, Thomas; Hansmann, Bengt; Hansmann, Tim; Hebbeker, Thomas; Kemp, Julian; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Raedel, Leif; Schaufel, Merlin; Schumacher, Johannes; Stahlberg, Martin; Werhan, Ansgar; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    IceCube-Gen2 is planned to extend the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the geographic South Pole. For neutrino astronomy, a large background-free sample of well-reconstructed astrophysical neutrinos is essential. The main background for this signal are muons and neutrinos which are produced in cosmic-ray air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. The coincident detection of these air showers by the surface detector IceTop has been proven to be a powerful veto for atmospheric neutrinos and muons in the field of view of the Southern Hemisphere. This motivates a large extension of IceTop to more efficiently detect cosmic rays, IceVeto. Part of these extension plans is an array of imaging air Cherenkov telescopes, IceAct. A first IceAct prototype is consisting of an SiPM camera and lens optics optimized for harsh environments. Compared to IceTop stations, these telescopes potentially lower the detection threshold for air showers at the cost of a lower duty cycle. We present first data, taken during the commissioning of an IceAct prototype in December 2015 at the South Pole.

  20. Approaches to single photon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thew, R.T.; Curtz, N.; Eraerds, P.; Walenta, N.; Gautier, J.-D.; Koller, E.; Zhang, J.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.

    2009-01-01

    We present recent results on our development of single photon detectors, including: gated and free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs); hybrid detection systems based on sum-frequency generation (SFG) and Si APDs-SFG-Si APDs; and SSPDs (superconducting single photon detectors), for telecom wavelengths; as well as SiPM (Silicon photomultiplier) detectors operating in the visible regime.

  1. Timing performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrocchi, Matteo; Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria G.; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito; Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres; Del Guerra, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We are investigating the performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET, based on LYSO crystal slabs and 64 channels Silicon Photomultipliers matrices (1.2 cm 2 of active area each). Measurements have been performed to test the timing capability of the detection system (SiPM matices coupled to a LYSO slab and the read-out electronics) with both test signal and radioactive source.

  2. Timing performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrocchi, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.morrocchi@pi.infn.it [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria G. [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Collazuol, Gianmaria [University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Ambrosi, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Perugia, I 06100 Perugia (Italy); Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito [Politecnico di Bari and INFN Sezione di Bari, I 70100 Bari (Italy); Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Del Guerra, Alberto [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-12-11

    We are investigating the performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET, based on LYSO crystal slabs and 64 channels Silicon Photomultipliers matrices (1.2 cm{sup 2} of active area each). Measurements have been performed to test the timing capability of the detection system (SiPM matices coupled to a LYSO slab and the read-out electronics) with both test signal and radioactive source.

  3. A sampling ultra-high-speed streak camera based on the use of a unique photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marode, Emmanuel

    An apparatus reproducing the ''streak'' mode of a high-speed camera is proposed for the case of a slit AB whose variations in luminosity are repetitive. A photomultiplier, analysing the object AB point by point, and a still camera, photographing a slit fixed on the oscilloscope screen parallel to the sweep direction are placed on a mobile platform P. The movement of P assures a time-resolved analysis of AB. The resolution is of the order of 2.10 -9 s, and can be improved [fr

  4. Reconstruction of scintillations coordinates in cylindrical large detector with radial arrangement of photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, V M; Verbitskij, V S; Verbitskij, S S; Lapik, M A; Tselebrovskij, A N; Lapik, A M; Rusakov, A V; Savopulo, M L; Smirnov, V V; Chubarov, M N

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes algorithm to calculate scintillation coordinates elaborated for a coordinate-sensitive large detector based on liquid scintillator with radial arrangement of nine FEU-174 photomultipliers. Paper contains the simulation results of coordinate resolution dependence in detector centre on energy of gamma-quanta within 0.2-8 MeV range. Using this algorithm one processed the experimental data obtained with application of sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-radiation source and the results of determination of scintillation coordinates for gamma-quanta beam. The accuracy of coordinate determination in detector centre when applying the descried algorithm constitutes approx 10 mm

  5. Method and device for demounting in a radiation detector a photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persyk, D.E.; Stoub, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    A device is described for demounting in a radiation detector a photomultiplier tube which is bonded with its scintillation crystal assembly by means of an elastic light transparent adhesive, comprising: (a) a music wire of about 0.01 to 0.03 inch diameter which forms a noose between its wire ends, the noose being provided for being placed aroung the bond; and (b) twisting means connected with both wire ends for twisting them such that the noose becomes smaller thereby sharing the bond

  6. Test on 2,000 photomultipliers for the CDF endplug calorimeter upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiori, I.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic test of various characteristics, such as gain, dark current, maximum peak current, stability and relative quantum efficiency, has been made to evaluate about 2,000 photomultiplier tubes for the upgraded CDF Endplug calorimeters. The phototubes are Hamamatsu R4125,19mm diameter with green-extended photocathode. In this report we discuss the distribution of the major characteristics measured and the failure mode. Comparisons between independent measurements made on some of the characteristics are used to evaluate the quality of the measurement itself

  7. Plasma rotation measurement in small tokamaks using an optical spectrometer and a single photomultiplier as detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, J H F; Nascimento, I C; Kuznetov, Yu K; Tsypin, V S; Galvão, R M O; Tendler, M

    2007-04-01

    The method for plasma rotation measurement in the tokamak TCABR is reported in this article. During a discharge, an optical spectrometer is used to scan sequentially spectral lines of plasma impurities and spectral lines of a calibration lamp. Knowing the scanning velocity of the diffraction grating of the spectrometer with adequate precision, the Doppler shifts of impurity lines are determined. The photomultiplier output voltage signals are recorded with adequate sampling rate. With this method the residual poloidal and toroidal plasma rotation velocities were determined, assuming that they are the same as those of the impurity ions. The results show reasonable agreement with the neoclassical theory and with results from similar tokamaks.

  8. A new VME-based high voltage power supply for large photomultiplier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, S.; Hubbeling, T.; Kolb, B.W.; Purschke, M.L.; Ippolitov, M.; Blume, C.; Bohne, E.M.; Bucher, D.; Claussen, A.; Peitzmann, T.; Schepers, G.; Schlagheck, H.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new high voltage power supply, developed for the leadglass calorimeter of the WA98 experiment at CERN. The high voltage is produced for each of the 10,080 photomultiplier tubes of the detector individually, by the same number of active bases with on-board Greinacher voltage multipliers. The full VME-based HV controller system, which addresses each base via bus cables once per second, is miniaturized and fits into a single VME crate. The main advantages of this approach are the low heat dissipation, the considerably reduced amount of cabling and cost, as well as the high stability and low noise of the system. (orig.)

  9. Tests of crossed-wire position sensitive photomultipliers for scintillating fiber particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdrisat, C.F.; Koechner, D.; Majewski, S.; Pourang, R.; Wilson, C.D.; Zorn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Several applications of two Hamamatsu position sensitive photomultiplier tubes to the detection of high energy particles with scintillating fibers are discussed. The PMTs are of the multiwire anode grid design, type R2486 and R4135. These tubes were tested with both single samples and arrays of 2 and 3 mm diameter scintillating fibers. Measurements of position resolution of the PMTs using either the charge digitization or the delay line readout techniques were made. The results indicate an intrinsic inability of the technique to reconstruct the actual position of a fiber on the photocathode when its location falls halfway between two grid wires. A way to overcome this limit is suggested. (orig.)

  10. Development of 2D-ACAR apparatus using position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Saito, Haruo; Iwata, Tetsuya; Nagashima, Yasuyuki; Hyodo, Toshio [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Arts and Sciences; Uchida, Hiroshi; Omura, Tomohide

    1997-03-01

    A new two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation apparatus is described. Position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes coupled with two-dimensional arrays of small BGO scintillator blocks make simple and compact position-sensitive {gamma}-ray detectors. With a sample-detector distance of 5m, an angular resolution of 1.1 mrad FWHM and a coincidence count rate of {approx}2.4 c.p.s. per mCi are obtained. Its performance is demonstrated by the result of a test measurement for KI crystal in which non-localized positronium exists at low temperatures. (author)

  11. Effect of interelectrode potentials in the photomultiplier on formation of afterpulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, V.A.; Morozova, N.V.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the interelectrode potential difference in the XP2020 photomultiplier on the intensity of formation of afterpulses caused by ion feedback is studied. It is shown that the photocathode - first dynode gap plays a decisive role in this process while the dynode system is of minor importance at pulse currents below a few tens of milliampers. It is also shown that the anomalous ratio between the afterpulse amplitudes and basic pulse amplitudes can be governed by the process of single ion detection. (author)

  12. Ultrafast readout of scintillating fibers using upgraded position-sensitive photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onel, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental results obtained with commercially available position-sensitive photomultipliers (PSPM) coupled with 0.5 mm diameter scintillating fiber arrays show some promising performances such as space resolution better than 200 μm and time resolution ∼ 1.5 ns with a detection efficiency higher than 90%. Major progress has also been recently achieved with an upgrade of a PSPM based on new grid dynode structures. Two-track spatial resolution has been studied using the upgraded PSPM. Initial studies demonstrate that two tracks separated by a minimum distance of 3 mm are resolved

  13. Report on the lunar ranging at McDonald Observatory. [spark gap configuration and photomultiplier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    Range measurements to an accuracy of 5 cm were achieved following improvements in the laser oscillator configuration and the photomultiplier system. Modifications to the laser include a redesigned pockel cell mount to eliminate stressing of the cell crystal; an improved electrically triggered spark gap for sharpening the electrical pulse; the use of a brewster plate in the cavity to eliminate pre-pulsing; improved alignment for the oscillator system; and increased cavity lifetime through thin film polarizer technology. Laser calibration data are presented along with the lunar laser operations log for June to October 1977.

  14. GEM-based gaseous photomultipliers for UV and visible photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moermann, D.; Balcerzyk, M.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Singh, B.K.; Buzulutskov, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of our research on GEM-based gaseous photomultipliers. Detectors combining multi-GEM electron multipliers with semi-transparent and reflective photocathodes are discussed. We present recent progress in extending the sensitivity of these detectors into the visible range. We demonstrate the long-term stability of an argon-sealed bi-alkali photo-diode and provide preliminary results of a gas-sealed Kapton-GEM detector with a bi-alkali photocathode. The problem of ion-induced secondary electron emission is addressed

  15. The PhE4-49B photomultiplier spply providing the protection from the geomagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, V.V.; Gladyshev, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    To protect a scintillation detector from the effect of the geomagnetic field it is proposed to use an experimentally selected voltage divider in the FEhU-49B photomultiplier supplying circuit. Employment of such a divider makes it possible to increase the electrostatic field strength in the photomultiplier input chamber which ensures better collection of photoelectrons on the first dynode, to decrease effect of the magnetic field on electron focusing and to increase the first dynode secondary emission coefficient. Selection of photomultiplier supplying conditions is carried out experimentally on a scintillation counter with a plastic scintillator. The potentials of the focusing electrode and the first dynode are adjusted so that the relation between the counting rate at a photomultiplier orientation along the magnetic field lines of force and the counting rate at normal orientation to the lines of force is minimum. Usage of the experimentally selected voltage divider improves the scintillation counter time resolution and decreases the photomultiplier operating supply voltage by 100-150 V. The scintillation counter provided with a proposed divider requires no magnetic shields [ru

  16. Test of digital neutron–gamma discrimination with four different photomultiplier tubes for the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.L., E-mail: luo.xiaoliang@physics.uu.se [Department of Instrument Science and Technology, College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Modamio, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nyberg, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Valiente-Dobón, J.J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nishada, Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Angelis, G. de [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Agramunt, J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Egea, F.J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Istanbul (Turkey); Erduran, M.N.; Ertürk, S. [Nigde Universitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Falkültesi, Fizik Bölümü, Nigde (Turkey); France, G. de [GANIL, CEA/DSAM and CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Gadea, A. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); González, V. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Hüyük, T. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Jaworski, G. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Moszyński, M. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); and others

    2014-12-11

    A comparative study of the neutron–γ discrimination performance of a liquid scintillator detector BC501A coupled to four different 5 in. photomultiplier tubes (ET9390kb, R11833-100, XP4512 and R4144) was carried out. Both the Charge Comparison method and the Integrated Rise-Time method were implemented digitally to discriminate between neutrons and γ rays emitted by a {sup 252}Cf source. In both methods, the neutron–γ discrimination capabilities of the four photomultiplier tubes were quantitatively compared by evaluating their figure-of-merit values at different energy regions between 50 keVee and 1000 keVee. Additionally, the results were further verified qualitatively using time-of-flight to distinguish γ rays and neutrons. The results consistently show that photomultiplier tubes R11833-100 and ET9390kb generally perform best regarding neutron–γ discrimination with only slight differences in figure-of-merit values. This superiority can be explained by their relatively higher photoelectron yield, which indicates that a scintillator detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube with higher photoelectron yield tends to result in better neutron–γ discrimination performance. The results of this work will provide reference for the choice of photomultiplier tubes for future neutron detector arrays like NEDA.

  17. Geochemistry of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Tiping; Li, Yanhe; Gao, Jianfei; Hu, Bin [Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mineral Resources; Jiang, Shaoyong [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China).

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth and silicon isotope geochemistry is important in identifying the silicon source for various geological bodies and in studying the behavior of silicon in different geological processes. This book starts with an introduction on the development of silicon isotope geochemistry. Various analytical methods are described and compared with each other in detail. The mechanisms of silicon isotope fractionation are discussed, and silicon isotope distributions in various extraterrestrial and terrestrial reservoirs are updated. Besides, the applications of silicon isotopes in several important fields are presented.

  18. CLARO: an ASIC for high rate single photon counting with multi-anode photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baszczyk, M.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dorosz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Gotti, C.; Kucewicz, W.; Malaguti, R.; Pessina, G.

    2017-08-01

    The CLARO is a radiation-hard 8-channel ASIC designed for single photon counting with multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. Each channel outputs a digital pulse when the input signal from the photomultiplier crosses a configurable threshold. The fast return to baseline, typically within 25 ns, and below 50 ns in all conditions, allows to count up to 107 hits/s on each channel, with a power consumption of about 1 mW per channel. The ASIC presented here is a much improved version of the first 4-channel prototype. The threshold can be precisely set in a wide range, between 30 ke- (5 fC) and 16 Me- (2.6 pC). The noise of the amplifier with a 10 pF input capacitance is 3.5 ke- (0.6 fC) RMS. All settings are stored in a 128-bit configuration and status register, protected against soft errors with triple modular redundancy. The paper describes the design of the ASIC at transistor-level, and demonstrates its performance on the test bench.

  19. Advances in CMOS solid-state photomultipliers for scintillation detector applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, James F.; Stapels, Christopher J.; Johnson, Erik B.; McClish, Mickel; Dokhale, Purushotthom; Shah, Kanai S.; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Chapman, Eric [Radiation Monitoring Devices, 44 Hunt Street, Watertownm, MA 02472 (United States); Augustine, Frank L., E-mail: JChristian@RMDInc.co [Augustine Engineering, 2115 Park Dale Ln, Encinitas, CA 92024 (United States)

    2010-12-11

    Solid-state photomultipliers (SSPMs) are a compact, lightweight, potentially low-cost alternative to a photomultiplier tube for a variety of scintillation detector applications, including digital-dosimeter and medical-imaging applications. Manufacturing SSPMs with a commercial CMOS process provides the ability for rapid prototyping, and facilitates production to reduce the cost. RMD designs CMOS SSPM devices that are fabricated by commercial foundries. This work describes the characterization and performance of these devices for scintillation detector applications. This work also describes the terms contributing to device noise in terms of the excess noise of the SSPM, the binomial statistics governing the number of pixels triggered by a scintillation event, and the background, or thermal, count rate. The fluctuations associated with these terms limit the resolution of the signal pulse amplitude. We explore the use of pixel-level signal conditioning, and characterize the performance of a prototype SSPM device that preserves the digital nature of the signal. In addition, we explore designs of position-sensitive SSPM detectors for medical imaging applications, and characterize their performance.

  20. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

    2003-05-12

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  1. An overview of current developments in position-sensitive hybrid photon detectors and photo-multiplier tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Gys, Thierry

    1999-01-01

    Current developments in position-sensitive hybrid photon detectors and photo-multiplier tubes have stimulated increased interest from a variety of fields such as astronomy, biomedical imaging and high- energy physics. These devices are sensitive to single photons over a photon energy spectrum defined by the transmission of the optical entrance window and the photo-cathode type. Their spatial resolution ranges from a few millimeters for pad hybrid photon detectors and multi-anode photo-multiplier tubes down to a few tens of microns for pixel hybrid photon detectors and electron-bombarded charge-coupled devices. Basic technological and design aspects are assessed in this paper. (21 refs).

  2. R&D of a pioneering system for a high resolution photodetector: The VSiPMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, F. C. T.; Barbarino, G.; Campajola, L.; Di Capua, F.; Mollo, C. M.; Valentini, A.; Vivolo, D.

    2017-12-01

    The VSiPMT (Vacuum Silicon PhotoMultiplier Tube) is an innovative design for a hybrid photodetector. The idea, born with the purpose to use a SiPM for large detection volumes, consists in replacing the classical dynode chain with a special SiPM. In this configuration, we match the large sensitive area of a photocathode with the performances of the SiPM technology, which therefore acts like an electron detector and so like a current amplifier. The excellent photon counting capability, fast response, low power consumption and the stability are among the most attractive features of the VSiPMT.We now present the progress on the realization of a 1-in. prototype and the preliminary tests we are performing on it.

  3. A novel, SiPM-array-based, monolithic scintillator detector for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaart, Dennis R; Dam, Herman T van; Seifert, Stefan; Beekman, Freek J; Vinke, Ruud; Dendooven, Peter; Loehner, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are of great interest to positron emission tomography (PET), as they enable new detector geometries, for e.g., depth-of-interaction (DOI) determination, are MR compatible, and offer faster response and higher gain than other solid-state photosensors such as avalanche photodiodes. Here we present a novel detector design with DOI correction, in which a position-sensitive SiPM array is used to read out a monolithic scintillator. Initial characterization of a prototype detector consisting of a 4 x 4 SiPM array coupled to either the front or back surface of a 13.2 mm x 13.2 mm x 10 mm LYSO:Ce 3+ crystal shows that front-side readout results in significantly better performance than conventional back-side readout. Spatial resolutions 2 detector, equals 960 ps FWHM.

  4. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  5. Comparative Measurements of the Photon Detection Efficiency of KETEK SiPM Detectors for the LHCb SciFi Upgrade Project

    CERN Document Server

    Joram, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb SciFi detector is conceived to employ arrays of SiPM detectors to detect scintillation light from ribbons of 2.5 m long scintillating fibres of 250 $\\mu$m diameter. The fibres of type Kuraray SCSF-78 are blue emitting with an emission maximum at 440 nm. However, as a consequence of the radiation damage mainly from charged hadrons in the LHCb experiments, the effective emission spectrum at the end of the fibre will shift to longer wavelengths. A simulation of the light absorption in the fibre, assuming an ionizing dose distribution along the fibre as predicted by the FLUKA code, is able to predict the emission spectrum. Fig. 1 shows the emission spectra (in arbitrary units) for 10 cm intervals along the fibre. At 250 cm, where the ionization dose is expected to reach over the full lifetime of the upgrade LHCb detector about 30 kGy, the average wavelength of emission is approximately 500 nm. The sensitivity spectrum of the SiPM detector should be tuned to match this emission spectrum, i.e. the PDE shou...

  6. Performance of a 64-channel, 3.2×3.2 cm{sup 2} SiPM tile for TOF-PET application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, Alessandro, E-mail: aleferri@fbk.eu; Acerbi, Fabio; Gola, Alberto; Piemonte, Claudio; Paternoster, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-07-11

    In this work, we present a new 3.2×3.2 cm{sup 2} detector tile, composed of 8×8 single SiPMs, having a regular 4 mm pitch in both the X and Y directions. The tile fill factor is 85%. We produced two versions of the tile with different SiPM technologies: RGB-HD and NUV. The first one features square micro-cells with 25 µm pitch, a PDE peaked at 550 nm and a DCR of 300 kHz/mm{sup 2}, at 20 °C and at maximum detection efficiency. The second one features micro-cells with 40 µm pitch and a PDE peaked in the blue part of the spectrum. The dark count rate at 20 °C and at maximum PDE is 100 kHz/mm{sup 2}. In this work, we show the energy and timing resolution measurements at 511 keV obtained coupling the two tiles to an 8×8 LYSO array with a pixel size of 4×4×22 mm{sup 3}, perfectly matching the photo-detector array.

  7. Performance of a 64-channel, 3.2×3.2 cm2 SiPM tile for TOF-PET application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, Alessandro; Acerbi, Fabio; Gola, Alberto; Piemonte, Claudio; Paternoster, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a new 3.2×3.2 cm 2 detector tile, composed of 8×8 single SiPMs, having a regular 4 mm pitch in both the X and Y directions. The tile fill factor is 85%. We produced two versions of the tile with different SiPM technologies: RGB-HD and NUV. The first one features square micro-cells with 25 µm pitch, a PDE peaked at 550 nm and a DCR of 300 kHz/mm 2 , at 20 °C and at maximum detection efficiency. The second one features micro-cells with 40 µm pitch and a PDE peaked in the blue part of the spectrum. The dark count rate at 20 °C and at maximum PDE is 100 kHz/mm 2 . In this work, we show the energy and timing resolution measurements at 511 keV obtained coupling the two tiles to an 8×8 LYSO array with a pixel size of 4×4×22 mm 3 , perfectly matching the photo-detector array.

  8. Studien zur Eignung von Silizium Photomultipliern für den Einsatz im erweiterten CMS Detektor am SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rennefeld, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are modern semiconductor based detectors that have the potential to replace conventional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in many fields of application. In the course of research and development for upgrades of the CMS detector their potential for usage in different components is evaluated. The paper at hand deals with the temperature dependency of SiPMs. Their dark current is an important operating parameter. His temperature dependency is investigated using current-voltage characteristics. Furthermore a method for obtaining temperature independent output pulses is presented. To unleash the full potential of the sensors one has to make use of customized electronics for the readout. Therefore a custom printed circuit board developed by the electronics departments of our institute (III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University) is used in this thesis. Finally the results of measurements on two commercially available MPPC modules from Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. are presented.

  9. Short and long range gain monitoring of photomultipliers by means of a light pulser and an optical fibers bunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.

    1989-01-01

    The gain monitoring of 8 XP3462 photomultipliers has been studied during a period of 3 months with a spark gap as a light pulser, an optical fibres bunch and 3 reference detectors. One of the reference PM is monitored thanks to a cristal of NaI irradiated by an 241 Am radioactive source, whereas the photodiode and its associated electronic is monitored thanks to a 57 Co source directly coupled to the junction. Two experimental methods have been tested. First the short term method consists in estimating several means of charge distributions and supposes the stability of different optical parameters like quantum efficiency or photoelectrons collection efficiency. The long term method consists in estimating several variances of charge distributions and supposes the validity, at first order, of photomultipliers' equations. In spite of unpropitious experimental conditions (tension switch off, no climatisation..), our results indicate that the short term method provides a precision of about 0.5% for the relative gain value but only during a short period which has been of 20 days. The long term method provides a precision of about 1.5% but is remained available during the 3 months of our experiment. This study has been developed for the new Neutrino oscillation program taking place near the Bugey nuclear plant and using 600 photomultipliers. The conclusions mentioned above are nevertheless valid for any particle detectors using photomultipliers [fr

  10. Partially slotted crystals for a high-resolution γ-camera based on a position sensitive photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giokaris, N.; Loudos, G.; Maintas, D.; Karabarbounis, A.; Lembesi, M.; Spanoudaki, V.; Stiliaris, E.; Boukis, S.; Gektin, A.; Pedash, V.; Gayshan, V.

    2005-01-01

    Partially slotted crystals have been designed and constructed and have been used to evaluate the performance with respect to the spatial resolution of a γ-camera based on a position-sensitive photomultiplier. It is shown that the resolution obtained with such a crystal is only slightly worse than the one obtained with a fully pixelized one whose cost, however, is much higher

  11. Ultrafast Readout of Scintillating Fibres Using Upgraded Position-Sensitive Photomultipliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-17 \\\\ \\\\To design a high rate topological trigger device for the future DIRAC Experiment at CERN an extensive work is in progress on a scintillating-fibre detector using a position-sensitive photomultiplier. Several detector prototypes with different lengths ($<$~50~cm) of sensitive area have been tested at T7S~PS beam. \\\\ \\\\With 0.5~mm diameter fibres a spatial resolution of $\\sim$125~$\\mu$m was obtained with a detection efficiency higher than 95\\%. The time resolution is $\\sim$600~ps, and the track position is properly digitized in real time (about 10~ns) by multi-channel peak sensing circuit. Based on experimental data simulations were also performed a comparison of different types of front-end electronics for multi-channel readout.

  12. Failure Investigation & Design Optimization of a Photo-Multiplier Tube Assembly Under Thermal Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahya, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of GLAST ACD Photo-Multiplier Tube (PMT) assembly under thermal loading demonstrates that the glass tube experiences high stresses due to Coefficient of Thermal Expansion mismatch, as well as increased stress due to high stiffness and incompressibility of potting compound. Further investigation shows adverse loading effects due to the magnetic shield, a thin piece of steel wrapped around the PMT. This steel, Mu Metal, contained an overlap region that directly attributed to crack propagation in the outside surface of the tube. Sensitivities to different configurations were studied to reduce the stress and provide a more uniform loading throughout the PMT to ensure mission success. Studies indicate substituting a softer and more compressible potting compound and moving the Mu metal from the glass tube to the outside wall of the aluminum housing yields lower stress.

  13. Two types of photomultiplier voltage dividers for high and changing count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, W.L.; Stengl, G.

    1980-01-01

    We report on the design of two types of voltage distribution circuits for high stability photomultiplier operation. 'Type A' voltage divider is an ohmic voltage divider with high bleeder current (up to 10 mA) and the resistor chain split at one of the last dynodes, usually the dynode where the analog signal is derived from. This simple constructive measure improves the stability of the dynode voltage by a factor of 5 compared with an unsplit conventional resistor chain. 'Type B' is a novel active voltage divider using cold cathode tubes ar regulating elements. This voltage divider exhibits excellent temperature stability (about 10 -4 / 0 C). With 'type B' an equal stability compared with conventional ohmic dividers can be achieved at a bleeder current smaller by one order of magnitude. Of course both concepts, 'type A' and 'type B', can be combined. (orig.)

  14. Characterization of photomultiplier tubes with a realistic model through GPU-boosted simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, M.; Aprile, E.; Grandi, L.; Lin, Q.; Saldanha, R.

    2018-02-01

    The accurate characterization of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) is crucial in a wide-variety of applications. However, current methods do not give fully accurate representations of the response of a PMT, especially at very low light levels. In this work, we present a new and more realistic model of the response of a PMT, called the cascade model, and use it to characterize two different PMTs at various voltages and light levels. The cascade model is shown to outperform the more common Gaussian model in almost all circumstances and to agree well with a newly introduced model independent approach. The technical and computational challenges of this model are also presented along with the employed solution of developing a robust GPU-based analysis framework for this and other non-analytical models.

  15. A gas proportional scintillation counter for use in large area detector systems without photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruch, J.E.F.; Brooke, G.; Kellermann, E.W.; Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.

    1978-03-01

    The properties of a prototype gas proportional scintillation detector, for use in large numbers, are examined. The detector is designed to focus a light signal, which is proportional to ionisation loss, into a fibre optic lightguide. It is shown that a single charged particle traversing the detector produces enough light out of the lightguide to be seen by a TV camera. Problems of lifetime and large scale detector production are discussed. Properties of saturation, linearity, position sensitivity, and operating limits are examined. It is shown that an array of gas proportional scintillation detectors when used with fibre optic lightguides and TV camera readout could offer significant improvements in cost per area and reliability over a scintillator plus photomultiplier or a wire proportional chamber array. (author)

  16. Monte Carlo calculations of the optical coupling between bismuth germanate crystals and photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Riles, J.K.

    1981-10-01

    The high density and atomic number of bismuth germanate (Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 or BGO) make it a very useful detector for positron emission tomography. Modern tomograph designs use large numbers of small, closely-packed crystals for high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. However, the low light output, the high refractive index (n=2.15), and the need for accurate timing make it important to optimize the transfer of light to the photomultiplier tube (PMT). We describe the results of a Monte Carlo computer program developed to study the effect of crystal shape, reflector type, and the refractive index of the PMT window on coupling efficiency. The program simulates total internal, external, and Fresnel reflection as well as internal absorption and scattering by bubbles

  17. Gain monitoring of telescope array photomultiplier cameras for the first 4 years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, B.K., E-mail: bkshin@hanyang.ac.kr [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tokuno, H.; Tsunesada, Y. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Abu-Zayyad, T. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Aida, R. [University of Yamanashi, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan); Allen, M.; Anderson, R. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Azuma, R. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J.W.; Bergman, D.R.; Blake, S.A.; Cady, R. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Cheon, B.G., E-mail: bgcheon@hanyang.ac.kr [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J. [Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Chikawa, M. [Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Cho, E.J. [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, W.R. [Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujii, T. [Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka (Japan); and others

    2014-12-21

    The stability of the gain of the photomultiplier (PMT) camera for the Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Telescope Array experiment was monitored using an {sup 241}Am loaded scintillator pulsers (YAP) and a diffused xenon flasher (TXF) for a selected set of 35 PMT-readout channels. From the monitoring of YAP pulses over four years of FD operation, we found slow monotonic drifts of PMT gains at a rate of −1.7∼+1.7%/year. An average of the PMT gains over the 35 channels stayed nearly constant with a rate of change measured at −0.01±0.31(stat)±0.21(sys)%/year. No systematic decrease of the PMT gain caused by the night sky background was observed. Monitoring by the TXF also tracked the PMT gain drift of the YAP at 0.88±0.14(stat)%/year.

  18. Performance of 8- and 12-dynode stage multianode photo-multipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibby, J.H. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Buckley, A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chamonal, R.J.U. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: chamonal@ph.ed.ac.uk; Easo, S. [CCLRC, Rutherford Aplleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Eisenhardt, S. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Gibson, V. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Harnew, N. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Muheim, F. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Howard, A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Lawrence, J. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Pickford, A. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Plackett, R. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Price, D.R. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rademacker, J. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Smale, N. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Soler, F.J.P. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); CCLRC, Rutherford Aplleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Somerville, L. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Storey, J. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Websdale, D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Wotton, S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-01

    We report on studies of 64-channel Multianode Photo-Multiplier Tubes (MaPMTs) as photo-detectors for Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) counters. The newly available 8-dynode stage MaPMT was tested in particle beams at CERN. The MaPMT signals were read out directly with the Beetle1.2 chip which was designed for the LHCb environment and operates at 40MHz. The photon yield and signal losses were determined for a cluster of 3x3 close-packed MaPMTs. The performance of the 8-dynode stage MaPMT was compared to that of the 12-dynode stage MaPMT which has a larger intrinsic gain.

  19. Topological trigger device using scintillating fibers and position-sensitive photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Keiichi; Dufournaud, J; Sillou, D [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules (LAPP), 74 (France); Agoritsas, V [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Bystricky, G; Lehar, F; Lesquen, A de [CEN-Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Giacomich, R; Pauletta, G; Penzo, A; Salvato, G; Schiavon, P; Villari, A [INFN, Messina (Italy) INFN, Trieste (Italy) INFN, Udine (Italy); Gorin, A M; Meschanin, A P; Nurushev, S B; Rakhmatov, V E; Rykalin, V L; Solovyanov, V L; Vasiliev, A N; Vasil' chencko, V G [Institute for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (USSR); Oshima, N; Yamada, R [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Takeutchi, F [Kyoto-Sanyo Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Yoshida, T [Osaka City Univ. (Japan); Akchurin, N; Onel, Y; Newsom, C

    1991-07-01

    An approach to a high quality of the Level-1 Trigger is investigated on the basis of a topological trigger device. It will be realized by using scintillating fibers and position-sensitive photomultipliers, both considered as potential candidates of new detector-components thanks to their excellent time characteristics and high radiation resistances. The device is characterized in particular by its simple concept and reliable operation supported by the mature technologies emploied. The major interests of such a scheme under LHC environments reside in its capability of selcting high pperpendicular to tracks in real time, its optional immunity against low pperpendicular to tracks and loopers, as well as its effective links to other associated devices in the complex of a vertex detector. (orig.).

  20. The performance of a high speed pipelined photomultiplier readout system in the Fermilab KTe V experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, J.

    1997-08-01

    The KTeV fixed target experiment at Fermilab is using an innovative scheme for reading out its 3100 channel CsI electromagnetic calorimeter. This pipelined readout system digitizes photomultiplier tube (PMT) signals over a 16-bit dynamic range with 8-bits of resolution at 53 MHz. The crucial element of the system is a custom Bi-CMOS integrated circuit which, in conjunction with an 8-bit Flash ADC, integrates and digitizes the PMT signal charge over each 18.9 nsec clock cycle (53 MHz) in a deadtimeless fashion.The digitizer circuit is local to the PMT base, and has an in-situ charge integration noise figure of 3 fC/sample. In this article, the readout system will be described and its performance including noise, cross-talk, linearity, stability, and reliability will be discussed

  1. Characterization of photo-multiplier tube as ex-vessel radiation detector in tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jungmin; Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Junghee; An, YoungHwa; Park, Seungil; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2017-09-01

    Feasibility of using conventional photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) without a scintillator as an ex-vessel radiation detector in a tokamak environment is studied. Basic irradiation tests using standard gamma ray sources and a d-d neutron generator showed that the PMT is responding both to gamma photons and neutrons, possibly due to the direct generation of secondary electrons inside the PMT by the impingement of high energy photons. Because of the selective sensitivity of the PMT to hard x-ray and neutrons in ohmic and neutral beam injected plasmas, respectively, it is shown that the PMT with certain configuration can be utilized either to monitor the fluctuation in the fusion neutron generation rate or to study the behavior of runaway electrons in tokamaks.

  2. Current feedback operational amplifiers as fast charge sensitive preamplifiers for photomultiplier read out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giachero, A; Gotti, C; Maino, M; Pessina, G, E-mail: claudio.gotti@mib.infn.it [INFN - Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, I-20126, Milano (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Fast charge sensitive preamplifiers were built using commercial current feedback operational amplifiers for fast read out of charge pulses from a photomultiplier tube. Current feedback opamps prove to be particularly well suited for this application where the charge from the detector is large, of the order of one million electrons, and high timing resolution is required. A proper circuit arrangement allows very fast signals, with rise times down to one nanosecond, while keeping the amplifier stable. After a review of current feedback circuit topology and stability constraints, we provide a 'recipe' to build stable and very fast charge sensitive preamplifiers from any current feedback opamp by adding just a few external components. The noise performance of the circuit topology has been evaluated and is reported in terms of equivalent noise charge.

  3. Evaluation of new 5 inch photomultiplier for use in threshold Cherenkov detectors with aerogel radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtsekhowski, B.; Zorn, C.; Flyckt, S.O.

    2000-01-01

    A cost effective alternative to UV-sensitive 5 inch PMTs often used with threshold Aerogel Cherenkov detectors has been developed and tested. The photomultiplier -XP4572-is a variation of the Photonis XP4512 glass window tube with improved electron collection efficiency. Fast timing and high gain were only moderately compromised. The effective quantum efficiency has been measured as twice that of a Burle 8854 Quantacon when exposed to a Cherenkov spectrum generated by Ru-106 electrons (les;3.54 MeV) through 1 cm of high index, high transparency Matsushita Electric aerogel (n=1.05). This new phototube is being installed in an aerogel-based Cherenkov detector for Hall A at Jefferson Lab

  4. Topological trigger device using scintillating fibres and position-sensitive photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Agoritsas, V; Dufournaud, J; Giacomich, R; Gorin, A M; Kuroda, K; Meshchanin, A P; Newsom, C R; Nurushev, S B; Önel, Y M; Oshima, N; Pauletta, G; Penzo, Aldo L; Rakhmatov, V E; Rykalin, V I; Salvato, G; Schiavon, R P; Sillou, D; Solovyanov, V L; Takeutchi, F; Vasilev, V; Vasilchenko, V G; Villari, A C C; Yamada, R; Toshida, T; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    An approach to a high-quality level-1 trigger is proposed on the basis of a topological device that will be realized by using scintillating fibres and position-sensitive photomultipliers, both of which are considered as potential candidates for new detector components, thanks to their excellent time characteristics and high radiation resistance. The device is characterized, in particular, by its simple concept and reliable functioning, which are a result of the mature technologies employed. In the LHC environment, the major interests of such a scheme reside in its capability to select high ptransv. tracks in real time, in its optional immunity against low ptransv. tracks and loopers, as well as in its effective links to other associated devices within the complex of a vertex detector.

  5. Evaluation of candidate photomultiplier tubes for the upgrade of the CDF end plug calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koska, W.; Delchamps, S.W.; Freeman, J.; Kinney, W.; Lewis, D.; Limon, P.; Strait, J.; Fiori, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Shen, Q.

    1994-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab is upgrading its end plug calorimeter from a gas detector system to one using scintillating tiles and wavelength shifting fibers. This tile-fiber calorimeter will be read out through 1,824 photomultiplier tubes. The performance requirements of the calorimeter require that the PMTs have good response to light in the 500 nm region, provide adequate amplification for signals from minimum ionizing particles yet provide linear response for peak anode currents up to 25 mA at a gain of 50,000, and fit into the restricted space at the rear of the plugs. This paper will describe the evaluation process used to determine the adequacy of the commercially available PMTs which appeared to meet these performance requirements

  6. Study of capillary tracking detectors with position-sensitive photomultiplier readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardini, A.; Cavasinni, V.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dolinsky, S.I.; Flaminio, V.; Golovkin, S.V.; Gorin, A.M.; Medvedkov, A.M.; Pyshev, A.I.; Tyukov, V.E.; Vasilchenko, V.G.; Zymin, K.V.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements have been carried out on light yield and attenuation length in glass capillaries filled with new liquid scintillators (LS) and compared with analogous measurements made on 0.5 mm diameter plastic fibres Kuraray SCSF-38 and 3HF. It is found that, at a distance of 1 m, the light output in the capillary filled with green LS based on 1-methylnaphthalene doped with a new dye 3M15 is greater by a factor of 2 to 3 than for plastic fibres. A tracking detector consisting of a capillary bundle read out by a 100 channel position-sensitive microchannel plate photomultiplier (2MCP-100) has been built and tested in the laboratory using a cosmic ray trigger. A comparison has been made between the performance of such a detector and that of a similar one, read out by a 96 channel Philips XP1724/A photomultiplier. It was found that a bundle made of 20μm diameter capillaries with a tapered end giving a magnification of 2.56, filled with the new IPN+3M15 liquid scintillator, read out by the 2MCP-100, provides a space resolution of σ=170μm, a two-track resolution of the same value and a hit density of n=1.9/mm for tracks crossing the detector at a distance of 20 cm from the photocathode. If the same detector is read out by the Philips XP1724/A, the space resolution becomes 200μm, the two-track resolution 600μm and the hit density n=1.7/mm. The worse performance in the latter case is caused by the larger crosstalk compared with that of the 2MCP-100 PSPM. The results indicate that a LS-filled capillary detector is a very promising device for fast fibre tracking. (orig.)

  7. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  8. Construction and beam-tests of silicon-tungsten and scintillator-SiPM modules for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yung-wei

    2018-01-01

    A High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) is being designed to replace the existing endcap calorimeters in CMS for the HL-LHC era. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments, with silicon sensors being chosen for the high-pseudorapidity regions due to their radiation tolerance. The remainder of the HGCAL, in the lower radiation environment, will use plastic scintillator with on-tile SiPM readout. Prototype hexagonal silicon modules, featuring a new Skiroc2-CMS front-end chip, together with a modified version of the scintillator-SiPM CALICE AHCAL, have been built and tested in beams at CERN in 2017. In this poster, we present measurements of noise, calibration, shower shapes and performance with electrons, pions and muons.

  9. Preparatory Study of Photomultiplier Tubes of 10-inch and 3-inch Diameter for KM3NeT Underwater Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.

    2015-01-01

    Large area photomultipliers are widely used in neutrino and astro-particle detectors to measure Cherenkov light in media like water or ice. The key element of these detectors are the so-called 'optical module', which consists of a photodetector enclosed in a transparent pressure-resistant container to protect it and ensure good light transmission. KM3NeT collaboration aims to construct an underwater 'hybrid' neutrino telescope by using two models detection unit. The 'tower' detection unit will be composed of large area 10-inch photomultipliers tube enclosed into 13-inch glass vessel sphere. In the 'string' detection unit instead, the light detector will be the 'digital optical module' (DOM) a glass vessel of 17-inch with 31 photomultipliers of 3- inch diameter looking upwards and downwards. The choice of two different kinds of photomultipliers, obliges us to investigate their main characteristics. Noise pulses at the anode of each photomultiplier strongly affect the performance of the detector. A large study was conducted on noise pulses of large area photomultipliers, considering time and charge distributions of dark pulses, pre-pulses, delayed pulses, and after-pulses. The contribution to noise pulses due to the presence of the external glass vessels was also studied. Moreover the presence of the Earth's magnetic field should modify quantities like gain and transit time spread in photomultipliers and we will deeply investigate on this. (authors)

  10. A new approach for improved time and position measurements for TOF-PET: Time-stamping of the photo-electrons using analogue SiPMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroud, K., E-mail: Katayoun.Doroud@cern.ch [CERN Geneva (Switzerland); Williams, M.C.S. [CERN Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-03-21

    Measurement of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) of the 511 keV gammas brings an important reduction of statistical noise in the PET image, with higher precision time measurements producing clearer images. The common method of coupling a photodetector to scintillating crystals is to have two matching matrices, with a one-to-one coupling between the crystal and the photodetector. We propose a new geometry based on analogue strip SiPMs reading out a scintillator cut into slabs. This technique allows the time stamping of individual photo-electrons and extracts the best time resolution using a specific algorithm. Here we present the results from the first ‘slab module’ test.

  11. A new approach for improved time and position measurements for TOF-PET: Time-stamping of the photo-electrons using analogue SiPMs

    CERN Document Server

    Doroud, K

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) of the 511 keV gammas brings an important reduction of statistical noise in the PET image, with higher precision time measurements producing clearer images. The common method of coupling a photodetector to scintillating crystals is to have two matching matrices, with a one-to-one coupling between the crystal and the photodetector. We propose a new geometry based on analogue strip SiPMs reading out a scintillator cut into slabs. This technique allows the time stamping of individual photo-electrons and extracts the best time resolution using a specific algorithm. Here we present the results from the first ‘slab module’ test.

  12. Silicon: electrochemistry and luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst Stefan

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemistry of crystalline and porous silicon and the luminescence from porous silicon has been studied. One chapter deals with a model for the anodic dissolution of silicon in HF solution. In following chapters both the electrochemistry and various ways of generating visible

  13. Effect of the method of photomultiplier gain control on electron time-of-flight in FEhU-30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyshev, D.A.; Li, B.N.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of a method of control of the multiplication factor of a photomultiplier on the electron flight time has been investigated. Presented are the results of measuring the dependence of the electron flight time for the following methods of stabilizing the photomultiplier multiplication: adjustment of multiplication by changing the supply voltage; control of multiplication with the help of a resistor which shunts two neighbouring interdynode gaps, and the control of the multiplication factor by changing a magnetic field caused due to changes in the current flowing through a special solenoid. It has been found that in these methods changes in the flight time constituted 260 and 140 ns. Magnetic-field control does not affect the flight time with an accuracy of up to 20 ps

  14. Studies on the construction of a vertex detector of scintillation fibers and a multi-channel photomultiplier XP 4702

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, G.

    1991-04-01

    In the last years recent attempts have been made in the development of scintillating fibers and multichannel photomultiplier tubes. A combination of these two components therefore becomes attractive in building a position sensitive detector. For this purpose some investigations were made to prove the capability of such a combination. It has been shown, that both components would be well suited for building a position sensitive detector. (orig.) [de

  15. Performance of a C4F8O gas radiator ring imaging Cherenkov detector using multi-anode photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artuso, M.; Boulahouache, C.; Blusk, S.; Butt, J.; Dorjkhaidav, O.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Muramatsu, H.; Nandakumar, R.; Randrianarivony, K.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J.C.; Zhang, K.

    2006-01-01

    We report on tests of a novel ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detection system consisting of a 3-m-long gaseous C 4 F 8 O radiator, a focusing mirror, and a photon detector array based on Hamamatsu multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. This system was developed to identify charged particles in the momentum range from 3 to 70GeV/c for the BTeV experiment

  16. Non-descanned multifocal multiphoton microscopy with a multianode photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jae Won; Yew, Elijah Y. S.; Kim, Daekeun; Subramanian, Jaichandar; Nedivi, Elly; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) improves imaging speed over a point scanning approach by parallelizing the excitation process. Early versions of MMM relied on imaging detectors to record emission signals from multiple foci simultaneously. For many turbid biological specimens, the scattering of emission photons results in blurred images and degrades the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We have recently demonstrated that a multianode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) placed in a descanned configuration can effectively collect scattered emission photons from each focus into their corresponding anodes significantly improving image SNR for highly scattering specimens. Unfortunately, a descanned MMM has a longer detection path resulting in substantial emission photon loss. Optical design constraints in a descanned geometry further results in significant optical aberrations especially for large field-of-view (FOV), high NA objectives. Here, we introduce a non-descanned MMM based on MAPMT that substantially overcomes most of these drawbacks. We show that we improve signal efficiency up to fourfold with limited image SNR degradation due to scattered emission photons. The excitation foci can also be spaced wider to cover the full FOV of the objective with minimal aberrations. The performance of this system is demonstrated by imaging interneuron morphological structures deep in the brains of living mice

  17. Non-descanned multifocal multiphoton microscopy with a multianode photomultiplier tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jae Won; Yew, Elijah Y. S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kim, Daekeun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dankook University (Korea, Republic of); Subramanian, Jaichandar [Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Nedivi, Elly [Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Departments of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, and Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); So, Peter T. C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) improves imaging speed over a point scanning approach by parallelizing the excitation process. Early versions of MMM relied on imaging detectors to record emission signals from multiple foci simultaneously. For many turbid biological specimens, the scattering of emission photons results in blurred images and degrades the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We have recently demonstrated that a multianode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) placed in a descanned configuration can effectively collect scattered emission photons from each focus into their corresponding anodes significantly improving image SNR for highly scattering specimens. Unfortunately, a descanned MMM has a longer detection path resulting in substantial emission photon loss. Optical design constraints in a descanned geometry further results in significant optical aberrations especially for large field-of-view (FOV), high NA objectives. Here, we introduce a non-descanned MMM based on MAPMT that substantially overcomes most of these drawbacks. We show that we improve signal efficiency up to fourfold with limited image SNR degradation due to scattered emission photons. The excitation foci can also be spaced wider to cover the full FOV of the objective with minimal aberrations. The performance of this system is demonstrated by imaging interneuron morphological structures deep in the brains of living mice.

  18. Extension of photomultiplier tube dynamic range for the LHAASO-KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Hongkui, E-mail: lvhk@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sheng, Xiangdong; He, Huihai; Liu, Jia [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Zhongquan [Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hou, Chao; Zhao, Jing [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-05-01

    In the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), the 1 km{sup 2} array (KM2A) requires linear measurement of optical intensity with a wide dynamic range. Over 5000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are employed in this experiment and developed as “two outputs” device (anode and dynode) to meet the relevant requirements. In this study, the linearity of the anode and the eighth dynode (DY8), which is limited by space charge effects and mainly related to the relative dynode voltage ratios of the PMT divider, is examined. A voltage divider for the Hamamatsu R11102 PMT is designed and a dramatically enhanced linearity is demonstrated. Test results show that this design can cover a wide dynamic range from 20 to 2×10{sup 5} photoelectrons and achieve a peak anode current of 380 mA at a PMT gain of 10{sup 5}, which satisfies the requirements of KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors. The circuit design has been successfully simulated using the simulation software Multisim. The details of PMT performance tests and simulations are described.

  19. Extension of photomultiplier tube dynamic range for the LHAASO-KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongkui; Sheng, Xiangdong; He, Huihai; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Zhongquan; Hou, Chao; Zhao, Jing

    2015-05-01

    In the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), the 1 km2 array (KM2A) requires linear measurement of optical intensity with a wide dynamic range. Over 5000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are employed in this experiment and developed as "two outputs" device (anode and dynode) to meet the relevant requirements. In this study, the linearity of the anode and the eighth dynode (DY8), which is limited by space charge effects and mainly related to the relative dynode voltage ratios of the PMT divider, is examined. A voltage divider for the Hamamatsu R11102 PMT is designed and a dramatically enhanced linearity is demonstrated. Test results show that this design can cover a wide dynamic range from 20 to 2×105 photoelectrons and achieve a peak anode current of 380 mA at a PMT gain of 105, which satisfies the requirements of KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors. The circuit design has been successfully simulated using the simulation software Multisim. The details of PMT performance tests and simulations are described.

  20. Extension of photomultiplier tube dynamic range for the LHAASO-KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Hongkui; Sheng, Xiangdong; He, Huihai; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Zhongquan; Hou, Chao; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    In the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), the 1 km 2 array (KM2A) requires linear measurement of optical intensity with a wide dynamic range. Over 5000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are employed in this experiment and developed as “two outputs” device (anode and dynode) to meet the relevant requirements. In this study, the linearity of the anode and the eighth dynode (DY8), which is limited by space charge effects and mainly related to the relative dynode voltage ratios of the PMT divider, is examined. A voltage divider for the Hamamatsu R11102 PMT is designed and a dramatically enhanced linearity is demonstrated. Test results show that this design can cover a wide dynamic range from 20 to 2×10 5 photoelectrons and achieve a peak anode current of 380 mA at a PMT gain of 10 5 , which satisfies the requirements of KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors. The circuit design has been successfully simulated using the simulation software Multisim. The details of PMT performance tests and simulations are described