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Sample records for silicon mcz-si detectors

  1. Space charge sign inversion and electric field reconstruction in 24 GeV/c proton-irradiated MCZ Si p+-n(TD)-n+ detectors processed via thermal donor introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Verbitskaya, E.; Carini, G.; Chen, W.; Eremin, V.; Gul, R.; Haerkoenen, J.; Li, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of radiation effects in detectors based on p-type magnetic czochralski (MCZ) Si that was converted to n-type by thermal donor (TD) introduction. As-processed p + -p-n + detectors were annealed at 430 deg. C resulting in p + -n(TD)-n + structures. The space charge sign and the electric field distribution E(x) in MCz Si p + -n(TD)-n + detectors irradiated by 24 GeV/c protons were analyzed using the data on the current pulse response and the Double Peak (DP) electric field distribution model for heavily irradiated detectors. The approach considers an irradiated detector as a structure with three regions in which the electric field depends on the coordinate, and the induced current pulse response arises from the drift process of free carriers in the detector with variable electric field. Reconstruction of the E(x) profile from the pulse response shapes is performed employing a new method for DP electric field reconstruction. This method includes: (a) a direct extraction of charge loss due to trapping and (b) the fitting of a simulated pulse response to the 'corrected' pulse by adjusting the electric field profiles in the three regions. Reconstruction of E(x) distribution showed that in the diodes irradiated by a proton fluence of (2-4)x10 14 p/cm 2 space charge sign inversion has occurred. This is the evidence that the influence of 24 GeV/c proton radiation on MCz Si p + -n(TD)-n + detectors is similar to that on p + -n-n + detectors based on FZ or diffusion oxygenated n-type Si.

  2. Processing of Radiation Hard Particle Detectors on Czochralski Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Tuovinen, Esa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the radiation hardness of particle detectors. Silicon detectors are cost-effective andhave an excellent spatial resolution. Therefore, they are widely used in many high-energy physics experiments. It is knownthat oxygen improves the radiation hardness of silicon detectors. The natural way to have a high concentration of oxygen insilicon is to use magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si). MCz-Si has intrinsically a relatively uniform and high level ofoxygen (5x10^17 cm^3) compared to regular float-zone silicon (FZ-Si). Such a level is hard to attain with other methods,namely the diffusion oxygenation of float-zone silicon.In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its potential upgrade, the luminosity and the fluencies of fast hadrons can be sohigh that detectors made of standard detector-grade FZ-Si might not survive the planned operating period. MCz-Si offers animprovement to the lifetime of particle detectors through improved radiation hardness.This thesis takes a process-orie...

  3. Low-temperature TCT characterization of heavily proton irradiated p-type magnetic Czochralski silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Härkönen, J; Luukka, P; Kassamakov, I; Autioniemi, M; Tuominen, E; Sane, P; Pusa, P; Räisänen, J; Eremin, V; Verbitskaya, E; Li, Z

    2007-01-01

    n+/p−/p+ pad detectors processed at the Microelectronics Center of Helsinki University of Technology on boron-doped p-type high-resistivity magnetic Czochralski (MCz-Si) silicon substrates have been investigated by the transient current technique (TCT) measurements between 100 and 240 K. The detectors were irradiated by 9 MeV protons at the Accelerator Laboratory of University of Helsinki up to 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 2×1015 n/cm2. In some of the detectors the thermal donors (TD) were introduced by intentional heat treatment at 430 °C. Hole trapping time constants and full depletion voltage values were extracted from the TCT data. We observed that hole trapping times in the order of 10 ns were found in heavily (above 1×1015 neq/cm2) irradiated samples. These detectors could be fully depleted below 500 V in the temperature range of 140–180 K.

  4. Processing and first characterization of detectors made with high resistivity n- and p-type Czochralski silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzi, M.; Bisello, D.; Borrello, L.; Borchi, E.; Boscardin, M.; Candelori, A.; Creanza, D.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; DePalma, M.; Dittongo, S.; Focardi, E.; Khomenkov, V.; Litovchenko, A.; Macchiolo, A.; Manna, N.; Menichelli, D.; Messineo, A.; Miglio, S.; Petasecca, M.; Piemonte, C.; Pignatel, G.U.; Radicci, V.; Ronchin, S.; Scaringella, M.; Segneri, G.; Sentenac, D.; Tosi, C.; Zorzi, N.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the design, manufacturing and first characterisation of pad diodes, test structures and microstrip detectors processed with high resistivity magnetic Czochralski (MCz) p- and n-type Si. The pre-irradiation study on newly processed microstrip detectors and test structures show a good overall quality of the processed wafers. After irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons up to 4x10 14 cm -2 the characterisation of n-on-p and p-on-n MCz Si sensors with the C-V method show a decrease of the full depletion voltage and no space charge sign inversion. Microscopic characterisation has been performed to study the role of thermal donors in Czochralski Si. No evidence of thermal donor activation was observed in n-type MCz Si detectors if contact sintering was performed at a temperature lower than 380 deg. C and the final passivation oxide was omitted

  5. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G.; Boero, M.; Manfredotti, C.; Icardi, M.; Gabutti, A.; Bagnolatti, E.; Monticone, E.

    1990-01-01

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm 2 ), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  6. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  7. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  8. Silicon radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benc, I.; Kerhart, J.; Kopecky, J.; Krca, P.; Veverka, V.; Weidner, M.; Weinova, H.

    1992-01-01

    The silicon radiation detector, which is designed for the detection of electrons with energies above 500 eV and of radiation within the region of 200 to 1100 nm, comprises a PIN or PNN + type photodiode. The active acceptor photodiode is formed by a detector surface of shallow acceptor diffusion surrounded by a collector band of deep acceptor diffusion. The detector surface of shallow P-type diffusion with an acceptor concentration of 10 15 to 10 17 atoms/cm 3 reaches a depth of 40 to 100 nm. One sixth to one eighth of the collector band width is overlapped by the P + collector band at a width of 150 to 300 μm with an acceptor concentration of 10 20 to 10 21 atoms/cm 3 down a depth of 0.5 to 3 μm. This band is covered with a conductive layer, of NiCr for instance. (Z.S.)

  9. Readout of silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, W

    2003-01-01

    Various architectural and technological options of readout electronics for silicon strip detectors in vertex and tracking applications are discussed briefly. The ABCD3T ASIC for the readout of silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker is presented. The architecture of the chip, some design issues and radiation effects are discussed.

  10. The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation

  11. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Leroy, C; Glaser, M

    2002-01-01

    %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

  12. Characterization of Czochralski Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Luukka, Panja-Riina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of irradiated and non-irradiated segmenteddetectors made of high-resistivity (>1 kΩcm) magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon. It isshown that the radiation hardness (RH) of the protons of these detectors is higher thanthat of devices made of traditional materials such as Float Zone (FZ) silicon or DiffusionOxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon due to the presence of intrinsic oxygen (> 5 x1017 cm-3). The MCZ devices therefore present an interesting alternative for future highenergy physics experiments. In the large hadron collider (LHC), the RH of the detectorsis a critical issue due to the high luminosity (1034 cm-2s-1) corresponding to the expectedtotal fluencies of fast hadrons above 1015 cm-2. This RH improvement is important sinceradiation damage in the detector bulk material reduces the detector performance andbecause some of the devices produced from standard detector-grade silicon, e.g. FZsilicon with negligible oxygen concentration, might not survive the plann...

  13. The solenoidal detector collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems (STS) will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. The STS is physically a small part of the central tracking system and the calorimeter of the detector being proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. The STS will consist of silicon microstrip detectors and possibly silicon pixel detectors. The other two components are an outer barrel tracker, which will consist of straw tubes or scintillating fibers; and an outer intermediate angle tracker, which will consist of gas microstrips. The components are designed to work as an integrated system. Each componenet has specific strengths, but is individually incapable of providing the overall performance required by the physics goals of the SSC. The large particle fluxes, the short times between beam crossing, the high channel count, and the required very high position measurement accuracy pose challenging problems that must be solved. Furthermore, to avoid degrading the measurements, the solutions must be achieved using only a minimal amount of material. An additional constraint is that only low-Z materials are allowed. If that were not difficlut enough, the solutions must also be affordable

  14. Radiation damage in silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, Mara

    2000-01-01

    This work presents an overview of the most important mechanisms of radiation damage in silicon detectors to be used for high energy experiments in LHC. The changes in the shallow concentration have been studied by Thermally Stimulated Currents (TSC) after proton and neutron irradiation with fluences up to 1015 cm-2 to investigate the role of thermal donors and the donor-removal effect in standard and oxygen enriched silicon with different resistivities. Deep defects in irradiated silicon have been analysed by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy (P1CTS) in the same materials. The radiation-induced microscopic disorder has been related with the carrier transport properties of irradiated silicon measured by Hall effect, by capacitance and current vs. voltage characteristics and with charge collection efficiency. The dependence of the irradiated silicon detectors performances on crystal orientation, on incident particle type and on the starting concentration o...

  15. A monolithic silicon detector telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Cabibbo, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Fallica, G.; Franzo, G.; Figuera, P.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Percolla, G.; Priolo, F.; Privitera, V.; Rizzo, F.; Tudisco, S.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrathin silicon detector (1 μm) thick implanted on a standard 400 μm Si-detector has been built to realize a monolithic telescope detector for simultaneous charge and energy determination of charged particles. The performances of the telescope have been tested using standard alpha sources and fragments emitted in nuclear reactions with different projectile-target colliding systems. An excellent charge resolution has been obtained for low energy (less than 5 MeV) light nuclei. A multi-array lay-out of such detectors is under construction to charge identify the particles emitted in reactions induced by low energy radioactive beams. (orig.)

  16. Laser tests of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, Zdenek; Escobar, Carlos; Gadomski, Szymon; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Sergio; Kodys, Peter; Kubik, Petr; Lacasta, Carlos; Marti, Salvador; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Moorhead, Gareth F.; Phillips, Peter W.; Reznicek, Pavel; Slavik, Radan

    2007-01-01

    This paper collects experiences from the development of a silicon sensor laser testing setup and from tests of silicon strip modules (ATLAS End-cap SCT), pixel modules (DEPFET) and large-area diodes using semiconductor lasers. Lasers of 1060 and 680 nm wavelengths were used. A sophisticated method of focusing the laser was developed. Timing and interstrip properties of modules were measured. Analysis of optical effects involved and detailed discussion about the usability of laser testing for particle detectors are presented

  17. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggio, C.; Boscardin, M.; Bressi, G.; Carugno, G.; Corti, D.; Galeazzi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm 3 , cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  18. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  19. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, A.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Anelli, G.; Antinori, F.; Badala, A.; Burns, M.; Cali, I.A.; Campbell, M.; Caselle, M.; Ceresa, S.; Chochula, P.; Dima, R.; Elias, D.; Fabris, D.; Fini, R.A.; Formenti, F.; Krivda, M.; Lenti, V.; Librizzi, F.; Manzari, V.

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. It contains 9.8x10 6 pixels with a material budget of less than 1% of X 0 per layer. It is based on hybrid pixel technology. The space and material budget constraints have severe impact on the design. The ALICE SPD detector system components are discussed

  20. Aleph silicon microstrip vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This microstrip vertex locator was located at the heart of the ALEPH experiment, one of the four experiments at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. In the experiments at CERN's LEP, which ran from 1989 to 2000, modern silicon microvertex detectors, such as those used at ALEPH, monitored the production of short-lived particles close to the beam pipe.

  1. Thin epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stab, L.

    1989-01-01

    Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements have been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with ENERTEC-INTERTECHNIQUE, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements, made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS,CEA,MEN) will also be reported

  2. Imaging monolithic silicon detector telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorini, F.; Sipala, V.; Cardella, G.; Boiano, C.; Carbone, B.; Cosentino, L.; Costa, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Emanuele, U.; Fallica, G.; Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; La Guidara, E.; Marchetta, C.; Pappalardo, A.; Piazza, A.; Randazzo, N.; Rizzo, F.; Russo, G.V.; Russotto, P.

    2008-01-01

    We show the results of some test beams performed on a new monolithic strip silicon detector telescope developed in collaboration with the INFN and ST-microelectronics. Using an appropriate design, the induction on the ΔE stages, generated by the charge released in the E stage, was used to obtain the position of the detected particle. The position measurement, together with the low threshold for particle charge identification, allows the new detector to be used for a large variety of applications due to its sensitivity of only a few microns measured in both directions

  3. Signal development in irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kramberger, Gregor; Mikuz, Marko

    2001-01-01

    This work provides a detailed study of signal formation in silicon detectors, with the emphasis on detectors with high concentration of irradiation induced defects in the lattice. These defects give rise to deep energy levels in the band gap. As a consequence, the current induced by charge motion in silicon detectors is signifcantly altered. Within the framework of the study a new experimental method, Charge correction method, based on transient current technique (TCT) was proposed for determination of effective electron and hole trapping times in irradiated silicon detectors. Effective carrier trapping times were determined in numerous silicon pad detectors irradiated with neutrons, pions and protons. Studied detectors were fabricated on oxygenated and non-oxygenated silicon wafers with different bulk resistivities. Measured effective carrier trapping times were found to be inversely proportional to fuence and increase with temperature. No dependence on silicon resistivity and oxygen concentration was observ...

  4. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  5. The Belle Silicon Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kawasaki, T

    2002-01-01

    The Belle Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) started working from June 1999 at the KEK B-factory experiment. The main purpose of the SVD is to make precise measurements of the B decay vertex position, which are essential for the observation of CP asymmetries. Excellent vertex resolution and a good detection efficiency are required for the SVD. In the present paper, the performance of Belle SVD is reviewed. The upgrade plan for the SVD2, which is under construction and will be installed in summer 2002, is also presented.

  6. The charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, T.; Hubbeling, L.; Weilhammer, P.; Kemmer, J.; Koetz, U.; Riebesell, M.; Belau, E.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.J.; Wylie, A.

    1983-02-01

    The charge collection in silicon detectors has been studied, by measuring the response to high-energy particles of a 20μm pitch strip detector as a function of applied voltage and magnetic field. The results are well described by a simple model. The model is used to predict the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors and to propose a detector with optimized spatial resolution. (orig.)

  7. Particle identification by silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Denison de Souza

    1997-01-01

    A method is developed for the evaluation of the energy loss, dE/dx, of a charged particle traversing a silicon strip detector. The method is applied to the DELPHI microvertex detector leading to diagrams of dE/dx versus momentum for different particles. The specific case of pions and protons is treated and the most probable value of dE/dx and the width of the dE/dx distribution for those particles in the momentum range of 0.2 GeV/c to 1.5 GeV/c, are obtained. The resolution found is 13.4 % for particles with momentum higher than 2 GeV/c and the separation power is 2.9 for 1.0 GeV/c pions and protons. (author)

  8. All epitaxial silicon diode heavy ion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.; Goldstone, P.D.; Jarmie, N.

    1976-01-01

    An all epitaxial silicon diode (ESD) heavy ion detector has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The active area of the detector is 5 cm 2 and has a total thickness of 50 μ. The response of the detector has been studied with fission fragments, alpha particles, oxygen ions, and sulfur ions. A number of advantages in terms of both fabrication and performance are discussed

  9. Silicon strip detectors for the LHCb experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Steinkamp, O

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a single-arm magnetic spectrometer. Silicon micro-strip detectors are employed in a significant fraction of the tracking system. The Vertex Locator consists of 21 detector stations that operate inside the LHC beam pipe and are separated from the beam vacuum by a thin aluminium foil. The Silicon Tracker is a large-surface silicon micro-strip detector that covers the full acceptance of the experiment in a single tracking station upstream of the spectrometer magnet and the...

  10. Pixels detectors and silicon X-rays detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Delpierre, P.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are beginning to be used in large particle physics experiments. The hybrid technique (detector and electronics on two separate wafers) allows large surfaces to be built. For ATLAS at LHC it is proposed to cover areas of more than 1 m2 with 5000 to 10000 pixels/cm2. Each pixel has a full electronic chain directly connected which means very low input capacitance and no integration of dark current. Furthermore, silicon strip detectors and CCD's have been successfully test...

  11. A silicon pixel detector prototype for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Vicente Barreto Pinto, Mateus

    2017-01-01

    A silicon pixel detector prototype for CLIC, currently under study for the innermost detector surrounding the collision point. The detector is made of a High-Voltage CMOS sensor (top) and a CLICpix2 readout chip (bottom) that are glued to each other. Both parts have a size of 3.3 x 4.0 $mm^2$ and consist of an array of 128 x 128 pixels of 25 x 25 $\\micro m^2$ size.

  12. Development of innovative silicon radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Balbuena, JuanPablo

    Silicon radiation detectors fabricated at the IMB-CNM (CSIC) Clean Room facilities using the most innovative techniques in detector technology are presented in this thesis. TCAD simulation comprises an important part in this work as becomes an essential tool to achieve exhaustive performance information of modelled detectors prior their fabrication and subsequent electrical characterization. Radiation tolerance is also investigated in this work using TCAD simulations through the potential and electric field distributions, leakage current and capacitance characteristics and the response of the detectors to the pass of different particles for charge collection efficiencies. Silicon detectors investigated in this thesis were developed for specific projects but also for applications in experiments which can benefit from their improved characteristics, as described in Chapter 1. Double-sided double type columns 3D (3D-DDTC) detectors have been developed under the NEWATLASPIXEL project in the framework of the CERN ...

  13. Silicon radiation detectors: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Haller, E.E.

    1982-10-01

    Silicon nuclear radiation detectors are available today in a large variety of sizes and types. This profusion has been made possible by the ever increasing quality and diameter silicon single crystals, new processing technologies and techniques, and innovative detector design. The salient characteristics of the four basic detector groups, diffused junction, ion implanted, surface barrier, and lithium drift are reviewed along with the silicon crystal requirements. Results of crystal imperfections detected by lithium ion compensation are presented. Processing technologies and techniques are described. Two recent novel position-sensitive detector designs are discussed - one in high-energy particle track reconstruction and the other in x-ray angiography. The unique experimental results obtained with these devices are presented

  14. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  15. Silicon detectors for neutrino oscillation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    do Couto e Silva, E

    1998-01-01

    This note describes the technique of using a target equipped with high resolution silicon microstrip detectors for the detection of the topological signature of decays in neutrino oscillation ex periments. Two detectors are presented. The first detector is installed in the NOMAD spectrometer at the CERN SPS neutrino beam. The target consists of four layers passive boron carbide plate s (total mass of 45 kg) interleaved with five layers of silicon microstrip detectors. A total of 600 single--sided silicon microstrip detectors are used amounting to a total area of 1.14 m$^2$. The silicon tracker is made with the longest ladders built to date (72 cm). During the 1997 run about 8000 charged current interactions were estimated to have occurred in the target and data tak ing will continue in 1998. For these events it will be possible to perform a precise measurement of both vertex and kinematical variables. The second detector was installed in September 1997 in a CERN PS pion beam to investigate the possibility of ...

  16. Sensors for ultra-fast silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Baselga, M.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Schumacher, D.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Pellegrini, G.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; Greco, V.; Hidalgo, S.; Quirion, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on electrical and charge collection tests of silicon sensors with internal gain as part of our development of ultra-fast silicon detectors. Using C–V and α TCT measurements, we investigate the non-uniform doping profile of so-called low-gain avalanche detectors (LGAD). These are n-on-p pad sensors with charge multiplication due to the presence of a thin, low-resistivity diffusion layer below the junction, obtained with a highly doped implant. We compare the bias dependence of the pulse shapes of traditional sensors and of LGAD sensors with different dopant density of the diffusion layer, and extract the internal gain

  17. A silicon detector for neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kokkonen, J

    2002-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting future muon neutrino - tau neutrino oscillation searches using a high-resolution, large-area silicon microstrip detector, the Silicon TARget (STAR) detector was built. STAR was installed in the NOMAD short baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at the CERN SPS neutrino beam, where it recorded approximately 10000 neutrino interactions during the operation of the detector in the period 1997-98. It consists of five layers of silicon detectors interleaved with four layers of passive boron carbide as the target. The target mass is 45 kg, while the total silicon surface area is 1.14 square-meters and contains 32000 readout channels. The individual modules have a length of 72 cm, the longest built to date. The detection of tau particles, produced in tau neutrino charged-current interactions, would require a tracking detector with a precision of a few tens of microns in order to measure the position of the neutrino interaction vertex as well as the impact parame...

  18. Detector materials: germanium and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1981-11-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1981 Nuclear Science Symposium. The basic physical properties of elemental semiconductors are reviewed. The interaction of energetic radiation with matter is discussed in order to develop a feeling for the appropriate semiconductor detector dimensions. The extremely low net dopant concentrations which are required are derived directly from the detector dimensions. A survey of the more recent techniques which have been developed for the analysis of detector grade semiconductor single crystals is presented

  19. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.

  20. Silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS SCT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Robinson, D.; Allport, P.; Andricek, L.; Böhm, Jan; Buttar, C.; Carter, J. R.; Chilingarov, A.; Clark, A. G.; Feriere, D.; Fuster, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 485, 1-2 (2002), s. 84-88 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : ATLAS SCT * silicon microstrip detectors * irradiation * quality control Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2002

  1. Status of the CDF silicon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Gino

    CDF is a collider experiment that is running at the Tevatron. The core of the CDF detector is an 8 layer silicon micro strip tracker. There are 722,432 active strips with pitches that range from 25 to 140 μm. This device is an essential part of the heavy flavor tagging and forward tracking capabilities of the experiment and it is one of the largest silicon detectors in present use by an HEP experiment. A of the experience in commissioning and operating this double-sided detector during the first 2 years of Run II is presented. A description of the encountered failure modes follows a general view of the design. After more than 2 years of data taking, we report on the performance of the tracker and its effect on physics analyses. A short description of the SVT, the level 2 Silicon Vertex Trigger, will be given as well. PACS: 29.40.GX Tracking and position sensitive detectors - 29.40.Wk Solid-state detectors

  2. Silicon Detectors for Neutron Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uher, J.; Frojdh, Ch.; Holý, T.; Jakůbek, J.; Petersson, S.; Pospíšil, S.; Thungstrom, G.; Vavřík, Daniel; Vykydal, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 958, č. 7 (2007), s. 101-104 ISSN 0168-9002. [International Summer School on Nuclear Physics Methods and Accelerators in Biology and Medicine. Praha, 08.07.2007-19.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Grant - others:GAMPO(CZ) 1H-PK2/05 Program:1H Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : neutron detectors * neutron imaging * 3D detector Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2007

  3. Silicon Detector Letter of Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, H.; Burrows, P.; Oreglia, M.

    2010-05-26

    This document presents the current status of SiD's effort to develop an optimized design for an experiment at the International Linear Collider. It presents detailed discussions of each of SiD's various subsystems, an overview of the full GEANT4 description of SiD, the status of newly developed tracking and calorimeter reconstruction algorithms, studies of subsystem performance based on these tools, results of physics benchmarking analyses, an estimate of the cost of the detector, and an assessment of the detector R&D needed to provide the technical basis for an optimised SiD.

  4. Silicon Detectors for PET and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Eric R.

    Silicon detectors use state-of-the-art electronics to take advantage of the semiconductor properties of silicon to produce very high resolution radiation detectors. These detectors have been a fundamental part of high energy, nuclear, and astroparticle physics experiments for decades, and they hold great potential for significant gains in both PET and SPECT applications. Two separate prototype nuclear medicine imaging systems have been developed to explore this potential. Both devices take advantage of the unique properties of high resolution pixelated silicon detectors, designed and developed as part of the CIMA collaboration and built at The Ohio State University. The first prototype is a Compton SPECT imaging system. Compton SPECT, also referred to as electronic collimation, is a fundamentally different approach to single photon imaging from standard gamma cameras. It removes the inherent coupling of spatial resolution and sensitivity in mechanically collimated systems and provides improved performance at higher energies. As a result, Compton SPECT creates opportunities for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals based on higher energy isotopes as well as opportunities to expand the use of current isotopes such as 131I due to the increased resolution and sensitivity. The Compton SPECT prototype consists of a single high resolution silicon detector, configured in a 2D geometry, in coincidence with a standard NaI scintillator detector. Images of point sources have been taken for 99mTc (140 keV), 131I (364keV), and 22Na (511 keV), demonstrating the performance of high resolution silicon detectors in a Compton SPECT system. Filtered back projection image resolutions of 10 mm, 7.5 mm, and 6.7 mm were achieved for the three different sources respectively. The results compare well with typical SPECT resolutions of 5-15 mm and validate the claims of improved performance in Compton SPECT imaging devices at higher source energies. They also support the potential of

  5. Does radiation improve silicon detectors?

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, P; Cheremuhin, A E; Golutvin, I A; Zamiatin, N I

    2000-01-01

    Sensors designed for the CMS preshower detector were irradiated with protons and neutrons to fluences equivalent up to 2*10/sup 14/ n/cm /sup 2/. The leakage current and the capacitance as well as the charge collection efficiency and the noise were measured, before and after the irradiation, for most of the detectors. We noticed, that for some detectors of a lower quality, the breakdown voltage increases after type inversion and that their leakage current, charge collection efficiency and noise are comparable to good detectors. We explain this phenomenon by two effects: a change of the distribution of the electric field and a decrease of the carrier lifetime. Defects on the p-side do much less harm after type inversion, because the maximum of the E-field is now on the n-side. Defects on the n-side still generate charge carriers, but their lifetime is much shorter and most of them recombine before reaching by diffusion the space charge volume. The article presents the measurements of the breakdown voltage, the...

  6. Does radiation improve silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, P; Golutvin, I A; Peisert, Anna; Zamiatin, N I

    1999-01-01

    Sensors designed for the CMS Preshower detector were irradiated with protons and neutrons to fluences equivalent up to 2x10^14 n/cm^2. The leakage current and the capacitance as well as the charge collection efficiency and the noise were measured, before and after the irradiation, for most of the detectors. We noticed, that for some detectors of a lower quality, the breakdown voltage increases after type inversion and that their leakage current, charge collection efficiency and noise are comparable to good detectors. We explain this phenomenon by two effects: a change of the distribution of the electric field and a decrease of the carriers lifetime. Defects on the p-side do much less harm after type inversion, because the maximum of the E-field is now on the n-side. Defects on the n-side still generate charge carriers, but their lifetime is much shorter and most of them recombine beforereaching by diffusion the space charge volume. The article presents the measurements of the breakdown voltage, the charge col...

  7. The two sides of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, S.R.

    2001-10-01

    Results are presented on in situ irradiation of silicon detector's at cryogenic temperature. The results show that irradiation at cryogenic temperatures does not detrimentally effect a silicon detectors performance when compared to its irradiation at room temperature. Operation of silicon devices at cryogenic temperatures offers the advantage of reducing radiation-induced leakage current to levels of a few pA, while at 130K the Lazarus Effect plays an important role i.e. minimum voltage required for full depletion. Performing voltage scans on a 'standard' silicon pad detector pre- and post annealing, the charge collection efficiency was found to be 60% at 200V and 95% at 200V respectively. Time dependence measurements are presented, showing that for a dose of 6.5x10 14 p/cm 2 (450GeV protons) the time dependence of the charge collection efficiency is negligible. However, for higher doses, 1.2x10 15 p/cm 2 , the charge collection efficiency drops from an initial measured value of 67% to a stable value of 58% over a period of 15 minutes for reversed biased diodes. An analysis of the 'double junction' effect is also presented. A comparison between the Transient Current Technique and an X-ray technique is presented. The double junction has been observed in p + /n/n + silicon detectors after irradiation beyond 'type inversion', corresponding to a fluence equivalent to ∼3x10 13 cm -2 1MeV neutrons, producing p + /p/n + and essentially two p-n junctions within one device. With increasing bias voltage, as the electric field is extending into the detector bulk from opposite sides of the silicon detector, there are two distinct depletion regions that collect charge signal independently. Summing the signal charge from the two regions, one is able to reconstruct the initial energy of the incident particle. From Transient Current measurements it is apparent that E-field manipulation is possible by excess carrier injection, enabling a high enough E-field to extend across the

  8. Amorphous silicon based radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Cho, G.; Drewery, J.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Qureshi, S.; Wildermuth, D.; Fujieda, I.; Street, R.A.

    1991-07-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin(1 μm) and thick (>30μm) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-rays and γ rays. For x-ray, γ ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For direct detection of charged particles with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. 13 refs., 7 figs

  9. Laser tests of silicon detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Z.; Escobar, C.; Gadomski, S.; Garcia, C.; Gonzales, S.; Kodyš, Peter; Kubík, P.; Lacasta, C.; Marti, S.; Mitsou, V. A.; Moorhead, G. F.; Phillips, P. W.; Řezníček, P.; Slavík, Radan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 573, 1/2 (2007), s. 12-15 ISSN 0168-9002. [International Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors - PSD /7./. Liverpool, 12.09.2005-16.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200670601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : semiconductor devices Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2007

  10. Silicon lithium detector for x ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cabal, A. E.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Noriega Scull, C.; Martinez Munoz, O.; Diaz Cepeda, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Silicon Lithium detector is the system for the detection of nuclear radiation. It transforms the charge that was produced inside of Silicon material as a result of the incidence of particles and X rays, in voltage pulses at the output of the preamplifier. In this work was made the adjustment of the technological process of manufacture of the detector. Also was made the design and construction of the cryostat and preamplifier and then the validation of the system in a Cuban Dewar. The system, which was made for the first time in our country, has an energy resolution of 185 eV for the Fe-55 source (E=5.9 KeV), which has permitted its implementation in energy dispersive X ray fluorescence. (author) [es

  11. Silicon detectors for the sLHC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Affolder, A.; Aleev, A.; Allport, P.P.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Popule, Jiří; Šícho, Petr; Tomášek, Michal; Vrba, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 658, č. 1 (2011), s. 11-16 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032; GA ČR GA202/05/0653; GA MŠk 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : silicon particle detectors * radiation damage * irradiation * charge collection efficiency Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  12. Performance of the Belle silicon vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hazumi, M

    2001-01-01

    The performance of the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) in the Belle experiment at the KEK B factory is described. The resolution on the distance between B meson vertices is estimated to be 115 sub - sub 2 sub 6 sup + sup 2 sup 4 mu m, which is good enough for the precise measurement of the CP asymmetry in B decays. A plan for the upgrade of the SVD is also mentioned.

  13. The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, M.; Ackermann, K.; Aihara, H.; Aziz, T.; Bergauer, T.; Bozek, A.; Campbell, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Drasal, Z.; Frankenberger, A.; Gadow, K.; Gfall, I.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Higuchi, T.; Himori, S.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Joo, C.

    2013-01-01

    The KEKB machine and the Belle experiment in Tsukuba (Japan) are now undergoing an upgrade, leading to an ultimate luminosity of 8×10 35 cm −2 s −1 in order to measure rare decays in the B system with high statistics. The previous vertex detector cannot cope with this 40-fold increase of luminosity and thus needs to be replaced. Belle II will be equipped with a two-layer Pixel Detector surrounding the beam pipe, and four layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors at higher radii than the old detector. The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) will have a total sensitive area of 1.13m 2 and 223,744 channels—twice as many as its predecessor. All silicon sensors will be made from 150 mm wafers in order to maximize their size and thus to reduce the relative contribution of the support structure. The forward part has slanted sensors of trapezoidal shape to improve the measurement precision and to minimize the amount of material as seen by particles from the vertex. Fast-shaping front-end amplifiers will be used in conjunction with an online hit time reconstruction algorithm in order to reduce the occupancy to the level of a few percent at most. A novel “Origami” chip-on-sensor scheme is used to minimize both the distance between strips and amplifier (thus reducing the electronic noise) as well as the overall material budget. This report gives an overview on the status of the Belle II SVD and its components, including sensors, front-end detector ladders, mechanics, cooling and the readout electronics

  14. The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M., E-mail: markus.friedl@oeaw.ac.at [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Ackermann, K. [MPI Munich, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Aihara, H. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aziz, T. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Bergauer, T. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bozek, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Division of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31 342 Krakow (Poland); Campbell, A. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Dingfelder, J. [University of Bonn, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Drasal, Z. [Charles University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Frankenberger, A. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Gadow, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Gfall, I. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Higuchi, T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Himori, S. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Irmler, C. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Ishikawa, A. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Joo, C. [Seoul National University, High Energy Physics Laboratory, 25-107 Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-12-21

    The KEKB machine and the Belle experiment in Tsukuba (Japan) are now undergoing an upgrade, leading to an ultimate luminosity of 8×10{sup 35}cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} in order to measure rare decays in the B system with high statistics. The previous vertex detector cannot cope with this 40-fold increase of luminosity and thus needs to be replaced. Belle II will be equipped with a two-layer Pixel Detector surrounding the beam pipe, and four layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors at higher radii than the old detector. The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) will have a total sensitive area of 1.13m{sup 2} and 223,744 channels—twice as many as its predecessor. All silicon sensors will be made from 150 mm wafers in order to maximize their size and thus to reduce the relative contribution of the support structure. The forward part has slanted sensors of trapezoidal shape to improve the measurement precision and to minimize the amount of material as seen by particles from the vertex. Fast-shaping front-end amplifiers will be used in conjunction with an online hit time reconstruction algorithm in order to reduce the occupancy to the level of a few percent at most. A novel “Origami” chip-on-sensor scheme is used to minimize both the distance between strips and amplifier (thus reducing the electronic noise) as well as the overall material budget. This report gives an overview on the status of the Belle II SVD and its components, including sensors, front-end detector ladders, mechanics, cooling and the readout electronics.

  15. Amorphous silicon detectors in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1989-12-01

    The physics of the detection process is studied and the performances of different Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system are evaluated by theoretical calculation and/or Monte Carlo Simulation (using the EGS code) in this paper, whose table of contents can be summarized as follows: a brief introduction to amorphous silicon detectors and some useful equation is presented; a Tantalum/Amorphous Silicon PET project is studied and the efficiency of the systems is studied by Monte Carlo Simulation; two similar CsI/Amorphous Silicon PET projects are presented and their efficiency and spatial resolution are studied by Monte Carlo Simulation, light yield and time characteristics of the scintillation light are discussed for different scintillators; some experimental result on light yield measurements are presented; a Xenon/Amorphous Silicon PET is presented, the physical mechanism of scintillation in Xenon is explained, a theoretical estimation of total light yield in Xenon and the resulting efficiency is discussed altogether with some consideration of the time resolution of the system; the amorphous silicon integrated electronics is presented, total noise and time resolution are evaluated in each of our applications; the merit parameters ε 2 τ's are evaluated and compared with other PET systems and conclusions are drawn; and a complete reference list for Xenon scintillation light physics and its applications is presented altogether with the listing of the developed simulation programs

  16. Amorphous silicon detectors in positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Perez-Mendez, V. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The physics of the detection process is studied and the performances of different Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system are evaluated by theoretical calculation and/or Monte Carlo Simulation (using the EGS code) in this paper, whose table of contents can be summarized as follows: a brief introduction to amorphous silicon detectors and some useful equation is presented; a Tantalum/Amorphous Silicon PET project is studied and the efficiency of the systems is studied by Monte Carlo Simulation; two similar CsI/Amorphous Silicon PET projects are presented and their efficiency and spatial resolution are studied by Monte Carlo Simulation, light yield and time characteristics of the scintillation light are discussed for different scintillators; some experimental result on light yield measurements are presented; a Xenon/Amorphous Silicon PET is presented, the physical mechanism of scintillation in Xenon is explained, a theoretical estimation of total light yield in Xenon and the resulting efficiency is discussed altogether with some consideration of the time resolution of the system; the amorphous silicon integrated electronics is presented, total noise and time resolution are evaluated in each of our applications; the merit parameters {epsilon}{sup 2}{tau}'s are evaluated and compared with other PET systems and conclusions are drawn; and a complete reference list for Xenon scintillation light physics and its applications is presented altogether with the listing of the developed simulation programs.

  17. Microstructured silicon neutron detectors for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, S; Fleta, C; Jumilla, C; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Rodriguez, J; Lozano, M; Guardiola, C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and performance of a perforated thermal neutron silicon detector with a 6 LiF neutron converter. This device was manufactured within the REWARD project workplace whose aim is to develop and enhance technologies for the detection of nuclear and radiological materials. The sensor perforated structure results in a higher efficiency than that obtained with an equivalent planar sensor. The detectors were tested in a thermal neutron beam at the nuclear reactor at the Instituto Superior Técnico in Lisbon and the intrinsic detection efficiency for thermal neutrons and the gamma sensitivity were obtained. The Geant4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the experimental conditions, i.e. thermal neutron beam and the whole detector geometry. An intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 8.6%±0.4% with a discrimination setting of 450 keV was measured

  18. The STAR silicon vertex tracker: a large area silicon drift detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, D; Beuttenmüller, Rolf H; Caines, H; Chen, W; Dimassimo, D; Dyke, H; Elliot, D; Eremin, V; Grau, M; Hoffmann, G W; Humanic, T; Ilyashenko, Yu S; Kotov, I; Kraner, H W; Kuczewski, P; Leonhardt, B; Li, Z; Liaw, C J; Lo Curto, G; Middelkamp, P; Minor, R; Munhoz, M; Ott, G; Pandey, S U; Pruneau, C A; Rykov, V L; Schambach, J; Sedlmeir, J; Soja, B; Sugarbaker, E R; Takahashi, J; Wilson, K; Wilson, R

    2000-01-01

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC-Silicon Vertex Tracker (STAR-SVT) is a three barrel microvertex detector based upon silicon drift detector technology. As designed for the STAR-SVT, silicon drift detectors (SDDs) are capable of providing unambiguous two-dimensional hit position measurements with resolutions on the order of 20 mu m in each coordinate. Achievement of such resolutions, particularly in the drift direction coordinate, depends upon certain characteristics of silicon and drift detector geometry that are uniquely critical for silicon drift detectors hit measurements. Here we describe features of the design of the STAR-SVT SDDs and the front-end electronics that are motivated by such characteristics.

  19. Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perea-Solano, B

    2004-01-01

    CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

  20. Epitaxial silicon semiconductor detectors, past developments, future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the main physical characteristics of epitaxial silicon as it relates to detector development is presented. As examples of applications results are presented on (1) epitaxial silicon avalanche diodes (ESAD); signal-to-noise, non-linear aspects of the avalanche gain mechanism, gain-bandwidth product, (2) ultrathin epitaxial silicon surface barrier (ESSB) detectors, response to heavy ions, (3) an all-epitaxial silicon diode (ESD), response to heavy ions, charge transport and charge defect. Future prospects of epitaxial silicon as it relates to new detector designs are summarized

  1. Micro-channel cooling for silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaschel, Nils

    2017-12-15

    Silicon tracking detectors employed in high-energy physics are located very close to the interaction points of the colliding particle beams. The high energetic radiation emerging from the interaction induces defects into the silicon, downgrading the efficiency to collect the charges created by passing particles and increasing the noise while data taking. Cooling the sensors to low temperatures can help to prevent defects and maintain a high efficiency and lower noise level. In order to maximize the LHC's discovery potential, the collider and its detectors will be upgraded to a higher luminosity around 2024. The conditions inside the detector will become harsher demanding that the technology must adapt to the new situation. Radiation damage is already an issue in the current ATLAS detector and therefore a huge number of parameters are constantly monitored and evaluated to ensure optimal operation. To provide the best possible settings the behavior of the sensors inside the ATLAS Inner Detector is predicted using simulations. In this work several parameters in the simulation including the depletion voltage and the crosstalk between sensor strips of the SCT detector are analyzed and compared with data. The main part of this work concerns the investigation of a novel cooling system based on microchannels etched into silicon in a generic research and development project at DESY and IMB-CNM. A channel layout is designed providing a homogeneous flow distribution across a large surface area and tested in a computational fluid simulation before its production. Two different fabrication techniques, anodic and eutectic bonding, are used to test prototypes with differing mechanical and thermal properties. Hydromechanical and thermal measurements are performed to fully characterize the flow inside the device and the thermal properties of the prototype in air and in a vacuum. The thermal behavior is analyzed by means of local measurements with thermal resistors and infrared

  2. Micro-channel cooling for silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaschel, Nils

    2017-12-01

    Silicon tracking detectors employed in high-energy physics are located very close to the interaction points of the colliding particle beams. The high energetic radiation emerging from the interaction induces defects into the silicon, downgrading the efficiency to collect the charges created by passing particles and increasing the noise while data taking. Cooling the sensors to low temperatures can help to prevent defects and maintain a high efficiency and lower noise level. In order to maximize the LHC's discovery potential, the collider and its detectors will be upgraded to a higher luminosity around 2024. The conditions inside the detector will become harsher demanding that the technology must adapt to the new situation. Radiation damage is already an issue in the current ATLAS detector and therefore a huge number of parameters are constantly monitored and evaluated to ensure optimal operation. To provide the best possible settings the behavior of the sensors inside the ATLAS Inner Detector is predicted using simulations. In this work several parameters in the simulation including the depletion voltage and the crosstalk between sensor strips of the SCT detector are analyzed and compared with data. The main part of this work concerns the investigation of a novel cooling system based on microchannels etched into silicon in a generic research and development project at DESY and IMB-CNM. A channel layout is designed providing a homogeneous flow distribution across a large surface area and tested in a computational fluid simulation before its production. Two different fabrication techniques, anodic and eutectic bonding, are used to test prototypes with differing mechanical and thermal properties. Hydromechanical and thermal measurements are performed to fully characterize the flow inside the device and the thermal properties of the prototype in air and in a vacuum. The thermal behavior is analyzed by means of local measurements with thermal resistors and infrared

  3. The CDF Run IIb Silicon Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aoki; N. Bacchetta; S. Behari et al.

    2004-02-25

    Fermilab plans to deliver 5-15 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity to the CDF and D0 experiments. The current inner silicon detectors at CDF (SVXIIa and L00) will not tolerate the radiation dose associated with high luminosity running and will need to be replaced. A new readout chip (SVX4) has been designed in radiation-hard 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology. Single sided sensors are arranged in a compact structure, called a stave, with integrated readout and cooling systems. This paper describes the general design of the Run IIb system, testing results of prototype electrical components (staves), and prototype silicon sensor performance before and after irradiation.

  4. Cryogenic detector modules and edgeless silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Rouby, X; Grohmann; Härkönen, J; Li, Z; Luukka, P; Militaru, O; Niinikoski, T; Nüssle, G; Perea-Solano, B; Piotrzkowski, K; Tuovinen, E; Verbitskaya, E

    2007-01-01

    We are studying the operation of silicon microstrip detector with readout electronics in the temperature range from 90 to 130 K. The sensor can be operated in the current-injection mode which significantly improves its radiation hardness. A first module prototype has been built, with APV25 readout chips and an embedded microtube, providing efficient low-mass cooling of the whole module with a two-phase flow of N2 or Ar. First pedestal and pulse shape temperature dependencies are presented for this module. We have also built an edgeless test module with two pairs of laser cut sensors, with both angular and parallel cuts with respect to the strips (at pitch). We are studying the efficiency of the microstrip sensors very close () to the physical border of the cut silicon crystal and present here some electrical characteristics.

  5. ATLAS silicon microstrip detector system (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The S CT together with the pixel and the transition radiation tracker systems and with a central solenoid forms the central tracking system of the ATLAS detector at LHC. Series production of SCT Silicon microstrip sensors is near completion. The sensors have been shown to be robust against high voltage operation to the 500 V required after fluences of 3x10 14 protons/cm 2 . SCT barrel modules are in series production. A low-noise CCD camera has been used to debug the onset of leakage currents

  6. Photon response of silicon diode neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, R.C.; Jenkins, T.M.; Oliver, G.D. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    The photon response of silicon diode neutron detectors was studied to solve the problem on detecting neutrons in the presence of high energy photons at accelerator neutron sources. For the experiment Si diodes, Si discs, and moderated activation foil detectors were used. The moderated activation foil detector consisted of a commercial moderator and indium foils 2'' in diameter and approximately 2.7 grams each. The moderator is a cylinder of low-density polyethylene 6 1 / 4 '' in diameter by 6 1 / 16 '' long covered with 0.020'' of cadmium. Neutrons are detected by the reaction 115 In (n,γ) 116 In(T/sub 1 / 2 / = 54 min). Photons cannot be detected directly but photoneutrons produced in the moderator assembly can cause a photon response. The Si discs were thin slices of single-crystal Si about 1.4 mils thick and 1'' in diameter which were used as activation detectors, subsequently being counted on a thin-window pancake G.M. counter. The Si diode fast neutron dosimeter 5422, manufactured by AB Atomenergi in Studsvik, Sweden, consists of a superdoped silicon wafer with a base width of 0.050 inches between two silver contacts coated with 2 mm of epoxy. For this experiment, the technique of measuring the percent change of voltage versus dose was used. Good precision was obtained using both unirradiated and preirradiated diodes. All diodes, calibrated against 252 CF in air,were read out 48 hours after irradiation to account for any room temperature annealing. Results are presented and discussed

  7. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Fadmar Osmic, FO

    2006-01-01

    The European Organization for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva is currently constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will allow the study of the subnuclear ranges of physics with an accuracy never achieved before. Within the LHC project, ALICE is to the study of strongly interacting matter at extreme densities and high temperatures. ALICE as many other modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments uses silicon pixel detectors for tracking close to the interaction point (IP). The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) will constitute the two innermost layers of ALICE, and will due to its high granularity provide precise tracking information. In heavy ion collisions, the track density could be as high as 80 tracks/cm2 in the first SPD layer. The SPD will provide tracking information at radii of 3.9 and 7.6 cm from the IP. It is a fundamental element for the study of the weak decays of the particles carrying heavy flavour, whose typical signature will be a secondary vertex separated from the primary verte...

  8. Development of Radiation Hard Radiation Detectors, Differences between Czochralski Silicon and Float Zone Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Tuominen, Eija

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop radiation hard silicon detectors. Radiation detectors made ofsilicon are cost effective and have excellent position resolution. Therefore, they are widely used fortrack finding and particle analysis in large high-energy physics experiments. Silicon detectors willalso be used in the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment that is being built at the LHC (LargeHadron Collider) accelerator at CERN (European Organisation for Nuclear Research). This work wasdone in the CMS programme of Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP).Exposure of the silicon material to particle radiation causes irreversible defects that deteriorate theperformance of the silicon detectors. In HIP CMS Programme, our approach was to improve theradiation hardness of the silicon material with increased oxygen concentration in silicon material. Westudied two different methods: diffusion oxygenation of Float Zone silicon and use of high resistivityCzochralski silicon.We processed, characterised, tested in a parti...

  9. The PHENIX Forward Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aidala, C.; Anaya, L.; Anderssen, E.; Bambaugh, A.; Barron, A.; Boissevain, J.G.; Bok, J.; Boose, S.; Brooks, M.L.; Butsyk, S.; Cepeda, M.; Chacon, P.; Chacon, S.; Chavez, L.; Cote, T.; D'Agostino, C.; Datta, A.; DeBlasio, K.; DelMonte, L.; Desmond, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    A new silicon detector has been developed to provide the PHENIX experiment with precise charged particle tracking at forward and backward rapidity. The Forward Silicon Vertex Tracker (FVTX) was installed in PHENIX prior to the 2012 run period of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The FVTX is composed of two annular endcaps, each with four stations of silicon mini-strip sensors, covering a rapidity range of 1.2<|η|<2.2 that closely matches the two existing PHENIX muon arms. Each station consists of 48 individual silicon sensors, each of which contains two columns of mini-strips with 75 μm pitch in the radial direction and lengths in the ϕ direction varying from 3.4 mm at the inner radius to 11.5 mm at the outer radius. The FVTX has approximately 0.54 million strips in each endcap. These are read out with FPHX chips, developed in collaboration with Fermilab, which are wire bonded directly to the mini-strips. The maximum strip occupancy reached in central Au–Au collisions is approximately 2.8%. The precision tracking provided by this device makes the identification of muons from secondary vertices away from the primary event vertex possible. The expected distance of closest approach (DCA) resolution of 200 μm or better for particles with a transverse momentum of 5 GeV/c will allow identification of muons from relatively long-lived particles, such as D and B mesons, through their broader DCA distributions

  10. Improved coincidence rejection for silicon drift detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Richard B.

    2010-12-01

    The high count rates possible with silicon drift detectors (SDDs) raise the importance of coincidence ("pile-up") rejection in the pulse processor. Detection efficiency for close coincidence is energy dependent, with resolving times increasing sharply when at least one X-ray of the pair is below 1 keV. Traditional pile-up detection for low energies is done by applying a width test to the output of a shaping filter. SDDs have varying rise times at the preamplifier output due to the expansion of the charge cloud with drift path length, which limits the effectiveness of pulse width testing. Novel digital methods have been developed, which are largely immune to variations in rise time and significantly improve pulse-pair resolving times. Digital pulse processor filter parameters must take resolving times into account to achieve good sum peak position and shape for optimum software removal of sum peak artifacts during spectrum post-processing.

  11. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  12. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will extend its current physics program by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments of the LHC, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker due to the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. New radiation-hard prototype n-in-p silicon sensors have been produced for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS tracker. The sensors have been irradiated up to the fluences expected in the high-luminous LHC collider. This paper summarizes recent results on the performance of the irradiated n-in-p detectors.

  13. Silicon detector technology development in India for the participation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A specific research and development program has been carried out by BARC in India to develop the technology for large area silicon strip detectors for application in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. These strip detectors will be used as pre-shower detector in the CMS experiment at LHC, CERN for 0/ ...

  14. Silicon detector technology development in India for the participation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A specific research and development program has been carried out by BARC in India to develop the technology for large area silicon strip detectors for application in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. These strip detectors will be used as pre-shower detector in the CMS experiment at LHC, CERN for ...

  15. Charge sharing in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K; Seller, P; Prydderch, M L; O'Shea, V; Bates, R L; Smith, K M; Rahman, M

    2002-01-01

    We used a pixellated hybrid silicon X-ray detector to study the effect of the sharing of generated charge between neighbouring pixels over a range of incident X-ray energies, 13-36 keV. The system is a room temperature, energy resolving detector with a Gaussian FWHM of 265 eV at 5.9 keV. Each pixel is 300 mu m square, 300 mu m deep and is bump bonded to matching read out electronics. The modelling packages MEDICI and MCNP were used to model the complete X-ray interaction and the subsequent charge transport. Using this software a model is developed which reproduces well the experimental results. The simulations are then altered to explore smaller pixel sizes and different X-ray energies. Charge sharing was observed experimentally to be 2% at 13 keV rising to 4.5% at 36 keV, for an energy threshold of 4 keV. The models predict that up to 50% of charge may be lost to the neighbouring pixels, for an X-ray energy of 36 keV, when the pixel size is reduced to 55 mu m.

  16. Charge sharing in silicon pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieson, K.; Passmore, M.S.; Seller, P.; Prydderch, M.L.; O'Shea, V.; Bates, R.L.; Smith, K.M.; Rahman, M.

    2002-01-01

    We used a pixellated hybrid silicon X-ray detector to study the effect of the sharing of generated charge between neighbouring pixels over a range of incident X-ray energies, 13-36 keV. The system is a room temperature, energy resolving detector with a Gaussian FWHM of 265 eV at 5.9 keV. Each pixel is 300 μm square, 300 μm deep and is bump bonded to matching read out electronics. The modelling packages MEDICI and MCNP were used to model the complete X-ray interaction and the subsequent charge transport. Using this software a model is developed which reproduces well the experimental results. The simulations are then altered to explore smaller pixel sizes and different X-ray energies. Charge sharing was observed experimentally to be 2% at 13 keV rising to 4.5% at 36 keV, for an energy threshold of 4 keV. The models predict that up to 50% of charge may be lost to the neighbouring pixels, for an X-ray energy of 36 keV, when the pixel size is reduced to 55 μm

  17. Efficiency measurements for 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.d [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Koehler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    Silicon strip detectors are widely used as part of the inner tracking layers in particle physics experiments. For applications at the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, silicon detectors with extreme radiation hardness are required. The 3D detector design, where electrodes are processed from underneath the strips into the silicon bulk material, provides a way to enhance the radiation tolerance of standard planar silicon strip detectors. Detectors with several innovative 3D designs that constitute a simpler and more cost-effective processing than the 3D design initially proposed were connected to read-out electronics from LHC experiments and subsequently tested. Results on the amount of charge collected, the noise and the uniformity of charge collection are given.

  18. Allpix$^{2}$: A Modular Simulation Framework for Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Spannagel, Simon; Hynds, Daniel; Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Benoit, Mathieu; Dannheim, Dominik; Gauvin, Neal; Nurnberg, Andreas Matthias; Schutze, Paul Jean; Vicente Barreto Pinto, Mateus

    2018-01-01

    Allpix$^{2}$ is a generic, open-source software framework for the simulation of silicon pixel detectors. Its goal is to ease the implementation of detailed simulations for both single detectors and more complex setups such as beam telescopes from incident radiation to the digitised detector response. Predefined detector types can be automatically constructed from simple model files describing the detector parameters. The simulation chain is arranged with the help of intuitive configuration files and an extensible system of modules, which implement separate simulation steps such as realistic charge carrier deposition with the Geant4 toolkit or propagation of charge carriers in silicon using a drift-diffusion model. Detailed electric field maps imported from TCAD simulations can be used to precisely model the drift behaviour of charge carriers within the silicon, bringing a new level of realism to Monte Carlo based simulations of particle detectors. This paper provides an overview of the framework and a select...

  19. Development of advanced silicon radiation detectors for harsh radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Groenlund, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of advanced silicon radiation detectors and their characterization by simulations, used in the work for searching elementary particles in the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN. Silicon particle detectors will face extremely harsh radiation in the proposed upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, the future high-energy physics experiment Super-LHC. The increase in the maximal fluence and the beam luminosity up to 1016 neq / cm2 and 1035 cm-2s-1 will require detectors with a dramatic improvement in radiation hardness, when such a fluence will be far beyond the operational limits of the present silicon detectors. The main goals of detector development concentrate on minimizing the radiation degradation. This study contributes mainly to the device engineering technology for developing more radiation hard particle detectors with better characteristics. Also the defect engineering technology is discussed. In the nearest region of the beam in Super-LHC, the only dete...

  20. Small area silicon diffused junction x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Pehl, R.H.; Larsh, A.E.

    1981-10-01

    The low temperature performance of silicon diffused junction detectors in the measurement of low energy x-rays is reported. The detectors have an area of 0.04 cm 2 and a thickness of 100 μm. The spectral resolutions of these detectors were found to be in close agreement with expected values indicating that the defects introduced by the high temperature processing required in the device fabrication were not deleteriously affecting the detection of low energy x-rays. Device performance over a temperature range of 77 to 150 0 K is given. These detectors were designed to detect low energy x-rays in the presence of minimum ionizing electrons. The successful application of silicon diffused junction technology to x-ray detector fabrication may facilitate the development of other novel silicon x-ray detector designs

  1. Spectral response of multi-element silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Rossington, C.S.; Chapman, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon Si(Li) and high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. One of the major differences between the segmented Si detectors and the commercially available single-element Si(Li) or HPGe detectors is that hundreds of elements can be fabricated on a single Si substrate using standard silicon processing technologies. The segmentation of the detector substrate into many small elements results in very low noise performance at or near, room temperature, and the count rate of the detector is increased many-fold due to the multiplication in the total number of detectors. Traditionally, a single channel of detector with electronics can handle {approximately}100 kHz count rates while maintaining good energy resolution; the segmented detectors can operate at greater than MHz count rates merely due to the multiplication in the number of channels. One of the most critical aspects in the development of the segmented detectors is characterizing the charge sharing and charge loss that occur between the individual detector strips, and determining how these affect the spectral response of the detectors.

  2. Surface barrier silicon detectors with a large active area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Husimi, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Kim, C.; Ohkawa, S.; Sakai, T.

    1985-01-01

    Surface barrier silicon detectors with a large active area have been produced by using high resistive n-type silicon crystals, diameters of which are 3 to 5 inches. High quality detectors with a low leakage current and a low noise were achieved by developing the improved surface treatment. Characteristics of detectors obtained are good in energy resolution compared with conventional large area Si(Li) detectors. It has also been confirmed that local dead region is not found from measuring results of photo-pulse injection

  3. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The LHC upgrade is foreseen to increase the ATLAS design luminosity by a factor ten, implying the need to build a new tracker suited to the harsh HL-LHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. We give an overview of the ATLAS tracker upgrade project, in particular focusing on the crucial innermost silicon strip layers. Results from a wide range of irradiated silicon detectors for the strip region of the future ATLAS tracker are presented. Layout concepts for lightweight yet mechanically very rigid detector modules with high service integration are shown.

  4. Performance of ALICE silicon tracker detector

    CERN Document Server

    Luparello, G

    2014-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the LHC experiment devoted to the study of the strong interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions. The ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) consists of six layers of silicon detectors exploiting three different technologies: pixel, drift and strip (from inside to outside). It covers the central pseudorapidity range, j h j < 0 : 9, and its distance from the beam line ranges from r = 3 : 9 cm for the innermost pixel layer up to r = 43 cm for the outermost strip layer. The main tasks of the ITS are to reconstruct the primary and secondary vertices, to track and identify charged particles with a low- p T cutoff and to improve the momentum resolution at high p T . During the operations, the ITS has demonstrated its tracking and vertexing capabilities, which are in excellent agreement with the design values. In these proceedings, after a brief description of the features of the system, the performance during the first three years of data taking at LHC will be presen...

  5. A silicon pad shower maximum detector for a Shashlik calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1995-01-01

    The new luminosity monitor of the DELPHI detector, STIC (Small angle TIle Calorimeter), was built using a Shashlik technique. This technique does not provide longitudinal sampling of the showers, which limits the measurement of the direction of the incident particles and the e-π separation. For these reasons STIC was equipped with a Silicon Pad Shower Maximum Detector (SPSMD). In order to match the silicon detectors to the Shashlick read out by wavelength shifter (WLS) fibers, the silicon wafers had to be drilled with a precision better than 10μm without damaging the active area of the detectors. This paper describes the SPSMD with emphasis on the fabrication techniques and on the components used. Some preliminary results of the detector performance from data taken with a 45GeV electron beam at CERN are presented. (orig.)

  6. Correction of Dopant Concentration Fluctuation Effects in Silicon Drift Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nouais, D; Bonvicini, V; Cerello, P G; Crescio, E; Giubellino, P; Hernández-Montoya, R; Kolojvari, A A; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nilsen, B S; Piemonte, C; Rachevsky, A; Tosello, F; Vacchi, A; Wheadon, R

    2001-01-01

    Dopant fluctuations in silicon wafers are responsible for systematic errors in the determination of the particle crossing point in silicon drift detectors. In this paper, we report on the first large scale measurement of this effect by means of a particle beam. A significant improvement of the anodic resolution has been obtained by correcting for these systematic deviations.

  7. The ALICE silicon pixel detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapusta, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is again reaching its startup phase at the European Organization for Particle Physics (CERN). The LHC started its operation on the 10 th of September, 2008 with huge success managing to sent the the first beam successfully around the entire ring in less than an hour after the first injection in one direction, and later that day in the opposite direction. Unfortunately, on the 19 th of September, an accident occurred during the 5.5 TeV magnet commissioning in Sector 34, which will significantly delay the operation of the LHC. The ALICE experiment will exploit the collisions of accelerated ions produced at the LHC to study strongly interacting matter at extreme densities and high temperatures. e ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) represents the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Traing System (ITS) located at radii of 3.9 cm and 7.6 cm from the Interaction Point (IP). One of the main tasks of the SPD is to provide precise traing information. is information is fundamental for the study of weak decays of heavy flavor particles, since the corresponding signature is a secondary vertex separated from the primary vertex only by a few hundred micrometers. e tra density could be as high as 80 tracks per cm 2 in the innermost SPD layer as a consequence of a heavy ion collision. The SPD will provide a spatial resolution of around ≅12 μm in the rφ direction and ≅70 μm in the z direction. The expected occupancy of the SPD ranges from 0.4% to 1.5% which makes it an excellent charged particle multiplicity detector in the pseudorapidity region |η| < 2. Furthermore, by combining all possible hits in the SPD, one can get a rough estimate of the position of the primary interaction. One of the challenges is the tight material budget constraint (<1% radiation length per layer) in order to limit the scattering of the traversing particles. e silicon sensor and its readout chip have a total thickness of only 350 μm and the signal lines from the

  8. Fabrication of detectors and transistors on high-resistivity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.

    1988-06-01

    A new process for the fabrication of silicon p-i-n diode radiation detectors is described. The utilization of backside gettering in the fabrication process results in the actual physical removal of detrimental impurities from critical device regions. This reduces the sensitivity of detector properties to processing variables while yielding low diode reverse-leakage currents. In addition, gettering permits the use of processing temperatures compatible with integrated-circuit fabrication. P-channel MOSFETs and silicon p-i-n diodes have been fabricated simultaneously on 10 kΩ/centerreverse arrowdot/cm silicon using conventional integrated-circuit processing techniques. 25 refs., 5 figs

  9. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  10. Recent progress in low-temperature silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M; Berglund, P; Borchi, E; Borer, K; Bruzzi, M; Buontempo, S; Casagrande, L; Chapuy, S; Cindro, V; D'Ambrosio, N; De Masi, R; Devine, S R H; Dezillie, B; Dierlamm, A; Dimcovski, Zlatomir; Eremin, V; Esposito, A; Granata, V; Grigoriev, E; Grohmann, S; Härkönen, J; Hauler, F; Heijne, Erik H M; Heising, S; Hempel, O; Herzog, R; Janos, S; Jungermann, L; Konorov, I; Li, Z; Lourenço, Carlos; Rato-Mendes, P; Menichelli, D; Mikuz, M; Niinikoski, Tapio O; Pagano, S; Palmieri, V G; Paul, S; Pirollo, S; Pretzl, Klaus; Ruggiero, G; Shea, V O; Smith, K; Solano, B P; Sonderegger, Peter; Sousa, P; Tuominen, E; Verbitskaya, E; Watts, S; Wobst, E; Zavrtanik, M; Da Vià, C; de Boer, Wim

    2003-01-01

    The CERN RD39 Collaboration studies the possibility to extend the detector lifetime in a hostile radiation environment by operating them at low temperatures. The outstanding illustration is the Lazarus effect, which showed a broad operational temperature range around 130 K for neutron irradiated silicon detectors.

  11. Plasma effects for heavy ions in implanted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Campisi, M.G.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, Sl.; Filippo, E. De; Geraci, E.; Geraci, M.; Guazzoni, P.; Manno, M.C. Iacono; Lanzalone, G.; Lanzano, G.; Nigro, S. Lo; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Sambataro, S.; Sperduto, M.L.; Sutera, C.; Zetta, L.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma effects for heavy ions in implanted silicon detectors have been investigated for different detector characteristics as a function of type and energy of the detected particles. A new approach is presented and used to reproduce the effect of the plasma delay in the timing performances. The results are in good agreement with the present data and with previous measurements found in the literature

  12. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering work for the solenoidal detector collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Barney, M.; Byrd, D.; Christensen, R.W.; Dransfield, G.; Elder, M.; Gamble, M.; Crastataro, C.; Hanlon, J.; Jones, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    The silicon tracking system (STS) for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) represented an order of magnitude increase in size over any silicon system that had been previously built or even planned. In order to meet its performance requirements, it could not simply be a linear scaling of earlier systems, but instead required completely new concepts. The small size of the early systems made it possible to simply move the support hardware and services largely outside the active volume of the system. For a system five meters long, that simply is not an option. The design of the STS for the SDC experiment was the result of numerous compromises between the capabilities required to do the physics and the limitations imposed by cost, material properties, and silicon strip detector characteristics. From the point of view of the physics, the silicon system should start as close to the interaction point as possible. In addition, the detectors should measure the position of particles passing through them with no errors, and should not deflect or interact with the particles in any way. However, cost, radiation damage, and other factors limiting detector performance dictated, other, more realistic values. Radiation damage limited the inner radius of the silicon detectors to about 9 cm, whereas cost limited the outer radius of the detectors to about 50 cm. Cost also limits the half length of the system to about 250 cm. To control the effects of radiation damage on the detectors required operating the system at a temperature of 0 degrees C or below, and maintaining that temperature throughout life of the system. To summarize, the physics and properties of the silicon strip detectors requires that the detectors be operated at or below 0 degrees C, be positioned very accurately during assembly and remain positionally stable throughout their operation, and that all materials used be radiation hard and have a large thickness for one radiation length

  13. Slim edges in double-sided silicon 3D detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M; Dalla Betta, G-F; Bagolini, A; Boscardin, M; Giacomini, G; Vianello, E; Zorzi, N

    2012-01-01

    Minimization of the insensitive edge area is one of the key requirements for silicon radiation detectors to be used in future silicon trackers. In 3D detectors this goal can be achieved with the active edge, at the expense of a high fabrication process complexity. In the framework of the ATLAS 3D sensor collaboration, we produced modified 3D silicon sensors with a double-sided technology. While this approach is not suitable to obtain active edges, because it does not use a support wafer, it allows for a new type of edge termination, the slim edge. In this paper we report on the development of the slim edge, from numerical simulations to design and testing, proving that it works effectively without increasing the fabrication complexity of silicon 3D detectors, and that it could be further optimized to reduce the insensitive edge region to less than 100 μm.

  14. Noise and trigger efficiency characterization of cooled silicon pad detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, A C; Correia, J G; Silva, M R; Rudge, A; Weilhammer, P; Soares, J C

    2007-01-01

    Technical progress on silicon pad electron detectors, currently used in emission channelling experiments to study lattice location of radioactive dopants and impurities in single crystals, is reported. Noise and trigger efficiency improvements are achieved by using 500 μm and 1 mm thick detectors coupled to a cooled readout system. The static properties, noise, gamma ray and electron trigger efficiency and energy resolution for different temperatures under air and vacuum were measured. The advantages of the future implementation of 1 mm silicon pad detectors with cooled self-triggering readout chips are discussed.

  15. 4D tracking with ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    F-W Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Seiden, Abraham; Cartiglia, Nicolò

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of particle detectors has always pushed the technological limit in order to provide enabling technologies to researchers in all fields of science. One archetypal example is the evolution of silicon detectors, from a system with a few channels 30 years ago, to the tens of millions of independent pixels currently used to track charged particles in all major particle physics experiments. Nowadays, silicon detectors are ubiquitous not only in research laboratories but in almost every high-tech apparatus, from portable phones to hospitals. In this contribution, we present a new direction in the evolution of silicon detectors for charge particle tracking, namely the inclusion of very accurate timing information. This enhancement of the present silicon detector paradigm is enabled by the inclusion of controlled low gain in the detector response, therefore increasing the detector output signal sufficiently to make timing measurement possible. After providing a short overview of the advantage of this new technology, we present the necessary conditions that need to be met for both sensor and readout electronics in order to achieve 4D tracking. In the last section, we present the experimental results, demonstrating the validity of our research path.

  16. Commissioning of the recoil silicon detector for the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickert, N.C.

    2008-02-15

    The reconstruction of the missing mass is limited by the position and momentum resolution of the HERMES spectrometer. In order to reach a higher accuracy in the measurements the backscattered nucleon must also be detected. A detector suited for this must give the possibility, to determine the momentum of the particles over a very large range: from minimally ionizing particles up to protons, which are stopped in the detector. The detector must also be able to discriminate hadrons and mesons as well as cover the complete spatial region around the target. In the winter 2005-2006 such a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment. The detector sonsists of three partial detectors, a silicon counter within the scattering chamber, a sintillating-fiber detector and a photon detector. Before the installation of the detector the silicon modules were tested in a bench test and checked together with the other particle detectors in a test experiment. A large part of this dissertation is dedicated to the planning and performance of these tests as well to the evaluation of them. It could be show, that the modules worked accordly to their specifications, however because of unexpectedly high noise a signal correction became necessary. Different models for the correction were developed and tested in the framework of these thesis. In spite of the high noise cosmic muons could be detected and their energy deposition measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1. In the winter break 2005-2006 the recoil detector was installed into the HERMES experiment. First diagnosis and analysis software was developed. The silicon detector measured successfully energy depositions of minimally ionizing particles up to protons stopped in the sensor. Minimally ionizing particles could be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 5:1. By means of track information of the scintillating-fiber detector protons could be discriminated from pions and other mesons by the silicon detector. The HERMES

  17. Commissioning of the recoil silicon detector for the HERMES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickert, N.C.

    2008-02-01

    The reconstruction of the missing mass is limited by the position and momentum resolution of the HERMES spectrometer. In order to reach a higher accuracy in the measurements the backscattered nucleon must also be detected. A detector suited for this must give the possibility, to determine the momentum of the particles over a very large range: from minimally ionizing particles up to protons, which are stopped in the detector. The detector must also be able to discriminate hadrons and mesons as well as cover the complete spatial region around the target. In the winter 2005-2006 such a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment. The detector sonsists of three partial detectors, a silicon counter within the scattering chamber, a sintillating-fiber detector and a photon detector. Before the installation of the detector the silicon modules were tested in a bench test and checked together with the other particle detectors in a test experiment. A large part of this dissertation is dedicated to the planning and performance of these tests as well to the evaluation of them. It could be show, that the modules worked accordly to their specifications, however because of unexpectedly high noise a signal correction became necessary. Different models for the correction were developed and tested in the framework of these thesis. In spite of the high noise cosmic muons could be detected and their energy deposition measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1. In the winter break 2005-2006 the recoil detector was installed into the HERMES experiment. First diagnosis and analysis software was developed. The silicon detector measured successfully energy depositions of minimally ionizing particles up to protons stopped in the sensor. Minimally ionizing particles could be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 5:1. By means of track information of the scintillating-fiber detector protons could be discriminated from pions and other mesons by the silicon detector. The HERMES

  18. The New Silicon Strip Detectors for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the ...

  19. The silicon shower maximum detector for the STIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1995-01-01

    The structure of a shashlik calorimeter allows the insertion of tracking detectors within the longitudinal sampling to improve the accuracy in the determination of the direction of the showering particle and the e/π separation ability. The new forward calorimeter of the DELPHI detector has been equipped with two planes of silicon pad detectors respectively after 4 and 7.4 radiation lengths. The novelty of these silicon detectors is that to cope with the shashlik readout fibers, they had to incorporate 1.4 mm holes every cm 2 . The detector consists of circular strips with a radial pitch of 1.7 mm and an angular granularity of 22.5 , read out by means of the MX4 preamplifier. The preamplifier is located at 35 cm from the silicon detector and the signal is carried by Kapton cables bonded to the detector. The matching to the MX4 input pitch of 44 μm was made by a specially developed fanin hybrid. (orig.)

  20. On determining dead layer and detector thicknesses for a position-sensitive silicon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, J.; Lee, Jenny; Lynch, W. G.; Niu, C. Y.; Tsang, M. B.; Anderson, C.; Barney, J.; Brown, K. W.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, K. P.; Chen, G.; Estee, J.; Li, Z.; Pruitt, C.; Rogers, A. M.; Sanetullaev, A.; Setiawan, H.; Showalter, R.; Tsang, C. Y.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Xiao, Z.; Xu, Z.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, two particular properties of the position-sensitive, thick silicon detectors (known as the "E" detectors) in the High Resolution Array (HiRA) are investigated: the thickness of the dead layer on the front of the detector, and the overall thickness of the detector itself. The dead layer thickness for each E detector in HiRA is extracted using a measurement of alpha particles emitted from a 212Pb pin source placed close to the detector surface. This procedure also allows for energy calibrations of the E detectors, which are otherwise inaccessible for alpha source calibration as each one is sandwiched between two other detectors. The E detector thickness is obtained from a combination of elastically scattered protons and an energy-loss calculation method. Results from these analyses agree with values provided by the manufacturer.

  1. High-gain bipolar detector on float-zone silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. J.; Batignani, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Giorgi, M.; Forti, F.

    2003-10-01

    Since the float-zone (FZ) silicon has lower contaminations and longer minority-carrier lifetime than those in Czochralski silicon and other semiconductor materials, it has potential advantages to fabricate bipolar detectors on the high-purity FZ silicon substrate to achieve a high gain at ultra-low-signal levels. The authors present preliminary experimental results on a bipolar detector fabricated on an unusual high-purity FZ silicon substrate. A backside gettering layer of phosphorus-doped polysilicon was employed to preserve the long carrier lifetime of the high-purity FZ silicon. The device has been investigated in the detection of a continuous flux of X-ray and infrared light. The bipolar detector with a circular emitter of 2 mm diameter has demonstrated high gains up to 3820 for 22 keV X-ray from a 1 mCi Cd radioactive source (the X-ray photon flux, received by the detector is estimated to be ˜7.77×10 4/s). High gain up to 4400 for 0.17 nW light with a wavelength of 0.83 μm has been observed for the same device.

  2. High-gain bipolar detector on float-zone silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D.J.; Batignani, G.; Guerra, A.D.A. Del; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Giorgi, M.; Forti, F.

    2003-01-01

    Since the float-zone (FZ) silicon has lower contaminations and longer minority-carrier lifetime than those in Czochralski silicon and other semiconductor materials, it has potential advantages to fabricate bipolar detectors on the high-purity FZ silicon substrate to achieve a high gain at ultra-low-signal levels. The authors present preliminary experimental results on a bipolar detector fabricated on an unusual high-purity FZ silicon substrate. A backside gettering layer of phosphorus-doped polysilicon was employed to preserve the long carrier lifetime of the high-purity FZ silicon. The device has been investigated in the detection of a continuous flux of X-ray and infrared light. The bipolar detector with a circular emitter of 2 mm diameter has demonstrated high gains up to 3820 for 22 keV X-ray from a 1 mCi Cd radioactive source (the X-ray photon flux, received by the detector is estimated to be ∼7.77x10 4 /s). High gain up to 4400 for 0.17 nW light with a wavelength of 0.83 μm has been observed for the same device

  3. High Voltage Performance of Silicon Detectors Irradiated under Bias

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Philippe; Ciasnohova, Andrea; Dauphin, G; Golutvin, Igor; Jading, Y; Peisert, Anna; Safieh, J; Sergueev, S; Zamiatin, Nikolai

    1998-01-01

    The CMS Preshower detector contains 16 sq. m of silicon. The silicon sensors' design is being finalized by taking into account their performance after five years of operation at high luminosity. Three detectors from different manufacturers were irradiated by neutrons and photons under bias and at low temperature. Their electrical parameters and their response to alpha and beta particles were measured. The charge collection efficiency attains a plateau at around 300 V. The irradiation set-up and the results of the measurements are presented in this paper.

  4. High-voltage performance of silicon detectors irradiated under bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Ph.; Ciasnohova, A.; Jading, Y.; Peisert, A. E-mail: anna.elliott-peisert@cern.channa@mail.cern.ch; Golutvin, I.; Cheremukhin, A.; Sergueev, S.; Zamiatin, N.; Dauphin, G.; Safieh, J

    2000-01-11

    The CMS preshower detector contains 16 m{sup 2} of silicon. The silicon sensors' design is being finalized by taking into account their performance after five years of operation at high luminosity. Three detectors from different manufacturers were irradiated by neutrons and photons under bias and at low temperature. Their electrical parameters and their response to {alpha} and {beta} particles were measured. The charge collection efficiency attains a plateau at around 300 V. The irradiation set-up and the results of the measurements are presented in this paper.

  5. High-voltage performance of silicon detectors irradiated under bias

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, P; Jading, Y; Peisert, Anna; Golutvin, L; Cheremuhin, A E; Sergeev, S; Zamiatin, N I; Dauphin, G; Safieh, J

    2000-01-01

    The CMS preshower detector contains 16 m/sup 2/ of silicon. The silicon sensors' design is being finalized by taking into account their performance after five years of operation at high luminosity. Three detectors from different manufacturers were irradiated by neutrons and photons under bias and at low temperature. Their electrical parameters and their response to alpha and beta particles were measured. The charge collection efficiency attains a plateau at around 300 V. The irradiation set-up and the results of the measurements are presented in this paper. (17 refs).

  6. Silicon-Based Detectors at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Frank

    2018-01-01

    This document discusses the silicon-based detectors planned for the High Luminosity LHC. The special aspects to cope with the new environment and its challenges, e.g. very high radiation levels and very high instantaneous luminosity thus high pile-up, high occupancy and high data rates, are addressed. The different design choices of the detectors are put into perspective. Exciting topics like trackers, high granularity silicon-based calorimetry with novel 8~inch processing, fast timing and new triggers are described.

  7. A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R.; Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S.; Garde, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of high position resolution (∼10 μm) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 μm at 1 − σ level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 μm) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper

  8. Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors for the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector: Users Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-01-01

    We present the general characteristics, calibration procedures and measured performance of the Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors installed in the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector for laser beam detection and reconstruction and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 10 refs

  9. Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors for the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector: Users Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-07-01

    We present the general characteristics, calibration procedures and measured performance of the Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors installed in the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector for laser beam detection and reconstruction and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 10 refs.

  10. Position sensitive silicon detectors inside the Tevatron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Bellettini, G.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Cervelli, F.; Del Fabbro, R.; Dell'Orso, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Sestini, P.; Stefanini, A.; Tonelli, G.; Zetti, F.; Bertolucci, S.; Cordelli, M.; Curatolo, M.; Dulach, B.; Esposito, B.; Giromini, P.; Miscetti, S.; Sansoni, A.

    1986-01-01

    Four position sensitive silicon detectors have been tested inside the Tevatron beam pipe at Fermilab. The system is the prototype of the small angle silicon spectrometer designed to study primarily p-anti p elastic and diffractive cross-sections at the Collider of Fermilab (CDF). Particles in the beam halo during p-anti p storage tests were used to study the performance of the detectors. Efficiency, linearity of response and spatial resolution are shown. Measurements performed at different distances from the beam axis have shown that the detectors could be operated at 8.5 mm from the beam with low rates and no disturbance to the circulating beams. This distance corresponds to about 11 times the standard half-width of the local beam envelope. The behaviour of the detectors with the radiation dose has also been investigated. (orig.)

  11. High resolution silicon detectors for colliding beam physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Bettoni, D.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Raso, G.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.

    1984-01-01

    Resolution and linearity of the position measurement of Pisa multi-electrode silicon detectors are presented. The detectors are operated in slightly underdepleted mode and take advantage of their intrinsic resistivity for resistive charge partition between adjacent strips. 22 μm resolution is achieved with readout lines spaced 300 μm. Possible applications in colliding beam experiments for the detection of secondary vertices are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Characterization procedures for double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, N.L.; Frautschi, M.A.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Seidel, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Since double-sided silicon microstrip detectors are still evolving technologically and are not yet commercially available, they require extensive electrical evaluation by the user to ensure they were manufactured to specifications. In addition, measurements must be performed to determine detector operating conditions. Procedures for measuring the following quantities are described: - Leakage current, - Depletion voltage, - Bias resistance, - Interstrip resistance, - Coupling capacitance, - Coupling capacitor breakdown voltage. (orig.)

  13. The Silicon Ministrip Detector of the DELPHI Very Forward Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067985

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this work is the design, test and construction of a new silicon tracking detector for the extreme forward region of the DELPHI experiment at LEP. I joined the Very Forward Tracker (VFT) Ministrip group in 1993, at a time when the upgrade of the DELPHI tracking system was proposed. My first task was to participate in the design of the ministrip detector for the VFT. This included the optimisation of the detector layout in simulations and the study of prototype detectors in the testbeam. In 1994 I became responsible for the tests and assembly' of the VFT ministrip detector at CERN. The main focus of my work was the study of the performance of a large variety of detectors in beam tests. This included the preparation of the test setup, the tests of different detectors and the analysis of the measurements. With these measurements it is possible to compare the advantages and disadvantages of various new layouts for large pitch silicon strip detectors. In particular the signal response and spatial res...

  14. Performance of silicon drift detectors in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castoldi, A.; Gatti, E.; Manzari, V.; Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-11-11

    A study of the properties of silicon drift detectors in a magnetic field was carried out. A silicon drift detector with 41 anodes, providing unambiguous x and y position information, was used for measurements. Studies were done in three principal orientations of the detector relative to the direction of the magnetic field. The magnetic field was varied between 0 and 0.7 T and the drift field between 300 and 600 V/cm. Basic agreement with the theory of electron transport in semiconductors in a magnetic field was found. The transport properties of electrons in a magnetic field can be described by a mobility matrix. The components of the matrix depend on the electron mobility, Hall mobility and on the vector of the magnetic field. The precision of measurement was better than 0.2% for most of the parameters. For the electric field of a silicon drift detector, there is a first-order effect of the magnetic field only in one out of three principal directions. In this direction, the plane of the detector is perpendicular to the magnetic field and electrons drift at an angle {alpha} relative to the direction of the drift field. In two other principal directions, which are more important for tracking of the particles with drift detectors, there are no first-order magnetic effects. (orig.). 13 refs.

  15. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-15

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2}, which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10{sup 15} particles per cm{sup 2}.

  16. EMC Diagnosis and Corrective Actions for Silicon Strip Tracker Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteche, F.; /CERN /Imperial Coll., London; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2006-06-06

    The tracker sub-system is one of the five sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment under construction at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The tracker subdetector is designed to reconstruct tracks of charged sub-atomic particles generated after collisions. The tracker system processes analogue signals from 10 million channels distributed across 14000 silicon micro-strip detectors. It is designed to process signals of a few nA and digitize them at 40 MHz. The overall sub-detector is embedded in a high particle radiation environment and a magnetic field of 4 Tesla. The evaluation of the electromagnetic immunity of the system is very important to optimize the performance of the tracker sub-detector and the whole CMS experiment. This paper presents the EMC diagnosis of the CMS silicon tracker sub-detector. Immunity tests were performed using the final prototype of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) system to estimate the sensitivity of the system to conducted noise, evaluate the weakest areas of the system and take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector. This paper shows the results of one of those tests, that is the measurement and analysis of the immunity to CM external conducted noise perturbations.

  17. Neutron radiation damage studies on silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng; Chen, W.; Kraner, H.W.

    1990-10-01

    Effects of neutron radiation on electrical properties of Si detectors have been studied. At high neutron fluence (Φ n ≥ 10 12 n/cm 2 ), C-V characteristics of detectors with high resistivities (ρ ≥ 1 kΩ-cm) become frequency dependent. A two-trap level model describing this frequency dependent effect is proposed. Room temperature anneal of neutron damaged (at LN 2 temperature) detectors shows three anneal stages, while only two anneal stages were observed in elevated temperature anneal. 19 refs., 14 figs

  18. Feasibility studies of microelectrode silicon detectors with integrated electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Dittongo, S.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Gregori, P.; Lusiani, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Pignatel, G.U.; Rama, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Sandrelli, F.; Speziali, V.; Svelto, F.; Zorzi, N.

    2002-01-01

    We describe our experience on design and fabrication, on high-resistivity silicon substrates, of microstrip detectors and integrated electronics, devoted to high-energy physics experiments and medical/industrial imaging applications. We report on the full program of our collaboration, with particular regards to the tuning of a new fabrication process, allowing for the production of good quality transistors, while keeping under control the basic detector parameters, such as leakage current. Experimental results on JFET and bipolar transistors are presented, and a microstrip detector with an integrated JFET in source-follower configuration is introduced

  19. Performance of the ATLAS silicon strip detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albiol, F.; Ballester, F.

    1998-01-01

    The performance of the silicon strip detector prototypes developed for use in ATLAS at the LHC is reported. Baseline detector assemblies (''modules'') of 12 cm length were read out with binary electronics at 40 MHz clock speed. For both irradiated and unirradiated modules, the tracking efficiency, noise occupancy, and position resolution were measured as a function of bias voltage, binary hit threshold, and detector rotation angle in a 1.56 T magnetic field. Measurements were also performed at a particle flux comparable to the one expected at the LHC. (orig.)

  20. The development of a silicon multiplicity detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuttenmuller, R.H.; Kraner, H.W.; Lissauer, D.; Makowiecki, D.; Polychronakos, V.; Radeka, V.; Sondericker, J.; Stephani, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Barrette, J.; Hall, J.; Mark, S.K.; Pruneau, C.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wolfe, D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States); Borenstein, S.R. [York College-CUNY, Jamaica, NY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The physics program and the design criteria for a Silicon Pad Detector at RHIC are reviewed. An end cap double sided readout detector configuration for RHIC is presented. Its performance as an on-line and off-line centrality tagging device is studied by means of simulations with Fritiof as the event generator. The results of an in-beam test of a prototype double-sided Si-detector are presented. Good signal-to-noise ratio are obtained with front junction and the resistive back side readout. Good separation between one and two minimum-ionizing particle signals is achieved.

  1. A counting silicon microstrip detector for precision compton polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Doll, D W; Hillert, W; Krüger, H; Stammschroer, K; Wermes, N

    2002-01-01

    A detector for the detection of laser photons backscattered off an incident high-energy electron beam for precision Compton polarimetry in the 3.5 GeV electron stretcher ring ELSA at Bonn University has been developed using individual photon counting. The photon counting detector is based on a silicon microstrip detector system using dedicated ASIC chips. The produced hits by the pair converted Compton photons are accumulated rather than individually read out. A transverse profile displacement can be measured with mu m accuracy rendering a polarization measurement of the order of 1% on the time scale of 10-15 min possible.

  2. The DELPHI silicon microvertex detector: from concept to physical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalewska, A.

    1994-09-01

    The silicon microvertex detector which has been used in DELPHI experiments at CERN is described in detail. The brief description of the LEP accelerator as well as the results of the physical experiment have also been presented. (author). 65 refs, 50 figs, 6 tabs

  3. Digital Images of Breast Biopsies using a Silicon Strip Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, Luis M.; Diaz, Claudia C.; Leyva, Antonio; Cabal, Fatima; Ortiz, Carlos M.

    2006-01-01

    In our study we have used a silicon strip detector to obtain digital images of some breast tissues with micro calcifications. Some of those images will be shown and we will discuss the perspectives of using this technique as an improvement of breast cancer diagnostics

  4. Beam test of a large area silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Chinnici, S.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Palma, F.; Sampietro, M.; Rehak, P.; Ballocchi, G.; Kemmer, J.; Holl, P.; Cox, P.T.; Giacomelli, P.; Vacchi, A.

    1992-01-01

    The results from the tests of the first large area (4 x 4 cm 2 ) planar silicon drift detector prototype in a pion beam are reported. The measured position resolution in the drift direction is (σ=40 ± 10)μm

  5. Development of the H1 backward silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eick, W.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Bullough, M.A.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Newton, A.M.; Wilburn, C.D.; Horisberger, R.; Pitzl, D.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.

    1996-10-01

    The development and first results are described of a silicon strip detector telescope for the HERA experiment H1 designed to measure the polar angle of deep inelastic scattered electrons at small Bjorken x and low momentum transfers Q 2 . (orig.)

  6. Silicon detector technology development in India for the participation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A specific research and development program has been carried out by BARC in India to develop the technology for large area silicon strip detectors for application in nuclear and high energy physics .... found to meet the specifications and show a stable behavior without showing early breakdown of strips after irradiation to ...

  7. Applications of a silicon photodiode detector for radon progeny measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Voytchev, M; Chambaudet, A; Georgiev, G; Iovtchev, M

    1999-01-01

    An application of our developed silicon photodiode detector for radon progeny measurements is presented in this paper. It was determined the deposition velocity for free (3.6+-0.7)x10 sup - sup 3 m s sup - sup 1 and attached (1.0+-0.5)x10 sup - sup 5 m s sup - sup 1 fraction of short living radon progeny.

  8. Quality Tests of Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cambon, T; CERN. Geneva; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Jundt, F; Kuhn, C; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pagès, P; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Sparavec, K; Dulinski, W; Arnold, L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the SiO2 insulator (AC coupling between metal and implanted strips) of double-sided Silicon strip detectors has been studied by using a probe station. Some tests performed on 23 wafers are described and the results are discussed. Remark This note seems to cause problems with ghostview but it can be printed without any problem.

  9. Performance of the CDF Silicon VerteX detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, O.

    1992-11-01

    The current status of the online and offline performance of the CDF Silicon VerteX detector is presented. So far, at low radiation dose, the device delivers good quality data. After the latest alignment using collision data, a spatial resolution of 13 pm is achieved in the transverse plane, demonstrating that CDF has a powerful tool to detect b decay vertices

  10. The Silicon Detector (SiD) And Linear Collider Detector R&D in Asia And North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, J.E.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; /SLAC; Fujii, Y.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-08-11

    In Asia and North America research and development on a linear collider detector has followed complementary paths to that in Europe. Among the developments in the US has been the conception of a detector built around silicon tracking, which relies heavily on a pixel (CCD) vertex detector, and employs a silicon tungsten calorimeter. Since this detector is quite different from the TESLA detector, we describe it here, along with some of the sub-system specific R&D in these regions.

  11. 3DX: a micromachined silicon crystallographic x-ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, John; Kenney, Christopher J.; Westbrook, Edwin M.; Naday, Istvan; Parker, Sherwood I.

    2003-01-01

    We are developing pixel detectors for macromolecular crystallography, in which diffracted X-rays are directly absorbed by high-resistivity, crystalline silicon that has been micro-machined by inductively-coupled plasma etching. Arrays of 64 × 64 holes at 150 μm pitch are first formed by etching through the entire silicon bulk, then backfilled with polysilicon that is doped to create conducting p and n type columnar electrodes. When reverse biased, these electrodes generate electric fields that define the individual pixels. By forming conducting polysilicon on the sides of the sensors, which are cut-out of the silicon wafer by plasma etching, the entire surface of the detector may be made active. CMOS readout integrated circuits are conductively bump bonded behind each 3D detector, providing a direct connection to every pixel. A large array will be assembled with no insensitive bands along the edges by overlapping these sensors, each of area 0.96cm2. This detector will measure X-ray signal intensities of up to 105 events/pixel/sec without any pile-up loss, by using an integration method that retains the benefits of discrete photon counting. The detector sensitivity will be highly uniform, it will not exhibit any dark signal or spurious noise, and no geometric distortion will occur within each sensor.

  12. The charge collection in single side silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V V; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Weilhammer, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The transient current technique has been used to investigate signal formation in unirradiated silicon microstrip detectors, which are similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Nanosecond pulsed infrared and red lasers were used to induce the signals under study. Two peculiarities in the detector performance were observed: an unexpectedly slow rise to the signal induced in a given strip when signals are injected opposite to the strip, and a long duration of the induced signal in comparison with the calculated drift time of charge carriers through the detector thickness - with a significant fraction of the charge being induced after charge carrier arrival. These major effects and details of the detector response for different positions of charge injection are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem and compared with predictions arising from the more commonly studied phenomenon of signal formation in planar pad detectors.

  13. Silicon carbide detector for laser-generated plasma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertuccio, Giuseppe, E-mail: Giuseppe.Bertuccio@polimi.it [Department of Electronics Engineering and Information Science, Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics, INFN sez. Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Puglisi, Donatella [Department of Electronics Engineering and Information Science, Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics, INFN sez. Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Torrisi, Lorenzo [Department of Physics, University of Messina, Ctr. Papardo 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics, INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lanzieri, Claudio [Selex Sistemi Integrati S.p.A., Via Tiburtina km 12,400, 00131 Rome (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    We present the performance of a Silicon Carbide (SiC) detector in the acquisition of the radiation emitted by laser generated plasmas. The detector has been employed in time of flight (TOF) configuration within an experiment performed at the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS). The detector is a 5 mm{sup 2} area 100 nm thick circular Ni-SiC Schottky junction on a high purity 4H-SiC epitaxial layer 115 μm thick. Current signals from the detector with amplitudes up to 1.6 A have been measured, achieving voltage signals over 80 V on a 50 Ω load resistance with excellent signal to noise ratios. Resolution of few nanoseconds has been experimentally demonstrated in TOF measurements. The detector has operated at 250 V DC bias under extreme operating conditions with no observable performance degradation.

  14. Development of Microstrip Silicon Detectors for Star and ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Guthneck, L; Higueret, S; Hundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Tarchini, A; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Erazmus, B; Germain, M; Giliberto, S; Martin, L; Le Moal, C; Roy, C; Colledani, C; Dulinski, W; Turchetta, R

    1998-01-01

    The physics program of STAR and ALICE at ultra-relativistic heavy ion colliders, RHIC and LHC respectively, requires very good tracking capabilities. Some specific quark gluon plasma signatures, based on strange matter measurements implies quite a good secondary vertex reconstruction.For this purpose, the inner trackers of both experiments are composed of high-granularity silicon detectors. The current status of the development of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors is presented in this work.The global performance for tracking purpose adn particle identification are first reviewed. Then tests of the detectors and of the associated readout electronics are described. In-beam measurements of noise, spatial resolution, efficiency and charge matching capability, as well as radiation hardness, are examined.

  15. Temperature detectors on irradiated silicon base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, M.; Dzhalelov, M.A.; Kurbanov, A.O.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known, that the most suitable for thermal resistors production is compensated silicon with impurities forming deep lying in forbidden zone, having big negative resistance temperature coefficients (RTC). In the capacity of initial materials for thermal resistors with negative RTC the n-type monocrystalline silicon with specific resistance ∼30 Ω·cm at 300 K is applied. Before the irradiation the phosphorus diffusion is realizing at temperature ∼1000 deg. C for 10 min. Irradiation is putting into practise by WWR-SM reactor fast neutrons within the range (7-10)·10 13 cm -2 . The produced resistors have nominal resistance range (8-20)·10 3 Ω·cm, coefficient of the thermal sensitivity B=4000-6000 deg. C., RTC α 300K =4-6.6 %/grad. It is shown, that offered method allows to obtain same type resistors characteristics on the base of neutron-irradiated material

  16. Internal alignement of the BABAR silicon vertex tracking detector

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, D; Roberts, D

    2007-01-01

    The BABAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT ) is a five-layer double-sided silicon detector designed to provide precise measurements of the position and direction of primary tracks, and to fully reconstruct low-momentum tracks produced in e+e¡ collisions at the PEP-II asymmetric collider at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This paper describes the design, implementation, performance and validation of the local alignment procedure used to determine the relative positions and orientations of the 340 Silicon Vertex Trackerwafers. This procedure uses a tuned mix of lab-bench measurements and complementary in-situ experimental data to control systematic distortions. Wafer positions and orientations are determined by minimizing a Â2 computed using these data for each wafer individually, iterating to account for between-wafer correlations. A correction for aplanar distortions of the silicon wafers is measured and applied. The net effect of residual mis-alignments on relevant physical variables evaluated in special co...

  17. Suppression of irradiation effects in gold-doped silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, M.; Sloan, T.; Jones, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two sets of silicon detectors were irradiated with 1 MeV neutrons to different fluences and then characterized. The first batch were ordinary p-i-n photodiodes fabricated from high-resistivity (400 Ω cm) silicon, while the second batch were gold-doped powder diodes fabricated from silicon material initially of low resistivity (20 Ω cm). The increase in reverse leakage current after irradiation was found to be more in the former case than in the latter. The fluence dependence of the capacitance was much more pronounced in the p-i-n diodes than in the gold-doped diodes. Furthermore, photo current generation by optical means was less in the gold doped devices. All these results suggest that gold doping in silicon somewhat suppresses the effects of neutron irradiation. (author)

  18. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after γ-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO i , C i O i , C i C s , VP or V 2 several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO 2 defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep acceptor, a model has been introduced to

  19. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-15

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after {gamma}-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO{sub i}, C{sub i}O{sub i}, C{sub i}C{sub s}, VP or V{sub 2} several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO{sub 2} defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep

  20. Development, prototyping and characterization of double sided silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topkar, Anita, E-mail: anita@barc.gov.in; Singh, Arvind; Aggarwal, Bharti; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Murali Krishna, L.V.; Das, D.

    2016-10-21

    Double sided DC-coupled silicon strip detectors with geometry of 65 mm×65 mm have been developed in India for nuclear physics experiments. The detectors have 64 P{sup +} strips on the front side and 64 N{sup +} strips on the backside with a pitch of 0.9 mm. These detectors were fabricated using a twelve mask layer process involving double sided wafer processing technology. Semiconductor process and device simulations were carried out in order to theoretically estimate the impact of important design and process parameters on the breakdown voltage of detectors. The performance of the first lot of prototype detectors has been studied using static characterization tests and using an alpha source. The characterization results demonstrate that the detectors have low leakage currents and good uniformity over the detector area of about 40 cm{sup 2}. Overview of the detector design, fabrication process, simulation results and initial characterization results of the detectors are presented in this paper.

  1. Characterization of silicon carbide and diamond detectors for neutron applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, M.; Lohstroh, A.; Sellin, P.; Thomas, D.

    2017-10-01

    The presence of carbon atoms in silicon carbide and diamond makes these materials ideal candidates for direct fast neutron detectors. Furthermore the low atomic number, strong covalent bonds, high displacement energies, wide bandgap and low intrinsic carrier concentrations make these semiconductor detectors potentially suitable for applications where rugged, high-temperature, low-gamma-sensitivity detectors are required, such as active interrogation, electronic personal neutron dosimetry and harsh environment detectors. A thorough direct performance comparison of the detection capabilities of semi-insulating silicon carbide (SiC-SI), single crystal diamond (D-SC), polycrystalline diamond (D-PC) and a self-biased epitaxial silicon carbide (SiC-EP) detector has been conducted and benchmarked against a commercial silicon PIN (Si-PIN) diode, in a wide range of alpha (Am-241), beta (Sr/Y-90), ionizing photon (65 keV to 1332 keV) and neutron radiation fields (including 1.2 MeV to 16.5 MeV mono-energetic neutrons, as well as neutrons from AmBe and Cf-252 sources). All detectors were shown to be able to directly detect and distinguish both the different radiation types and energies by using a simple energy threshold discrimination method. The SiC devices demonstrated the best neutron energy discrimination ratio (E\\max (n=5 MeV)/E\\max (n=1 MeV)  ≈5), whereas a superior neutron/photon cross-sensitivity ratio was observed in the D-PC detector (E\\max (AmBe)/E\\max (Co-60)  ≈16). Further work also demonstrated that the cross-sensitivity ratios can be improved through use of a simple proton-recoil conversion layer. Stability issues were also observed in the D-SC, D-PC and SiC-SI detectors while under irradiation, namely a change of energy peak position and/or count rate with time (often referred to as the polarization effect). This phenomenon within the detectors was non-debilitating over the time period tested (> 5 h) and, as such, stable operation was

  2. NA62 Gigatracker sets new standards for silicon detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The NA62 experiment should start collecting its first data (technical run) in a little over one year. At the heart of the experiment is the Gigatracker, a newly conceived silicon pixel detector, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. The demonstration detector has recently shown a time resolution of 175 picoseconds, an unprecedented record in the field of silicon pixel detectors.   The Gigatracker prototype. A 115 metre long vacuum tank, a brand new set of detectors surrounding it and an extremely rare decay to study: this is the new NA62 detector, foreseen to be installed in the SPS North Area in 2012. “We will study a very rare decay of the K+. Such a decay is sensitive to contributions coming from new particles and therefore represents a powerful way of searching for new physics, complementary to the direct approach of the LHC detectors,” explains Augusto Ceccucci, NA62 spokesperson. The particles from the SPS accelerator a...

  3. Calibration and alignment of the CMS silicon tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoye, M.

    2007-07-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will dominate the high energy physics program in the coming decade. The discovery of the standard model Higgs boson and the discovery of super-symmetric particles are within the reach at the energy scale explored by the LHC. However, the high luminosity and the high energy of the colliding protons lead to challenging demands on the detectors. The hostile radiation environment requires irradiation hard detectors, where the innermost subdetectors, consisting of silicon modules, are most affected. This thesis is devoted to the calibration and alignment of the silicon tracking detector. Electron test beam data, taken at DESY, have been used to investigate the performance of detector modules which previously were irradiated with protons up to a dose expected after 10 years of operation. The irradiated sensors turned out to be still better than required. The performance of the inner tracking systems will be dominated by the degree to which the positions of the sensors can be determined. Only a track based alignment procedure can reach the required precision. Such an alignment procedure is a major challenge given that about 50000 geometry constants need to be measured. Making use of the novel {chi}{sup 2} minimization program Millepede II an alignment strategy has been developed in which all detector components are aligned simultaneously, as many sources of information as possible are used, and all correlations between the position parameters of the detectors are taken into account. Utilizing simulated data, a proof of concept of the alignment strategy is shown. (orig.)

  4. Charged particle discrimination with silicon surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.; Pithie, J.; Vickridge, I.C.

    1996-01-01

    The application for materials analysis of nuclear reactions that give rise to charged particles is a powerful surface analytical and concentration depth profiling technique. Spectra of charged particles, with energies in the range 0.1 to 15 MeV, emitted from materials irradiated with beams of light nuclei such as deuterons are measured with silicon surface barrier detectors. The spectra from multi-elemental materials typically encountered in materials research are usually composed of an overlapping superposition of proton, alpha, and other charged particle spectra. Interpretation of such complex spectra would be simplified if a means were available to electronically discriminate between the detector response to the different kinds of charged particle. We have investigated two methods of discriminating between different types of charged particles. The fast charge pulses from a surface barrier detector have different shapes, depending on the spatial distribution of energy deposition of the incident particle. Fast digitisation of the pulses, followed by digital signal processing provides one avenue for discrimination. A second approach is to use a thin transmission detector in front of a thick detector as a detector telescope. For a given incident energy, different types of charged particles will lose different amounts of energy in the thin detector, providing an alternative means of discrimination. We show that both approaches can provide significant simplification in the interpretation of charged particle spectra in practical situations, and suggest that silicon surface barrier detectors having graded electronic properties could provide improved discrimination compared to the current generation of detectors having homogeneous electronic properties. (author).12 refs., 2 tabs., 28 figs

  5. The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Markus; Bergauer, Thomas; Gfall, Immanuel; Irmler, Christian; Valentan, Manfred

    2011-02-01

    After 10 years of successful operation, the Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will be completed in 2010. Thereafter, a major upgrade of the KEK-B machine is foreseen until 2014, aiming at a final luminosity of 8×10 35 cm -2 s -1, which is about 40 times higher than the present peak value. Consequently, also the Belle experiment needs to be changed and the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) in particular will be completely replaced as it already operates close to its limits in the present system. The future SVD (a.k.a. SuperSVD) will consist of four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors like the present one, but at larger radii, because it will be complemented by a two-layer pixel detector as the innermost sensing device. The SuperSVD will be entirely composed of silicon sensors made from 6 in. wafers read out by APV25 front-end chips that were originally developed for the CMS experiment at the LHC. Several years of R&D effort led to innovations such as the Origami chip-on-sensor concept and readout electronics with hit time finding which were successfully demonstrated on prototypes. These features will be included in the final system which is presently being designed. This paper will give an overview of the SuperSVD and present results from prototype tests ranging from detector modules to back-end electronics.

  6. Characterising large area silicon drift detectors with MOS injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvicini, V.; Rashevsky, A.; Vacchi, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of the INFN DSI project, the first prototypes of a large-area Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) have been designed and produced on 5'' diameter wafers of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) silicon with a resistivity of 3000 Ω·cm. The detector is a 'butterfly' bi-directional structure with a drift length of 32 mm and the drifting charge is collected by two arrays of anodes having a pitch of 200 μm. The high-voltage divider is integrated on-board and is realised with p + implantations. For test and calibration purposes, the detector has a new type of MOS injector. The paper presents results obtained to injecting charge at the maximum drift distance (32mm) from the anodes by means of the MOS injecting structure, As front-end electronics, the authors have used a 32-channels low-noise bipolar VLSI circuit (OLA, Omni-purpose Low-noise Amplifer) specifically designed for silicon drift detectors. The uniformity of the drift time in different regions of the sensitive area and its dependence on the ambient temperature are studied

  7. The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, Markus, E-mail: friedl@hephy.a [Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bergauer, Thomas; Gfall, Immanuel; Irmler, Christian; Valentan, Manfred [Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-02-01

    After 10 years of successful operation, the Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will be completed in 2010. Thereafter, a major upgrade of the KEK-B machine is foreseen until 2014, aiming at a final luminosity of 8x10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is about 40 times higher than the present peak value. Consequently, also the Belle experiment needs to be changed and the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) in particular will be completely replaced as it already operates close to its limits in the present system. The future SVD (a.k.a. SuperSVD) will consist of four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors like the present one, but at larger radii, because it will be complemented by a two-layer pixel detector as the innermost sensing device. The SuperSVD will be entirely composed of silicon sensors made from 6 in. wafers read out by APV25 front-end chips that were originally developed for the CMS experiment at the LHC. Several years of R and D effort led to innovations such as the Origami chip-on-sensor concept and readout electronics with hit time finding which were successfully demonstrated on prototypes. These features will be included in the final system which is presently being designed. This paper will give an overview of the SuperSVD and present results from prototype tests ranging from detector modules to back-end electronics.

  8. The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, Markus; Bergauer, Thomas; Gfall, Immanuel; Irmler, Christian; Valentan, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    After 10 years of successful operation, the Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will be completed in 2010. Thereafter, a major upgrade of the KEK-B machine is foreseen until 2014, aiming at a final luminosity of 8x10 35 cm -2 s -1 , which is about 40 times higher than the present peak value. Consequently, also the Belle experiment needs to be changed and the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) in particular will be completely replaced as it already operates close to its limits in the present system. The future SVD (a.k.a. SuperSVD) will consist of four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors like the present one, but at larger radii, because it will be complemented by a two-layer pixel detector as the innermost sensing device. The SuperSVD will be entirely composed of silicon sensors made from 6 in. wafers read out by APV25 front-end chips that were originally developed for the CMS experiment at the LHC. Several years of R and D effort led to innovations such as the Origami chip-on-sensor concept and readout electronics with hit time finding which were successfully demonstrated on prototypes. These features will be included in the final system which is presently being designed. This paper will give an overview of the SuperSVD and present results from prototype tests ranging from detector modules to back-end electronics.

  9. Silicon drift detector: device design and mask layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Pourus; Mishra, Vijay; Kataria, S.K.; Rao, Ramgopal

    2005-01-01

    The mask design of Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) to be fabricated at the fabrication lab of IIT Bombay has been done. The mask layout consists of 13 distinct designs of varying geometry and design parameters. The design rules related to the silicon fabrication facility at IITB have been strictly adhered to while designing the mask for SDD. Additional features like alignment marks, reference marks and scribe lines have also been incorporated to facilitate convenient fabrication and ease in dicing of devices after processing. The next step is to get the mask set fabricated commercially and subsequently proceed towards SDD fabrication. (author)

  10. Beam test of CSES silicon strip detector module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Lu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Li, Xin-Qiao; Xu, Yan-Bing; An, Zheng-Hua; Yu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Hui; Shi, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2017-05-01

    The silicon-strip tracker of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) consists of two double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) which provide incident particle tracking information. A low-noise analog ASIC VA140 was used in this study for DSSD signal readout. A beam test on the DSSD module was performed at the Beijing Test Beam Facility of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) using a 400-800 MeV/c proton beam. The pedestal analysis results, RMSE noise, gain correction, and intensity distribution of incident particles of the DSSD module are presented. Supported by the XXX Civil Space Programme

  11. A novel low noise hydrogenated amorphous silicon pixel detector

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, D.; Anelli, G.; Despeisse, M.; Dissertori, G.; Garrigos, A.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon. J.; Miazza, C.; Shah, Arvind; Viertel, G. M.; Wyrsch, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Firsts results on particle detection using a novel silicon pixel detector are presented. The sensor consists of an array of 48 square pixels with 380 μm pitch based on a n–i–p hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film deposited on top of a VLSI chip. The deposition was performed by VHF-PECVD, which enables high rate deposition up to 2 nm/s. Direct particle detection using beta particles from 63Ni and 90Sr sources was performed.

  12. Interdefect charge exchange in silicon particle detectors at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    MacEvoy, B; Hall, G; Moscatelli, F; Passeri, D; Santocchia, A

    2002-01-01

    Silicon particle detectors in the next generation of experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will be exposed to a very challenging radiation environment. The principal obstacle to long-term operation arises from changes in detector doping concentration (N/sub eff/), which lead to an increase in the bias required to deplete the detector and hence achieve efficient charge collection. We have previously presented a model of interdefect charge exchange between closely spaced centers in the dense terminal clusters formed by hadron irradiation. This manifestly non-Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism leads to a marked increase in carrier generation rate and negative space charge over the SRH prediction. There is currently much interest in the subject of cryogenic detector operation as a means of improving radiation hardness. Our motivation, however, is primarily to investigate our model further by testing its predictions over a range of temperatures. We present measurements of spectra from /sup 241/Am alpha par...

  13. Simulation and test of 3D silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleta, C.; Pennicard, D.; Bates, R.; Parkes, C.; Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M.; Wright, V.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.

    2007-01-01

    The work presented here is the result of the collaborative effort between the University of Glasgow, ITC-IRST (Trento) and IMB-CNM (Barcelona) in the framework of the CERN-RD50 Collaboration to produce 3D silicon radiation detectors and study their performance. This paper reports on two sets of 3D devices. IRST and CNM have fabricated a set of single-type column 3D detectors, which have columnar electrodes of the same doping type and an ohmic contact located at the backplane. Simulations of the device behaviour and electrical test results are presented. In particular, current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and charge collection efficiency measurements are reported. Other types of structures called double-sided 3D detectors are currently being fabricated at CNM. In these detectors the sets of n and p columns are made on opposite sides of the device. Electrical and technological simulations and first processing results are presented

  14. Calibration and Monitoring of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, D

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the largest detector of this kind ever built for a high energy physics experiment. It consists of more than ten millions of analog read-out channels, split between 15,148 detector modules. To ensure that the SST performance fully meets the physics requirements of the CMS experiment, the detector is precisely calibrated and constantly monitored to identify, at a very early stage, any possible problem both in the data acquisition and in the reconstruction chain. Due to its high granularity, the operation of the CMS SST is a challenging task. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the data quality monitoring system that the CMS Collaboration has devised to accurately operate the SST detector.

  15. Simulations of ATLAS silicon strip detector modules in ATHENA framework

    CERN Document Server

    Broklova, Zdenka; Dolezal, Zdenek

    2004-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with properties of the silicon strip detector (SCT) modules of the ATLAS detector and building their software model. First part of the thesis consists of a brief overview of the ATLAS detector properties and focuses on the Inner Detector and its SCT part. Besides mechanical characteristics, analysis of capability to measure the charged particle momentum is placed there as well. Main features of the Athena framework and of the entire ATLAS offine software can be found in the further part. Athena framework is developed for simulations and future analyzing of the whole ATLAS measured data. This text is intended mainly for Athena newcomers. The main contribution of this thesis to ATLAS offine software preparation is implementation of the new SCT end-cap modules' geometry model, its detailed checking and preparation of the necessary software component for whole SCT subsystem for the Combined Testbeam (CTB - summer 2004). We perform checking the functionality of the whole simulation sequen...

  16. Novel detectors for silicon based microdosimetry, their concepts and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of semiconductor microdosimetry and the most current (state-of-the-art) Silicon on Insulator (SOI) detectors for microdosimetry based mainly on research and development carried out at the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP) at the University of Wollongong with collaborators over the last 18 years. In this paper every generation of CMRP SOI microdosimeters, including their fabrication, design, and electrical and charge collection characterisation are presented. A study of SOI microdosimeters in various radiation fields has demonstrated that under appropriate geometrical scaling, the response of SOI detectors with the well-known geometry of microscopically sensitive volumes will record the energy deposition spectra representative of tissue cells of an equivalent shape. This development of SOI detectors for microdosimetry with increased complexity has improved the definition of microscopic sensitive volume (SV), which is modelling the deposition of ionising energy in a biological cell, that are led from planar to 3D SOI detectors with an array of segmented microscopic 3D SVs. The monolithic ΔE-E silicon telescope, which is an alternative to the SOI silicon microdosimeter, is presented, and as an example, applications of SOI detectors and ΔE-E monolithic telescope for microdosimetery in proton therapy field and equivalent neutron dose measurements out of field are also presented. An SOI microdosimeter "bridge" with 3D SVs can derive the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in 12C ion radiation therapy that matches the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) quite well, but with outstanding spatial resolution. The use of SOI technology in experimental microdosimetry offers simplicity (no gas system or HV supply), high spatial resolution, low cost, high count rates, and the possibility of integrating the system onto a single device with other types of detectors.

  17. Silicon sensors for the CMS preshower detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Ph.; Chang, Y.-H.; Chen, A.E.; Cheremukhin, A.; Egorov, N.; Go, A.; Golubkov, S.; Golutvin, I.; Hou, S.R.; Konjkov, K.; Kozlov, Y.; Kyriakis, A.; Lin, W.T.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Mousa, J.; Peisert, A. E-mail: anna.elliott-peisert@cern.ch; Sidorov, A.; Tsoi, E.; Zamiatin, N.; Zubarev, E

    2002-03-01

    This paper is a summary of a research and development programme, conducted during the past 3 years on the CMS Preshower silicon sensors to define the specifications. The main purpose was to study the radiation hardness of these devices resulting from the specific design (metal lines wider than the p{sup +} implants) and the production technology, a deep n{sup +} layer on the ohmic side. An acceptable noise and a uniform charge collection were guaranteed by an appropriate choice of the interstrip region width. About 65 sensors, of different designs and produced by six manufacturers, were irradiated with neutrons and protons and thoroughly tested before and after irradiation. The results of the tests and the final specifications are presented.

  18. Silicon sensors for the CMS preshower detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, P; Chen, A E; Cheremuhin, A E; Egorov, N; Go, A; Golubkov, S A; Golutvin, I A; Hou, S R; Konjkov, K; Kozlov, Y; Kyriakis, A; Lin, W T; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Mousa, J; Peisert, Anna; Sidorov, A; Tsoi, E; Zamiatin, N I; Zubarev, E V

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a summary of a research and development programme, conducted during the past 3 years on the CMS Preshower silicon sensors to define the specifications. The main purpose was to study the radiation hardness of these devices resulting from the specific design (metal lines wider than the p/sup +/ implants) and the production technology, a deep n/sup +/ layer on the ohmic side. An acceptable noise and a uniform charge collection were guaranteed by an appropriate choice of the interstrip region width. About 65 sensors, of different designs and produced by six manufacturers, were irradiated with neutrons and protons and thoroughly tested before and after irradiation. The results of the tests and the final specifications are presented. (18 refs).

  19. Performance of Thin-Window Silicon Drift Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, , G.A.; Chen, W.; De Geronimo, G.; Fried, J.; Gaskin, J.A.; Keister; J.W.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Rehak, P.; Siddons, D.P.

    2008-10-20

    Several sets of hexagonal Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) arrays were produced at BNL and by a commercial vendor, KETEK. Each array consists of 14 independent detectors (pixels) and two additional test pixels at two of the corners. The side of the detector upon which the X-ray radiation is incident (window side) has a thin junction covering the entire active area. The opposite side (device side) contains a drift-field electrode structure in the form of a hexagonal spiral and an electron collecting anode. There are 4 guard rings surrounding the 14-pixel array area on both sides of the detector. Within each array, 7 of the pixels have an aluminum field plate - interrupted spirals that stabilize the electric potential under the Si-SiO2 interface, while the other 7 do not. The drift field in the silicon volume is controlled by three biases: one is applied to a rectifying contact, one to the detector entrance window, and the third to a contact on the outer portion of the spiral common to all pixels in the array. Some arrays have been newly measured in NSLS beam line U3C at BNL. The complete assemblies were installed in the vacuum and cooled to ?27 C. During this run, spectra for energies ranging between 400 and 900 eV were collected in several pixels, some with field plates and others without. The detailed testing results of several arrays are reported here.

  20. Development of electron temperature measuring system by silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xianying; Yang Jinwei; Liao Min

    2007-12-01

    Soft X-ray spectroscopy with two channels Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) are adopted for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak in 2005. The working principle, design and first operation of the SDD soft X-ray spectroscopy are introduced. The measuring results of electron temperature are also presented. The results show that the SDD is very good detector for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak. These will become a solid basic work to establish SDD array for electron temperature profiling. (authors)

  1. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Campabadal, F; Key, M; Lozano, M; Martínez, C; Pellegrini, G; Rafí, J M; Ullán, M; Johansen, L; Pommeresche, B; Stugu, B; Ciocio, A; Fadeev, V; Gilchriese, M G D; Haber, C; Siegrist, J; Spieler, H; Vu, C; Bell, P J; Charlton, D G; Dowell, John D; Gallop, B J; Homer, R J; Jovanovic, P; Mahout, G; McMahon, T J; Wilson, J A; Barr, A J; Carter, J R; Fromant, B P; Goodrick, M J; Hill, J C; Lester, C G; Palmer, M J; Parker, M A; Robinson, D; Sabetfakhri, A; Shaw, R J; Anghinolfi, F; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Chouridou, S; Fortin, R; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gruwé, M; Ferrari, P; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; MacPherson, A; Niinikoski, T O; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Ruggiero, G; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Bialas, W; Dabrowski, W; Grybos, P; Koperny, S; Blocki, J; Brückman, P; Gadomski, S; Godlewski, J; Górnicki, E; Malecki, P; Moszczynski, A; Stanecka, E; Stodulski, M; Szczygiel, R; Turala, M; Wolter, M; Ahmad, A; Benes, J; Carpentieri, C; Feld, L; Ketterer, C; Ludwig, J; Meinhardt, J; Runge, K; Mikulec, B; Mangin-Brinet, M; D'Onofrio, M; Donega, M; Moêd, S; Sfyrla, A; Ferrère, D; Clark, A G; Perrin, E; Weber, M; Bates, R L; Cheplakov, A P; Saxon, D H; O'Shea, V; Smith, K M; Iwata, Y; Ohsugi, T; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Terada, S; Ujiie, N; Ikegami, Y; Unno, Y; Takashima, R; Brodbeck, T; Chilingarov, A G; Hughes, G; Ratoff, P; Sloan, T; Allport, P P; Casse, G L; Greenall, A; Jackson, J N; Jones, T J; King, B T; Maxfield, S J; Smith, N A; Sutcliffe, P; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Beck, G A; Carter, A A; Lloyd, S L; Martin, A J; Morris, J; Morin, J; Nagai, K; Pritchard, T W; Anderson, B E; Butterworth, J M; Fraser, T J; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; Postranecky, M; Warren, M R M; Cindro, V; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Mikuz, M; Duerdoth, I P; Freestone, J; Foster, J M; Ibbotson, M; Loebinger, F K; Pater, J; Snow, S W; Thompson, R J; Atkinson, T M; Bright, G; Kazi, S; Lindsay, S; Moorhead, G F; Taylor, G N; Bachindgagyan, G; Baranova, N; Karmanov, D; Merkine, M; Andricek, L; Bethke, Siegfried; Kudlaty, J; Lutz, Gerhard; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R; Schieck, J; Cornelissen, T; Gorfine, G W; Hartjes, F G; Hessey, N P; de Jong, P; Muijs, A J M; Peeters, S J M; Tomeda, Y; Tanaka, R; Nakano, I; Dorholt, O; Danielsen, K M; Huse, T; Sandaker, H; Stapnes, S; Bargassa, Pedrame; Reichold, A; Huffman, T; Nickerson, R B; Weidberg, A; Doucas, G; Hawes, B; Lau, W; Howell, D; Kundu, N; Wastie, R; Böhm, J; Mikestikova, M; Stastny, J; Broklová, Z; Broz, J; Dolezal, Z; Kodys, P; Kubík, P; Reznicek, P; Vorobel, V; Wilhelm, I; Chren, D; Horazdovsky, T; Linhart, V; Pospísil, S; Sinor, M; Solar, M; Sopko, B; Stekl, I; Ardashev, E N; Golovnya, S N; Gorokhov, S A; Kholodenko, A G; Rudenko, R E; Ryadovikov, V N; Vorobev, A P; Adkin, P J; Apsimon, R J; Batchelor, L E; Bizzell, J P; Booker, P; Davis, V R; Easton, J M; Fowler, C; Gibson, M D; Haywood, S J; MacWaters, C; Matheson, J P; Matson, R M; McMahon, S J; Morris, F S; Morrissey, M; Murray, W J; Phillips, P W; Tyndel, M; Villani, E G; Dorfan, D E; Grillo, A A; Rosenbaum, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Spencer, E; Wilder, M; Booth, P; Buttar, C M; Dawson, I; Dervan, P; Grigson, C; Harper, R; Moraes, A; Peak, L S; Varvell, K E; Chu Ming Lee; Hou Li Shing; Lee Shih Chang; Teng Ping Kun; Wan Chang Chun; Hara, K; Kato, Y; Kuwano, T; Minagawa, M; Sengoku, H; Bingefors, N; Brenner, R; Ekelöf, T J C; Eklund, L; Bernabeu, J; Civera, J V; Costa, M J; Fuster, J; García, C; García, J E; González-Sevilla, S; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Martí i García, S; Modesto, P; Sánchez, J; Sospedra, L; Vos, M; Fasching, D; González, S; Jared, R C; Charles, E

    2005-01-01

    The design and technology of the silicon strip detector modules for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment have been finalised in the last several years. Integral to this process has been the measurement and verification of the tracking performance of the different module types in test beams at the CERN SPS and the KEK PS. Tests have been performed to explore the module performance under various operating conditions including detector bias voltage, magnetic field, incidence angle, and state of irradiation up to 3 multiplied by 1014 protons per square centimetre. A particular emphasis has been the understanding of the operational consequences of the binary readout scheme.

  2. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector Control and Calibration Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Calì, Ivan Amos; Manzari, Vito; Stefanini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was carried out in the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) group of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SPD is the innermost part (two cylindrical layers of silicon pixel detec- tors) of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). During the last three years I have been strongly involved in the SPD hardware and software development, construction and commissioning. This thesis is focused on the design, development and commissioning of the SPD Control and Calibration Systems. I started this project from scratch. After a prototyping phase now a stable version of the control and calibration systems is operative. These systems allowed the detector sectors and half-barrels test, integration and commissioning as well as the SPD commissioning in the experiment. The integration of the systems with the ALICE Experiment Control System (ECS), DAQ and Trigger system has been accomplished and the SPD participated in the experimental December 2007 commissioning run. The complex...

  3. Works of art investigation with silicon drift detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Leutenegger, P; Fiorini, C; Strüder, L; Kemmer, J; Lechner, P; Sciuti, S; Cesareo, R

    2000-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy analysis is a non-destructive technique widely used in archeometry to investigate the chemical composition of pigments, metal alloys and stones for restoration and historical investigation. The classical detection systems for archeometrical investigations utilize cryogenic detectors, like Si(Li) and HPGe, characterized by a satisfactory energy resolution (of the order of 140 eV FWHM at 6 keV). However, the requirements of liquid N sub 2 drastically limit the portability of such systems, limiting the possibility of making measurements 'on the field'. Recently new silicon PIN diodes Peltier cooled were introduced, allowing the construction of portable instrumentation. However, their energy resolution (of the order of 250 eV FWHM at 6 keV) results in some cases unsatisfactory (for instance in the identification of light elements). Both the requirements of portability and good energy resolution are fulfilled by the silicon drift detector (SDD). The SDD, cooled by a Peltie...

  4. The spectral response of silicon X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, T.

    2004-01-01

    Energy dispersive Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) show a superior performance compared with other semiconductor detectors, but low energy X-rays generates an undesirable high background due to incomplete charge collection (ICC) in the entrance window. To investigate the reasons for charge losses, a discrete analytic calculation is performed. All loss mechanisms (partial or full loss of both, photo and/or Auger electrons) due to diffusion into the aluminum dead layer are considered. In order to verify the model, measurements with monochromatic X-rays in the 0.2 to 2 keV energy range were conducted at BESSY II. The observed spectral features like shelf, shoulder, and tail are explained by the model. The main reason for ICC is the escape of thermalized electrons at metalization-silicon-interface

  5. Planar Edgeless Silicon Detectors for the TOTEM Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, G; Deile, M; De Oliveira, R; Eggert, K; Haug, F; Jarron, P; Macina, D; Niewiadomski, H; Noschis, E; Oriunno, M; Siegrist, P; Snoeys, W; Verdier, A; Avati, V; Bergholm, V; Kalliopuska, J; Kiiskinen, A P; Kurvinen, K; Lauhakangas, R; Mäki, T; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Palmieri, V G; Saarikko, H; Tapprogge, S; Toppinen, A; Bassetti, V; Boccone, V; Bozzo, M; Buzzo, A; Cereseto, R; Cuneo, S; Ferro, F; Macri, M; Minutoli, S; Morelli, A; Musico, P; Negri, M; Puppo, R; Santroni, A; Sette, G; Berardi, V; Catanesi, M G; Radicioni, E; Egorov, N; Sidorov, A; Eremin, I; Hasi, J; Kok, A; Watts, S; Herzog, R; Rudischer, R; Wobst, E; Kundrát, W; Lokajícek, M; Smotlacha, J; Sanguinetti, G; Mirabito, L

    2005-01-01

    Silicon detectors for the Roman Pots of the large hadron collider TOTEM experiment aim for full sensitivity at the edge where a terminating structure is required for electrical stability. This work provides an innovative approach reducing the conventional width of the terminating structure to less than 100 microns, still using standard planar fabrication technology. The objective of this new development is to decouple the electric behaviour of the surface from the sensitive volume within tens of microns. The explanation of the basic principle of this new approach together with the experimental confirmation via electric measurements and beam test are presented in this paper, demonstrating that silicon detectors with this new terminating structure are fully operational and efficient to under 60 microns from the die cut.

  6. Radiation damage status of the ATLAS silicon strip detectors (SCT)

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Takahiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon microstrip detector system (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at LHC has been working well for about 7 years since 2010. The innermost layer has already received a few times of 10**13 1-MeV neutron-equivalent fluences/cm2. The evolutions of the radiation damage effects on strip sensors such as leakage current and full depletion voltages will be presented.

  7. Silicon vertex detector upgrade in the ALPHA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M.D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Burrows, C; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C.L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M.C; Gill, D.R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J.S; Hardy, W.N; Hayden, M.E; Humphries, A.J; Isaac, C.A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J.T.K; Menary, S; Napoli, S.C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C.Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sacramento, R.L; Sampson, J.A; Sarid, E; Seddon, D; Silveira, D.M; So, C; Stracka, S; Tharp, T; Thompson, R.I; Thornhill, J; Tooley, M.P; Van Der Werf, D.P; Wells, D

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is the main diagnostic tool in the ALPHA-experiment. It provides precise spatial and timing information of antiproton (antihydrogen) annihilation events (vertices), and most importantly, the SVD is capable of directly identifying and analysing single annihilation events, thereby forming the basis of ALPHA ' s analysis. This paper describes the ALPHA SVD and its upgrade, installed in the ALPHA ' s new neutral atom trap.

  8. Spatial resolution of wedge shaped silicon microstrip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antičić, T.; Barnett, B.; Blumenfeld, B.; Chien, C.-Y.; Fisher, P.; Gougas, A.; Krizmanic, J.; Madansky, L.; Newman, D.; Orndorff, J.; Pevsner, A.; Spangler, J.

    1995-02-01

    Several wedge-shaped silicon microstrip detectors with pitches from 30 to 100 μm have been designed by our group and beam tested at the CERN SPS. We find the spatial resolution σ becomes larger at the rate of 0.21 μm per 1 μm increase in pitch, but the number of strips per cluster remains about the same as the pitch varies from 30 to 100 μm.

  9. Spatial resolution of wedge shaped silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anticic, T.; Barnett, B.; Blumenfeld, B.; Chien, C.Y.; Fisher, P.; Gougas, A.; Krizmanic, J.; Madansky, L.; Newman, D.; Orndorff, J.; Pevsner, A.; Spangler, J.

    1995-01-01

    Several wedge-shaped silicon microstrip detectors with pitches from 30 to 100 μm have been designed by our group and beam tested at the CERN SPS. We find the spatial resolution σ becomes larger at the rate of 0.21 μm per 1 μm increase in pitch, but the number of strips per cluster remains about the same as the pitch varies from 30 to 100 μm. (orig.)

  10. Two gamma dose evaluation methods for silicon semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Faguo; Jin Gen; Yang Yapeng; Xu Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Silicon PIN diodes have been widely used as personal and areal dosimeters because of their small volume, simplicity and real-time operation. However, because silicon is neither a tissue-equivalent nor an air-equivalent material, an intrinsic disadvantage for silicon dosimeters is that a significant over-response occurs at low-energy region, especially below 200 keV. Using a energy compensation filter to flatten the energy response is one method overcoming this disadvantage. But for dose compensation method, the estimated dose depends only on the number of the detector pulses. So a weight function method was introduced to evaluate gamma dose, which depends on pulse number as well as its amplitude. (authors)

  11. LHCb: Installation and operation of the LHCb Silicon Tracker detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Esperante Pereira, D

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has been designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons. The construction and installation phases of the Silicon Tracker (ST) of the experiment were completed by early summer 2008. The LHCb Silicon Tracker sums up to a total sensitive area of about 12 m^2 using silicon micro-strip technology and withstands charged particle fluxes of up to 5 x 10^5cm^−2s^−1. We will report on the preparation of the detectors for the first LHC beams. Selected results from the commissioning in LHCb are shown, including the first beam-related events accumulated during LHC injection tests in September 2008. Lessons are drawn from the experience gathered during the installation and commissioning.

  12. Silicon detectors for the n-TOF neutron beams monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cosentino, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Damone, L.; Pappalardo, A.; Piscopo, M.; Finocchiaro, P.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 the second experimental area EAR2 was completed at the n-TOF neutron beam facility at CERN. As the neutrons are produced via spallation, by means of a high-intensity 20 GeV pulsed proton beam impinging on a thick target, the resulting neutron beam covers an enormous energy range, from thermal to several GeV. In this paper we describe two beam diagnostic devices, designed and built at INFN-LNS, both exploiting silicon detectors coupled with neutron converter foils containing 6Li. The first one is based on four silicon pads and allows to monitor the neutron beam flux as a function of the neutron energy. The second one, based on position sensitive silicon detectors, is intended for the reconstruction of the beam profile, again as a function of the neutron energy. Several electronic setups have been explored in order to overcome the issues related to the gamma flash, namely a huge pulse present at the start of each neutron bunch which may blind the detectors for some time. The two devices have been ch...

  13. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Y; Sauvestre, J E; Maréchal, F; Ottini, S; Alamanos, N; Barbier, A; Beaumel, D; Bonnereau, B; Charlet, D; Clavelin, J F; Courtat, P; Delbourgo-Salvador, P; Douet, R; Engrand, M; Ethvignot, T; Gillibert, A; Khan, E; Lapoux, V; Lagoyannis, A; Lavergne, L; Lebon, S; Lelong, P; Lesage, A; Le Ven, V; Lhenry, I; Martin, J M; Musumarra, A; Pita, S; Petizon, L; Pollacco, E; Pouthas, J; Richard, A; Rougier, D; Santonocito, D; Scarpaci, J A; Sida, J L; Soulet, C; Stutzmann, J S; Suomijärvi, T; Szmigiel, M; Volkov, P; Voltolini, G

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm sup 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and a...

  14. Silicon Drift Detector response function for PIXE spectra fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolai, G.; Tapinassi, S.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.; Pazzi, G.; Lucarelli, F.

    2018-02-01

    The correct determination of the X-ray peak areas in PIXE spectra by fitting with a computer program depends crucially on accurate parameterization of the detector peak response function. In the Guelph PIXE software package, GUPIXWin, one of the most used PIXE spectra analysis code, the response of a semiconductor detector to monochromatic X-ray radiation is described by a linear combination of several analytical functions: a Gaussian profile for the X-ray line itself, and additional tail contributions (exponential tails and step functions) on the low-energy side of the X-ray line to describe incomplete charge collection effects. The literature on the spectral response of silicon X-ray detectors for PIXE applications is rather scarce, in particular data for Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) and for a large range of X-ray energies are missing. Using a set of analytical functions, the SDD response functions were satisfactorily reproduced for the X-ray energy range 1-15 keV. The behaviour of the parameters involved in the SDD tailing functions with X-ray energy is described by simple polynomial functions, which permit an easy implementation in PIXE spectra fitting codes.

  15. Silicon drift detector with reduced lateral diffusion: experimental results

    CERN Document Server

    Sonsky, J; Huizenga, John R; Hollander, R W; Eijk, C W E; Sarro, P M

    2000-01-01

    In a standard multi-anode silicon drift detector electron cloud broadening during the drifting towards the anode pixels deteriorates the energy and position resolution. This makes the detector less applicable for detection of low-energy X-rays. The signal charge sharing between several anodes can be eliminated by introducing sawtooth-shaped p sup + field strips. The sawtooth structure results in small electric fields directed parallel to the sensor surface and perpendicular to the drift direction which produce gutters. The drifting electrons are confined in these gutters of one saw tooth period wide. For a detector with a sawtooth period of 500 mu m, we have measured the maximum number of fully confined electrons as a function of the potential gutter depth induced by different sawtooth angles.

  16. Fabrication of PIN diode detectors on thinned silicon wafers

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchin, Sabina; Dalla Betta, Gian Franco; Gregori, Paolo; Guarnieri, Vittorio; Piemonte, Claudio; Zorzi, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Thin substrates are one of the possible choices to provide radiation hard detectors for future high-energy physics experiments. Among the advantages of thin detectors are the low full depletion voltage, even after high particle fluences, the improvement of the tracking precision and momentum resolution and the reduced material budget. In the framework of the CERN RD50 Collaboration, we have developed p-n diode detectors on membranes obtained by locally thinning the silicon substrate by means of tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide etching from the wafer backside. Diodes of different shapes and sizes have been fabricated on 57 and 99mum thick membranes. They have been tested, showing a very low leakage current ( less than 0.4nA/cm**2) and, as expected, a very low depletion voltage ( less than 1V for the 57mum membrane). The paper describes the technological approach used for devices fabrication and reports selected results from the electrical characterization.

  17. Status of the silicon strip vertex detector for the Mark II experiment at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.; Gratta, G.; Litke, A.

    1987-10-01

    We are constructing a silicon strip vertex detector to be used in the Mark II detector in the study of Z 0 decays at the SLAC Linear Collider. The status of the project, including the performance of the individual silicon detector modules, is presented. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Role of guard rings in improving the performance of silicon detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BARC has developed large-area silicon detectors in collaboration with BEL to be used in the pre-shower detector of the CMS experiment at CERN. The use of floating guard rings (FGR) in improving breakdown voltage and reducing leakage current of silicon detectors is well-known. In the present work, it has been ...

  19. A Proposal to Upgrade the Silicon Strip Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matis, Howard; Michael, LeVine; Jonathan, Bouchet; Stephane, Bouvier; Artemios, Geromitsos; Gerard, Guilloux; Sonia, Kabana; Christophe, Renard; Howard, Matis; Jim, Thomas; Vi Nham, Tram

    2007-11-05

    The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) was built by a collaboration of Nantes, Strasbourg and Warsaw collaborators. It is a beautiful detector; it can provide 500 mu m scale pointing resolution at the vertex when working in combination with the TPC. It was first used in Run 4, when half the SSD was installed in an engineering run. The full detector was installed for Run 5 (the Cu-Cu run) and the operation and performance of the detector was very successful. However, in preparation for Run 6, two noisy ladders (out of 20) were replaced and this required that the SSD be removed from the STAR detector. The re-installation of the SSD was not fully successful and so for the next two Runs, 6 and 7, the SSD suffered a cooling system failure that allowed a large fraction of the ladders to overheat and become noisy, or fail. (The cause of the SSD cooling failure was rather trivial but the SSD could not be removed betweens Runs 6 and 7 due to the inability of the STAR detector to roll along its tracks at that time.)

  20. A Proposal to Upgrade the Silicon Strip Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matis, Howard; Michael, LeVine; Jonathan, Bouchet; Stephane, Bouvier; Artemios, Geromitsos; Gerard, Guilloux; Sonia, Kabana; Christophe, Renard; Howard, Matis; Jim, Thomas; Vi Nham, Tram

    2007-01-01

    The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) was built by a collaboration of Nantes, Strasbourg and Warsaw collaborators. It is a beautiful detector; it can provide 500 mu m scale pointing resolution at the vertex when working in combination with the TPC. It was first used in Run 4, when half the SSD was installed in an engineering run. The full detector was installed for Run 5 (the Cu-Cu run) and the operation and performance of the detector was very successful. However, in preparation for Run 6, two noisy ladders (out of 20) were replaced and this required that the SSD be removed from the STAR detector. The re-installation of the SSD was not fully successful and so for the next two Runs, 6 and 7, the SSD suffered a cooling system failure that allowed a large fraction of the ladders to overheat and become noisy, or fail. (The cause of the SSD cooling failure was rather trivial but the SSD could not be removed between Runs 6 and 7 due to the inability of the STAR detector to roll along its tracks at that time.)

  1. Assembly of an endcap of the ATLAS silicon strip detector at NIKHEF, Amsterdam.

    CERN Multimedia

    Ginter, P

    2005-01-01

    Assembly of an endcap of the ATLAS silicon strip detector (SCT) at NIKHEF, Amsterdam. Technicians are mounting the power distribution cables on the cylinder that houses nine disks with silicon sensors.

  2. Four-channel readout ASIC for silicon pad detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Baturitsky, M A

    2000-01-01

    A custom front-end readout ASIC has been designed for silicon calorimeters supposed to be used in high-energy physics experiments. The ASIC was produced using BJT-JFET technology. It contains four channels of a fast low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) with inverting outputs summed by a linear adder (LA) followed by an RC-CR shaping amplifier (SA) with 30 ns peaking time. Availability of separate outputs of the CSPs and the LA makes it possible to join any number of silicon detector layers to obtain the longitudinal and transversal resolution required using only this ASIC in any silicon calorimeter minitower configuration. Noise performance is ENC=1800e sup - +18e sup - /pF at 30 ns peaking time for detector capacitance up to C sub d =400 pF. Rise time is 8 ns at input capacitance C sub d =100 pF. Power dissipation is less than 50 mW/ chip at voltage supply 5 V.

  3. Four-channel readout ASIC for silicon pad detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baturitsky, M.A. E-mail: batur@inp.minsk.by; Zamiatin, N.I

    2000-02-01

    A custom front-end readout ASIC has been designed for silicon calorimeters supposed to be used in high-energy physics experiments. The ASIC was produced using BJT-JFET technology. It contains four channels of a fast low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) with inverting outputs summed by a linear adder (LA) followed by an RC-CR shaping amplifier (SA) with 30 ns peaking time. Availability of separate outputs of the CSPs and the LA makes it possible to join any number of silicon detector layers to obtain the longitudinal and transversal resolution required using only this ASIC in any silicon calorimeter minitower configuration. Noise performance is ENC=1800e{sup -}+18e{sup -}/pF at 30 ns peaking time for detector capacitance up to C{sub d}=400 pF. Rise time is 8 ns at input capacitance C{sub d}=100 pF. Power dissipation is less than 50 mW/ chip at voltage supply 5 V.

  4. Four-channel readout ASIC for silicon pad detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturitsky, M.A.; Zamiatin, N.I.

    2000-01-01

    A custom front-end readout ASIC has been designed for silicon calorimeters supposed to be used in high-energy physics experiments. The ASIC was produced using BJT-JFET technology. It contains four channels of a fast low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) with inverting outputs summed by a linear adder (LA) followed by an RC-CR shaping amplifier (SA) with 30 ns peaking time. Availability of separate outputs of the CSPs and the LA makes it possible to join any number of silicon detector layers to obtain the longitudinal and transversal resolution required using only this ASIC in any silicon calorimeter minitower configuration. Noise performance is ENC=1800e - +18e - /pF at 30 ns peaking time for detector capacitance up to C d =400 pF. Rise time is 8 ns at input capacitance C d =100 pF. Power dissipation is less than 50 mW/ chip at voltage supply 5 V

  5. A new concept of monolithic silicon pixel detectors Hydrogenated amorphous silicon on ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, G; Despeisse, M; Dissertori, G; Jarron, P; Miazza, C; Moraes, D; Shah, A; Viertel, Gert M; Wyrsch, N

    2004-01-01

    A new concept of a monolithic pixel radiation detector is presented. It is based on the deposition of a film of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) on an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) . For almost 20 years, several research groups tried to demonstrate that a-Si:H material could be used to build radiation detectors for particle physics applications. A novel approach is made by the deposition of a-Si:H directly on the readout ASIC. This technique is similar to the concept of monolithic pixel detectors, but offers considerable advantages. We present first results from tests of a n- i-p a-Si:H diode array deposited on a glass substrate and on the a- Si:H above ASIC prototype detector.

  6. Testing of the KRI-developed Silicon PIN Radioxenon Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxe, Michael P.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2015-01-01

    Radioxenon detectors are used for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in a network of detectors throughout the world called the International Monitoring System (IMS). The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with testing a V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and Lares Ltd-developed Silicon PIN detector for radioxenon detection. PNNL measured radioxenon with the silicon PIN detector and determined its potential compared to current plastic scintillator beta cells. While the PNNL tested Si detector experienced noise issues, a second detector was tested in Russia at Lares Ltd, which did not exhibit the noise issues. Without the noise issues, the Si detector produces much better energy resolution and isomer peak separation than a conventional plastic scintillator cell used in the SAUNA systems in the IMS. Under the assumption of 1 cm 3 of Xe in laboratory-like conditions, 24-hr count time (12-hr count time for the SAUNA), with the respective shielding the minimum detectable concentrations for the Si detector tested by Lares Ltd (and a conventional SAUNA system) were calculated to be: 131m Xe - 0.12 mBq/m 3 (0.12 mBq/m 3 ); 133 Xe - 0.18 mBq/m 3 (0.21 mBq/m 3 ); 133m Xe - 0.07 mBq/m 3 (0.15 mBq/m 3 ); 135 Xe - 0.45 mBq/m 3 (0.67 mBq/m 3 ). Detection limits, which are one of the important factors in choosing the best detection technique for radioxenon in field conditions, are significantly better than for SAUNA-like detection systems for 131m Xe and 133m Xe, but similar for 133 Xe and 135 Xe. Another important factor is the amount of ''memory effect'' or carry over signal from one radioxenon measurement to the subsequent sample. The memory effect is reduced by a factor of 10 in the Si PIN detector compared to the current plastic scintillator cells. There is potential for further reduction with the

  7. A 1024 pad silicon detector to solve tracking ambiguities in high multiplicity events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Di Bari, D.; Didonna, V.; Elia, D.; Ghidini, B.; Lenti, V.; Manzari, V.; Nappi, E.

    1996-01-01

    Silicon detectors with two-dimensional pad readout have been designed and constructed for the WA97 experiment at CERN, in order to solve ambiguities for track reconstruction in a silicon microstrip telescope. A high density fanouts has been developed on a glass support to allow the electrical contacts between the detector and the front end electronics. Silicon pad detectors have been successfully operated both during the proton-Pb and Pb-Pb runs of the WA97 experiment. (orig.)

  8. Silicon pixel R&D for the CLIC detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)674552

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear $e^{+}e^{−}$ collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The main challenges are: a point resolution of a few microns, ultra-low mass (~0.2% X$_{0}$ per layer for the vertex region and ~1% X$_{0}$ per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ~10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analogue readout are explored. For the outer tra...

  9. Silicon pixel-detector R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)718101

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few μm, ultra-low mass (∼ 0.2% X${}_0$ per layer for the vertex region and ∼ 1 % X${}_0$ per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ∼ 10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analog readout are explored. For the outer trac...

  10. Laminated Amorphous Silicon Neutron Detector (pre-print)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Harry; Branz, Howard; Stradins, Paul; Xu, Yueqin

    2009-01-01

    An internal R and D project was conducted at the Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) of National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), to determine the feasibility of developing a multi-layer boron-10 based thermal neutron detector using the amorphous silicon (AS) technology currently employed in the manufacture of liquid crystal displays. The boron-10 neutron reaction produces an alpha that can be readily detected. A single layer detector, limited to an approximately 2-micron-thick layer of boron, has a theoretical sensitivity of about 3%; hence a thin multi-layer device with high sensitivity can theoretically be manufactured from single layer detectors. Working with National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), an AS PiN diode alpha detector was developed and tested. The PiN diode was deposited on a boron-10 coated substrate. Testing confirmed that the neutron sensitivity was nearly equal to the theoretical value of 3%. However, adhesion problems with the boron-10 coating prevented successful development of a prototype detector. Future efforts will include boron deposition work and development of integrated AS signal processing circuitry.

  11. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.; Marechal, F.; Ottini, S.; Alamanos, N.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Bonnereau, B.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Courtat, P.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Ethvignot, T.; Gillibert, A.; Khan, E.; Lapoux, V.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lavergne, L.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Le Ven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Martin, J.M.; Musumarra, A.; Pita, S.; Petizon, L.; Pollacco, E.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Santonocito, D.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Sida, J.L.; Soulet, C.; Stutzmann, J.S.; Suomijaervi, T.; Szmigiel, M.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G.

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and analog channels of the array in one crate placed adjacent to the reaction chamber and fully remote controlled, including pulse visualization on oscilloscopes. A stand alone data acquisition system devoted to the MUST array has been developed. Isotope identification of light charged particles over the full energy range has been achieved, and the capability of the system to measure angular distributions of states populated in inverse kinematics reactions has been demonstrated

  12. The new silicon strip detectors for the CMS tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, M.

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the tracker caused by the increase in luminosity which is proposed as an upgrade to the LHC accelerator (sLHC). This chapter motivates the work I have conducted and clarifies why the solutions proposed by myself are important contributions to the upgrade of the CMS tracker. The following chapters present the concepts that are necessary to operate the silicon strip sensors at sLHC luminosities and additional improvements to the construction and quality assurance of the sensors and the detector modules. The most important concepts and works presented in chapters 7 to 9 are: Development of a software framework to enable the flexible and quick design of test structures and sensors. Selecting a suitable sensor material which is sufficiently radiation hard. Design, implementation and production of a standard set of test structures to enable the quality assurance of such sensors and any future developments. Electrical characterisation of the test structures and analysis

  13. Characterization of neutron irradiated, low-resistivity silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angarano, M.M.; Bilei, G.M.; Ciampolini, P.P.; Giorgi, M.; Mihul, A.; Militaru, O.; Passeri, D.; Scorzoni, A.

    2002-01-01

    A complete electrical characterization of silicon detectors fabricated using low- (≅1.5 kΩ cm) and high- (>5 kΩ cm) resistivity substrates has been carried out. Measurements have been performed before and after neutron irradiation at several different fluences, up to 3x10 14 n cm -2 (1 MeV eq.). Experimental results have been compared with CAD-based simulations. A good agreement has been found, thus validating the CAD model predictions. The adoption of low-resistivity devices appears to have some definite advantages in terms of depletion voltage, which in turn results in better interstrip capacitance and interstrip resistance

  14. Gas microstrip detectors on polymer, silicon and glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barasch, E.F.; Demroff, H.P.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, T.S.; Gaedke, R.M.; Goss, L.T.; Kasprowicz, T.B.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Trost, H.J.; Vanstraelen, G.; Wahl, J.

    1993-01-01

    We present results on the performance of Gas Microstrip Detectors on various substrates. These include a 300 μm anode-anode pitch pattern on Tempax borosilicate glass and ABS/copolyether, a 200 μm pattern on Upilex ''S'' polyimide, Texin 4215, Tedlar, ion-implanted Kapton, orientation-dependent etched flat-topped silicon (''knife-edge chamber''), and iron-vanadium glass, and a 100 μm pitch pattern on Upilex ''S'' and ion-implanted Kapton. (orig.)

  15. CODA : Compact front-end analog ASIC for silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratre, V.B.; Sardesai, S.V.; Kataria, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the design of a front-end signal processing ASIC to be used with Silicon detectors having full depletion capacitance up to 40 pf. The ASIC channel consists of a charge amplifier, a shaper amplifier (CR-RC 3 ) and a comparator. There is provision for changing gain and polarity. The circuit has an estimated power dissipation of 16 mw. The ASIC is fabricated in 1.2 um CMOS technology. The 0pf noise is ∼400e. The chip has an area of 3 by 4 mm is packaged in 48 pin CLCC and COB option (Chip on Board). (author)

  16. A new silicon drift detector with reduced lateral diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castoldi, A. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Holl, P. [MPI Halbleiterlabor, Paul-Gerhardt-Allee 42, D-81245 Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    We present a method to reduce the effect of diffusion in the direction transverse to the drift in silicon drift detectors. This is achieved by creating regions of deep p-implant parallel to the drift direction that act as rigid guidelines during the drift of the charge cloud generated by a radiation interaction. The influence of the deep implanted acceptors on the lateral confining field is discussed. A prototype has been designed, fabricated and tested. First experimental results are reported which demonstrate the achieved reduction of the lateral width of the electron cloud with respect to free broadening. (orig.).

  17. Characterization of neutron irradiated, low-resistivity silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Angarano, M M; Giorgi, M; Bilei, G M; Mihul, A; Militaru, O; Passeri, D; Scorzoni, A

    2000-01-01

    A complete electrical characterization of silicon detectors fabricated using low-( ~ 1.5 kOhm cm) and high-( > 5 kOhm cm) resistivity substrates has been carried out. Measurements have been performed before and after neutron irradiation at several different fluences, up to 3x10^14 n cm^-2 ( 1 MeV eq.). Experimental results have been compared with CAD based simulations. A good agreement has been found, thus validating the CAD model predictions. The adoption of low resistivity devices appears to have some definite advantages in terms of depletion voltage, which in turn results in better interstrip resistance.

  18. Gamma-ray imaging with thick position-sensitive silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland-Fitzgerald, C.; Kurfess, J.D.; Phlips, B.F.; Wulf, E.A.; Novikova, E.I.

    2006-01-01

    The construction of a prototype Compton imager at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is nearly complete. The instrument is an 8-layer stacked silicon detector and is based on the '3-Compton' energy reconstruction technique. The silicon detectors are 2 mm thick, double-sided, orthogonal strip detectors. Instrumentation and performance of the individual detectors and layers are presented along with simulations of the completed instrument. Implications of the instrument for real world applications and future work involving the final assembly are discussed

  19. Limitations on energy resolution of segmented silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiącek, P.; Chudyba, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2018-04-01

    In the paper experimental study of charge division effects and energy resolution of X-ray silicon pad detectors are presented. The measurements of electrical parameters, capacitances and leakage currents, for six different layouts of pad arrays are reported. The X-ray spectra have been measured using a custom developed dedicated low noise front-end electronics. The spectra measured for six different detector layouts have been analysed in detail with particular emphasis on quantitative evaluation of charge division effects. Main components of the energy resolution due to Fano fluctuations, electronic noise, and charge division, have been estimated for six different sensor layouts. General recommendations regarding optimisation of pad sensor layout for achieving best possible energy resolution have been formulated.

  20. Data quality monitoring of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benucci, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Physics and Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) framework aims at providing a homogeneous monitoring environment across various applications related to data taking at the CMS experiment. In this contribution, the DQM system for the Silicon Strip Tracker will be introduced. The set of elements to assess the status of detector will be mentioned, along with the way to identify problems and trace them to specific tracker elements. Monitoring tools, user interfaces and automated software will be briefly described. The system was used during extensive cosmic data taking of CMS in Autumn 2008, where it demonstrated to have a flexible and robust implementation and has been essential to improve the understanding of the detector. CMS Collaboration believes that this tool is now mature to face the forthcoming data-taking era.

  1. The Belle silicon vertex detector Present performance and upgrade plans

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    The Belle detector has been operating at the KEKB colliding beam B- factory since 1999. It is a general purpose detector optimized to measure decay products of BB over bar pairs created at the Y(4S) resonance. The vertexing function provided by the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is crucial for accurate B-decay measurements, particularly in searching for asymmetries in decay times of B over bar and B mesons, the essence of CP violation being studied at Belle. High radiation levels during early KEKB running soon rendered "SVD1.0" inoperable. It was replaced by another of the same design, built in parallel with the installation of SVD1.0. Improvement of the beam operating conditions allowed "SVD1.1" to provide vertex information for the first year of operation. During this time "SVD1.4" was built. This was mechanically identical, so needed no new tooling or structure development but used a radiation tolerant 0.8mum process VA1 prime chip and an upgraded detector design from Hamamatsu. SVD1.4 was installed in Bell...

  2. A 55 cm{sup 2} cylindrical silicon drift detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holl, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Ceretto, F. [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Faschingbauer, U. [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Wurm, J.P. [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Castoldi, A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Departimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gatti, E. [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    1996-08-01

    AZTEC, a large area cylindrical silicon drift detector was designed, produced and tested. AZTEC will be the building block of the NA45 and WA98 micro vertex detectors at CERN. Two AZTEC detectors are placed down stream from the target to measure trajectories of charged particles produced in the forward direction. The active area of AZTEC is practically the full usable surface of a 100 mm diameter wafer. The electrons drift radially from the center towards the outside. The sensing anodes are located at a radius of 42 mm. The center of the wafer is cut out and forms a passage for the noninteracting beam. With a minimal radius for this hole the active region of the drift detector starts at an inner radius of 3.1 mm. Any larger radius can be selected if necessary. With this geometry and a typical operating voltage the maximum drift time is less than 4 {mu}s. Due to constrains in the mask layout the readout region and field electrodes are designed along the 360 sides of a symmetric polygon. All structures on one surface of the wafer are rotated by 0.5 with respect to the other surface. In the middle plane of the detector, where the electrons are mostly transported, the effective geometry is close to a smoothed polygon with 720 sides, cancelling practically all effects of the non-perfect cylindrical symmetry. The radial position of fast charged particles is measured by the electron drift time within the detector. The drift velocity can be monitored by 48 injection points at three different radii. The azimuthal angle is measured by the 360 readout anodes. Each anode is subdivided into five segments, which are interlaced with the neighbouring anodes. By this methode the azimuthal resolution is improved and corresponds to a 720 channel read out. (orig.).

  3. Resistivity measurements on the neutron irradiated detector grade silicon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng

    1993-11-01

    Resistivity measurements under the condition of no or low electrical field (electrical neutral bulk or ENB condition) have been made on various device configurations on detector grade silicon materials after neutron irradiation. Results of the measurements have shown that the ENB resistivity increases with neutron fluence ({Phi}{sub n}) at low {phi}{sub n} (<10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}) and saturates at a value between 300 and 400 k{Omega}-cm at {phi}{sub n} {approximately}10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}. Meanwhile, the effective doping concentration N{sub eff} in the space charge region (SCR) obtained from the C-V measurements of fully depleted p{sup +}/n silicon junction detectors has been found to increase nearly linearly with {phi}{sub n} at high fluences ({phi}{sub n} > 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}). The experimental results are explained by the deep levels crossing the Fermi level in the SCR and near perfect compensation in the ENB by all deep levels, resulting in N{sub eff} (SCR) {ne} n or p (free carrier concentrations in the ENB).

  4. Hybrid Detectors for Neutrons Combining Phenyl- Polysiloxanes with 3D Silicon Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Palma, Matteo; Quaranta, Alberto; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Carturan, Sara; Cinausero, Marco; Gramegna, Fabiana; Marchi, Tommaso; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Mendicino, Roberto; Povoli, Marco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Giacomini, Gabriele; Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    We report on the initial results of a research project aimed at the development hybrid detectors for fast neutrons by combining a phenyl-polysiloxane-based converter with a 3D silicon detector. To this purpose, new 3D sensor structures have been designed, fabricated and electrically tested, showing low depletion voltage and good leakage current. Moreover, the radiation detection capability of 3D sensors was tested by measuring the signals recorded from alpha particles, gamma rays, and pulsed lasers. The converter has been poured into the 3D cavities with excellent coupling, as confirmed by cross-section SEM analyses. Preliminary tests with neutrons have been carried out on the first hybrid detector prototypes at the CN accelerator of INFN LNL. The device design and technology are discussed, along with the first results from the electrical and functional characterization. (authors)

  5. Development of Silicon Detectors for the High Luminosity LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, Thomas Valentin

    2015-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be upgraded to a High Luminosity LHC in the year 2022, increasing the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of five. This will have major impacts on the experiments at the LHC, such as the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, and especially for their inner silicon tracking systems. Among other things, the silicon sensors used therein will be exposed to unprecedented levels of radiation damage, necessitating a replacement of the entire tracking detector. In order to maintain the excellent current performance, a new tracking detector has to be equipped with sensors of increased radiation hardness and higher granularity. The CMS experiment is undertaking an extensive R and D campaign in the search for the future silicon sensor technology baseline to be used in this upgrade. This thesis presents two methods suitable for use in this search: finite element TCAD simulations and test beam measurements. The simulations are focussed on the interstrip capacitance between sensor strips and are compared to measurements before and after the inclusion of radiation damage effects. A geometrical representation of the strip sensors used in the campaign has been found, establishing the predictive power of simulations. The test beam measurements make use of the high-precision pixel telescopes available at the DESY-II test beam facility. The performance of these telescopes has been assessed and their achievable pointing resolution has been found to be below 2 μm. Thin, epitaxial silicon is a candidate material for usage in radiation hard sensors for the future CMS tracking detector. Sample strip sensors of this material have been irradiated to fluences of up to 1.3 x 10 16 n eq /cm 2 with 800 MeV or 23 GeV protons. Test beam measurements with 5 GeV electrons have been performed to investigate the radiation hardness of epitaxial sensors using the pixel beam telescopes. The epitaxial device under test (DUT) has been integrated into the

  6. Tritel: 3D silicon detector telescope used for space dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazmandi, T.; Hirn, A.; Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Csoke, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Bodnar, L. [BL-Electronics, Solymar (Hungary)

    2006-07-01

    One of the many risks of long-duration space flights is the excessive exposure to cosmic radiation, which has great importance particularly during solar flares and higher solar activity. Radiation weighting factor, which is a function of the linear energy transfer of the radiation, is used to convert absorbed dose to equivalent dose. Since space radiation mainly consists of charged heavy particles, the equivalent dose differs significantly from the absorbed dose. The objectives of this project are to develop and manufacture a three-axis silicon detector telescope (Tritel), and to develop software for data evaluation of the measured energy deposition spectra. The 3 D silicon telescope should be the first such device used for measuring the dose astronauts are subjected to. Research and development began in the K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute several years ago. The geometric parameters of the 3 D silicon Let telescope were defined, results of previous measurements were used as a benchmark. Features of various types and sizes of telescopes were analyzed. Elements of the Tritel telescope system, issues of the electronic block diagram, requirements for the mechanical construction and possibilities of data handling and data evaluation are analyzed in this paper. First results of the calibrations are presented as well. (authors)

  7. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kaußen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the four experiments being installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is located at the european organization for nuclear research CERN in Geneva. This proton-proton collider will explore a new energy regime of up to 14TeV center-of-mass energy. To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The entire strip tracker spans an active area of about 198m2 and consists of approximately 16000 modules. Before the silicon sensors were assembl...

  8. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  9. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  10. The silicon drift vertex detector for the STAR experiment at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, S U; Beuttenmüller, Rolf H; Caines, H; Chen, W; Dimassimo, D; Dyke, H; Elliot, D; Eremin, V; Grau, M; Hoffmann, G W; Humanic, T; Ilyashenko, Yu S; Kotov, I; Kraner, H W; Kuczewski, P; Leonhardt, B; Li, Z; Liaw, C J; Lo Curto, G; Middelkamp, P; Minor, R; Munhoz, M; Ott, G; Pruneau, C A; Rykov, V L; Schambach, J; Sedlmeir, J; Soja, B; Sugarbaker, E R; Takahashi, J; Wilson, K; Wilson, R

    2002-01-01

    The current status of the STAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is presented. The performance of the Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) is discussed. Results for a recent 15 layer SDD tracker which prototypes all components of the SVT are presented. The enhanced physics capabilities of the STAR detector due to the addition of the SVT are addressed.

  11. Characterization of a dose verification system dedicated to radiotherapy treatments based on a silicon detector multi-strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocca, A.; Cortes Giraldo, M. A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Aranas, R.; Abou Haidar, Z.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Quesada, J. M.; Vega-Leal, A. P.; Perez Neto, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the characterization of a silicon detector multi-strips (SSSSD: Single Sided Silicon Strip Detector), developed by the company Micron Semiconductors Ltd. for use as a verification system for radiotherapy treatments.

  12. Timing performances and edge effects of detectors worked from 6-in. silicon slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, Sl.; De Filippo, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Femino, S.; Geraci, M.; Giustolisi, F.; Guazzoni, P.; Iacono Manno, M.; Lanzalone, G.; Lanzano, G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Musumarra, A.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Sambataro, S.; Sperduto, M.L.; Sutera, C.; Zetta, L.

    1997-01-01

    Prototypes of new passivated implanted planar silicon detectors, obtained for the first time from 6 in. silicon slices, have been tested. The time and energy resolutions have been studied as a function of the type and energy of the detected particles, in order to test the performances of these detectors for time of flight measurements in the Chimera project. Some problems arising from edge effects observed in double-pad detectors have been solved by using a guard ring. (orig.)

  13. Testing of the KRI-developed Silicon PIN Radioxenon Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McIntyre, Justin I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Radioxenon detectors are used for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in a network of detectors throughout the world called the International Monitoring System (IMS). The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with testing a V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and Lares Ltd-developed Silicon PIN detector for radioxenon detection. PNNL measured radioxenon with the silicon PIN detector and determined its potential compared to current plastic scintillator beta cells. While the PNNL tested Si detector experienced noise issues, a second detector was tested in Russia at Lares Ltd, which did not exhibit the noise issues. Without the noise issues, the Si detector produces much better energy resolution and isomer peak separation than a conventional plastic scintillator cell used in the SAUNA systems in the IMS. Under the assumption of 1 cm3 of Xe in laboratory-like conditions, 24-hr count time (12-hr count time for the SAUNA), with the respective shielding the minimum detectable concentrations for the Si detector tested by Lares Ltd (and a conventional SAUNA system) were calculated to be: 131mXe – 0.12 mBq/m3 (0.12 mBq/m3); 133Xe – 0.18 mBq/m3 (0.21 mBq/m3); 133mXe – 0.07 mBq/m3 (0.15 mBq/m3); 135Xe – 0.45 mBq/m3 (0.67 mBq/m3). Detection limits, which are one of the important factors in choosing the best detection technique for radioxenon in field conditions, are significantly better than for SAUNA-like detection systems for 131mXe and 133mXe, but similar for 133Xe and 135Xe. Another important factor is the amount of “memory effect” or carry over signal from one radioxenon measurement to the subsequent sample. The memory effect is

  14. The packaging technology and equipment of silicon microstrip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lixiang; Gong Wei; Li Zhankui

    2010-01-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors use opened packages in most occasions. The typical packaging approach should be implemented in following steps: 1) select suitable packaging design and materials, connectors with proper type and class, bonds having appropriate function, components, parameters and class. Then fabricate baseboard and slice; 2) weld connector; 3)fluid dispense; 4) adherence; 5) bond; 6) gel-coated to protect leaders. The baseboard must be copper poured properly, and has enough thickness and rigidity. Domestic low rotation rate cutting machine with mechanical bearing, double-side blue tape for protecting the wafer, high precision fluid dispenser, domestic bonding machine and special clamps are used. Packaged ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) on baseboard is the developing trend. The fluid cooling device via MEMS (Micro-electromechanical Systems) technology performs well. (authors)

  15. System software design for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkaczyk, S.; Bailey, M.

    1991-11-01

    An automated system for testing and performance evaluation of the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) data acquisition electronics is described. The SVX data acquisition chain includes the Fastbus Sequencer and the Rabbit Crate Controller and Digitizers. The Sequencer is a programmable device for which we developed a high level assembly language. Diagnostic, calibration and data acquisition programs have been developed. A distributed software package was developed in order to operate the modules. The package includes programs written in assembly and Fortran languages that are executed concurrently on the SVX Sequencer modules and either a microvax or an SSP. Test software was included to assist technical personnel during the production and maintenance of the modules. Details of the design of different components of the package are reported

  16. Silicon sensors for the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centis Vignali, Matteo

    2015-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accelerator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The first upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2.10 34 cm -2 s -1 . A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5.10 34 cm -2 s -1 . As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The first upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout electronics that allow efficient data taking up to a luminosity of 2.10 34 cm -2 s -1 , twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at different institutes. Hamburg (University and DESY) is responsible for the production of 350 pixel modules. The second upgrade (phase II) of the pixel detector is foreseen for 2025. The innermost pixel layer of the upgraded detector will accumulate a radiation damage corresponding to an equivalent fluence of Φ eq =2.10 16 cm -2 and a dose of ∼10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb -1 . Several groups are investigating sensor designs and configurations able to withstand such high doses and fluences. This work is divided into two parts related to important aspects of the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector. For the phase I upgrade, a setup has been developed to provide an absolute energy calibration of the pixel modules that will constitute the detector. The calibration is obtained using monochromatic X-rays. The same setup is used to test the buffering capabilities of the modules' readout chip. The maximum rate experienced by the modules produced in

  17. Development of a fabrication technology for double-sided AC-coupled silicon microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Rachevskaia, I.; Zen, M.; Zorzi, N.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of a fabrication technology for double-sided, AC-coupled silicon microstrip detectors for tracking applications. Two batches of detectors with good electrical figures and a low defect rate were successfully manufactured at IRST Laboratory. The processing techniques and the experimental results obtained from these detector prototypes are presented and discussed

  18. The spectral response of silicon X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, T.; Boslau, O.; Kemmer, J.; Pahlke, A.; Wiest, F.

    2006-01-01

    A discrete analytic calculation of the spectral response of silicon drift detectors for X-rays is presented. The results are compared with measurements at BESSY II using monochromatic synchrotron radiation in the energy range from 0.2 to 2keV. All Gaussian features (main, escape, and Al fluorescence peak) as well as the background are included in the model. The peak intensities are calculated from energy dependent probability distributions. The non-Gaussian background is produced by charge-loss in the entrance window. The charge loss of energetic photo and Auger electrons and the diffusion of low-energy secondary electrons into the aluminum dead layer are considered. The secondary electrons disperse in a Gaussian charge distribution with the width σ sec , which is the only free parameter of the model. All collected charge is summed up for every possible process and convoluted with electronic and Fano noise, yielding the energy distribution of the background. Its intensity is given by the probability of the process. This method generates all observed spectral background features using a single fundamental calculation scheme. It can, in principle, be applied to any type of semiconductor detector. The calculations are in very good agreement with the measurements

  19. Influence of radiation induced defect clusters on silicon particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkes, Alexandra

    2011-10-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) addresses some of today's most fundamental questions of particle physics, like the existence of the Higgs boson and supersymmetry. Two large general-purpose experiments (ATLAS, CMS) are installed to detect the products of high energy protonproton and nucleon-nucleon collisions. Silicon detectors are largely employed in the innermost region, the tracking area of the experiments. The proven technology and large scale availability make them the favorite choice. Within the framework of the LHC upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC, the luminosity will be increased to L=10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. In particular the pixel sensors in the innermost layers of the silicon trackers will be exposed to an extremely intense radiation field of mainly hadronic particles with fluences of up to {phi}{sub eq}=10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. The radiation induced bulk damage in silicon sensors will lead to a severe degradation of the performance during their operational time. This work focusses on the improvement of the radiation tolerance of silicon materials (Float Zone, Magnetic Czochralski, epitaxial silicon) based on the evaluation of radiation induced defects in the silicon lattice using the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and the Thermally Stimulated Current methods. It reveals the outstanding role of extended defects (clusters) on the degradation of sensor properties after hadron irradiation in contrast to previous works that treated effects as caused by point defects. It has been found that two cluster related defects are responsible for the main generation of leakage current, the E5 defects with a level in the band gap at E{sub C}-0.460 eV and E205a at E{sub C}-0.395 eV where E{sub C} is the energy of the edge of the conduction band. The E5 defect can be assigned to the tri-vacancy (V{sub 3}) defect. Furthermore, isochronal annealing experiments have shown that the V{sub 3} defect

  20. Influence of radiation induced defect clusters on silicon particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junkes, Alexandra

    2011-10-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) addresses some of today's most fundamental questions of particle physics, like the existence of the Higgs boson and supersymmetry. Two large general-purpose experiments (ATLAS, CMS) are installed to detect the products of high energy protonproton and nucleon-nucleon collisions. Silicon detectors are largely employed in the innermost region, the tracking area of the experiments. The proven technology and large scale availability make them the favorite choice. Within the framework of the LHC upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC, the luminosity will be increased to L=10 35 cm -2 s -1 . In particular the pixel sensors in the innermost layers of the silicon trackers will be exposed to an extremely intense radiation field of mainly hadronic particles with fluences of up to Φ eq =10 16 cm -2 . The radiation induced bulk damage in silicon sensors will lead to a severe degradation of the performance during their operational time. This work focusses on the improvement of the radiation tolerance of silicon materials (Float Zone, Magnetic Czochralski, epitaxial silicon) based on the evaluation of radiation induced defects in the silicon lattice using the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and the Thermally Stimulated Current methods. It reveals the outstanding role of extended defects (clusters) on the degradation of sensor properties after hadron irradiation in contrast to previous works that treated effects as caused by point defects. It has been found that two cluster related defects are responsible for the main generation of leakage current, the E5 defects with a level in the band gap at E C -0.460 eV and E205a at E C -0.395 eV where E C is the energy of the edge of the conduction band. The E5 defect can be assigned to the tri-vacancy (V 3 ) defect. Furthermore, isochronal annealing experiments have shown that the V 3 defect exhibits a bistability, as does the leakage current. In oxygen

  1. Naturally occurring 32 Si and low-background silicon dark matter detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, John L.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Bliss, Mary; Bunker, Raymond; Finch, Zachary S.

    2018-05-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope Si-32 represents a potentially limiting background in future dark matter direct-detection experiments. We investigate sources of Si-32 and the vectors by which it comes to reside in silicon crystals used for fabrication of radiation detectors. We infer that the Si-32 concentration in commercial single-crystal silicon is likely variable, dependent upon the specific geologic and hydrologic history of the source (or sources) of silicon “ore” and the details of the silicon-refinement process. The silicon production industry is large, highly segmented by refining step, and multifaceted in terms of final product type, from which we conclude that production of Si-32-mitigated crystals requires both targeted silicon material selection and a dedicated refinement-through-crystal-production process. We review options for source material selection, including quartz from an underground source and silicon isotopically reduced in Si-32. To quantitatively evaluate the Si-32 content in silicon metal and precursor materials, we propose analytic methods employing chemical processing and radiometric measurements. Ultimately, it appears feasible to produce silicon-based detectors with low levels of Si-32, though significant assay method development is required to validate this claim and thereby enable a quality assurance program during an actual controlled silicon-detector production cycle.

  2. Novel Silicon Carbide Deep Ultraviolet Detectors: Device Modeling, Characterization, Design and Prototyping, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicon Carbide deep UV detectors can achieve large gains, high signal-to-noise ratios and solar-blind operation, with added benefits of smaller sizes, lower...

  3. Design and test of a prototype silicon detector module for ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker endcaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.G.; Donega, M.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) will be a central part of the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment. The SCT consists of four concentric barrels of silicon detectors as well as two silicon endcap detectors formed by nine disks each. The layout of the forward silicon detector module presented in this paper is based on the approved layout of the silicon detectors of the SCT, their geometry and arrangement in disks, but uses otherwise components identical to the barrel modules of the SCT. The module layout is optimized for excellent thermal management and electrical performance, while keeping the assembly simple and adequate for a large scale module production. This paper summarizes the design and layout of the module and present results of a limited prototype production, which has been extensively tested in the laboratory and testbeam. The module design was not finally adopted for series production because a dedicated forward hybrid layout was pursued

  4. Novel Silicon Carbide Deep Ultraviolet Detectors: Device Modeling, Characterization, Design and Prototyping, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicon Carbide deep UV detectors can achieve large gains, high signal-to-noise ratios and solar-blind operation, with added benefits of smaller sizes, lower...

  5. Beta Skin Dosimetry using Passivated Planar Silicon Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchouaso, Modeste Tchakoua; Miller, William H

    2018-05-01

    Accurate measurement of beta skin dose remains a challenge. This dose is defined as the dose to the basil layer at 7 mg/cm 2 (approximately 70 µm) below the surface of the skin and averaged over an area of 1 cm 2 . This dose is dependent upon the energy of the beta contamination on the surface of the skin, the area of contamination and the attenuation of this radiation through the 7 mg/cm 2 epidermal layer. Ideally, knowing the energy spectra of betas at this level below the surface of the skin would allow accurate prediction of dose. In this work, a Passivated Planar Silicon (PIPS) detector was tested by measuring beta spectra in a geometry simulating skin and, from that, estimating dose. Three calibrated beta sources were used, a low energy beta source, ( 147 Pm), a medium energy source, ( 204 Tl), and a high energy beta source, ( 90 Sr/ 90 Y) to cover the range of beta energies typically found in skin contamination events. Modelling utilized the MCNPX and VARSKIN 4.0 computer codes to calculate dose in skin and were found to be in good agreement with each other. Experimental measurements using a 300 µm thick, 3 cm 2 PIPS and the three sources identified above showed good agreement with MCNPX results (and thus, also with VARSKIN). Finally, MCNPX modelling compared the dose rates from a commercially available, 100 µm thick, 1.5 cm 2 PIPS detector and skin, and found that the beta dose could be accurately predicted within 17% over the range of beta energies tested. This result can be obtained with a single measurement and without the need for post data collection analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neutron transmutation doping of silicon for the production of radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.

    1987-11-01

    P-type silicon was doped by neutron transmutation (NTD-Si) to produce high resistivity n-type silicon suitable for the production of surface barrier radiation detectors. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) analysis showed no remnant traps following annealing (850 deg C) of the NTD-Si in the presence of a phosphosilicate glass getter. Surface barrier radiation detectors constructed from this material showed no significant charge trapping and compare favourably with those constructed of float-zone (FZ) Si

  7. A prototype silicon detector system for space cosmic-ray charge measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Fan, Rui-Rui; Peng, Wen-Xi; Dong, Yi-Fa; Gong, Ke; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Ya-Qing; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2014-06-01

    A readout electronics system used for space cosmic-ray charge measurement for multi-channel silicon detectors is introduced in this paper, including performance measurements. A 64-channel charge sensitive ASIC (VA140) from the IDEAS company is used. With its features of low power consumption, low noise, large dynamic range, and high integration, it can be used in future particle detecting experiments based on silicon detectors.

  8. A doublet of 3 in. cylindrical silicon drift detectors in the CERES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faschingbauer, U.; Agakichiev, G.; Baur, R.; Ceretto, F.; Dress, A.; Fraenkel, Z.; Fuchs, C.; Gatti, E.; Glaessel, P.; Hess, F.; Hemberger, M.; De los Heros, C.P.; Holl, P.; Irmscher, D.; Jacob, C.; Kemmer, J.; Minaev, Y.; Panebrattsev, Y.; Pfeiffer, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Razin, S.; Rehak, P.; Sampietro, M.; Schukraft, J.; Shimanskiy, S.; Socol, E.; Specht, H.J.; Tel-Zur, G.; Tserruya, I.; Ullrich, T.; Voigt, C.; Wurm, J.P.; Yurevich, V. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)]|[JINR, RU-141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)]|[Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]|[Weizmann Institute, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)]|[Politecnico di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy)]|[Ketek GmbH, D-85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany)]|[Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]|[CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    1996-08-01

    We report on the performance of a doublet of 3 in. cylindrical silicon drift detectors installed as an upgrade of the CERES/NA45 electron pair spectrometer for the Pb-beam at the CERN SPS. The silicon detectors provide external particle tracking and background rejection of conversions and close Dalitz pairs. Results on vertex reconstruction and rejection from a Pb test-run in 1994 are presented. (orig.).

  9. A doublet of 3" cylindrical silicon drift detectors in the CERES/NA45 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Faschingbauer, U; Baur, R; Ceretto, F; Drees, A; Fraenkel, Zeev; Fuchs, C; Gatti, E; Glässel, P; Hemberger, M; Pérez de los Heros, C; Hess, F; Holl, P; Irmscher, D; Jacob, C; Kemmer, J; Minaev, Yu I; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pfeiffer, A; Ravinovich, I; Razin, S V; Rehak, P; Sampietro, M; Schükraft, Jürgen; Shimansky, S S; Socol, E; Specht, H J; Tel-Zur, G; Tserruya, Itzhak; Ullrich, T S; Voigt, C A; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V I

    1995-01-01

    We report on the performance of a doublet of 3" cylindrical silicon drift detectors installed as an upgrade of the CERES/NA45 electron pair spectrometer for the Pb-beam at the CERN SPS. The silicon detectors provide external particle tracking and background rejection of conversions and close Dalitz pairs. Results on vertex reconstruction and rejection from Pb test-run in 1994 are presented.

  10. COTS Silicon diodes as radiation detectores in proton and heavy charged particle radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Jäkel, Oliver

    resolution is needed. The detector system consists of a silicon photodiode with a retail price less than 1 Euro encapsulated in a polyoxymethylene housing, connected to a dosimetry elec- trometer. In MV photons beams the output factors, the temperature behavior and the noise properties are similar......, 3] This low-cost inhouse made detectors based on a commercially available silicon diode was suc- cessfully tested at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center for the characterization carbon ion beams....

  11. Effect of SiO$_{2}$ passivating layer in segmented silicon planar detectors on the detector response

    CERN Document Server

    Verbitskaya, Elena; Eremin, Vladimir; Golubkov, S; Konkov, K; Roe, Shaun; Ruggiero, G; Sidorov, A; Weilhammer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Silicon detectors with a fine segmentation (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of LHC experiments. Due to the high luminosity of the LHC machines they are required to have a fast response to fit the short shaping time of 25 ns and to be radiation hard. Evaluation of silicon microstrip detectors developed for the ATLAS silicon tracker and carried out under collaboration of CERN and PTI has shown the reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short- range radiation. Since the negative signal is of about 30% of the normal positive one, the effect strongly reduces the charge collection efficiency in irradiated detectors. The investigation presents the consideration on the origin of a negative response in Si microstrip detectors and the experimental proof of the model. The study of the effect has been carried out using "baby" strip detectors with a special design: each strip has a window in a metallization, which covers the p/sup +/ implant. The sca...

  12. Flexible silicon-based alpha-particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, C. S.; Smith, B. R.; Sanderson, B. J.; Mullins, J. T.; Atkins, J.; Joshi, P.; McNamara, L.; Krauss, T. F.; Jenkins, D. G.

    2017-08-01

    The detection of alpha particles in the field can be challenging due to their short range in air of often only a few centimeters or less. This short range is a particular issue for measuring radiation inside contaminated pipework in the nuclear industry, for which there is currently no simple method available without cutting the pipes open. Here, we propose an approach for low cost, rapid, and safe identification of internally contaminated pipework based on a flexible 30 × 10 mm2 sheet of 50 μm thin crystalline silicon. Following established fabrication steps of pn-junction diodes, we have constructed a device with a signal-to-noise ratio of >20 in response to 5.5 MeV alpha-particles using a bespoke amplifier circuit. As flexible detectors may readily conform to a curved surface and are able to adapt to the curvature of a given pipeline, our prototype device stands out as a viable solution for nuclear decommissioning and related applications.

  13. A novel self-biased linear silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, F.; Gramegna, G.; Marzocca, C.

    1999-01-01

    A novel linear silicon drift detector (SDD) is proposed in which the proper potential profile is established by the voltage drop along a unique p + cathode implanted across the surfaces. This p + implant, arranged in a zigzag shape, acts at the same time as voltage divider and field cathode and allows one to increase the sensitive area, improving also the uniformity of the thermal distribution and thus minimizing the fluctuation of the electron mobility on the sensitive zone of the SDD. The perturbations of the drift field due to the asymmetry of the strips constituting the zigzag cathode have been evaluated by solving analytically Poisson's equation for a simplified model of the structure. Three-dimensional numerical simulations have been carried out to prove the negligible amount of the perturbation and the effectiveness of the proposed structure. Based on this principle, a prototype has been manufactured at Canberra Semiconductor Company. Dynamic measurements of the time-of-flight of an injected charge prove that the linearity of the prototype and the drift uniformity in the anode direction are very high

  14. Radiation damage on p-type silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pirollo, S; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, M; Catacchini, E; Lazanu, S; Li, Z; Sciortino, S

    1999-01-01

    Two sets of p-type silicon (high resistivity bulk and low resistivity epitaxial) samples and one set of n sup + -p junctions have been irradiated with fast neutrons up to 8x10 sup 1 sup 3 cm sup - sup 2. I-V and C-V characteristics as well as Thermally Stimulated Currents (TSC) and Hall Effect (HE) analyses have been performed on the irradiated samples and diodes in view to determine the radiation-induced damage and the change in the electrical properties. A change in the effective carrier concentration and in the leakage current after irradiation similar to the one found for p sup + -n detectors has been observed in p-type diodes. An increase with the fluence of the resistivity and Hall coefficient was measured at room temperature both for the low and high resistivity sets. This evidence has been explained in terms of a two-level model taking into account a linear increase in concentration with the fluence of the main radiation-induced defects observed with TSC, probably related to divacancy and carbon-oxyge...

  15. New technologies of silicon position-sensitive detectors for future tracker systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, Daniela; Lozano, M

    In view of the new generation of high luminosity colliders, HL-LHC and ILC, a farther investigation of silicon radiation detectors design and technology is demanded, in order to satisfy the stringent requirements of the experiments at such sophisticated machines. In this thesis, innovative technologies of silicon radiation detectors for future tracking systems are proposed. Three dierent devices have been studied and designed with the help of dierent tools for computer simulations. They have been manufactured in the IMB-CNM clean room facilities in Barcelona and characterized with proper experimental set-ups in order to test the detectors capabilities and the quality and suitability of the technologies used for their fabrication. The rst technology deals with the upgrade of dedicated sensors for laser alignment systems in future tracker detectors. The design and technology of common single-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been slightly modied in order to improve IR light transmittance of the devices. T...

  16. Multi-linear silicon drift detectors for X-ray and Compton imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoldi, A.; Galimberti, A.; Guazzoni, C.; Rehak, P.; Hartmann, R.; Strüder, L.

    2006-11-01

    Novel architectures of multi-anode silicon drift detectors with linear geometry (Multi-Linear Silicon Drift Detectors) have been developed to image X-rays and Compton electrons with excellent time resolution and achievable energy resolution better than 200 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. In this paper we describe the novel features of Multi-Linear Silicon Drift Detectors and their possible operating modes highlighting the impact on the imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. An application example of Multi-Linear Silicon Drift Detectors for fast 2D elemental mapping by means of K-edge subtraction imaging is shown. The charge deposited by Compton electrons in a Multi-Linear Silicon Drift Detector prototype irradiated by a 22Na source has been measured showing the possibility to clearly resolve the 2D projection of the ionization track and to estimate the specific energy loss per pixel. The reconstruction of Compton electron tracks within a silicon detector layer can increase the sensitivity of Compton telescopes for nuclear medicine and γ-ray astronomy.

  17. Multi-linear silicon drift detectors for X-ray and Compton imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castoldi, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Ingegneria Nucleare Ce.S.N.E.F, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: Andrea.Castoldi@polimi.it; Galimberti, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Ingegneria Nucleare Ce.S.N.E.F, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Guazzoni, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hartmann, R. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Munich (Germany); MPI Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); Strueder, L. [MPI Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85741 Garching (Germany); Universitaet Siegen, FB Physik, Emmy-Noether Campus, Walter Flex Strasse 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2006-11-30

    Novel architectures of multi-anode silicon drift detectors with linear geometry (Multi-Linear Silicon Drift Detectors) have been developed to image X-rays and Compton electrons with excellent time resolution and achievable energy resolution better than 200 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. In this paper we describe the novel features of Multi-Linear Silicon Drift Detectors and their possible operating modes highlighting the impact on the imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. An application example of Multi-Linear Silicon Drift Detectors for fast 2D elemental mapping by means of K-edge subtraction imaging is shown. The charge deposited by Compton electrons in a Multi-Linear Silicon Drift Detector prototype irradiated by a {sup 22}Na source has been measured showing the possibility to clearly resolve the 2D projection of the ionization track and to estimate the specific energy loss per pixel. The reconstruction of Compton electron tracks within a silicon detector layer can increase the sensitivity of Compton telescopes for nuclear medicine and {gamma}-ray astronomy.

  18. Proposed method of assembly for the BCD silicon strip vertex detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenmeyer, C.

    1989-01-01

    The BCD Silicon strip Vertex Detector is constructed of 10 identical central region modules and 18 similar forward region modules. This memo describes a method of assembling these modules from individual silicon wafers. Each wafer is fitted with associated front end electronics and cables and has been tested to insure that only good wafers reach the final assembly stage. 5 figs

  19. Investigation of epitaxial silicon layers as a material for radiation hardened silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Eremin, V.; Ilyashenko, I.; Ivanov, A.; Verbitskaya, E.

    1997-12-01

    Epitaxial grown thick layers (≥ 100 micrometers) of high resistivity silicon (Epi-Si) have been investigated as a possible candidate of radiation hardened material for detectors for high-energy physics. As grown Epi-Si layers contain high concentration (up to 2 x 10 12 cm -3 ) of deep levels compared with that in standard high resistivity bulk Si. After irradiation of test diodes by protons (E p = 24 GeV) with a fluence of 1.5 x 10 11 cm -2 , no additional radiation induced deep traps have been detected. A reasonable explanation is that there is a sink of primary radiation induced defects (interstitial and vacancies), possibly by as-grown defects, in epitaxial layers. The ''sinking'' process, however, becomes non-effective at high radiation fluences (10 14 cm -2 ) due to saturation of epitaxial defects by high concentration of radiation induced ones. As a result, at neutron fluence of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 the deep level spectrum corresponds to well-known spectrum of radiation induced defects in high resistivity bulk Si. The net effective concentration in the space charge region equals to 3 x 10 12 cm -3 after 3 months of room temperature storage and reveals similar annealing behavior for epitaxial as compared to bulk silicon

  20. Investigation of epitaxial silicon layers as a material for radiation hardened silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Eremin, V.; Ilyashenko, I.; Ivanov, A.

    1997-11-01

    Epitaxial grown thick layers (>100 μm) of high resistivity silicon (Epi-Si) have been investigated as a possible candidate of radiation hardened material for detectors for high-energy physics. As grown Epi-Si layers contain high concentration (up to 2·10 12 cm -3 ) of deep levels compared with that in standard high resistivity bulk Si. After irradiation of test diodes by protons (E p = 24 GeV) with a fluence of 1.5·10 11 cm -2 , no additional radiation induced deep traps have been detected. A reasonable explanation is that there is a sink of primary radiation induced defects, in epitaxial layers. The 'sinking' process, however, becomes non-effective at high radiation fluences (10 14 cm -2 ) due to saturation of epitaxial defects by high concentration of radiation induced ones. As a result, at neutron fluence of 1·10 14 cm -2 the deep level spectrum corresponds to well-known spectrum of radiation induced defects in high resistivity bulk Si. The net effective concentration in the space charge region equals to 3·10 12 cm -3 after 3 months of room temperature storage and reveals similar annealing behavior for epitaxial as compared to bulk silicon

  1. The gas-silicon telescopes setup for the FAZA detector; Zestaw teleskopow gazowo-krzemowych do detektora FAZA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, B.; Bialkowski, E.; Cwikilewicz, M.; Karcz, W.; Skwirczynska, I. [The H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1997-12-01

    Description and technical drawing of new detector setup for intermediate mass fragment registration from nuclear multifragmentation is presented. The detector consist of 25 telescopes of silicon semiconductor detectors ({Delta}E) and appropriate ionization chambers (E). It is planned to use 12 pieces of such detector in FAZA detector setup in Laboratory of High Energy Physics at JINR, Dubna 2 refs, 5 figs

  2. Development of new assembly techniques for a silicon micro-vertex detector unit using the flip-chip bonding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Mandai, M.; Kanazawa, H.; Yamanaka, J.; Miyahara, S.; Kamiya, M.; Fujita, Y.; Higashi, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, M.; Koike, S.; Matsuda, T.; Ozaki, H.; Tanaka, M.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Okuno, S.; Haba, J.; Hanai, H.; Mori, S.; Yusa, K.; Fukunaga, C.

    1994-01-01

    Full-size models of a detector unit for a silicon micro-vertex detector were built for the KEK B factory. The Flip-Chip Bonding (FCB) method using a new type anisotropic conductive film was examined. The structure using the FCB method successfully provides a new architecture for the silicon micro-vertex detector unit. (orig.)

  3. SENTIRAD—An innovative personal radiation detector based on a scintillation detector and a silicon photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osovizky, A.; Ginzburg, D.; Manor, A.; Seif, R.; Ghelman, M.; Cohen-Zada, I.; Ellenbogen, M.; Bronfenmakher, V.; Pushkarsky, V.; Gonen, E.; Mazor, T.; Cohen, Y.

    2011-10-01

    The alarming personal radiation detector (PRD) is a device intended for Homeland Security (HLS) applications. This portable device is designed to be worn or carried by security personnel to detect photon-emitting radioactive materials for the purpose of crime prevention. PRD is required to meet the scope of specifications defined by various HLS standards for radiation detection. It is mandatory that the device be sensitive and simultaneously small, pocket-sized, of robust mechanical design and carriable on the user's body. To serve these specialized purposes and requirements, we developed the SENTIRAD, a new radiation detector designed to meet the performance criteria established for counterterrorist applications. SENTIRAD is the first commercially available PRD based on a CsI(Tl) scintillation crystal that is optically coupled with a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) serving as a light sensor. The rapidly developing technology of SiPM, a multipixel semiconductor photodiode that operates in Geiger mode, has been thoroughly investigated in previous studies. This paper presents the design considerations, constraints and radiological performance relating to the SENTIRAD radiation sensor.

  4. Jagiellonian University Radiation Damage in Silicon Particle Detectors in High Luminosity Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oblakowska-Mucha, A

    2017-01-01

    Radiation damage is nowadays the most serious problem in silicon particle detectors placed in the very harsh radiation environment. This problem will be even more pronounced after the LHC Upgrade because of extremely strong particle fluences never encountered before. In this review, a few aspects of radiation damage in silicon trackers are presented. Among them, the change in the silicon lattice and its influence on the detector performance are discussed. Currently applied solutions and the new ideas for future experiments will be also shown. Most of the results presented in this summary were obtained within the RD50 Collaboration

  5. Silicon-CsI detector array for heavy-ion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Norbeck, E; Pogodin, P I; Cheng, Y W; Ingram, F D; Bjarki, O; Grévy, S; Magestro, D J; Molen, A M V; Westfall, G D

    2000-01-01

    An array of 60 silicon-CsI(Tl) detector telescopes has been developed along with associated electronics. The close packing of the telescopes required novel designs for the photodiodes and the silicon DELTA E detectors. Newly developed electronics include preamplifiers, shaping amplifiers, test pulse circuitry, and a module to monitor leakage currents in the silicon diodes. The array covers angles from 5 deg. to 18 deg. in the 4 pi Array at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. It measures protons to 150 MeV and has isotopic resolution for intermediate mass nuclei.

  6. Silicon drift detectors with the drift field induced by pureB-coated trenches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanver, Lis Karen; Kneževi´c, Tihomir; Suligoj, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Junction formation in deep trenches is proposed as a new means of creating a built-in drift field in silicon drift detectors (SDDs). The potential performance of this trenched drift detector (TDD) was investigated analytically and through simulations, and compared to simulations of conventional

  7. Technology of fabrication of silicon-lithium detector with superficial junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabal Rodriguez, A.E.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Noriega Scull, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Silicon nuclear radiation detectors transform the charge produced within the semiconductor crystal, product of the impinges of particles and X rays, in pulses of voltage at the output of the preamplifier. The planar Silicon-Lithium (Si(Li)) detector with superficial junction is basically a Pin structure diode. By mean of the diffusion and drift of Lithium in the Silicon a compensated or depletion region was created. There the incident radiation interacts with the Silicon, producing an electric signal proportional to the detector's energy deposited in the semiconductor. The technological process of fabrication this kind of detectors comprises several stages, some of them complex and of long duration. They also demand a systematic control. The technological process of Si(Li) detector's fabrication was carried out. The detector's fabrication electric characteristics were measured in some steps. An obtained device was mounted in the holder within a cryostat, in order to work to temperature of the liquid nitrogen. The energy resolution of the detector was measured and the value was 180 eV for the line of 5.9 KeV of an Fe-55 source. This value has allowed to work with the detector in energy disperse X-rays fluorescence. (author) [es

  8. Role of guard rings in improving the performance of silicon detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    guard rings (FGR) in improving breakdown voltage and reducing leakage current of silicon detectors is well-known. ... FGRs biased even a detector having large surface leakage current can be used to give the same response as a ... number of free charge carriers thus produced is proportional to the energy deposited. 259 ...

  9. Developments in Silicon Detectors and their impact on LHCb Physics Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gouldwell-Bates, A

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a high energy physics detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will probe the current understanding of the Standard Model through precise measurements of CP violation and rare decays. The LHCb detector heavily depends on the silicon vertexing (VELO) sub-detector for excellent vertex and proper decay time resolutions. The VELO detector sits at a position of only 7 mm from the LHC proton beams. However, the proximity of the silicon sensors to the proton beams results in the detectors suffering radiation damage. Radiation damage results in three changes in the macroscopic properties of the silicon detector: an increase of the leakage current, a decrease in the charge collection efficiency, and changes in the operation voltage required to fully deplete the silicon detector of the free charge carriers. Due to this radiation damage, it is expected that a replacement or upgrade of the LHCb vertex detector will be required by 2010, only 3 years after the turn-on of the LHC. This thesis...

  10. Improvement in breakdown characteristics with multiguard structures in microstrip silicon detectors for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bacchetta, N; Candelori, A; Da Rold, M; Descovich, M; Kaminski, A; Messineo, A; Rizzo, F; Verzellesi, G

    2001-01-01

    To obtain full charge collection the CMS silicon detectors should be able to operate at high bias voltage. We observed that multiguard structures enhance the breakdown performance of the devices on several tens of baby detectors designed for CMS. The beneficial effects of the multiguard structures still remains after the strong neutron irradiation performed to simulate the operation at the LHC. (3 refs).

  11. Construction and performance of silicon detectors for the small angle spectrometers of the collider detector of Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Bellettini, G.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Cervelli, F.; Del Fabbro, R.; Dell'Orso, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Sestini, P.; Stefanini, A.; Tonelli, G.; Zetti, F.; Bertolucci, S.; Cordelli, M.; Curatolo, M.; Dulach, B.; Esposito, B.; Giromini, P.; Miscetti, S.; Sansoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    The manufacturing process of a series of position sensitive silicon detectors is described together with the tests performed to optimize the performance of the detectors. The detectors are Schottky diodes with strips on the ohmic contact which allow to determine the position of the incoming ionizing particles by charge partition. Four detectors were assembled in a telescope and tested inside the vacuum pipe of the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab. The system is a prototype of the Small Angle Silicon Spectrometer, designed primarily to study p-anti p elastic and diffractive cross sections, and is a part of the Collider Detector of Fermilab (CDF). Several tests were performed to check the efficiency and the linearity of response of various regions of the detectors. Scans of the beam halo were also done in high and low β optics to check how close to the beam the detectors could be operated. Finally, the dependence of the detector response on temperature and integrated radiation dose was investigated. (orig.)

  12. A Test-Bench for Measurement of Electrical Static Parameters of Strip Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Danilevich, V G; Dmitriev, A Yu; Elsha, V V; Zamiatin, Y I; Zubarev, E V; Ziaziulia, F E; Kozus, V I; Lomako, V M; Stepankov, D V; Khomich, A P; Shumeiko, N M; Cheremuhin, A E

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for measurement data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control.

  13. A test-bench for measurement of electrical static parameters of strip silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Elsha, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control. (author)

  14. SILICON DRIFT DETECTORS FOR THE STAR/SVT EXPERIMENT AT RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TAKAHASHI, J.

    1998-01-01

    Large area linear Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) were developed to be used in the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) of the STAR experiment at the BNL relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC). The SDD is in its final design and has been submitted for large scale production. Test results show that the detector exhibits excellent position resolution and low noise. A special characterization procedure was developed to test detector wafers in order to select good detectors for the SVT. Recently, 15 STAR/SVT SDD's were assembled as a tracking device in a BNL-AGS heavy ion experiment (E896). It is the first tracking application of these detectors and their corresponding front-end electronics in an experimental environment. Preliminary results indicating good detector performance are shown and discussed in this paper

  15. Detector and Front-end electronics for ALICE and STAR silicon strip layers

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Higueret, S; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Suire, C; Tarchini, A; Berst, D; Blondé, J P; Clauss, G; Colledani, C; Deptuch, G; Dulinski, W; Hu, Y; Hébrard, L; Kucewicz, W; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Ravel, O; Retière, F

    1998-01-01

    Detector modules consisting of Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) and Front End Electronics (FEE) assembly have been designed in order to provide the two outer layers of the ALICE Inner Tracker System (ITS) [1] as well as the outer layer of the STAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) [2]. Several prototypes have beenproduced and tested in the SPS and PS beam at CERN to validate the final design. Double-sided, AC-coupled SSD detectors provided by two different manufacturers and also a pair of single-sided SSD have been asssociated to new low-power CMOS ALICE128C ASIC chips in a new detector module assembly. The same detectors have also been associated to current Viking electronics for reference purpose. These prototype detector modules are described and some first results are presented.

  16. Silicon Strip Detectors for ATLAS at the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The present ATLAS silicon strip (SCT) and transition radiation (TRT) trackers will be replaced with new silicon strip detectors, as part of the Inner Tracker System (ITK), for the Phase-2 upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, HL-LHC. We have carried out intensive R&D programs to establish radiation harder strip detectors that can survive in a radiation level up to 3000 fb-1 of integrated luminosity based on n+-on-p microstrip detector. We describe main specifications for this year’s sensor fabrication, followed by a description of possible module integration schema

  17. Combined detectors of charged particles based on zinc selenide scintillators and silicon photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhikov, V D; Starzhinskij, N G

    2001-01-01

    combined detectors of charged particles are described based on zinc selenide (Zn Se(Te)) crystals,silicon photodiodes and charges-sensitive amplifiers. Zn Se(Te) scintillators are characterized by high alpha to beta ratio (approx 1.0), good scintillation efficiency (up to 22%),and high radiation stability (up to 100 Mrad),together with good spectral matching with silicon PIN photodiodes. The signal coming from the photodiode in the two modes (photoreceiver and semiconductor detector) differ in the amplitude values and pulse duration, which opens new possibilities for development and application of such combined detectors.

  18. Studies of the radiation hardness of oxygen-enriched silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzin, A; Glaser, M; Lemeilleur, F

    1999-01-01

    Detectors of high-energy particles sustain substantial structural defects induced by the particles during the operation period. Some of the defects have been found to be electrically active, degrading the detector's performance. Understanding the mechanisms of the electrical activities and learning to suppress their influence are essential if long 'lifetime' detectors are required. This work report s about radiation hardness of silicon P-I-N devices fabricated from oxygen-enriched, high-resistivity material. The high and nearly uniform concentration of oxygen in float-zone silicon has been achie ved by diffusion of oxygen from SiO2 layers.

  19. A fast-neutron detection detector based on fission material and large sensitive 4H silicon carbide Schottky diode detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linyue; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Jianfu; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xianpeng; Zhang, Zhongbing; Ruan, Jinlu; Jin, Peng; Bai, Song; Ouyang, Xiaoping

    2017-12-01

    Silicon carbide radiation detectors are attractive in the measurement of the total numbers of pulsed fast neutrons emitted from nuclear fusion and fission devices because of high neutron-gamma discrimination and good radiation resistance. A fast-neutron detection system was developed based on a large-area 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector and a 235U fission target. Excellent pulse-height spectra of fission fragments induced by mono-energy deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion neutrons and continuous energy fission neutrons were obtained. The detector is proven to be a good candidate for pulsed fast neutron detection in a complex radiation field.

  20. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with encapsulated silicon pixel detector and readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.; George, K.A.; Girone, M.; Gys, T.; Jolly, S.; Piedigrossi, D.; Riedler, P.; Rozema, P.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings report on the performance of the latest prototype pixel hybrid photon detector in preparation for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The prototype encapsulates a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary read-out chip with short (25 ns) peaking time and low ( - ) detection threshold. A brief description of the prototype is given, followed by the preliminary results of the characterisation of the prototype behaviour when tested using a low intensity pulsed light emitting diode. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained using previous prototypes. The proceedings conclude with a summary of the current status and future plans

  1. Systematic investigation of background sources in neutron flux measurements with a proton-recoil silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, P., E-mail: marini@cenbg.in2p3.fr [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Mathieu, L. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Acosta, L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, México D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Aïche, M.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Tsekhanovich, I. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2017-01-01

    Proton-recoil detectors (PRDs), based on the well known standard H(n,p) elastic scattering cross section, are the preferred instruments to perform precise quasi-absolute neutron flux measurements above 1 MeV. The limitations of using a single silicon detector as PRD at a continuous neutron beam facility are investigated, with the aim of extending such measurements to neutron energies below 1 MeV. This requires a systematic investigation of the background sources affecting the neutron flux measurement. Experiments have been carried out at the AIFIRA facility to identify these sources. A study on the role of the silicon detector thickness on the background is presented and an energy limit on the use of a single silicon detector to achieve a neutron flux precision better than 1% is given.

  2. Silicon micro-fluidic cooling for NA62 GTK pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, G; Brunel, B; Catinaccio, A; Degrange, J; Mapelli, A; Morel, M; Noel, J; Petagna, P

    2015-01-01

    Silicon micro-channel cooling is being studied for efficient thermal management in application fields such as high power computing and 3D electronic integration. This concept has been introduced in 2010 for the thermal management of silicon pixel detectors in high energy physics experiments. Combining the versatility of standard micro-fabrication processes with the high thermal efficiency typical of micro-fluidics, it is possible to produce effective thermal management devices that are well adapted to different detector configurations. The production of very thin cooling devices in silicon enables a minimization of material of the tracking sensors and eliminates mechanical stresses due to the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between detectors and cooling systems. The NA62 experiment at CERN will be the first high particle physics experiment that will install a micro-cooling system to perform the thermal management of the three detection planes of its Gigatracker pixel detector.

  3. Development of Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors for 4D tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Ferrero, M.; Ficorella, F.; Mandurrino, M.; Obertino, M.; Pancheri, L.; Paternoster, G.; Sola, V.

    2017-12-01

    In this contribution we review the progress towards the development of a novel type of silicon detectors suited for tracking with a picosecond timing resolution, the so called Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors. The goal is to create a new family of particle detectors merging excellent position and timing resolution with GHz counting capabilities, very low material budget, radiation resistance, fine granularity, low power, insensitivity to magnetic field, and affordability. We aim to achieve concurrent precisions of ~ 10 ps and ~ 10 μm with a 50 μm thick sensor. Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors are based on the concept of Low-Gain Avalanche Detectors, which are silicon detectors with an internal multiplication mechanism so that they generate a signal which is factor ~10 larger than standard silicon detectors. The basic design of UFSD consists of a thin silicon sensor with moderate internal gain and pixelated electrodes coupled to full custom VLSI chip. An overview of test beam data on time resolution and the impact on this measurement of radiation doses at the level of those expected at HL-LHC is presented. First I-V and C-V measurements on a new FBK sensor production of UFSD, 50 μm thick, with B and Ga, activated at two diffusion temperatures, with and without C co-implantation (in Low and High concentrations), and with different effective doping concentrations in the Gain layer, are shown. Perspectives on current use of UFSD in HEP experiments (UFSD detectors have been installed in the CMS-TOTEM Precision Protons Spectrometer for the forward physics tracking, and are currently taking data) and proposed applications for a MIP timing layer in the HL-LHC upgrade are briefly discussed.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of surface barrier detector from commercial silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Julio Batista Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    In this work it was developed radiation detectors silicon surface barrier that were capable of detecting the presence of gamma radiation from a low energy of iodine-125 seeds used in brachytherapy treatments. >From commercial silicon substrates detectors were developed, one sequence left of chemical treatments to the surfaces of these substrates with the intention of minimizing the possible noise generated, validation of the samples obtained as diodes, ensuring detector characteristics and effective use as detector for Iodine-125 radioactive sources with energy of about 25 keV and Americium-251 with energy on the order of 59 keV. Finished performing the analysis of the obtained energy spectra and so it was possible to observe the ability of these detectors to measure the energy from these seeds. (author)

  5. Thermal simulations of the new design for the BELLE silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragic, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The experienced imperfections of the BELLE silicon vertex detector, SVD1 motioned the design of a new detector, SVD2, which targets on improving the main weaknesses encountered in the old design. In this report we focus on tile thermal aspects of the SVD2 ladder, whereby sufficient cooling of the detector is necessary in order to minimise the detector leakage currents. It is estimated that reducing the temperature of the silicon detector from 25 deg C to 15 deg C would result in a 50% reduction in leak current. Further, cooling the detector would help minimize mechanical stresses from the thermal cycling. Our task is to ensure that the heat generated by the readout chips is conducted down the SVD hybrid unit effectively, such that the chip and the hybrid temperature does not overbear the SVD silicon sensor temperature. We considered the performance of two materials to act as a heat spreading plate which is glued between the two hybrids in order to improve the heat conductivity of the hybrid unit, namely Copper and Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite (TPG). The effects of other ladder components were also considered in order to enhance the cooling of the silicon detectors. Finite element analysis with ANSYS software was used to simulate the thermal conditions of the SVD2 hybrid unit, in accordance with the baseline design for the mechanical structure of the ladder. It was found that Cu was a preferred material as it achieved equivalent silicon sensor cooling (3.6 deg C above cooling point), while its mechanical properties rendered it a lot more practical. Suppressing, the thermal path via a rib support block, by increasing its thermal resistivity, as well as increasing thermal conductivity of the ribs in the hybrid region, were deemed essential in the effective cooling of the silicon sensors

  6. Improving the radiation hardness properties of silicon detectors using oxygenated n-type and p-type silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G L; Hanlon, M

    2000-01-01

    The degradation of the electrical properties of silicon detectors exposed to 24 GeV/c protons were studied using pad diodes made from different silicon materials. Standard high-grade p-type and n-type substrates and oxygenated n-type substrates have been used. The diodes were studied in terms of reverse current (I/sub r/) and full depletion voltage (V/sub fd/) as a function of fluence. The oxygenated devices from different suppliers with a variety of starting materials and techniques, all show a consistent improvement of the degradation rate of V/sub fd/ and CCE compared to un- oxygenated substrate devices. Radiation damage of n-type detectors introduces stable defects acting as effective p-type doping and leads to the change of the conductivity type of the silicon bulk (type inversion) at a neutron equivalent fluence of a few 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -2/. The diode junction after inversion migrates from the original side to the back plane of the detector. The migration of the junction is avoided using silicon detec...

  7. Electrical production testing of the D0 Silicon microstrip tracker detector modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D0, SMT Production Testing Group; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    The D0 Silicon Microstrip Tracker (SMT) is the innermost system of the D0 detector in Run 2. It consists of 912 detector units, corresponding to 5 different types of assemblies, which add up to a system with 792,576 readout channels. The task entrusted to the Production Testing group was to thoroughly debug, test and grade each detector module before its installation in the tracker. This note describes the production testing sequence and the procedures by which the detector modules were electrically tested and characterized at the various stages of their assembly.

  8. Feasibility study for double-sided silicon microstrip detector fabrication at IRST

    CERN Document Server

    Betta, G F D; Bosisio, L; Carmel-Barnea, N; Ferrario, L; Pignatel, Giogrio Umberto; Rachevskaia, I; Zen, M; Zorzi, N

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the preliminary results of a technological study aimed at the development of a fabrication process for double-sided AC-coupled silicon microstrip detectors. The approach adopted for the fabrication of both single-sided and double-sided detectors is presented, and the results from electrical tests performed on detectors and test structures are reported and discussed. Good electrical characteristics as well as an acceptable number of process-related defects have been obtained for these prototype detectors, thus demonstrating the feasibility of fabricating such devices at the IRST facility. (author)

  9. Development of a silicon micro-strip detector for tracking high intensity secondary beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, R.; Asano, H.; Hasegawa, S.; Honda, R.; Ichikawa, Y.; Imai, K.; Joo, C. W.; Nakazawa, K.; Sako, H.; Sato, S.; Shirotori, K.; Sugimura, H.; Tanida, K.; Watabe, T.

    2014-11-01

    A single-sided silicon micro-strip detector (SSD) has been developed as a tracking detector for hadron experiments at J-PARC where secondary meson beams with intensities of up to 108 Hz are available. The performance of the detector has been investigated and verified in a series of test beam experiments in the years 2009-2011. The hole mobility was deduced from the analysis of cluster events. The beam rate dependence was measured in terms of timing resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and hit efficiency. This paper describes the detector with its read-out system, details of the test experiments, and discusses the performance achieved.

  10. Development of a silicon micro-strip detector for tracking high intensity secondary beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, R. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Asano, H. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hasegawa, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Honda, R. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ichikawa, Y. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Imai, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Joo, C.W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Nakazawa, K. [Physics Department, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Sako, H.; Sato, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shirotori, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Sugimura, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tanida, K., E-mail: tanida@phya.snu.ac.kr [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Watabe, T. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    A single-sided silicon micro-strip detector (SSD) has been developed as a tracking detector for hadron experiments at J-PARC where secondary meson beams with intensities of up to 10{sup 8} Hz are available. The performance of the detector has been investigated and verified in a series of test beam experiments in the years 2009–2011. The hole mobility was deduced from the analysis of cluster events. The beam rate dependence was measured in terms of timing resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and hit efficiency. This paper describes the detector with its read-out system, details of the test experiments, and discusses the performance achieved.

  11. Investigation of silicon PIN-detector for laser pulse detection

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Sam

    2004-01-01

    This report has been written at SAAB Bofors Dynamics (SBD) AB in Gothenburg at the department of optronic systems. In military observation operations, a target to hit is chosen by illumination of a laser designator. From the targetpoint laser radiation is reflected on a detector that helps identify the target. The detector is a semiconductor PIN-type that has been investigated in a laboratory environment together with a specially designed laser source. The detector is a photodiode and using p...

  12. Design and Tests of the Silicon Sensors for the ZEUS Micro Vertex Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Dannheim, D.; Koetz, U.; Coldewey, C.; Fretwurst, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Klanner, R.; Martens, J.; Koffeman, E.; Tiecke, H.; Carlin, R.

    2002-01-01

    To fully exploit the HERA-II upgrade,the ZEUS experiment has installed a Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) using n-type, single-sided, silicon micro-strip sensors with capacitive charge division. The sensors have a readout pitch of 120 micrometers, with five intermediate strips (20 micrometer strip pitch). The designs of the silicon sensors and of the test structures used to verify the technological parameters, are presented. Results on the electrical measurements are discussed. A total of 1123 sen...

  13. 3D Simulation and Modeling of Ultra-fast 3D Silicon Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Manwen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D detectors with very small electrode spacing can provide ultra-fast detection due to their extremely small charge collection time. Since the detector full depletion voltage and charge collection time are independent to the detector thickness, ultra-fast 3D detectors can be made relatively thick (or not too thin, ~200 μm to ensure a large signal. The results of the 3D simulations and modeling of 3D silicon detectors with very small electrode spacing and relatively large thickness will be shown in this paper. The column spacing LP is in the range of 5 μm to 10 μm. At a bias voltage of only a few volts, the electric field in the detector can be large enough to ensure the carrier saturation drift velocity in most volume of the detector, and the detector charge collection time there can be as short as 10’s of ps. In this paper, we will analysis the simulated electrical characteristics of this detector structure through systematic 3D simulations using the Silvaco’s TCAD tool. Profiles of detector electric potential and electric field will be presented. We will investigate the region of low electric field (the “slow region” in the detector. We will also exam whether the detector reach the breakdown condition at operation voltages suggested in this work.

  14. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST): Applying silicon strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, W.B.

    1993-06-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by space satellite experiment EGRET (presently operating on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory -- CGRO) have prompted an investigation into modern detector technologies for the next generation space based gamma ray telescopes. The GLAST proposal is based on silicon strip detectors as the open-quotes technology of choiceclose quotes for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggerable. The GLAST detector basically has two components: a tracking module preceding a calorimeter. The tracking module has planes of crossed strip (x,y) 300 μm pitch silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers (∼5 cm) provides a lever arm for track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of <0.1 degree at high energy. The status of this R ampersand D effort is discussed including details on triggering the instrument, the organization of the detector electronics and readout, and work on computer simulations to model this instrument

  15. Development of front-end readout electronics for multi-channel silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fei; Fan Ruirui; Peng Wenxi; Dong Yifan; Gong Ke; Wang Huanyu

    2014-01-01

    A front-end readout circuit used in charge measurement for multi-channel silicon detector and its performance test results are introduced in this paper. A 64-channel charge sensitive ASIC chip (VA140) from IDEAS company is adopted in this method. With its features of low power consumption (< 0.29 mW/ch), low noise (RMSE < O.l fC), large dynamic range (-200 fC∼ +200 fC) and high integration (include 64 channels preamplifier-shaper), it can be used in future particle detecting experiments base on silicon detector. (authors)

  16. Evolution of silicon microstrip detector currents during proton irradiation at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Harper, R S; Allport, P P; Andricek, L; Carter, J R; Casse, G L; Dawson, I; Ferrère, D; Grigson, C; Morgan, D; Robinson, D

    2002-01-01

    Prototype ATLAS silicon microstrip detectors have been irradiated to the dose predicted for 10 years of LHC operation with 24 GeV protons at the CERN PS whilst cooled to the ATLAS design operating temperature. The detector currents were monitored during irradiation, which allows the predictions of bulk radiation damage parameterizations to be tested. Values for the damage constant cc and the rate of acceptor creation beta have been calculated and are in agreement with those previously published for the irradiation of silicon diodes. (17 refs).

  17. Development of hybrid photon detectors with integrated silicon pixel readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Formenti, F; Gys, Thierry; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    1999-01-01

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based $9 on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a fast, binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The $9 performance of a half-scale prototype is presented, together with the developments and tests of a full-scale tube with large active area. Specific requirements for pixel front-end and readout electronics in LHCb are outlined, and $9 recent results obtained from pixel chips applicable to hybrid photon detector design are summarized.

  18. Application of neural networks to digital pulse shape analysis for an array of silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J.L. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Martel, I. [Dpto de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); CERN, ISOLDE, CH 1211 Geneva, 23 (Switzerland); Jiménez, R. [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Galán, J., E-mail: jgalan@diesia.uhu.es [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Salmerón, P. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Térmica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain)

    2016-09-11

    The new generation of nuclear physics detectors that used to study nuclear reactions is considering the use of digital pulse shape analysis techniques (DPSA) to obtain the (A,Z) values of the reaction products impinging in solid state detectors. This technique can be an important tool for selecting the relevant reaction channels at the HYDE (HYbrid DEtector ball array) silicon array foreseen for the Low Energy Branch of the FAIR facility (Darmstadt, Germany). In this work we study the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for particle identification with silicon detectors. Multilayer Perceptron networks were trained and tested with recent experimental data, showing excellent identification capabilities with signals of several isotopes ranging from {sup 12}C up to {sup 84}Kr, yielding higher discrimination rates than any other previously reported.

  19. A possible role for silicon microstrip detectors in nuclear medicine: Compton imaging of positron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannavini, M. G.; Speller, R. D.; Royle, G. J.; Cullum, I.; Raymond, M.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.

    2002-01-01

    Collimation of gamma-rays based on Compton scatter could provide in principle high resolution and high sensitivity, thus becoming an advantageous method for the imaging of radioisotopes of clinical interest. A small laboratory prototype of a Compton camera is being constructed in order to initiate studies aimed at assessing the feasibility of Compton imaging of positron emitters. The design of the camera is based on the use of a silicon collimator consisting of a stack of double-sided, AC-coupled microstrip detectors (area 6×6 cm 2, 500 μm thickness, 128 channels/side). Two APV6 chips are employed for signal readout on opposite planes of each detector. This work presents the first results on the noise performance of the silicon strip detectors. Measurements of the electrical characteristics of the detector are also reported. On the basis of the measured noise, an angular resolution of approximately 5° is predicted for the Compton collimator.

  20. A possible role for silicon microstrip detectors in nuclear medicine Compton imaging of positron emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Scannavini, M G; Royle, G J; Cullum, I; Raymond, M; Hall, G; Iles, G

    2002-01-01

    Collimation of gamma-rays based on Compton scatter could provide in principle high resolution and high sensitivity, thus becoming an advantageous method for the imaging of radioisotopes of clinical interest. A small laboratory prototype of a Compton camera is being constructed in order to initiate studies aimed at assessing the feasibility of Compton imaging of positron emitters. The design of the camera is based on the use of a silicon collimator consisting of a stack of double-sided, AC-coupled microstrip detectors (area 6x6 cm sup 2 , 500 mu m thickness, 128 channels/side). Two APV6 chips are employed for signal readout on opposite planes of each detector. This work presents the first results on the noise performance of the silicon strip detectors. Measurements of the electrical characteristics of the detector are also reported. On the basis of the measured noise, an angular resolution of approximately 5 deg. is predicted for the Compton collimator.

  1. Development of Silicon Drift Detectors using Boron layer technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golshani, N.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation detectors are used in a large variety of fields such as medicine, security, defense, geophysics, industry and physics. They have been developed to detect the energy or position of radiation or charge particles. In Chapter 1 several X-ray detectors were introduced briefly. In gas filled

  2. Dember and photo-electromotive-force currents in silicon photoconductive detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmelik, Yamaç; Davidson, Frederic M.

    2004-09-01

    Dember and photo-electromotive-force (PEMF) currents are investigated in silicon photoconductive detectors both theoretically and experimentally. Dember photocurrents were found to dominate the response of high-purity silicon samples with top-surface electrodes to a moving interference pattern. The use of surface electrodes leads to shadowed regions beneath the electrodes, and Dember photocurrents appear under short-circuit conditions. A single-charge-carrier model of the Dember effect is in good qualitative agreement with experimental results. We also show theoretically that the PEMF effect in silicon is weak compared with other semiconductors because of its relatively high intrinsic conductivity.

  3. Final Size Planar Edgeless Silicon Detectors for the TOTEM Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Noschis, E; Anelli, G; Avati, V; Berardi, V; Boccone, V; Bozzo, M; Brucken, E; Buzzo, A; Catanesi, M G; Cereseto, R; Cuneo, S; Da Vià, C; Deile, M; Dinapoli, R; Eggert, K; Egorov, N; Eremin, I; Ferro, F; Hasi, J; Haug, F; Heino, J; Jarron, P; Kalliopuska, J; Kaspar, J; Kok, A; Kozlov, Y; Kundrat, W; Kurvinen, K; Lauhakangas, R; Lokajícek, M; Luntama, T; Macina, D; Macri, M; Minutoli, S; Mirabito, L; Morelli, A; Musico, P; Negri, M; Niewiadomski, H; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Perrot, A L; Puppo, R; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Saarikko, H; Santroni, A; Sette, G; Sidorov, A; Siegrist, P; Smotlacha, J; Snoeys, W; Taylor, C; Watts, S; Whitmoree, J

    2006-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will detect leading protons scattered in angles of microradians from the interaction point at the Large Hadron Collider. This will be achieved using detectors with a minimized dead area at the edge. The collaboration has developed an innovative structure at the detector edge reducing the conventional dead width to less than 100 microns, still using standard planar fabrication technology. In this new development, the current of the surface is decoupled from the sensitive volume current within a few tens of micrometers. The basic working principle is explained in this paper. Final size detectors have been produced using this approach. The current-voltage and current-temperature characteristics of the detectors were studied and the detectors were successfully tested in a coasting beam experiment.

  4. Electric performance of the ALICE Silicon Drift Detector irradiated with 1 GeV electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Piemonte, C; Rashevsky, A; Vacchi, A; Wheadon, R

    2002-01-01

    The final version of the ALICE Silicon Drift Detector was irradiated with 1 GeV electrons at the LINAC of the Synchrotron 'Elettra' in Trieste. The electron fluence was equivalent to the total particle fluence expected during 10 years of ALICE operation as far as the bulk damage is concerned. The anode current, the voltage distribution on the integrated divider, and the operation of the MOS injectors were tested. The detector was found to be sufficiently radiation hard for the ALICE experiment.

  5. Performance of the Charge Injectors of the ALICE Silicon Drift Detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kushpil, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 37 (2012), s. 970-975 ISSN 1875-3892. [TIPP 2011 - Technology and Instrumentation in Particle Physics 2011. Chicago, 09.06.2011-14.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : semiconductor detector * silicon drift detector * MOS charge injector Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875389212017920

  6. Double peak electric field distortion in heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Vladimir; Roe, Shaun; Ruggiero, G; Verbitskaya, E

    2004-01-01

    Non-uniform distribution of the electric field outlined as double peak distortion (DPD) is considered for heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors, which were developed for the CERN-ATLAS semiconductor tracker. DPD originates from the non-uniform accumulation of electrons and holes from the bulk generated current that are captured by radiation induced defects: deep acceptors and donors with mid-gap energy levels. This corresponds to the formation of the low electric field region in the detector central part that consequently will delay charge collection. The electric field distributions at different reverse biases, fluences and detector operational temperatures are calculated using a one-dimensional Poisson equation as it was done earlier for pad detectors. It has been shown that due to the electric field focusing at the strips the DPD effect is more pronounced for strip detectors as compared to that in pad detectors. The double peak electric field distribution is evinced experimentally in current pulse res...

  7. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  8. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  9. Silicon microstrip detector development in the Institute for High Energy Physics Zeuthen, GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Nowak, W.D.; Truetzschler, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that in regard of the growing interest to study short living particles demanding for high resolution vertex detectors the authors started to build Si microstrip detectors. The first detector generation was characterized by a small area of silicon and a readout via printed circuit board fan out. Now they can assemble detectors with larger areas and VLSI readout. A special cleanroom has been built. Equipment and tools necessary are available. Silicon wafers and thick film hybrid circuits are fabricated under collaboration by the GDR industry. Applications of their detectors were several test-runs at CERN to calibrate the L3 time expansion chamber (TEC) and the L3 muon chambers. A 10-layer telescope is designed now and it is planned to calibrate a high resolution scintillation fiber target. Future applications will be high resolution vertex detectors, e.g. L3 upgrading (LEP, CERN) or KEDR (VEPP-5, Novosibirsk). Further investigations will concern AC coupled strip detectors (single and double sided) and pixel and/or pad detectors

  10. Indium-bump-free antimonide superlattice membrane detectors on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamiri, M., E-mail: mzamiri@chtm.unm.edu, E-mail: skrishna@chtm.unm.edu; Klein, B.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Dahiya, V.; Cavallo, F. [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Myers, S. [SKINfrared, LLC, Lobo Venture Lab, 801 University Blvd., Suite 10, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Krishna, S., E-mail: mzamiri@chtm.unm.edu, E-mail: skrishna@chtm.unm.edu [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); SKINfrared, LLC, Lobo Venture Lab, 801 University Blvd., Suite 10, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2016-02-29

    We present an approach to realize antimonide superlattices on silicon substrates without using conventional Indium-bump hybridization. In this approach, PIN superlattices are grown on top of a 60 nm Al{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}Sb sacrificial layer on a GaSb host substrate. Following the growth, the individual pixels are transferred using our epitaxial-lift off technique, which consists of a wet-etch to undercut the pixels followed by a dry-stamp process to transfer the pixels to a silicon substrate prepared with a gold layer. Structural and optical characterization of the transferred pixels was done using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. The interface between the transferred pixels and the new substrate was abrupt, and no significant degradation in the optical quality was observed. An Indium-bump-free membrane detector was then fabricated using this approach. Spectral response measurements provided a 100% cut-off wavelength of 4.3 μm at 77 K. The performance of the membrane detector was compared to a control detector on the as-grown substrate. The membrane detector was limited by surface leakage current. The proposed approach could pave the way for wafer-level integration of photonic detectors on silicon substrates, which could dramatically reduce the cost of these detectors.

  11. Construction of the new silicon microstrips tracker for the Phase-II ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zhijun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The inner detector of the present ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the particle densities and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new detectors must be faster, they need to be more highly segmented, and covering more area. They also need to be more resistant to radiation, and they require much greater power delivery to the front-end systems. For those reasons, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of silicon microstrip sensors. This paper will focus on the latest research and development act...

  12. Characterisation of Silicon Timing Detectors for the RD50 Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Immig, David Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    Increasing pile-up and irradiation following with the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC, demands the development of improved semiconductor detectors. The former problem can be reduced by more precise time information, which can be obtained using a future detector based on the low gain avalanche diode (LGAD). LGADs are studied by the RD50-Collaboration, which studies the characteristics of semiconductor devices to improve these for future requirements of high energy physics. This reports is engaged with the process to characterise semiconductor detectors, specially LGADs, with capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements as well as transient current techniques of un- and irradiated semiconductor devices.

  13. SVX3: A deadtimeless readout chip for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.; Huffman, T.; Srage, J.; Stroehmer, R.; Yarema, R.; Garcia-Sciveras, M.; Luo, L.; Milgrome, O.

    1997-12-01

    A new silicon strip readout chip called the SVX3 has been designed for the 720,000 channel CDF silicon upgrade at Fermilab. SVX3 incorporates an integrator, analog delay pipeline, ADC, and data sparsification for each of 128 identical channels. Many of the operating parameters are programmable via a serial bit stream, which allows the chip to be used under a variety of conditions. Distinct features of SVX3 include use of a backside substrate contact for optimal ground referencing, and the capability of simultaneous signal acquisition and digital readout allowing deadtimeless operation in the Fermilab Tevatron

  14. Automated assembly in the construction of silicon microstrip detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Eckert, S; Meinhardt, J; Runge, K; Benes, J

    2002-01-01

    The paper concerns silicon microstrip trackers for future experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It describes a system for the automated assembly of the trackers. The aim is uniform quality and a mechanical precision of better than 5 mu m. It has been implemented based on an industrial gantry robot. The gantry is equipped with a complex vacuum system which dispenses glue, and places the mechanical parts and the ASICS and the four silicon sensors with the required precision. The modules are double sided and 18 cm * 6 cm in dimension. (5 refs).

  15. Silicon Microchannel Plate Large Area UV Detector, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA GSFC need for efficient UV photodetectors for NASA missions, such as the follow-on to FUV detectors of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Physical...

  16. Synchrotron applications of an amorphous silicon flat-panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Can Aydiner, C.; Almer, J.; Bernier, J.; Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Haeffner, D.; Kump, K.; Lee, P. L.; Lienert, U.; Miceli, A.; Vera, G.; LANL; GE Healthcare

    2008-01-01

    A GE Revolution 41RT flat-panel detector (GE 41RT) from GE Healthcare (GE) has been in operation at the Advanced Photon Source for over two years. The detector has an active area of 41 cm x 41 cm with 200 (micro)m x 200 (micro)m pixel size. The nominal working photon energy is around 80 keV. The physical set-up and utility software of the detector system are discussed in this article. The linearity of the detector response was measured at 80.7 keV. The memory effect of the detector element, called lag, was also measured at different exposure times and gain settings. The modulation transfer function was measured in terms of the line-spread function using a 25 (micro)m x 1 cm tungsten slit. The background (dark) signal, the signal that the detector will carry without exposure to X-rays, was measured at three different gain settings and with exposure times of 1 ms to 15 s. The radial geometric flatness of the sensor panel was measured using the diffraction pattern from a CeO 2 powder standard. The large active area and fast data-capturing rate, i.e. 8 frames s -1 in radiography mode, 30 frames s -1 in fluoroscopy mode, make the GE 41RT one of a kind and very versatile in synchrotron diffraction. The loading behavior of a Cu/Nb multilayer material is used to demonstrate the use of the detector in a strain-stress experiment. Data from the measurement of various samples, amorphous SiO 2 in particular, are presented to show the detector effectiveness in pair distribution function measurements

  17. Silicon Sensors for the Upgrades of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Schleper, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accel- erator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The rst upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2 10 34 cm-2 s-1 A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5 10 34 cm-2 s1. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The rst upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout elec- tronics that allow ecient data taking up to a luminosity of 2 10 34 cm-2s-1,twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at dierent institutes. Ham...

  18. Development of a Compton camera for medical applications based on silicon strip and scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, J., E-mail: j.krimmer@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Ley, J.-L. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Abellan, C.; Cachemiche, J.-P. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, 13288 Marseille (France); Caponetto, L.; Chen, X.; Dahoumane, M.; Dauvergne, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Freud, N. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Joly, B.; Lambert, D.; Lestand, L. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Létang, J.M. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Magne, M. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); and others

    2015-07-01

    A Compton camera is being developed for the purpose of ion-range monitoring during hadrontherapy via the detection of prompt-gamma rays. The system consists of a scintillating fiber beam tagging hodoscope, a stack of double sided silicon strip detectors (90×90×2 mm{sup 3}, 2×64 strips) as scatter detectors, as well as bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors (38×35×30 mm{sup 3}, 100 blocks) as absorbers. The individual components will be described, together with the status of their characterization.

  19. Radiation hard silicon detectors - developments by the RD48(ROSE) collaboration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindström, G.; Kohout, Z.; Pospíšil, S.; Šícho, Petr; Sopko, B.; Vrba, Václav; Wilhelm, I.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 466, č. 2 (2001), s. 308-326 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : silicon detectors * radiation hardness * defect engineering * non ionizing energy los Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.026, year: 2001

  20. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of

  1. Results from multipoint alignment monitoring using the new generation of amorphous silicon position detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of large sensitive area (28x28 mm 2 ) semitransparent amorphous silicon position detector sensors. More than 100 units have been characterized. They show a very high performance. To illustrate a multipoint application, we present results from the monitoring of five sensors placed in a 5.5-m-long light path

  2. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  3. Monolithic integration of detectors and transistors on high-resistivity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Batignani, Giovanni; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Gregori, Paolo; Pancheri, Lucio; Piemonte, Claudio; Ratti, Lodovico; Verzellesi, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We report on the most recent results from an R and D activity aimed at the development of silicon radiation detectors with embedded front-end electronics. The key features of the fabrication technology and the available active devices are described. Selected results from the characterization of transistors and test structures are presented and discussed, and the considered application fields are addressed

  4. Development of Thin-Window Silicon Drift Detector for X-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.; Carini, G.A.; De Geronimo, G.; Fried, J.; Gaskin, J.A.; Keister, J.W.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Rehak, P.; Siddons, D.P.

    2009-10-01

    A new set of thin-window silicon drift detectors composed of an array of hexagonal shaped detectors has been designed, constructed and tested for X-ray spectroscopy. Each individual ThinWinSDD has a thin entrance window on one side and a spiral shaped hexagonal cathode around a center anode on the other side. To produce the thin entrance window a 10 keV implantation of boron through a 500 A silicon dioxide was used. The implantation was followed by an annealing at 700 C for 30 min and a reactive ion etching step to ensure the removal of silicon dioxide from the smallest feature (5 mum). An aluminum layer is coated in the same vacuum system after back-sputtering. This step involves removing the native oxide that has formed on the top of the silicon substrate and then sputtering a 1100 A thick layer of aluminum onto the X-ray entrance window. The aluminum layer must be thick enough to block visible light, but thin enough to be transparent to soft X-rays down to 280 eV. We discuss first test results that include detector leakage current measurements and the response for multiple detectors exposed to the National Synchrotron Light Source's UV beam line U3C located at Brookhaven National Laboratory for X-ray energies as low as 280 eV.

  5. Development of Thin-Window Silicon Drift Detector for X-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.; Carini, G.; De Geronimo, G; Fried, J.; Gaskin, J.A.; Keister, J.W.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Rehak, P.; Siddons, D.P.

    2008-01-22

    A new set of Thin-Window Silicon Drift Detectors composed of an array of hexagonal shaped detectors has been designed, constructed and tested for X-ray spectroscopy. Each individual ThinWinSDD has a thin entrance window on one side and a spiral shaped hexagonal cathode around a center anode on the other side. To produce the thin entrance window a 10 keV implantation of boron through a 500 {angstrom} silicon dioxide was used. The implantation was followed by an annealing at 700 C for 30 min and a reactive ion etching step to ensure the removal of silicon dioxide from the smallest feature (5 {micro}m). An aluminum layer is coated in the same vacuum system after back-sputtering. This step involves removing the native oxide that has formed on the top of the silicon substrate and then sputtering a 1100 {angstrom} thick layer of aluminum onto the X-ray entrance window. The aluminum layer must be thick enough to block visible light, but thin enough to be transparent to soft x-rays down to 280 eV. We discuss first test results that include detector leakage current measurements and the response for multiple detectors exposed to the National Synchrotron Light Source's UV beam line U3C located at Brookhaven National Laboratory for X-ray energies as low as 280 eV.

  6. Electronics of the data acquisition system of the DANSS detector based on silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirida, D.

    2018-01-01

    The electronics of the data acquisition system based on silicon photomultipliers is briefly described. The elements and modules of the system were designed and constructed at ITEP especially for the DANSS detector. Examples of digitized signals obtained with the presented electronic modules and selected results on processing of the DANSS engineering data-taking run in spring 2016 are given.

  7. Evidence of Dopant Type-Inversion and Other Radiation Damage Effects of the CDF Silicon Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Ballarin, Roberto [Univ. of the Basque Country, Leioa (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this document is to study the effect of radiation damage on the silicon sensors. The reflection of the effect of radiation can be observed in two fundamental parameters of the detector: the bias current and the bias voltage. The leakage current directly affects the noise, while the bias voltage is required to collect the maximum signal deposited by the charged particle.

  8. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 538, - (2005), s. 384-407 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * silicon * micro-strip * beam * test Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  9. Segmented scintillation detectors with silicon photomultiplier readout for measuring antiproton annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Sótér, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Barna, D.; Horváth, D.; Hori, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons (ASACUSA) experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility of CERN constructed segmented scintillators to detect and track the charged pions which emerge from antiproton annihilations in a future superconducting radiofrequency Paul trap for antiprotons. A system of 541 cast and extruded scintillator bars were arranged in 11 detector modules which provided a spatial resolution of 17 mm. Green wavelength-shifting fibers were embedded in the scintillators, and read out by silicon photomultipliers which had a sensitive area of 1 x 1 mm^2. The photoelectron yields of various scintillator configurations were measured using a negative pion beam of momentum p ~ 1 GeV/c. Various fibers and silicon photomultipliers, fiber end terminations, and couplings between the fibers and scintillators were compared. The detectors were also tested using the antiproton beam of the AD. Nonlinear effects due to the saturation of the silicon photomultiplier were seen a...

  10. Interference coupling mechanisms in Silicon Strip Detectors - CMS tracker "wings" A learned lesson for SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Arteche, F; Rivetta, C

    2009-01-01

    The identification of coupling mechanisms between noise sources and sensitive areas of the front-end electronics (FEE) in the previous CMS tracker sub-system is critical to optimize the design and integration of integrated circuits, sensors and power distribution circuitry for the proposed SLHC Silicon Strip Tracker systems. This paper presents a validated model of the noise sensitivity observed in the Silicon Strip Detector-FEE of the CMS tracker that allows quantifying both the impact of the noise coupling mechanisms and the system immunity against electromagnetic interferences. This model has been validated based on simulations using finite element models and immunity tests conducted on prototypes of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) and Outer Barrel (TOB) systems. The results of these studies show important recommendations and criteria to be applied in the design of future detectors to increase the immunity against electromagnetic noise.

  11. Production and Quality Assurance of Detector Modules for the LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Volyanskyy, D; Agari, M; Bauer, C; Blouw, J; Hofmann, W; Löchner, S; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Smale, N; Schwingenheuer, B; Voss, H; Borysova, M; Ohrimenko, O; Pugatch, V; Yakovenko, V; Bay, A; Bettler, M O; Fauland, P; Frei, R; Nicolas, L; Knecht, M; Perrin, A; Schneider, O; Tran, M T; Van Hunen, J; Vervink, K; Adeva, B; Esperante-Pereira, D; Gallas, A; Fungueirino-Pazos, J L; Lois, C; Pazos-Alvarez, A; Pérez-Trigo, E; Pló-Casasus, M; Vázquez, P; Bernhard, R P; Bernet, R; Gassner, J; Köstner, S; Lehner, F; Needham, M; Sakhelashvili, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Van Tilburg, J; Vollhardt, A; Wenger, A

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb experiment, which is currently under construction at the Large Hadron Collider~(CERN, Geneva), is designed to study $CP$ violation and find rare decays in the $B$ meson system. To achieve the physics goals the LHCb detector must have excellent tracking performance. An important element of the LHCb tracking system is the Silicon Tracker, which covers a sensitive surface of about 12~m$^2$ with silicon microstrip detectors and includes about 272k readout channels. It uses up to 132~cm long detector modules with readout strips of up to 38~cm in length and up to 57~cm long Kapton interconnects in between sensors and readout hybrids. The production of detector modules has been completed recently and the detector is currently under installation. A rigorous quality assurance programme has been performed to ensure that the detector modules meet the mechanical and electrical requirements and study their various characteristics. In this paper, the detector design, the module production steps, and the module qua...

  12. Progress in multi-element silicon detectors for synchrotron XRF applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, B.; Rossington, C.; Kipnis, I.; Krieger, B.

    1995-10-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon and high purity germanium detectors for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. We have been developing these types of detectors specifically for low noise synchrotron applications, such as extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, microprobe x-ray fluorescence and total reflection x-ray fluorescence. The current version of the 192-element detector and integrated circuit preamplifier, cooled to -25 degrees C with a single-stage thermoelectric cooler, achieves an energy resolution of <200 eV full width of half maximum (FWHM) per channel (at 5.9 keV, 2 μs peaking time), and each detector element is designed to handle ∼20 kHz count rate. The detector system will soon be completed to 64 channels using new application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) amplifier chips, new CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control standard) analog-to-digital converters recently developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), CAMAC histogramming modules, and Macintosh-based data acquisition software. We report on the characteristics of this detector system, and the work in progress towards the next generation system

  13. Development of Hybrid and Monolithic Silicon Micropattern Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Beker, H; Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Lemeilleur, F; Ropotar, I

    2002-01-01

    %RD-19 \\\\ \\\\ In a collaborative effort between particle physics institutes and microelectronics industry we are undertaking the development of true 2-dimensional semiconductor particle detectors with on-chip signal processing and information extraction: the so-called micropattern detector. This detector is able to cope in a robust way with high multiplicity events at high rates, while allowing for a longer detector lifetime under irradiation and a thinner sensitive depletion region. Therefore, it will be ideally suited for the complicated events in the LHC p-p collider experiments. Following a $^{\\prime}$stepping stone$^{\\prime}$ approach several telescopes of pixel planes, totalling now 600 cm$^{2}$ with \\(>\\)~1~M elements have been used in the WA97, NA50 and NA57 lead ion experiments. This new technology has facilitated the tracking considerably (see Fig.1). Not only Si but also GaAs and possibly diamond matrices can be connected to the readout matrix. Tests with GaAs pixel detectors with the RD-19 readout ...

  14. Advances in silicon carbide X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertuccio, Giuseppe, E-mail: Giuseppe.Bertuccio@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Electronics Engineering and Information Science, Como Campus, Via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics, INFN sez. Milano (Italy); Caccia, Stefano [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Electronics Engineering and Information Science, Como Campus, Via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Puglisi, Donatella; Macera, Daniele [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Electronics Engineering and Information Science, Como Campus, Via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics, INFN sez. Milano (Italy)

    2011-10-01

    The latest advances in SiC X-ray detectors are presented: a pixel detector coupled to a custom ultra low noise CMOS preamplifier has been characterized at room and high temperature. An equivalent noise energy (ENE) of 113 eV FWHM, corresponding to 6.1 electrons r.m.s., has been achieved with the detector/front-end system operating at +30 {sup o}C. A Fano factor of F=0.10 has been estimated from the {sup 55}Fe spectrum. When the system is heated up to +100 {sup o}C, the measured ENE is 163 eV FWHM (8.9 electrons r.m.s.). It is determined that both at room and at high temperature the performance are fully limited by the noise of the front-end electronics. It is also presented the capability of SiC detectors to operate in environments under unstable temperature conditions without any apparatus for temperature stabilization; it has been proved that a SiC detector can acquire high resolution X-ray spectra without spectral line degradation while the system temperature changes between +30 and +75 {sup o}C.

  15. Electronics and readout of a large area silicon detector for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Munday, D.J.; Parker, M.A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Campbell, M.; Chilingarov, A.; Jarron, P.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Santiard, J.C.; Scampoli, P.; Verweij, H.; Goessling, C.; Lisowski, B.; Reichold, A.; Spiwoks, R.; Tsesmelis, E.; Benslama, K.; Bonino, R.; Clark, A.G.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Kambara, H.; Wu, X.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Schultz, T.; Bardos, R.A.; Gorfine, G.W.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Tovey, S.N.; Bibby, J.H.; Hawkings, R.J.; Kundu, N.; Weidberg, A.; Campbell, D.; Murray, P.; Seller, P.; Teiger, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the RD2 project is to evaluate the feasibility of a silicon tracker and/or preshower detector for LHC. Irradiation studies with doses equivalent to those expected at LHC have been performed to determine the behavior of operational parameters such as leakage current, depletion voltage and charge collection during the life of the detector. The development of fast, dense, low power and low cost signal processing electronics is one of the major activities of the collaboration. We describe the first fully functional integrated analog memory chip with asynchronous read and write operations and level 1 trigger capture capabilities. A complete test beam system using this analog memory chip at 66 MHz has been successfully operated with RD2 prototype silicon detectors during various test runs. The flexibility of the electronics and readout have allowed us to easily interface our set-up to other data acquisition systems. Mechanical studies are in progress to design a silicon tracking detector with several million channels that may be operated at low (0-10 C) temperature, while maintaining the required geometrical precision. Prototype readout boards for such a detector are being developed and simulation studies are being performed to optimize the readout architecture. (orig.)

  16. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of the ITS use double-sided silicon strip detectors. This thesis focuses on testing of these detectors and performance studies of the detector module prototypes at the beam test. Silicon strip detector layers will require about 20 thousand HAL25 front-end readout chips and about 3.5 thousand hybrids each containing 6 HAL25 chips. During the assembly procedure, chips are bonded on a patterned TAB aluminium microcables which connect to all the chip input and output pads, and then the chips are assembled on the hybrids. Bonding failures at the chip or hybrid level may either render the component non-functional or deteriorate its the performance such that it can not be used for the module production. After each bond...

  17. Performance of integrated ΔE-E silicon detector telescope with light charged particles and fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Arvind; Santra, S.; Topkar, Anita; Mahata, K.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Chatterjee, A.; Pithawa, C.K.; Rath, P.K.; Parihari, A.

    2012-01-01

    Thin ΔE detectors with thickness of a few microns are used for study of nuclear reactions involving heavy charged particles such as fission fragments. Such detectors are difficult to fabricate using conventional silicon etching techniques and are also difficult to handle as they are very fragile. To overcome these problems, a novel detector in which the E and ΔE detectors are integrated on the same silicon chip has been developed. The performance of the first prototype has been presented earlier. In this paper, the performance of the second prototype with light charged particles (measured in 7 Li + 12 C reaction) and fission fragments (measured in 19 F + 209 Bi reaction) has been presented. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the integrated detector has performance as good as that of a silicon detector telescope which incorporates commercially available physically separate E and ΔE detectors

  18. Spectroscopic measurements with a silicon drift detector having a continuous implanted drift cathode-voltage divider

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, V; D'Acunto, L; Franck, D; Gregorio, A; Pihet, P; Rashevsky, A; Vacchi, A; Vinogradov, L I; Zampa, N

    2000-01-01

    A silicon drift detector (SDD) prototype where the drift electrode also plays the role of a high-voltage divider has been realised and characterised for spectroscopic applications at near-room temperatures. Among the advantages of this design, is the absence of metal on the sensitive surface which makes this detector interesting for soft X-rays. The detector prototype has a large sensitive area (2x130 mm sup 2) and the charge is collected by two anodes (butterfly-like detector). The energy resolution of a such a detector has been investigated at near-room temperatures using a commercial, hybrid, low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier. The results obtained for the X-ray lines from sup 5 sup 5 Fe and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am are presented.

  19. Advances in the project about Pin type silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez F, J.; Cerdeira, A.; Aceves, M.; Diaz, A.; Estrada, M.; Rosales, P.; Cabal, A.E.; Montano L, M.; Leyva, A.

    1998-01-01

    The obtained advances in the collaboration project ININ-CINVESTAV about development of Pin type semiconductor radiation detectors here are presented. It has been characterized the response to different types of radiation made in CINVESTAV and INAOE. Measurements have been realized with different types of sensitive to charge preamplifiers determining the main characteristics which must be executed to be able to be employed with low capacitance detectors. As applications it has been possible to measure the irradiation time in a mammography machine and X-ray energy spectra have been obtained in the order of 14 KeV, with 4 KeV at ambient temperature. The future actions of project have been indicated and the possible applications of these detectors. (Author)

  20. Identification of stopping ions in a silicon Timepix detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffle, Nicholas; Pinsky, Lawrence

    2018-02-01

    Timepix detectors are increasingly used in space-based applications. Such detectors are low power, low mass, and provide a wealth of information necessary for characterizing the ionizing radiation environment in space for both humans and hardware. Stopping ions are shown to contribute to the energy loss spectrum in a thin, pixelated, Timepix detector, and this energy loss is shown to contribute to the LET spectrum near 14 keV/micron. Bulk data also indicates the presence of Hydrogen isotopes in the energy loss spectra. Individual track analysis can be used to identify the stopping ions and the related energy and isotope through comparison with theoretical energy loss curves. While this calculation is specific to the Timepix, the impact of stopping ions on other instruments can be estimated using the insight gained from this approach.

  1. Test of an amorphous silicon detector in medical proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martisikova, M., E-mail: m.martisikova@dkfz.de [Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hesse, B.M. [Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nairz, O. [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapiezentrum HIT am Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, O [Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapiezentrum HIT am Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Ion beam radiation therapy for cancer treatment allows for improved dose confinement to the target in comparison with the standard radiation therapy using high energy photons. Dose delivery to the patient using focused ion beam scanning over the target volume is going to be increasingly used in the upcoming years. The high precision of the dose delivery achieved in this way has to be met by practical methods for beam monitoring with sufficient spatial resolution in two dimensions. Flat panel detectors, used for photon portal imaging at the newest medical linear accelerators, are an interesting candidate for this purpose. Initial detector tests presented here were performed using proton beams with the highest available energy. The investigations include measurements of beam profiles at different beam intensities and for different beam width, as well as the signal linearity. Radiation damage was also investigated. The obtained results show that the detector is a promising candidate to be used in the therapeutic proton beams.

  2. Silicon Strip Detectors for ATLAS at the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    present ATLAS silicon strip tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker(TRT) are to be replaced with new silicon strip detectors as part of the Inner Tracker System (ITK) for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, HL-LHC. We have carried out intensive R&D programs based on n+-on-p microstrip detectors to fabricate improved radiation hard strip detectors that can survive the radiation levels corresponding to the integrated luminosity of up to 3000 fb−1. We describe the main specifications for this year’s sensor fabrication and the related R&D results, followed by a description of the candidate schema for module integration.

  3. A silicon pixel detector with routing for external VLSI read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.L.; Seller, P.

    1988-07-01

    A silicon pixel detector with an array of 32 by 16 hexagonal pixels has been designed and is being built on high resistivity silicon. The detector elements are reverse biased diodes consisting of p-implants in an n-type substrate and are fully depleted from the front to the back of the wafer. They are intended to measure high energy ionising particles traversing the detector. The detailed design of the pixels, their layout and method of read-out are discussed. A number of test structures have been incorporated onto the wafer to enable measurements to be made on individual pixels together with a variety of active devices. The results will give a better understanding of the operation of the pixel array, and will allow testing of computer simulations of more elaborate structures for the future. (author)

  4. Application of the silicon photomultipliers for detectors in the GlueX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somov, Sergey V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe shosse 31, Moscow, 115409, Russia; Tolstukhin, Ivan [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe shosse 31, Moscow, 115409, Russia; Somov, Alexander S. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA

    2015-11-01

    The GlueX detector in Hall D at Jefferson Lab is instrumented with about 5000 Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation [2]. These photo sensors have properties similar to conventional photomultipliers but can be operated at high magnetic fields. Silicon photomultipliers with a sensitive area of 3x3 mm2 are used to detect light from the following GlueX scintillator detectors: the tagger microscope, pair spectrometer, and start counter. Arrays of 4x4 SiPMs sensors were chosen for the instrumentation of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. The tagger microscope must operate at high rates (up to 2.5 MHz) and provide time measurements with a resolution better than 0.3 ns. The paper will describe some results of the characterization of SiPMs for various GlueX sub-detectors.

  5. Electronics and mechanics for the Silicon Vertex Detector of the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmler, C; Bergauer, T; Friedl, M; Gfall, I; Valentan, M, E-mail: irmler@hephy.oeaw.ac.a [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    A major upgrade of the KEK-B factory (Tsukuba, Japan), aiming at a peak luminosity of 8 x 10{sup 35}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, which is 40 times the present value, is foreseen until 2014. Consequently an upgrade of the Belle detector and in particular its Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is required. We will introduce the concept and prototypes of the full readout chain of the Belle II SVD. Its APV25 based front-end utilizes the Origami chip-on-sensor concept, while the back-end VME system provides online data processing as well as hit time finding using FPGAs. Furthermore, the design of the double-sided silicon detectors and the mechanics will be discussed.

  6. Electronics and mechanics for the Silicon Vertex Detector of the Belle II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irmler, C; Bergauer, T; Friedl, M; Gfall, I; Valentan, M

    2010-01-01

    A major upgrade of the KEK-B factory (Tsukuba, Japan), aiming at a peak luminosity of 8 x 10 35 cm -2 s -1 , which is 40 times the present value, is foreseen until 2014. Consequently an upgrade of the Belle detector and in particular its Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is required. We will introduce the concept and prototypes of the full readout chain of the Belle II SVD. Its APV25 based front-end utilizes the Origami chip-on-sensor concept, while the back-end VME system provides online data processing as well as hit time finding using FPGAs. Furthermore, the design of the double-sided silicon detectors and the mechanics will be discussed.

  7. Investigating the Inverse Square Law with the Timepix Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector: A CERN [at] School Demonstration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyntie, T.; Parker, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector has been used to investigate the inverse square law of radiation from a point source as a demonstration of the CERN [at] school detector kit capabilities. The experiment described uses a Timepix detector to detect the gamma rays emitted by an [superscript 241]Am radioactive source at a number of different…

  8. Minimizing guard ring dead space in silicon detectors with an n-type guard ring at the edge of the detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palviainen, Tanja; Tuuva, Tuure; Leinonen, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Detectors with n-type silicon with an n + -type guard ring were investigated. In the present work, a new p + /n/n + detector structure with an n + guard ring is described. The guard ring is placed at the edge of the detector. The detector depletion region extends also sideways, allowing for signal collection very close to the n-guard ring. In this kind of detector structure, the dead space of the detector is minimized to be only below the guard ring. This is proved by simulations done using Silvaco/ATLAS software

  9. Minimizing guard ring dead space in silicon detectors with an n-type guard ring at the edge of the detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palviainen, Tanja [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)]. E-mail: tanja.palviainen@lut.fi; Tuuva, Tuure [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Leinonen, Kari [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2007-04-01

    Detectors with n-type silicon with an n{sup +}-type guard ring were investigated. In the present work, a new p{sup +}/n/n{sup +} detector structure with an n{sup +} guard ring is described. The guard ring is placed at the edge of the detector. The detector depletion region extends also sideways, allowing for signal collection very close to the n-guard ring. In this kind of detector structure, the dead space of the detector is minimized to be only below the guard ring. This is proved by simulations done using Silvaco/ATLAS software.

  10. A new semicustom integrated bipolar amplifier for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.

    1989-01-01

    The QPA02 is a four channel DC coupled two stage transimpedance amplifier designed at Fermilab on a semicustom linear array (Quickchip 2S) manufactured by Tektronix. The chip was developed as a silicon strip amplifier but may have other applications as well. Each channel consists of a preamplifier and a second stage amplifier/sharper with differential output which can directly drive a transmission line (90 to 140 ohms). External bypass capacitors are the only discrete components required. QPA02 has been tested and demonstrated to be an effective silicon strip amplifier. Other applications may exist which can use this amplifier or a modified version of this amplifier. For example, another design is now in progress for a wire chamber amplifier, QPA03, to be reported later. Only a relatively small effort was required to modify the design and layout for this application. 11 figs

  11. Investigation of innovative silicon detector assembling solutions for hadron calorimeter modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, G.; Ammannati, N.

    1995-01-01

    The application of large areas of silicon detector mosaics in calorimetry for high energy particles measurement in Physics has grown in the last few years and is still in progress. The high number of mosaic units in the calorimeter implies the following main requirements to be satisfied: a simple low cost for manufacturing and assembling, easy mountable/dismountable units, possibility to move or change silicon detectors easily, reliability of the electrical contacts between the aluminium layer on the silicon detector surface and the PCB breaker points.In order to satisfy the above requirements several assembling solutions have been investigated and tested recently, as fixed contact by using conducting epoxy-glues, mechanically dismountable contacts of gold-plated PCB copper to the silicon detectors, and others.The results of the tests show a general degradation of the original electrical characteristics of the contacts after of varying lengths operating times.This fact, due to corrosion phenomena assisted by chemical residuals in the contact interface, causes an irreversible damage of the detectors in the long term.In addition we found a room temperature interdiffusion of gold and copper.A promising solution to these problems can be achieved by careful removal of chemical, increase of golden layer of the PCB electrical copper contacts or aluminising them by pure aluminium vapour deposition in vacuum chamber.Thee estimated degradation time between the PCB copper and the aluminium film is very low in this case, and the risk of diffusion in the detector aluminium film surface is low along the whole operating life of the calorimeter. (orig.)

  12. Thin-film silicon detectors for particle detection

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, Nicolas; Dunand, S.; Miazza, C.; Shah, A.; Anelli, G.; Despeisse, M.; Garrigos, A.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon. J.; Moraes, D.; Commichau, S. C.; Dissertori, G.; Viertel, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Integrated particle sensors have been developed using thin-film on ASIC technology. For this purpose, hydrogenated amorphous silicon diodes, in various configurations, have been optimized for particle detection. These devices were first deposited on glass substrates to optimize the material properties and the dark current of very thick diodes (with thickness up to 50 μm). Corresponding diodes were later directly deposited on CMOS readout chips. These integrated particle sensors have been char...

  13. Operation of heavily irradiated silicon detectors in non-depletion mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitskaya, E.; Eremin, V.; Ilyashenko, I.; Li, Z.; Haerkoenen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.

    2006-01-01

    The non-depletion detector operation mode has generally been disregarded as an option in high-energy physics experiments. In this paper, the non-depletion operation is examined by detailed analysis of the electric field distribution and the current pulse response of heavily irradiated silicon (Si) detectors. The previously reported model of double junction in heavily irradiated Si detector is further developed and a simulation of the current pulse response has been performed. It is shown that detectors can operate in a non-depletion mode due to the fact that the value of the electric field in a non-depleted region is high enough for efficient carrier drift. This electric field originates from the current flow through the detector and a consequent drop of the potential across high-resistivity bulk of a non-depleted region. It is anticipated that the electric field in a non-depleted region, which is still electrically neutral, increases with fluence that improves the non-depleted detector operation. Consideration of the electric field in a non-depleted region allows the explanation of the recorded double-peak current pulse shape of heavily irradiated Si detectors and definition of the requirements for the detector operational conditions. Detailed reconstruction of the electric field distribution gives new information on radiation effects in Si detectors

  14. Study of charge Transport in Silicon Detectors Non-Irradiated and Irradiated

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, C; Casse, G L; Glaser, M; Grigoriev, E; Lemeilleur, F

    1998-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of silicon detectors (standard planar float zone and MESA detectors) as a function of the particle fluence can be extracted by the application of a model describing the transport of charge carriers generated in the detectors by ionizing particles. The current pulse response induced by $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ particles in non-irradiated detectors and detectors irradiated up to fluences $\\Phi \\approx 3 \\cdot 10^{14}$ particles/cm$^2$ is reproduced via this model: i) by adding a small n-type region 15 $\\mu$m deep on the $p^+$ side for the detectors at fluences beyond the n to p-type inversion and ii) for the MESA detectors, by considering one additional dead layer of 14 $\\mu$m (observed experimentally) on each side of the detector, and introducing a second (delayed) component to the current pulse response. For both types of detectors, the model gives mobilities decreasing linearily up to fluences of about $5 \\cdot 10^{13}$ particles/cm$^2$ and converging, beyond, to saturation values ...

  15. Portable triple silicon detector telescope spectrometer for skin dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helt-Hansen, J.; Larsen, H.E.; Christensen, P.

    1999-01-01

    detectors. The LabVIEW(TM) software distributed by National Instruments was used for all program developments for the spectrometer, comprising also the capability of evaluating the absorbed dose rates from the measured beta spectra. The report describes the capability of the telescope spectrometer...

  16. An electromagnetic calorimeter for the silicon detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gives us confidence in the design and we plan to demonstrate the detector concept with prototypes in an electron test beam, ... part of an international test beam study. While we focus on an implementation of .... While we have a qualitative understanding of the cross talk, we are continuing to work on a quantitative model.

  17. Short p-type silicon microstrip detectors in 3D-stc technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany)], E-mail: simon.eckert@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany); Dalla-Betta, G.-F.; Zoboli, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Pozza, A.; Zorzi, N. [FBK-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2008-10-21

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute an extremely challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are needed to cope with the increased radiation dose, requiring new tracking detectors. In the upgraded ATLAS detector the region from 20 to 50 cm distance to the beam will be covered by silicon strip detectors (SSD) with short strips. These will have to withstand a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of about 1x10{sup 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, hence extreme radiation resistance is necessary. For the short strips, we propose to use SSD realised in the radiation tolerant 3D technology, where rows of columns-etched into the silicon bulk-are joined together to form strips. To demonstrate the feasibility of 3D SSD for the sLHC, we have built prototype modules using 3D-single-type-column (stc) SSD with short strips and front-end electronics from the present ATLAS SCT. The modules were read out with the SCT Data Acquisition system and tested with an IR-laser. We report on the performance of these 3D modules, in particular the noise at 40 MHz which constitutes a measurement of the effective detector capacitance. Conclusions about options for using 3D SSD detectors for tracking at the sLHC are drawn.

  18. Integrating Silicon detector with segmentation for scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feser, Michael; Hornberger, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Chris; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Rehak, Pavel; Holl, Peter; Strüder, Lothar

    2006-09-01

    Scanning transmission X-ray microscopes require detectors with high quantum efficiency and wide dynamic range. While large area detectors provide absorption contrast, the addition of spatial segmentation adds phase contrast imaging capabilities. We describe a charge integrating Silicon detector for use at energies from 200-1000 eV. The detector uses patterned rectifying junctions on high-resistivity n-type Silicon, with separate current readout for each segment. The detector has been subdivided into eight regions arranged in a circular geometry according to the beam profile in a scanning X-ray microscope. The uncooled chip is fully depleted by a positive bias voltage applied at the ohmic contact on the back side. X-rays are collected on the radiation-hard back side with very high efficiency ( >75% for 250 eV X-rays), and compact, low-noise electronics integrate the current from the detector segments. The RMS noise of the combined system is about 500 electrons/channel for a 1 ms integration time, which is equivalent to about five photons per channel at 360 eV X-ray energy.

  19. Integrating Silicon detector with segmentation for scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feser, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Hornberger, Benjamin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)]. E-mail: benjamin.hornberger@stonybrook.edu; Jacobsen, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); De Geronimo, Gianluigi [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rehak, Pavel [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]. E-mail: rehak@bnl.gov; Holl, Peter [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Munich (Germany); Strueder, Lothar [MPI fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Scanning transmission X-ray microscopes require detectors with high quantum efficiency and wide dynamic range. While large area detectors provide absorption contrast, the addition of spatial segmentation adds phase contrast imaging capabilities. We describe a charge integrating Silicon detector for use at energies from 200-1000eV. The detector uses patterned rectifying junctions on high-resistivity n-type Silicon, with separate current readout for each segment. The detector has been subdivided into eight regions arranged in a circular geometry according to the beam profile in a scanning X-ray microscope. The uncooled chip is fully depleted by a positive bias voltage applied at the ohmic contact on the back side. X-rays are collected on the radiation-hard back side with very high efficiency (>75% for 250eV X-rays), and compact, low-noise electronics integrate the current from the detector segments. The RMS noise of the combined system is about 500 electrons/channel for a 1ms integration time, which is equivalent to about five photons per channel at 360eV X-ray energy.

  20. Mechanical and thermal behavior of a prototype support structure for a large silicon vertex detector (BCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulderink, H.; Michels, N.; Joestlein, H.

    1989-01-01

    The Bottom Collider Detector (BCD) has been proposed as a device to study large numbers of events containing B mesons. To identify secondary vertices in hadronic events it will employ the most ambitious silicon strip tracking detector proposed to-date. This report will discuss results from measurements on a first mechanical/thermal model of the vertex detector support structure. The model that was built and used for the studies described here is made of brass. Brass was used because it is readily available and easily assembled by soft soldering, and, for appropriate thicknesses, it will behave similarly to the beryllium that will be used in the actual detector. The trough was built to full scale with the reinforcement webbing and the cooling channels in place. There were no detector modules in place. We plan, however, to install modules in the trough in the future. The purpose of the model was to address two concerns that have arisen about the proposed structure of the detector. The first is whether or not the trough will be stable enough. The trough must be very light in weight yet have a high degree of rigidity. Because of the 3m length of the detector there is question as to the stiffness of the proposed trough. The main concern is that there will sagging or movement of the trough in the middle region. The second problem is the heat load. There will be a great deal of heat generated by the electronics attached to the detector modules. So the question arises as to whether or not the silicon detectors can be kept cool enough so that when the actual experiment is run the readings will be valid. The heat may also induce motion by differential expansion of support components. 26 figs

  1. Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions for nuclear radiation detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Hong, W.S.; Luke, P.N.; Wang, N.W.; Ziemba, F.P.

    1996-10-01

    Results on characterization of electrical properties of amorphous Si films for the 3 different growth methods (RF sputtering, PECVD [plasma enhanced], LPCVD [low pressure]) are reported. Performance of these a-Si films as heterojunctions on high resistivity p-type and n- type crystalline Si is examined by measuring the noise, leakage current, and the alpha particle response of 5mm dia detector structures. It is demonstrated that heterojunction detectors formed by RF sputtered films and PECVD films are comparable in performance with conventional surface barrier detectors. Results indicate that the a-Si/c-Si heterojunctions have the potential to greatly simplify detector fabrication. Directions for future avenues of nuclear particle detector development are indicated

  2. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown.

  3. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. A key issue ...

  4. Atlas Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a significant factor, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for Super-LHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will imply a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown.

  5. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the sLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Michel; Minano Moya, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. (authors)

  6. Silicon strip tracking detector development and prototyping for the Phase-2 Upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Susanne; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In about ten years from now, the Phase-2 upgrade of the LHC is planned. This will result in a severe radiation dose and high particle rates for the multipurpose exeperiments because of a foreseen luminosity of ten times higher the LHC design luminosity. Several detector components will have to be upgraded in the experiments. In the ATLAS experiment the current inner detector will be replaced by an all silicon tracking detector aiming for high performance. The poster will present the development and the latest prototyping of the upgrade silicon strip tracking detector. Its layout foresees low mass and modular double-sided structures for the barrel and forward region. Silicon sensors and readout electronics, so-called modules, are planned to be assembled double-sided on larger carbon-core structures. The modularity allows assembly and testing at multiple sites. Many components need to be developed and their prototyping towards full-size components is ongoing. New developments and test results will be presented....

  7. The CMS Silicon Pixel detector for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is planning an upgrade program which will bring the luminosity to about 5~$\\times10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in 2026, with the goal of an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity scenario, HL-LHC, will present new challenges of higher data rates and increased radiation. To maintain its physics potential in this harsh environment, the CMS detector will undergo a major upgrade program known as the Phase II upgrade. The new Phase II pixel detector will require a high bandwidth readout system and highly radiation tolerant sensors and on-detector ASICs. Several technologies for the sensors are being studied. Serial powering schemes are under consideration to accommodate significant constraints on the system. These prospective designs, as well as new layout geometries that include very forward pixel discs with acceptance extended from $\\vert\\eta\\vert<2.4$ to $\\vert\\eta\\vert<4$, are presented together with performance estimates.

  8. Development of an automatic characterisation system for silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, J.; Bergauer, T.; Krammer, M.; Wedenig, R.

    2002-06-01

    The CMS experiment will be equipped with the largest silicon tracker in the world. The tracker will consist of about 25,000 silicon sensors which will cover an area of more than 200 m2. Four quality test centres will carry out various checks on a representative sample of sensors to assure a homogeneous quality throughout the 2 {1}/{2} years of production. One of these centres is based in Vienna. To cope with the large number of sensors a fast and fully automatic characterisation system has been realised. We developed the software in LabView and built a cost-efficient probe station in house by assembling individual components and commercial instruments. Both the global properties of a sensor and the characteristic quantities of the individual strips can be measured. The measured data are immediately analysed and sent to a central database. The mechanical and electrical set-up will be explained and results from CMS prototype sensors are presented.

  9. Development of an automatic characterisation system for silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hacker, J; Krammer, M; Wedenig, R

    2002-01-01

    The CMS experiment will be equipped with the largest silicon tracker in the world. The tracker will consist of about 25,000 silicon sensors which will cover an area of more than 200 m sup 2. Four quality test centres will carry out various checks on a representative sample of sensors to assure a homogeneous quality throughout the 2((1)/(2)) years of production. One of these centres is based in Vienna. To cope with the large number of sensors a fast and fully automatic characterisation system has been realised. We developed the software in LabView and built a cost-efficient probe station in house by assembling individual components and commercial instruments. Both the global properties of a sensor and the characteristic quantities of the individual strips can be measured. The measured data are immediately analysed and sent to a central database. The mechanical and electrical set-up will be explained and results from CMS prototype sensors are presented.

  10. A monolithically integrated detector-preamplifier on high-resistivity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.; Spieler, H.

    1990-02-01

    A monolithically integrated detector-preamplifier on high-resistivity silicon has been designed, fabricated and characterized. The detector is a fully depleted p-i-n diode and the preamplifier is implemented in a depletion-mode PMOS process which is compatible with detector processing. The amplifier is internally compensated and the measured gain-bandwidth product is 30 MHz with an input-referred noise of 15 nV/√Hz in the white noise regime. Measurements with an Am 241 radiation source yield an equivalent input noise charge of 800 electrons at 200 ns shaping time for a 1.4 mm 2 detector with on-chip amplifier in an experimental setup with substantial external pickup

  11. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y., E-mail: cycjty@sophie.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Fuji, Hino, Tokyo 191-8502 (Japan); Fujiwara, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M. [Nuclear Professional School, the University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Tomita, H. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshihara, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-09-11

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  12. Study of timing performance of silicon photomultiplier and application for a Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, G.S.M., E-mail: gamal.ahmed@assoc.oeaw.ac.a [Stefan Meyer Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Cairo (Egypt); Buehler, P.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K. [Stefan Meyer Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-02-01

    Silicon photomultipliers are very versatile photo-detectors due to their high photon detection efficiency, fast response, single photon counting capability, high amplification, and their insensitivity to magnetic fields. At our institute we are studying the performance of these photo-detectors at various operating conditions. On the basis of the experience in the laboratory we built a prototype of a timing Cherenkov detector consisting of a quartz radiator with two 3x3 mm{sup 2} MPPCs S10362-33-100C from Hamamatsu Photonics as photo-detectors. The MPPC sensors were operated with Peltier cooling to minimize thermal noise and to avoid gain drifts. The test measurements at the DA {Phi} NE Beam-Test Facility (BTF) at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) with pulsed 490 MeV electrons and the results on timing performance with Cherenkov photons are presented.

  13. 2-D response mapping of multi-linear silicon drift detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castoldi, A., E-mail: Andrea.Castoldi@polimi.i [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Guazzoni, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Hartmann, R. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Mezza, D. [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Strueder, L. [Max-Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85741 Garching (Germany); MPI Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Universitaet Siegen, FB Physik, Emmy-Noether Campus, Walter Flex Strasse 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Tassan Garofolo, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2010-12-11

    Multi-linear silicon drift detectors (MLSDDs) are good candidates to fulfill simultaneous requirements for 2-D position-sensing and spectroscopy applications. The optimization of their design and performance as 2-D imagers requires a detailed study of timing properties of the charge cloud in the MLSDD architecture. In particular it is important to experimentally determine the dependence of the measured amplitude and time-of-arrival on the photon position of interaction so as to derive the 2D detector response. In this paper we will present a detailed experimental characterization aimed at measuring the detector amplitude response and its timing response. The dependence of charge cloud drift time on precise position of interaction has been measured as a function of detector biasing conditions.

  14. Laboratory and test beam results from a large-area silicon drift detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, V; Giubellino, P; Gregorio, A; Idzik, M; Kolojvari, A A; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nouais, D; Petta, C; Rashevsky, A; Randazzo, N; Reito, S; Tosello, F; Vacchi, A; Vinogradov, L I; Zampa, N

    2000-01-01

    A very large-area (6.75*8 cm/sup 2/) silicon drift detector with integrated high-voltage divider has been designed, produced and fully characterised in the laboratory by means of ad hoc designed MOS injection electrodes. The detector is of the "butterfly" type, the sensitive area being subdivided into two regions with a maximum drift length of 3.3 cm. The device was also tested in a pion beam (at the CERN PS) tagged by means of a microstrip detector telescope. Bipolar VLSI front-end cells featuring a noise of 250 e/sup -/ RMS at 0 pF with a slope of 40 e/sup -//pF have been used to read out the signals. The detector showed an excellent stability and featured the expected characteristics. Some preliminary results will be presented. (12 refs).

  15. HELIX128S-2 - A readout chip for the silicon vertex detector and inner tracker detector of HERA-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunk, U.; Fallot-Burghardt, W.; Sexauer, E.; Knoepfle, K-T.; Hofmann, W.; Cuje, M.; Glass, B.; Feuerstack-Raible, M.; Eisele, F.; Straumann, U.

    1998-01-01

    HERA-B is a fixed target experiment at the HERA proton storage ring dedicated to examine CP-violation in the B-Meson system. Based on the RD20-FElix concept a readout chip has been designed in AMS's 0.8 μm CMOS process for the HERA-B silicon vertex and inner tracker (MSGC) detectors. Various test chips have been submitted and successfully tested since '95, thus enabling the submission of a fully integrated 128 channel version in April '97. Design features of this chip (HELIX128S-2) and test results of its predecessor HELIX128 are presented

  16. A silicon strip detector array for energy verification and quality assurance in heavy ion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrot, Emily; Newall, Matthew; Guatelli, Susanna; Petasecca, Marco; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2018-02-01

    The measurement of depth dose profiles for range and energy verification of heavy ion beams is an important aspect of quality assurance procedures for heavy ion therapy facilities. The steep dose gradients in the Bragg peak region of these profiles require the use of detectors with high spatial resolution. The aim of this work is to characterize a one dimensional monolithic silicon detector array called the "serial Dose Magnifying Glass" (sDMG) as an independent ion beam energy and range verification system used for quality assurance conducted for ion beams used in heavy ion therapy. The sDMG detector consists of two linear arrays of 128 silicon sensitive volumes each with an effective size of 2mm × 50μm × 100μm fabricated on a p-type substrate at a pitch of 200 μm along a single axis of detection. The detector was characterized for beam energy and range verification by measuring the response of the detector when irradiated with a 290 MeV/u 12 C ion broad beam incident along the single axis of the detector embedded in a PMMA phantom. The energy of the 12 C ion beam incident on the detector and the residual energy of an ion beam incident on the phantom was determined from the measured Bragg peak position in the sDMG. Ad hoc Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental setup were also performed to give further insight into the detector response. The relative response profiles along the single axis measured with the sDMG detector were found to have good agreement between experiment and simulation with the position of the Bragg peak determined to fall within 0.2 mm or 1.1% of the range in the detector for the two cases. The energy of the beam incident on the detector was found to vary less than 1% between experiment and simulation. The beam energy incident on the phantom was determined to be (280.9 ± 0.8) MeV/u from the experimental and (280.9 ± 0.2) MeV/u from the simulated profiles. These values coincide with the expected energy of 281 MeV/u. The sDMG detector

  17. Low-temperature technique of thin silicon ion implanted epitaxial detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordyasz, A.J.; Bednarek, A. [Warsaw University, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Le Neindre, N.; Bougault, R.; Lopez, O.; Merrer, Y.; Vient, E. [Universite de Caen, LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN, Caen-Cedex (France); Parlog, M. [Universite de Caen, LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN, Caen-Cedex (France); ' ' Horia Hulubei' ' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Casini, G.; Poggi, G.; Bini, M.; Valdre, S.; Scarlini, E.; Pasquali, G.; Pastore, G.; Piantelli, S.; Stefanini, A.; Olmi, A.; Barlini, S. [INFN Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Universita di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Kowalczyk, M. [Warsaw University, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Frankland, J.D.; Bonnet, E.; Chbihi, A.; Gruyer, D. [CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, GANIL, Caen-Cedex 05 (France); Borderie, B.; Ademard, G.; Edelbruck, P.; Rivet, M.F.; Salomon, F. [IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay-Cedex (France); Boiano, A.; Rosato, E.; Meoli, A.; Ordine, A.; Spadaccini, G.; Tortone, G.; Vigilante, M.; Vanzanella, E. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Bruno, M.; Serra, S.; Morelli, L.; Guerzoni, M. [INFN, Bologna (Italy); Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Alba, R.; Santonocito, D.; Maiolino, C. [INFN, Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania, LNS, Catania (Italy); Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T. [INFN LNL Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Kozik, T.; Kulig, P.; Twarog, T.; Sosin, Z. [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Gasior, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Silesian University, Katowice (Poland); Sarnecki, J.; Lipinski, D.; Wodzinska, H.; Brzozowski, A.; Teodorczyk, M.; Gajewski, M.; Zagojski, A.; Krzyzak, K. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Tarasiuk, K.J. [University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Khabanowa, Z. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Kordyasz, L. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechatronics, Institute of Mikromechanics and Photonics, Department of Design of Precision Devices, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-02-01

    A new technique of large-area thin ion implanted silicon detectors has been developed within the R and D performed by the FAZIA Collaboration. The essence of the technique is the application of a low-temperature baking process instead of high-temperature annealing. This thermal treatment is performed after B{sup +} ion implantation and Al evaporation of detector contacts, made by using a single adjusted Al mask. Extremely thin silicon pads can be therefore obtained. The thickness distribution along the X and Y directions was measured for a prototype chip by the energy loss of α-particles from {sup 241}Am (left angle E{sub α} right angle = 5.5 MeV). Preliminary tests on the first thin detector (area ∼ 20 x 20 mm{sup 2}) were performed at the INFN-LNS cyclotron in Catania (Italy) using products emitted in the heavy-ion reaction {sup 84}Kr (E = 35 A MeV) + {sup 112}Sn. The ΔE - E ion identification plot was obtained using a telescope consisting of our thin ΔE detector (21 μm thick) followed by a typical FAZIA 510 μm E detector of the same active area. The charge distribution of measured ions is presented together with a quantitative evaluation of the quality of the Z resolution. The threshold is lower than 2 A MeV depending on the ion charge. (orig.)

  18. Elimination and formation of electrically active defects in hydrogenated silicon particle detectors irradiated with electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, L.F. [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)]. E-mail: makleo@mail.ru; Korshunov, F.P. [Institute of Solid State and Semiconductor Physics, Minsk (Belarus); Lastovski, S.B. [Institute of Solid State and Semiconductor Physics, Minsk (Belarus); Kazuchits, N.M. [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus); Rusetsky, M.S. [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus); Fretwurst, E. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Lindstroem, G. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Moll, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Pintilie, I. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Zamiatin, N.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2005-10-21

    The influence of preliminary treatment in hydrogen plasma on elimination of radiation defects and formation of thermal donors has been studied in detector structures made of standard float zone silicon. The detectors were irradiated with 3.5 MeV electrons and annealed at temperatures of 50-350 deg. C. It has been found that preliminary hydrogenation at 300 deg. C leads to disappearance of divacancies and vacancy-oxygen complexes at lower annealing temperatures. The annealing of hydrogenated and irradiated crystals is accompanied by hydrogen redistribution and formation of hydrogen-related donors.

  19. Effects of the interstrip gap on the efficiency and response of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torresi D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effects of the segmentation of the electrodes of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs are investigated. In order to characterize the response of the DSSSDs we perform a first experiment by using tandem beams of different energies directly sent on the detector and a second experiment by mean of a proton microbeam. Results show that the effective width of the inter-strip region and the efficiency for full energy detection, varies with both detected energy and bias voltage. The experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by a simplified model based on the Shockley-Ramo-Gunn framework.

  20. Commissioning, operation and performance of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker detector

    CERN Document Server

    Demina, Regina

    2009-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker is the largest device of this type ever built for detection of charge particles produced in beam-beam collisions. There are 24244 single-sided micro-strip sensors covering an active area of over 200 square meters, and nearly 10 millions channels to be read out. The detector was installed inside CMS in December 2007, and it was commissioned during the summer 2008. Since then it integrated several global CMS cosmic muons data taking and performances were measured. The commissioning strategy, operational experience learned during the data taking period, and detector performance results will be presented.

  1. Functional test of a Radon sensor based on a high-resistivity-silicon BJT detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Betta, G.F., E-mail: dallabe@disi.unitn.it [DISI, Università di Trento, and INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); RSens srl, Modena (Italy); Tyzhnevyi, V. [DISI, Università di Trento, and INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Bosi, A.; Bonaiuti, M. [RSens srl, Modena (Italy); Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.A.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Lusiani, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Ciolini, R.; Curzio, G.; D' Errico, F.; Del Gratta, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione, Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bidinelli, L. [En and tech, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia (Italy); RSens srl, Modena (Italy); and others

    2013-08-01

    A battery-powered, wireless Radon sensor has been designed and realized using a BJT, fabricated on a high-resistivity-silicon substrate, as a radiation detector. Radon daughters are electrostatically collected on the detector surface. Thanks to the BJT internal amplification, real-time α particle detection is possible using simple readout electronics, which records the particle arrival time and charge. Functional tests at known Radon concentrations, demonstrated a sensitivity up to 4.9 cph/(100 Bq/m{sup 3}) and a count rate of 0.05 cph at nominally-zero Radon concentration.

  2. Test results of the front-end system for the Silicon Drift Detectors of ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Anelli, G; Martínez, M I; Rotondo, F; Tosello, F; Wheadon, R

    2001-01-01

    The front-end system of the Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) of the ALICE experiment is made of two ASICs. The first chip performs the preamplification, temporary analogue storage and analogue-to-digital conversion of the detector signals. The second chip is a digital buffer that allows for a significant reduction of the connection from the front-end module to the outside world. In this paper, the results achieved on the first complete prototype of the front-end system for the SDDs of ALICE are presented.

  3. First results of the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, M; Bergauer, T; Buchsteiner, F; Irmler, C; Lettenbichler, J; Casarosa, G; Forti, F; Paoloni, E; Hara, K; Itoh, R; Nakamura, K R; Nakao, M; Suzuki, S Y; Higuchi, T; Konno, T; Liu, Z-A; Natkaniec, Z; Ostrowicz, W; Schlüter, T; Schnell, M

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of the Belle II experiment at KEK (Japan), there will be a Vertex Detector (VXD) composed of 2 layers of DEPFET pixels (PXD) and 4 layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors (SVD). The latter use the APV25 front-end chip — originally developed for CMS — which is reading out the inner part of the SVD sensors through the Origami chip-on-sensor concept, including a state-of-the-art two-phase CO 2 cooling. The whole system (including the full DAQ chain) was successfully tested in a beam at DESY in January 2014 and first results are presented here

  4. Portable Neutron Generator with 9-Section Silicon $\\alpha $-Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bystritsky, V M; Kadyshevskij, V G; Khasaev, T O; Kobzev, A P; Presnyakov, Yu K; Rogov,Yu N; Ryzhkov, V I; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sissakian, A N; Slepnev, V M; Zamyatin, N I

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the portable neutron generator with a built-in $\\alpha $-detector are presented. Based on the "tagged" neutron method (TNM) the generator ~is being used for identification of ~the hidden chemical compounds. One of the special features of such generators compared to generators traditionally used and produced in industry is that the generator is a source of monoenergetic "tagged" 14.1 MeV neutrons produced in the binary nuclear reaction $d+t \\to \\alpha $ (3.5 MeV) $+n$ (14.1~MeV). Unambiguous information about the time and direction of the neutron emitted from the target can be obtained by recording an $\\alpha $ particle by the multi-pixel $\\alpha $-detector placed inside the neutron tube. The study of the "tagged" neutron method (TNM) shows that the use of the ($\\alpha $--$\\gamma $) coincidence reduces the gamma background induced by scattered neutrons by a factor of more than 200, which allows the detection and identification of small quantities of explosives, drugs, and toxic agents. T...

  5. Degradation of charge sharing after neutron irradiation in strip silicon detectors with different geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the CERN/RD50 collaboration is the improvement of the radiation tolerance of semiconductor detectors for future experiments at high-luminosity colliders. In the RD50 framework, evidence of enhanced signal charge in severely irradiated silicon detectors (diodes, segmented planar and 3D devices) was found. The underlying mechanism was labelled charge multiplication. This has been one of the most exciting results from the research activity of RD50 because it could allow for a greatly extended radiation tolerance, if the mechanism is to be found controllable and tuneable. The charge multiplication mechanism is governed by impact ionisation from electrons drifting in high electric field. The electric field profile is influenced by the geometry of the implanted electrodes. In order to investigate the influence of the diode implantation geometry on charge multiplication, the RD50 collaboration has commissioned the production of miniature microstrip silicon sensors with various choices of strip pitch and s...

  6. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P.P

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their pro...

  7. Quality Assurance and Performance Tests of Silicon Detector Modules for the CMS/Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, Marko

    2005-01-01

    After providing a short overview of the LHC accelerator, the CMS experiment and it’s various detector systems, we will have an in-depth look on silicon semiconductor particle detectors. Various important aspects like theoretical principles, radiation damage and actual design considerations are discussed and the quality assurance scheme for the sensor and module production is introduced. A strong emphasis is made on the ARC module teststand which was set up and operated be the author. Another important aspect in establishing a good quality assurance scheme is flexibility and keeping an eye on the unexpected. At one such occasion, the author had to gather custom made test equipment, to investigate certain effects in silicon sensors manufactured by ST Microelectronics. Conclusions from these measurement could only be drawn very cautiously, as the manufacturing process and many of its subtle changes, remained a well kept secret of the company. Nevertheless, the investigations proofed to be useful and ST Microel...

  8. Temperature dependence of the radiation induced change of depletion voltage in silicon PIN detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Holzscheiter, K.; Morgan, A.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Ellison, J.; Heinson, A.P.; Mason, M.; Wimpenny, S.J.; Barberis, E.; Cartiglia, N.; Grillo, A.; O'Shaughnessy, K.; Rahn, J.; Rinaldi, P.; Rowe, W.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Webster, A.; Wichmann, R.; Wilder, M.; Coupal, D.; Pal, T.

    1993-01-01

    The silicon microstrip detectors that will be used in the SDC experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) will be exposed to very large fluences of charged particles, neutrons, and gammas. The authors present a study of how temperature affects the change in the depletion voltage of silicon PIN detectors damaged by radiation. They study the initial radiation damage and the short-term and long-term annealing of that damage as a function of temperature in the range from -10 degrees C to +50 degrees C, and as a function of 800 MeV proton fluence up to 1.5 x 10 14 p/cm 2 . They express the pronounced temperature dependencies in a simple model in terms of two annealing time constants which depend exponentially on the temperature

  9. Test of CMS tracker silicon detector modules with the ARC readout system

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, M; Flügge, G; Franke, T; Hegner, B; Hermanns, T; Kasselmann, S T; Mnich, J; Nowack, A; Pooth, O; Pottgens, M

    2004-01-01

    The CMS tracker will be equipped with 16,000 silicon microstrip detector modules covering a surface of approximately 220 m**2. For quality control, a compact and inexpensive DAQ system is needed to monitor the mass production in industry and in the CMS production centres. To meet these requirements a set-up called APV Readout Controller (ARC) system was developed and distributed among all collaborating institutes to perform full readout tests of hybrids and modules at each production step. The system consists of all necessary hardware components, C++ based readout software using LabVIEW **1 Lab VIEW is a product of National Instruments, Austin, USA. as graphical user interface and provides full database connection to track every single module component during the production phase. Two preseries of Tracker End Cap (TEC) silicon detector modules have been produced by the TEC community and tested with the ARC system at Aachen. The results of the second series are presented.

  10. Measurements of timing resolution of ultra-fast silicon detectors with the SAMPIC WTDC

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    The SAMpler for PICosecond time (SAMPIC) chip has been designed by a collaboration including CEA/IRFU/SEDI, Saclay and CNRS/LAL/SERDI, Orsay. It benefits from both the quick response of a time to digital converter (TDC) and the versatility of a waveform digitizer to perform accurate timing measurements. Thanks to the sampled signals, smart algorithms making best use of the pulse shape can be used to maximize time resolution. A software framework has been developed to analyse the SAMPIC output data and extract timing information by using either a constant fraction discriminator or a fast cross-correlation algorithm. SAMPIC timing capabilities together with the software framework have been tested using Gaussian signals generated by a signal generator or by silicon detectors pulsed with an infra-red laser. Under these ideal experimental conditions, the SAMPIC chip has proven to be capable of timing resolutions down to 4 (40) ps with synthesized (silicon detector) signals.

  11. Test and further development of a silicon picsel detector for detecting ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, P.

    1990-12-01

    The concept of a silicon detector with a MOSFET as an integrating amplification element (DEP-MOSFET) is introduced. The method of functioning of different version and a picture cell (picsel) detector, which makes energy and location resolution possible, is discussed. Quantitative relationships which describe the operation of the component as a detector, and quantitative relationships for the energy resolution of a DEP-MOSFET are derived theoretically. Measurements provide the proof of the detection function of different versions and the confirmation of the results of the theoretical model. The excellent noise properties of DEP-MOSFET detectors with closed structure are pointed out. The further development of the explained detector concept by integration of a JFET as the amplifying element (here introduced in the form of a computer simulation and quantitative relationships which describe the behaviour as a detector) promises progress with regard to energy resolution and radiation resistance, and offers the possibility of producing a picsel detector made from closed structures with little technological effort. (orig.) [de

  12. Count rate performance of a silicon-strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X., E-mail: olivia@mi.physics.kth.se; Grönberg, F.; Sjölin, M.; Karlsson, S.; Danielsson, M.

    2016-08-11

    A silicon-strip detector is developed for spectral computed tomography. The detector operates in photon-counting mode and allows pulse-height discrimination with 8 adjustable energy bins. In this work, we evaluate the count-rate performance of the detector in a clinical CT environment. The output counts of the detector are measured for x-ray tube currents up to 500 mA at 120 kV tube voltage, which produces a maximum photon flux of 485 Mphotons/s/mm{sup 2} for the unattenuated beam. The corresponding maximum count-rate loss of the detector is around 30% and there are no saturation effects. A near linear relationship between the input and output count rates can be observed up to 90 Mcps/mm{sup 2}, at which point only 3% of the input counts are lost. This means that the loss in the diagnostically relevant count-rate region is negligible. A semi-nonparalyzable dead-time model is used to describe the count-rate performance of the detector, which shows a good agreement with the measured data. The nonparalyzable dead time τ{sub n} for 150 evaluated detector elements is estimated to be 20.2±5.2 ns.

  13. Count rate performance of a silicon-strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Grönberg, F.; Sjölin, M.; Karlsson, S.; Danielsson, M.

    2016-08-01

    A silicon-strip detector is developed for spectral computed tomography. The detector operates in photon-counting mode and allows pulse-height discrimination with 8 adjustable energy bins. In this work, we evaluate the count-rate performance of the detector in a clinical CT environment. The output counts of the detector are measured for x-ray tube currents up to 500 mA at 120 kV tube voltage, which produces a maximum photon flux of 485 Mphotons/s/mm2 for the unattenuated beam. The corresponding maximum count-rate loss of the detector is around 30% and there are no saturation effects. A near linear relationship between the input and output count rates can be observed up to 90 Mcps/mm2, at which point only 3% of the input counts are lost. This means that the loss in the diagnostically relevant count-rate region is negligible. A semi-nonparalyzable dead-time model is used to describe the count-rate performance of the detector, which shows a good agreement with the measured data. The nonparalyzable dead time τn for 150 evaluated detector elements is estimated to be 20.2±5.2 ns.

  14. Beam test results of a drift velocity monitoring system for silicon drift detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nouais, D; Bonvicini, V; Cerello, P; Giubellino, P; Hernández-Montoya, R; Kolojvari, A; Mazza, G; Nissinen, J; Rashevsky, A; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F; Vacchi, A

    2002-01-01

    We report results on drift velocity monitoring using MOS charge injectors in silicon drift detectors obtained in beam test conditions. The correction of velocity variations as small as 0.03% caused by temperature variations of the order of 0.04 K allowed to get an average space resolution along all the drift path of 28 mu m. Preliminary result demonstrating the possibility to correct for temperature gradients along the anode axis are also presented.

  15. Energy and spatial resolution of a Shashlik calorimeter and a silicon preshower detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspell, P.; Bates, S.; Bloch, P. [European Lab. for Particle Phys. (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others; Grabit, R.; Jarron, P.; Kloukinas, K.; Lemeilleur, F.; Loos, R.; Marchioro, A.; Rosso, E.; Badier, J.; Bourotte, J.; Busata, A.; Busson, Ph.; Charlot, C.; Dobrzynski, L.; Ferreira, O.; Gregory, C.; Karar, A.; Manigot, P.; Tanaka, R.; Vanel, J.C.; Bityukov, S.; Obraztsov, V.; Ostankov, A.; Protopopov, Yu.; Rykalin, V.; Spiridonov, P.; Soushkov, V.; Vasil`chenko, V.; Clayton, E.; Miller, D.; Seez, C.; Virdee, T.S.; Djilkibaev, R.; Gninenko, S.; Guschin, E.; Musienko, Y.; Popov, V.; Skasyrskaya, A.; Semenyuk, I.; Cheremukhin, I.; Egorov, A.; Golutvin, I.; Kozlov, Y.; Moissenz, P.; Sergueev, S.; Sidorov, A.; Zubarev, E.; Zamiatin, N.; Bordalo, P.; Ramos, S.; Varela, J.; Cockerill, D.J.A.; Connolly, J.; Denton, L.; Godinovic, N.; Puljak, I.; Soric, I.; Chendvankar, S.R.; Gupta, S.K.; Ganguli, S.N.; Gurtu, A.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Moulik, T. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[LPNHE, Ecole Polytechnique, IN2P3-CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)]|[Institute for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov, 142 284 Protvino, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)]|[Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk (Russian Federation)]|[Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141 980 Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[LIP, Av. Elias Garcia 14-1, 1000 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)]|[Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)]|[FESB, University of Split, R. Boskovica bb, 21 000 Split (Croatia)]|[EHEP Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Bombay 400 005 (India); RD36 Collaboration

    1996-06-21

    New projective prototypes of a scintillator/lead sandwich type sampling calorimeter Shashlik with a silicon preshower detector have been constructed and tested with an electron beam at CERN-SPS. The energy resolution is measured to be 8.7%/{radical}(E(GeV)) in stochastic term, 0.330/E(GeV) in noise term and 0.5% in constant term. The angular resolution is better than 70 mrad/{radical}(E(GeV)). (orig.).

  16. Scanning of irradiated silicon detectors using $\\alpha$ particles and low energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G L; Glaser, M; Kohout, Z; Konícek, J; Lemeilleur, F; Leroy, C; Linhart, V; Mares, J J; Pospísil, S; Roy, P; Sopko, B; Sinor, M; Svejda, J; Vorobel, V; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    In a spectroscopic study of non-irradiated and proton-irradiated silicon diodes, the detectors were illuminated from the front side and from the rear side by various alpha particle sources (mainly ThC') and by monoenergetic protons with energies from 1.0 to 2.5~MeV. Their response characteristics have been studied as a function of the incoming particle energy and the applied bias voltage. The charge collection efficiency was determined as a function of fluence

  17. Charge collection measurements with p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon single pad detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, C.; Bruzzi, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Scaringella, M.; Petterson, M.K.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Betancourt, C.; Manna, N.; Creanza, D.; Boscardin, M.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N.; Borrello, L.; Messineo, A.

    2007-01-01

    The charge collected from beta source particles in single pad detectors produced on p-type Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon wafers has been measured before and after irradiation with 26 MeV protons. After a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 1x10 15 cm -2 the collected charge is reduced to 77% at bias voltages below 900 V. This result is compared with previous results from charge collection measurements

  18. Dielectric polarization and electric field distortion due to heavy ions impinging on silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlog, M.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Parlog, M.; Hamrita, H.; Borderie, B.; Lavergne, L.; Rivet, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    The polarization of the electron-hole pairs induced by 80 MeV 12 C in a silicon detector was considered and connected to the relative dielectric permittivity, locally increased. The exact coordinate dependence of the modified electric field - inside and outside the ion range - was found as the solution of the one dimension Poisson's equation for the electric potential in this inhomogeneous medium. The improvement of the signal simulation is encouraging, as compared to an undisturbed electric field case. (authors)

  19. Tests of Silicon Detector Modules for the Tracker End Cap with the ARC System

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Franke, Torsten; Kasselmann, Stefan; Mnich, Joachim; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Schulte, Reiner

    2003-01-01

    During the production phase of the CMS silicon strip detector modules the ARC (APV Readout Controller) system will be used as a readout system for testing purposes. The first ten TEC (tracker end cap) modules built have been tested using the ARC system. After a description of the test environment and the test procedures the results for the so-called expressline modules are summarized.

  20. A CAD investigation of depletion mechanisms in irradiated silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passeri, D; Bilei, G M

    1999-01-01

    The numerical simulation of a silicon microstrip detector is discussed. Physical models for the bulk radiation damage have been taken into account, based on a generalized Shockley-Read-Hall expression of the recombination rate. The actual shape of depletion layer, depending on the radiation fluence, has been investigated. The build-up of a dual depletion layer, as reported in some literature works, has been described and interpreted.

  1. LabVIEW-based control and acquisition system for the dosimetric characterization of a silicon strip detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, M. C.; Pérez Vega-Leal, A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Selva, A.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Arráns, R.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new data acquisition, control, and analysis software system written in LabVIEW. This system has been designed to obtain the dosimetry of a silicon strip detector in polyethylene. It allows the full automation of the experiments and data analysis required for the dosimetric characterization of silicon detectors. It becomes a useful tool that can be applied in the daily routine check of a beam accelerator.

  2. Performance of a CMS Silicon Strip Detector Module with APV25 Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, Markus; Bauer, Thomas; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will include a Silicon Strip Tracker covering a sensitive area of 206m2 with about ten million readout channels. Its silicon detectors, made from 6" wafers, will be read out by APV25 front-end chips, fabricated in the 0.25um deep submicron process which is intrinsically radiation-tolerant. A first prototype module has been built consisting of two chained silicon sensors of 320um thickness and three APV25 chips (version S0). The performance of this module has been evaluated in a pion and proton beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Villigen/CH).

  3. Modified Poisson solver for the simulation of the silicon-oxide interface in semiconductor detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castoldi, A. E-mail: andrea.castoldi@polimi.it; Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Guazzoni, C.; De Geronimo, G

    2000-01-11

    We present a modified Poisson solver for depleted semiconductor detectors that takes into account the effects of possible accumulation of mobile charge at the silicon-oxide interfaces. The solver is based on a physical model that closely approximates the correct boundary condition at the silicon-oxide interface. The model assumes that the silicon-oxide interface is divided into an equipotential region, where the electron layer is located, and a fully depleted region. The actual extension and potential of the electron layer region are approximated with the desired accuracy by an iterative procedure. This model has been implemented in 2- and 3-D Poisson solvers. The comparison with a 2-D drift-diffusion simulator has shown the accuracy of the proposed method. The modified Poisson solver has shown to be useful in giving accurate solutions to 3-D design problems at high CPU speed.

  4. Modified Poisson solver for the simulation of the silicon-oxide interface in semiconductor detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Castoldi, A; Gatti, E; Guazzoni, C; De Geronimo, G

    2000-01-01

    We present a modified Poisson solver for depleted semiconductor detectors that takes into account the effects of possible accumulation of mobile charge at the silicon-oxide interfaces. The solver is based on a physical model that closely approximates the correct boundary condition at the silicon-oxide interface. The model assumes that the silicon-oxide interface is divided into an equipotential region, where the electron layer is located, and a fully depleted region. The actual extension and potential of the electron layer region are approximated with the desired accuracy by an iterative procedure. This model has been implemented in 2- and 3-D Poisson solvers. The comparison with a 2-D drift-diffusion simulator has shown the accuracy of the proposed method. The modified Poisson solver has shown to be useful in giving accurate solutions to 3-D design problems at high CPU speed.

  5. Testbeam studies of silicon microstrip sensor architectures modified to facilitate detector module mass production

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC, the Inner Detector of the ATLAS detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracker, consisting of pixel and strip sensor detector modules. Silicon strip sensors are being developed to meet both the tracking requirements in a high particle density environment and constraints imposed by the construction process. Several thousand wire bonds per module, connecting sensor strips and readout channels, need to be produced with high reliability and speed, requiring wire bond pads of sufficient size on each sensor strip. These sensor bond pads change the local sensor architecture and the resulting electric field and thus alter the sensor performance. These sensor regions with bond pads, which account for up to 10 % of a silicon strip sensor, were studied using both an electron beam at DESY and a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. This contribution presents measurements of the effective strip width in sensor regions where the structure of standard parallel...

  6. Micro-fabricated silicon devices for advanced thermal management and integration of particle tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, Giulia; Gambaro, Carla

    Since their first studies targeting the cooling of high-power computing chips, micro-channel devices are proven to provide a very efficient cooling system. In the last years micro-channel cooling has been successfully applied to the cooling of particle detectors at CERN. Thanks to their high thermal efficiency, they can guarantee a good heat sink for the cooling of silicon trackers, fundamental for the reduction of the radiation damage caused by the beam interactions. The radiation damage on the silicon detector is increasing with temperature and furthermore the detectors are producing heat that should be dissipated in the supporting structure. Micro-channels guarantee a distributed and uniform thermal exchange, thanks to the high flexibility of the micro-fabrication process that allows a large variety of channel designs. The thin nature of the micro-channels etched inside silicon wafers, is fulfilling the physics requirement of minimization of the material crossed by the particle beam. Furthermore micro-chan...

  7. Silicon Strip detectors for the ATLAS End-Cap Tracker at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00232570

    Inside physics programme of the LHC different experiment upgrades are foreseen. After the phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector the luminosity will be increased up to 5-7.5x10E34 cm-2s-1. This will mean a considerable increase in the radiation levels, above 10E16 neq/cm2 in the inner regions. This thesis is focused on the development of silicon microstrip detectors enough radiation hard to cope with the particle fluence expected at the ATLAS detector during HL-LHC experiment. In particular on the electrical characterization of silicon sensors for the ATLAS End-Caps. Different mechanical and thermal tests are shown using a Petal core as well as the electrical characterization of the silicon sensors that will be used with the Petal structure. Charge collection efficiency studies are carried out on sensors with different irradiation fluences using the ALiBaVa system and two kinds of strips connection are also analized (DC and AC ganging) with a laser system. The Petalet project is presented and the electrical c...

  8. Investigation on the improved radiation hardness of silicon detectors with high oxygen concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Michael; Lindström, G

    2000-01-01

    We present an investigation on the influence of the oxygen concentration on radiation-induced changes in the effective doping concentration of silicon detectors. Diodes fabricated from silicon with interstitial oxygen content ranging from below 2*10/sup 14/ to 9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ have been irradiated with fast neutrons up to a fluence of 2*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/. Our main interest focused on the so-called stable damage component in the change of the effective doping concentration being of prime importance for the application of silicon detectors in high-energy physics experiments. We demonstrate, that with a high oxygen enrichment the donor removal is appreciably reduced, reaching a value of only 10601130f the initial doping concentration for [O/sub i/]=9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/, while for normal detector grade material with [O/sub i/] below 5*10/sup 16/ cm /sup -3/ that value is 60-90Furthermore, we show that the fluence proportional introduction of stable acceptors is independent of the oxygen concentratio...

  9. Neutron irradiation effects on silicon detectors structure, electrical and mechanical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovich, E.; Golan, G.; Axelevich, A.; Inberg, A.; Oksman, M.; Rosenwaks, I.; Lubarsky, G.; Seidman, A.; Croitoru, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rattaggi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron irradiation effects on (p-n) and Schottky-junction silicon detectors were studied. It was shown that neutron interactions with monocrystalline silicon create specific types of microstructure defects with morphology differing according to the level of neutron fluences (Φ). The isolated dislocation loops, formed by interstitial atoms were observed in microstructure images for 10 10 ≤ Φ ≤ 10 12 n/cm 2 . A strong change in the dislocation loops density and a cluster formation was observed for Φ ≥ 10 13 n/cm 2 . A drastic silicon damage was found for fluences over 10 14 n/cm 2 . These fluences created zones enriched with all types of dislocations, covering more than 50 % of the total surface area. A mechanical fragility appeared in that fluence range in a form of microcracks. 10 14 n/cm 2 appears to be a critical value of neutron irradiation because of the radiation damage described above and because the characteristics I f -V f of silicon detectors can be differentiated from those obtained at low fluences. (A.C.)

  10. Silicon strip detector for a novel 2D dosimetric method for radiotherapy treatment verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocci, A.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Arráns, R.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Abou-Haïdar, Z.; Quesada, J. M.; Pérez Vega-Leal, A.; Pérez Nieto, F. J.

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize a silicon strip detector and its associated data acquisition system, based on discrete electronics, to obtain in a near future absorbed dose maps in axial planes for complex radiotherapy treatments, using a novel technique. The experimental setup is based on two phantom prototypes: the first one is a polyethylene slab phantom used to characterize the detector in terms of linearity, percent depth dose, reproducibility, uniformity and penumbra. The second one is a cylindrical phantom, specifically designed and built to recreate conditions close to those normally found in clinical environments, for treatment planning assessment. This system has been used to study the dosimetric response of the detector, in the axial plane of the phantom, as a function of its angle with respect to the irradiation beam. A software has been developed to operate the rotation of this phantom and to acquire signals from the silicon strip detector. As an innovation, the detector was positioned inside the cylindrical phantom parallel to the beam axis. Irradiation experiments were carried out with a Siemens PRIMUS linac operating in the 6 MV photon mode at the Virgen Macarena Hospital. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Geant4 toolkit and results were compared to Treatment Planning System (TPS) calculations for the absorbed dose-to-water case. Geant4 simulations were used to estimate the sensitivity of the detector in different experimental configurations, in relation to the absorbed dose in each strip. A final calibration of the detector in this clinical setup was obtained by comparing experimental data with TPS calculations.

  11. CERN-RD39 collaboration activities aimed at cryogenic silicon detector application in high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zheng; Verbitskaya, Elena; Dehning, Bernd; Sapinski, Mariusz; Bartosik, Marcin R; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Kurfürst, Christoph; Härkönen, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) made of silicon are new devices for monitoring of radiation environment in the vicinity of superconductive magnets of the Large Hadron Collider. The challenge of BLMs is extreme radiation hardness, up to 10 16 protons/cm 2 while placed in superfluid helium (temperature of 1.9 K). CERN BE-BI-BL group, together with CERN-RD39 collaboration, has developed prototypes of BLMs and investigated their device physics. An overview of this development—results of the in situ radiation tests of planar silicon detectors at 1.9 K, performed in 2012 and 2014—is presented. Our main finding is that silicon detectors survive under irradiation to 1×10 16 p/cm 2 at 1.9 K. In order to improve charge collection, current injection into the detector sensitive region (Current Injection Detector (CID)) was tested. The results indicate that the detector signal increases while operated in CID mode.

  12. Radiation damage in proton-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Joern

    2009-07-15

    In this work radiation hardness of 75 {mu}m, 100 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m thick epitaxial silicon pad diodes of both standard and oxygenated material was investigated. Damage after 24 GeV/c proton irradiation in a 1MeV neutron equivalent fluence range between 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} and 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} was studied and isothermal annealing experiments at 80 C were carried out. Standard CV/IV measurements could be performed up to 4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The volume-normalised reverse current was found to increase linearly with fluence with a slope independent of the thickness and impurity concentration. However, due to large fluctuations the fluences had to be renormalised using the current-related damage parameter. Concerning the depletion voltage, nearly all materials remained at a moderate level up to 4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. During short-term annealing acceptors annealed out, whereas others were introduced during the long-term annealing. The stable damage was characterised by donor removal at low fluences and fluence-proportional predominant donor introduction for highly irradiated diodes, depending on the oxygen level. No type inversion was observed. Time-resolved measurements with a new 670 nm laser-TCT setup made the determination of the trapping time constant with the charge correction method possible. The results agreed with expectations and showed a linear increase of trapping probability with fluence. The electric field exhibited a double peak structure in highly irradiated diodes. Charge collection efficiency measurements with {alpha}-particles were independent of oxygen concentration, but showed an improved efficiency for thinner diodes. A comparison to simulation revealed systematic discrepancies. A non-constant trapping time parameter was proposed as possible solution. (orig.)

  13. Radiation damage in proton-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Joern

    2009-07-01

    In this work radiation hardness of 75 μm, 100 μm and 150 μm thick epitaxial silicon pad diodes of both standard and oxygenated material was investigated. Damage after 24 GeV/c proton irradiation in a 1MeV neutron equivalent fluence range between 10 14 cm -2 and 10 16 cm -2 was studied and isothermal annealing experiments at 80 C were carried out. Standard CV/IV measurements could be performed up to 4 x 10 15 cm -2 . The volume-normalised reverse current was found to increase linearly with fluence with a slope independent of the thickness and impurity concentration. However, due to large fluctuations the fluences had to be renormalised using the current-related damage parameter. Concerning the depletion voltage, nearly all materials remained at a moderate level up to 4 x 10 15 cm -2 . During short-term annealing acceptors annealed out, whereas others were introduced during the long-term annealing. The stable damage was characterised by donor removal at low fluences and fluence-proportional predominant donor introduction for highly irradiated diodes, depending on the oxygen level. No type inversion was observed. Time-resolved measurements with a new 670 nm laser-TCT setup made the determination of the trapping time constant with the charge correction method possible. The results agreed with expectations and showed a linear increase of trapping probability with fluence. The electric field exhibited a double peak structure in highly irradiated diodes. Charge collection efficiency measurements with α-particles were independent of oxygen concentration, but showed an improved efficiency for thinner diodes. A comparison to simulation revealed systematic discrepancies. A non-constant trapping time parameter was proposed as possible solution. (orig.)

  14. Lifetime measurements of charmed mesons with high resolution silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijk, G.A.F. de.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis an experiment is described to measure the lifetimes of pseudoscalar charmed mesons. The experiment uses a negatively charged unseparated hadron beam of 200 GeV. The experiment is carried out with a magnetic spectrometer preceded by a beam telescope, an active target and a vertex telescope, all consisting of Si microstrip detectors. The spectrometer consists of two spectrometer magnets, 48 planes of drift chambers and 3 Cerenkov hodoscopes for the determination and identification of charged secondaries. The lifetimes of the charmed mesons are determined by measuring the length of their flight path, their momentum and their mass. The results, which are described in the thesis, are based on the analysis of part of the collected data. The production rates in the K - beam and in the π - beam are found to be in the same order of magnitude within the x F range covered. Previous experimental data on the lifetimes of charmed particles are reviewed. A theoretical interpretation is presented of the measured decay properties. (Auth.)

  15. Development and operation of tracking detectors in silicon technology for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Adeva, Bernardo

    The LHCb experiment is one of the four main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It uses the energy density provided by the LHC to attempt to probe asymmetries between particles and antiparticles that can not be explained by the Standard Model, and thus provide evidence that would allow us to build a new model of fundamental physics. This thesis covers the author's work in the Silicon Tracker $(\\textit{ST})$ and VErtex LOcator $(\\textit{VELO})$ detectors of the LHCb experiment. The thesis explains the installation and commissioning of the $ST$, as well as the development of the slow control for the detector. The $ST$ is a silicon micro-strip detector which provides precise momentum measurements of ionizing particles coming from the collisions. The $ST$consists of two sub-detectors: the Tracker Turicensis $ (TT)$, located upstream of the 4 Tm dipole magnet covering the full acceptance of the experiment, and the Inner Tracker $(IT)$, which covers the region of highest particle density closest...

  16. Output factor determination for dose measurements in axial and perpendicular planes using a silicon strip detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Haïdar, Z.; Bocci, A.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Espino, J. M.; Gallardo, M. I.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Ovejero, M. C.; Quesada, J. M.; Arráns, R.; Prieto, M. Ruiz; Vega-Leal, A. Pérez; Nieto, F. J. Pérez

    2012-04-01

    In this work we present the output factor measurements of a clinical linear accelerator using a silicon strip detector coupled to a new system for complex radiation therapy treatment verification. The objective of these measurements is to validate the system we built for treatment verification. The measurements were performed at the Virgin Macarena University Hospital in Seville. Irradiations were carried out with a Siemens ONCOR™ linac used to deliver radiotherapy treatment for cancer patients. The linac was operating in 6 MV photon mode; the different sizes of the fields were defined with the collimation system provided within the accelerator head. The output factor was measured with the silicon strip detector in two different layouts using two phantoms. In the first, the active area of the detector was placed perpendicular to the beam axis. In the second, the innovation consisted of a cylindrical phantom where the detector was placed in an axial plane with respect to the beam. The measured data were compared with data given by a commercial treatment planning system. Results were shown to be in a very good agreement between the compared set of data.

  17. Operational Experience, Improvements, and Performance of the CDF Run II Silicon Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Calancha, C; Carron, S.; Cihangir, S.; Corbo, M.; Clark, D.; Di Ruzza, B.; Eusebi, R.; Fernandez, J.P.; Freeman, J.C.; Garcia, J.E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gonzalez, O.; Grinstein, S.; Hartz, M.; Herndon, M.; Hill, C.; Hocker, A.; Husemann, U.; Incandela, J.; Issever, C.; Jindariani, S.; Junk, T.R.; Knoepfel, K.; Lewis, J.D.; Martinez-Ballarin, R.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M.; Merkel, P; Mondragon, M.N.; Moore, R.; Mumford, J.R.; Nahn, S.; Nielsen, J.; Nelson, T.K.; Pavlicek, V.; Pursley, J.; Redondo, I.; Roser, R.; Schultz, K.; Spalding, J.; Stancari, M.; Stanitzki, M.; Stuart, D.; Sukhanov, A.; Tesarek, R.; Treptow, K.; Wallny, R.; Worm, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) pursues a broad physics program at Fermilab's Tevatron collider. Between Run II commissioning in early 2001 and the end of operations in September 2011, the Tevatron delivered 12 fb-1 of integrated luminosity of p-pbar collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV. Many physics analyses undertaken by CDF require heavy flavor tagging with large charged particle tracking acceptance. To realize these goals, in 2001 CDF installed eight layers of silicon microstrip detectors around its interaction region. These detectors were designed for 2--5 years of operation, radiation doses up to 2 Mrad (0.02 Gy), and were expected to be replaced in 2004. The sensors were not replaced, and the Tevatron run was extended for several years beyond its design, exposing the sensors and electronics to much higher radiation doses than anticipated. In this paper we describe the operational challenges encountered over the past 10 years of running the CDF silicon detectors, the preventive measures undertaken, an...

  18. Radiation Effects of n-type, Low Resistivity, Spiral Silicon Drift Detector Hybrid Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.; De Geronimo, G.; Carini, G.A.; Gaskin, J.A.; Keister, J.W.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Siddons, D.P.; Smith, G.C.; Verbitskaya, E.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a new thin-window, n-type, low-resistivity, spiral silicon drift detector (SDD) array - to be used as an extraterrestrial X-ray spectrometer (in varying environments) for NASA. To achieve low-energy response, a thin SDD entrance window was produced using a previously developed method. These thin-window devices were also produced on lower resistivity, thinner, n-type, silicon material, effectively ensuring their radiation hardness in anticipation of operation in potentially harsh radiation environments (such as found around the Jupiter system). Using the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility beam line RERS1, we irradiated a set of suitable diodes up to 5 Mrad and the latest iteration of our ASICs up to 12 Mrad. Then we irradiated two hybrid detectors consisting of newly, such-produced in-house (BNL) SDD chips bonded with ASICs with doses of 0.25 Mrad and 1 Mrad. Also we irradiated another hybrid detector consisting of previously produced (by KETEK) on n-type, high-resistivity SDD chip bonded with BNL's ASICs with a dose of 1 Mrad. The measurement results of radiated diodes (up to 5 Mrad), ASICs (up to 12 Mrad) and hybrid detectors (up to 1 Mrad) are presented here.

  19. Charge collection mapping of a novel ultra-thin silicon strip detector for hadrontherapy beam monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouterfa, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.bouterfa@uclouvain.be [ICTEAM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Alexandre, Geoffrey; Cortina Gil, Eduardo [IRPM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Flandre, Denis [ICTEAM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2013-12-21

    In precise hadrontherapy treatments, the particle beam must be monitored in real time without being degraded. Silicon strip detectors have been fabricated over an area as large as 4.5×4.5 cm{sup 2} with ultra low thickness of 20μm. These offer the following considerable advantages: significantly reduced beam scattering, higher radiation hardness which leads to improved detector lifetime, and much better collection efficiency. In a previous work, the novel sensor has been described and a global macroscopic dosimetry characterization has been proposed. This provides practical information for the detector daily use but not about the local microscopic knowledge of the sensor. This work therefore presents a micrometric-accuracy charge-collection characterization of this new generation of ultra-thin silicon strip detectors. This goal is reached thanks to a 1060 nm-wavelength micrometric-sized laser that can be positioned relatively to the sensor with a submicron precision for the three different axes. This study gives a much better knowledge of the inefficient areas of the sensor and allows therefore optimization for future designs.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of surface barrier detector from commercial silicon substrate; Fabricacao e caracterizacao de detector de barreira de superficie a partir de substrato de silicio comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julio Batista Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    In this work it was developed radiation detectors silicon surface barrier that were capable of detecting the presence of gamma radiation from a low energy of iodine-125 seeds used in brachytherapy treatments. >From commercial silicon substrates detectors were developed, one sequence left of chemical treatments to the surfaces of these substrates with the intention of minimizing the possible noise generated, validation of the samples obtained as diodes, ensuring detector characteristics and effective use as detector for Iodine-125 radioactive sources with energy of about 25 keV and Americium-251 with energy on the order of 59 keV. Finished performing the analysis of the obtained energy spectra and so it was possible to observe the ability of these detectors to measure the energy from these seeds. (author)

  1. Electric field strength and plasma delay in silicon surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, I.; Inbe, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Kimura, I.

    1994-01-01

    The resistivity change of a silicon irradiated by high energy neutrons became an interest of study associated with the large scale accelerator projects . The increase of the resistivity of the silicon of a silicon surface barrier detector (SSBD) was studied as a function of neutron fluence. The plasma delay, which was an interesting but not favorite timing property of the SSBD, was reported being dependent on the resistivity of silicon . The neutron irradiation brings the change of timing property as well as the resistivity change on the SSBD. The resistivity dependence of the plasma delay should be studied for the purpose of high energy accelerator experiments. Some empirical formulae of the plasma delay were reported, however, there were no discussions on the physical meanings of the resistivity dependence of the plasma delay. The plasma delay in a SSBD is discussed in the light of electric field strength in the depletion layer of the SSBD. The explanation of the plasma delay is presented taking into account of the competing two electric forces. The resistivity of the silicon affects the plasma delay through the electric forces. 3 figs, 3 refs. (author)

  2. A position sensitive silicon detector for AEgIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy)

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorova, A

    2014-01-01

    The AEḡIS experiment (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) is located at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN and studies antimatter. The main goal of the AEḡIS experiment is to carry out the first measurement of the gravitational acceleration for antimatter in Earth’s gravitational field to a 1% relative precision. Such a measurement would test the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) of Einstein’s General Relativity. The gravitational acceleration for antihydrogen will be determined using a set of gravity measurement gratings (Moiré deflectometer) and a position sensitive detector. The vertical shift due to gravity of the falling antihydrogen atoms will be detected with a silicon strip detector, where the annihilation of antihydrogen will take place. This poster presents part of the development process of this detector.

  3. Silicon microstrip detectors for digital mammography - evaluation and spatial resolution study

    CERN Document Server

    Mali, T; Mikuz, M

    2001-01-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors were used to build an experimental X-ray imaging setup. The detectors were used in an 'edge-on' geometry, with the photons hitting the detector from the side. Efficiencies up to 90% at 20 keV photon energy could be achieved. The system was tested using a standard mammographic phantom. Images of modeled microcalcifications with various diameters down to 200 mu m and images of modeled tumors were made. Spatial resolution of the system was studied on an X-ray test pattern with frequency of line-pairs between 1 and 10l p/mm. An appropriate scanning step combined with knowledge of the system's line spread function was used to deconvolve the measured image and increase the spatial resolution. In this way the effective pixel size was reduced as much as for a factor of approx 3.

  4. A Silicon detector system on carbon fiber support at small radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Marvin E.

    2004-01-01

    The design of a silicon detector for a p(bar p) collider experiment will be described. The detector uses a carbon fiber support structure with sensors positioned at small radius with respect to the beam. A brief overview of the mechanical design is given. The emphasis is on the electrical characteristics of the detector. General principles involved in grounding systems with carbon fiber structures will be covered. The electrical characteristics of the carbon fiber support structure will be presented. Test results imply that carbon fiber must be regarded as a conductor for the frequency region of interest of 10 to 100 MHz. No distinction is found between carbon fiber and copper. Performance results on noise due to pick-up through the low mass fine pitch cables carrying the analogue signals and floating metal is discussed

  5. Predictions of silicon avalanche photodiode detector performance in water vapor differential absorption lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenimer, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Performance analyses are presented which establish that over most of the range of signals expected for a down-looking differential absorption lidar (DIAL) operated at 16 km the silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) is the preferred detector for DIAL measurements of atmospheric water vapor in the 730 nm spectral region. The higher quantum efficiency of the APD's, (0.8-0.9) compared to a photomultiplier's (0.04-0.18) more than offsets the higher noise of an APD receiver. In addition to offering lower noise and hence lower random error the APD's excellent linearity and impulse recovery minimize DIAL systematic errors attributable to the detector. Estimates of the effect of detector system parameters on overall random and systematic DIAL errors are presented, and performance predictions are supported by laboratory characterization data for an APD receiver system.

  6. Dependency on the silicon detector working bias for proton–deuteron particle identification at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueñas, J.A.; Mengoni, D.; Assie, M.; Parkar, V.V.; Sánchez Benítez, A.M.; Shrivastava, A.; Triossi, A.; Beaumel, D.; Martel, I.

    2013-01-01

    Proton–deuteron identification at energies between 2.5 MeV and 6 MeV has been studied as a function of the detector working bias. Digital pulse shape analysis (DPSA) has been used to perform the separation from the two mono-energetic beams. The technique makes use of the current signal delivered by a 500μm neutron transmutation doped (NTD) silicon detector, which was setup for low-field injection. It is shown that identification of the H isotopes is better when the detector working bias is close to the depletion voltage rather than over-depletion. The presence of high frequency noise diminished the possibility of identification, however, the use of a simple triangular smoothing algorithm counteracted this

  7. A silicon strip module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade in the super LHC collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S., E-mail: Sergio.Gonzalez.Sevilla@cern.ch [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Barbier, G. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Anghinolfi, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cadoux, F.; Clark, A. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Dabrowski, W.; Dwuznik, M. [AGH University of Sceince and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Ferrere, D. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Garcia, C. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Edificio Investigacion Paterna, Apartado 22085 46071 Valencia (Spain); Ikegami, Y. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hara, K. [University of Tsukuba, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Jakobs, K. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Kaplon, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Koriki, T. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Lacasta, C. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Edificio Investigacion Paterna, Apartado 22085 46071 Valencia (Spain); La Marra, D. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Marti i Garcia, S. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Edificio Investigacion Paterna, Apartado 22085 46071 Valencia (Spain); Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pohl, M. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Terada, S. [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-04-21

    The ATLAS detector is a general purpose experiment designed to fully exploit the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a nominal luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. It is expected that after several years of successful data-taking, the LHC physics program will be extended by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of the Inner Detector (ID), since the current tracker will not provide the required performance due to cumulated radiation damage and a dramatic increase in the detector occupancy. In this paper, a proposal of a double-sided silicon micro-strip module for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS ID is presented. The expected thermal performance based upon detailed FEA simulations is discussed. First electrical results from a prototype version of the next generation readout front-end chips are also shown.

  8. Operation of heavily irradiated silicon detectors in non-depletion mode

    CERN Document Server

    Verbitskaya, E; Ilyashenko, Yu S; Li, Z; Härkönen, J; Tuovinen, E; Luukka, Panja

    2006-01-01

    The non-depletion detector operation mode has generally been disregarded as an option in high-energy physics experiments. In this paper, the non-depletion operation is examined by detailed analysis of the electric field distribution and the current pulse response of heavily irradiated silicon (Si) detectors. The previously reported model of double junction in heavily irradiated Si detector is further developed and a simulation of the current pulse response has been performed. It is shown that detectors can operate in a non-depletion mode due to the fact that the value of the electric field in a non-depleted region is high enough for efficient carrier drift. This electric field originates from the current flow through the detector and a consequent drop of the potential across high-resistivity bulk of a non-depleted region. It is anticipated that the electric field in a non-depleted region, which is still electrically neutral, increases with fluence that improves the non-depleted detector operation. Considerati...

  9. Neutron response of silicon carbide semiconductor detectors from deterministic adjoint transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.; Manalo, K.; Plower, T.; Sjoden, G.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor detectors for use in power monitoring is of significant interest because of their distinct advantages, including small size, small mass, and their inactivity both chemically and neutronically. The main focus of this paper includes evaluating the predicted response of a SiC detector when placed in a 17 x 17 Westinghouse PWR assembly, using the PENTRAN code system for the 3-D deterministic adjoint transport computations. Adjoint transport results indicated maximum adjoint values of 1, 0.507 and 0.308 were obtained for the thermal, epithermal and fast neutron energy groups, respectively. Within a radial distance of 6.08 cm from the SiC detector, local fuel pins contribute 75.33% at this radius within the thermal group response. A total of 35.85% of the response in the epithermal group is accounted for in the same 6.08 cm radius; similarly, 21.58% of the fast group response is accounted for in the same radius. This means that for neutrons, the effective monitoring range of the SiC detectors is on the order of five fuel pins away from the detector; pins outside this range in the fuel lattice are minimally 'seen' by the SiC detector. (authors)

  10. Technology Development on P-type Silicon Strip Detectors for Proton Beam Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouadi, K.; Bouterfa, M.; Delamare, R.; Flandre, D.; Bertrand, D.; Henry, F.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a technology for the fabrication of n-in-p silicon strip detectors, which is based on the use of Al 2 O 3 oxide compared to p-spray insulation scheme. This technology has been developed using the best technological parameters deduced from simulations, particularly for the p-spray implantation parameters. Different wafers were processed towards the fabrication of the radiation detectors with p-spray insulation and Al 2 O 3 . The evaluation of the prototype detectors has been carried out by performing the electrical characterization of the devices through the measurement of current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics, as well as the measurement of detection response under radiation. The results of electrical measurements indicate that detectors fabricated with Al 2 O 3 exhibit a dark current several times lower than p-spray detectors and show an excellent electrical insulation between strips with a higher inter-strip resistance. Response of Al 2 O 3 strip detector under radiation has been found better. The resulting improved output signal dynamic range finally makes the use of Al 2 O 3 more attractive. (authors)

  11. A comparative study of silicon detector degradation under irradiation by heavy ions and relativistic protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, V.; Mitina, D.; Fomichev, A.; Kiselev, O.; Egorov, N.; Eremin, I.; Shepelev, A.; Verbitskaya, E.

    2018-01-01

    Silicon detectors irradiated by 40Ar ions with the energy of 1.62 GeV were studied with the goal to find the parameters of radiation damage induced by ions. The measurements of the I–V characteristics, temperature dependences of the detector bulk current, deep level spectra and current pulse response were carried out for detectors irradiated within the fluence range 5×1010–2.3×1013 ion/cm2 and the obtained results were compared with the corresponding data for detectors irradiated by 23 GeV protons. It is shown that the processes of defect introduction by ions and overall radiation damage are similar to those induced by 23 GeV protons, while the introduction rates of radiation defects and current generation centers are about ten times higher for irradiation by 40Ar ions. The fact that these processes have much in common gives grounds to use the physical models and characteristic parametrization such as those developed earlier for detectors irradiated by protons and neutrons to build the long-term scenario of Si detector operation in the Time-Of-Flight diagnostic system of Super FRagment Separator designed at GSI for the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR.

  12. A Silicon Strip Detector for the Phase II High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00425747; McMahon, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that detects proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. The Semiconductor Tracker is part of the Inner Detector, implemented using silicon microstrip detectors with binary read-out, providing momentum measurement of charged particles with excellent resolution. The operation of the LHC and the ATLAS experiment started in 2010, with ten years of operation expected until major upgrades are needed in the accelerator and the experiments. The ATLAS tracker will need to be completely replaced due to the radiation damage and occupancy of some detector elements and the data links at high luminosities. These upgrades after the first ten years of operation are named the Phase-II Upgrade and involve a re-design of the LHC, resulting in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This thesis presents the work carried out in the testing of the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade electronic systems in the future strips tracker a...

  13. Performance of a Thin-Wndow Silicon Drift Detector X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, G.; Chen, W.; De Geronimo, G.; Gaskin, J.; Keister, J.; Li, Z.; Ramey, B.; Rehak, P. and Siddons, P.

    2009-10-01

    Several sets of hexagonal Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) arrays were produced by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and by the commercial vendor, KETEK. These detector arrays were tested at BNL. Each array consists of 14 independent SDD detectors (pixels) and two additional test pixels located at two corners of the array. The side of the detector upon which the X-ray radiation is incident (window side) has a thin junction covering the entire active area. The opposite side (device side) contains a drift-field electrode structure in the form of a hexagonal spiral and an electron collecting anode. There are four guard rings surrounding the 14-pixel array area on each side of the detector. Within each array, seven pixels have aluminum field plates - interrupted spirals that stabilize the electric potential under the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface, while the other seven do not. Three bias voltages are applied to control the drift field in the silicon volume; one is applied to a rectifying contact surrounding the central anode (one for each pixel), one is applied to the detector entrance window (common to the full array), and a third bias is applied to a contact on the outer portion of the spiral, common to all pixels in the array. Some arrays were recently tested in NSLS beam line U3C at BNL. For this work, we installed the complete assemblies in the vacuum and cooled them to -27degC. During this beam run, we collected spectra for energies ranging between 350 and 900 eV in several pixels, some with field plates and others without. The detailed testing results of several arrays are reported here.

  14. Performance of a Thin-Window Silicon Drift Detector X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Gabriella A.; Chen, Wei; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Keister, Jeffrey W.; Li, Zheng; Ramsey, Brian D.; Rehak, Pavel; Siddons, David P.

    2009-10-01

    Several sets of hexagonal Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) arrays were produced by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and by the commercial vendor, KETEK. These detector arrays were tested at BNL. Each array consists of 14 independent SDD detectors (pixels) and two additional test pixels located at two corners of the array. The side of the detector upon which the X-ray radiation is incident (window side) has a thin junction covering the entire active area. The opposite side (device side) contains a drift-field electrode structure in the form of a hexagonal spiral and an electron collecting anode. There are four guard rings surrounding the 14-pixel array area on each side of the detector. Within each array, seven pixels have aluminum field plates - interrupted spirals that stabilize the electric potential under the Si- SiO2 interface, while the other seven do not. Three bias voltages are applied to control the drift field in the silicon volume; one is applied to a rectifying contact surrounding the central anode (one for each pixel), one is applied to the detector entrance window (common to the full array), and a third bias is applied to a contact on the outer portion of the spiral, common to all pixels in the array. Some arrays were recently tested in NSLS beam line U3C at BNL. For this work, we installed the complete assemblies in the vacuum and cooled them to -27degC. During this beam run, we collected spectra for energies ranging between 350 and 900 eV in several pixels, some with field plates and others without. The detailed testing results of several arrays are reported here.

  15. Application of a double-sided silicon-strip detector as a differential pumping barrier for NESR experiments at FAIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streicher, B.; Egelhof, P.; Ilieva, S.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kollmus, H.; Kroell, Th; Mutterer, M.; von Schmid, M.; Traeger, M.

    2011-01-01

    The presented work focuses on the development of a differential pumping system using double-sided silicon-strip detectors to separate the ultra-high vacuum of a storage ring from subsequent detectors and outgassing components placed in an auxiliary vacuum. Such a technical concept will give the

  16. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering closeout report for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, J.; Christensen, R.W.; Hayman, G.; Jones, D.C.; Ross, R.; Wilds, W.; Yeamans, S.; Ziock, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The authors group at Los Alamos National Laboratory was responsible for the mechanical engineering of the silicon tracking system of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) experiment of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. The responsibility included the overall design of the system from the mechanical point of view, development and integration of the cooling system, which was required to remove the heat generated by the front-end electronics, assembly of the system to extremely tight tolerances, and verification that the construction and operational stability and alignment tolerances would be met. A detailed description of the concepts they developed and the work they performed can be found in a report titled ''Silicon Subsystem Mechanical Engineering Work for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration'' which they submitted to the SSC Laboratory. In addition to the mechanical engineering work, they also performed activation, background, and shielding studies for the SSC program. Much of the work they performed was potentially useful for other future high energy physics (HEP) projects. This report describes the closeout work that was performed for the Los Alamos SDC project. Four major tasks were identified for completion: (1) integration of the semi-automated assembly station being developed and construction of a precision part to demonstrate solutions to important general assembly problems (the station was designed to build precision silicon tracker subassemblies); (2) build a state-of-the-art TV holography (TVH) system to use for detector assembly stability tests; (3) design, build, and test a water based cooling system for a full silicon shell prototype; and (4) complete and document the activation, background, and shielding studies, which is covered in a separate report

  17. 1980, a revolution in silicon detectors, from energy spectrometer to radiation imager: Some technical and historical details

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijne, Erik H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nuclear particle detectors were introduced just 50 years ago, after single crystal manufacturing was mastered. A major change took place around 1980 when the 'planar' Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) technology developed in microelectronics was systematically applied also in detector construction. With the simultaneous introduction of matched readout chips this eventually would lead to pixelized matrix detectors that function as radiation imaging devices. The critical contributions to this revolution by Josef Kemmer and Paul Burger are described. Performance of the segmented planar technology detectors improved significantly in comparison with the earlier spectrometric diodes. With efficient industrial support the use of silicon detectors in many new applications has become possible and detector systems with a sensitive area of several tens to >100m 2 have been constructed recently

  18. On the behavior of ion implanted silicon strip detectors in high intensity low energy heavy ion beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bradfield, W; Parker, P D; Visser, D W

    2002-01-01

    In a recent investigation of the development of leakage currents in Silicon Strip Detectors used in experiments with high intensity stable beams, anomalous behavior was observed. Over a very short period of time the leakage current rose to levels that could be damaging to the detectors. A discussion of this evidence and how the problem was solved, with a viable model, will be given, leading to guidelines for use of such detectors in a stable beam environment.

  19. Prototyping of hybrids and modules for the forward silicon strip tracking detector for the ATLAS Phase-II upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, S.; Benítez, V.; Fernández-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullán, M.; Lacker, H.; Rehnisch, L.; Sperlich, D.; Ariza, D.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I.; Keller, J.; Lohwasser, K.; Poley, L.; Prahl, V.; Zakharchuk, N.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Bernabéu, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marco-Hernandez, R.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz Contell, C.; Soldevila Serrano, U.; Affolder, T.; Greenall, A.; Gallop, B.; Phillips, P. W.

    2017-05-01

    For the High-Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider an increased instantaneous luminosity of up to 7.5 ṡ 1034 cm-2 s-1, leading to a total integrated luminosity of up to 3000 fb-1, is foreseen. The current silicon and transition radiation tracking detectors of the ATLAS experiment will be unable to cope with the increased track densities and radiation levels, and will need to be replaced. The new tracking detector will consist entirely of silicon pixel and strip detectors. In this paper, results on the development and tests of prototype components for the new silicon strip detector in the forward regions (end-caps) of the ATLAS detector are presented. Flex-printed readout boards with fast readout chips, referred to as hybrids, and silicon detector modules are investigated. The modules consist of a hybrid glued onto a silicon strip sensor. The channels on both are connected via wire-bonds for readout and powering. Measurements of important performance parameters and a comparison of two possible readout schemes are presented. In addition, the assembly procedure is described and recommendations for further prototyping are derived.

  20. Design and development of a silicon-segmented detector for 2D dose measurements in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichelli, David [Department of Clinical Phisiopathology, University of Florence, v.le Morgagni, 85-50134 Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence division, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)], E-mail: david.menichelli@cern.ch; Bruzzi, Mara [Department of Energetics, University of Florence, via S. Marta, 3-50139 Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence division, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bucciolini, Marta; Talamonti, Cinzia; Casati, Marta; Marrazzo, Livia [Department of Clinical Phisiopathology, University of Florence, v.le Morgagni, 85-50134 Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence division, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Tesi, Mauro [Department of Energetics, University of Florence, via S. Marta, 3-50139 Florence (Italy); Piemonte, Claudio; Pozza, Alberto; Zorzi, Nicola [ITC-irst, via Sommarive, 18-38050 Trento (Italy); Brianzi, Mirko [INFN, Florence division, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); De Sio, Antonio [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Florence, L.go E. Fermi, 2-50125 Florence (Italy)

    2007-12-11

    Modern radiotherapy treatment techniques, such as intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and protontherapy, require detectors with specific features, usually not available in conventional dosimeters. IMRT dose measurements, for instance, must face non-uniform beam fluences as well as a time-varying dose rate. Two-dimensional detectors present a great interest for dosimetry in beams with steep dose gradients, but they must satisfy a number of requirements and, in particular, they must exhibit high spatial resolution. With the aim of developing a dosimetric system adequate for 2D pre-treatment dose verifications, we designed a modular dosimetric device based on a monolithic silicon-segmented module. State and results of this work in progress are described in this article. The first 441 pixels, 6.29x6.29 cm{sup 2} silicon module has been produced by ion implantation on a 50 {mu}m thick p-type epitaxial layer. This sensor has been connected to a discrete readout electronics performing current integration, and has been tested with satisfactory results. In the final configuration, nine silicon modules will be assembled together to cover an area close to 20x20 cm{sup 2} with 3969 channels. In this case, the readout electronics will be based on an ASIC capable to read 64 channels by performing current-to-frequency conversion.

  1. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering closeout report for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, J.; Christensen, R. W.; Hayman, G.; Jones, D. C.; Ross, R.; Wilds, W.; Yeamans, S.; Ziock, H. J.

    The authors' group at Los Alamos National Laboratory was responsible for the mechanical engineering of the silicon tracking system of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) experiment of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. The responsibility included the overall design of the system from the mechanical point of view, development and integration of the cooling system, which was required to remove the heat generated by the front-end electronics, assembly of the system to extremely tight tolerances, and verification that the construction and operational stability and alignment tolerances would be met. In addition to the mechanical engineering work, they also performed activation, background, and shielding studies for the SSC program. Much of the work they performed was potentially useful for other future high energy physics (HEP) projects. This report describes the closeout work that was performed for the Los Alamos SDC project. Four major tasks were identified for completion: (1) integration of the semi-automated assembly station being developed and construction of a precision part to demonstrate solutions to important general assembly problems (the station was designed to build precision silicon tracker subassemblies); (2) build a state-of-the-art TV holography (TVH) system to use for detector assembly stability tests; (3) design, build, and test a water based cooling system for a full silicon shell prototype; and (4) complete and document the activation, background, and shielding studies, which is covered in a separate report.

  2. The "Silicon Wheel" prototype for the barrel of the silicon tracker deep inside the CMS detector at CERN'S future LHC proton collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1997-01-01

    Elements on a specially designed structure will track the emerging particles close to the beam pipe. The supporting structure is made out of special carbon fibre discs holding 112 detector modules (448 individual silicon detectors). The modules are arranged to provide three detection points per track and are distributed in seven layers on a spiral geometry to leave enough room for cables, cooling tubes, etc. The inner radius of the wheel is 20.5 cm; the overall diameter is 80 The prototype is a combined CMS silicon community effort; the main participating institutions were: Aachen (Germany), Bari (Italy), CERN, Florence (Italy), Imperial College (UK), Oulu (Finland), Padova, Perugia, Pisa (Italy), Rutherford Laboratory

  3. Silicon microstrip detectors in 3D technology for the sLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David; Ronchin, Sabina; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    The projected luminosity upgrade of the large hadron collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Massive improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. In the layout for the new ATLAS tracker, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSDs will be exposed to fluences up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , hence radiation resistance is the major concern. It is advantageous to fuse the superior radiation hardness of the 3D design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the well-known planar technology for strip detectors. This is achieved by ganging rows of 3D columns together to form strips. Several prototype sLHC detector modules using 3D SSD with short strips, processed on p-type silicon, and LHC-speed front-end electronics from the present ATLAS semi-conductor tracker (SCT) were built. The modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency (CCE), a Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particles (MIPs), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the performance of these 3D modules, and draws conclusions about options for using 3D strip sensors as tracking detectors at the sLHC.

  4. Silicon microstrip detectors in 3D technology for the sLHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-08-01

    The projected luminosity upgrade of the large hadron collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Massive improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. In the layout for the new ATLAS tracker, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSDs will be exposed to fluences up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, hence radiation resistance is the major concern. It is advantageous to fuse the superior radiation hardness of the 3D design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the well-known planar technology for strip detectors. This is achieved by ganging rows of 3D columns together to form strips. Several prototype sLHC detector modules using 3D SSD with short strips, processed on p-type silicon, and LHC-speed front-end electronics from the present ATLAS semi-conductor tracker (SCT) were built. The modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency (CCE), a Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particles (MIPs), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the performance of these 3D modules, and draws conclusions about options for using 3D strip sensors as tracking detectors at the sLHC.

  5. 3D track reconstruction capability of a silicon hybrid active pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pichotka, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vycpalek, Jiri; Burian, Petr; Broulim, Pavel; Jakubek, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Timepix3 detectors are the latest generation of hybrid active pixel detectors of the Medipix/Timepix family. Such detectors consist of an active sensor layer which is connected to the readout ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), segmenting the detector into a square matrix of 256 × 256 pixels (pixel pitch 55 μm). Particles interacting in the active sensor material create charge carriers, which drift towards the pixelated electrode, where they are collected. In each pixel, the time of the interaction (time resolution 1.56 ns) and the amount of created charge carriers are measured. Such a device was employed in an experiment in a 120 GeV/c pion beam. It is demonstrated, how the drift time information can be used for "4D" particle tracking, with the three spatial dimensions and the energy losses along the particle trajectory (dE/dx). Since the coordinates in the detector plane are given by the pixelation ( x, y), the x- and y-resolution is determined by the pixel pitch (55 μm). A z-resolution of 50.4 μm could be achieved (for a 500 μm thick silicon sensor at 130 V bias), whereby the drift time model independent z-resolution was found to be 28.5 μm.

  6. Feasibility of conversion electron spectrometry using a Peltier-cooled silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perajarvi, K.; Turunen, J.; Ihantola, S.; Pollanen, R.; Siiskonen, T.; Toivonen, H.; Kamarainen, V.; Pomme, S.

    2014-01-01

    A Peltier-cooled silicon drift detector was successfully applied for conversion electron spectrometry. The energy resolution of the detector for 45 keV electrons was 0.50 keV (FWHM). The approximate thickness of the dead layer was determined to be 140 ± 20 nm Si equivalent. The relative efficiency of the detector was verified to be approximately constant in the energy range of 17-75 keV. This is concordant with the high transparency of the thin dead layer and the sufficient thickness of the detector (450 μm) to stop the electrons. The detector is suitable for use in plutonium analysis of chemically prepared samples. Moreover, it was demonstrated that conversion electron spectrometry is better than alpha spectrometry in preserving its capability to determine the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratio as a function of sample thickness. The investigated measurement technique can be considered a promising new tool in safeguards, complementary to existing methods. (author)

  7. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, J.

    2016-01-01

    3D silicon pixel detectors have been investigated as radiation-hard candidates for the innermost layers of the HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector. 3D detectors are already in use today in the ATLAS IBL and AFP experiments. These are based on 50x250 um2 large pixels connected to the FE-I4 readout chip. Detectors of this generation were irradiated to HL-LHC fluences and demonstrated excellent radiation hardness with operational voltages as low as 180 V and power dissipation of 12--15 mW/cm2 at a fluence of about 1e16 neq/cm2, measured at -25 degree C. Moreover, to cope with the higher occupancies expected at the HL-LHC, a first run of a new generation of 3D detectors designed for the HL-LHC was produced at CNM with small pixel sizes of 50x50 and 25x100 um2, matched to the FE-I4 chip. They demonstrated a good performance in the laboratory and in beam tests with hit efficiencies of about 97% at already 1--2V before irradiation.

  8. A novel silicon drift detector with two dimensional drift time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijzen, E.A.; Schooneveld, E.M.; Van Eijk, C.W.E.; Hollander, R.W.; Sarro, P.M.; Van den Bogaard, A.

    1994-01-01

    Until now silicon drift detectors with two dimensional position resolution made use of drift time measurement in one dimension only. The resolution in the other dimension was obtained by dividing the collecting anode into small pixels. In this paper we present a new type of drift detector that uses drift time measurements for both dimensions. The design consists of concentric quadrilateral closed strips with a small collecting anode in the centre. At first electrons will travel perpendicular to the strips until they reach a diagonal. Then they will proceed along this diagonal until they are collected at the centre. Position resolution in two dimensions can be obtained when both the time the electrons need to reach the diagonal and the time they need to reach the centre are measured. The latter is obtained from the collecting anode, the former from a diagonal strip present at the back side of the detector. Compared to common 2D drift detectors this detector offers the advantage of a small amount of readout electronics. It also has the advantage of having just one small collecting anode with a very low capacitance, resulting in low noise and therefore in a good energy resolution. ((orig.))

  9. 3D track reconstruction capability of a silicon hybrid active pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pichotka, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vycpalek, Jiri [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); Burian, Petr; Broulim, Pavel [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Jakubek, Jan [Advacam s.r.o., Praha (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-15

    Timepix3 detectors are the latest generation of hybrid active pixel detectors of the Medipix/Timepix family. Such detectors consist of an active sensor layer which is connected to the readout ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), segmenting the detector into a square matrix of 256 x 256 pixels (pixel pitch 55 μm). Particles interacting in the active sensor material create charge carriers, which drift towards the pixelated electrode, where they are collected. In each pixel, the time of the interaction (time resolution 1.56 ns) and the amount of created charge carriers are measured. Such a device was employed in an experiment in a 120 GeV/c pion beam. It is demonstrated, how the drift time information can be used for ''4D'' particle tracking, with the three spatial dimensions and the energy losses along the particle trajectory (dE/dx). Since the coordinates in the detector plane are given by the pixelation (x,y), the x- and y-resolution is determined by the pixel pitch (55 μm). A z-resolution of 50.4 μm could be achieved (for a 500 μm thick silicon sensor at 130 V bias), whereby the drift time model independent z-resolution was found to be 28.5 μm. (orig.)

  10. Characteristics of edgeless silicon detectors for the Roman Pots of the TOTEM experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    G. Ruggiero, G; Antchev, G; Deile, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Kaspar, J; Niewiadomski, H; Petäjäjärvi, J; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Radermacher, E; Snoeys, W; Spearman, W; Wu, J

    2009-01-01

    TOTEM Roman Pot (RP) microstrip edgeless silicon detectors, fabricated with standard planar technology, reach full sensitivity within 50 μm from the cut edge and can operate with high bias voltage at room temperature. These detectors use a newly developed terminating structure, which prevents breakdown and surface current injection at high bias, while simultaneously providing extremely reduced dead zones at the edges. Moreover, radiation hardness studies indicate that when operated under moderate cooling, the detectors remain fully efficient up to a fluence of about 1.5×1014 p cm−2. The mass production of these detectors for the TOTEM Experiment is being completed and their installation in the Roman Pots is ongoing. When the installation is complete and the LHC will be operational, these detectors will allow the TOTEM Experiment to detect leading protons at distance of 1 mm from the beam centre at the LHC. This work presented here is a survey of this recently developed device and its most up-to-date chara...

  11. Characterization studies of Silicon Photomultipliers and crystals matrices for a novel time of flight PET detector

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette; Cortinovis, Daniele; Doroud, Katayoun; Garutti, Erika; Lecoq, Paul; Liu, Zheng; Martinez, Rosana; Paganoni, Marco; Pizzichemi, Marco; Silenzi, Alessandro; Xu, Chen; Zvolský, Milan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the characterization of crystal matrices and silicon photomultiplier arrays for a novel Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detector, namely the external plate of the EndoTOFPET-US system. The EndoTOFPET-US collaboration aims to integrate Time-Of-Flight PET with ultrasound endoscopy in a novel multimodal device, capable to support the development of new biomarkers for prostate and pancreatic tumors. The detector consists in two parts: a PET head mounted on an ultrasound probe and an external PET plate. The challenging goal of 1 mm spatial resolution for the PET image requires a detector with small crystal size, and therefore high channel density: 4096 LYSO crystals individually readout by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) make up the external plate. The quality and properties of these components must be assessed before the assembly. The dark count rate, gain, breakdown voltage and correlated noise of the SiPMs are measured, while the LYSO crystals are evaluated in terms of light yield and en...

  12. Enabling technologies for silicon microstrip tracking detectors at the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Institut B; Collaboration: The PETTL Collaboration; and others

    2016-04-15

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative ''Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC'' (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance ''Physics at the Terascale'' during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R and D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements.

  13. Radiation Damage Effects and Performance of Silicon Strip Detectors using LHC Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067734

    1998-01-01

    Future high energy physics experiments as the ATLAS experiment at CERN, will use silicon strip detectors for fast and high precision tracking information. The high hadron fluences in these experiments cause permanent damage in the silicon.Additional energy levels are introduced in the bandgap thus changing the electrical properties such as leakage current and full depletion voltage V_fd .Very high leakage currents are observed after irradiation and lead to higher electronic noise and thus decrease the spatial resolution.V_fd increases to a few hundred volts after irradiation and eventually beyond the point of stable operating voltages. Prototype detectors with either p-implanted strips (p-in-n) and n-implanted strip detectors (n-in-n) were irradiated to the maximum expected fluence in ATLAS.The irradiation and the following study of the current and V_fd were carried out under ATLAS operational conditions.The evolution of V_fd after irradiation is compared to models based on diode irradiations.The qualitative ...

  14. Silicon photomultipliers for positron emission tomography detectors with depth of interaction encoding capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghibakhsh, Farhad, E-mail: farhadt@sri.utoronto.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Thunder Bay Regional Health Science Centre, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada); Reznik, Alla [Thunder Bay Regional Health Science Centre, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada); Department of Physics, Lake Head University, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada); Rowlands, John A. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Thunder Bay Regional Health Science Centre, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada); Department of Physics, Lake Head University, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are receiving increasing attention in the field of positron emission tomography (PET) detectors. Compared to photomultiplier tubes, they offer novel detector configurations for the extraction of depth of interaction (DOI) information, or enable emerging medical imaging modalities such as simultaneous PET-magnetic resonant imaging (MRI). In this article, we used 2x2x20 mm{sup 3} LYSO scintillator crystals coupled to SiPMs on both ends (dual-ended readout configuration) to evaluate the detector performance for DOI-PET applications. We investigated the effect of scintillator crystal surface finishing on sensitivity and resolution of DOI, as well as on energy and timing resolution. Measurements indicate DOI sensitivity and resolution of 7.1% mm{sup -1} and 2.1{+-}0.6 mm for saw-cut, and 1.3% mm{sup -1} and 9.0{+-}1.5 mm, for polished scintillator crystals, respectively. Energy resolution varies from 19% when DOI is in the center, to 15% with DOI at either end of the saw-cut crystal, while it remains constant at {approx}14% for polished scintillators. Based on our results we conclude that 2x2x20 mm{sup 3} saw-cut (without any special side wall polishing) LYSO crystals coupled to 2x2 mm{sup 2} silicon photomultipliers are optimal for isotropic 2 mm resolution DOI-PET applications.

  15. Development of thin pixel detectors on epitaxial silicon for HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscardin, Maurizio; Calvo, Daniela; Giacomini, Gabriele; Wheadon, Richard; Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The foreseen luminosity of the new experiments in High Energy Physics will require that the innermost layer of vertex detectors will be able to sustain fluencies up to 10 16 n eq /cm 2 . Moreover, in many experiments there is a demand for the minimization of the material budget of the detectors. Therefore, thin pixel devices fabricated on n-type silicon are a natural choice to fulfill these requirements due to their rad-hard performances and low active volume. We present an R and D activity aimed at developing a new thin hybrid pixel device in the framework of PANDA experiments. The detector of this new device is a p-on-n pixel sensor realized starting from epitaxial silicon wafers and back thinned up to 50–100 μm after process completion. We present the main technological steps and some electrical characterization on the fabricated devices before and after back thinning and after bump bonding to the front-end electronics

  16. Development of thin pixel detectors on epitaxial silicon for HEP experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscardin, Maurizio, E-mail: boscardi@fbk.eu [FBK, CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Calvo, Daniela [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Giacomini, Gabriele [FBK, CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Wheadon, Richard [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola [FBK, CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    The foreseen luminosity of the new experiments in High Energy Physics will require that the innermost layer of vertex detectors will be able to sustain fluencies up to 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. Moreover, in many experiments there is a demand for the minimization of the material budget of the detectors. Therefore, thin pixel devices fabricated on n-type silicon are a natural choice to fulfill these requirements due to their rad-hard performances and low active volume. We present an R and D activity aimed at developing a new thin hybrid pixel device in the framework of PANDA experiments. The detector of this new device is a p-on-n pixel sensor realized starting from epitaxial silicon wafers and back thinned up to 50–100 μm after process completion. We present the main technological steps and some electrical characterization on the fabricated devices before and after back thinning and after bump bonding to the front-end electronics.

  17. Enabling technologies for silicon microstrip tracking detectors at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.

    2016-04-01

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative ''Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC'' (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance ''Physics at the Terascale'' during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R and D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements.

  18. Current signal of silicon detectors facing charged particles and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrita, H.

    2005-07-01

    This work consisted in collecting and studying for the first time the shapes of current signals obtained from charged particles or heavy ions produced by silicon detectors. The document is divided into two main parts. The first consisted in reducing the experimental data obtained with charged particles as well as with heavy ions. These experiments were performed at the Orsay Tandem and at GANIL using LISE. These two experiments enabled us to create a data base formed of current signals with various shapes and various times of collection. The second part consisted in carrying out a simulation of the current signals obtained from the various ions. To obtain this simulation we propose a new model describing the formation of the signal. We used the data base of the signals obtained in experiments in order to constrain the three parameters of our model. In this model, the charge carriers created are regarded as dipoles and their density is related to the dielectric polarization in the silicon detector. This phenomenon induces an increase in permittivity throughout the range of the incident ion and consequently the electric field between the electrodes of the detector is decreased inside the trace. We coupled with this phenomenon a dissociation and extraction mode of the charge carriers so that they can be moved in the electric field. (author)

  19. THz Direct Detector and Heterodyne Receiver Arrays in Silicon Nanoscale Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyb, Janusz; Pfeiffer, Ullrich

    2015-10-01

    The main scope of this paper is to address various implementation aspects of THz detector arrays in the nanoscale silicon technologies operating at room temperatures. This includes the operation of single detectors, detectors operated in parallel (arrays), and arrays of detectors operated in a video-camera mode with an internal reset to support continuous-wave illumination without the need to synchronize the source with the camera (no lock-in receiver required). A systematic overview of the main advantages and limitations in using silicon technologies for THz applications is given. The on-chip antenna design challenges and co-design aspects with the active circuitry are thoroughly analyzed for broadband detector/receiver operation. A summary of the state-of-the-art arrays of broadband THz direct detectors based on two different operation principles is presented. The first is based on the non-quasistatic resistive mixing process in a MOSFET channel, whereas the other relies on the THz signal rectification by nonlinearity of the base-emitter junction in a high-speed SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). For the MOSFET detector arrays implemented in a 65 nm bulk CMOS technology, a state-of-the-art optical noise equivalent power (NEP) of 14 pW/ at 720 GHz was measured, whereas for the HBT detector arrays in a 0.25 μm SiGe process technology, an optical NEP of 47 pW/ at 700 GHz was found. Based on the implemented 1k-pixel CMOS camera with an average power consumption of 2.5 μW/pixel, various design aspects specific to video-mode operation are outlined and co-integration issues with the readout circuitry are analyzed. Furthermore, a single-chip 2 × 2 array of heterodyne receivers for multi-color active imaging in a 160-1000 GHz band is presented with a well-balanced NEP across the operation bandwidth ranging from 0.1 to 0.24 fW/Hz (44.1-47.8 dB single-sideband NF) and an instantaneous IF bandwidth of 10 GHz. In its present implementation, the receiver RF

  20. Study of gluing and wire bonding for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.H.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Hyun, H.J.; Jeon, H.B.; Joo, C.W.; Kah, D.H.; Kim, H.J.; Mibe, T.; Onuki, Y.; Park, H.; Rao, K.K.; Sato, N.; Shimizu, N.; Tanida, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into gluing and wire bonding for assembling the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) for the Belle II experiment at KEK in Japan. Optimizing the gluing of the silicon microstrip sensors, the support frame, and the readout flex cables is important for achieving the required mechanical precision. The wire bonding between the sensors and the readout electronic chips also needs special care to maximize the physics capability of the SVD. The silicon sensors and signal fan out flex circuits (pitch adapters) are glued and connected using wire bonding. We determine that gluing quality is important for achieving good bonding efficiency. The standard deviation in the glue thickness for the best result is measured to be 3.11 μm. Optimal machine parameters for wire bonding are determined to be 70 mW power, 20 gf force, and 20 ms for the pitch adapter and 60 mW power, 20 gf force, and 20 ms for the silicon strip sensors; these parameters provide a pull force of (10.92±0.72) gf. With these settings, 75% of the pitch adapters and 25% of the strip sensors experience the neck-broken type of break

  1. Investigation of silicon sensors for their use as antiproton annihilation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacifico, N., E-mail: nicola.pacifico@cern.ch [University of Bergen, Institute of Physics and Technology, Allégaten 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Aghion, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ahlén, O. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Belov, A.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Bonomi, G. [University of Brescia, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Via Branze 38, 25133 Brescia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bräunig, P. [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bremer, J. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Brusa, R.S. [Department of Physics, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); INFN-TIFPA, via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Burghart, G. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cabaret, L. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Université Paris Sud, ENS Cachan, Bâtiment 505, Campus d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Caccia, M. [University of Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, via Valleggio 11, Como (Italy); Canali, C. [University of Zurich, Physics Institute, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Caravita, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); University of Genoa, Department of Physics, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Castelli, F. [University of Milano, Department of Physics, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); and others

    2014-11-21

    We present here a new application of silicon sensors aimed at the direct detection of antinucleons annihilations taking place inside the sensor's volume. Such detectors are interesting particularly for the measurement of antimatter properties and will be used as part of the gravity measurement module in the AEg{sup ¯}IS experiment at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. One of the goals of the AEg{sup ¯}IS experiment is to measure the gravitational acceleration of antihydrogen with 1% precision. Three different silicon sensor geometries have been tested with an antiproton beam to investigate their properties as annihilation detection devices: strip planar, 3D pixels and monolithic pixel planar. In all cases we were successfully detecting annihilations taking place in the sensor and we were able to make a first characterization of the clusters and tracks.

  2. CBM experiment. Characterization studies of the detector modules for silicon tracking syste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Panasenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The double-sided silicon microstrip detector prototypes with 50 μm pitch developed together with CiS, Germany, have been characterized in a 2.4 GeV/c proton beam at COSY, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany. Data analyses including reconstruction of 1-strip and 2-strip clusters have been performed. We have done the study of charge sharing in the interstrip gap. In particular it was found that there is a charge loss of less than 10 % in the interstrip gap. The calculated signal-to-noise ratio is around 19 for the p-side of the sensor and it is sufficient for hit reconstruction. Also the charge sharing function which allows more precise determination of the hit position in silicon sensor, have been reconstructed.

  3. Measurements on irradiated L1 sensor prototypes for the D0 Run IIb silicon detector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, M.; Bolton, T.; Carnes, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Gray, T.; Korjenevski, S.; Lehner, F.; Lipton, R.; Mao, H.S.; McCarthy, R.

    2010-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies of Hamamatsu prototype silicon microstrip detectors for layer 1 of the D0 upgrade project for Run IIb. The irradiation was carried out with 10 MeV protons up to proton fluence of 10 14 p/cm 2 at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Manhatten, KS. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different dose normalization techniques. The results based on the obtained sensor leakage currents after irradiation show that the NIEL scaling hypothesis for low energy protons has to be applied with great care. We observe 30-40% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV proton exposure than is expected from the predicted NIEL scaling.

  4. Measurements on irradiated L1 sensor prototypes for the D0 Run IIb silicon detector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsan, M.; Bolton, T.; Carnes, K.; /Kansas State U.; Demarteau, M.; /Fermilab; Demina, R.; /Rochester U.; Gray, T.; /Kansas State U.; Korjenevski, S.; /Rochester U.; Lehner, F.; /Zurich U.; Lipton, R.; Mao, H.S.; /Fermilab; McCarthy, R.; /SUNY, Stony Brook /Kansas State U. /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies of Hamamatsu prototype silicon microstrip detectors for layer 1 of the D0 upgrade project for Run IIb. The irradiation was carried out with 10 MeV protons up to proton fluence of 10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2} at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Manhatten, KS. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different dose normalization techniques. The results based on the obtained sensor leakage currents after irradiation show that the NIEL scaling hypothesis for low energy protons has to be applied with great care. We observe 30-40% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV proton exposure than is expected from the predicted NIEL scaling.

  5. A Medipix2-based imaging system for digital mammography with silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bisogni, M G; Fantacci, M E; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Novelli, M; Quattrocchi, M; Rosso, V; Russo, P; Stefanini, A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the first tests of a digital imaging system based on a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to an integrated circuit operating in single photon counting mode. The X-rays sensor is a 300 mu m thick silicon, 14 by 14 mm/sup 2/, upon which a matrix of 256 * 256 pixels has been built. The read-out chip, named MEDIPIX2, has been developed at CERN within the MEDIPIX2 Collaboration and it is composed by a matrix of 256 * 256 cells, 55 * 55 mu m/sup 2/. The spatial resolution properties of the system have been assessed by measuring the square wave resolution function (SWRF) and first images of a standard mammographic phantom were acquired using a radiographic tube in the clinical irradiation condition. (5 refs).

  6. Properties of CMOS devices and circuits fabricated on high-resistivity, detector-grade silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.

    1991-11-01

    A CMOS process that is compatible with silicon p-i-n radiation detectors has been developed and characterized. A total of twelve mask layers are used in the process. The NMOS device is formed in a retrograde well while the PMOS device is fabricated directly in the high-resistivity silicon. Isolation characteristics are similar to a standard foundary CMOS process. Circuit performance using 3 μm design rules has been evaluated. The measured propagation delay and power-delay product for a 51-stage ring oscillator was 1.5 ns and 43 fJ, respectively. Measurements on a simple cascode amplifier results in a gain-bandwidth product of 200 MHz at a bias current of 15 μA. The input-referred noise of the cascode amplifier is 20 nV/√Hz at 1 MHz

  7. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina Gil, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Perktold, L.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼ 1 GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X0. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2 ×1014 1 MeV neq /cm2, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (< 0.15 %X0) cooling system is being constructed, using a novel microchannel cooling silicon plate. Two complementary read-out architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100 μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200 μm thick silicon sensors.

  8. A Low Mass On-Chip Readout Scheme for Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmler, C., E-mail: christian.irmler@oeaw.ac.at [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bergauer, T.; Frankenberger, A.; Friedl, M.; Gfall, I. [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Higuchi, T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ishikawa, A. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Joo, C. [Seoul National University, High Energy Physics Laboratory, 25-107 Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kah, D.H.; Kang, K.H. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, 1370 Sankyuk Dong, Buk Gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rao, K.K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Kato, E. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Mohanty, G.B. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Negishi, K. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Onuki, Y.; Shimizu, N. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tsuboyama, T. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Valentan, M. [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-21

    B-factories like the KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, operate at relatively low energies and thus require detectors with very low material budget in order to minimize multiple scattering. On the other hand, front-end chips with short shaping time like the APV25 have to be placed as close to the sensor strips as possible to reduce the capacitive load, which mainly determines the noise figure. In order to achieve both – minimal material budget and low noise – we developed a readout scheme for double-sided silicon detectors, where the APV25 chips are placed on a flexible circuit, which is glued onto the top side of the sensor. The bottom-side strips are connected by two flexible circuits, which are bent around the edge of the sensor. This so-called “Origami” design will be utilized to build the Silicon Vertex Detector of the Belle II experiment, which will consist of four layers made from ladders with up to five double-sided silicon strip sensors in a row. Each ladder will be supported by two ribs made of a carbon fiber and Airex foam core sandwich. The heat dissipated by the front-end chips will be removed by a highly efficient two-phase CO{sub 2} system. Thanks to the Origami concept, all APV25 chips are aligned in a row and thus can be cooled by a single thin cooling pipe per ladder. We present the concept and the assembly procedure of the Origami chip-on-sensor modules.

  9. A Low Mass On-Chip Readout Scheme for Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irmler, C.; Bergauer, T.; Frankenberger, A.; Friedl, M.; Gfall, I.; Higuchi, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Joo, C.; Kah, D.H.; Kang, K.H.; Rao, K.K.; Kato, E.; Mohanty, G.B.; Negishi, K.; Onuki, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Tsuboyama, T.; Valentan, M.

    2013-01-01

    B-factories like the KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, operate at relatively low energies and thus require detectors with very low material budget in order to minimize multiple scattering. On the other hand, front-end chips with short shaping time like the APV25 have to be placed as close to the sensor strips as possible to reduce the capacitive load, which mainly determines the noise figure. In order to achieve both – minimal material budget and low noise – we developed a readout scheme for double-sided silicon detectors, where the APV25 chips are placed on a flexible circuit, which is glued onto the top side of the sensor. The bottom-side strips are connected by two flexible circuits, which are bent around the edge of the sensor. This so-called “Origami” design will be utilized to build the Silicon Vertex Detector of the Belle II experiment, which will consist of four layers made from ladders with up to five double-sided silicon strip sensors in a row. Each ladder will be supported by two ribs made of a carbon fiber and Airex foam core sandwich. The heat dissipated by the front-end chips will be removed by a highly efficient two-phase CO 2 system. Thanks to the Origami concept, all APV25 chips are aligned in a row and thus can be cooled by a single thin cooling pipe per ladder. We present the concept and the assembly procedure of the Origami chip-on-sensor modules

  10. Electromagnetic noise studies in a silicon strip detector, used as part of a luminosity monitor at LEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegaard, Trygve; Tafjord, Harald; Buran, Torleiv

    1995-02-01

    As part of the luminosity monitor, SAT, in the DELPHI [1] experiment at CERN's Large Electron Positron collider, a tracking detector constructed from silicon strip detector elements was installed in front of an electromagnetic calorimeter. The luminosity was measured by counting the number of Bhabha events at the interaction point of the electron and the positron beans. The tracking detector reconstructs from the interaction point and the calorimeter measures the corresponding particles' energies. The SAT Tracker [2] consists of 504 silicon strip detectors. The strips are DC-coupled to CMOS VLSI-chips, baptized Balder [3,4]. The chip performs amplification, zero-suppression, digitalisation, and multiplexing. The requirements of good space resolution and high efficiency put strong requirements on noise control. A short description of the geometry and the relevant circuit layout is given. We describe the efforts made to minimise the electromagnetic noise in the detector and present some numbers of the noise level using various techniques.

  11. Description of current pulses induced by heavy ions in silicon detectors (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Parlog, M. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Borderie, B., E-mail: borderie@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Lavergne, L. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Le Neindre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Rivet, M.F.; Barbey, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Chabot, M. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Chbihi, A. [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Cussol, D. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Univ. de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Oliveira Santos, F. de [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Edelbruck, P. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Frankland, J.D. [GANIL (DSM-CEA/CNRS/IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Galichet, E. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Conservatoire National des Arts et Metier, F-75141 Paris Cedex 03 (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ.e Claude Bernard Lyon I, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lopez, O. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Univ. de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France)

    2011-06-21

    Current pulses induced in a silicon detector by 10 different heavy ion species at known energies around 10 A MeV have been sampled in time at high frequency. Their individual average shapes are quite well reproduced by a fit procedure based on our recent charge carrier collection treatment which considers the progressive extraction of the electrons and holes from the high carrier density zone along the ionizing particle track. This region is assumed to present a supplementary dielectric polarization and consequently a disturbed electric field. The influence of the nature of the heavy ion on the values of the three fit parameters is analyzed.

  12. Studies of dynamics of electron clouds in STAR silicon drift detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bellwied, R; Brandon, N; Caines, H; Chen, W; Dimassimo, D; Dyke, H; Hall, J R; Hardtke, D; Hoffmann, G W; Humanic, T J; Kotova, A I; Kotov, I V; Kraner, H W; Li, Z; Lynn, D; Middelkamp, P; Ott, G; Pandey, S U; Pruneau, C A; Rykov, V L; Schambach, J; Sedlmeir, J; Sugarbaker, E R; Takahashi, J; Wilson, W K

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of electrons generated in silicon drift detectors was studied using an IR LED. Electrons were generated at different drift distances. In this way, the evolution of the cloud as a function of drift time was measured. Two methods were used to measure the cloud size. The method of cumulative functions was used to extract the electron cloud profiles. Another method obtains the cloud width from measurements of the charge collected on a single anode as a function of coordinate of the light spot. The evolution of the electron cloud width with drift time is compared with theoretical calculations. Experimental results agreed with theoretical expectations.

  13. Improvement of Infrared Detectors for Tissue Oximetry using Black Silicon Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Dahl; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Alcala, Lucia R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a nanostructured surface, made of dry etched black silicon, which lowers the reflectance for light incident at all angles. This surface is fabricated on infrared detectors used for tissue oximetry, where the detection of weak diffuse light signals is important. Monte Carlo simulations...... performed on a model of a neonatal head shows that approximately 60% of the injected light will be diffuse reflected. However, the change in diffuse reflected light due to the change in cerebral oxygenation is very low and the light will be completely isotropic scattered. The reflectance of the black...... in quantum efficiency for both normal incident light and light incident at 38°....

  14. Description of current pulses induced by heavy ions in silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlog, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Hamrita, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Borderie, B., E-mail: borderie@ipno.in2p3.f [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-02-01

    The polarization of the electron-hole pairs induced by 80 MeV {sup 12}C ions in a silicon detector was considered and connected to the relative dielectric permittivity. The dissociation of pairs was supposed to take place with a constant probability in a time unit. The exact coordinate dependence of the modified electric field, inside and outside the ion range, was found as the solution of the one-dimensional Maxwell's equation for the electric field in this inhomogeneous medium. The improvement of the current signal simulation with that time-dependent treatment is encouraging, as compared to a prompt carrier collection in an undisturbed electric field.

  15. Development and operation of tracking detectors in silicon technology for the LHCb upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Adeva, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is one of the four main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It uses the energy density provided by the LHC to attempt to probe asymmetries between particles and antiparticles that can not be explained by the Standard Model, and thus provide evidence that would allow us to build a new model of fundamental physics. This thesis covers the author's work in the Silicon Tracker $(\\textit{ST})$ and VErtex LOcator $(\\textit{VELO})$ detectors of the LHCb experim...

  16. Prototype Active Silicon Sensor in 150 nm HR-CMOS Technology for ATLAS Inner Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rymaszewski, Piotr; Breugnon, Patrick; Godiot, Stépahnie; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hirono, Toko; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, Hans; Liu, Jian; Pangaud, Patrick; Peric, Ivan; Rozanov, Alexandre; Wang, Anqing; Wermes, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The LHC Phase-II upgrade will lead to a significant increase in luminosity, which in turn will bring new challenges for the operation of inner tracking detectors. A possible solution is to use active silicon sensors, taking advantage of commercial CMOS technologies. Currently ATLAS R&D programme is qualifying a few commercial technologies in terms of suitability for this task. In this paper a prototype designed in one of them (LFoundry 150 nm process) will be discussed. The chip architecture will be described, including different pixel types incorporated into the design, followed by simulation and measurement results.

  17. Investigation of the charge collection for strongly irradiated silicon strip detectors of the CMS ECAL Preshower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Ph.; Peisert, A.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, A.E.; Hou, S.; Lin, W.T.; Cheremukhin, A.E.; Golutvin, I.A.; Urkinbaev, A.R.; Zamyatin, N.I.; Loukas, D.

    2001-01-01

    Strongly irradiated (2.3·10 14 n/cm 2 ) silicon strip detectors of different size, thickness and different design options were tested in a muon beam at CERN in 1999. A charge collection efficiency in excess of 85% and a signal-to-noise ratio of about 6 are obtained in all cases at high enough bias voltage. Details of the charge collection in the interstrip and the guard ring region and cross-talk between strips were also studied. We find that the charge collection efficiency and the cross-talk between strips depend on the interstrip distance

  18. Study of Charge Diffusion in a Silicon Detector Using an Energy Sensitive Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, E. J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Visser, J.; Koffeman, E.; Heijne, E.; Engel, K. J.; Uher, J.

    2015-01-01

    A 300 μm thick thin p-on-n silicon sensor was connected to an energy sensitive pixel readout ASIC and exposed to a beam of highly energetic charged particles. By exploiting the spectral information and the fine segmentation of the detector, we were able to measure the evolution of the transverse profile of the charge carriers cloud in the sensor as a function of the drift distance from the point of generation. The result does not rely on model assumptions or electric field calculations. The data are also used to validate numerical simulations and to predict the detector spectral response to an X-ray fluorescence spectrum for applications in X-ray imaging.

  19. Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in silicon for the future LHCb vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nomerotski, A.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R.; Greening, E.; John, M.; Mapelli, A.; Leflat, A.; Li, Y.; Romagnoli, G.; Verlaat, B.

    2013-01-01

    The extreme radiation dose received by vertex detectors at the Large Hadron Collider dictates stringent requirements on their cooling systems. To be robust against radiation damage, sensors should be maintained below -20 degree C and at the same time, the considerable heat load generated in the readout chips and the sensors must be removed. Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in a silicon plane in thermal contact with the readout chips is an attractive option. In this paper, we present the first results of microchannel prototypes with circulating, two-phase CO2 and compare them to simulations. We also discuss a practical design of upgraded VELO detector for the LHCb experiment employing this approach.

  20. A 1006 element hybrid silicon pixel detector with stobed binary output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Beusch, W.; Campbell, M.; Chesi, E.; Glaser, M.; Gys, T.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Jarron, P.; Lemeilleur, F.

    1992-01-01

    An asynchronous version of a binary pixel readout circuit has been implemented in an array with 16 columns at 500 μm pitch and 63 rows at 75 μm pitch. This readout chip has been bonded with solder bumps to a silicon detector with matching pixel elements. event information in a pixel can be strobed into a local memory by a trigger signal and subsequently read out. Without a strobe the information in this memory is continuously cleared. The complete hybrid detector has been successfully tested with ionizing particles from a radioactive source. Three such devices have been put in the CERN heavy ion experiment WA94 in the Omega spectrometer where they recorded particle tracks form high multiplicity 32 S interactions

  1. Study of the signal formation in single-type column 3D silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piemonte, Claudio; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Pozza, Alberto; Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Because of their superior radiation resistance, three-dimensional (3D) silicon sensors are receiving more and more interest for application in the innermost layers of tracker systems for experiments running in very high luminosity colliders. Their short electrode distance allows for both a low depletion voltage and a high charge collection efficiency even at extremely high radiation fluences. In order to fully understand the properties of a 3D detector, a thorough characterization of the signal formation mechanism is of paramount importance. In this work the shape of the current induced by localized and uniform charge depositions in a single-type column 3D detector is studied. A first row estimation is given applying the Ramo theorem, then a more complete TCAD simulation is used to provide a more realistic pulse shape

  2. Characterization and TCAD modelling of termination structures for silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittongo, S.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Ciacchi, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Gregori, P.; Piemonte, C.; Rachevskaia, I.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.

    2004-01-01

    We have recently proposed a novel junction termination structure for silicon radiation detectors, featuring all-p-type multiguard and scribe-line implants, with metal field-plates completely covering the gap between the implanted rings. The structure is intended for detector long-term stability enhancement even in adverse ambient conditions and for fabrication-process simplification. A thorough static characterization, including stability measurements in varying humidity conditions, has been carried out on a variety of samples fabricated at ITC-irst. Comparisons with diodes featuring an n-type implant along the border - or no edge structure at all - have been performed. The new structures show stable behaviour at relatively high bias (∼200 V), also in the presence of wide humidity changes (1-90%). A good qualitative agreement has been obtained between experimental results and simulation predictions, allowing to gain deep insight into the physical behaviour of the device

  3. Time characteristics of detectors based on silicon photomultipliers for the GlueX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Somov, A. S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Somov, S. V. [National Research Nuclear Univ., Moscow (Russia); Tolstukhin, I. A. [National Research Nuclear Univ., Moscow (Russia); Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2017-06-16

    Here, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are used in detectors of the GlueX experiment devoted to studying the nature of confinement. These detectors are operable at counting rates as high as 2 MHz with a time resolution (FWHM) of approximately 0.3 ns and a number of excited pixels of up to 104. For SiPMs that operate under these conditions, the measured dependences of the recovery time and the time resolution are presented as functions of the number of excited pixels and the excitation frequency. Using a picosecond laser, the time resolution has been measured for an array of 4 × 4 SiPMs, which was specially developed for the experiment.

  4. Single Photon Counting UV Solar-Blind Detectors Using Silicon and III-Nitride Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Jewell, April D.; Hennessy, John J.; Carver, Alexander G.; Jones, Todd J.; Goodsall, Timothy M.; Hamden, Erika T.; Suvarna, Puneet; Bulmer, J.; Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Charbon, Edoardo; Padmanabhan, Preethi; Hancock, Bruce; Bell, L. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) studies in astronomy, cosmology, planetary studies, biological and medical applications often require precision detection of faint objects and in many cases require photon-counting detection. We present an overview of two approaches for achieving photon counting in the UV. The first approach involves UV enhancement of photon-counting silicon detectors, including electron multiplying charge-coupled devices and avalanche photodiodes. The approach used here employs molecular beam epitaxy for delta doping and superlattice doping for surface passivation and high UV quantum efficiency. Additional UV enhancements include antireflection (AR) and solar-blind UV bandpass coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition. Quantum efficiency (QE) measurements show QE > 50% in the 100–300 nm range for detectors with simple AR coatings, and QE ≅ 80% at ~206 nm has been shown when more complex AR coatings are used. The second approach is based on avalanche photodiodes in III-nitride materials with high QE and intrinsic solar blindness. PMID:27338399

  5. Finding the distance between the Roman Pot floor and the AFP Silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Han Gyeol; Trzebinski, Maciej Marek; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detectors are designed for tagging of forward protons and located inside Roman Pots (RP). My task as summer student is a data analysis to measure the distance between Silicon detectors and the RP floor. For this task there are three suggested methods: tracks pointing to the floor, slope range, and shadow of station. I tried first two methods with data from AFP run 30539. The result from tracking method is 0.7mm, however the unexpected result has to be explained to fully trust this result. In the result of the slope range method, there is an impossible result. Therefore, my code for range method needs debugging in future work.

  6. Particle identification by silicon detectors; Identificacao de particulas por detetores de silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Denison de Souza

    1997-07-01

    A method is developed for the evaluation of the energy loss, dE/dx, of a charged particle traversing a silicon strip detector. The method is applied to the DELPHI microvertex detector leading to diagrams of dE/dx versus momentum for different particles. The specific case of pions and protons is treated and the most probable value of dE/dx and the width of the dE/dx distribution for those particles in the momentum range of 0.2 GeV/c to 1.5 GeV/c, are obtained. The resolution found is 13.4 % for particles with momentum higher than 2 GeV/c and the separation power is 2.9 for 1.0 GeV/c pions and protons. (author)

  7. Evaluation Of Silicon Diodes As IN-SITU Cryogenic Field Emission Detectors For SRF Cavity Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palczewski, Ari; Geng, Rongli

    2012-01-01

    We performed in-situ cryogenic testing of four silicon diodes as possible candidates for field emission (FE) monitors of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities during qualification testing and in accelerator cryo-modules. We evaluated diodes from 2 companies - from Hamamatsu corporation model S1223-01; and from OSI Optoelectronics models OSD35-LR-A, XUV-50C, and FIL-UV20. The measurements were done by placing the diodes in superfluid liquid helium near the top of a field emitting 9-cell cavity during its vertical test. For each diode, we will discuss their viability as a 2K cryogenic detector for FE mapping of SRF cavities and the directionality of S1223-01 in such environments. We will also present calibration curves between the diodes and JLab's standard radiation detector placed above the Dewar's top plate.

  8. Study of parametric instability in gravitational wave detectors with silicon test masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David

    2017-01-01

    Parametric instability is an intrinsic risk in high power laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors, in which the optical cavity modes interact with the acoustic modes of the mirrors, leading to exponential growth of the acoustic vibration. In this paper, we investigate the potential parametric instability for a proposed next generation gravitational wave detector, the LIGO Voyager blue design, with cooled silicon test masses of size 45 cm in diameter and 55 cm in thickness. It is shown that there would be about two unstable modes per test mass at an arm cavity power of 3 MW, with the highest parametric gain of  ∼76. While this is less than the predicted number of unstable modes for Advanced LIGO (∼40 modes with max gain of  ∼32 at the designed operating power of 830 kW), the importance of developing suitable instability suppression schemes is emphasized. (paper)

  9. Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönsberg, Timo; Manoocheri, Farshid; Sildoja, Meelis; Juntunen, Mikko; Savin, Hele; Tuovinen, Esa; Ronkainen, Hannu; Prunnila, Mika; Merimaa, Mikko; Tang, Chi Kwong; Gran, Jarle; Müller, Ingmar; Werner, Lutz; Rougié, Bernard; Pons, Alicia; Smîd, Marek; Gál, Péter; Lolli, Lapo; Brida, Giorgio; Rastello, Maria Luisa; Ikonen, Erkki

    2017-12-01

    The predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED) consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes that are mounted in a wedged trap configuration for the reduction of reflectance losses. Until now, all manufactured PQED photodiodes have been based on a structure where a SiO2 layer is thermally grown on top of p-type silicon substrate. In this paper, we present the design, manufacturing, modelling and characterization of a new type of PQED, where the photodiodes have an Al2O3 layer on top of n-type silicon substrate. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit the layer to the desired thickness. Two sets of photodiodes with varying oxide thicknesses and substrate doping concentrations were fabricated. In order to predict recombination losses of charge carriers, a 3D model of the photodiode was built into Cogenda Genius semiconductor simulation software. It is important to note that a novel experimental method was developed to obtain values for the 3D model parameters. This makes the prediction of the PQED responsivity a completely autonomous process. Detectors were characterized for temperature dependence of dark current, spatial uniformity of responsivity, reflectance, linearity and absolute responsivity at the wavelengths of 488 nm and 532 nm. For both sets of photodiodes, the modelled and measured responsivities were generally in agreement within the measurement and modelling uncertainties of around 100 parts per million (ppm). There is, however, an indication that the modelled internal quantum deficiency may be underestimated by a similar amount. Moreover, the responsivities of the detectors were spatially uniform within 30 ppm peak-to-peak variation. The results obtained in this research indicate that the n-type induced junction photodiode is a very promising alternative to the existing p-type detectors, and thus give additional credibility to the concept of modelled quantum detector serving as a primary standard. Furthermore, the manufacturing of

  10. Arrays of silicon drift detectors for an extraterrestrial X-ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, Pavel; Carini, Gabriella; Chen, Wei; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Fried, Jack; Li, Zheng; Pinelli, Donald A.; Peter Siddons, D.; Vernon, Emerson; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2010-12-01

    Arrays of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) were designed, produced and tested. These arrays are the central part of an X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) for measuring the abundances of light surface elements (C-Fe) fluoresced by ambient radiation on the investigated celestial object. The basic building element (or cell) of the arrays consists of a single hexagonal SDD. Signal electrons drift toward the center of the hexagon where a very low capacitance anode is located. The hexagonal shape of an individual SDD allows for a continuous covering of large detection areas of various shapes. To match the number of SDD cells with the external Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), two arrays, one with 16 and another with 64 cells were developed. One side of SDDs, called the window side, is a continuous thin rectifying junction through which the X-ray radiation enters the detector. The opposite side, called the device side contains electron collecting anodes as well as all other electrodes needed to generate the drift field and to sink leakage current produced on Si-SiO 2 interface. On both sides of the detector array there is a system of guard rings, which smoothly adjusts the voltage of the boundary cells to the ground potential of the silicon outside the sensitive volume. The drift voltage inside the detector is generated by an implanted rectifying contact, which forms a hexagonal spiral. This spiral produces the main valley where signal electrons drift as well as the voltage divider to produce the drift field. System performance is shown by a spectrum of Mn X-rays produced by the decay of 55Fe.

  11. Arrays of silicon drift detectors for an extraterrestrial X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehak, Pavel; Carini, Gabriella [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Chen, Wei, E-mail: weichen@bnl.go [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY 11973 (United States); De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Fried, Jack; Li Zheng; Pinelli, Donald A.; Peter Siddons, D.; Vernon, Emerson [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Gaskin, Jessica A.; Ramsey, Brian D. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2010-12-11

    Arrays of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) were designed, produced and tested. These arrays are the central part of an X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) for measuring the abundances of light surface elements (C-Fe) fluoresced by ambient radiation on the investigated celestial object. The basic building element (or cell) of the arrays consists of a single hexagonal SDD. Signal electrons drift toward the center of the hexagon where a very low capacitance anode is located. The hexagonal shape of an individual SDD allows for a continuous covering of large detection areas of various shapes. To match the number of SDD cells with the external Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), two arrays, one with 16 and another with 64 cells were developed. One side of SDDs, called the window side, is a continuous thin rectifying junction through which the X-ray radiation enters the detector. The opposite side, called the device side contains electron collecting anodes as well as all other electrodes needed to generate the drift field and to sink leakage current produced on Si-SiO{sub 2} interface. On both sides of the detector array there is a system of guard rings, which smoothly adjusts the voltage of the boundary cells to the ground potential of the silicon outside the sensitive volume. The drift voltage inside the detector is generated by an implanted rectifying contact, which forms a hexagonal spiral. This spiral produces the main valley where signal electrons drift as well as the voltage divider to produce the drift field. System performance is shown by a spectrum of Mn X-rays produced by the decay of {sup 55}Fe.

  12. Low-noise CMOS preamplifier-shaper for silicon drift detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramegna, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); O`Connor, P.; Rehak, P. [Politecnico di Bari (Italy); Hart, S. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We have designed a 16-channel preamplifier-shaper for particle tracking using silicon drift detectors (SDD). The preamplifier, which is optimized for a detector capacitance of 0.2 - 0.8 pF, uses two new circuit techniques to achieve a low noise (ENC 120 e- + 62 e-/pF), high linearity (< 0.5% to 50 fC), and good tolerance to process variations and temperature and power supply fluctuations. The circuit is continuously sensitive, has no digital signals on chip, and requires no external components or critical adjustments. The peaking time of the shaper is 50 nsec and the power dissipation, including an off-chip driver, is 6.5 mW/channel. The circuit is fabricated in 1.2 um CMOS and can accommodate detector leakage currents of up to 1.5 uA. Although the circuit was developed for use with particle tracking detectors, these techniques are also well-suited for the design of lower-noise preamplifiers for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy systems.

  13. Integrated USB based readout interface for silicon strip detectors of the ATLAS SCT module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, P.; Linhart, V.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.; Husak, M.

    2011-12-01

    An integrated portable USB based readout interface for the ATLAS semiconductor trackers (SCT) has been built. The ATLAS SCT modules are large area silicon strip detectors designed for tracking of high-energy charged particles resulting in collisions on Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in CERN. These modules can be also used on small accelerators for medical or industry applications where a compact and configurable readout interface would be useful. A complete custom made PC-host software tool was written for Windows platform for control and DAQ with build-in online visualization. The new constructed interface provides integrated power, control and DAQ and configurable communication between the detector module and the controlling PC. The interface is based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and the high speed USB 2.0 standard. This design permits to operate the modules under high particle fluence while minimizing the dead time of the whole detection system. Utilization of the programmable device simplifies the operation and permits future expansion of the functionality without any hardware changes. The device includes the high voltage source for detector bias up to 500 V and it is equipped with number of devices for monitoring the operation and conditions of measurement (temperature, humidity, voltage). These features are particularly useful as the strip detector must be operated in a well controlled environment. The operation of the interface will be demonstrated on data measured with different particles from radiation sources.

  14. Ion beam evaluation of silicon carbide membrane structures intended for particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallon, J., E-mail: jan.pallon@nuclear.lu.se [Division of Nuclear Physics, Physics Department, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Syväjärvi, M. [Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Graphensic AB, Teknikringen 1F, SE-58330 Linköping (Sweden); Wang, Q. [Sensor System, ACREO Swedish ICT AB, Box 1070, SE-164 25 Kista (Sweden); Yakimova, R.; Iakimov, T. [Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Graphensic AB, Teknikringen 1F, SE-58330 Linköping (Sweden); Elfman, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Nilsson, E.J.C.; Ros, L. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Physics Department, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    Thin ion transmission detectors can be used as a part of a telescope detector for mass and energy identification but also as a pre-cell detector in a microbeam system for studies of biological effects from single ion hits on individual living cells. We investigated a structure of graphene on silicon carbide (SiC) with the purpose to explore a thin transmission detector with a very low noise level and having mechanical strength to act as a vacuum window. In order to reach very deep cavities in the SiC wafers for the preparation of the membrane in the detector, we have studied the Inductive Coupled Plasma technique to etch deep circular cavities in 325 μm prototype samples. By a special high temperature process the outermost layers of the etched SiC wafers were converted into a highly conductive graphitic layer. The produced cavities were characterized by electron microscopy, optical microscopy and proton energy loss measurements. The average membrane thickness was found to be less than 40 μm, however, with a slightly curved profile. Small spots representing much thinner membrane were also observed and might have an origin in crystal defects or impurities. Proton energy loss measurement (also called Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy, STIM) is a well suited technique for this thickness range. This work presents the first steps of fabricating a membrane structure of SiC and graphene which may be an attractive approach as a detector due to the combined properties of SiC and graphene in a monolithic materials structure.

  15. Degradation of charge sharing after neutron irradiation in strip silicon detectors with different geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Huse, T.; Tsurin, I.; Wormald, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the CERN/RD50 collaboration is the improvement of the radiation tolerance of semiconductor detectors for future experiments at high-luminosity colliders. In the RD50 framework, evidence of enhanced signal charge in severely irradiated silicon detectors (diodes, segmented planar and 3D devices) was found. The underlying mechanism was labelled charge multiplication. This has been one of the most exciting results from the research activity of RD50 because it could allow for a greatly extended radiation tolerance, if the mechanism is to be found controllable and tuneable. The charge multiplication mechanism is governed by impact ionisation from electrons drifting in high electric field. The electric field profile is influenced by the geometry of the implanted electrodes. In order to investigate the influence of the diode implantation geometry on charge multiplication, the RD50 collaboration has commissioned the production of miniature microstrip silicon sensors with various choices of strip pitch and strip width over pitch (w/p) ratios. Moreover, some of the sensors were produced interleaving readout strips with dummy intermediate ones in order to modify the electric field profile. These geometrical solutions can influence both charge multiplication and charge sharing between adjacent strips. The initial results of this study are here presented

  16. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viel, Simon; Banerjee, Swagato; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  17. Large-Area Silicon Detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Pree, Elias

    2017-01-01

    During the so-called Phase-2 Upgrade, the CMS experiment at CERN will undergo significant improvements to cope with the 10-fold luminosity increase of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) era. Especially the forward calorimetry will suffer from very high radiation levels and intensified pileup in the detectors. For this reason, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (CE-E) and hadronic (CE-H) compartments. The CE-E and a large fraction of CE-H will consist of a sandwich structure with silicon as active detector material. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing sensor development for the HGCAL and highlights important design features and measurement techniques. The design and layout of an 8-inch silicon sensor prototype is shown. The hexagonal sensors consist of 235 pads, each with an area of about \\mbox{1~cm$^{2}$}. Furthermore, Synopsys...

  18. Transparent silicon strip sensors for the optical alignment of particle detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.; Kroha, H.; Widmann, P.

    1995-05-01

    Modern large-area precision tracking detectors require increasing accuracy for the alignment of their components. A novel multi-point laser alignment system has been developed for such applications. The position of detector components with respect to reference laser beams is monitored by semi-transparent optical position sensors which work on the principle of silicon strip photodiodes. Two types of custom designed transparent strip sensors, based on crystalline and on amorphous silicon as active material, have been studied. The sensors are optimised for the typical diameters of collimated laser beams of 3-5 mm over distances of 10-20 m. They provide very high position resolution, on the order of 1 μm, uniformly over a wide measurement range of several centimeters. The preparation of the sensor surfaces requires special attention in order to achieve high light transmittance and minimum distortion of the traversing laser beams. At selected wavelengths, produced by laser diodes, transmission rates above 90% have been achieved. This allows to position more than 30 sensors along one laser beam. The sensors will be equipped with custom designed integrated readout electronics. (orig.)

  19. Innovative thin silicon detectors for monitoring of therapeutic proton beams: preliminary beam tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignati, A.; Monaco, V.; Attili, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Donetti, M.; Fadavi Mazinani, M.; Fausti, F.; Ferrero, M.; Giordanengo, S.; Hammad Ali, O.; Mandurrino, M.; Manganaro, L.; Mazza, G.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Staiano, A.; Cirio, R.; Boscardin, M.; Paternoster, G.; Ficorella, F.

    2017-12-01

    To fully exploit the physics potentials of particle therapy in delivering dose with high accuracy and selectivity, charged particle therapy needs further improvement. To this scope, a multidisciplinary project (MoVeIT) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) aims at translating research in charged particle therapy into clinical outcome. New models in the treatment planning system are being developed and validated, using dedicated devices for beam characterization and monitoring in radiobiological and clinical irradiations. Innovative silicon detectors with internal gain layer (LGAD) represent a promising option, overcoming the limits of currently used ionization chambers. Two devices are being developed: one to directly count individual protons at high rates, exploiting the large signal-to-noise ratio and fast collection time in small thicknesses (1 ns in 50 μm) of LGADs, the second to measure the beam energy with time-of-flight techniques, using LGADs optimized for excellent time resolutions (Ultra Fast Silicon Detectors, UFSDs). The preliminary results of first beam tests with therapeutic beam will be presented and discussed.

  20. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, Simon, E-mail: sviel@lbl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Banerjee, Swagato [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Pranko, Aliaksandr [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Rieger, Julia [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); II Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen (Germany); Wolf, Julian [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States)

    2016-09-21

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  1. A bonding study toward the quality assurance of Belle-II silicon vertex detector modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, K.H.; Jeon, H.B. [RSRI, Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, H., E-mail: sunshine@knu.ac.kr [RSRI, Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Uozumi, S. [RSRI, Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); and others

    2016-09-21

    A silicon vertex detector (SVD) for the Belle-II experiment comprises four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs), assembled in a ladder-like structure. Each ladder module of the outermost SVD layer has four rectangular and one trapezoidal DSSDs supported by two carbon-fiber ribs. In order to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio and minimize material budget, a novel chip-on-sensor “Origami” method has been employed for the three rectangular sensors that are sandwiched between the backward rectangular and forward (slanted) trapezoidal sensors. This paper describes the bonding procedures developed for making electrical connections between sensors and signal fan-out flex circuits (i.e., pitch adapters), and between pitch adapters and readout chips as well as the results in terms of the achieved bonding quality and pull force. - Highlights: • Gluing and wire binding for Belle-II SVD are studied. • Gluing robot and Origami module are used. • QA are satisfied in terms of the achieved bonding throughput and the pull force. • Result will be applied for L6 ladder assembly.

  2. A bonding study toward the quality assurance of Belle-II silicon vertex detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.H.; Jeon, H.B.; Park, H.; Uozumi, S.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A.K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P.K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.

    2016-01-01

    A silicon vertex detector (SVD) for the Belle-II experiment comprises four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs), assembled in a ladder-like structure. Each ladder module of the outermost SVD layer has four rectangular and one trapezoidal DSSDs supported by two carbon-fiber ribs. In order to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio and minimize material budget, a novel chip-on-sensor “Origami” method has been employed for the three rectangular sensors that are sandwiched between the backward rectangular and forward (slanted) trapezoidal sensors. This paper describes the bonding procedures developed for making electrical connections between sensors and signal fan-out flex circuits (i.e., pitch adapters), and between pitch adapters and readout chips as well as the results in terms of the achieved bonding quality and pull force. - Highlights: • Gluing and wire binding for Belle-II SVD are studied. • Gluing robot and Origami module are used. • QA are satisfied in terms of the achieved bonding throughput and the pull force. • Result will be applied for L6 ladder assembly.

  3. Calibration, alignment and long-term performance of the CMS silicon tracking detector

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Erik

    2009-01-01

    With an active area of more than 200 m2 , the CMS silicon strip detector is the largest silicon tracker ever built. It consists of more than 15,000 individual silicon modules which have to meet very high standards in terms of noise behavior and electronic crosstalk, as well as their exact positioning within the tracker. Furthermore, the modules will be exposed to a harsh radiation environment over the lifetime of the tracker. This thesis deals with several of the above-mentioned aspects. In the first part, individual modules are investigated using a testbeam. Some of the modules were irradiated up to an integrated dose which corresponds to the expected one over the life time of the tracker. These modules are investigated with respect to their signal- to-noise behavior, and their cross-talk. Several operational parameters are varied, such as the temperature and the bias voltage. It is shown that the modules behave as expected. The signal-to-noise ratio is well above the specifications and the cross-talk increa...

  4. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Tatischeff, V.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E.

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1-10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1-10 MeV range.

  5. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Tatischeff, V.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E.

    2016-01-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1–10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1–10 MeV range.

  6. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M., E-mail: khalilmohammad@hotmail.com [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); CEA, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Tatischeff, V. [CSNSM, IN2P3/CNRSand Paris-Sud University, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E. [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1–10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1–10 MeV range.

  7. Development of AC-coupled, poly-silicon biased, p-on-n silicon strip detectors in India for HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Ranjan, Kirti; Dierlamm, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Eber, Robert; Demarteau, Marcel

    2018-02-01

    P-on-n silicon strip sensors having multiple guard-ring structures have been developed for High Energy Physics applications. The study constitutes the optimization of the sensor design, and fabrication of AC-coupled, poly-silicon biased sensors of strip width of 30 μm and strip pitch of 55 μm. The silicon wafers used for the fabrication are of 4 inch n-type, having an average resistivity of 2-5 k Ω cm, with a thickness of 300 μm. The electrical characterization of these detectors comprises of: (a) global measurements of total leakage current, and backplane capacitance; (b) strip and voltage scans of strip leakage current, poly-silicon resistance, interstrip capacitance, interstrip resistance, coupling capacitance, and dielectric current; and (c) charge collection measurements using ALiBaVa setup. The results of the same are reported here.

  8. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Gys, Thierry; Mikulec, B; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Schomaker, R; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface...

  9. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T.; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface

  10. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T. E-mail: thierry.gys@cern.ch; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K

    2000-07-11

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface.

  11. Prototyping of petalets for the Phase-II upgrade of the silicon strip tracking detector of the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, S.; Benítez, V.; Fernández-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullán, M.; Lacker, H.; Rehnisch, L.; Sperlich, D.; Ariza, D.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I.; Keller, J.; Lohwasser, K.; Poley, L.; Prahl, V.; Zakharchuk, N.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Bernabéu, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marco-Hernandez, R.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz Contell, C.; Soldevila Serrano, U.; Affolder, T.; Greenall, A.; Gallop, B.; Phillips, P. W.; Cindro, V.

    2018-03-01

    In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with the resultant increase in occupancy, bandwidth and radiation damage, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk consists of a silicon pixel and a strip detector and exploits the concept of modularity. Prototyping and testing of various strip detector components has been carried out. This paper presents the developments and results obtained with reduced-size structures equivalent to those foreseen to be used in the forward region of the silicon strip detector. Referred to as petalets, these structures are built around a composite sandwich with embedded cooling pipes and electrical tapes for routing the signals and power. Detector modules built using electronic flex boards and silicon strip sensors are glued on both the front and back side surfaces of the carbon structure. Details are given on the assembly, testing and evaluation of several petalets. Measurement results of both mechanical and electrical quantities are shown. Moreover, an outlook is given for improved prototyping plans for large structures.

  12. Construction and Evaluation of a High Resolution Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detector, and, Utilization to Determine Interaction Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Prakash Parayil [Carnegie Mellon U.

    1997-01-01

    A 20 plane, 47K channel silicon microstrip vertex detector was built for the charm baryon experiment 781 (SELEX) at Fermilab. The detector is taking data with an average vertex transverse resolution of 6 microns. The measurement and multiple scattering errors are well understood and have been parametrized. The mass resolution of reconstructed $\\Sigma^+$ and $\\Sigma^-$ hyperons produced at 540-640 GeV /c is consistent with silicon detector resolutions. The vertex detector has been used to resolve primary and secondary vertices and this high precision information is being used in the experiment's realtime online trigger. Flawless operation over 14 months and the long-term stability of the efficiency, alignment and accuracy demonstrates successful integration of hardware and software.

  13. Investigation of the oxygen-vacancy (A-center) defect complex profile in neutron irradiated high resistivity silicon junction particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng; Kraner, H.W.; Verbitskaya, E.; Eremin, V.; Ivanov, A.; Rubinelli, F.A.; Fonash, S.J.

    1992-02-01

    Distributions of the A-center (oxygen-vacancy) in neutron silicon detectors have been studied using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy. A-centers have been found to be nearly uniformly distributed in the silicon water depth for medium resistivity (0.1 - 0.2 kΩ-cm) silicon detectors. A positive filling pulse was needed to detect the A-centers in high resistivity (>4 kΩ-cm) silicon detectors, and this effect was found to be dependent on the oxidation temperature. A discussion of this effect is presented. 16 refs

  14. Development of Single-Sided Silicon Detectors in the Emulsion-Hybrid System at J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. Y.; Ahn, J. K.; Ekawa, H.; Han, Y. C.; Hasegawa, S.; Hayakawa, S.; Hayakawa, T.; Hosomi, K.; Hwang, S. H.; Imai, K.; Ito, K.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kiuchi, R.; Moon, T. J.; Nakazawa, K.; Oue, K.; Sako, H.; Sato, S.; Sugimura, H.; Tanida, K.; Watabe, T.

    A new single-sided silicon micro-strip detector (SSD) is being developed at the J-PARC K1.8 beam line for an emulsion-counter hybrid experiment (J-PARC E07). The SSD will be mainly used for vetex measurements in emulsion plates. Two prototypes of SSD have been fabricated to check the performance of the circuit board and silicon sensors. The first prototype consists of only one layer of a silicon sensor whereas the second prototype consists of two layers of silicon sensors. The final product will be a stack of 4 layers of silicon sensors in the order of X-Y-X-Y. The first and second prototypes of SSD have been tested and the final product will be fabricated based on the test result.

  15. Development of a detector based on Silicon Drift Detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy and imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busca, P.; Butt, A. D.; Fiorini, C.; Marone, A.; Occhipinti, M.; Peloso, R.; Quaglia, R.; Bombelli, L.; Giacomini, G.; Piemonte, C.; Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Million, B.; Nelms, N.; Shortt, B.

    2014-05-01

    This work deals with the development of a new gamma detector based on Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) to readout large LaBr3:Ce scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy and imaging applications. The research is supported by the European Space Agency through the Technology Research Programme (TRP) and by Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) within the Gamma project. The SDDs, produced at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) semiconductor laboratories, are designed as monolithic arrays of 3 × 3 units, each one of an active area of 8 mm × 8 mm (overall area of 26 mm × 26 mm). The readout electronics and the architecture of the camera are briefly described and then first experimental results coupling the SDD array with a 1'' × 1'' LaBr3:Ce scintillator are reported. An energy resolution of 3% FWHM at 662 keV has been measured at -20°C, better than coupling the same scintillator with a photomultiplier tube. The same scintillator is also used to evaluate position sensitivity with a 1 mm collimated Cs-137 source. The main difficulty in determining the position of the gamma-ray interaction in the crystal is associated to the high thickness/diameter ratio of the crystal (1:1) and the use of reflectors on all lateral and top sides the crystal. This last choice enhances energy resolution but makes imaging capability more challenging because light is spread over all photodetectors. Preliminary results show that the camera is able to detect shifts in the measured signals, when the source is moved with steps of 5 mm. A modified version of the centroid method is finally implemented to evaluate the imaging capability of the system.

  16. Development of a Test System for the Quality Assurance of Silicon Microstrip Detectors for the Inner Tracking System of the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, Markus

    2003-01-01

    The inner tracking system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is being built at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will be equipped with two different technologies of silicon detectors. While the innermost tracker will be composed of silicon pixel detectors, silicon microstrip detectors are envisaged for the outer tracker architecture. The silicon microstrip tracker will house about 15,000 single detector modules each composed of a set of silicon sensors, the readout electronics (front end hybrid), and a support frame. It will provide a total active area of 198 m2 and ten million analogue channels read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. This large number of modules to be produced and integrated into the tracking system is an unprecedented challenge involving industrial companies and various research institutes from many different countries. This thesis deals with the physics of silicon sensors and the preparation of ...

  17. Pulse-height response of silicon surface-barrier detectors to high-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.

    1973-01-01

    The pulse-height defect (PHD) of high-energy heavy ions in silicon surface-barrier detectors can be divided into three components: (1) energy loss in the gold-surface layer, (2) a nuclear-stopping defect, and (3) a defect due to recombination of electron-hole pairs in the plasma created by the heavy ion. The plasma recombination portion of the PHD was the subject of this study using the variation of the PHD with (1) the angle of incidence of incoming heavy ions, and (2) changes in the detector bias. The Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory was used to produce scattered beam ions ( 32 S, 35 Cl) and heavy target recoils (Ni, Cu, 98 Mo, Ag, Au) at sufficient energies to produce a significant recombination defect. The results confirm the existence of a recombination zone at the front surface of these detectors and the significance of plasma recombination as a portion of the pulse-height defect. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  18. Readout, first- and second-level triggers of the new Belle silicon vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, M.; Abe, R.; Abe, T.; Aihara, H.; Asano, Y.; Aso, T.; Bakich, A.; Browder, T.; Chang, M. C.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chidzik, S.; Dalseno, J.; Dowd, R.; Dragic, J.; Everton, C. W.; Fernholz, R.; Fujii, H.; Gao, Z. W.; Gordon, A.; Guo, Y. N.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Harada, Y.; Haruyama, T.; Hasuko, K.; Hayashi, K.; Hazumi, M.; Heenan, E. M.; Higuchi, T.; Hirai, H.; Hitomi, N.; Igarashi, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Ishino, H.; Itoh, K.; Iwaida, S.; Kaneko, J.; Kapusta, P.; Karawatzki, R.; Kasami, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koike, S.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kurashiro, H.; Kusaka, A.; Lesiak, T.; Limosani, A.; Lin, W. C.; Marlow, D.; Matsumoto, H.; Mikami, Y.; Miyake, H.; Moloney, G. R.; Mori, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakano, Y.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nozaki, S.; Ohkubo, R.; Ohno, F.; Okuno, S.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Ozaki, H.; Peak, L.; Pernicka, M.; Rosen, M.; Rozanska, M.; Sato, N.; Schmid, S.; Shibata, T.; Stamen, R.; Stanič, S.; Steininger, H.; Sumisawa, K.; Suzuki, J.; Tajima, H.; Tajima, O.; Takahashi, K.; Takasaki, F.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Terazaki, H.; Tomura, T.; Trabelsi, K.; Trischuk, W.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Ueno, K.; Ueno, K.; Uozaki, N.; Ushiroda, Y.; Vahsen, S.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K.; Velikzhanin, Y. S.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, M. Z.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yanai, H.; Yang, R.; Yasu, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Ziegler, T.; Žontar, D.

    2004-12-01

    A major upgrade of the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD 2.0) of the Belle experiment at the KEKB factory was installed along with new front-end and back-end electronics systems during the summer shutdown period in 2003 to cope with higher particle rates, improve the track resolution and meet the increasing requirements of radiation tolerance. The SVD 2.0 detector modules are read out by VA1TA chips which provide "fast or" (hit) signals that are combined by the back-end FADCTF modules to coarse, but immediate level 0 track trigger signals at rates of several tens of a kHz. Moreover, the digitized detector signals are compared to threshold lookup tables in the FADCTFs to pass on hit information on a single strip basis to the subsequent level 1.5 trigger system, which reduces the rate below the kHz range. Both FADCTF and level 1.5 electronics make use of parallel real-time processing in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), while further data acquisition and event building is done by PC farms running Linux. The new readout system hardware is described and the first results obtained with cosmics are shown.

  19. Readout, first- and second-level triggers of the new Belle silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, M.; Abe, R.; Abe, T.

    2004-01-01

    A major upgrade of the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD 2.0) of the Belle experiment at the KEKB factory was installed along with new front-end and back-end electronics systems during the summer shutdown period in 2003 to cope with higher particle rates, improve the track resolution and meet the increasing requirements of radiation tolerance. The SVD 2.0 detector modules are read out by VA1TA chips which provide 'fast or' (hit) signals that are combined by the back-end FADCTF modules to coarse, but immediate level 0 track trigger signals at rates of several tens of a kHz. Moreover, the digitized detector signals are compared to threshold lookup tables in the FADCTFs to pass on hit information on a single strip basis to the subsequent level 1.5 trigger system, which reduces the rate below the kHz range. Both FADCTF and level 1.5 electronics make use of parallel real-time processing in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), while further data acquisition and event building is done by PC farms running Linux. The new readout system hardware is described and the first results obtained with cosmics are shown

  20. Silicon X-Ray detectors study and related synchrotron instrumentation realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdain, E.

    1998-01-01

    The CCD cameras, EPIC, will be used in the primary focal planes of the satellite XMM telescopes. Two model of CCD have been developed for this experiment: one model with a classical structure MOS and the second one with P-N junctions. For the cameras gauging at high energies, a light line on one of the DCI storage ring curvature magnets has been realized. This line, equipped with a two crystals monochromator and grazing incidence mirrors, covers the domain between 1,5 and 15 KeV with three pairs of crystals Si(111), InSb(111) and quartz(1010). To satisfy the gauging constraints of these detectors, a special interest has been realized on three points: the spectral purity, the beam temporal stability and the beam lateral homogeneity. A Si(Li) detector has been developed for this application. This detector allows the measure of the cameras quantum efficiency with an absolute precision of 5%. During the cameras gauging many spectrum with the Si(Li) have been recorded. Their simulation in the range 0,7-15 KeV, allowed the measure of the creation energy of pairs in the silicon from the incident photons. (A.L.B.)