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Sample records for silicate melts part

  1. The kinetic fragility of natural silicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Daniele; Dingwell, Donald B

    2003-01-01

    Newtonian viscosities of 19 multicomponent natural and synthetic silicate liquids, with variable contents of SiO 2 (41-79 wt%), Al 2 O 3 (10-19 wt%), TiO 2 (0-3 wt%), FeO tot (0-11 wt%); alkali oxides (5-17 wt%), alkaline-earth oxides (0-35 wt%), and minor oxides, obtained at ambient pressure using the high-temperature concentric cylinder, the low-temperature micropenetration, and the parallel plates techniques, have been analysed. For each silicate liquid, regression of the experimentally determined viscosities using the well known Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation allowed the viscosity of all these silicates to be accurately described. The results of these fits, which provide the basis for the subsequent analysis here, permit qualitative and quantitative correlations to be made between the VFT adjustable parameters (A VFT , B VFT , and T 0 ). The values of B VFT and T 0 , calibrated via the VFT equation, are highly correlated. Kinetic fragility appears to be correlated with the number of non-bridging oxygens per tetrahedrally coordinated cation (NBO/T). This is taken to infer that melt polymerization controls melt fragility in liquid silicates. Thus NBO/T might form an useful ingredient of a structure-based model of non-Arrhenian viscosity in multicomponent silicate melts

  2. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  3. Redox kinetics and mechanism in silicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochain, B.

    2009-12-01

    This work contributes to better understand iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate melts. It was conducted on compositions in both Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -FeO and Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -FeO systems. The influence of boron-sodium and aluminum-sodium substitutions and iron content on properties and structure of glasses and on the iron redox kinetics has been studied by Raman, Moessbauer and XANES spectroscopies at the B and Fe K-edges. In borosilicate glasses, an increase in iron content or in the Fe 3+ /ΣFe redox state implies a structural rearrangement of the BO 4 species in the glass network whereas the BO 3 and BO 4 relative proportions remain nearly constant. In all studied glasses and melts, Fe 3+ is a network former in tetrahedral coordination, unless for aluminosilicates of ratio Al/Na≥1 where Fe 3+ is a network modifier in five-fold coordination. Near Tg, diffusion of network modifying cations controls the iron redox kinetics along with a flux of electron holes. At liquidus temperatures, oxygen diffusion is considered to be the mechanism that governs redox reactions. This study shows the role played by the silicate network polymerization on the redox kinetics. In borosilicate melts, iron redox kinetics depends on the boron speciation between BO 3 and BO 4 that depends itself on the sodium content. Furthermore, an increase in the network-former/network-modifier ratio implies a decrease in oxygen diffusion that results in a slowing down of the redox kinetics. The obtained results allow a description of the iron redox kinetics for more complex compositions as natural lavas or nuclear waste model glasses. (author)

  4. Viscosity of Heterogeneous Silicate Melts: A Non-Newtonian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuangzhuang; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2017-12-01

    The recently published viscosity data of heterogeneous silicate melts with well-documented structure and experimental conditions are critically re-analyzed and tabulated. By using these data, a non-Newtonian viscosity model incorporating solid fraction, solid shape, and shear rate is proposed on the basis of the power-law equation. This model allows calculating the viscosity of the heterogeneous silicate melts with solid fraction up to 34 vol pct. The error between the calculated and measured data is evaluated to be 32 pct, which is acceptable considering the large error in viscosity measurement of the completely liquid silicate melt.

  5. Transition metal ions in silicate melts. I. Manganese in sodium silicate melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C; White, W B

    1980-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra obtained on glasses quenched from sodium silicate melts show Mn/sup 3 +/ to be the dominant species for melts heated in air and Mn/sup 2 +/ to be the dominant species for melts heated at P/sub O/sub 2// = 10/sup -17/ bar. The absorption spectrum of Mn/sup 3 +/ consists of an intense band at 20,000 cm/sup -1/ with a 15,000 cm/sup -1/ satellite possibly arising from the Jahn-Teller effect. The independence of the spectrum from melt composition and the high band intensity is offered as evidence for a distinct Mn/sup 3 +/ complex in the melt. The spectrum of Mn/sup 2 +/ is weak and many expected bands are not observed. A two-band luminescence spectrum from Mn/sup 2 +/ has been tentatively interpreted as due to Mn/sup 2 +/ in interstitial sites in the network and Mn/sup 2 +/ coordiated by non-bridging oxygens.

  6. Volatile diffusion in silicate melts and its effects on melt inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarlato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A compendium of diffusion measurements and their Arrhenius equations for water, carbon dioxide, sulfur, fluorine, and chlorine in silicate melts similar in composition to natural igneous rocks is presented. Water diffusion in silicic melts is well studied and understood, however little data exists for melts of intermediate to basic compositions. The data demonstrate that both the water concentration and the anhydrous melt composition affect the diffusion coefficient of water. Carbon dioxide diffusion appears only weakly dependent, at most, on the volatilefree melt composition and no effect of carbon dioxide concentration has been observed, although few experiments have been performed. Based upon one study, the addition of water to rhyolitic melts increases carbon dioxide diffusion by orders of magnitude to values similar to that of 6 wt% water. Sulfur diffusion in intermediate to silicic melts depends upon the anhydrous melt composition and the water concentration. In water-bearing silicic melts sulfur diffuses 2 to 3 orders of magnitude slower than water. Chlorine diffusion is affected by both water concentration and anhydrous melt composition; its values are typically between those of water and sulfur. Information on fluorine diffusion is rare, but the volatile-free melt composition exerts a strong control on its diffusion. At the present time the diffusion of water, carbon dioxide, sulfur and chlorine can be estimated in silicic melts at magmatic temperatures. The diffusion of water and carbon dioxide in basic to intermediate melts is only known at a limited set of temperatures and compositions. The diffusion data for rhyolitic melts at 800°C together with a standard model for the enrichment of incompatible elements in front of growing crystals demonstrate that rapid crystal growth, greater than 10-10 ms-1, can significantly increase the volatile concentrations at the crystal-melt interface and that any of that melt trapped

  7. The thermodynamic activity of ZnO in silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R. A.; Gaskell, D. R.

    1983-12-01

    The activity of ZnO in ZnO-SiO2 and CaO-ZnO-SiO2 melts has been measured at 1560 °C using a transpiration technique with CO-CO2 mixtures as the carrier gas. The activities of ZnO in dilute solution in 42 wt pct SiO2-38 wt pct CaO-20 wt pct A12O3 in the range 1400° to 1550 °C and in 62 wt pct SiO2-23.3 wt pct CaO-14.7 wt pct A12O3 at 1550 °C have also been measured. The measured free energies of formation of ZnO-SiO2 melts are significantly more negative than published estimated values and this, together with the behavior observed in the system CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, indicate that ZnO is a relatively basic oxide. The results are discussed in terms of the polymerization model of binary silicate melts and ideal silicate mixing in ternary silicate melts. The behavior of ZnO in dilute solution in CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 melts is discussed in terms of the possibility of the fluxing of ZnO by iron blast furnace slags.

  8. Sulfur concentration at sulfide saturation (SCSS) in magmatic silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanan; Samaha, Naji-Tom; Baker, Don R.

    2007-04-01

    The sulfur concentration in silicate melts at sulfide saturation (SCSS) was experimentally investigated in a temperature range from 1150 to 1450 °C and a pressure range from 500 MPa to 1 GPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus. The investigated melt compositions varied from rhyolitic to basaltic and water concentrations varied from 0 to ˜9 wt%. All experiments were saturated with FeS melt or pyrrhotite crystals. Temperature was confirmed to have a positive effect on the SCSS. Experimental oxygen fugacities were either near the carbon-carbon monoxide buffer or one log unit above the nickel-nickel oxide buffer, and found to positively affect the SCSS. Combining our results with data from the literature we constructed a model to predict the SCSS in melts ranging in composition from komatiitic to rhyolitic, with water concentrations from 0 to 9 wt%, at pressures from 1 bar to 9 GPa and oxygen fugacities between ˜2 log units below the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer to ˜2 log units above it. The coefficients were obtained by multiple linear regression of experimental data and the best model found for the prediction of the SCSS is: ln(Sinppm)=11.35251-{4454.6}/{T}-0.03190{P}/{T}+0.71006ln(MFM)-1.98063[(MFM)(XO)]+0.21867ln(XO)+0.36192lnX where P is in bar, T is in K, MFM is a compositional parameter describing the melt based upon cation mole fractions: MFM={Na+K+2(Ca+Mg+Fe)}/{Si×(Al+Fe)}, XO is the mole fraction of water in the melt, and X is the mole fraction of FeO in the melt. This model was independently tested against experiments performed on anhydrous and hydrous melts in the temperature range from 800 to 1800 °C and 1-9 GPa. The model typically predicts the measured values of the natural log of the SCSS (in ppm) for komatiitic to rhyolitic (˜42 to ˜74 wt% SiO 2) melts to within 5% relative, but is less accurate for high-silica (>76 wt% SiO 2) rhyolites, especially those with molar ratios of iron to sulfur below 2. We demonstrate how this model can be used with

  9. A study of redox kinetic in silicate melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnien, V.

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand better iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate glasses and melts. Particular interest has been paid to the influence of temperature and chemical composition. For this purpose, the influence of alkali element content, iron content and network formers on the kinetics of redox reactions has been determined through XANES and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed either near the glass transition or above the liquidus temperature. As a complement, electrical conductivity and RBS spectroscopy experiments have been made to characterize the diffusivity of the species that transport electrical charges and the reaction morphology, respectively. Temperature and composition variations can induce changes in the dominating redox mechanism. At a given temperature, the parameters that exert the strongest influence on redox mechanisms are the presence or lack of divalent cations and the existing decoupling between the mobility of network former and modifier elements. Near Tg, the diffusion of divalent cations, when present in the melt, controls the kinetics of iron redox reactions along with a flux of electron holes. Composition, through the degree of polymerization and the silicate network structure, influences the kinetics and the nature of the involved cations, but not the mechanisms of the reaction. Without alkaline earth elements, the kinetics of redox reactions are controlled by the diffusion of oxygen species. With increasing temperatures, the diffusivities of all ionic species tend to become similar. The decoupling between ionic fluxes then is reduced so that several mechanisms become kinetically equivalent and can thus coexist. (author)

  10. Chemical interactions and configurational disorder in silicate melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ottonello

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Thermodynamics of quasi-chemical and polymeric models are briefly reviewed. It is shown that the two classes are mutually consistent, and that opportune conversion of the existing quasi-chemical parameterization of binary interactions in MO-SiO2 joins to polymeric models may be afforded without substantial loss of precision. It is then shown that polymeric models are extremely useful in deciphering the structural and reactive properties of silicate melts and glasses. They not only allow the Lux-Flood character of the dissolved oxides to be established, but also discriminate subordinate strain energy contributions to the Gibbs free energy of mixing from the dominant chemical interaction terms. This discrimination means that important information on the short-, medium- and long-range periodicity of this class of substances can be retrieved from thermodynamic analysis. Lastly, it is suggested that an important step forward in deciphering the complex topology of the inhomogeneity ranges observed at high SiO2 content can be performed by applying SCMF theory and, particularly, Matsen-Schick spectral analysis, hitherto applied only to rubberlike materials.

  11. The effect of melt composition on the partitioning of trace elements between titanite and silicate melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowatke, S.; Klemme, S.

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study is to systematically investigate the influence of melt composition on the partitioning of trace elements between titanite and different silicate melts. Titanite was chosen because of its important role as an accessory mineral, particularly with regard to intermediate to silicic alkaline and calc-alkaline magmas [e.g. 1] and of its relative constant mineral composition over a wide range of bulk compositions. Experiments at atmospheric pressure were performed at temperatures between 1150°C and 1050°C. Bulk compositions were chosen to represent a basaltic andesite (SH3 - 53% SiO2), a dacite (SH2 - 65 SiO2) and a rhyolite (SH1 - 71% SiO2). Furthermore, two additional experimental series were conducted to investigate the effect of Al-Na and the Na-K ratio of melts on partitioning. Starting materials consisted of glasses that were doped with 23 trace elements including some selected rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Sm, Gd, Lu), high field strength elements (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta) and large ion lithophile elements (Cs, Rb, Ba) and Th and U. The experimental run products were analysed for trace elements using secondary ion mass spectrometry at Heidelberg University. Preliminary results indicate a strong effect of melt composition on trace element partition coefficients. Partition coefficients for rare-earth elements uniformly show a convex-upward shape [2, 3], since titanite accommodates the middle rare-earth elements more readily than the light rare-earth elements or the heavy rare-earth elements. Partition coefficients for the rare-earth elements follow a parabolic trend when plotted against ionic radius. The shape of the parabola is very similar for all studied bulk compositions, the position of the parabola, however, is strongly dependent on bulk composition. For example, isothermal rare-earth element partition coefficients (such as La) are incompatible (D>1) in alkali-poor melt compositions. From our experimental data we present an model that combines

  12. Sulfur Saturation Limits in Silicate Melts and their Implications for Core Formation Scenarios for Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzheid, Astrid; Grove, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    This study explores the controls of temperature, pressure, and silicate melt composition on S solubility in silicate liquids. The solubility of S in FeO-containing silicate melts in equilibrium with metal sulfide increases significantly with increasing temperature but decreases with increasing pressure. The silicate melt structure also exercises a control on S solubility. Increasing the degree of polymerization of the silicate melt structure lowers the S solubility in the silicate liquid. The new set of experimental data is used to expand the model of Mavrogenes and O'Neill(1999) for S solubility in silicate liquids by incorporating the influence of the silicate melt structure. The expected S solubility in the ascending magma is calculated using the expanded model. Because the negative pressure dependence of S solubility is more influential than the positive temperature dependence, decompression and adiabatic ascent of a formerly S-saturated silicate magma will lead to S undersaturation. A primitive magma that is S-saturated in its source region will, therefore, become S-undersaturated as it ascends to shallower depth. In order to precipitate magmatic sulfides, the magma must first cool and undergo fractional crystallization to reach S saturation. The S content in a metallic liquid that is in equilibrium with a magma ocean that contains approx. 200 ppm S (i.e., Earth's bulk mantle S content) ranges from 5.5 to 12 wt% S. This range of S values encompasses the amount of S (9 to 12 wt%) that would be present in the outer core if S is the light element. Thus, the Earth's proto-mantle could be in equilibrium (in terms of the preserved S abundance) with a core-forming metallic phase.

  13. Energetics of silicate melts from thermal diffusion studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.

    1997-01-01

    Initially this project was directed towards exploiting Soret diffusion of silicate liquids to learn about the internal energetics of the constituents of the liquids. During the course of this project this goal was realized at the same time a series of intellectual and technical developments expanded the scope of the undertaking. Briefly recapping some of the highlights, the project was initiated after the discovery that silicate liquids were strongly Soret-active. It was possible to observe the development of strong diffusive gradients in silicate liquid composition in response to laboratory-imposed thermal gradients. The character of the chemical separations was a direct window into the internal speciation of the liquids; the rise time of the separation was a useful entree to quantitatively measuring chemical diffusivity; and the steady state magnitude of the separation proved to be an excellent determinant of the constituents' mixing energies. A comprehensive program was initiated to measure the separations, rise times, and mixing energies of a range of geologically and technically interesting silicate liquids. An additional track of activities in the DOE project has run in parallel to the Soret investigation of single-phase liquids in a thermal gradient. This additional track is the study of liquid-plus-crystal systems in a thermal gradient. In these studies solubility-driven diffusion introduced many useful effects, some quite surprising. In partially molten silicate liquids the authors applied their experiments to understanding magmatic cumulate rocks. They have also applied their understanding of these systems to aspects of evaporite deposits in the geological record. They also undertook studies of this sort in systems with retrograde solubility in order to form the basis for understanding remediation for brine migration problems in evaporite-hosted nuclear waste repositories such as the WIPP

  14. Origin of silicic magmas along the Central American volcanic front: Genetic relationship to mafic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Thomas A.; Patino, Lina C.; Eaton, Jonathon K.; Valley, John W.; Rose, William I.; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Viray, Ela L.

    2006-09-01

    Silicic pyroclastic flows and related deposits are abundant along the Central American volcanic front. These silicic magmas erupted through both the non-continental Chorotega block to the southeast and the Paleozoic continental Chortis block to the northwest. The along-arc variations of the silicic deposits with respect to diagnostic trace element ratios (Ba/La, U/Th, Ce/Pb), oxygen isotopes, Nd and Sr isotope ratios mimic the along-arc variation in the basaltic and andesitic lavas. This variation in the lavas has been interpreted to indicate relative contributions from the slab and asthenosphere to the basaltic magmas [Carr, M.J., Feigenson, M.D., Bennett, E.A., 1990. Incompatible element and isotopic evidence for tectonic control of source mixing and melt extraction along the Central American arc. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 105, 369-380.; Patino, L.C., Carr, M.J. and Feigenson, M.D., 2000. Local and regional variations in Central American arc lavas controlled by variations in subducted sediment input. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 138 (3), 265-283.]. With respect to along-arc trends in basaltic lavas the largest contribution of slab fluids is in Nicaragua and the smallest input from the slab is in central Costa Rica — similar trends are observed in the silicic pyroclastic deposits. Data from melting experiments of primitive basalts and basaltic andesites demonstrate that it is difficult to produce high K 2O/Na 2O silicic magmas by fractional crystallization or partial melting of low-K 2O/Na 2O sources. However fractional crystallization or partial melting of medium- to high-K basalts can produce these silicic magmas. We interpret that the high-silica magmas associated Central America volcanic front are partial melts of penecontemporaneous, mantle-derived, evolved magmas that have ponded and crystallized in the mid-crust — or are melts extracted from these nearly completely crystallized magmas.

  15. Silicate melts density, buoyancy relations and the dynamics of magmatic processes in the upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Malfait, Wim J.

    2016-04-01

    Although silicate melts comprise only a minor volume fraction of the present day Earth, they play a critical role on the Earth's geochemical and geodynamical evolution. Their physical properties, namely the density, are a key control on many magmatic processes, including magma chamber dynamics and volcanic eruptions, melt extraction from residual rocks during partial melting, as well as crystal settling and melt migration. However, the quantitative modeling of these processes has been long limited by the scarcity of data on the density and compressibility of volatile-bearing silicate melts at relevant pressure and temperature conditions. In the last decade, new experimental designs namely combining large volume presses and synchrotron-based techniques have opened the possibility for determining in situ the density of a wide range of dry and volatile-bearing (H2O and CO2) silicate melt compositions at high pressure-high temperature conditions. In this contribution we will illustrate some of these progresses with focus on recent results on the density of dry and hydrous felsic and intermediate melt compositions (rhyolite, phonolite and andesite melts) at crustal and upper mantle conditions (up to 4 GPa and 2000 K). The new data on felsic-intermediate melts has been combined with in situ data on (ultra)mafic systems and ambient pressure dilatometry and sound velocity data to calibrate a continuous, predictive density model for hydrous and CO2-bearing silicate melts with applications to magmatic processes down to the conditions of the mantle transition zone (up to 2773 K and 22 GPa). The calibration dataset consist of more than 370 density measurements on high-pressure and/or water-and CO2-bearing melts and it is formulated in terms of the partial molar properties of the oxide components. The model predicts the density of volatile-bearing liquids to within 42 kg/m3 in the calibration interval and the model extrapolations up to 3000 K and 100 GPa are in good agreement

  16. Water speciation in sodium silicate glasses (quenched melts): A comprehensive NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, X.; Kanzaki, M.; Eguchi, J.

    2012-12-01

    Dissolution mechanism of water is an important factor governing how the dissolved water affects the physical and thermodynamic properties of silicate melts and glasses. Our previous studies have demonstrated that 1H MAS NMR in combination with 29Si-1H and 27Al-1H double-resonance NMR experiments is an effective approach for unambiguously differentiating and quantifying different water species in quenched silicate melts (glasses). Several contrasting dissolution mechanisms have been revealed depending on the melt composition: for relatively polymerized melts, the formation of SiOH/AlOH species (plus molecular H2O) and depolymerization of the network structure dominate; whereas for depolymerized Ca-Mg silicate melts, free OH (e.g. MgOH) become increasingly important (cf. [1]). The proportion of free OH species has been shown to decrease with both increasing melt polymerization (silica content) and decreasing field strength of the network modifying cations (from Mg to Ca). Our previous 1H and 29Si MAS NMR results for hydrous Na silicate glasses of limited compositions (Na2Si4O9 and Na2Si2O5) were consistent with negligible free OH (NaOH) species and depolymerizing effect of water dissolution [2]. On the other hand, there were also other studies that proposed the presence of significant NaOH species in hydrous glasses near the Na2Si2O5 composition. The purpose of this study is apply the approach of combined 1H MAS NMR and double-resonance (29Si-1H and 23Na-1H) NMR to gain unambiguous evidence for the OH speciation in Na silicate glasses (melts) as a function of composition. Hydrous Na silicate glasses containing mostly ≤ 1 wt% H2O for a range of Na/Si ratios from 0.33 to 1.33 have been synthesized by rapidly quenching melts either at 0.2 GPa using an internally heated gas pressure vessel or at 1 GPa using a piston cylinder high-pressure apparatus. NMR spectra have been acquired using a 9.4 T Varian Unity-Inova spectrometer. The 29Si and 1H chemical shifts are

  17. A study of redox kinetic in silicate melt; Etude cinetique des reactions d'oxydoreduction dans les silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, V

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to understand better iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate glasses and melts. Particular interest has been paid to the influence of temperature and chemical composition. For this purpose, the influence of alkali element content, iron content and network formers on the kinetics of redox reactions has been determined through XANES and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed either near the glass transition or above the liquidus temperature. As a complement, electrical conductivity and RBS spectroscopy experiments have been made to characterize the diffusivity of the species that transport electrical charges and the reaction morphology, respectively. Temperature and composition variations can induce changes in the dominating redox mechanism. At a given temperature, the parameters that exert the strongest influence on redox mechanisms are the presence or lack of divalent cations and the existing decoupling between the mobility of network former and modifier elements. Near Tg, the diffusion of divalent cations, when present in the melt, controls the kinetics of iron redox reactions along with a flux of electron holes. Composition, through the degree of polymerization and the silicate network structure, influences the kinetics and the nature of the involved cations, but not the mechanisms of the reaction. Without alkaline earth elements, the kinetics of redox reactions are controlled by the diffusion of oxygen species. With increasing temperatures, the diffusivities of all ionic species tend to become similar. The decoupling between ionic fluxes then is reduced so that several mechanisms become kinetically equivalent and can thus coexist. (author)

  18. A study of redox kinetic in silicate melt; Etude cinetique des reactions d'oxydoreduction dans les silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, V

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to understand better iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate glasses and melts. Particular interest has been paid to the influence of temperature and chemical composition. For this purpose, the influence of alkali element content, iron content and network formers on the kinetics of redox reactions has been determined through XANES and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed either near the glass transition or above the liquidus temperature. As a complement, electrical conductivity and RBS spectroscopy experiments have been made to characterize the diffusivity of the species that transport electrical charges and the reaction morphology, respectively. Temperature and composition variations can induce changes in the dominating redox mechanism. At a given temperature, the parameters that exert the strongest influence on redox mechanisms are the presence or lack of divalent cations and the existing decoupling between the mobility of network former and modifier elements. Near Tg, the diffusion of divalent cations, when present in the melt, controls the kinetics of iron redox reactions along with a flux of electron holes. Composition, through the degree of polymerization and the silicate network structure, influences the kinetics and the nature of the involved cations, but not the mechanisms of the reaction. Without alkaline earth elements, the kinetics of redox reactions are controlled by the diffusion of oxygen species. With increasing temperatures, the diffusivities of all ionic species tend to become similar. The decoupling between ionic fluxes then is reduced so that several mechanisms become kinetically equivalent and can thus coexist. (author)

  19. Olivine/melt transition metal partitioning, melt composition, and melt structure—Melt polymerization and Qn-speciation in alkaline earth silicate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysen, Bjorn O.

    2008-10-01

    govern their solubility behavior in silicate melts.

  20. The structural role and homogeneous redox equilibria of iron in peraluminous, metaluminous and peralkaline silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, M. P.; Hess, P. C.

    1986-02-01

    The compositional dependence of the redox ratio (FeO/FeO1.5) has been experimentally determined in K2O-Al2O3-SiO2-Fe2O3-FeO (KASFF) and K2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-Fe2O3-FeO (KCASFF) silicate melts. Compositions were equilibrated at 1,450° C in air, with 78 mol % SiO2. KASFF melts have from 1 to 5 mol % Fe2O3 and include both peraluminous (K2OAl2O3) compositions. KCASFF melts have 1 mol % Fe2O3 encompassing peraluminous, metaluminous (CaO+K2O>Al2O3) and peralkaline compositions. Peralkaline KASFF melts with 1 mol % Fe2O3 have low and constant values for the redox ratio, whereas in peraluminous melts the redox ratio increases with increasing (K2O/Al2O3). Increasing total iron concentration increases the redox ratio in peraluminous melts and slightly decreases the redox ratio in peralkaline melts. Substituting CaO for K2O at fixed total iron (1 mol %) increases the redox ratio in both peraluminous and metaluminous KCASFF melts; however, the redox ratio in peralkaline KCASFF melts is not affected by this exchange. These data indicate that Fe3+ is in four-fold coordination, with K+ or Ca2+ providing local charge balance. The tetrahedral ferric species is most stable in peralkaline melts and least stable in peraluminous melts, due to the competition between Al3+ and Fe3+ for charge balancing cations in the latter melt. Tetrahedral Fe3+ is also less stable when Ca2+ provides local charge balance. The data are consistent with a network modifying role for Fe2+ in the melt. The data are interpreted to reflect the effects of melt composition on the partitioning of K+ and Ca2+ and Fe3+ and Al3+ between various species in the melt. These relationships are discussed in terms of homogeneous equilibria between various iron-bearing and iron-free melt species. The results also reflect the effect of liquid composition on the exchange potentials μFe3+ Al-1 and μCa0.5K-1. The exchange potentials are relatively constant in peralkaline melts, but decrease in metaluminous and peraluminous

  1. A rheological model for glassforming silicate melts in the systems CAS, MAS, MCAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Daniele; Russell, J K

    2007-01-01

    Viscosity is the single most important property governing the efficacy, rates, and nature of melt transport. Viscosity is intimately related to the structure and thermodynamics properties of the melts and is a reflection of the mechanisms of single atoms slipping over potential energy barriers. The ability to predict melt viscosity accurately is, therefore, of critical importance for gaining new insights into the structure of silicate melts. Simple composition melts, having a reduced number of components, offer an advantage for understanding the relationships between the chemical composition, structural organization and the rheological properties of a melt. Here we have compiled a large database of ∼970 experimental measurements of melt viscosity for the simple chemical systems MAS, CAS and MCAS. These data are used to create a single chemical model for predicting the non-Arrhenian viscosity as a function of temperature (T) and composition (X) across the entire MCAS system. The T-dependence of viscosity is accounted for by the three parameters in each of the model functions: (i) Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT); (ii) Adam-Gibbs (AG); and (iii) Avramov (AV). The literature shows that, in these systems, viscosity converges to a common value of the pre-exponential factors (A) that can be assumed to be independent of composition. The other two adjustable parameters in each equation are expanded to capture the effects of composition. The resulting models are continuous across T-X space. The values and implications of the optimal parameters returned for each model are compared and discussed. A similar approach is likely to be applicable to a variety of non-silicate multicomponent glassforming systems

  2. Trace element partitioning between aqueous fluids and silicate melts measured with a proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, J.; Green, T.H. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia). School of Earth Sciences; Sie, S.H. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    A series of experiments were performed to examine the capacity of H{sub 2}O-fluids to concentrate and transport incompatible elements through peridotitic mantle and metamorphosed (eclogitic) ocean crust. Two naturally occurring rock compositions, trondhjemitic and basanitic, were used in experiments. The proton microprobe was used to determine the trace element concentrations in the solutes from H{sub 2}O-fluids equilibrated at 900-1100 degree C, 2.0 GPa with water saturated melts of trondhjemitic and basanitic compositions. Partitioning data for H{sub 2}O-fluids and silicate melts show that H{sub 2}O-fluids equilibrated with mantle peridotites will not be strongly enriched in trace elements relative to their wallrocks, and thus they melts do not strongly concentrate alkaline earths Th and U, relative to high-field strength elements. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  3. Trace element partitioning between aqueous fluids and silicate melts measured with a proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, J; Green, T H [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia). School of Earth Sciences; Sie, S H [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1997-12-31

    A series of experiments were performed to examine the capacity of H{sub 2}O-fluids to concentrate and transport incompatible elements through peridotitic mantle and metamorphosed (eclogitic) ocean crust. Two naturally occurring rock compositions, trondhjemitic and basanitic, were used in experiments. The proton microprobe was used to determine the trace element concentrations in the solutes from H{sub 2}O-fluids equilibrated at 900-1100 degree C, 2.0 GPa with water saturated melts of trondhjemitic and basanitic compositions. Partitioning data for H{sub 2}O-fluids and silicate melts show that H{sub 2}O-fluids equilibrated with mantle peridotites will not be strongly enriched in trace elements relative to their wallrocks, and thus they melts do not strongly concentrate alkaline earths Th and U, relative to high-field strength elements. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  4. Sulfur Concentration at Sulfide Saturation in Anhydrous Silicate Melts at Crustal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Samaha, N.; Baker, D. R.

    2006-05-01

    The sulfur concentration in silicate melts at sulfide saturation (SCSS) was experimentally investigated in a temperature range from 1250°C to 1450°C and a pressure range from 500 MPa to 1 GPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus. The investigated melt compositions varied from rhyolitic to basaltic. All experiments were saturated with a FeS melt. Temperature was confirmed to have a positive effect on the SCSS and no measurable pressure effect was observed. Oxygen fugacity was controlled to be either near the carbon-carbon monoxide buffer or one log unit above the nickel-nickel oxide buffer, and found to positively affect the SCSS. A series of models were constructed to predict the SCSS as a function of temperature, pressure, melt composition, oxygen fugacity and sulfur fugacity of the system. The coefficients were obtained by the regression of experimental data from this study and from data in the literature. The best model found for the prediction of the SCSS is: ln S (ppm) = 996/T + 9.875 + 0.997 ln MFM + 0.1901 ln fO2 - 0.0722 (P/T) -0.115 ln f S2, where P is in bar, T is in K, and MFM is a compositional parameter describing the melt based upon cation mole fractions: MFM = [Na + K + 2 (Ca + Mg+ Fe2+)]/[Si × (Al + Fe3+)]. This model predicts the SCSS in anhydrous silicate melts from rhyolitic to basaltic compositions at crustal conditions from 1 bar to 1.25 GPa, temperatures from ~1200 to 1400 C, and oxygen fugacities between approximately two log units below the fayalite-quartz-magnetite buffer and one log unit above the nickel-nickel oxide buffer. For cases where the oxygen and sulfur fugacities can not be adequately estimated a simpler model also works acceptably: ln S (ppm) = -5328/T + 8.431 + 1.244 ln MFM - 0.01704(P/T) + ln aFeS, where aFeS is the activity of FeS in the sulfide melt and is well approximated by a value of 1. Additional experiments were performed on other basalts in a temperature range from 1250 C to 1450 C at 1 GPa to test the models. The model

  5. High-temperature apparatus for chaotic mixing of natural silicate melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgavi, D.; Petrelli, M.; Vetere, F. P.; González-García, D.; Perugini, D., E-mail: diego.perugini@unipg.it [Department of Physics and Geology, Petro-Volcanology Research Group (PVRG), University of Perugia, Piazza Università, Perugia 06100 (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    A unique high-temperature apparatus was developed to trigger chaotic mixing at high-temperature (up to 1800 °C). This new apparatus, which we term Chaotic Magma Mixing Apparatus (COMMA), is designed to carry out experiments with high-temperature and high-viscosity (up to 10{sup 6} Pa s) natural silicate melts. This instrument allows us to follow in time and space the evolution of the mixing process and the associated modulation of chemical composition. This is essential to understand the dynamics of magma mixing and related chemical exchanges. The COMMA device is tested by mixing natural melts from Aeolian Islands (Italy). The experiment was performed at 1180 °C using shoshonite and rhyolite melts, resulting in a viscosity ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. This viscosity ratio is close to the maximum possible ratio of viscosity between high-temperature natural silicate melts. Results indicate that the generated mixing structures are topologically identical to those observed in natural volcanic rocks highlighting the enormous potential of the COMMA to replicate, as a first approximation, the same mixing patterns observed in the natural environment. COMMA can be used to investigate in detail the space and time development of magma mixing providing information about this fundamental petrological and volcanological process that would be impossible to investigate by direct observations. Among the potentials of this new experimental device is the construction of empirical relationships relating the mixing time, obtained through experimental time series, and chemical exchanges between the melts to constrain the mixing-to-eruption time of volcanic systems, a fundamental topic in volcanic hazard assessment.

  6. High-temperature apparatus for chaotic mixing of natural silicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgavi, D.; Petrelli, M.; Vetere, F. P.; González-García, D.; Perugini, D.

    2015-01-01

    A unique high-temperature apparatus was developed to trigger chaotic mixing at high-temperature (up to 1800 °C). This new apparatus, which we term Chaotic Magma Mixing Apparatus (COMMA), is designed to carry out experiments with high-temperature and high-viscosity (up to 10 6 Pa s) natural silicate melts. This instrument allows us to follow in time and space the evolution of the mixing process and the associated modulation of chemical composition. This is essential to understand the dynamics of magma mixing and related chemical exchanges. The COMMA device is tested by mixing natural melts from Aeolian Islands (Italy). The experiment was performed at 1180 °C using shoshonite and rhyolite melts, resulting in a viscosity ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. This viscosity ratio is close to the maximum possible ratio of viscosity between high-temperature natural silicate melts. Results indicate that the generated mixing structures are topologically identical to those observed in natural volcanic rocks highlighting the enormous potential of the COMMA to replicate, as a first approximation, the same mixing patterns observed in the natural environment. COMMA can be used to investigate in detail the space and time development of magma mixing providing information about this fundamental petrological and volcanological process that would be impossible to investigate by direct observations. Among the potentials of this new experimental device is the construction of empirical relationships relating the mixing time, obtained through experimental time series, and chemical exchanges between the melts to constrain the mixing-to-eruption time of volcanic systems, a fundamental topic in volcanic hazard assessment

  7. Redox equilibria and the structural role of iron in alumino-silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, M. P.; Hess, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the redox ratio Fe+2/(Fe+2+Fe+3) and the K2O/(K2O + Al2O3) ratio (K2O*) were experimentally investigated in silicate melts with 78 mol% SiO2 in the system SiO2-Al2O3-K2O-FeO-Fe2O3, in air at 1,400° C. Quenched glass compositions were analyzed by electron microprobe and wet chemical microtitration techniques. Minimum values of the redox ratio were obtained at K2O*≈0.5. The redox ratio in peralkaline melts (K2O*>0.5) increases slightly with K2O* whereas this ratio increases dramatically in peraluminous melts (K2O*<0.5) as K2O is replaced by Al2O3. These data indicate that all Fe+3 (and Al+3) occur as tetrahedral species charge balanced with K+ in peralkaline melts. In peraluminous melts, Fe+3 (and Al+3) probably occur as both tetrahedral species using Fe+2 as a charge-balancing cation and as network-modifying cations associated with non-bridging oxygen.

  8. The same features of interaction of UO2 nuclear fuel with silicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipatov, A.P.; Bel'skaya, Eh.A.; Kerko, P.F.; Pavlyukovich, P.A.; Rytvinskaya, Eh.V.; Kopets, Z.V.

    1997-01-01

    Summarized results of the experimental investigations of interaction between uranium dioxide and silicate melts of multicomponent oxide systems SiO 2 -CaO-Al 2 O 3 -Na 2 O in a wide range of basicity (0,47-1,2) at constant mass content of Al 2 O 3 -Na 2 O in each experiment. Used form of combined data processing in non dimensional coordinates permitted to get generalized curve of the studied dependence with maximum at 0,6-0,7 basicity

  9. VOLATILECALC: A silicate melt-H2O-CO2 solution model written in Visual Basic for excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    We present solution models for the rhyolite-H2O-CO2 and basalt-H2O-CO2 systems at magmatic temperatures and pressures below ~ 5000 bar. The models are coded as macros written in Visual Basic for Applications, for use within MicrosoftR Excel (Office'98 and 2000). The series of macros, entitled VOLATILECALC, can calculate the following: (1) Saturation pressures for silicate melt of known dissolved H2O and CO2 concentrations and the corresponding equilibrium vapor composition; (2) open- and closed-system degassing paths (melt and vapor composition) for depressurizing rhyolitic and basaltic melts; (3) isobaric solubility curves for rhyolitic and basaltic melts; (4) isoplethic solubility curves (constant vapor composition) for rhyolitic and basaltic melts; (5) polybaric solubility curves for the two end members and (6) end member fugacities of H2O and CO2 vapors at magmatic temperatures. The basalt-H2O-CO2 macros in VOLATILECALC are capable of calculating melt-vapor solubility over a range of silicate-melt compositions by using the relationships provided by Dixon (American Mineralogist 82 (1997) 368). The output agrees well with the published solution models and experimental data for silicate melt-vapor systems for pressures below 5000 bar. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. REDOX BEHAVIOR AND DIFFUSIVITY OF ANTIMONY AND CERIUM ION IN ALKALI ALKALINE EARTH SILICATE GLASS MELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Redox behavior and diffusivity of antimony and cerium ion in alkali alkaline earth silicate CRT (Cathode Ray Tube model glass melts were studied by means of square wave voltammetry under the frequency range of 5-1000 Hz and in the temperature range of 800-1400°C. According to voltammogram, peaks due to Sb³⁺/Sb⁰ were positioned in the negative potential region while peaks due to Sb⁵⁺/Sb³⁺ and Ce⁴⁺/Ce³⁺ were found in the positive potential region. By using some equations, correlation for peak potential versus temperature and peak current versus reciprocal frequency was examined, respectively. Their correlation showed a linear relation in the applied temperature and frequency range. Based on the linear relationship, thermodynamic and kinetic properties for each redox reaction were suggested.

  11. Immiscible silicate liquids at high pressure: the influence of melt structure on elemental partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicenzi, E [Princeton Materials Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Green, T H [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Sie, S H [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1994-12-31

    Micro-PIXE analyses have been applied to study partitioning of trace elements between immiscible silicate melts stabilised at 0.5 and 1.0 GPa over a temperature range of 1160-1240 deg C in the system SiO{sub 2}-FeO-Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}-K{sub 2}0 (+P{sub 2}0{sub 5}). The system was doped with a suite of trace elements of geochemical interest: Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, La, Ce, Sm, Ho, Y, Lu, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta at approximately 200 ppm level for all elements except for the REE`s, Ba and Ta (600-1200 ppm). Trace element partitioning was found to be a complex function of cation field strength (charge/radius{sup 2}). Although field strength is important in determining the nature and degree of partitioning, the authors emphasised that it is only one component of the underlying mechanism for the way in which elements distribute themselves between two silicate liquids. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Immiscible silicate liquids at high pressure: the influence of melt structure on elemental partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicenzi, E. [Princeton Materials Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Green, T.H. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Sie, S.H. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    Micro-PIXE analyses have been applied to study partitioning of trace elements between immiscible silicate melts stabilised at 0.5 and 1.0 GPa over a temperature range of 1160-1240 deg C in the system SiO{sub 2}-FeO-Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}-K{sub 2}0 (+P{sub 2}0{sub 5}). The system was doped with a suite of trace elements of geochemical interest: Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, La, Ce, Sm, Ho, Y, Lu, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta at approximately 200 ppm level for all elements except for the REE`s, Ba and Ta (600-1200 ppm). Trace element partitioning was found to be a complex function of cation field strength (charge/radius{sup 2}). Although field strength is important in determining the nature and degree of partitioning, the authors emphasised that it is only one component of the underlying mechanism for the way in which elements distribute themselves between two silicate liquids. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of stainless steel/calcium silicate composites manufactured by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeng; Wang, Lianfeng; Jia, Min; Cheng, Lingyu; Yan, Biao

    2017-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is raised as one kind of additive manufacturing (AM) which is based on the discrete-stacking concept. This technique can fabricate advanced composites with desirable properties directly from 3D CAD data. In this research, 316L stainless steel (316L SS) and different fractions of calcium silicate (CaSiO 3 ) composites (weight fractions of calcium silicate are 0%, 5%,10% and 15%, respectively) were prepared by SLM technique with a purpose to develop biomedical metallic materials. The relative density, tensile, microhardness and elastic modulus of the composites were tested, their microstructures and fracture morphologies were observed using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the addition of CaSiO 3 particles influenced the microstructure and mechanical properties of specimens significantly. The CaSiO 3 precipitates from the overlap of adjacent tracks and became the origin of the defects. The tensile strength of specimens range 320-722MPa. The microhardness and elastic modulus are around 250HV and 215GPa respectively. These composites were ductile materials and the fracture mode of the composites was mixed mode of ductile and brittle fracture. The 316L SS/CaSiO 3 composites can be a potential biomedical metallic materials in the medical field. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of stainless steel/calcium silicate composites manufactured by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Shanghai Key Lab. of D& A for Metal-Functional Materials, Shanghai 201804 (China); Wang, Lianfeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Shanghai Aerospace Equipments Manufacturer, Shanghai 200240 (China); Jia, Min [Shanghai Aircraft Manufacturing Co., Ltd, Shanghai 200436 (China); Cheng, Lingyu [Shanghai Aerospace Equipments Manufacturer, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yan, Biao, E-mail: 84016@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Shanghai Key Lab. of D& A for Metal-Functional Materials, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is raised as one kind of additive manufacturing (AM) which is based on the discrete-stacking concept. This technique can fabricate advanced composites with desirable properties directly from 3D CAD data. In this research, 316L stainless steel (316L SS) and different fractions of calcium silicate (CaSiO{sub 3}) composites (weight fractions of calcium silicate are 0%, 5%,10% and 15%, respectively) were prepared by SLM technique with a purpose to develop biomedical metallic materials. The relative density, tensile, microhardness and elastic modulus of the composites were tested, their microstructures and fracture morphologies were observed using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the addition of CaSiO{sub 3} particles influenced the microstructure and mechanical properties of specimens significantly. The CaSiO{sub 3} precipitates from the overlap of adjacent tracks and became the origin of the defects. The tensile strength of specimens range 320–722 MPa. The microhardness and elastic modulus are around 250 HV and 215 GPa respectively. These composites were ductile materials and the fracture mode of the composites was mixed mode of ductile and brittle fracture. The 316L SS/CaSiO{sub 3} composites can be a potential biomedical metallic materials in the medical field. - Highlights: • 316L SS/CaSiO{sub 3} composites were fabricated by selective laser melting. • Microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance of samples was studied. • Composites is a ductile material and mixed mode of ductile and brittle fracture. • Composites is a potential biomedical metallic materials in the medical field.

  15. Summary report on microstructure and composition of silicate melts containing simulated Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.L.

    1975-04-01

    Specimens of silicate melt es containing simulated Hanford waste were studied by microscopy and microprobe methods to determine microstructural and compositional characteristics. The two glass specimens were representative of glasses prepared with Hanford basalt and with sea sand as the source of SiO 2 . Samples of both glasses were studied in detail at locations near the top, bottom, center, and sides of the melts. Both glasses were of a highly uniform microstructure and composition. The basalt glass contained metallic iron inclusions around the periphery near the glass/crucible interface, and small increases in Si content adjacent to the pores occurring throughout the glass. The sand glass contained no iron, its Si composition was uniform, and the average pore size was somewhat smaller (about 2 μm) than in the basalt glass. The Ca nominally added to the sand glass could not be detected. Both glasses contained a random scattering of a micron-sized ''bright'' phase whose composition was identical to the matrix or containing elements not detectable by microprobe methods. (U.S.)

  16. Structure and properties of alumino-boro-silicate glasses and melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    neuville, D. R.; Florian, P.; Cadars, S.; Massiot, D.

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between physical properties and structure of glasses and melts in the system MO-T2O3-SiO2 (with M= Na2, Ca and T= Al, B) are technologically and geologically important, in particular to understand the microscopic origin of the configurational thermodynamic properties. The connection of these network former is fundamental to understand the physical properties of magmatic liquids. The configurational properties of melts and glasses provide fundamental information needed to characterize magmatic processes. A principal difficulty, however is to link the "macroscopic" configurational entropy with the structure of melts. This has been done by combining viscometry with Raman and NMR spectroscopy studies. From the viscosity measurements at low and high temperatures, we have obtained the configurational entropy, Sconf (log η = Ae + Be/TSconf, were η is the viscosity, T the temperature and Ae, Be two constants). Silicon, aluminum, and boron are 3 network formers playing different role on the silicate network, whereas Si is the strongest network former in coordination 4, 5 or 6 as a function of T, P; Al can play different function as a network former in 4- or 5-fold coordination and probably as a network modifier in 6 fold coordination. Boron observed in 3 or 4 fold coordination is always a network former but for very "fragile" glasses. For the glass the Al/B substitution produce a small decrease of the molar volume while this substitution produced a strong decrease of viscosity and glass transition temperature while the fragility of the network is less affected by this chemical change. Raman spectra show significant change in the D1 and D2 bands. NMR spectroscopies show also significant change as a function of chemical change and temperature. All this observations will be discussed and interpreted in order to link microscopic versus macroscopic changes.

  17. Melt fracturing and healing: A mechanism for degassing and origin of silicic obsidian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A.; Weinberg, R.F.; Wright, H.M.N.; Zlotnik, S.; Cas, Ray A.F.

    2011-01-01

    We present water content transects across a healed fault in pyroclastic obsidian from Lami pumice cone, Lipari, Italy, using synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that rhyolite melt degassed through the fault surface. Transects define a trough of low water content coincident with the fault trace, surrounded on either side by high-water-content plateaus. Plateaus indicate that obsidian on either side of the fault equilibrated at different pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions before being juxtaposed. The curves into the troughs indicate disequilibrium and water loss through diffusion. If we assume constant T, melt equilibrated at pressures differing by 0.74 MPa before juxtaposition, and the fault acted as a low-P permeable path for H2O that diffused from the glass within time scales of 10 and 30 min. Assuming constant P instead, melt on either side could have equilibrated at temperatures differing by as much as 100 ??C, before being brought together. Water content on the fault trace is particularly sensitive to post-healing diffusion. Its preserved value indicates either higher temperature or lower pressure than the surroundings, indicative of shear heating and dynamic decompression. Our results reveal that water contents of obsidian on either side of the faults equilibrated under different P-T conditions and were out of equilibrium with each other when they were juxtaposed due to faulting immediately before the system was quenched. Degassing due to faulting could be linked to cyclical seismic activity and general degassing during silicic volcanic activity, and could be an efficient mechanism of producing low-water-content obsidian. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  18. Planetesimal core formation with partial silicate melting using in-situ high P, high T, deformation x-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, B. A.; Watson, H. C.; Yu, T.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Differentiation is a defining moment in formation of terrestrial planets and asteroids. Smaller planetesimals likely didn't reach high enough temperatures for widescale melting. However, we infer that core formation must have occurred within a few million years from Hf-W dating. In lieu of a global magma ocean, planetesimals likely formed through inefficient percolation. Here, we used in-situ high temperature, high pressure, x-ray microtomography to track the 3-D evolution of the sample at mantle conditions as it underwent shear deformation. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations for permeability were used to characterize the efficiency of melt percolation. Mixtures of KLB1 peridotite plus 6.0 to 12.0 vol% FeS were pre-sintered to achieve an initial equilibrium microstructure, and then imaged through several consecutive cycles of heating and deformation. The maximum calculated melt segregation velocity was found to be 0.37 cm/yr for 6 vol.% FeS and 0.61 cm/year for 12 vol.% FeS, both below the minimum velocity of 3.3 cm/year required for a 100km planetesimal to fully differentiate within 3 million years. However, permeability is also a function of grain size and thus the samples having smaller grains than predicted for small planetesimals could have contributed to low permeability and also low migration velocity. The two-phase (sulfide melt and silicate melt) flow at higher melt fractions (6 vol.% and 12 vol.% FeS) was an extension of a similar study1 containing only sulfide melt at lower melt fraction (4.5 vol.% FeS). Contrary to the previous study, deformation did result in increased permeability until the sample was sheared by twisting the opposing Drickamer anvils by 360 degrees. Also, the presence of silicate melt caused the FeS melt to coalesce into less connected pathways as the experiment with 6 vol.% FeS was found to be less permeable than the one with 4.5 vol.% FeS but without any partial melt. The preliminary data from this study suggests that impacts as well as

  19. Orthogonal cutting of laser beam melted parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Elisa; Zanger, Frederik; Schulze, Volker

    2018-05-01

    The finishing process of parts manufactured by laser beam melting is of high concern due to the lack of surface accuracy. Therefore, the focus of this work lies on the influence of the build-up direction of the parts and their effect on the finishing process. The orthogonal cutting reveals findings in the fields of chip formation, involved forces and temperatures appearing during machining. In the investigations, the cutting depth was varied between 0.05 and 0.15 mm representing a finishing process and the cutting velocity ranges from 30 to 200 m/min depending on the material. The experiments contain the materials stainless steel (AISI 316L), titanium (Ti6Al4V) and nickel-base alloy (IN718). The two materials named latter are of high interest in the aerospace sector and at the same time titanium is used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility. For the materials IN718 and Ti6Al4V a negative rake angle of -7.5° and for stainless steel a rake angle of 12.5° are chosen for the cutting experiments. The results provide the base for processing strategies. Therefore, the specimens were solely laser beam melted without post-processing like heat treatment. The evaluation of the experiments shows that an increase in cutting speed has different effects depending on the material. For stainless steel the measured forces regarding the machining direction to the layers approach the same values. In contrast, the influence of the layers regarding the forces appearing during orthogonal cutting of the materials IN718 and Ti6Al4V differ for lower cutting speeds.

  20. The Effect of fO2 on Partition Coefficients of U and Th between Garnet and Silicate Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.; He, Z.; Schmidt, M. W.; Li, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Garnet is one of the most important minerals controlling partitioning of U and Th in the upper mantle. U is redox sensitive, while Th is tetra-valent at redox conditions of the silicate Earth. U-series disequilibria have provided a unique tool to constrain the time-scales and processes of magmatism at convergent margins. Variation of garnet/meltDU/Th with fO2 is critical to understand U-series disequilibria in arc lavas. However, there is still no systematic experimental study about the effect of fO2 on partitioning of U and Th between garnet and melt. Here we present experiments on partitioning of U, Th, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, and REE between garnet and silicate melts at various fO2. The starting material was hydrous haplo-basalt. The piston cylinder experiments were performed with Pt double capsules with C-CO, MnO-Mn3O4 (MM), and hematite-magnetite (HM) buffers at 3 GPa and 1185-1230 oC. The experiments produced garnets with diameters > 50μm and quenched melt. Major elements were measured by EMPA at ETH Zurich. Trace elements were determined using LA-ICP-MS at Northwestern University (Xi'an, China) and SIMS (Cameca1280 at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Beijing, China), producing consistent partition coefficient data for U and Th. With fO2 increasing from CCO to MM and HM, garnet/meltDU decreases from 0.041 to 0.005, while garnet/meltDTh ranges from 0.003 to 0.007 without correlation with fO2. Notably, garnet/meltDTh/U increases from 0.136 at CCO to 0.41 at HM. Our results indicate that U is still more compatible than Th in garnet even at the highest fO2 considered for the subarc mantle wedge (~NNO). Therefore, we predict that if garnet is the dominant phase controlling U-Th partitioning during melting of the mantle wedge, melts would still have 230Th excess over 238U. This explains why most young continental arc lavas have 230Th excess. If clinopyroxene is the dominant residual phase during mantle melting, U could be more incompatible than Th at high fO2

  1. Ar and K partitioning between clinopyroxene and silicate melt to 8 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, E. M.; Brooker, R. A.; Wartho, J.-A.; Wood, B. J.; Kelley, S. P.; Blundy, J. D.

    2002-02-01

    The relative incompatibility of Ar and K are fundamental parameters in understanding the degassing history of the mantle. Clinopyroxene is the main host for K in most of the upper mantle, playing an important role in controlling the K/Ar ratio of residual mantle and the subsequent time-integrated evolution of 40Ar/36Ar ratios. Clinopyroxene also contributes to the bulk Ar partition coefficient that controls the Ar degassing rate during mantle melting. The partitioning of Ar and K between clinopyroxene and quenched silicate melt has been experimentally determined from 1 to 8 GPa for the bulk compositions Ab80Di20 (80 mol% albite-20 mol% diopside) and Ab20Di80 with an ultraviolet laser ablation microprobe (UVLAMP) technique for Ar analysis and the ion microprobe for K. Data for Kr (UVLAMP) and Rb (ion probe) have also been determined to evaluate the role of crystal lattice sites in controlling partitioning. By excluding crystal analyses that show evidence of glass contamination, we find relatively constant Ar partition coefficients (DAr) of 2.6 × 10-4 to 3.9 × 10-4 for the Ab80Di20 system at pressures from 2 to 8 GPa. In the Ab20Di80 system, DAr shows similar low values of 7.0 × 10-5 and 3.0 × 10-4 at 1 to 3 GPa. All these values are several orders of magnitude lower than previous measurements on separated crystal-glass pairs. DK is 10 to 50 times greater than DRb for all experiments, and both elements follow parallel trends with increasing pressure, although these trends are significantly different in each system studied. The DK values for clinopyroxene are at least an order of magnitude greater than DAr under all conditions investigated here, but DAr appears to show more consistent behavior between the two systems than K or Rb. The partitioning behavior of K and Rb can be explained in terms of combined pressure, temperature, and crystal chemistry effects that result in changes for the size of the clinopyroxene M2 site. In the Ab20Di80 system, where

  2. The effect of melt composition on metal-silicate partitioning of siderophile elements and constraints on core formation in the angrite parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenstra, E. S.; Sitabi, A. B.; Lin, Y. H.; Rai, N.; Knibbe, J. S.; Berndt, J.; Matveev, S.; van Westrenen, W.

    2017-09-01

    We present 275 new metal-silicate partition coefficients for P, S, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Ge, Mo, and W obtained at moderate P (1.5 GPa) and high T (1683-1883 K). We investigate the effect of silicate melt composition using four end member silicate melt compositions. We identify possible silicate melt dependencies of the metal-silicate partitioning of lower valence elements Ni, Ge and V, elements that are usually assumed to remain unaffected by changes in silicate melt composition. Results for the other elements are consistent with the dependence of their metal-silicate partition coefficients on the individual major oxide components of the silicate melt composition suggested by recently reported parameterizations and theoretical considerations. Using multiple linear regression, we parameterize compiled metal-silicate partitioning results including our new data and report revised expressions that predict their metal-silicate partitioning behavior as a function of P-T-X-fO2. We apply these results to constrain the conditions that prevailed during core formation in the angrite parent body (APB). Our results suggest the siderophile element depletions in angrite meteorites are consistent with a CV bulk composition and constrain APB core formation to have occurred at mildly reducing conditions of 1.4 ± 0.5 log units below the iron-wüstite buffer (ΔIW), corresponding to a APB core mass of 18 ± 11%. The core mass range is constrained to 21 ± 8 mass% if light elements (S and/or C) are assumed to reside in the APB core. Incorporation of light elements in the APB core does not yield significantly different redox states for APB core-mantle differentiation. The inferred redox state is in excellent agreement with independent fO2 estimates recorded by pyroxene and olivine in angrites.

  3. Kinetics of iron redox reaction in silicate melts: A high temperature Xanes study on an alkali basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochain, B; Neuville, D R; Roux, J; Strukelj, E; Richet, P [Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, Geochimie-Cosmochimie, CNRS-IPGP, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Ligny, D de [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, LPCML, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Baudelet, F, E-mail: cochain@ipgp.jussieu.f [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin (France)

    2009-11-15

    In Earth and Materials sciences, iron is the most important transition element. Glass and melt properties are strongly affected by iron content and redox state with the consequence that some properties (i.e. viscosity, heat capacity, crystallization...) depend not only on the amounts of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, but also on the coordination state of these ions. In this work we investigate iron redox reactions through XANES experiments at the K-edge of iron. Using a high-temperature heating device, pre-edge of XANES spectra exhibits definite advantages to make in-situ measurements and to determine the evolution of redox state with time, temperature and composition of synthetic silicate melts. In this study, new kinetics measurements are presented for a basalt melt from the 31,000-BC eruption of the Puy de Lemptegy Volcano in France. These measurements have been made between 773 K and at superliquidus temperatures up to 1923 K.

  4. Kinetics of iron redox reaction in silicate melts: A high temperature Xanes study on an alkali basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochain, B; Neuville, D R; Roux, J; Strukelj, E; Richet, P; Ligny, D de; Baudelet, F

    2009-01-01

    In Earth and Materials sciences, iron is the most important transition element. Glass and melt properties are strongly affected by iron content and redox state with the consequence that some properties (i.e. viscosity, heat capacity, crystallization...) depend not only on the amounts of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ , but also on the coordination state of these ions. In this work we investigate iron redox reactions through XANES experiments at the K-edge of iron. Using a high-temperature heating device, pre-edge of XANES spectra exhibits definite advantages to make in-situ measurements and to determine the evolution of redox state with time, temperature and composition of synthetic silicate melts. In this study, new kinetics measurements are presented for a basalt melt from the 31,000-BC eruption of the Puy de Lemptegy Volcano in France. These measurements have been made between 773 K and at superliquidus temperatures up to 1923 K.

  5. In-situ, high pressure and temperature experimental determination of hydrogen isotope fractionation between coexisting hydrous melt and silicate-saturated aqueous fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysen, B. O.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope fractionation between water-saturated silicate melt and silicate-saturated aqueous fluid has been determined experimentally, in-situ with the samples in the 450-800C and 101-1567 MPa temperature and pressure range, respectively. The temperatures are, therefore higher than those where hydrogen bonding in fluids and melts is important [1]. The experiments were conducted with a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) as the high-temperature/-pressure tool and vibrational spectroscopy to determine D/H fractionation. Compositions were along the haploandesite join, Na2Si4O9 - Na2(NaAl)4O9 [Al/(Al+Si)=0-0.1], and a 50:50 (by volume) H2O:D2O fluid mixture as starting material. Platinum metal was used to enhance equilibration rate. Isotopic equilibrium was ascertained by using variable experimental duration at given temperature and pressure. In the Al-free Na-silicate system, the enthalpy change of the (D/H) equilibrium of fluid is 3.1±0.7 kJ/mol, whereas for coexisting melt, ΔH=0 kJ/mol within error. With Al/(Al+Si)=0.1, ΔH=5.2±0.9 kJ/mol for fluid and near 0 within error for coexisting melt melt. For the exchange equilibrium between melt and fluid, H2O(melt)+D2O(fluid)=H2O(fluid)+D2O(melt), the ΔH=4.6±0.7 and 6.5±0.7 kJ/mol for the two Al-free and Al-bearing compositions, respectively, respectively. The D/H equilibration within fluids and melts and, therefore, D/H partitioning between coexisting fluid and melt reflect the influence of dissolved H2O(D2O) in melts and dissolved silicate components in H2O(D2O) fluid on their structure. The positive temperature- and pressure-dependence of silicate solubility and on silicate structure in silicate-saturated aqueous fluid governs the D/H fractionation in the fluid because increasing silicate solute concentration in fluid results in silicate polymerization [2]. These structural effects may be analogous to observed solute-dependent oxygen isotope fractionation between brine and CO2 [3]. In the temperature

  6. Trace element partitioning between ilmenite, armalcolite and anhydrous silicate melt: Implications for the formation of lunar high-Ti mare basalts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan Parker, M. van; Mason, P.R.D.; Westrenen, W. van

    2011-01-01

    We performed a series of experiments at high pressures and temperatures to determine the partitioning of a wide range of trace elements between ilmenite (Ilm), armalcolite (Arm) and anhydrous lunar silicate melt, to constrain geochemical models of the formation of titanium-rich melts in the Moon.

  7. Eclogite-associated potassic silicate melts and chloride-rich fluids in the mantle: a possible connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, O.; Butvina, V.

    2009-04-01

    Relics of potassium-rich (4-14 wt. % of K2O and K2O/Na2O > 1.0) melts are a specific features of some partially molten diamondiferous eclogite xenoliths in kimberlites worldwide [1, 2]. In addition, potassic silicic melt inclusions with up to 16 wt. % of K2O are associated with eclogite phases in kimberlitic diamonds (O. Navon, pers. comm.). According to available experimental data, no such potassium contents can be reached by "dry" and hydrous melting of eclogite. These data point to close connection between infiltration of essentially potassic fluids, partial melting and diamond formation in mantle eclogites [2]. Among specific components of these fluids, alkali chlorides, apparently, play an important role. This conclusion follows from assemblages of the melt relics with chlorine-bearing phases in eclogite xenoliths [1], findings of KCl-rich inclusions in diamonds from the xenoliths [3], and concentration of Cl up to 0.5-1.5 wt. % in the melt inclusions in diamonds. In this presentation, we review our experimental data on reactions of KCl melts and KCl-bearing fluids with model and natural eclogite-related minerals and assemblages. Experiments in the model system jadeite(±diopside)-KCl(±H2O) at 4-7 GPa showed that, being immiscible, chloride liquids provoke a strong K-Na exchange with silicates (jadeite). As a result, low-temperature ultrapotassic chlorine-bearing (up to 3 wt. % of Cl) aluminosilicate melts form. These melts is able to produce sanidine, which is characteristic phase in some partially molten eclogites. In addition, in presence of water Si-rich Cl-bearing mica (Al-celadonite-phlogopite) crystallizes in equilibrium with sanidine and/or potassic melt and immiscible chloride liquid. This mica is similar to that observed in some eclogitic diamonds bearing chloride-rich fluid inclusions [4], as well as in diamonds in partially molten eclogites [2]. Interaction of KCl melt with pyrope garnet also produce potassic aluminosilicate melt because of high

  8. The partitioning of barium and lead between silicate melts and aqueous fluids at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Helene; Menez, Benedicte; Khodja, Hicham; Daudin, Laurent; Gallien, Jean-Paul; Massare, Dominique; Shaw, Cliff; Metrich, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    The origin of subduction-related magmas is still a matter of debate in the Earth Sciences. These magmas are characterised by their distinctive trace element compositions compared to magmas from other tectonic settings, e.g. mid-ocean ridges or rifts. The distinct trace element composition of these magmas is generally attributed to alteration of the source region by a contaminating agent: either a silicate melt or a hydrous fluid, possibly chlorine-enriched. In this study, we have used μPIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) to analyse synthetic samples obtained from a micro-experimental petrology study that aims to determine the partitioning behaviour of two key elements, Ba and Pb, between silicate melt and both pure water and saline fluids. Our experiments were performed at high-pressure (>0.34-1.53 GPa) and high-temperature (697-1082 deg. C) in a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell, that was used as a transparent rapid quench autoclave. We observed that at high pressure and temperature, in the presence of pure water, Ba and Pb are not strongly fractionated into one phase or the other. The partition coefficient of Pb is ranging from 0.46 to 1.28. Results from one experiment performed at 0.83 GPa and 847 deg. C, in the presence of a saline fluid indicate that the presence of Cl induces strong fractionation of Pb and moderate fractionation of Ba both into the silicate melt. In addition, our data indicate that Cl is strongly partitioned into the fluid phase

  9. Metal/sulfide-silicate intergrowth textures in EL3 meteorites: Origin by impact melting on the EL parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Deon; Keil, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    We document the petrographic setting and textures of Fe,Ni metal, the mineralogy of metallic assemblages, and the modal mineral abundances in the EL3 meteorites Asuka (A-) 881314, A-882067, Allan Hills 85119, Elephant Moraine (EET) 90299/EET 90992, LaPaz Icefield 03930, MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02635, MAC 02837/MAC 02839, MAC 88136, Northwest Africa (NWA) 3132, Pecora Escarpment 91020, Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 93351/QUE 94321, QUE 94594, and higher petrologic type ELs Dar al Gani 1031 (EL4), Sayh al Uhaymir 188 (EL4), MAC 02747 (EL4), QUE 94368 (EL4), and NWA 1222 (EL5). Large metal assemblages (often containing schreibersite and graphite) only occur outside chondrules and are usually intergrown with silicate minerals (euhedral to subhedral enstatite, silica, and feldspar). Sulfides (troilite, daubréelite, and keilite) are also sometimes intergrown with silicates. Numerous authors have shown that metal in enstatite chondrites that are interpreted to have been impact melted contains euhedral crystals of enstatite. We argue that the metal/sulfide-silicate intergrowths in the ELs we studied were also formed during impact melting and that metal in EL3s thus does not retain primitive (i.e., nebular) textures. Likewise, the EL4s are also impact-melt breccias. Modal abundances of metal in the EL3s and EL4s range from approximately 7 to 30 wt%. These abundances overlap or exceed those of EL6s, and this is consistent either with pre-existing heterogeneity in the parent body or with redistribution of metal during impact processes.

  10. Experimental Partitioning of Chalcophile Elements between Mantle Silicate Minerals and Basaltic Melt at High Pressures and Temperatures - Implications for Sulfur Geochemistry of Mantle and Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, R.; Jego, S.; Ding, S.; Li, Y.; Lee, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    The behavior of chalcophile elements during mantle melting, melt extraction, and basalt differentiation is critical for formation of ore deposits and geochemical model and evolution of crust-mantle system. While chalcophile elements are strongly partitioned into sulfides, their behavior with different extent of melting, in particular, in the absence of sulfides, can only be modeled with complete knowledge of the partitioning behavior of these elements between dominant mantle minerals and basaltic melt with or without dissolved sulfide (S2-). However, experimental data on mineral-melt partitioning are lacking for many chalcophile elements. Crystallization experiments were conducted at 3 GPa and 1450-1600 °C using a piston cylinder and synthetic silicate melt compositions similar to low-degree partial melt of peridotite. Starting silicate mixes doped with 100-300 ppm of each of various chalcophile elements were loaded into Pt/graphite double capsules. To test the effect of dissolved sulfur in silicate melt on mineral-melt partitioning of chalcophile elements, experiments were conducted on both sulfur-free and sulfur-bearing (1100-1400 ppm S in melt) systems. Experimental phases were analyzed by EPMA (for major elements and S) and LA-ICP-MS (for trace elements). All experiments produced an assemblage of cpx + melt ± garnet ± olivine ± spinel and yielded new partition coefficients (D) for Sn, Zn, Mo, Sb, Bi, Pb, and Se for cpx/melt, olivine/melt, and garnet/melt pairs. Derived Ds (mineral/basalt) reveal little effect of S2- in the melt on mineral-melt partition coefficients of the measured chalcophile elements, with Ds for Zn, Mo, Bi, Pb decreasing by less than a factor of 2 from S-free to S-bearing melt systems or remaining similar, within error, between S-free and S-bearing melt systems. By combining our data with existing partitioning data between sulfide phases and silicate melt we model the fractionation of these elements during mantle melting and basalt

  11. A micro-scale investigation of melt production and extraction in the upper mantle based on silicate melt pockets in ultramafic xenoliths from the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Western Hungary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bali, Eniko; Zanetti, A.; Szabo, C.

    2008-01-01

    Mantle xenoliths in Neogene alkali basalts of the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Western Hungary) frequently have melt pockets that contain silicate minerals, glass, and often carbonate globules. Textural, geochemical and thermobarometric data indicate that the melt pockets formed at rel...

  12. Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM): A fast approximate model for oxide and silicate melts at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent first-principles calculations (e.g. Stixrude, 2009; de Koker, 2013), shock-wave experiments (Mosenfelder, 2009), and diamond-anvil cell investigations (Sanloup, 2013) indicate that silicate melts undergo complex structural evolution at high pressure. The observed increase in cation-coordination (e.g. Karki, 2006; 2007) induces higher compressibilities and lower adiabatic thermal gradients in melts as compared with their solid counterparts. These properties are crucial for understanding the evolution of impact-generated magma oceans, which are dominated by the poorly understood behavior of silicates at mantle pressures and temperatures (e.g. Stixrude et al. 2009). Probing these conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, especially given the large compositional space (MgO-SiO2-FeO-Al2O3-etc). We develop a new model to understand and predict the behavior of oxide and silicate melts at extreme P-T conditions (Wolf et al., 2015). The Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM) extends the Hard Sphere mixture model, accounting for the range of coordination states for each cation in the liquid. Using approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, this fast statistical method compliments classical and first-principles methods, providing accurate thermodynamic and structural property predictions for melts. This framework is applied to the MgO system, where model parameters are trained on a collection of crystal polymorphs, producing realistic predictions of coordination evolution and the equation of state of MgO melt over a wide P-T range. Typical Mg-coordination numbers are predicted to evolve continuously from 5.25 (0 GPa) to 8.5 (250 GPa), comparing favorably with first-principles Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We begin extending the model to a simplified mantle chemistry using empirical potentials (generally accurate over moderate pressure ranges, consuming classical MD calculations. This approach also sheds light on the universality

  13. Micro-XANES measurements on experimental spinels and the oxidation state of vanadium in coexisting spinel and silicate melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.R.; Newville, M.; Le, L.; Schwandt, C.S.

    2006-01-01

    We show that experimental spinels coexisting with silicate melt always have lower valence vanadium, and that spinels typically have 3+, whereas the coexisting melt has 4+ or 5+. Implications of these results for planetary basalts will be discussed. Spinel can be a significant host phase for V which has multiple oxidation states V 2+ , V 3+ , V 4+ or V 5+ at oxygen fugacities relevant to natural systems. The magnitude of D(V) spinel/melt is known to be a function of composition, temperature and fO 2 , but the uncertainty of the oxidation state under the range of natural conditions has made elusive a thorough understanding of D(V) spinel/melt. For example, V 3+ is likely to be stable in spinels, based on exchange with Al in experiments in the CaO-MgO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 system. On the other hand, it has been argued that V 4+ will be stable across the range of natural oxygen fugacities in nature. In order to build on our previous work in more oxidized systems, we have carried out experiments at relatively reducing conditions from the FMQ buffer to 2 log fO 2 units below the IW buffer. These spinel-melt pairs, where V is present in the spinel at natural levels (∼300 ppm V), were analyzed using an electron microprobe at NASA-JSC and mi-cro-XANES at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The new results will be used together with previous results to understand the valence of V in spinel-melt systems across 12 orders of magnitude of oxygen fugacity, and with application to natural systems.

  14. Evidence of denser MgSiO3 glass above 133 gigapascal (GPa) and implications for remnants of ultradense silicate melt from a deep magma ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Motohiko; Bass, Jay D

    2011-10-18

    Ultralow velocity zones are the largest seismic anomalies in the mantle, with 10-30% seismic velocity reduction observed in thin layers less than 20-40 km thick, just above the Earth's core-mantle boundary (CMB). The presence of silicate melts, possibly a remnant of a deep magma ocean in the early Earth, have been proposed to explain ultralow velocity zones. It is, however, still an open question as to whether such silicate melts are gravitationally stable at the pressure conditions above the CMB. Fe enrichment is usually invoked to explain why melts would remain at the CMB, but this has not been substantiated experimentally. Here we report in situ high-pressure acoustic velocity measurements that suggest a new transformation to a denser structure of MgSiO(3) glass at pressures close to those of the CMB. The result suggests that MgSiO(3) melt is likely to become denser than crystalline MgSiO(3) above the CMB. The presence of negatively buoyant and gravitationally stable silicate melts at the bottom of the mantle, would provide a mechanism for observed ultralow seismic velocities above the CMB without enrichment of Fe in the melt. An ultradense melt phase and its geochemical inventory would be isolated from overlying convective flow over geologic time.

  15. Industrial opportunities of controlled melt flow during glass melting, part 1: Melt flow evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyrčíková, Petra; Hrbek, Lukáš; Němec, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2014), s. 111-117 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010844 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melting * controlled flow * space utilization Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2014/pdf/2014_02_111.pdf

  16. A thermodynamical model for the surface tension of silicate melts in contact with H2O gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; Battaglia, Maurizio; Trigila, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Surface tension plays an important role in the nucleation of H2O gas bubbles in magmatic melts and in the time-dependent rheology of bubble-bearing magmas. Despite several experimental studies, a physics based model of the surface tension of magmatic melts in contact with H2O is lacking. This paper employs gradient theory to develop a thermodynamical model of equilibrium surface tension of silicate melts in contact with H2O gas at low to moderate pressures. In the last decades, this approach has been successfully applied in studies of industrial mixtures but never to magmatic systems. We calibrate and verify the model against literature experimental data, obtained by the pendant drop method, and by inverting bubble nucleation experiments using the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT). Our model reproduces the systematic decrease in surface tension with increased H2O pressure observed in the experiments. On the other hand, the effect of temperature is confirmed by the experiments only at high pressure. At atmospheric pressure, the model shows a decrease of surface tension with temperature. This is in contrast with a number of experimental observations and could be related to microstructural effects that cannot be reproduced by our model. Finally, our analysis indicates that the surface tension measured inverting the CNT may be lower than the value measured by the pendant drop method, most likely because of changes in surface tension controlled by the supersaturation.

  17. The solvation radius of silicate melts based on the solubility of noble gases and scaled particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottonello, Giulio; Richet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The existing solubility data on noble gases in high-temperature silicate melts have been analyzed in terms of Scaling Particle Theory coupled with an ab initio assessment of the electronic, dispersive, and repulsive energy terms based on the Polarized Continuum Model (PCM). After a preliminary analysis of the role of the contracted Gaussian basis sets and theory level in reproducing appropriate static dipole polarizabilities in a vacuum, we have shown that the procedure returns Henry's law constants consistent with the values experimentally observed in water and benzene at T = 25 °C and P = 1 bar for the first four elements of the series. The static dielectric constant (ε) of the investigated silicate melts and its optical counterpart (ε ∞ ) were then resolved through the application of a modified form of the Clausius-Mossotti relation. Argon has been adopted as a probe to depict its high-T solubility in melts through an appropriate choice of the solvent diameter σ s , along the guidelines already used in the past for simple media such as water or benzene. The σ s obtained was consistent with a simple functional form based on the molecular volume of the solvent. The solubility calculations were then extended to He, Ne, and Kr, whose dispersive and repulsive coefficients are available from theory and we have shown that their ab initio Henry's constants at high T reproduce the observed increase with the static polarizability of the series element with reasonable accuracy. At room temperature (T = 25 °C) the calculated Henry's constants of He, Ne, Ar, and Kr in the various silicate media predict higher solubilities than simple extrapolations (i.e., Arrhenius plots) based on high-T experiments and give rise to smooth trends not appreciably affected by the static polarizabilities of the solutes. The present investigation opens new perspectives on a wider application of PCM theory which can be extended to materials of great industrial interest at the core of

  18. The solvation radius of silicate melts based on the solubility of noble gases and scaled particle theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottonello, Giulio, E-mail: giotto@dipteris.unige.it [DISTAV, Università di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy); Richet, Pascal [Institut de Physique du Globe, Rue Jussieu 2, 75005 Paris (France)

    2014-01-28

    The existing solubility data on noble gases in high-temperature silicate melts have been analyzed in terms of Scaling Particle Theory coupled with an ab initio assessment of the electronic, dispersive, and repulsive energy terms based on the Polarized Continuum Model (PCM). After a preliminary analysis of the role of the contracted Gaussian basis sets and theory level in reproducing appropriate static dipole polarizabilities in a vacuum, we have shown that the procedure returns Henry's law constants consistent with the values experimentally observed in water and benzene at T = 25 °C and P = 1 bar for the first four elements of the series. The static dielectric constant (ε) of the investigated silicate melts and its optical counterpart (ε{sup ∞}) were then resolved through the application of a modified form of the Clausius-Mossotti relation. Argon has been adopted as a probe to depict its high-T solubility in melts through an appropriate choice of the solvent diameter σ{sub s}, along the guidelines already used in the past for simple media such as water or benzene. The σ{sub s} obtained was consistent with a simple functional form based on the molecular volume of the solvent. The solubility calculations were then extended to He, Ne, and Kr, whose dispersive and repulsive coefficients are available from theory and we have shown that their ab initio Henry's constants at high T reproduce the observed increase with the static polarizability of the series element with reasonable accuracy. At room temperature (T = 25 °C) the calculated Henry's constants of He, Ne, Ar, and Kr in the various silicate media predict higher solubilities than simple extrapolations (i.e., Arrhenius plots) based on high-T experiments and give rise to smooth trends not appreciably affected by the static polarizabilities of the solutes. The present investigation opens new perspectives on a wider application of PCM theory which can be extended to materials of great

  19. The solvation radius of silicate melts based on the solubility of noble gases and scaled particle theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottonello, Giulio; Richet, Pascal

    2014-01-28

    The existing solubility data on noble gases in high-temperature silicate melts have been analyzed in terms of Scaling Particle Theory coupled with an ab initio assessment of the electronic, dispersive, and repulsive energy terms based on the Polarized Continuum Model (PCM). After a preliminary analysis of the role of the contracted Gaussian basis sets and theory level in reproducing appropriate static dipole polarizabilities in a vacuum, we have shown that the procedure returns Henry's law constants consistent with the values experimentally observed in water and benzene at T = 25 °C and P = 1 bar for the first four elements of the series. The static dielectric constant (ɛ) of the investigated silicate melts and its optical counterpart (ɛ(∞)) were then resolved through the application of a modified form of the Clausius-Mossotti relation. Argon has been adopted as a probe to depict its high-T solubility in melts through an appropriate choice of the solvent diameter σs, along the guidelines already used in the past for simple media such as water or benzene. The σs obtained was consistent with a simple functional form based on the molecular volume of the solvent. The solubility calculations were then extended to He, Ne, and Kr, whose dispersive and repulsive coefficients are available from theory and we have shown that their ab initio Henry's constants at high T reproduce the observed increase with the static polarizability of the series element with reasonable accuracy. At room temperature (T = 25 °C) the calculated Henry's constants of He, Ne, Ar, and Kr in the various silicate media predict higher solubilities than simple extrapolations (i.e., Arrhenius plots) based on high-T experiments and give rise to smooth trends not appreciably affected by the static polarizabilities of the solutes. The present investigation opens new perspectives on a wider application of PCM theory which can be extended to materials of great industrial interest at the core of

  20. Noble gas solubility in silicate melts:a review of experimentation and theory, and implications regarding magma degassing processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paonita

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Noble gas solubility in silicate melts and glasses has gained a crucial role in Earth Sciences investigations and in the studies of non-crystalline materials on a micro to a macro-scale. Due to their special geochemical features, noble gases are in fact ideal tracers of magma degassing. Their inert nature also allows them to be used to probe the structure of silicate melts. Owing to the development of modern high pressure and temperature technologies, a large number of experimental investigations have been performed on this subject in recent times. This paper reviews the related literature, and tries to define our present state of knowledge, the problems encountered in the experimental procedures and the theoretical questions which remain unresolved. Throughout the manuscript I will also try to show how the thermodynamic and structural interpretations of the growing experimental dataset are greatly improving our understanding of the dissolution mechanisms, although there are still several points under discussion. Our improved capability of predicting noble gas solubilities in conditions closer to those found in magma has allowed scientists to develop quantitative models of magma degassing, which provide constraints on a number of questions of geological impact. Despite these recent improvements, noble gas solubility in more complex systems involving the main volatiles in magmas, is poorly known and a lot of work must be done. Expertise from other fields would be extremely valuable to upcoming research, thus focus should be placed on the structural aspects and the practical and commercial interests of the study of noble gas solubility.

  1. Vapor pressure and vapor fractionation of silicate melts of tektite composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Louis S.; Carron, M.K.

    1964-01-01

    The total vapor pressure of Philippine tektite melts of approximately 70 per cent silica has been determined at temperatures ranging from 1500 to 2100??C. This pressure is 190 ?? 40 mm Hg at 1500??C, 450 ?? 50 mm at 1800??C and 850 ?? 70 mm at 2100?? C. Determinations were made by visually observing the temperature at which bubbles began to form at a constant low ambient pressure. By varying the ambient pressure, a boiling point curve was constructed. This curve differs from the equilibrium vapor pressure curve due to surface tension effects. This difference was evaluated by determining the equilibrium bubble size in the melt and calculating the pressure due to surface tension, assuming the latter to be 380 dyn/cm. The relative volatility from tektite melts of the oxides of Na, K, Fe, Al and Si has been determined as a function of temperature, total pressure arid roughly, of oxygen fugacity. The volatility of SiO2 is decreased and that of Na2O and K2O is increased in an oxygen-poor environment. Preliminary results indicate that volatilization at 2100??C under atmospheric pressure caused little or no change in the percentage Na2O and K2O. The ratio Fe3 Fe2 of the tektite is increased in ambient air at a pressure of 9 ?? 10-4 mm Hg (= 106.5 atm O2, partial pressure) at 2000??C. This suggests that tektites were formed either at lower oxygen pressures or that they are a product of incomplete oxidation of parent material with a still lower ferricferrous ratio. ?? 1964.

  2. Generation of Silicic Melts in the Early Izu-Bonin Arc Recorded by Detrital Zircons in Proximal Arc Volcaniclastic Rocks From the Philippine Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A. P.; Tani, K.; Meffre, S.; Wooden, J. L.; Coble, M. A.; Arculus, R. J.; Ishizuka, O.; Shukle, J. T.

    2017-10-01

    A 1.2 km thick Paleogene volcaniclastic section at International Ocean Discovery Program Site 351-U1438 preserves the deep-marine, proximal record of Izu-Bonin oceanic arc initiation, and volcano evolution along the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR). Pb/U ages and trace element compositions of zircons recovered from volcaniclastic sandstones preserve a remarkable temporal record of juvenile island arc evolution. Pb/U ages ranging from 43 to 27 Ma are compatible with provenance in one or more active arc edifices of the northern KPR. The abundances of selected trace elements with high concentrations provide insight into the genesis of U1438 detrital zircon host melts, and represent useful indicators of both short and long-term variations in melt compositions in arc settings. The Site U1438 zircons span the compositional range between zircons from mid-ocean ridge gabbros and zircons from relatively enriched continental arcs, as predicted for melts in a primitive oceanic arc setting derived from a highly depleted mantle source. Melt zircon saturation temperatures and Ti-in-zircon thermometry suggest a provenance in relatively cool and silicic melts that evolved toward more Th and U-rich compositions with time. Th, U, and light rare earth element enrichments beginning about 35 Ma are consistent with detrital zircons recording development of regional arc asymmetry and selective trace element-enriched rear arc silicic melts as the juvenile Izu-Bonin arc evolved.

  3. The solubility of Pd and Au in hydrous intermediate silicate melts: The effect of oxygen fugacity and the addition of Cl and S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Neal A.; Zajacz, Zoltan; Brenan, James M.

    2018-06-01

    The solubilities of Pd and Au in a hydrous trachyandesitic melt were experimentally determined at 1000 °C and 200 MPa at oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) from 0.45 log units below to 6.55 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO). The effect of adding metal-binding ligands (i.e. Cl and S) to the silicate melt was also studied. The solubility of Au increases from 0.15 ± 0.1 to 3.85 ± 1.48 ppm in Cl- and S-free melts with ƒO2 increasing from NNO-0.45 to NNO+6.55 with a slope that suggests that it is present in 1+ oxidation state over the entire studied ƒO2 range. On the other hand, Pd solubility, shows a more moderate increase with ƒO2, especially in the lower half of the studied range, increasing from 2.66 ± 0.25 ppm at NNO-0.45 to only 3.62 ± 0.38 ppm at NNO+1.72 in Cl- and S-free melts. Overall, the variation in Pd solubility as a function of ƒO2 indicates Pd being dissolved in the silicate melt in both zero and 1+ oxidation state, with the former being dominant below NNO+4.5. At NNO-0.45 to +3.48, the addition of 3170-4060 ppm Cl to the silicate melt increased the solubility of Au by an average factor of 1.5, in comparison to Cl-free melts. However, at NNO+6.55, Au solubility increased by a factor of 2.5. The addition of Cl had a negligible effect on the solubility of Pd except for a large increase (factor of 2.4) at NNO+6.55. At reducing conditions (NNO-0.45), the addition of 170 ppm S to the silicate melt increased the solubility of Au by a factor of ∼4 but did not change the solubility of Pd in comparison to S-free melts. The observation that Pd is dominantly present as Pd0 at NNO one may expect similar behavior in fluids degassing from magmas at depth, the lack of oxidized Pd species could be an important factor behind the scarcity of economically viable Pd-rich magmatic-hydrothermal deposits observed in nature.

  4. Partial reactive crystallization of variable CO2-bearing siliceous MORB-eclogite-derived melt in fertile peridotite and genesis of alkalic basalts with signatures of crustal recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, A.; Dasgupta, R.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of heterogeneity in the form of recycled altered oceanic crust (MORB-eclogite) has been proposed in the source of HIMU ocean island basalts (OIBs) [1]. Partial melts of recycled oceanic crust, however, are siliceous and Mg-poor and thus do not resemble the major element compositions of alkalic OIBs that are silica-poor and Mg-rich. In an upwelling heterogenous mantle, MORB-eclogite undergoes melting deeper than volatile-free peridotite, hence, andesitic partial melt derived from eclogite will react with subsolidus peridotite. We have examined the effect of such a melt-rock reaction under volatile-free conditions at 1375 °C, 3 GPa by varying the melt-rock ratio from 8 to 50 wt.% [2]. We concluded that the reacted melts reproduce certain major element characteristics of oceanic basanites, but not nephelinites. Also, the melt-rock reaction produces olivine and garnet-bearing websteritic residue. Because presence of CO2 has been invoked in the source of many HIMU ocean islands, the effect of CO2 on such a melt-rock reaction needs to be evaluated. Accordingly, we performed reaction experiments on mixtures of 25% and 33% CO2-bearing andesitic partial melt and peridotite at 1375 °C, 3 GPa by varying the dissolved CO2 content of the reacting melts from 1 to 5 wt.% (bulk CO2 from 0.25 to 1.6 wt.%) [3, this study]. Owing to melt-rock reaction, with increasing CO2 in the bulk mixture, (a) modes of olivine and cpx decrease while melt, opx and garnet increase, (b) reacted melts evolve to greater degree of Si-undersaturation (from andesite through basanite to nephelinite), (c) enhanced crystallization of garnet take place with higher CO2 in the melt, reducing alumina content of the reacted melts, and (d) CaO and MgO content of the reacted melts increase, without affecting FeO* and Na2O contents (indicating greater propensity of Ca2+ and Mg2+ over Fe2+ and Na+ to enter silicate melt as carbonate). For a given melt-MgO, the CO2-bearing reacted melts are a better

  5. Iron metal production in silicate melts through the direct reduction of Fe/II/ by Ti/III/, Cr/II/, and Eu/II/. [in lunar basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, H. D.; Balazs, G. B.; Shaffer, A. P.; Jamison, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The production of metallic iron in silicate melts by chemical reactions of Ti(3+), Cr(2+), and Eu(2+) with Fe(2+) is demonstrated under experimental conditions in a simplified basaltic liquid. These reactions form a basis for interpreting the role of isochemical valency exchange models in explanations for the reduced nature of lunar basalts. The redox couples are individually investigated in the silicate melt to ascertain reference redox ratios that are independent of mutual interactions. These studies also provide calibrations of spectral absorptions of the Fe(2+) and Ti(2+) species in these glasses. Subsequent spectrophotometric analyses of Fe(2+) and Ti(2+) in glasses doped with both iron and titanium and of Fe(2+) in glasses doped with either iron and chromium or iron and europium ascertain the degree of mutual interactions in these dual-doped glasses.

  6. The Effect of Pressure on Iron Speciation in Silicate Melts at a Fixed Oxygen Fugacity: The Possibility of a Redox Profile Through a Terrestrial Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, K.; Frost, D. J.; McCammon, C. A.; Rubie, D. C.; Boffa Ballaran, T.

    2017-12-01

    As terrestrial planets accreted, mantle silicates equilibrated with core-forming metallic iron, which would have imposed a mantle oxygen fugacity below the iron-wüstite oxygen buffer. Throughout Earth's history, however, the oxygen fugacity of at least the accessible portions of the upper mantle has been 4-5 orders of magnitude higher. The process that caused the rapid increase in the redox state of the mantle soon after core formation is unclear. Here we test the possibility that pressure stabilises ferric iron in silicate melts, as has been observed in silicate minerals. A deep magma ocean, which would have likely existed towards the end of accretion, could then develop a gradient in oxygen fugacity for a fixed ferric-ferrous ratio as a result of pressure. We have equilibrated an andesitic melt with a Ru-RuO2 buffer in a multianvil press between 5 and 24 GPa. Further experiments were performed on the same melt in equilibrium with iron metal. The recovered melts were then analysed using Mössbauer spectroscopy to determine the ferric/ferrous ratio. The results show that for the Ru-RuO2 buffer at lower pressures, the ferric iron content decreases with pressure, due to a positive volume change of the reaction FeO + 1/4O2 = FeO1.5. Ferric iron content also appears to be sensitive to water content at lower pressures. However, above 15 GPa this trend apparently reverses and the ferric iron content increases with pressure. This reversal in pressure dependence would drive the oxygen fugacity of a deep magma ocean with a fixed ferric/ferrous ratio down with increasing depth. This would create a redox gradient, where the magma ocean could potentially be in equilibrium with metallic iron at its base but more oxidised in its shallower regions. Crystallisation of this magma ocean could render an upper mantle oxygen fugacity similar to that in the Earth's accessible mantle today.

  7. A Structural Molar Volume Model for Oxide Melts Part III: Fe Oxide-Containing Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric; Gheribi, Aimen E.; Jung, In-Ho

    2016-04-01

    As part III of this series, the model is extended to iron oxide-containing melts. All available experimental data in the FeO-Fe2O3-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-MnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system were critically evaluated based on the experimental condition. The variations of FeO and Fe2O3 in the melts were taken into account by using FactSage to calculate the Fe2+/Fe3+ distribution. The molar volume model with unary and binary model parameters can be used to predict the molar volume of the molten oxide of the Li2O-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-MnO-PbO-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system in the entire range of compositions, temperatures, and oxygen partial pressures from Fe saturation to 1 atm pressure.

  8. Redox Reaction in Silicate Melts Monitored by ''Static'' In-Situ Fe K-Edge XANES up to 1180 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, Max; Partzsch, Georg M.; Welter, Edmund; Farges, Francois

    2007-01-01

    A new experimental setup to measure in-situ kinetics of redox reactions in silicate melts is presented. To study the progress of the Fe-redox reaction, the variation of the signal is recorded at an energy, where the difference between the spectra of the oxidized and reduced Fe in the melt is largest (''static XANES''). To control the redox conditions, the gas atmosphere could be changed between to types of gases using computer-controlled valves (N2:H2 and air, respectively). In this way, a number of reduction/oxidation cycles can be monitored in-situ and continuously. Applied at the Fe K-edge in molten silicates, we obtained a set of high quality data, which includes the very first steps of the redox reaction. An Avrami-type equation is used to investigate rate-controlling parameters for the iron oxidation/reduction kinetics for two melts (basaltic and Na trisilicate) for temperatures up to 1180 deg. C

  9. Carbonatite and silicate melt metasomatism of the mantle surrounding the Hawaiian plume: Evidence from volatiles, trace elements, and radiogenic isotopes in rejuvenated-stage lavas from Niihau, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jacqueline; Clague, David A.; Cousens, Brian; Monsalve, Maria Luisa; Uhl, Jessika

    2008-09-01

    We present new volatile, trace element, and radiogenic isotopic compositions for rejuvenated-stage lavas erupted on Niihau and its submarine northwest flank. Niihau rejuvenated-stage Kiekie Basalt lavas are mildly alkalic and are isotopically similar to, though shifted to higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower 206Pb/204Pb than, rejuvenated-stage lavas erupted on other islands and marginal seafloor settings. Kiekie lavas display trace element heterogeneity greater than that of other rejuvenated-stage lavas, with enrichments in Ba, Sr, and light-rare earth elements resulting in high and highly variable Ba/Th and Sr/Ce. The high Ba/Th lavas are among the least silica-undersaturated of the rejuvenated-stage suite, implying that the greatest enrichments are associated with the largest extents of melting. Kiekie lavas also have high and variable H2O/Ce and Cl/La, up to 620 and 39, respectively. We model the trace element concentrations of most rejuvenated-stage lavas by small degrees (˜1% to 9%) of melting of depleted peridotite recently metasomatized by a few percent of an enriched incipient melt (0.5% melting) of the Hawaiian plume. Kiekie lavas are best explained by 4% to 13% partial melting of a peridotite source metasomatized by up to 0.2% carbonatite, similar in composition to oceanic carbonatites from the Canary and Cape Verde Islands, with lower proportion of incipient melt than that for other rejuvenated-stage lavas. Primary H2O and Cl of the carbonatite component must be high, but variability in the volatile data may be caused by heterogeneity in the carbonatite composition and/or interaction with seawater. Our model is consistent with predictions based on carbonated eclogite and peridotite melting experiments in which (1) carbonated eclogite and peridotite within the Hawaiian plume are the first to melt during plume ascent; (2) carbonatite melt metasomatizes plume and surrounding depleted peridotite; (3) as the plume rises, silica-undersaturated silicate melts are also

  10. Evidence for a sulfur-undersaturated lunar interior from the solubility of sulfur in lunar melts and sulfide-silicate partitioning of siderophile elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenstra, E. S.; Seegers, A. X.; Eising, J.; Tomassen, B. G. J.; Webers, F. P. F.; Berndt, J.; Klemme, S.; Matveev, S.; van Westrenen, W.

    2018-06-01

    Sulfur concentrations at sulfide saturation (SCSS) were determined for a range of low- to high-Ti lunar melt compositions (synthetic equivalents of Apollo 14 black and yellow glass, Apollo 15 green glass, Apollo 17 orange glass and a late-stage lunar magma ocean melt, containing between 0.2 and 25 wt.% TiO2) as a function of pressure (1-2.5 GPa) and temperature (1683-1883 K). For the same experiments, sulfide-silicate partition coefficients were derived for elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Te, W and Pb. The SCSS is a strong function of silicate melt composition, most notably FeO content. An increase in temperature increases the SCSS and an increase in pressure decreases the SCSS, both in agreement with previous work on terrestrial, lunar and martian compositions. Previously reported SCSS values for high-FeO melts were combined with the experimental data reported here to obtain a new predictive equation to calculate the SCSS for high-FeO lunar melt compositions. Calculated SCSS values, combined with previously estimated S contents of lunar low-Ti basalts and primitive pyroclastic glasses, suggest their source regions were not sulfide saturated. Even when correcting for the currently inferred maximum extent of S degassing during or after eruption, sample S abundances are still > 700 ppm lower than the calculated SCSS values for these compositions. To achieve sulfide saturation in the source regions of low-Ti basalts and lunar pyroclastic glasses, the extent of degassing of S in lunar magma would have to be orders of magnitude higher than currently thought, inconsistent with S isotopic and core-to-rim S diffusion profile data. The only lunar samples that could have experienced sulfide saturation are some of the more evolved A17 high-Ti basalts, if sulfides are Ni- and/or Cu rich. Sulfide saturation in the source regions of lunar melts is also inconsistent with the sulfide-silicate partitioning systematics of Ni, Co and Cu. Segregation of

  11. The Properties of Ammonium Dinitramine (ADN): Part 2: Melt Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahma, A.; Edvinsson, H.; Östmark, H.

    2010-04-01

    A melt casting technique for ammonium dinitramine (ADN) and ADN/aluminum was developed. ADN proved relatively easy to cast, when 1% of magnesium oxide was used as a stabilizer and crystallization kernels. Densities of ADN/MgO 99/1 were 92 to 97% of theoretical mean density (TMD) and those of ADN/Al/MgO 64/35/1 were between 95 and 99% of TMD. Sedimentation of Al in the melt was prevented and the particle wetting was ensured by selecting a suitable particle size for Al. No gelling agents or other additives were used. The casting process and factors influencing it are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of sodium silicate addition to mine backfill, Gelfill − Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kermani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mechanical properties of sodium silicate-fortified backfill, called Gelfill, were investigated by conducting a series of laboratory experiments. Two configurations were tested, i.e. Gelfill and cemented hydraulic fill (CHF. The Gelfill has an alkali activator such as sodium silicate in its materials in addition to primary materials of mine backfill which are tailings, water and binders. Large numbers of samples of Gelfill and CHF with various mixture designs were cast and cured for over 28 d. The mechanical properties of samples were investigated using uniaxial compression test, and the results were compared with those of reference samples made without sodium silicate. The test results indicated that the addition of an appropriate amount of an alkali activator such as sodium silicate can enhance the mechanical (uniaxial compressive strength and physical (water retention properties of backfill. The microstructure analysis conducted by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP revealed that the addition of sodium silicate can modify the pore size distribution and total porosity of Gelfill, which can contribute to the better mechanical properties of Gelfill. It was also shown that the time and rate of drainage in the Gelfill specimens are less than those in CHF specimens made without sodium silicate. Finally, the study showed that the addition of sodium silicate can reduce the required setting time of mine backfill, which can contribute to increase mine production in accordance with the mine safety.

  13. Modelling the evaporation of boron species. Part 1: Alkali-free borosilicate glass melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Cook, S.; O'Connor, R.; Simon, J.

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory test facility has been used to measure the boron evaporation rates from borosilicate glass melts. The impact of furnace atmosphere composition and glass melt composition on the temperature dependent boron evaporation rates has been investigated experimentally. In Part 1 of this paper

  14. Additive manufacturing of ITER first wall panel parts by two approaches: Selective laser melting and electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yuan; Rännar, Lars-Erik; Wikman, Stefan; Koptyug, Andrey; Liu, Leifeng; Cui, Daqing; Shen, Zhijian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel way using additive manufacturing to fabricated ITER First Wall Panel parts is proposed. • ITER First Wall Panel parts successfully manufactured by both SLM and EBM are compared. • Physical and mechanical properties of SLM and EBM SS316L are clearly compared. • Problems encountered for large scale part building were discussed and possible solutions are given. - Abstract: Fabrication of ITER First Wall (FW) Panel parts by two additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM), was supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E). For the first time, AM is applied to manufacture ITER In-Vessel parts with complex design. Fully dense SS316L was prepared by both SLM and EBM after developing optimized laser/electron beam parameters. Characterizations on the density, magnetic permeability, microstructure, defects and inclusions were carried out. Tensile properties, Charpy-impact properties and fatigue properties of SLM and EBM SS316L were also compared. ITER FW Panel parts were successfully fabricated by both SLM and EBM in a one-step building process. The SLM part has smoother surface, better size accuracy while the EBM part takes much less time to build. Issues with removing support structures might be solved by slightly changing the design of the internal cooling system. Further investigation of the influence of neutron irradiation on materials properties between the two AM technologies is needed.

  15. Additive manufacturing of ITER first wall panel parts by two approaches: Selective laser melting and electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yuan [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Rännar, Lars-Erik [Department of Quality Technology, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics, Sports Tech Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Östersund (Sweden); Wikman, Stefan [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Koptyug, Andrey [Department of Quality Technology, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics, Sports Tech Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Östersund (Sweden); Liu, Leifeng; Cui, Daqing [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Shen, Zhijian, E-mail: shen@mmk.su.se [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A novel way using additive manufacturing to fabricated ITER First Wall Panel parts is proposed. • ITER First Wall Panel parts successfully manufactured by both SLM and EBM are compared. • Physical and mechanical properties of SLM and EBM SS316L are clearly compared. • Problems encountered for large scale part building were discussed and possible solutions are given. - Abstract: Fabrication of ITER First Wall (FW) Panel parts by two additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM), was supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E). For the first time, AM is applied to manufacture ITER In-Vessel parts with complex design. Fully dense SS316L was prepared by both SLM and EBM after developing optimized laser/electron beam parameters. Characterizations on the density, magnetic permeability, microstructure, defects and inclusions were carried out. Tensile properties, Charpy-impact properties and fatigue properties of SLM and EBM SS316L were also compared. ITER FW Panel parts were successfully fabricated by both SLM and EBM in a one-step building process. The SLM part has smoother surface, better size accuracy while the EBM part takes much less time to build. Issues with removing support structures might be solved by slightly changing the design of the internal cooling system. Further investigation of the influence of neutron irradiation on materials properties between the two AM technologies is needed.

  16. Ab Initio Predictions of K, He and Ar Partitioning Between Silicate Melt and Liquid Iron Under High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Z.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2017-12-01

    Element partitioning is an important property in recording geochemical processes during the core-mantle differentiation. However, experimental measurements of element partitioning coefficients under extreme temperature and pressure condition are still challenging. Theoretical modeling is also not easy, because it requires estimation of high temperature Gibbs free energy, which is not directly accessible by the standard molecular dynamics method. We recently developed an original technique to simulate Gibbs free energy based on the thermodynamics integration method[1]. We apply it to element partitioning of geochemical intriguing trace elements between molten silicate and liquid iron such as potassium, helium and argon as starting examples. Radiogenic potassium in the core can provide energy for Earth's magnetic field, convection in the mantle and outer core[2]. However, its partitioning behavior between silicate and iron remains unclear under high pressure[3,4]. Our calculations suggest that a clear positive temperature dependence of the partitioning coefficient but an insignificant pressure effect. Unlike sulfur and silicon, oxygen dissolved in the metals considerably enhances potassium solubility. Calculated electronic structures reveal alkali-metallic feature of potassium in liquid iron, favoring oxygen with strong electron affinity. Our results suggest that 40K could serve as a potential radiogenic heat source in the outer core if oxygen is the major light element therein.­­ We now further extend our technique to partitioning behaviors of other elements, helium and argon, to get insides into the `helium paradox' and `missing argon' problems. References [1] T. Taniuchi, and T. Tsuchiya, Phys.Rev.B. In press [2] B.A. Buffett, H.E. Huppert, J.R. Lister, and A.W. Woods, Geophys.Res.Lett. 29 (1996) 7989-8006. [3] V.R. Murthy, W. Westrenen, and Y. Fei, Nature. 426 (2003) 163-165. [4] A. Corgne, S.Keshav, Y. Fei, and W.F. McDonough, Earth.Planet.Sci.Lett. 256 (2007

  17. Pressure effect on Fe3+/FeT in silicate melts and applications to magma redox, particularly in magma oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The proportions of Fe3+ and Fe2+ in magmas reflect the redox conditions of their origin and influence the chemical and physical properties of natural silicate liquids, but the relationship between Fe3+/FeT and oxygen fugacity depends on pressure owing to different molar volumes and compressibilities of Fe3+ and Fe2+ in silicates. An important case where the effect of pressure effect may be important is in magma oceans, where well mixed (and therefore potentially uniform Fe3+/FeT) experiencses a wide range of pressures, and therefore can impart different ƒO2 at different depths, influencing magma ocean degassing and early atmospheres, as well as chemical gradients within magma oceans. To investigate the effect of pressure on magmatic Fe3+/FeT we conducted high pressure expeirments on ƒO2-buffered andestic liquids. Quenched glasses were analyzed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. To verify the accuracy of Mössbauer determinations of Fe3+/FeT in glasses, we also conducted low temperature Mössbauer studies to determine differences in the recoilless fraction (ƒ) of Fe2+ and Fe3. These indicate that room temperature Mössbauer determinations of on Fe3+/FeT glasses are systematically high by 4% compared to recoilless-fraction corrected ratios. Up to 7 GPa, pressure decreases Fe3+/FeT, at fixed ƒO2 relative to metal-oxide buffers, meaning that an isochemical magma will become more reduced with decreasing pressure. Consequently, for small planetary bodies such as the Moon or Mercury, atmospheres overlying their MO will be highly reducing, consisting chiefly of H2 and CO. The same may also be true for Mars. The trend may reverse at higher pressure, as is the case for solid peridotite, and so for Earth, Venus, and possibly Mars, more oxidized atmospheres above MO are possible. Diamond anvil experiments are underway to examine this hypothesis.

  18. Kinetics and mechanisms of iron redox reactions in silicate melts: The effects of temperature and alkali cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, V.; Pinet, O. [CEA VALRHO, SCDV/LEBV, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France); Magnien, V.; Neuville, D. R.; Roux, J.; Richet, P. [IPGP, CNRS, Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, F-75252 Paris 05, (France); Cormier, L. [Univ Paris 06, IMPMC, F-75015 Paris, (France); Hazemann, J. L. [CNRS, Inst Neel, F-38043 Grenoble, (France); De Ligny, D. [Univ Lyon 1, LMLC, CNRS, UMR 5620, F-69622 Villeurbanne, (France); Pascarelli, S. [European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, F-38043 Grenoble, (France); Vickridge, I. [Univ Paris 06, INSP, F-75015 Paris, (France)

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics and the mechanisms of iron redox reactions in molten Fe-bearing pyroxene compositions have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) experiments at the iron K-edge. The former experiments have been made only near the glass transition whereas the latter have also been performed from about 1300 to 2100 K. The same kinetics are observed with both techniques. They are described by characteristic times that depend primarily on temperature and not on the initial redox state. At high temperatures, where both kinds of reactions could be investigated, these times are similar for oxidation and reduction. From these characteristic times we have calculated as a function of temperature and composition a parameter termed effective redox diffusivity. For a given melt, the diffusivities follow two distinct Arrhenius laws, which indicate that the mechanisms of the redox reaction are not the same near the glass transition and at high temperatures. As is now well established, diffusion of divalent cations is the dominant mechanism at low temperatures but the enhanced kinetics observed for alkali-bearing melts indicate that Li{sup +} and Na{sup +} also participate in ionic transport. At super-liquidus temperatures, in contrast, diffusion of oxygen represents the dominant mechanism. (authors)

  19. Detonation waves in melt-coolant interaction. Part 2. Applied analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, N.I.; Hulin, H.

    2001-01-01

    Making use of the detonation theory presented in part 1 for melt-water interaction, detonation solutions for different melt-water pairs at different conditions are compared to each other. Discussion is provided on the existence of detonation solutions for water droplet - melt droplet - gas systems. The conclusion is made that even if such solution can be realized in the nature, which is highly questionable, the resulting detonation pressures will be below 200 bar. This is an important result for judging the risk of the melt-water disperse mixtures in nuclear safety analysis. In addition, the detonation pressures for alumna-continuous water systems have been found to be stronger then those for urania-continuous water systems, in agreement with the experimental observations and seems to give finally the searched for a long time explanation why alumna-water systems detonate much more violent than urania-water systems. (orig.) [de

  20. CO2 fixation using magnesium silicate minerals part 1: Process description and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerlund, Johan; Nduagu, Experience; Romão, Inês; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a staged carbonation process for magnesium silicate mineral carbonation. This carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) alternative involves the production of magnesium hydroxide, followed by its carbonation in a pressurised fluidised bed (PFB) reactor. The goal is to utilise the heat of the carbonation reaction to drive the Mg(OH) 2 production step. The results show that Mg(OH) 2 can be produced successfully (up to 78% Mg extraction extent achieved so far) and efficiently from different serpentinite minerals from locations worldwide (Finland, Lithuania, Australia, Portugal…). From the extraction step, ammonium sulphate is recovered while iron oxides (from the mineral) are obtained as by-products. The carbonation step, while still being developed, resulted in >50%-wt conversion in 10 min (500 °C, 20 bar) for > 300 μm serpentinite-derived Mg(OH) 2 particles. Thus the reaction rate achieved so far is much faster than what is currently being considered fast in the field of mineral carbonation. -- Highlights: ► Magnesium silicate-based rock can sequester CO 2 as stable magnesium carbonate. ► Abundance of rock material offers a larger capacity than other CCS methods. ► Mg(OH) 2 production is followed by its carbonation in a pressurised fluidised bed. ► Carbonation reaches >50% in around 10 min for >0.3 mm particles. ► Mg(OH) 2 produced from different rock material show the same performance.

  1. Silicic melt evolution in the early Izu-Bonin arc recorded in detrital zircons: Zircon U-Pb geochronology and trace element geochemistry for Site U1438, Amami Sankaku Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A. P.; Tani, K.; Meffre, S.; Wooden, J. L.; Coble, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the petrologic evolution of oceanic arc magmas through time is important because these arcs reveal the processes of formation and the early evolution of juvenile continental crust. The Izu-Bonin (IB) arc system has been targeted because it is one of several western Pacific intraoceanic arcs initiated at 50 Ma and because of its prominent spatial asymmetry, with widespread development of relatively enriched rear arc lavas. We examined Pb/U and trace element compositions in zircons recovered at IODP Site 351-U1438 and compared them to regional and global zircon suites. These new arc zircon data indicate that detrital zircons will yield new insights into the generation of IB silicic melts and form a set of useful geochemical proxies for interpreting ancient arc detrital zircon provenance. Project IBM drilling target IBM1 was explored by Expedition 351 at Site U1438, located in the proximal back-arc of the northern Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) at 27.3°N. A 1.2 km thick section of Paleogene volcaniclastic rocks, increasingly lithified and hydrothermally altered with depth, constitutes a proximal rear arc sedimentary record of IB arc initiation and early arc evolution. The ages and compositions of U1438 zircons are compatible with provenance in one or more edifices of the northern KPR and are incompatible with drilling contamination. Melt zircon saturation temperatures and Ti-in-zircon thermometry suggest a provenance in relatively cool and silicic KPR melts. The abundances of selected trace elements with high native concentrations provide insight into the petrogenesis of U1438 detrital zircon host melts, and may be useful indicators of both short and long-term variations in melt compositions in arc settings. The U1438 zircons are slightly enriched in U and LREE and are depleted in Nb compared to zircons from mid-ocean ridges and the Parece-Vela Basin, as predicted for melts in a primitive oceanic arc setting with magmas derived from a highly depleted mantle

  2. Comparative Studies on Community Ecology of Two Types of Subtropical Forests Grown in Silicate and Limestone Habitats in the Northern Part of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Feroz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare woody species diversity, spatial distribution of trees and stand structure on the basis of the architectural stratification between two types of subtropical forests in the northern part of Okinawa Island, Japan, tree censuses in a 750 m2 plot in silicate habitat and a 1000 m2 plot in limestone habitat were performed. It was found that both subtropical forests growing in silicate and limestone habitats consisted of four architectural layers. A total of 26 families, 43 genera, 60 species and 4684 individuals larger than 0.1 m high in the silicate habitat, and 31 families, 51 genera, 62 species and 4798 individuals larger than 0.0 m high in the limestone habitat, were recorded. As a result, the floristic composition in the silicate habitat was quite different from that in the limestone habitat in terms of similarity index ( Π C = 0.07; approximately only one-sixth of the species were in common. The floristic composition among layers was more similar in the silicate habitat than in the limestone habitat. Castanopsis sieboldii (Mak. Hatusima was the most dominant species in the silicate habitat, but was completely absent in the limestone habitat where Cinnamomum japonicum Sieb. ex Nees was the most dominant species. The potential number of species in the silicate forest (62 was lower than that in the limestone forest (71. However, the woody species diversity was higher in the silicate forest than in the limestone forest. The values of H′ and J′ tended to increase from the top layer downward except for the bottom layer in the silicate forest, while this increasing trend was reversed in the limestone forest. It follows that high woody species diversity in the silicate forest depended on small-sized trees, whereas in the limestone forest it depended on big-sized trees. The spatial distribution of trees in the forests was random in each layer, except the top layer, where there existed a double-clump structure. High degree of

  3. Numerical simulation of complex part manufactured by selective laser melting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belle, Laurent

    2017-10-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process belonging to the family of the Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies, enable to build parts layer by layer, from metallic powder and a CAD model. Physical phenomena that occur in the process have the same issues as conventional welding. Thermal gradients generate significant residual stresses and distortions in the parts. Moreover, the large and complex parts to manufacturing, accentuate the undesirable effects. Therefore, it is essential for manufacturers to offer a better understanding of the process and to ensure production reliability of parts with high added value. This paper focuses on the simulation of manufacturing turbine by SLM process in order to calculate residual stresses and distortions. Numerical results will be presented.

  4. Consequences of Part Temperature Variability in Electron Beam Melting of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brian A.; Mireles, Jorge; Ridwan, Shakerur; Wicker, Ryan B.; Beuth, Jack

    2017-12-01

    To facilitate adoption of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) parts produced via additive manufacturing (AM), the ability to ensure part quality is critical. Measuring temperatures is an important component of part quality monitoring in all direct metal AM processes. In this work, surface temperatures were monitored using a custom infrared camera system attached to an Arcam electron beam melting (EBM®) machine. These temperatures were analyzed to understand their possible effect on solidification microstructure based on solidification cooling rates extracted from finite element simulations. Complicated thermal histories were seen during part builds, and temperature changes occurring during typical Ti64 builds may be large enough to affect solidification microstructure. There is, however, enough time between fusion of individual layers for spatial temperature variations (i.e., hot spots) to dissipate. This means that an effective thermal control strategy for EBM® can be based on average measured surface temperatures, ignoring temperature variability.

  5. Reworking of Archean mantle in the NE Siberian craton by carbonatite and silicate melt metasomatism: Evidence from a carbonate-bearing, dunite-to-websterite xenolith suite from the Obnazhennaya kimberlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, Dmitri A.; Doucet, Luc S.; Xu, Yigang; Golovin, Alexander V.; Oleinikov, Oleg B.

    2018-03-01

    The Obnazhennaya kimberlite in the NE Siberian craton hosts a most unusual cratonic xenolith suite, with common rocks rich in pyroxenes and garnet, and no sheared peridotites. We report petrographic and chemical data for whole rocks (WR) and minerals of 20 spinel and garnet peridotites from Obnazhennaya with Re-depletion Os isotope ages of 1.8-2.9 Ga (Ionov et al., 2015a) as well as 2 pyroxenites. The garnet-bearing rocks equilibrated at 1.6-2.8 GPa and 710-1050 °C. Some xenoliths contain vermicular spinel-pyroxene aggregates with REE patterns in clinopyroxene mimicking those of garnet. The peridotites show significant scatter of Mg# (0.888-0.924), Cr2O3 (0.2-1.4 wt.%) and high NiO (0.3-0.4 wt.%). None are pristine melting residues. Low-CaO-Al2O3 (≤0.9 wt.%) dunites and harzburgites are melt-channel materials. Peridotites with low to moderate Al2O3 (0.4-1.8 wt.%) usually have CaO > Al2O3, and some have pockets of calcite texturally equilibrated with olivine and garnet. Such carbonates, exceptional in mantle xenoliths and reported here for the first time for the Siberian mantle, provide direct evidence for modal makeover and Ca and LREE enrichments by ephemeral carbonate-rich melts. Peridotites rich in CaO and Al2O3 (2.7-8.0 wt.%) formed by reaction with silicate melts. We infer that the mantle lithosphere beneath Obnazhennaya, initially formed in the Mesoarchean, has been profoundly modified. Pervasive inter-granular percolation of highly mobile and reactive carbonate-rich liquids may have reduced the strength of the mantle lithosphere leading the way for reworking by silicate melts. The latest events before the kimberlite eruption were the formation of the carbonate-phlogopite pockets, fine-grained pyroxenite veins and spinel-pyroxene symplectites. The reworked lithospheric sections are preserved at Obnazhennaya, but similar processes could erode lithospheric roots in the SE Siberian craton (Tok) and the North China craton, where ancient melting residues and

  6. Effect of layered silicates and reactive compatibilization on structure and properties of melt-drawn HDPE/PA6 microfibrillar composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kelnar, Ivan; Kaprálková, Ludmila; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Padovec, Z.; Růžička, M.; Hromádková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 6 (2016), s. 1673-1688 ISSN 0170-0839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-15255S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanocomposite * blend * melt drawing Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2016

  7. Inclusions, Porosity, and Fatigue of AlSi10Mg Parts Produced by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has experienced remarkable growth in the past decade with applications in both rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing for functional end-usable parts. As one of the most promising AM processes, selective laser melting (SLM) can be used to fabricate metal products line by line and layer upon layer within a powder bed system. Such process allows the building of parts with customized shapes, which brings higher design flexibility than traditional casting and wrought manufacturing. In this work, AlSi10Mg powder is chosen as the raw material for producing parts by SLM, since aluminum alloys are widely used in automotive and aerospace industries thanks to an excellent combination of low density and competitive mechanical properties. However, there remain multiple drawbacks which limit further applications of aluminum parts produced by SLM: lack of prediction of solidification microstructure, few studies on fatigue properties, and cost and time caused by the limited production rate. All these issues were studied in this work and summarized as follows: Rapid movement of the melt pool (at a speed around 1 m/s) in SLM of metal powder directly implies rapid solidification. In this research, the length scale of the as-built microstructure of parts built with the alloy AlSi10Mg was measured and compared with the well-known relationship between cell size and cooling rate. Cooling rates during solidification were estimated using the Rosenthal equation. It was found that the solidification structure is the expected cellular combination of silicon with alpha-aluminum. The dependence of the measured cell spacing on the calculated cooling rate follows the well-established relationship for aluminum alloys. The implication is that cell spacing can be manipulated by changing the heat input. Microscopy of polished sections through particles of the metal powder used to build the parts showed that the particles have a dendritic-eutectic structure; the

  8. Development Algorithm of the Technological Process of Manufacturing Gas Turbine Parts by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.; Smelov, V. G.; Kyarimov, R. R.

    2018-01-01

    The technology of the selective laser melting (SLM) allows making products from powders of aluminum, titanium, heat-resistant alloys and stainless steels. Today the use of SLM technology develops at manufacture of the functional parts. This in turn requires development of a methodology projection of technological processes (TP) for manufacturing parts including databases of standard TP. Use of a technique will allow to exclude influence of technologist’s qualification on made products quality, and also to reduce labor input and energy consumption by development of TP due to use of the databases of standard TP integrated into a methodology. As approbation of the developed methodology the research of influence of the modes of a laser emission on a roughness of a surface of synthesized material was presented. It is established that the best values of a roughness of exemplars in the longitudinal and transversal directions make 1.98 μm and 3.59 μm respectively. These values of a roughness were received at specific density of energy 6.25 J/mm2 that corresponds to power and the speed of scanning of 200 W and 400 mm/s, respectively, and a hatch distance of 0.08 mm.

  9. Structural properties of H13 tool steel parts produced with use of selective laser melting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šafka, J; Ackermann, M; Voleský, L

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with establishing of building parameters for 1.2344 (H13) tool steel processed using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) technology with layer thickness of 50 µm. In the first part of the work, testing matrix of models in the form of a cube with chamfered edge were built under various building parameters such as laser scanning speed and laser power. Resulting models were subjected to set of tests including measurement of surface roughness, inspection of inner structure with aid of Light Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy and evaluation of micro-hardness. These tests helped us to evaluate an influence of changes in building strategy to the properties of the resulting model. In the second part of the work, mechanical properties of the H13 steel were examined. For this purpose, the set of samples in the form of “dog bone” were printed under three different alignments towards the building plate and tested on universal testing machine. Mechanical testing of the samples should then reveal if the different orientation and thus different layering of the material somehow influence its mechanical properties. For this type of material, the producer provides the parameters for layer thickness of 30 µm only. Thus, our 50 µm building strategy brings shortening of the building time which is valuable especially for large models. Results of mechanical tests show slight variation in mechanical properties for various alignment of the sample. (paper)

  10. Structural properties of H13 tool steel parts produced with use of selective laser melting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafka, J.; Ackermann, M.; Voleský, L.

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with establishing of building parameters for 1.2344 (H13) tool steel processed using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) technology with layer thickness of 50 µm. In the first part of the work, testing matrix of models in the form of a cube with chamfered edge were built under various building parameters such as laser scanning speed and laser power. Resulting models were subjected to set of tests including measurement of surface roughness, inspection of inner structure with aid of Light Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy and evaluation of micro-hardness. These tests helped us to evaluate an influence of changes in building strategy to the properties of the resulting model. In the second part of the work, mechanical properties of the H13 steel were examined. For this purpose, the set of samples in the form of “dog bone” were printed under three different alignments towards the building plate and tested on universal testing machine. Mechanical testing of the samples should then reveal if the different orientation and thus different layering of the material somehow influence its mechanical properties. For this type of material, the producer provides the parameters for layer thickness of 30 µm only. Thus, our 50 µm building strategy brings shortening of the building time which is valuable especially for large models. Results of mechanical tests show slight variation in mechanical properties for various alignment of the sample.

  11. Effect of adding support structures for overhanging part on fatigue strength in selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajima, Yuka; Takaichi, Atsushi; Nakamoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Takahiro; Kittikundecha, Nuttaphon; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Nomura, Naoyuki; Kawasaki, Akira; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Hanawa, Takao; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2018-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) technology was recently introduced to fabricate dental prostheses. However, the fatigue strength of clasps in removable partial dentures prepared by SLM still requires improvement. In this study, we attempted to improve the fatigue strength of clasps by adding support structures for overhanging parts, which can generally be manufactured at an angle to be self-supporting. The results show that the fatigue strength of the supported specimens was more than twice that of unsupported specimens. Electron back-scattered diffraction analysis revealed that the supported specimens exhibited lower kernel average misorientation values than the unsupported specimens, which suggested that the support structure reduced the residual strain during the SLM process and helped to prevent micro-cracks led by thermal distortion. In addition, the supported specimens cooled more rapidly, thereby forming a finer grain size compared to that of the unsupported specimens, which contributed to improving the fatigue strength. The results of this study suggest that the fatigue strength of overhanging parts can be improved by intentionally adding support structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitoring of chlorophyll-a and sea surface silicate concentrations in the south part of Cheju island in the East China sea using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanzhi; Huang, Zhaojun; Fu, Dongyang; Tsou, Jin Yeu; Jiang, Tingchen; Liang, X. San; Lu, Xia

    2018-05-01

    Continually supplied with nutrients, phytoplankton maintains high productivity under ideal illumination and temperature conditions. Data in the south part of Cheju Island in the East China Sea (ECS), which has experienced a spring bloom since the 2000s, were acquired during a research cruise in the spring of 2007. Compared with in-situ measurements, MODIS chlorophyll-a measurements showed high stability in this area. Excluding some invalid stations data, the relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll-a concentrations in the study area were examined and compared with the results in 2015. A high positive correlation between silicate and chlorophyll-a concentration was identified, and a regression relationship was proposed. MODIS chlorophyll-a measurements and sea surface temperature were utilized to determine surface silicate distribution. The silicate concentration retrieved from MODIS exhibited good agreement with in-situ measurements with R2 of 0.803, root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.326 μmol/L (8.23%), and mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.925 μmol/L (23.38%). The study provides a new solution to identify nutrient distributions using satellite data such as MODIS for water bodies, but the method still needs to be refined to determine the relationship of chlorophyll-a and nutrients during other seasons to monitor water quality in this and other areas.

  13. External cooling: The SWR 1000 severe accident management strategy. Part 1: motivation, strategy, analysis: melt phase, vessel integrity during melt-water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides the description of the basics behind design features for the severe accident management strategy of the SWR 1000. The hydrogen detonation/deflagration problem is avoided by containment inertization. In-vessel retention of molten core debris via water cooling of the external surface of the reactor vessel is the severe accident management concept of the SWR 1000 passive plant. During postulated bounding severe accidents, the accident management strategy is to flood the reactor cavity with Core Flooding Pool water and to submerge the reactor vessel, thus preventing vessel failure in the SWR 1000. Considerable safety margins have determined by using state of the art experiment and analysis: regarding (a) strength of the vessel during the melt relocation and its interaction with water; (b) the heat flux at the external vessel wall; (c) the structural resistance of the hot structures during the long term period. Ex-vessel events are prevented by preserving the integrity of the vessel and its penetrations and by assuring positive external pressure at the predominant part of the external vessel in the region of the molten corium pool. Part 1 describes the motivation for selecting this strategy, the general description of the strategy and the part of the analysis associated with the vessel integrity during the melt-water interaction. (author)

  14. Assessment of Mass Fraction and Melting Temperature for the Application of Limestone Concrete and Siliceous Concrete to Nuclear Reactor Basemat Considering Molten Core–Concrete Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojae Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe accident scenarios in nuclear reactors, such as nuclear meltdown, reveal that an extremely hot molten core may fall into the nuclear reactor cavity and seriously affect the safety of the nuclear containment vessel due to the chain reaction caused by the reaction between the molten core and concrete. This paper reports on research focused on the type and amount of vapor produced during the reaction between a high-temperature molten core and concrete, as well as on the erosion rate of concrete and the heat transfer characteristics at its vicinity. This study identifies the mass fraction and melting temperature as the most influential properties of concrete necessary for a safety analysis conducted in relation to the thermal interaction between the molten core and the basemat concrete. The types of concrete that are actually used in nuclear reactor cavities were investigated. The H2O content in concrete required for the computation of the relative amount of gases generated by the chemical reaction of the vapor, the quantity of CO2 necessary for computing the cooling speed of the molten core, and the melting temperature of concrete are evaluated experimentally for the molten core–concrete interaction analysis.

  15. Assessment of mass fraction and melting temperature for the application of limestone concrete and siliceous concrete to nuclear reactor basemat considering molten core-concrete interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jae; Kim, Do Gyeum [Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Leon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eui Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung Suk [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Severe accident scenarios in nuclear reactors, such as nuclear meltdown, reveal that an extremely hot molten core may fall into the nuclear reactor cavity and seriously affect the safety of the nuclear containment vessel due to the chain reaction caused by the reaction between the molten core and concrete. This paper reports on research focused on the type and amount of vapor produced during the reaction between a high-temperature molten core and concrete, as well as on the erosion rate of concrete and the heat transfer characteristics at its vicinity. This study identifies the mass fraction and melting temperature as the most influential properties of concrete necessary for a safety analysis conducted in relation to the thermal interaction between the molten core and the basemat concrete. The types of concrete that are actually used in nuclear reactor cavities were investigated. The H2O content in concrete required for the computation of the relative amount of gases generated by the chemical reaction of the vapor, the quantity of CO2 necessary for computing the cooling speed of the molten core, and the melting temperature of concrete are evaluated experimentally for the molten core-concrete interaction analysis.

  16. Cladding hull decontamination and densification process. Part 2. Densification by inductoslag melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.G.; Montgomery, D.R.

    1980-04-01

    The Inductoslag melting process was developed to densify Zircaloy-4 cladding hulls. It is a cold crucible process that uses induction heating, a segmented water-cooled copper crucible, and a calcium fluoride flux. Metal and flux are fed into the furnace through the crucible, located at the top of the furnace, and the finished ingot is withdrawn from the bottom of the furnace. Melting rates of 40 to 50 kg/h are achieved, using 100 to 110 kW at an average energy use of 2.5 kWh/kg. The quality of ingots produced from factory supplied cladding tubing is sufficient to satisfy nuclear grade standards. An ingot of Zircaloy-4, made from melted cladding tubing that had been autoclaved to near reactor exposure and then descaled by the hydrogen fluoride decontamination process prior to Inductoslag melting, did not meet nuclear grade standards because the hydrogen, nitrogen, and hardness levels were too high. Melting development work is described that could possibly be used to test the capability of the Inductoslag process to satisfactorily melt a variety and mix of materials from LWR reprocessing, decontamination, and storage options. Results of experiments are also presented that could be used to improve remote operation of the melting process

  17. Melting point of polymers under high pressure Part I: Influence of the polymer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, Andreas; Freitag, Detlef; Freidel, Frank; Luft, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the melting point of various polymers including homo- and copolymers (HDPE, LDPE, PP and ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA)) was investigated under nitrogen atmosphere up to 330 MPa within a high pressure differential thermal analysis cell designed by our group. The properties of the polymers (vinylacetate content, melt flow index, molecular weight, isotactic index, crystallinity, density, and frequency of branching) have been correlated with the change of the melting point under pressure (dT m /dp). It could be shown that the melting point always increases linearly with pressure up to 330 MPa. The pressure dependence was found to be in the range of 11-17 K/(100 MPa). From these results it is possible to approximate dT m /dp using the enthalpy of fusion of the polymers at ambient pressure

  18. Synchrotron x-ray spectroscopy of EuHN O3 aqueous solutions at high temperatures and pressures and Nb-bearing silicate melt phases coexisting with hydrothermal fluids using a modified hydrothermal diamond anvil cell and rail assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanovic, Robert A.; Anderson, Alan J.; Bassett, William A.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2007-01-01

    A modified hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) rail assembly has been constructed for making synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, and x-ray mapping measurements on fluids or solid phases in contact with hydrothermal fluids up to ???900??C and 700 MPa. The diamond anvils of the HDAC are modified by laser milling grooves or holes, for the reduction of attenuation of incident and fluorescent x rays and sample cavities. The modified HDAC rail assembly has flexibility in design for measurement of light elements at low concentrations or heavy elements at trace levels in the sample and the capability to probe minute individual phases of a multiphase fluid-based system using focused x-ray microbeam. The supporting rail allows for uniform translation of the HDAC, rotation and tilt stages, and a focusing mirror, which is used to illuminate the sample for visual observation using a microscope, relative to the direction of the incident x-ray beam. A structure study of Eu(III) aqua ion behavior in high-temperature aqueous solutions and a study of Nb partitioning and coordination in a silicate melt in contact with a hydrothermal fluid are described as applications utilizing the modified HDAC rail assembly. ?? 2007 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Effect of pressure on the short-range structure and speciation of carbon in alkali silicate and aluminosilicate glasses and melts at high pressure up to 8 GPa: 13C, 27Al, 17O and 29Si solid-state NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Fei, Yingwei; Lee, Sung Keun

    2018-03-01

    Despite the pioneering efforts to explore the nature of carbon in carbon-bearing silicate melts under compression, experimental data for the speciation and the solubility of carbon in silicate melts above 4 GPa have not been reported. Here, we explore the speciation of carbon and pressure-induced changes in network structures of carbon-bearing silicate (Na2O-3SiO2, NS3) and sodium aluminosilicate (NaAlSi3O8, albite) glasses quenched from melts at high pressure up to 8 GPa using multi-nuclear solid-state NMR. The 27Al triple quantum (3Q) MAS NMR spectra for carbon-bearing albite melts revealed the pressure-induced increase in the topological disorder around 4 coordinated Al ([4]Al) without forming [5,6]Al. These structural changes are similar to those in volatile-free albite melts at high pressure, indicating that the addition of CO2 in silicate melts may not induce any additional increase in the topological disorder around Al at high pressure. 13C MAS NMR spectra for carbon-bearing albite melts show multiple carbonate species, including [4]Si(CO3)[4]Si, [4]Si(CO3)[4]Al, [4]Al(CO3)[4]Al, and free CO32-. The fraction of [4]Si(CO3)[4]Al increases with increasing pressure, while those of other bridging carbonate species decrease, indicating that the addition of CO2 may enhance mixing of Si and Al at high pressure. A noticeable change is not observed for 29Si NMR spectra for the carbon-bearing albite glasses with varying pressure at 1.5-6 GPa. These NMR results confirm that the densification mechanisms established for fluid-free, polymerized aluminosilicate melts can be applied to the carbon-bearing albite melts at high pressure. In contrast, the 29Si MAS NMR spectra for partially depolymerized, carbon-bearing NS3 glasses show that the fraction of [5,6]Si increases with increasing pressure at the expense of Q3 species ([4]Si species with one non-bridging oxygen as the nearest neighbor). The pressure-induced increase in topological disorder around Si is evident from an

  20. Microstructure and micro-hardness analyses of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V parts manufactured by selective laser melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancea Camil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective Laser Melting (SLM is one of the powder based additive manufacturing technologies and it is, as well, the most rapidly growing technique in Rapid Prototyping. In this paper is presented a microstructure analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (LEO 1525 SEM, of Ti6Al4V parts exposed into a corrosion environment. The corrosion environment was generated using a salt chamber with 5% and 10% NaCl concentration and an ACS-Sunrise climatic chamber. The parts were also subjected to tests in order to determine their micro-hardness, followed by a statistical processing of the obtained data. The parts, having a lattice structure, were built on a Selective Laser Melting machine.

  1. Modifying Silicates for Better Dispersion in Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sandi

    2005-01-01

    , the co-ion exchange strengthens the polymer/silicate interface and ensures irreversible separation of the silicate layers. One way in which it does this is to essentially tether one amine of each diamine molecule to a silicate surface, leaving the second amine free for reaction with monomers during the synthesis of a polymer. In addition, the incorporation of alkyl ammonium ions into the galleries at low concentration helps to keep low the melt viscosity of the oligomer formed during synthesis of the polymer and associated processing - a consideration that is particularly important in the case of a highly cross-linked, thermosetting polymer. Because of the chemical bonding between the surface-modifying amines and the monomers, even when the alkyl ammonium ions become degraded at high processing temperature, the silicate layers do not aggregate and, hence, nanometer-level dispersion is maintained.

  2. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 2: Source heterogeneity, multiple melts, and crustal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    The petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare basalts has been examined with emphasis on trace-element ratios and abundances. Vitrophyric basalts were used as parental compositions for the modeling, and proportions of fractionating phases were determined using the MAGFOX prograqm of Longhi (1991). Crystal fractionation processes within crustal and sub-crustal magma chambers are evaluated as a function of pressure. Knowledge of the fractionating phases allows trace-element variations to be considered as either source related or as a product of post-magma-generation processes. For the ilmenite and olivine basalts, trace-element variations are inherited from the source, but the pigeonite basalt data have been interpreted with open-system evolution processes through crustal assimilation. Three groups of basalts have been examined: (1) Pigeonite basalts-produced by the assimilation of lunar crustal material by a parental melt (up to 3% assimilation and 10% crystal fractionation, with an 'r' value of 0.3). (2) Ilmenite basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (4-8%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, augite, and plagioclase, brought together by overturn of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) cumulate pile. After generation, which did not exhaust any of the minerals in the source, these melts experienced closed-system crystal fractionation/accumulation. (3) Olivine basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (5-10%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, and augite. After generation, again without exhausting any of the minerals in the source, these melts evolved through crystal accumulation. The evolved liquid counterparts of these cumulates have not been sampled. The source compositions for the ilmenite and olivine basalts were calculated by assuming that the vitrophyric compositions were primary and the magmas were produced by non-modal batch melting. Although the magnitude is unclear, evaluation of these source regions indicates that both be composed of early- and

  3. Influence of fining agents on glass melting: A review, Part 2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hujová, Miroslava; Vernerová, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2017), s. 202-208 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melting * sodium sulphate * chemical reactions * gas evolution * dissolution * fining * bubble nucleation * foaming Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2016

  4. Influence of fining agents on glass melting: A review, Part 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hujová, Miroslava; Vernerová, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2017), s. 119-126 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melting * sodium sulphate * chemical reactions * gas evolution * dissolution * fining * bubble nucleation * foaming Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2016

  5. Silicate enamel for alloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ket'ko, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    The use of silicate enamels in the metallurgical industry is discussed. Presented are the composition and the physico-chemical properties of the silicate enamel developed at the factory 'Krasnyj Oktyabr'. This enamel can be used in the working conditions both in the liquid and the solid state. In so doing the enamel is melted at 1250 to 1300 deg C, granulated and then reduced to a fraction of 0.3 to 0.5 mm. The greatest homogeneity is afforded by a granulated enamel. The trials have shown that the conversion of the test ingots melted under a layer of enamel leads to the smaller number of the ingots rejected for surface defect reasons and the lower metal consumption for slab cleaning. The cost of the silicate enamel is somewhat higher than that of synthetic slags but its application to the melting of stainless steels is still economically beneficial and technologically reasonable. Preliminary calculations only for steel EhI4IEh have revealed that the use of this enamel saves annually over 360000 roubles [ru

  6. Silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    Vitrification of liquid high-level radioactive wastes has received the greatest attention, world-wide, compared to any other HLW solidification process. The waste form is a borosilicate-based glass. The production of phosphate-based glass has been abandoned in the western world. Only in the Soviet Union are phosphate-based glasses still being developed. Vitrification techniques, equipment and processes and their remote operation have been developed and studied for almost thirty years and have reached a high degree of technical maturity. Industrial demonstration of the vitrification process has been in progress since 1978. This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e., borosilicate glasses

  7. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of porous Ti-6Al-4V parts obtained by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallica-Leva, E; Jardini, A L; Fogagnolo, J B

    2013-10-01

    Rapid prototyping allows titanium porous parts with mechanical properties close to that of bone tissue to be obtained. In this article, porous parts of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with three levels of porosity were obtained by selective laser melting with two different energy inputs. Thermal treatments were performed to determine the influence of the microstructure on the mechanical properties. The porous parts were characterized by both optical and scanning electron microscopy. The effective modulus, yield and ultimate compressive strength were determined by compressive tests. The martensitic α' microstructure was observed in all of the as-processed parts. The struts resulting from the processing conditions investigated were thinner than those defined by CAD models, and consequently, larger pores and a higher experimental porosity were achieved. The use of the high-energy input parameters produced parts with higher oxygen and nitrogen content, their struts that were even thinner and contained a homogeneous porosity distribution. Greater mechanical properties for a given relative density were obtained using the high-energy input parameters. The as-quenched martensitic parts showed yield and ultimate compressive strengths similar to the as-processed parts, and these were greater than those observed for the fully annealed samples that had the lamellar microstructure of the equilibrium α+β phases. The effective modulus was not significantly influenced by the thermal treatments. A comparison between these results and those of porous parts with similar geometry obtained by selective electron beam melting shows that the use of a laser allows parts with higher mechanical properties for a given relative density to be obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Manufacturing of thin-walled parts for machinery by selective laser melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobyr Vitaliy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the technology of selective laser melting, as well as its capabilities in the manufacture of thin-wall honeycomb energy absorber (HEA. The effect of the technological parameters of the building process on the HEA walls’ thickness is studied. Conformity analysis of the mass-dimensional characteristics of the finished composition with the predefined parameters of the 3D-CAD model is carried out. Dependencies of building parameterson the quality of the manufactured HEA are established, general recommendations for the practical use of technology in the creation of HEAare given.

  9. The Melting Point of Palladium Using Miniature Fixed Points of Different Ceramic Materials: Part II—Analysis of Melting Curves and Long-Term Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, F.; Huang, K.

    2016-12-01

    Fifteen miniature fixed-point cells made of three different ceramic crucible materials (Al2O3, ZrO2, and Al2O3(86 %)+ZrO2(14 %)) were filled with pure palladium and used to calibrate type B thermocouples (Pt30 %Rh/Pt6 %Rh). A critical point by using miniature fixed points with small amounts of fixed-point material is the analysis of the melting curves, which are characterized by significant slopes during the melting process compared to flat melting plateaus obtainable using conventional fixed-point cells. The method of the extrapolated starting point temperature using straight line approximation of the melting plateau was applied to analyze the melting curves. This method allowed an unambiguous determination of an electromotive force (emf) assignable as melting temperature. The strict consideration of two constraints resulted in a unique, repeatable and objective method to determine the emf at the melting temperature within an uncertainty of about 0.1 μ V. The lifetime and long-term stability of the miniature fixed points was investigated by performing more than 100 melt/freeze cycles for each crucible of the different ceramic materials. No failure of the crucibles occurred indicating an excellent mechanical stability of the investigated miniature cells. The consequent limitation of heating rates to values below {± }3.5 K min^{-1} above 1100° C and the carefully and completely filled crucibles (the liquid palladium occupies the whole volume of the crucible) are the reasons for successfully preventing the crucibles from breaking. The thermal stability of the melting temperature of palladium was excellent when using the crucibles made of Al2O3(86 %)+ZrO2(14 %) and ZrO2. Emf drifts over the total duration of the long-term investigation were below a temperature equivalent of about 0.1 K-0.2 K.

  10. Metallurgy of high-silicon steel parts produced using Selective Laser Melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibaldi, Michele; Ashcroft, Ian; Simonelli, Marco; Hague, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The metallurgy of high-silicon steel (6.9%wt.Si) processed using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is presented for the first time in this study. High-silicon steel has great potential as a soft magnetic alloy, but its employment has been limited due to its poor workability. The effect of SLM-processing on the metallurgy of the alloy is investigated in this work using microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). XRD analysis suggests that the SLM high-silicon steel is a single ferritic phase (solid solution), with no sign of phase ordering. This is expected to have beneficial effects on the material properties, since ordering has been shown to make silicon steels more brittle and electrically conductive. For near-fully dense samples, columnar grains with a high aspect ratio and oriented along the build direction are found. Most importantly, a <001> fibre-texture along the build direction can be changed into a cube-texture when the qualitative shape of the melt-pool is altered (from shallow to deep) by increasing the energy input of the scanning laser. This feature could potentially open the path to the manufacture of three-dimensional grain-oriented high-silicon steels for electromechanical applications.

  11. Lattice thermal conductivity of silicate glasses at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Y.; Hsieh, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic and transport properties of magma holds the key to understanding the thermal evolution and chemical differentiation of Earth. The discovery of the remnant of a deep magma ocean above the core mantle boundary (CMB) from seismic observations suggest that the CMB heat flux would strongly depend on the thermal conductivity, including lattice (klat) and radiative (krad) components, of dense silicate melts and major constituent minerals around the region. Recent measurements on the krad of dense silicate glasses and lower-mantle minerals show that krad of dense silicate glasses could be significantly smaller than krad of the surrounding solid mantle phases, and therefore the dense silicate melts would act as a thermal insulator in deep lower mantle. This conclusion, however, remains uncertain due to the lack of direct measurements on the lattice thermal conductivity of silicate melts under relevant pressure-temperature conditions. Besides the CMB, magmas exist in different circumstances beneath the surface of the Earth. Chemical compositions of silicate melts vary with geological and geodynamic settings of the melts and have strong influences on their thermal properties. In order to have a better view of heat transport within the Earth, it is important to study compositional and pressure dependences of thermal properties of silicate melts. Here we report experimental results on lattice thermal conductivities of silicate glasses with basaltic and rhyolitic compositions up to Earth's lower mantle pressures using time-domain thermoreflectance coupled with diamond-anvil cell techniques. This study not only provides new data for the thermal conductivity of silicate melts in the Earth's deep interior, but is crucial for further understanding of the evolution of Earth's complex internal structure.

  12. Ice nucleation activity of silicates and aluminosilicates in pure water and aqueous solutions - Part 1: The K-feldspar microcline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Marcolli, Claudia; Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Potassium-containing feldspars (K-feldspars) have been considered as key mineral dusts for ice nucleation (IN) in mixed-phase clouds. To investigate the effect of solutes on their IN efficiency, we performed immersion freezing experiments with the K-feldspar microcline, which is highly IN active. Freezing of emulsified droplets with microcline suspended in aqueous solutions of NH3, (NH4)2SO4, NH4HSO4, NH4NO3, NH4Cl, Na2SO4, H2SO4, K2SO4 and KCl, with solute concentrations corresponding to water activities aw = 0.9-1.0, were investigated by means of a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The measured heterogeneous IN onset temperatures, Thet(aw), deviate strongly from ThetΔawhet(aw), the values calculated from the water-activity-based approach (where ThetΔawhet(aw) = Tmelt(aw + Δawhet) with a constant offset Δawhet with respect to the ice melting point curve). Surprisingly, for very dilute solutions of NH3 and NH4+ salts (molalities ≲1 mol kg-1 corresponding to aw ≳ 0.96), we find IN temperatures raised by up to 4.5 K above the onset freezing temperature of microcline in pure water (Thet(aw = 1)) and 5.5 K above ThetΔawhet(aw), revealing NH3 and NH4+ to significantly enhance the IN of the microcline surface. Conversely, more concentrated NH3 and NH4+ solutions show a depression of the onset temperature below ThetΔawhet(aw) by as much as 13.5 K caused by a decline in IN ability accompanied with a reduction in the volume fraction of water frozen heterogeneously. All salt solutions not containing NH4+ as cation exhibit nucleation temperatures Thet(aw) NH4+). However, the presence of a similar increase in IN efficiency in dilute ammonia solutions indicates that the cation exchange cannot explain the increase in IN temperatures. Instead, we hypothesize that NH3 molecules hydrogen bonded on the microcline surface form an ice-like overlayer, which provides hydrogen bonding favorable for ice to nucleate on, thus enhancing both the freezing temperatures and the

  13. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  14. Impact of chemical polishing on surface roughness and dimensional quality of electron beam melting process (EBM) parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolimont, Adrien; Rivière-Lorphèvre, Edouard; Ducobu, François; Backaert, Stéphane

    2018-05-01

    Additive manufacturing is growing faster and faster. This leads us to study the functionalization of the parts that are produced by these processes. Electron Beam melting (EBM) is one of these technologies. It is a powder based additive manufacturing (AM) method. With this process, it is possible to manufacture high-density metal parts with complex topology. One of the big problems with these technologies is the surface finish. To improve the quality of the surface, some finishing operations are needed. In this study, the focus is set on chemical polishing. The goal is to determine how the chemical etching impacts the dimensional accuracy and the surface roughness of EBM parts. To this end, an experimental campaign was carried out on the most widely used material in EBM, Ti6Al4V. Different exposure times were tested. The impact of these times on surface quality was evaluated. To help predicting the excess thickness to be provided, the dimensional impact of chemical polishing on EBM parts was estimated. 15 parts were measured before and after chemical machining. The improvement of surface quality was also evaluated after each treatment.

  15. Hydrogen-Induced Phase Transformation and Microstructure Evolution for Ti-6Al-4V Parts Produced by Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pushilina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, phase transitions and microstructure evolution in titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts produced by electron beam melting (EBM under hydrogenation was investigated. Hydrogenation was carried out at the temperature of 650 °C to the absolute hydrogen concentrations in the samples of 0.29, 0.58, and 0.90 wt. %. Comparative analysis of microstructure changes in Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Furthermore, in-situ XRD was used to investigate the phase transitions in the samples during hydrogenation. The structure of Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by EBM is represented by the α phase plates with the transverse length of 0.2 μm, the β phase both in the form of plates and globular grains, and metastable α″ and ω phases. Hydrogenation to the concentration of 0.29 wt. % leads to the formation of intermetallic Ti3Al phase. The dimensions of intermetallic Ti3Al plates and their volume fraction increase significantly with hydrogen concentration up to 0.58 wt. % along with precipitation of nano-sized crystals of titanium δ hydrides. Individual Ti3Al plates decay into nanocrystals with increasing hydrogen concentration up to 0.9 wt. % accompanied by the increase of proportion and size of hydride plates. Hardness of EBM Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreases with hydrogen content.

  16. Polymer-Layer Silicate Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela

    Nowadays, some of the material challenges arise from a performance point of view as well as from recycling and biodegradability. Concerning these aspects, the development of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites can provide possible solutions. This study investigates how to obtain polymer layered...... with a spectacular improvement up to 300 % in impact strength were obtained. In the second part of this study, layered silicate bio-nanomaterials were obtained starting from natural compounds and taking into consideration their biocompatibility properties. These new materials may be used for drug delivery systems...... and as biomaterials due to their high biocompatible properties, and because they have the advantage of being biodegradable. The intercalation process of natural compounds within silicate platelets was investigated. By uniform dispersing of binary nanohybrids in a collagen matrix, nanocomposites with intercalated...

  17. The study of the laser parameters and environment variables effect on mechanical properties of high compact parts elaborated by selective laser melting 316L powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Baicheng; Dembinski, Lucas; Coddet, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a systematic analysis of the main parameters for the selective laser melting (SLM) of a commercial stainless steel 316L powder was conducted to improve the mechanical properties and dimensional accuracy of the fabricated parts. First, the effects of the processing parameters, such as the laser beam scanning velocity, laser power, substrate condition and thickness of the powder layer, on the formation of single tracks for achieving a continuous melting and densification of the material were analysed. Then, the influence of the environmental conditions (gas nature) and of the preheating temperature on the density and dimensional accuracy of the parts was considered. The microstructural features of the SLM SS 316L parts were carefully observed to elucidate the melting-solidification mechanism and the thermal history, which are the basis of the manufacturing process. Finally, the mechanical properties of the corresponding material were also determined

  18. Silicic magma generation at Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2009-04-01

    Rate of magma differentiation is an important parameter for hazard assessment at active volcanoes. However, estimates of these rates depend on proper understanding of the underlying magmatic processes and magma generation. Differences in isotope ratios of O, Th and B between silicic and in contemporaneous basaltic magmas have been used to emphasize their origin by partial melting of hydrothermally altered metabasaltic crust in the rift-zones favoured by a strong geothermal gradient. An alternative model for the origin of silicic magmas in the Iceland has been proposed based on U-series results. Young mantle-derived mafic protolith is thought to be metasomatized and partially melted to form the silicic end-member. However, this model underestimates the compositional variations of the hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. New data on U-Th disequilibria and O-isotopes in basalts and dacites from Askja volcano reveal a strong correlation between (230Th/232Th) and delta 18O. The 1875 AD dacite has the lowest Th- and O isotope ratios (0.94 and -0.24 per mille, respectively) whereas tephra of evolved basaltic composition, erupted 2 months earlier, has significantly higher values (1.03 and 2.8 per mille, respectively). Highest values are observed in the most recent basalts (erupted in 1920 and 1961) inside the Askja caldera complex and out on the associated fissure swarm (Sveinagja basalt). This correlation also holds for older magma such as an early Holocene dacites, which eruption may have been provoked by rapid glacier thinning. Silicic magmas at Askja volcano thus bear geochemical signatures that are best explained by partial melting of extensively hydrothermally altered crust and that the silicic magma source has remained constant during the Holocene at least. Once these silicic magmas are formed they appear to erupt rapidly rather than mixing and mingling with the incoming basalt heat-source that explains lack of icelandites and the bi-modal volcanism at Askja

  19. Iron melt flow in thin-walled sections using vertically parted moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Tiedje, Niels

    2004-01-01

    gating systems are used small changes in the casting conditions can change the flow patterns radically. Flow in thin walled sections is not only important in thin walled part. This is illustrated with a brake disc as example. 3 different layouts have been made. The filling sequences have been recorded...... sizes of the dynamic and braking forces in the gating system.......Reducing the fuel consumption of vehicles can be done in many ways. A general way of doing it, is to reduce the weight as it is applicable together with all other means of saving fuel. Even though iron castings have been used in cars from the first car ever build, a big potential still exist...

  20. Analysis of ex-vessel melt jet breakup and coolability. Part 1: Sensitivity on model parameters and accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr; Hwang, Byoungcheol; Jung, Woo Hyun

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Application of JASMINE code to melt jet breakup and coolability in APR1400 condition. • Coolability indexes for quasi steady state breakup and cooling process. • Typical case in complete breakup/solidification, film boiling quench not reached. • Significant impact of water depth and melt jet size; weak impact of model parameters. - Abstract: The breakup of a melt jet falling in a water pool and the coolability of the melt particles produced by such jet breakup are important phenomena in terms of the mitigation of severe accident consequences in light water reactors, because the molten and relocated core material is the primary heat source that governs the accident progression. We applied a modified version of the fuel–coolant interaction simulation code, JASMINE, developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to a plant scale simulation of melt jet breakup and cooling assuming an ex-vessel condition in the APR1400, a Korean advanced pressurized water reactor. Also, we examined the sensitivity on seven model parameters and five initial/boundary condition variables. The results showed that the melt cooling performance of a 6 m deep water pool in the reactor cavity is enough for removing the initial melt enthalpy for solidification, for a melt jet of 0.2 m initial diameter. The impacts of the model parameters were relatively weak and that of some of the initial/boundary condition variables, namely the water depth and melt jet diameter, were very strong. The present model indicated that a significant fraction of the melt jet is not broken up and forms a continuous melt pool on the containment floor in cases with a large melt jet diameter, 0.5 m, or a shallow water pool depth, ≤3 m.

  1. Investigation into the influence of laser energy input on selective laser melted thin-walled parts by response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Zhicong; Wu, Weihui

    2018-04-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) provides a feasible way for manufacturing of complex thin-walled parts directly, however, the energy input during SLM process, namely derived from the laser power, scanning speed, layer thickness and scanning space, etc. has great influence on the thin wall's qualities. The aim of this work is to relate the thin wall's parameters (responses), namely track width, surface roughness and hardness to the process parameters considered in this research (laser power, scanning speed and layer thickness) and to find out the optimal manufacturing conditions. Design of experiment (DoE) was used by implementing composite central design to achieve better manufacturing qualities. Mathematical models derived from the statistical analysis were used to establish the relationships between the process parameters and the responses. Also, the effects of process parameters on each response were determined. Then, a numerical optimization was performed to find out the optimal process set at which the quality features are at their desired values. Based on this study, the relationship between process parameters and SLMed thin-walled structure was revealed and thus, the corresponding optimal process parameters can be used to manufactured thin-walled parts with high quality.

  2. Incorporation of Radioisotopes into Melted Silicates; Incorporation de Radioisotopes dans des Silicates Fondus; 0412 0412 0415 0414 0415 041d 0418 0415 0420 0410 0414 0418 041e 0418 0417 041e 0422 041e 041f 041e 0412 0412 0420 0410 0421 041f 041b 0410 0412 041b 0415 041d 041d 042b 0415 0421 0418 041b 0418 041a 0410 0422 042b ; Incorporacion de Radioisotopos en Silicatos Fundidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakova, J.; Saidl, J. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez near Prague, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech Republic)

    1963-02-15

    The two aims of this research work are: (1) The selection of melted rock and of glass-type silicate materials suitable for incorporating biologically dangerous and long-lived radioisotopes; and (2) the determination of those factors which could influence the rate of release of incorporated isotopes should these could endanger the biosphere. For raw materials fourteen sorts of basalt-type melted rocks from North and West Bohemia and three sorts of selected glasses were used. In experimental study due attention was paid to the diffusion of radioisotopes in glass and melted rocks and to the chemical resistance of these materials. For investigation of the diffusion of Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 134} the method of ''thin layer'', described by Kryukov and Zhuchowickij, was chosen as the most advantageous. In the temperature region of 300 -600 Degree-Sign C: the diffusion coefficients of 10{sup -13}-10{sup -11}cm{sup 2}/sec were found. The fact that, for caesium, lower activation energy was found than for sodium, verifies the assumption of caesium being the least bound of all glass-forming elements. By measuring the leaching rate of caesium and strontium from melted rocks the largest portion of leached radioactivity was determined in the initial phase of the leaching process. After 100 hr, the percentage of leached radioisotopes assumed a constant value. The leaching rate after a longer time is probably limited by frame-work corrosion and by the internal diffusion of soluble elements from the inside to the surface of the solid body. The corrosion of glasses and melted rocks was examined in static arrangement at constant temperature (35, 60 and 90 Degree-Sign C) and the leaching coefficients of 10{sup -11} -10{sup -9} cm{sup -2}sec{sup -1}(at 35 Degree-Sign C) were found. These results show that the materials investigated are suitable substrate for incorporating some high-level radioactive wastes. Should high-active blocks be disposed under controlled conditions in order to

  3. Electropolishing of Re-melted SLM Stainless Steel 316L Parts Using Deep Eutectic Solvents: 3 × 3 Full Factorial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrbaey, K.; Wimpenny, D. I.; Al-Barzinjy, A. A.; Moroz, A.

    2016-07-01

    This three-level three-factor full factorial study describes the effects of electropolishing using deep eutectic solvents on the surface roughness of re-melted 316L stainless steel samples produced by the selective laser melting (SLM) powder bed fusion additive manufacturing method. An improvement in the surface finish of re-melted stainless steel 316L parts was achieved by optimizing the processing parameters for a relatively environmentally friendly (`green') electropolishing process using a Choline Chloride ionic electrolyte. The results show that further improvement of the response value-average surface roughness ( Ra) can be obtained by electropolishing after re-melting to yield a 75% improvement compared to the as-built Ra. The best Ra value was less than 0.5 μm, obtained with a potential of 4 V, maintained for 30 min at 40 °C. Electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing the residual oxide film formed during the re-melting process. The material dissolution during the process is not homogenous and is directed preferentially toward the iron and nickel, leaving the surface rich in chromium with potentially enhanced properties. The re-melted and polished surface of the samples gave an approximately 20% improvement in fatigue life at low stresses (approximately 570 MPa). The results of the study demonstrate that a combination of re-melting and electropolishing provides a flexible method for surface texture improvement which is capable of delivering a significant improvement in surface finish while holding the dimensional accuracy of parts within an acceptable range.

  4. Investigation into Effects of Scanning Speed on in Vitro Biocompatibility of Selective Laser Melted 316L Stainless Steel Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yitong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, selective laser melting (SLM has gained an important place in fabrication due to their strong individualization which cannot be manufactured using conventional processes such as casting or forging. By proper control of the SLM processing parameters, characteristics of the alloy can be optimized. In the present work, 316L stainless steel (SS, as a widely used biomedical material, is investigated in terms of the effects of scanning speed on in vitro biocompatibility during SLM process. Cytotoxicity assay is adopted to assess the in vitro biocompatibility. The results show the scanning speed strongly affects the in vitro biocompatibility of 316L SS parts and with prolongs of incubation time, the cytotoxicity increase and the in vitro biocompatibility gets worse. The optimal parameters are determined as follows: scanning speed of 900 mm/s, laser power of 195 W, hatch spacing of 0.09 mm and layer thickness of 0.02 mm. The processing parameters lead to the change of surface morphology and microstructures of samples, which can affect the amount of toxic ions release, such as Cr, Mo and Co, that can increase risks to patient health and reduce the biocompatibility.

  5. X-ray Raman scattering study of MgSiO₃ glass at high pressure: Implication for triclustered MgSiO₃ melt in Earth's mantle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Keun; Lin, Jung-Fu; Cai, Yong Q.; Hiraoka, Nozomu; Eng, Peter J.; Okuchi, Takuo; Mao, Ho-kwang; Meng, Yue; Hu, Michael Y.; Chow, Paul; Shu, Jinfu; Li, Baosheng; Fukui, Hiroshi; Lee, Bum Han; Kim, Hyun Na; Yoo, Choong-Shik [SNU; (LLNL); (NSRRC); (Okayama); (UC); (CIW); (Wash State U); (Nagoya); (SBU)

    2015-02-09

    Silicate melts at the top of the transition zone and the core-mantle boundary have significant influences on the dynamics and properties of Earth's interior. MgSiO3-rich silicate melts were among the primary components of the magma ocean and thus played essential roles in the chemical differentiation of the early Earth. Diverse macroscopic properties of silicate melts in Earth's interior, such as density, viscosity, and crystal-melt partitioning, depend on their electronic and short-range local structures at high pressures and temperatures. Despite essential roles of silicate melts in many geophysical and geodynamic problems, little is known about their nature under the conditions of Earth's interior, including the densification mechanisms and the atomistic origins of the macroscopic properties at high pressures. Here, we have probed local electronic structures of MgSiO3 glass (as a precursor to Mg-silicate melts), using high-pressure x-ray Raman spectroscopy up to 39 GPa, in which high-pressure oxygen K-edge features suggest the formation of tricluster oxygens (oxygen coordinated with three Si frameworks; [3]O) between 12 and 20 GPa. Our results indicate that the densification in MgSiO3 melt is thus likely to be accompanied with the formation of triculster, in addition to a reduction in nonbridging oxygens. The pressure-induced increase in the fraction of oxygen triclusters >20 GPa would result in enhanced density, viscosity, and crystal-melt partitioning, and reduced element diffusivity in the MgSiO3 melt toward deeper part of the Earth's lower mantle.

  6. Wear and chemistry of zirconium-silicate, aluminium-silicate and zirconium-aluminium-silicate glasses in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouse, C.G.; Lemos Guenaga, C.M. de

    1984-01-01

    A study of the chemical durability, in alkaline solutions, of zirconium silicate, aluminium silicate, zirconium/aluminium silicate glasses as a function of glass composition is carried out. The glasses were tested using standard DIN-52322 method, where the glass samples are prepared in small polished pieces and attacked for 3 hours in a 800 ml solution of 1N (NaOH + NA 2 CO 3 ) at 97 0 C. The results show that the presence of ZrO 2 in the glass composition increases its chemical durability to alkaline attack. Glasses of the aluminium/zirconium silicate series were melted with and without TiO 2 . It was shown experimentally that for this series of glasses, the presence of both TiO 2 and ZrO 2 gave better chemical durability results. However, the best overall results were obtained from the simpler zirconium silicate glasses, where it was possible to make glasses with higher values of ZrO 2 . (Author) [pt

  7. Nanostructured silicate polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figovskiy Oleg L'vovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that acid-resistant concretes on the liquid glass basis have high porosity (up to 18~20 %, low strength and insufficient water resistance. Significant increasing of silicate matrix strength and density was carried out by incorporation of special liquid organic alkali-soluble silicate additives, which block superficial pores and reduce concrete shrinkage deformation. It was demonstrated that introduction of tetrafurfuryloxisilane additive sharply increases strength, durability and shock resistance of silicate polymer concrete in aggressive media. The experiments showed, that the strength and density of silicate polymer concrete increase in case of decreasing liquid glass content. The authors obtained optimal content of silicate polymer concrete, which possesses increased strength, durability, density and crack-resistance. Diffusive permeability of concrete and its chemical resistance has been investigated in various corroding media.

  8. Influence of scan strategy and molten pool configuration on microstructures and tensile properties of selective laser melting additive manufactured aluminum based parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Donghua; Gu, Dongdong; Zhang, Han; Xiong, Jiapeng; Ma, Chenglong; Hong, Chen; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2018-02-01

    Selective laser melting additive manufacturing of the AlSi12 material parts through the re-melting of the previously solidified layer using the continuous two layers 90° rotate scan strategy was conducted. The influence of the re-melting behavior and scan strategy on the formation of the ;track-track; and ;layer-layer; molten pool boundaries (MPBs), dimensional accuracy, microstructure feature, tensile properties, microscopic sliding behavior and the fracture mechanism as loaded a tensile force has been studied. It showed that the defects, such as the part distortion, delamination and cracks, were significantly eliminated with the deformation rate less than 1%. The microstructure of a homogeneous distribution of the Si phase, no apparent grain orientation on both sides of the MPBs, was produced in the as-fabricated part, promoting the efficient transition of the load stress. Cracks preferentially initiate at the ;track-track; MPBs when the tensile stress increases to a certain value, resulting in the formation of the cleavage steps along the tensile loading direction. The cracks propagate along the ;layer-layer; MPBs, generating the fine dimples. The mechanical behavior of the SLM-processed AlSi12 parts can be significantly enhanced with the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of 476.3 MPa, 315.5 MPa and 6.7%, respectively.

  9. Comparison of Single Ti6Al4V Struts Made Using Selective Laser Melting and Electron Beam Melting Subject to Part Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Weißmann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of additive manufacturing technologies to produce lightweight or functional structures is widespread. Especially Ti6Al4V plays an important role in this development field and parts are manufactured and analyzed with the aim to characterize the mechanical properties of open-porous structures and to generate scaffolds with properties specific to their intended application. An SLM and an EBM process were used respectively to fabricate the Ti6Al4V single struts. For mechanical characterization, uniaxial compression tests and hardness measurements were conducted. Furthermore, the struts were manufactured in different orientations for the determination of the mechanical properties. Roughness measurements and a microscopic characterization of the struts were also carried out. Some parts were characterized following heat treatment (hot isostatic pressing. A functional correlation was found between the compressive strength and the slenderness ratio (λ as well as the equivalent diameter (d and the height (L of EBM and SLM parts. Hardness investigations revealed considerable differences related to the microstructure. An influence of heat treatment as well as of orientation could be determined. In this work, we demonstrate the influence of the fabrication quality of single struts, the roughness and the microstructure on mechanical properties as a function of orientation.

  10. Melting in super-earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  11. [Isotope tracer studies of diffusion in silicates and of geological transport processes using actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserburg, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of sections entitled resonance ionization mass spectrometry of Os, Mg self-diffusion in spinel and silicate melts, neotectonics: U-Th ages of solitary corals from the California coast, uranium-series evidence on diagenesis and hydrology of carbonates of Barbados, diffusion of H 2 O molecules in silicate glasses, and development of an extremely high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer

  12. Estimating the physicochemical properties of polyhalogenated aromatic and aliphatic compounds using UPPER: part 1. Boiling point and melting point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, Brittany; Lian, Bo; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    The UPPER (Unified Physicochemical Property Estimation Relationships) model uses enthalpic and entropic parameters to estimate 20 biologically relevant properties of organic compounds. The model has been validated by Lian and Yalkowsky on a data set of 700 hydrocarbons. The aim of this work is to expand the UPPER model to estimate the boiling and melting points of polyhalogenated compounds. In this work, 19 new group descriptors are defined and used to predict the transition temperatures of an additional 1288 compounds. The boiling points of 808 and the melting points of 742 polyhalogenated compounds are predicted with average absolute errors of 13.56 K and 25.85 K, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ductility improvement due to martensite α' decomposition in porous Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by selective laser melting for orthopedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallica-Leva, E; Caram, R; Jardini, A L; Fogagnolo, J B

    2016-02-01

    Ti-6Al-4V parts obtained by selective laser melting typically have an acicular α' martensitic microstructure whose ductility is low. Thus, post-heat treatments are useful for increasing ductility. In this work, the effects of sub-β-transus heat treatments on the mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V parts with porous structures are correlated with martensite α' phase decomposition. The precipitation of β phase and the gradual transformation of α' into α phase by the diffusion of excess vanadium from α' to β phase are proposed to be the main events of martensite α' phase decomposition in parts fabricated by selective laser melting. The heat treatment performed at 650°C for 1h produced no microstructural changes, but the samples treated for at the same temperature 2h showed a fine precipitation of β phase along the α' needle boundaries. The heat treatment performed at 800°C for 1 or 2h produced a fine α+β microstructure, in which β phase are present as particles fewer in number and larger in size, when compared with the ones present in the sample heat-treated at 650°C for 2h. Heat-treatment of the parts at 800°C for 2h proved to be the best condition, which improved the ductility of the samples while only slightly reducing their strength. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental and geochemical evidence for derivation of the El Capitan Granite, California, by partial melting of hydrous gabbroic lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajeski, K.; Sisson, T.W.; Glazner, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Partial melting of mafic intrusions recently emplaced into the lower crust can produce voluminous silicic magmas with isotopic ratios similar to their mafic sources. Low-temperature (825 and 850??C) partial melts synthesized at 700 MPa in biotite-hornblende gabbros from the central Sierra Nevada batholith (Sisson et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol 148:635-661, 2005) have major-element and modeled trace-element (REE, Rb, Ba, Sr, Th, U) compositions matching those of the Cretaceous El Capitan Granite, a prominent granite and silicic granodiorite pluton in the central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith (Yosemite, CA, USA) locally mingled with coeval, isotopically similar quartz diorite through gabbro intrusions (Ratajeski et al. in Geol Soc Am Bull 113:1486-1502, 2001). These results are evidence that the El Capitan Granite, and perhaps similar intrusions in the Sierra Nevada batholith with lithospheric-mantle-like isotopic values, were extracted from LILE-enriched, hydrous (hornblende-bearing) gabbroic rocks in the Sierran lower crust. Granitic partial melts derived by this process may also be silicic end members for mixing events leading to large-volume intermediate composition Sierran plutons such as the Cretaceous Lamarck Granodiorite. Voluminous gabbroic residues of partial melting may be lost to the mantle by their conversion to garnet-pyroxene assemblages during batholithic magmatic crustal thickening. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  15. Incorporation of zinc into calcium silicate hydrates, Part I: formation of C-S-H(I) with C/S=2/3 and its isochemical counterpart gyrolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumm, Andreas; Garbev, Krassimir; Beuchle, Guenter; Black, Leon; Stemmermann, Peter; Nueesch, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the incorporation of zinc into both nanocrystalline and crystalline calcium silicate hydrates with starting C/S ratios of 2/3 (0.66). Zinc was added replacing calcium in the starting mixtures [Zn/(Zn+Ca)=0-1/4; 0-10 wt.% Zn], and the resultant phases were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetry (DTA-TG) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). In both groups of samples, increasing zinc content led to gradual structural changes, until eventually a second phase was formed. Zinc was incorporated to similar limits in both sets of samples. The thermal stability of the structures increased to a certain zinc content, beyond which there was structural destabilisation. Zinc incorporation is possible up to ∼6 wt.%. Our observations strongly indicate similar zinc incorporation mechanisms in both sample series, namely incorporation of zinc into the interlayer of C-S-H(I) and the X-sheet of gyrolite for nanocrystalline and crystalline samples, respectively

  16. Quality Control of Laser-Beam-Melted Parts by a Correlation Between Their Mechanical Properties and a Three-Dimensional Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, T.; Wiora, G.; Witt, G.

    2017-03-01

    Good correlations between three-dimensional surface analyses of laser-beam-melted parts of nickel alloy HX and their mechanical properties were found. The surface analyses were performed with a confocal microscope, which offers a more profound surface data basis than a conventional, two-dimensional tactile profilometry. This new approach results in a wide range of three-dimensional surface parameters, which were each evaluated with respect to their feasibility for quality control in additive manufacturing. As a result of an automated surface analysis process by the confocal microscope and an industrial six-axis robot, the results are an innovative approach for quality control in additive manufacturing.

  17. Carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility in the mantle propels kimberlite magma ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Yaxley, Gregory M.

    2015-06-01

    Kimberlite is a rare volcanic rock renowned as the major host of diamonds and originated at the base of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Although kimberlite magmas are dense in crystals and deeply-derived rock fragments, they ascend to the surface extremely rapidly, enabling diamonds to survive. The unique physical properties of kimberlite magmas depend on the specific compositions of their parental melts that, in absence of historical eruptions and due to pervasive alteration of kimberlite rocks, remain highly debatable. We explain exceptionally rapid ascent of kimberlite magma from mantle depths by combining empirical data on the essentially carbonatite composition of the kimberlite primary melts and experimental evidence on interaction of the carbonate liquids with mantle minerals. Our experimental study shows that orthopyroxene is completely dissolved in a Na2CO3 melt at 2.0-5.0 GPa and 1000-1200 °C. The dissolution of orthopyroxene results in homogeneous silicate-carbonate melt at 5.0 GPa and 1200 °C, and is followed by unmixing of carbonate and carbonated silicate melts and formation of stable magmatic emulsion at lower pressures and temperatures. The dispersed silicate melt has a significant capacity for storing a carbonate component in the deep mantle (13 wt% CO2 at 2.0 GPa). We envisage that this component reaches saturation and is gradually released as CO2 bubbles, as the silicate melt globules are transported upwards through the lithosphere by the carbonatite magma. The globules of unmixed, CO2-rich silicate melt are continuously produced upon further reaction between the natrocarbonatite melt and mantle peridotite. On decompression the dispersed silicate melt phase ensures a continuous supply of CO2 bubbles that decrease density and increase buoyancy and promote rapid ascent of the magmatic emulsion.

  18. Chemistry of the subalkalic silicic obsidians

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ray; Smith, Robert L.; Thomas, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhydrated obsidians are quenched magmatic liquids that record in their chemical compositions details of the tectonic environment of formation and of the differentiation mechanisms that affected their subsequent evolution. This study attempts to analyze, in terms of geologic processes, the compositional variations in the subalkalic silicic obsidians (Si02≥70 percent by weight, molecular (Na2O+K20)>Al2O3). New major- and trace-element determinations of 241 samples and a compilation of 130 published major-element analyses are reported and interpreted. Obsidians from five different tectonic settings are recognized: (1) primitive island arcs, (2) mature island arcs, (3) continental margins, (4) continental interiors, and (5) oceanic extensional zones. Tectonomagmatic discrimination between these groups is successfully made on Nb-Ta, Nb-FeOt and Th-Hf-Ta plots, and compositional ranges and averages for each group are presented. The chemical differences between groups are related to the type of crust in which magmas were generated. With increasingly sialic (continental type) crust, the obsidians show overall enrichment in F, Be, Li, Mo, Nb, Rb, Sn, Ta, U, W, Zn, and the rare-earth elements, and depletion in Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, Sc, Sr, and Zr. They become more potassic, have higher Fe/Mg and F/Cl ratios, and lower Zr/Hf, Nb/Ta, and Th/U ratios. Higher values of total rare-earth elements are accompanied by light rare-earth-element enrichment and pronounced negative Eu anomalies. An attempt is made to link obsidian chemistry to genetic mechanlism. Two broad groups of rocks are distinguished: one generated where crystal-liquid processes dominated (CLPD types), which are the products of crustal anatexis, possibly under conditions of low halogen fugacity, ± crystal fractionation ± magma mixing; and a second group represented by rocks formed in the upper parts of large magma chambers by interplays of crystal fractionation, volatile transfer, magma mixing, and possibly various

  19. Preparation and properties of calcium-silicate filled resins for dental restoration. Part I: chemical-physical characterization and apatite-forming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profeta, Andrea Corrado

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to measure dimensional changes due to hygroscopic expansion and the bioactivity of two experimental methacrylate-based dental adhesives either incorporating Bioglass 45S5 (3-E&RA/BG) or MTA (3-E&RA/WMTA). 3-E&RA/BG, 3-E&RA/WMTA and a control filler-free resin blend (3-E&RA) were formulated from commercially available monomers. Water sorption (WS) and solubility (SL) behaviour were evaluated by weighing material disks at noted intervals; the relationship between degree of hydration and the glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro apatite-forming ability as a function of soaking time in phosphate-containing solutions was also determined. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups for maximum WS, SL, net water uptake and the percentage change in Tg values. Post-ANOVA pair-wise comparisons were conducted using Mann-Whitney-U tests. 3-E&RA/BG and 3-E&RA/WMTA exhibited values of maximum WS and net water uptake that were significantly higher when compared to 3-E&RA. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in terms of SL between all the adhesives. The addition of the Bioglass 45S5 and MTA to the 3-E&RA showed no reduction of the Tg after 60 days of storage in deionized water. ATR Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of the filled resin disks soaked in DPBS for 60 days showed the presence of carbonate ions in different chemical phases. Dentine bonding agents comprising calcium-silicates are not inert materials in a simulated oral environment and apatite formation may occur in the intra-oral conditions. A bioactive dental material which forms apatite on the surface would have several benefits including closure of gaps forming at the resin-dentine interface and potentially better bond strength over time (less degradation of bond).

  20. Microstructure and Wear Properties of Electron Beam Melted Ti-6Al-4V Parts: A Comparison Study against As-Cast Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Quan Toh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64 parts of varying thicknesses were additively manufactured (AM by the powder-bed-based electron beam melting (EBM technique. Microstructure and wear properties of these EBM-built Ti-6Al-4V parts have been investigated in comparison with conventionally cast Ti64 samples. Sliding wear tests were conducted using a ball-on-disc micro-tribometer under ambient conditions. Experimental results reveal that EBM-built Ti64 samples exhibited higher microhardness and an overall larger coefficient of friction as compared to the as-cast counterpart. Of interest is that the corresponding specific wear volumes were lower for EBM-built Ti64 samples, while the as-cast Ti64 showed the poorest wear resistance despite its lower coefficient of friction. Wear mechanisms were provided in terms of quantitative microstructural characterization and detailed analysis on coefficient of friction (COF curves.

  1. Water-fluxed melting of the continental crust: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinberg, R. F.; Hasalová, Pavlína

    212-215, January (2015), s. 158-188 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : aqueous fluids * crustal anatexis * granites * silicate melts * water-fluxed melting Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2015

  2. Control of Variability in the Performance of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Parts through Microstructure Control and Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The high variability and low repeatability of metal parts produced using Additive Manufacturing (AM) represent a major barrier in getting AM into the mainstream....

  3. Silicates in Alien Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  4. Ice nucleation activity of silicates and aluminosilicates in pure water and aqueous solutions – Part 1: The K-feldspar microcline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Potassium-containing feldspars (K-feldspars have been considered as key mineral dusts for ice nucleation (IN in mixed-phase clouds. To investigate the effect of solutes on their IN efficiency, we performed immersion freezing experiments with the K-feldspar microcline, which is highly IN active. Freezing of emulsified droplets with microcline suspended in aqueous solutions of NH3, (NH42SO4, NH4HSO4, NH4NO3, NH4Cl, Na2SO4, H2SO4, K2SO4 and KCl, with solute concentrations corresponding to water activities aw  =  0.9–1.0, were investigated by means of a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The measured heterogeneous IN onset temperatures, Thet(aw, deviate strongly from ThetΔawhet(aw, the values calculated from the water-activity-based approach (where ThetΔawhet(aw = Tmelt(aw + Δawhet with a constant offset Δawhet with respect to the ice melting point curve. Surprisingly, for very dilute solutions of NH3 and NH4+ salts (molalities ≲1 mol kg−1 corresponding to aw ≳ 0.96, we find IN temperatures raised by up to 4.5 K above the onset freezing temperature of microcline in pure water (Thet(aw = 1 and 5.5 K above ThetΔawhet(aw, revealing NH3 and NH4+ to significantly enhance the IN of the microcline surface. Conversely, more concentrated NH3 and NH4+ solutions show a depression of the onset temperature below ThetΔawhet(aw by as much as 13.5 K caused by a decline in IN ability accompanied with a reduction in the volume fraction of water frozen heterogeneously. All salt solutions not containing NH4+ as cation exhibit nucleation temperatures Thet(aw < ThetΔawhet(aw even at very small solute concentrations. In all these cases, the heterogeneous freezing peak displays a decrease as solute concentration increases. This deviation from Δawhet  =  const. indicates specific chemical interactions between particular solutes and the microcline surface not captured by the water-activity-based approach. One

  5. Effect of layer thickness in selective laser melting on microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 powder consolidated parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadbakhsh, Sasan; Hao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM) to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75  μm layer thickness, and 50  μm layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance) were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe) oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process.

  6. Effect of Layer Thickness in Selective Laser Melting on Microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 Powder Consolidated Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Dadbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75 μm layer thickness, and 50 μm layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process.

  7. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug

    1997-01-01

    -1300°C, and a trend of higher fusion temperatures with increasing contents of Al-silicates and quartz was found.c) Fly ashes, bottom ashes and deposits from coal/straw co-firing were all found to consist mainly of metal-alumina and alumina-silicates. These ashes all melt in the temperature range 1000......The thesis contains an experimental study of the fusion and sintering of ashes collected during straw and coal/straw co-firing.A laboratory technique for quantitative determination of ash fusion has been developed based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). By means of this method the fraction......, the biggest deviations being found for salt rich (i.e. straw derived) ashes.A simple model assuming proportionality between fly ash fusion and deposit formation was found to be capable of ranking deposition rates for the different straw derived fly ashes, whereas for the fly ashes from coal/straw co-firing...

  8. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does not...

  9. Core Formation on Asteroid 4 Vesta: Iron Rain in a Silicate Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Geochemical observations of the eucrite and diogenite meteorites, together with observations made by NASA's Dawn spacecraft, suggest that Vesta resembles H chondrites in bulk chemical composition, possibly with about 25% of a CM-chondrite like composition added in. For this model, the core is 15% by mass (or 8 volume %) of the asteroid. The abundances of moderately siderophile elements (Ni, Co, Mo, W, and P) in eucrites require that essentially all of the metallic phase in Vesta segregated to form a core prior to eucrite solidification. Melting in the Fe-Ni-S system begins at a cotectic temperature of 940 deg. C. Only about 40% of the total metal phase, or 3-4 volume % of Vesta, melts prior to the onset of silicate melting. Liquid iron in solid silicate initially forms isolated pockets of melt; connected melt channels, which are necessary if the metal is to segregate from the silicate, are only possible when the metal phase exceeds about 5 volume %. Thus, metal segregation to form a core does not occur prior to the onset of silicate melting.

  10. Multiple ways of producing intermediate and silicic rocks within Thingmúli and other Icelandic volcanoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charreteur, Gilles; Tegner, Christian; Haase, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Major and trace element compositions of rocks and coexisting phenocrysts of the ThingmA(0)li volcano suggest a revision of the existing models for the formation of intermediate and silicic melts in Iceland. The new data define two compositional tholeiitic trends with a significant gap between the...... between the compositions of intermediate and silicic rocks and plate tectonic setting, therefore, should be avoided....

  11. Deep-Earth Equilibration between Molten Iron and Solid Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, M.; Zurkowski, C. C.; Chidester, B.; Campbell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental partitioning between iron-rich metals and silicate minerals influences the properties of Earth's deep interior, and is ultimately responsible for the nature of the core-mantle boundary. These interactions between molten iron and solid silicates were influential during planetary accretion, and persist today between the mantle and liquid outer core. Here we report the results of diamond anvil cell experiments at lower mantle conditions (40 GPa, >2500 K) aimed at examining systems containing a mixture of metals (iron or Fe-16Si alloy) and silicates (peridotite). The experiments were conducted at pressure-temperature conditions above the metallic liquidus but below the silicate solidus, and the recovered samples were analyzed by FIB/SEM with EDS to record the compositions of the coexisting phases. Each sample formed a three-phase equilibrium between bridgmanite, Fe-rich metallic melt, and an oxide. In one experiment, using pure Fe, the quenched metal contained 6 weight percent O, and the coexisting oxide was ferropericlase. The second experiment, using Fe-Si alloy, was highly reducing; its metal contained 10 wt% Si, and the coexisting mineral was stishovite. The distinct mineralogies of the two experiments derived from their different starting metals. These results imply that metallic composition is an important factor in determining the products of mixed phase iron-silicate reactions. The properties of deep-Earth interfaces such as the core-mantle boundary could be strongly affected by their metallic components.

  12. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Gunther, E.

    1987-01-01

    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and ''Li 6 SiO 5 '' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented

  13. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Guenther, E.

    1986-01-01

    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and 'Li 6 SiO 5 ' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented. (author)

  14. Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    Potassium Silicate, Sodium Metasilicate, and Sodium Silicate combine metal cations with silica to form inorganic salts used as corrosion inhibitors in cosmetics. Sodium Metasilicate also functions as a chelating agent and Sodium Silicate as a buffering and pH adjuster. Sodium Metasilicate is currently used in 168 formulations at concentrations ranging from 13% to 18%. Sodium Silicate is currently used in 24 formulations at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 55%. Potassium Silicate and Sodium Silicate have been reported as being used in industrial cleaners and detergents. Sodium Metasilicate is a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) food ingredient. Aqueous solutions of Sodium Silicate species are a part of a chemical continuum of silicates based on an equilibrium of alkali, water, and silica. pH determines the solubility of silica and, together with concentration, determines the degree of polymerization. Sodium Silicate administered orally is readily absorbed from the alimentary canal and excreted in the urine. The toxicity of these silicates has been related to the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O and the concentration being used. The Sodium Metasilicate acute oral LD50 ranged from 847 mg/kg in male rats to 1349.3 mg/kg in female rats and from 770 mg/kg in female mice to 820 mg/kg in male mice. Gross lesions of variable severity were found in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lungs, and kidneys of dogs receiving 0.25 g/kg or more of a commercial detergent containing Sodium Metasilicate; similar lesions were also seen in pigs administered the same detergent and dose. Male rats orally administered 464 mg/kg of a 20% solution containing either 2.0 or 2.4 to 1.0 ratio of sodium oxide showed no signs of toxicity, whereas doses of 1000 and 2150 mg/kg produced gasping, dypsnea, and acute depression. Dogs fed 2.4 g/kg/day of Sodium Silicate for 4 weeks had gross renal lesions but no impairment of renal function. Dermal irritation of Potassium Silicate, Sodium

  15. Emerging melt quality control solution technologies for aluminium melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Pascual, Jr

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed “MTS 1500” Melt Treatment System is performing the specifi cally required melt treatment operations like degassing, cleaning, modification and/or grain refinement by an automated process in one step and at the same location. This linked process is saving time, energy and metal losses allowing - by automated dosage of the melt treatment agents - the production of a consistent melt quality batch after batch. By linking the MTS Metal Treatment System with sensors operating on-line in the melt, i.e., with a hydrogen sensor “Alspek H”, a fully automated control of parts of the process chain like degassing is possible. This technology does guarantee a pre-specifi ed and documented melt quality in each melt treatment batch. Furthermore, to ensure that castings are consistent and predictable there is a growing realization that critical parameters such as metal cleanliness must be measured prior to casting. There exists accepted methods for measuring the cleanliness of an aluminum melt but these can be both slow and costly. A simple, rapid and meaningful method of measuring and bench marking the cleanliness of an aluminum melt has been developed to offer the foundry a practical method of measuring melt cleanliness. This paper shows the structure and performance of the integrated MTS melt treatment process and documents achieved melt quality standards after degassing, cleaning, modifi cation and grain refi nement operations under real foundry conditions. It also provides an insight on a melt cleanliness measuring device “Alspek MQ” to provide foundry men better tools in meeting the increasing quality and tighter specifi cation demand from the industry.

  16. The effect of post-sintering treatments on the fatigue and biological behavior of Ti-6Al-4V ELI parts made by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M; Torresani, E; Leoni, M; Fontanari, V; Bandini, M; Pederzolli, C; Potrich, C

    2017-07-01

    Fatigue resistance and biocompatibility are key parameters for the successful implantation of hard-tissue prostheses, which nowadays are more and more frequently manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). For this purpose, the present paper is aimed at investigating the effect of post-sintering treatments on the fatigue behavior and biological properties of Ti samples produced by SLM. After the building process, all samples are heat treated to achieve a complete stress relief. The remaining ones are tribofinished with the aim of reducing the surface roughness of the as-sintered condition. Part of the tribofinished samples are then subjected to one of the following post-sintering treatments: (i) shot peening, (ii) hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and (iii) electropolishing. It is found that shot peening and HIP are the most effective treatments to improve the high and the very-high cycle fatigue resistance, respectively. At the same time, they preserve the good biocompatibility ensured by the biomedical Titanium Grade 23. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolution of silicic magmas in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic center: cycles associated with caldera collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, J. S.; Bachmann, O.; Deering, C. D.; Huber, C.; Skopelitis, A.; Schnyder, C.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple eruptions of silicic magma (dacite and rhyolites) occurred over the last ~ 3 My in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic center (eastern Aegean sea). Over the course of this period, magmas have changed from hornblende-biotite rich units with low eruption temperatures (≤750-800 °C; Kefalos and Kos units) to hotter (>800-850 °C), pyroxene-bearing units (Nisyros units) and are transitioning back to colder magmas (Yali units). Using bulk-rock compositions, mineral chemistry, and zircon Hf isotopes, we show that the two different types of silicic magmas followed the same differentiation trend; they all evolved by crystal fractionation (and minor assimilation) from parents with intermediate compositions characterized by high Sr/Y and low Nb content, following a wet, high oxygen fugacity liquid line of descent typical of subduction zones. As the transition between the Kos-Kefalos and Nisyros-type magmas occurred immediately and abruptly after the major caldera collapse in the area (the 161 ky Kos Plateau Tuff; KPT), we suggest that the efficient emptying of the magma chamber during the KPT drew most of the eruptible magma out and partly froze the silicic magma source zone in the upper crust due to rapid unloading, decompression and resulting crystallization. Therefore, the system had to reinstate a shallow silicic production zone from more mafic parents, recharged at temperatures typically around 850-900 °C from the mid to lower crust. The first silicic eruptions evolving from these parents after the caldera collapse (Nisyros units) were thus slightly hotter and less evolved than the Kefalos-Kos package. However, with time, the upper crustal intermediate mush grew and cooled, leading to interstitial melt compositions reaching again the highly-evolved, cold state that prevailed prior to the Kefalos-Kos. The recent (albeit not precisely dated) eruption of the high-SiO2 rhyolite of Yali suggests that another large, potentially explosive magma chamber is presently building

  18. Effects of processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of a titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) fabricated using electron beam melting (EBM), part 1: Distance from build plate and part size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabe, Nikolas, E-mail: nhrabe@gmail.com [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States); Quinn, Timothy, E-mail: timothy.quinn@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Selective electron beam melting (EBM) is a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing technique that shows great promise for fabrication of medical devices and aerospace components. Before its potential can be fully realized, however, a comprehensive understanding of processing–microstructure–properties relationships is necessary. Titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) parts were built in a geometry developed to allow investigation of the following two intra-build processing parameters: distance from the build plate and part size. Microstructure evaluation (qualitative prior-β grain size, quantitative α lath thickness), tensile testing, and Vickers microhardness were performed for each specimen. Microstructure and mechanical properties, including microhardness, were not found to vary as a function of distance from the build plate, which was hypothesized to be influenced by the build plate preheating associated with the EBM process. Part size, however, was found to influence ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) by less than 2% over the size range investigated. A second order effect of thermal mass might also have influenced these results. Differences were observed between the EBM Ti–6Al–4V microstructure of this work and the expected acicular or Widmanstätten microstructure normally achieved through annealing above the β transus. Therefore, a different relationship between α lath thickness and mechanical properties might be expected.

  19. Effects of processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of a titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) fabricated using electron beam melting (EBM), part 1: Distance from build plate and part size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrabe, Nikolas; Quinn, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Selective electron beam melting (EBM) is a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing technique that shows great promise for fabrication of medical devices and aerospace components. Before its potential can be fully realized, however, a comprehensive understanding of processing–microstructure–properties relationships is necessary. Titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) parts were built in a geometry developed to allow investigation of the following two intra-build processing parameters: distance from the build plate and part size. Microstructure evaluation (qualitative prior-β grain size, quantitative α lath thickness), tensile testing, and Vickers microhardness were performed for each specimen. Microstructure and mechanical properties, including microhardness, were not found to vary as a function of distance from the build plate, which was hypothesized to be influenced by the build plate preheating associated with the EBM process. Part size, however, was found to influence ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) by less than 2% over the size range investigated. A second order effect of thermal mass might also have influenced these results. Differences were observed between the EBM Ti–6Al–4V microstructure of this work and the expected acicular or Widmanstätten microstructure normally achieved through annealing above the β transus. Therefore, a different relationship between α lath thickness and mechanical properties might be expected

  20. Derivation of intermediate to silicic magma from the basalt analyzed at the Vega 2 landing site, Venus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Geochemical modeling using the basalt composition analyzed at the Vega 2 landing site indicates that intermediate to silicic liquids can be generated by fractional crystallization and equilibrium partial melting. Fractional crystallization modeling using variable pressures (0.01 GPa to 0.5 GPa) and relative oxidation states (FMQ 0 and FMQ -1) of either a wet (H2O = 0.5 wt%) or dry (H2O = 0 wt%) parental magma can yield silicic (SiO2 > 60 wt%) compositions that are similar to terrestrial ferroan rhyolite. Hydrous (H2O = 0.5 wt%) partial melting can yield intermediate (trachyandesite to andesite) to silicic (trachydacite) compositions at all pressures but requires relatively high temperatures (≥ 950°C) to generate the initial melt at intermediate to low pressure whereas at high pressure (0.5 GPa) the first melts will be generated at much lower temperatures (< 800°C). Anhydrous partial melt modeling yielded mafic (basaltic andesite) and alkaline compositions (trachybasalt) but the temperature required to produce the first liquid is very high (≥ 1130°C). Consequently, anhydrous partial melting is an unlikely process to generate derivative liquids. The modeling results indicate that, under certain conditions, the Vega 2 composition can generate silicic liquids that produce granitic and rhyolitic rocks. The implication is that silicic igneous rocks may form a small but important component of the northeast Aphrodite Terra.

  1. Melt pond fraction and spectral sea ice albedo retrieval from MERIS data – Part 1: Validation against in situ, aerial, and ship cruise data

    OpenAIRE

    Istomina, L.; Heygster, G.; Huntemann, M.; Schwarz, P.; Birnbaum, G.; Scharien, R.; Polashenski, C.; Perovich, D.; Zege, E.; Malinka, A.; Prikhach, A.; Katsev, I.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of melt ponds on the Arctic sea ice strongly affects the energy balance of the Arctic Ocean in summer. It affects albedo as well as transmittance through the sea ice, which has consequences for the heat balance and mass balance of sea ice. An algorithm to retrieve melt pond fraction and sea ice albedo from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data is validated against aerial, shipborne and in situ campaign data. The results show the best correlation fo...

  2. Bursting the bubble of melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Most silicate melt inclusions (MI) contain bubbles, whose significance has been alternately calculated, pondered, and ignored, but rarely if ever directly explored. Moore et al. (2015) analyze the bubbles, as well as their host glasses, and conclude that they often hold the preponderance of CO2 in the MI. Their findings entreat future researchers to account for the presence of bubbles in MI when calculating volatile budgets, saturation pressures, and eruptive flux.

  3. Silicate glasses. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e. borosilicate glass. A historical overview of waste form development programs in nine countries is followed by a summary of the design criteria for borosilicate glass compositions glass compositions. In the sections on glass properties the waste form is characterized in terms of potential alterations under the influence of heat, thermal gradients, radiation, aqueous solutions and combinations thereof. The topics are phase transformations, mechanical properties, radiation effects and chemical durability. The results from studies of volcanic glasses, as natural analogues for borosilicate nuclear waste glasses in order to verify predictions obtained from short-term tests in the laboratory, have been compiled in a special section on natural analogues. A special section on advanced vitrification techniques summarizes the various actual and potential processing schemes and describes the facilities. The literature has been considered until 1985. (author). 430 refs.; 68 figs.; 29 tabs

  4. Radioanalysis of siliceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Both natural and induced radioactivity as well as man-made radiotracers may be applied to assess quality and its maintenance a widely varying range of siliceous materials. One example of industrial application is given for each of these three branches. Natural Radioactivity: The measurement of 222-Rn emanation from building material components serves the determination of the internal diffusion and thus of the effective porosity as well as the usual environmental control. Radiotracers: The specific surface area of silica components can be obtained from measurements of the chemisorptions of fluoride and its kinetics, using acid fluoride solutions and carrier-free 18-F, Tl/2 = 110 min, as the radiotracer. This also enables the determination of fluoride in drinking water at the (sub-) ppm level by spiking isotope dilution and substoichiometric adsorption to small glass beads. Neutron activation analysis (NAA): Concentration profiles down to the micro m-range of trace elements in small electronic components of irregular shape are derived from combination of NAA with controlled sequential etching flux in dilute HF-solutions. The cases of Na, Mn, Co and Se by instrumental NAA and that of W by chemical isolation from the reagent solution are considered. (author)

  5. Potassium Silicate Foliar Fertilizer Grade from Geothermal Sludge and Pyrophyllite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljani Srie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium silicate fertilizer grade were successfully produced by direct fusion of silica (SiO2 and potasium (KOH and K2CO3 in furnaces at temperatures up to melting point of mixture. The geothermal sludge (98% SiO2 and the pyrophyllite (95% SiO2 were used as silica sources. The purposes of the study was to synthesise potassium silicate fertilizer grade having solids concentrations in the range of 31-37% K2O, and silica in the range of 48-54% SiO2. The weight ratio of silicon dioxide/potasium solid being 1:1 to 5:1. Silica from geothermal sludge is amorphous, whereas pyrophylite is crystalline phase. The results showed that the amount of raw materials needed to get the appropriate molar ratio of potassium silicate fertilizer grade are different, as well as the fusion temperature of the furnace. Potassium silicate prepared from potassium hydroxide and geothermal sludge produced a low molar ratio (2.5: 1 to 3: 1. The potassium required quite small (4:1 in weight ratio, and on a fusion temperature of about 900 °C. Meanwhile, the potassium silicate prepared from pyrophyllite produced a high molar ratio (1.4 - 9.4 and on a fusion temperature of about 1350 °C, so that potassium needed large enough to meet the required molar ratio for the fertilizer grade. The product potassium silicate solid is amorphous with a little trace of crystalline.

  6. Environmental silicate nano-biocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    Pollet, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites focuses on nano-biocomposites, which are obtained by the association of silicates such as bioclays with biopolymers. By highlighting recent developments and findings, green and biodegradable nano-composites from both renewable and biodegradable polymers are explored. This includes coverage of potential markets such as packaging, agricultures, leisure and the fast food industry. The knowledge and experience of more than twenty international experts in diverse fields, from chemical and biochemical engineering to applications, is brought together in four different sections covering: Biodegradable polymers and Silicates, Clay/Polyesters Nano-biocomposites, Clay/Agropolymers Nano-biocomposites, and Applications and biodegradation of Nano-biocomposites. By exploring the relationships between the biopolymer structures, the processes, and the final properties Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites explains how to design nano-materials to develop new, valuable, environmenta...

  7. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  8. Tin isotope fractionation during magmatic processes and the isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Amet, Quentin; Fitoussi, Caroline; Bourdon, Bernard

    2018-05-01

    Tin is a moderately volatile element whose isotope composition can be used to investigate Earth and planet differentiation and the early history of the Solar System. Although the Sn stable isotope composition of several geological and archaeological samples has been reported, there is currently scarce information about the effect of igneous processes on Sn isotopes. In this study, high-precision Sn isotope measurements of peridotites and basalts were obtained by MC-ICP-MS with a double-spike technique. The basalt samples display small variations in δ124/116Sn ranging from -0.01 ± 0.11 to 0.27 ± 0.11‰ (2 s.d.) relative to NIST SRM 3161a standard solution, while peridotites have more dispersed and more negative δ124Sn values ranging from -1.04 ± 0.11 to -0.07 ± 0.11‰ (2 s.d.). Overall, basalts are enriched in heavy Sn isotopes relative to peridotites. In addition, δ124Sn in peridotites become more negative with increasing degrees of melt depletion. These results can be explained by different partitioning behavior of Sn4+ and Sn2+ during partial melting. Sn4+ is overall more incompatible than Sn2+ during partial melting, resulting in Sn4+-rich silicate melt and Sn2+-rich residue. As Sn4+ has been shown experimentally to be enriched in heavy isotopes relative to Sn2+, the effect of melting is to enrich residual peridotites in relatively more compatible Sn2+, which results in isotopically lighter peridotites and isotopically heavier mantle-derived melts. This picture can be disturbed partly by the effect of refertilization. Similarly, the presence of enriched components such as recycled oceanic crust or sediments could explain part of the variations in Sn isotopes in oceanic basalts. The most primitive peridotite analyzed in this study was used for estimating the Sn isotope composition of the BSE, with δ124Sn = -0.08 ± 0.11‰ (2 s.d.) relative to the Sn NIST SRM 3161a standard solution. Altogether, this suggests that Sn isotopes may be a powerful probe of

  9. The density, compressibility and seismic velocity of hydrous melts at crustal and upper mantle conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, K.; Iwamori, H.

    2015-12-01

    Various processes of subduction zone magmatism, such as upward migration of partial melts and fractional crystallization depend on the density of the hydrous silicate melt. The density and the compressibility of the hydrous melt are key factors for the thermodynamic calculation of phase relation of the hydrous melt, and the geophysical inversion to predict physicochemical conditions of the melting region based on the seismic velocity. This study presents a new model for the calculations of the density of the hydrous silicate melts as a function of T, P, H2O content and melt composition. The Birch-Murnaghan equation is used for the equation of state. We compile the experimentally determined densities of various hydrous melts, and optimize the partial molar volume, compressibility, thermal expansibility and its pressure derivative, and K' of the H2O component in the silicate melt. P-T ranges of the calibration database are 0.48-4.29 GPa and 1033-2073 K. As such, this model covers the P-T ranges of the entire melting region of the subduction zone. Parameter set provided by Lange and Carmichael [1990] is used for the partial molar volume and KT value of the anhydrous silicate melt. K' of anhydrous melt is newly parameterized as a function of SiO2 content. The new model accurately reproduces the experimentally determined density variations of various hydrous melts from basalt to rhyolite. Our result shows that the hydrous melt is more compressive and less dense than the anhydrous melt; with the 5 wt% of H2O in melt, density and KT decrease by ~10% and ~30% from those of the anhydrous melt, respectively. For the application of the model, we calculated the P-wave velocity of the hydrous melt. With the 5 wt% of H2O, P-wave velocity of the silicate melt decreases by >10%. Based on the melt P-wave velocity, we demonstrate the effect of the melt H2O content on the seismic velocity of the partially molten zone of the subduction zone.

  10. Measurements of the Activity of dissolved H2O in an Andesite Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. M.; Touran, J. P.; Pu, X.; Kelley, K. A.; Cottrell, E.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    The large effect of dissolved H2O on the physical and chemical nature of silicate melts, and its role in driving volcanism, is well known and underscores the importance of this volatile component. A complete understanding of the chemical behavior of dissolved H2O in silicate melts requires the quantification of its thermodynamic activity as a function of pressure, temperature, and melt composition, particularly at low H2O contents (i.e. at under-saturated conditions). Knowledge of the activity of H2O in silicate melts at H2O-undersaturated conditions will improve our understanding of hydrous phase equilibria, as well as our models of physical melt properties. Measurement of the activity of any silicate melt component, much less that of a volatile component such as H2O, is a difficult experimental task however. By using a modified double capsule design (Matjuschkin et al, 2015) to control oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments, along with high precision X-ray absorption techniques (XANES) to measure iron oxidation state in silicate glasses (Cottrell et al, 2009), we are able to constrain the H2O activity in silicate melts at under-saturated conditions. Preliminary results on an andesite melt with low H2O content (3 wt%) have been shown (Moore et al, 2016) to match predicted H2O activity values calculated using the H2O equation of state of Duan and Zhang (1996) and the H2O solubility model of Ghiorso and Gualda (2015). More recent results on the same andesite melt containing approximately 5 wt% H2O however show a large negative deviation from the predicted values. Reversal experiments involving an oxidized starting material are ongoing, as well as further characterization of the samples to detect the presence of possible contaminants that would induce reduction of the melt beyond that related to the H2O activity (e.g. graphite contamination).

  11. Hydrolytic Stability of 3-Aminopropylsilane Coupling Agent on Silica and Silicate Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okhrimenko, Denis; Budi, Akin; Ceccato, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    and compared its properties with those on complex silicate surfaces such as those used by industry (mineral fibers and fiber melt wafers). The APS was deposited from aqueous and organic (toluene) solutions and studied with surface sensitive techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic...

  12. Evidence for the presence of carbonate melt during the formation of cumulates in the Colli Albani Volcanic District, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Cliff S. J.

    2018-06-01

    Fergusite and syenite xenoliths and mafic lapilli from two locations in the Villa Senni ignimbrite of the Colli Albani Volcanic District show evidence for fractionation of a silicate magma that led to exsolution of an immiscible carbonate melt. The fergusite xenoliths are divided into two groups on the basis of their clinopyroxene compositions. Group 1 clinopyroxene records the crystallisation of a silicate melt and enrichment of the melt in Al, Ti and Mn and depletion in Si as well as enrichment in incompatible trace elements. The second group of clinopyroxene compositions (group 2) comes mainly from Ba-F-phlogopite- and Ti-andradite-bearing fergusites. They have significantly higher Si and lower Al and Ti and, like the coexisting phlogopite and garnet are strongly enriched in Mn. The minerals in the fergusites containing group 2 clinopyroxene are enriched in Ba, Sr, Cs, V and Li all of which are expected to partition strongly into a carbonate melt phase relative to the coexisting silicate melt. The compositional data suggest that the group 1 fergusites record sidewall crystallisation of CO2-rich silicate melt and that once the melt reached a critical degree of fractionation, carbonate melt exsolved. The group 2 fergusites record continued crystallisation in this heterogeneous silicate - carbonate melt system. Composite xenoliths of fergusite and thermometamorphic skarn record contact times of hundreds to a few thousand years indicating that fractionation and assimilation was relatively rapid.

  13. Structure and mechanical properties of parts obtained by selective laser melting of metal powder based on intermetallic compounds Ni3Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelov, V. G.; Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.; Nosova, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of samples are obtained from metal powder based on intermetallic compound by selective laser melting. The chemical analysis of the raw material and static tensile test of specimens were made. Change in the samples’ structure and mechanical properties after homogenization during four and twenty-four hours were investigated. A small-sized combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine was performed by the selective laser melting method. The print combustion chamber was subjected to the gas-dynamic test in a certain temperature and time range.

  14. Melt pond fraction and spectral sea ice albedo retrieval from MERIS data - Part 1: Validation against in situ, aerial, and ship cruise data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, L.; Heygster, G.; Huntemann, M.; Schwarz, P.; Birnbaum, G.; Scharien, R.; Polashenski, C.; Perovich, D.; Zege, E.; Malinka, A.; Prikhach, A.; Katsev, I.

    2015-08-01

    The presence of melt ponds on the Arctic sea ice strongly affects the energy balance of the Arctic Ocean in summer. It affects albedo as well as transmittance through the sea ice, which has consequences for the heat balance and mass balance of sea ice. An algorithm to retrieve melt pond fraction and sea ice albedo from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data is validated against aerial, shipborne and in situ campaign data. The results show the best correlation for landfast and multiyear ice of high ice concentrations. For broadband albedo, R2 is equal to 0.85, with the RMS (root mean square) being equal to 0.068; for the melt pond fraction, R2 is equal to 0.36, with the RMS being equal to 0.065. The correlation for lower ice concentrations, subpixel ice floes, blue ice and wet ice is lower due to ice drift and challenging for the retrieval surface conditions. Combining all aerial observations gives a mean albedo RMS of 0.089 and a mean melt pond fraction RMS of 0.22. The in situ melt pond fraction correlation is R2 = 0.52 with an RMS = 0.14. Ship cruise data might be affected by documentation of varying accuracy within the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate (ASPeCt) protocol, which may contribute to the discrepancy between the satellite value and the observed value: mean R2 = 0.044, mean RMS = 0.16. An additional dynamic spatial cloud filter for MERIS over snow and ice has been developed to assist with the validation on swath data.

  15. On crystallochemistry of uranil silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, G.A.; Moroz, I.Kh.; Zhil'tsova, I.G.

    1975-01-01

    A crystallochemical analysis has been made of uranil silicates. It is shown that on crystallochemical grounds it is justified to distinguish among them uranophane-kasolite, soddyite and viksite groups differing in the uranil-anion [SiO 4 ] -4 ratio and, as a consequence, in their crystallochemical structures. Widespread silicates of the uranophane-kasolite group is the formation of polytype modifications where, depending on the interlaminar cation, crystalline structures are formed with various packing of single-type uranil-anion layers. It has been shown experimentally that silicates of the uranophanekasolite group contain no oxonium ion in their crystalline structures. Minerals of the viksite group belong to a group of isostructural (homeotypic) laminated formation apt to form phases of different degrees of hydration. Phases with a smaller interlaminar cation form hydrates with a greater number of water molecules in the formulas unit

  16. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  17. Infrared Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Hydrous Silicate Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolper, Edward

    2007-03-05

    The focus of this DOE-funded project has been the study of volatile components in magmas and the atmosphere. Over the twenty-one year period of this project, we have used experimental petrology and stable isotope geochemistry to study the behavior and properties of volatile components dissolved in silicate minerals and melts and glasses. More recently, we have also studied the concentration and isotopic composition of CO2 in the atmosphere, especially in relation to air quality issues in the Los Angeles basin.

  18. Detection of structural heterogeneity of glass melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng

    2004-01-01

    The structural heterogeneity of both supercooled liquid and molten states of silicate has been studied using calorimetric method. The objects of this study are basaltic glasses and liquids. Two experimental approaches are taken to detect the structural heterogeneity of the liquids. One is the hyp......The structural heterogeneity of both supercooled liquid and molten states of silicate has been studied using calorimetric method. The objects of this study are basaltic glasses and liquids. Two experimental approaches are taken to detect the structural heterogeneity of the liquids. One...... is the hyperquench-anneal-calorimetric scan approach, by which the structural information of a basaltic supercooled liquid and three binary silicate liquids is acquired. Another is the calorimetrically repeated up- and downscanning approach, by which the structural heterogeneity, the intermediate range order...... is discussed. The ordered structure of glass melts above the liquidus temperature is indirectly characterized by use of X-ray diffraction method. The new approaches are of importance for monitoring the glass melting and forming process and for improving the physical properties of glasses and glass fibers....

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Silicate Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng; NING Congqin; ZHOU Yue; CHEN Lei; LIN Kaili; CHANG Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Four kinds of pure silicate ceramic particles, CaSiO3, Ca3SiO5, bredigite and akermanite were prepared and their bactericidal effects were systematically investigated. The phase compositions of these silicate ceramics were characterized by XRD. The ionic concentration meas urement revealed that the Calcium (Ca) ion concentration were relatively higher in Ca3SiO5 and bredigite, and much lower in CaSiO3 and akermanite. Accordingly, the pH values of the four silicate ceramics extracts showed a positive correlation with the particle concentrations. Meanwhile, by decreasing the particle size, higher Ca ion concentrations can be achieved, leading to the increase of aqueous pH value as well. In summary, all of the four silicate ceramics tested in our study showed antibacterial effect in a dose-dependent manner. Generally, the order of their antibacterial activity against E.coli from strong to weak is Ca3SiO5, bredigite, CaSiO3 and akermanite.

  20. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  1. Relationships between mineralization and silicic volcanism in the central Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, P.W.; Halls, C.; Baker, M.C.W.

    1983-10-01

    Studies of late Tertiary silicic volcanic centers in the Western and Eastern Cordilleras of the Central Andes show that three volcanic environments are appropriate sites for mineralization: (1) ring-fracture extrusions post-dating large calderas; (2) similar extrusions within ignimbrite shields; and (3) isolated, small silicic volcanoes. Subvolcanic tin mineralization in the Eastern Cordillera is located in silicic stocks and associated breccias of Miocene age. The Cerro Rico stock, Potosi, Bolivia, contains tin and silver mineralization and has an intrusion age apparently millions of years younger than that of the associated Kari Kari caldera. Similar age relationships between mineralization and caldera formation have been described from the San Juan province, Colorado. The vein deposits of Chocaya, southern Bolivia, were emplaced in the lower part of an ignimbrite shield, a type of volcanic edifice as yet unrecognized in comparable areas of silicic volcanism. The El Salvador porphyry copper deposit, Chile, is related to silicic stocks which may have been intruded along a caldera ring fracture. Existing models for the genesis of porphyry copper deposits suggest that they formed in granodioritic stocks located in the infrastructure of andesitic stratovolcanoes. The dome of La Soufriere, Guadeloupe is proposed as a modern analog for the surface expression of subvolcanic mineralization processes, the phreatic eruptions there suggesting the formation of hydrothermal breccia bodies in depth.

  2. Shock melting and vaporization of lunar rocks and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; O'Keefe, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The entropy associated with the thermodynamic states produced by hypervelocity meteoroid impacts at various velocities are calculated for a series of lunar rocks and minerals and compared with the entropy values required for melting and vaporization. Taking into account shock-induced phase changes in the silicates, we calculate that iron meteorites impacting at speeds varying from 4 to 6 km/sec will produce shock melting in quartz, plagioclase, olivine, and pyroxene. Although calculated with less certainty, impact speeds required for incipient vaporization vary from 7 to 11 km/sec for the range of minerals going from quartz to periclase for aluminum (silicate-like) projectiles. The impact velocities, which are required to induce melting in a soil, are calculated to be in the range of 3 to 4 km/sec, provided thermal equilibrium is achieved in the shock state.

  3. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  4. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  5. Calcium Isotopic Composition of Bulk Silicate Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Ionov, D. A.; Liu, F.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, F.

    2016-12-01

    Ca isotopes are used to study the accretion history of the Earth and terrestrial planets, but, Ca isotopic composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) remains poorly constrained [1]. To better understand the Ca isotopic composition of BSE, we analyzed 22 well studied peridotite xenoliths from Tariat (Mongolia), Vitim (southern Siberia) and Udachnaya (Siberian Craton). These samples include both fertile and highly depleted garnet and spinel peridotites that show no or only minor post-melting metasomatism or alteration. Ca isotope measurements were done on a Triton-TIMS using double spike method at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, CAS. The data are reported as δ44/40Ca (relative to NIST SRM 915a). Results for geostandards are consistent with those from other laboratories. 2 standard deviations of SRM 915a analyses are 0.13‰ (n=48). δ44/40Ca of both and fertile and refractory peridotites range from 0.79 to 1.07‰ producing an average of 0.93±0.12‰ (2SD). This value defines the Ca isotopic composition of the BSE, which is consistent with the average δ44/40Ca of oceanic basalts ( 0.90‰)[2,3]. [1] Huang et al (2010) EPSL 292; [2] Valdes et al (2014) EPSL 394; [3]DePaolo (2004) RMG 55.

  6. Application of siliceous metal product for preliminary deoxidizing of metal in open-hearth furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanenko, A.A.; Evdokimov, A.V.; Kornilov, V.N.; Il'in, V.I.; Kuleshov, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    Metal wastes of abrasive processes-concomitant product of synthetic corundum production containing approximately 10 % Si - were tested for preliminary deoxidizing of metal in furnace to reduce manganese loss in burning and to increase the steel deoxidizing. The technology of preliminary deoxidizing of metal by siliceous metal product was mastered in the course of low carbon steel melting (st3sp, st4sp). The results of the study has shown that the use of siliceous metal product permits reducing the consumption of manganese-containing ferroalloys. 1 tab

  7. Intraplate mantle oxidation by volatile-rich silicic magmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey M.; Médard, Etienne; Righter, Kevin; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The upper subcontinental lithospheric mantle below the French Massif Central is more oxidized than the average continental lithosphere, although the origin of this anomaly remains unknown. Using iron oxidation analysis in clinopyroxene, oxybarometry, and melt inclusions in mantle xenoliths, we show that widespread infiltration of volatile (HCSO)-rich silicic melts played a major role in this oxidation. We propose the first comprehensive model of magmatism and mantle oxidation at an intraplate setting. Two oxidizing events occurred: (1) a 365–286 Ma old magmatic episode that produced alkaline vaugnerites, potassic lamprophyres, and K-rich calc-alkaline granitoids, related to the N–S Rhenohercynian subduction, and (2) < 30 Ma old magmatism related to W–E extension, producing carbonatites and hydrous potassic trachytes. These melts were capable of locally increasing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle fO2 to FMQ + 2.4. Both events originate from the melting of a metasomatized lithosphere containing carbonate + phlogopite ± amphibole. The persistence of this volatile-rich lithospheric source implies the potential for new episodes of volatile-rich magmatism. Similarities with worldwide magmatism also show that the importance of volatiles and the oxidation of the mantle in intraplate regions is underestimated.

  8. Properties of Tricalcium Silicate Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Issam; Naaman, Alfred; Camilleri, Josette

    2016-10-01

    Sealers based on tricalcium silicate cement aim at an interaction of the sealer with the root canal wall, alkalinity with potential antimicrobial activity, and the ability to set in a wet field. The aim of this study was to characterize and investigate the properties of a new tricalcium silicate-based sealer and verify its compliance to ISO 6876 (2012). A new tricalcium silicate-based sealer (Bio MM; St Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon), BioRoot RCS (Septodont, St Maure de Fosses, France), and AH Plus (Dentsply, DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) were investigated. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed. Furthermore, sealer setting time, flow, film thickness, and radiopacity were performed following ISO specifications. pH and ion leaching in solution were assessed by pH analysis and inductively coupled plasma. Bio MM and BioRoot RCS were both composed of tricalcium silicate and tantalum oxide in Bio MM and zirconium oxide in BioRoot RCS. In addition, the Bio MM contained calcium carbonate and a phosphate phase. The inorganic components of AH Plus were calcium tungstate and zirconium oxide. AH Plus complied with the ISO norms for both flow and film thickness. BioRoot RCS and Bio MM exhibited a lower flow and a higher film thickness than that specified for sealer cements in ISO 6876. All test sealers exhibited adequate radiopacity. Bio MM interacted with physiologic solution, thus showing potential for bioactivity. Sealer properties were acceptable and comparable with other sealers available clinically. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Origin of Silicic Arc Crust - Insights from the Northern Pacific Volcanic Arcs through Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, S. M.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    The remarkable compositional similarities of andesitic crust at modern convergent margins and the continental crust has long evoked the hypothesis of similar origins. Key to understanding either genesis is understanding the mode of silica enrichment. Silicic crust cannot be directly extracted from the upper mantle. Hence, in modern arcs, numerous studies - observant of the pervasive and irrefutable evidence of melt mixing - proposed that arc andesites formed by mixing of mantle-derived basaltic melts and fusible silicic material from the overlying crust. Mass balance requires the amount of silicic crust in such hybrid andesites to be on the order to tens of percent, implying that their composition to be perceptibly influenced by the various crustal basements. In order to test this hypothesis, major and trace element compositions of mafic and silicic arc magmas with arc-typical low Ce/PbMexico) were combined with Pb isotope ratios. Pb isotope ratios are considered highly sensitive to crustal contamination, and hence should reflect the variable composition of the oceanic and continental basement on which these arcs are constructed. In particular, in thick-crust continental arcs where the basement is isotopically different from the mantle and crustal assimilation thought to be most prevalent, silicic magmas must be expected to be distinct from those of the associated mafic melts. However, in a given arc, the Pb isotope ratios are constant with increasing melt silica regardless of the nature of the basement. This observation argues against a melt origin of silicic melts from the crustal basement and suggest them to be controlled by the same slab flux as their co-eval mafic counterparts. This inference is validated by the spatial and temporal pattern of arc Pb isotope ratios along the Northern Pacific margins and throughout the 50 million years of Cenozoic evolution of the Izu Bonin Mariana arc/trench system that are can be related to with systematic, `real

  10. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of chondrites and silicate planetary reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Ronny; Merdian, Alexandra; Holmden, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.; Haßler, Kathrin; Wille, Martin; Reitter, Elmar

    2016-06-01

    The depletion of chromium in Earth's mantle (∼2700 ppm) in comparison to chondrites (∼4400 ppm) indicates significant incorporation of chromium into the core during our planet's metal-silicate differentiation, assuming that there was no significant escape of the moderately volatile element chromium during the accretionary phase of Earth. Stable Cr isotope compositions - expressed as the ‰-difference in 53Cr/52Cr from the terrestrial reference material SRM979 (δ53/52CrSRM979 values) - of planetary silicate reservoirs might thus yield information about the conditions of planetary metal segregation processes when compared to chondrites. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of 7 carbonaceous chondrites, 11 ordinary chondrites, 5 HED achondrites and 2 martian meteorites determined by a double spike MC-ICP-MS method are within uncertainties indistinguishable from each other and from the previously determined δ53/52CrSRM979 value of -0.124 ± 0.101‰ for the igneous silicate Earth. Extensive quality tests support the accuracy of the stable Cr isotope determinations of various meteorites and terrestrial silicates reported here. The uniformity in stable Cr isotope compositions of samples from planetary silicate mantles and undifferentiated meteorites indicates that metal-silicate differentiation of Earth, Mars and the HED parent body did not cause measurable stable Cr isotope fractionation between these two reservoirs. Our results also imply that the accretionary disc, at least in the inner solar system, was homogeneous in its stable Cr isotopic composition and that potential volatility loss of chromium during accretion of the terrestrial planets was not accompanied by measurable stable isotopic fractionation. Small but reproducible variations in δ53/52CrSRM979 values of terrestrial magmatic rocks point to natural stable Cr isotope variations within Earth's silicate reservoirs. Further and more detailed studies are required to investigate whether silicate

  11. Chemical Zoning of Feldspars in Lunar Granitoids: Implications for the Origins of Lunar Silicic Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D; Simon, J. I.; Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Wang, J.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z..

    2014-01-01

    Fine-scale chemical and textural measurements of alkali and plagioclase feldspars in the Apollo granitoids (ex. Fig. 1) can be used to address their petrologic origin(s). Recent findings suggest that these granitoids may hold clues of global importance, rather than of only local significance for small-scale fractionation. Observations of morphological features that resemble silicic domes on the unsampled portion of the Moon suggest that local, sizable net-works of high-silica melt (>65 wt % SiO2) were present during crust-formation. Remote sensing data from these regions suggest high concentrations of Si and heat-producing elements (K, U, and Th). To help under-stand the role of high-silica melts in the chemical differentiation of the Moon, three questions must be answered: (1) when were these magmas generated?, (2) what was the source material?, and (3) were these magmas produced from internal differentiation. or impact melting and crystallization? Here we focus on #3. It is difficult to produce high-silica melts solely by fractional crystallization. Partial melting of preexisting crust may therefore also have been important and pos-sibly the primary mechanism that produced the silicic magmas on the Moon. Experimental studies demonstrate that partial melting of gabbroic rock under mildly hydrated conditions can produce high-silica compositions and it has been suggested by that partial melting by basaltic underplating is the mechanism by which high-silica melts were produced on the Moon. TEM and SIMS analyses, coordinated with isotopic dating and tracer studies, can help test whether the minerals in the Apollo granitoids formed in a plutonic setting or were the result of impact-induced partial melting. We analyzed granitoid clasts from 3 Apollo samples: polymict breccia 12013,141, crystalline-matrix breccia 14303,353, and breccia 15405,78

  12. Li+ alumino-silicate ion source development for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.; Wu, James K.

    2010-10-01

    We report results on lithium alumino-silicate ion source development in preparation for warmdense-matter heating experiments on the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCXII). The practical limit to the current density for a lithium alumino-silicate source is determined by the maximum operating temperature that the ion source can withstand before running into problems of heat transfer, melting of the alumino-silicate material, and emission lifetime. Using small prototype emitters, at a temperature of ~;;1275 oC, a space-charge-limited Li+ beam current density of J ~;;1 mA/cm2 was obtained. The lifetime of the ion source was ~;;50 hours while pulsing at a rate of 0.033 Hz with a pulse duration of 5-6 mu s.

  13. Li+ alumino-silicate ion source development for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.; Wu, James K.

    2010-01-01

    We report results on lithium alumino-silicate ion source development in preparation for warm-dense-matter heating experiments on the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II). The practical limit to the current density for a lithium alumino-silicate source is determined by the maximum operating temperature that the ion source can withstand before running into problems of heat transfer, melting of the alumino-silicate material, and emission lifetime. Using small prototype emitters, at a temperature of ∼1275 C, a space-charge-limited Li + beam current density of J ∼1 mA/cm 2 was obtained. The lifetime of the ion source was ∼50 hours while pulsing at a rate of 0.033 Hz with a pulse duration of 5-6 (micro) s.

  14. Calcium and magnesium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothenbach, B.; L'Hopital, E.; Nied, D.; Achiedo, G.; Dauzeres, A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep geological disposals are planed to discard long-lived intermediate-level and high-level radioactive wastes. Clay-based geological barriers are expected to limit the ingress of groundwater and to reduce the mobility of radioelements. In the interaction zone between the cement and the clay based material alteration can occur. Magnesium silicate hydrates (M-S-H) have been observed due to the reaction of magnesium sulfate containing groundwater with cements or in the interaction zone between low-pH type cement and clays. M-S-H samples synthesized in the laboratory showed that M-S-H has a variable composition within 0.7 ≤ Mg/Si ≤ 1.5. TEM/EDS analyses show an homogeneous gel with no defined structure. IR and 29 Si NMR data reveal a higher polymerization degree of the silica network in M-S-H compared to calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The presence of mainly Q 3 silicate tetrahedrons in M-S-H indicates a sheet like or a triple-chain silica structure while C-S-H is characterised by single chain-structure. The clear difference in the silica structure and the larger ionic radius of Ca 2+ (1.1 Angstrom) compared to Mg 2+ (0.8 Angstrom) make the formation of an extended solid solution between M-S-H and C-S-H gel improbable. In fact, the analyses of synthetic samples containing both magnesium and calcium in various ratios indicate the formation of separate M-S-H and C-S-H gels with no or very little uptake of magnesium in CS-H or calcium in M-S-H

  15. Influence of heat treatments on the microstructure and tensile behaviour of selective laser melting-produced TI-6AL-4V parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter Haar, Gerrit Matthys

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In industry, post-process heat treatments of Ti-6Al-4V are performed with the aim of improving its tensile behaviour. While heat treatments of wrought Ti6Al4V have been standardised (e.g., Aerospace Material Specification H-81200, heat treatments of selective laser melting (SLM-produced Ti-6Al-4V lacks research and understanding. Significant concern exists about SLM Ti6-Al-4V’s achievable ductility attributed to its martensitic (α’ phase. In this research, heat treatments at a range of temperatures are applied to SLM-produced Ti-6Al-4V tensile samples. Microstructural analysis (both optically and through electron backscatter diffraction was used to identify links between heat treatments and microstructure. Subsequently, uniaxial tensile tests were performed to determine the respective tensile properties of all samples. Correlations in the data show a significant loss in strength with respect to an increase in annealing temperature due to grain growth, while no noticeable trend was observed for fracture strain with regard to annealing temperatures.

  16. I-Xe dating of silicate and troilite from IAB iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1978-01-01

    The IAB iron meteorites may be related to the chondrites; siderophile elements in the metal matrix have chondritic abundances, and the abundant silicate inclusions are chondritic both in mineralogy and in chemical composition. Silicate and troilite (FeS) and IAB irons were analyzed by the I-Xe technique. Four IAB silicate samples gave well-defined I-Xe ages [in millions of years relative to Bjurboele; the monitor error (+-2.5 m.y.) is not included]: -3.7 +- 0.3 for Woodbine, -0.7 +- 0.6 for Mundrabilla, +1.4 +- 0.7 for Copiapo, and +2.6 +- 0.6 for Landes. The ( 129 Xe/ 132 Xe)/sub trapped/ ratios are consistent with previous values for chondrites, with the exception of Landes which has an extraordinary trapped ratio of 3.5 +- 0.2. Both analyses of silicate from Pitts gave anomalous I-Xe patterns: intermediate-temperature points defined good correlations but higher-temperature (greater than or equal to 1400 0 C) points lay above (extra 129 Xe) these lines. The two correlations have different slopes, so it cannot be assigned a definite I-Xe age to Pitts silicate. Troilite samples from Mundrabilla and Pitts were also analyzed: Pitts troilite gave a complex I-Xe pattern, which suggests an age of +17 m.y.; Mundrabilla troilite defined a good I-Xe correlation, which after correction for neutron capture on 128 Te an age of -10.8 +- 0.7 m.y. Thus, surprisingly, low-melting troilite substantially predates high-melting silicate in Mundrabilla. Abundances of Ga, Ge, and Ni in metal from these meteorites are correlated with I-Xe ages of the silicate (referred to henceforth as the metal-silicate correlation). After exploring possible relationships between the I-Xe ages and other properties of the IAB group, it was concluded that the metal-silicate correlation, the old Mundrabilla troilite, and other results favor a nebular formation model (e.g. Wasson, 1970a)

  17. I-Xe dating of silicate and troilite from IAB iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1979-01-01

    Silicate and troilite (FeS) from IAB irons were analyzed by the I-Xe technique. Four IAB silicate samples gave well-defined I-Xe ages [in millions of years relative to Bjurbole: - 3.7 +- 0.3 for Woodbine, -0.7 +- 0.6 for Mundrabilla, + 1.4 +- 0.7 for Copiapo, and +2.6 +- 0.6 for Landes. The ( 129 Xe/ 132 Xe)sub(trapped) ratios are consistent with previous values for chondrites, with the exception of Landes which has an extraordinary trapped ratio of 3.5 +- 0.2. Both analyses of silicate from Pitts gave anomalous I-Xe patterns. Troilite samples were also analyzed: Pitts troilite gave a complex I-Xe pattern, which suggests an age of +17 Myr; Mundrabilla troilite defined a good I-Xe correlation, which after correction for neutron capture on 128 Te gave an age of -10.8 +- 0.7 Myr. Thus, low-melting troilite predates high-melting silicate in Mundrabilla. Abundances of Ga, Ge, and Ni in metal from these meteorites are correlated with I-Xe ages of the silicate; meteorites with older silicates have greater Ni contents. No model easily accounts for this result as well as other properties of IAB irons; nevertheless, these results, taken at face value, favour a nebular formation model. The great age of troilite from Mundrabilla suggests that this troilite formed in a different nebular region from the silicate and metal, and was later mechanically mixed with these other phases. The correlation between the trace elements in the metal and the I-Xe ages of the silicate provides one of the first known instances in which another well-defined meteoritic property correlates with I-Xe ages. In addition, almost all the 129 Xe in Mundrabilla silicate (etched in acid) was correlated with 128 Xe. These two results further support the validity of the I-Xe dating method. (author)

  18. Apatite-Melt Partitioning at 1 Bar: An Assessment of Apatite-Melt Exchange Equilibria Resulting from Non-Ideal Mixing of F and Cl in Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Ustunisik, G.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2016-01-01

    The mineral apatite [Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH)] is present in a wide range of planetary materials. Due to the presence of volatiles within its crystal structure (X-site), many recent studies have attempted to use apatite to constrain the volatile contents of planetary magmas and mantle sources. In order to use the volatile contents of apatite to precisely determine the abundances of volatiles in coexisting silicate melt or fluids, thermodynamic models for the apatite solid solution and for the apatite components in multi-component silicate melts and fluids are required. Although some thermodynamic models for apatite have been developed, they are incomplete. Furthermore, no mixing model is available for all of the apatite components in silicate melts or fluids, especially for F and Cl components. Several experimental studies have investigated the apatite-melt and apatite-fluid partitioning behavior of F, Cl, and OH in terrestrial and planetary systems, which have determined that apatite-melt partitioning of volatiles are best described as exchange equilibria similar to Fe-Mg partitioning between olivine and silicate melt. However, McCubbin et al. recently reported that the exchange coefficients may vary in portions of apatite compositional space where F, Cl, and OH do not mix ideally in apatite. In particular, solution calorimetry data of apatite compositions along the F-Cl join exhibit substantial excess enthalpies of mixing. In the present study, we conducted apatite-melt partitioning experiments in evacuated, sealed silica-glass tubes at approximately 1 bar and 950-1050 degrees Centigrade on a synthetic Martian basalt composition equivalent to the basaltic shergottite Queen Alexandria Range (QUE) 94201. These experiments were conducted dry, at low pressure, to assess the effects of temperature and apatite composition on the partitioning behavior of F and Cl between apatite and basaltic melt along the F-Cl apatite binary join, where there is non-ideal mixing of F and Cl

  19. Melting under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.I.

    1980-10-01

    A simple model, using experimentally measured shock and particle velocities, is applied to the Lindemann melting formula to predict the density, temperature, and pressure at which a material will melt when shocked from room temperature and zero pressure initial conditions

  20. Silicate bonded ceramics of laterites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Douse, V.

    1989-05-01

    Sodium silicate is vacuum impregnated in bauxite waste (red mud) at room temperature to develop ceramics of mechanical properties comparable to the sintered ceramics. For a concentration up to 10% the fracture toughness increases from 0.12 MNm -3/2 to 0.9 MNm -3/2 , and the compressive strength from 7 MNm -2 to 30 MNm -2 . The mechanical properties do not deteriorate, when soaked in water for an entire week. The viscosity and the concentration of the silicate solution are crucial, both for the success of the fabrication and the economics of the process. Similar successful results have been obtained for bauxite and lime stone, even though the latter has poor weathering properties. With scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis, an attempt is made to identify the crystals formed in the composite, which are responsible for the strength. The process is an economic alternative to the sintered ceramics in the construction industry in the tropical countries, rich in lateritic soils and poor in energy. Also the process has all the potential for further development in arid regions abundant in limestone. (author). 6 refs, 20 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Radiation effects in silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Howitt, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The study of radiation effects in complex silicate glasses has received renewed attention because of their use in special applications such as high level nuclear waste immobilization and fiber optics. Radiation changes the properties of these glasses by altering their electronic and atomic configurations. These alterations or defects may cause dilatations or microscopic phase changes along with absorption centers that limit the optical application of the glasses. Atomic displacements induced in the already disordered structure of the glasses may affect their use where heavy irradiating particles such as alpha particles, alpha recoils, fission fragments, or accelerated ions are present. Large changes (up to 1%) in density may result. In some cases the radiation damage may be severe enough to affect the durability of the glass in aqueous solutions. In the paper, the authors review the literature concerning radiation effects on density, durability, stored energy, microstructure and optical properties of silicate glasses. Both simple glasses and complex glasses used for immobilization of nuclear waste are considered

  2. Improved capacitive melting curve measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebedash, Alexander; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity of the capacitive method for determining the melting pressure of helium can be enhanced by loading the empty side of the capacitor with helium at a pressure nearly equal to that desired to be measured and by using a relatively thin and flexible membrane in between. This way one can achieve a nanobar resolution at the level of 30 bar, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the best gauges with vacuum reference. This extends the applicability of melting curve thermometry to lower temperatures and would allow detecting tiny anomalies in the melting pressure, which must be associated with any phenomena contributing to the entropy of the liquid or solid phases. We demonstrated this principle in measurements of the crystallization pressure of isotopic helium mixtures at millikelvin temperatures by using partly solid pure 4 He as the reference substance providing the best possible universal reference pressure. The achieved sensitivity was good enough for melting curve thermometry on mixtures down to 100 μK. Similar system can be used on pure isotopes by virtue of a blocked capillary giving a stable reference condition with liquid slightly below the melting pressure in the reference volume. This was tested with pure 4 He at temperatures 0.08-0.3 K. To avoid spurious heating effects, one must carefully choose and arrange any dielectric materials close to the active capacitor. We observed some 100 pW loading at moderate excitation voltages.

  3. The results of the CCI-3 reactor material experiment investigating 2-D core-concrete interaction and debris coolability with a siliceous concrete crucible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.T.; Basu, S.

    2006-01-01

    The OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis with the objectives of resolving the ex-vessel debris coolability issue, and to address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. Despite years of international research, there are remaining uncertainties in the models that evaluate the lateral vs. axial power split during core-concrete interaction because of a lack of truly two-dimensional experiment data. As a result, there are differences in the 2-D cavity erosion predicted by codes such as MELCOR, WECHSL, and COSACO. In the continuing effort to bridge this data gap, the third in a series of large scale Core-Concrete Interaction experiments (CCI-3) has been conducted as part of the MCCI program. This test involved the interaction of a 375 kg core-oxide melt within a two-dimensional siliceous concrete crucible. The initial phase of the test was conducted under dry conditions. After a predetermined ablation depth was reached, the cavity was flooded to obtain data on the coolability of a core melt after core-concrete interaction has progressed for some time. This paper provides a summary description of the test facility and an overview of test results

  4. Differentiation of Asteroid 4 Vesta: Core Formation by Iron Rain in a Silicate Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Geochemical observations of the eucrite and diogenite meteorites, together with observations made by NASA's Dawn spacecraft while orbiting asteroid 4 Vesta, suggest that Vesta resembles H chondrites in bulk chemical composition, possible with about 25 percent of a CM-chondrite like composition added in. For this model, the core is 15 percent by mass (or 8 percent by volume) of the asteroid, with a composition of 73.7 percent by weight Fe, 16.0 percent by weight S, and 10.3 percent by weight Ni. The abundances of moderately siderophile elements (Ni, Co, Mo, W, and P) in eucrites require that essentially all of the metallic phase in Vesta segregated to form a core prior to eucrite solidification. The combination of the melting phase relationships for the silicate and metal phases, together with the moderately siderophile element concentrations together require that complete melting of the metal phase occurred (temperature is greater than1350 degrees Centigrade), along with substantial (greater than 40 percent) melting of the silicate material. Thus, core formation on Vesta occurs as iron rain sinking through a silicate magma ocean.

  5. Optical band gap and spectroscopic study of lithium alumino silicate glass containing Y3+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, M S; Rezvani, M

    2011-09-01

    The effect of different amounts of Y2O3 dopant on lithium alumino silicate (LAS) glass has been studied in this work. Glasses having 14.8Li2O-20Al2O3-65.2SiO2 (wt%) composition accompanied with Y2O3 dopant were prepared by normal melting process. In order to calculate the absorption coefficient of samples, transmittance and reflectance spectra of polished samples were measured in the room temperature. Optical properties i.e. Fermi energy level, direct and indirect optical band gaps and Urbach energy were calculated using functionality of extinction coefficient from Fermi-Dirac distribution function, Tauc's plot and the exponential part of absorption coefficient diagram, respectively. It has been clarified that variation in mentioned optical parameters is associated with the changes in physical properties of samples i.e. density or molar mass. On the other hand, increasing of Y3+ ions in the glassy microstructure of samples provides a semiconducting character to LAS glass by reducing the direct and indirect optical band gaps of glass samples from 1.97 to 1.67 and 3.46 to 2.1 (eV), respectively. These changes could be attributed to the role of Y3+ ions as the network former in the track of SiO4 tetrahedrals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Calculation of Oxygen Fugacity in High Pressure Metal-Silicate Experiments and Comparison to Standard Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Ghiorso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Calculation of oxygen fugacity in high pressure and temperature experiments in metal-silicate systems is usually approximated by the ratio of Fe in the metal and FeO in the silicate melt: (Delta)IW=2*log(X(sub Fe)/X(sub FeO)), where IW is the iron-wustite reference oxygen buffer. Although this is a quick and easy calculation to make, it has been applied to a huge variety of metallic (Fe- Ni-S-C-O-Si systems) and silicate liquids (SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O systems). This approach has surely led to values that have little meaning, yet are applied with great confidence, for example, to a terrestrial mantle at "IW-2". Although fO2 can be circumvented in some cases by consideration of Fe-M distribution coefficient, these do not eliminate the effects of alloy or silicate liquid compositional variation, or the specific chemical effects of S in the silicate liquid, for example. In order to address the issue of what the actual value of fO2 is in any given experiment, we have calculated fO2 from the equilibria 2Fe (metal) + SiO2 (liq) + O2 = Fe2SiO4 (liq).

  7. Experimental evidence for Mo isotope fractionation between metal and silicate liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hin, Remco C.; Burkhardt, Christoph; Schmidt, Max W.; Bourdon, Bernard; Kleine, Thorsten

    2013-10-01

    Stable isotope fractionation of siderophile elements may inform on the conditions and chemical consequences of core-mantle differentiation in planetary objects. The extent to which Mo isotopes fractionate during such metal-silicate segregation, however, is so far unexplored. We have therefore investigated equilibrium fractionation of Mo isotopes between liquid metal and liquid silicate to evaluate the potential of Mo isotopes as a new tool to study core formation. We have performed experiments at 1400 and 1600 °C in a centrifuging piston cylinder. Tin was used to lower the melting temperature of the Fe-based metal alloys to double spike technique. In experiments performed at 1400 °C, the 98Mo/95Mo ratio of silicate is 0.19±0.03‰ (95% confidence interval) heavier than that of metal. This fractionation is not significantly affected by the presence or absence of carbon. Molybdenum isotope fractionation is furthermore independent of oxygen fugacity in the range IW -1.79 to IW +0.47, which are plausible values for core formation. Experiments at 1600 °C show that, at equilibrium, the 98Mo/95Mo ratio of silicate is 0.12±0.02‰ heavier than that of metal and that the presence or absence of Sn does not affect this fractionation. Equilibrium Mo isotope fractionation between liquid metal and liquid silicate as a function of temperature can therefore be described as ΔMoMetal-Silicate98/95=-4.70(±0.59)×105/T2. Our experiments show that Mo isotope fractionation may be resolvable up to metal-silicate equilibration temperatures of about 2500 °C, rendering Mo isotopes a novel tool to investigate the conditions of core formation in objects ranging from planetesimals to Earth sized bodies.

  8. Melt migration modeling in partially molten upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, Abdolreza

    beneath the observed neo-volcanic zone. My models consist of three parts; lithosphere, asthenosphere and a melt extraction region. It is shown that melt migrates vertically within the asthenosphere, and forms a high melt fraction layer beneath the sloping base of the impermeable lithosphere. Within the sloping high melt fraction layer, melt migrates laterally towards the ridge. In order to simulate melt migration via crustal fractures and cracks, melt is extracted from a melt extraction region extending to the base of the crust. Performance of the melt focusing mechanism is not significantly sensitive to the size of melt extraction region, melt extraction threshold and spreading rate. In all of the models, about half of the total melt production freezes beneath the cooling base of the lithosphere, and the rest is effectively focused towards the ridge and forms the crust. To meet the computational demand for a precise tracing of the deforming upwelling plume and including the chemical buoyancy of the partially molten zone in my models, a new numerical method is developed to solve the related pure advection equations. The numerical method is based on Second Moment numerical method of Egan and Mahoney [1972] which is improved to maintain a high numerical accuracy in shear and rotational flow fields. In comparison with previous numerical methods, my numerical method is a cost-effective, non-diffusive and shape preserving method, and it can also be used to trace a deforming body in compressible flow fields.

  9. Effects of processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of a titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) fabricated using electron beam melting (EBM), Part 2: Energy input, orientation, and location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabe, Nikolas, E-mail: nhrabe@gmail.com [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States); Quinn, Timothy, E-mail: timothy.quinn@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Selective electron beam melting (EBM) is a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing technique that shows great promise for fabrication of medical devices and aerospace components. Before its potential can be fully realized, however, a comprehensive understanding of processing-microstructure-properties relationships is necessary. Titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) parts were built in a newly developed, unique geometry to allow accurate investigation of the following intra-build processing parameters: energy input, orientation, and location. Microstructure evaluation (qualitative prior-β grain size, quantitative α lath thickness), tensile testing, and Vickers microhardness were performed for each specimen. For a wide range of energy input (speed factor 30–40), small differences in mechanical properties (2% change in ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and 3% change in yield strength (YS)) were measured. Vertically built parts were found to have no difference in UTS or YS compared to horizontally built parts, but the percent elongation at break (% EL) was 30% lower. The difference in % EL was attributed to a different orientation of the tensile axis for horizontal and vertical parts compared to the elongated prior-β grain and microstructural texture direction in EBM Ti–6Al–4V. Orientation within the x–y plane as well as location were found to have less than 3% effect on mechanical properties, and it is possible a second order effect of thermal mass contributed to these results.

  10. Silicates materials of high vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    Espe, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Materials of High Vacuum Technology, Volume 2: Silicates covers silicate insulators of special importance to vacuum technology. The book discusses the manufacture, composition, and physical and chemical properties of technical glasses, quartz glass, quartzware, vycor glass, ceramic materials, mica, and asbestos.

  11. Melting of Dense Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoryanz, Eugene; Degtyareva, Olga; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Somayazulu, Maddury

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure high-temperature synchrotron diffraction measurements reveal a maximum on the melting curve of Na in the bcc phase at ∼31 GPa and 1000 K and a steep decrease in melting temperature in its fcc phase. The results extend the melting curve by an order of magnitude up to 130 GPa. Above 103 GPa, Na crystallizes in a sequence of phases with complex structures with unusually low melting temperatures, reaching 300 K at 118 GPa, and an increased melting temperature is observed with further increases in pressure

  12. Conduction mechanism in bismuth silicate glasses containing titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dult, Meenakshi; Kundu, R.S.; Murugavel, S.; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2014-01-01

    Bismuth silicate glasses mixed with different concentrations of titanium dioxide having compositions xTiO 2 –(60−x)Bi 2 O 3 –40SiO 2 with x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 were prepared by the normal melt quench technique. The frequency dependence of the ac electrical conductivity of different compositions of titanium bismuth silicate glasses has been studied in the frequency range 10 −1 Hz to 10 MHz and in the temperature range 623–703 K. The temperature and frequency dependent conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's universal power law for all the compositions of titanium bismuth silicate glass system. The dc conductivity (σ dc ), so called crossover frequency (ω H ), and frequency exponent (s) have been estimated from the fitting of experimental data of ac conductivity with Jonscher's universal power law. Enthalpy to dissociate the cation from its original site next to a charge compensating center (H f ) and enthalpy of migration (H m ) have also been estimated. The conductivity data have been analyzed in terms of different theoretical models to determine the possible conduction mechanism. Analysis of the conductivity data and the frequency exponent shows that the correlated barrier hopping of electrons between Ti 3+ and Ti 4+ ions in the glasses is the most favorable mechanism for ac conduction. The temperature dependent dc conductivity has been analyzed in the framework of theoretical variable range hopping model (VRH) proposed by Mott which describe the hopping conduction in disordered semiconducting systems. The various polaron hopping parameters have also been deduced. Mott's VRH model is found to be in good agreement with experimental data and the values of inverse localization length of s-like wave function (α) obtained by this model with modifications suggested by Punia et al. are close to the ones reported for a number of oxide glasses

  13. Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Charles

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through cocondensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules.

  14. High-performance polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidecker, Matthew J.

    High-performance layered-silicate nanocomposites of Polycarbonate (PC), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and their blends were produced via conventional melt-blending techniques. The focus of this thesis was on the fundamentals of dispersion, control of thermal stability, maintenance of melt-blending processing conditions, and on optimization of the composites' mechanical properties via the design of controlled and thermodynamically favorable nano-filler dispersions within the polymer matrices. PET and PC require high temperatures for melt-processing, rendering impractical the use of conventional/commercial organically-modified layered-silicates, since the thermal degradation temperatures of their ammonium surfactants lies below the typical processing temperatures. Thus, different surfactant chemistries must be employed in order to develop melt-processable nanocomposites, also accounting for polymer matrix degradation due to water (PET) or amine compounds (PC). Novel high thermal-stability surfactants were developed and employed in montmorillonite nanocomposites of PET, PC, and PC/PET blends, and were compared to the respective nanocomposites based on conventional quaternary-ammonium modified montmorillonites. Favorable dispersion was achieved in all cases, however, the overall material behavior -- i.e., the combination of crystallization, mechanical properties, and thermal degradation -- was better for the nanocomposites based on the thermally-stable surfactant fillers. Studies were also done to trace, and ultimately limit, the matrix degradation of Polycarbonate/montmorillonite nanocomposites, through varying the montmorillonite surfactant chemistry, processing conditions, and processing additives. Molecular weight degradation was, maybe surprisingly, better controlled in the conventional quaternary ammonium based nanocomposites -- even though the thermal stability of the organically modified montmorillonites was in most cases the lowest. Dependence of the

  15. Composition dependence of spontaneous crystallization of phosphosilicate glass melts during cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S.J.; Zhu, C.F.; Zhang, Y.F.

    2012-01-01

    Crystallization behavior of alumino-phospho-silicate melts during cooling is studied by means of the differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and viscometry. The results show a pronounced impact of alkaline earth oxide, alkali oxide and fluoride on the crystal type and crystallizat......Crystallization behavior of alumino-phospho-silicate melts during cooling is studied by means of the differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and viscometry. The results show a pronounced impact of alkaline earth oxide, alkali oxide and fluoride on the crystal type...... and crystallization degree. It is found that adding NaF into the studied compositions slightly decreases melt fragility and improves both the glass-forming ability and melt workability. This effect is associated with the unique structural role of NaF compared to the other modifier oxides. It is also found...

  16. Laser ablation of silicate glasses doped with transuranic actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.K.; Haire, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    Direct sampling laser ablation plasma mass spectrometry (DS-LAMS) was applied to silica glasses doped with 237 Np, 242 Pu or 241 Am using a unique instrument recently installed into a transuranic glovebox. The primary goal was to assess the utility of mass spectrometry of directly ablated ions for facile evaluation of actinide (An) constituents of silicate glass immobilization matrices used for encapsulation of radionuclides. The instrument and general procedures have been described elsewhere. Three high-purity silicate glasses prepared by a sol-gel process (SG) and one conventional high-temperature (HT; melting point ∼ 1,450 C) borosilicate glass were studied. These glasses comprised the following constituents, with compositions expressed in mass percentages: Np-HT ∼ 30% SiO 2 + 6% B 2 O 3 + 3% BaO + 13% Al 2 O 3 + 10% PbO + 30% La 2 O 3 + 8% 237 NpO 2 ; Np-SG ∼ 70% SiO 2 + 30% 237 NpO 2 ; Pu-SG ∼ 70% SiO 2 + 30% 242 PuO 2 ; Am-SG ∼ 85% SiO 2 + 15% 241 AmO 2

  17. Dynamic observations of vesiculation reveal the role of silicate crystals in bubble nucleation and growth in andesitic magmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleše, P.; Higgins, M. D.; Mancini, L.; Lanzafame, G.; Brun, F.; Fife, J. L.; Casselman, J.; Baker, D. R.

    2018-01-01

    Bubble nucleation and growth control the explosivity of volcanic eruptions, and the kinetics of these processes are generally determined from examinations of natural samples and quenched experimental run products. These samples, however, only provide a view of the final state, from which the initial conditions of a time-evolving magmatic system are then inferred. The interpretations that follow are inexact due to the inability of determining the exact conditions of nucleation and the potential detachment of bubbles from their nucleation sites, an uncertainty that can obscure their nucleation location – either homogeneously within the melt or heterogeneously at the interface between crystals and melts. We present results of a series of dynamic, real-time 4D X-ray tomographic microscopy experiments where we observed the development of bubbles in crystal bearing silicate magmas. Experimentally synthesized andesitic glasses with 0.25–0.5 wt% H2O and seed silicate crystals were heated at 1 atm to induce bubble nucleation and track bubble growth and movement. In contrast to previous studies on natural and experimentally produced samples, we found that bubbles readily nucleated on plagioclase and clinopyroxene crystals, that their contact angle changes during growth and that they can grow to sizes many times that of the silicate on whose surface they originated. The rapid heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles at low degrees of supersaturation in the presence of silicate crystals demonstrates that silicates can affect when vesiculation ensues, influencing subsequent permeability development and effusive vs. explosive transition in volcanic eruptions.

  18. Dynamic observations of vesiculation reveal the role of silicate crystals in bubble nucleation and growth in andesitic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleše, P.; Higgins, M. D.; Mancini, L.; Lanzafame, G.; Brun, F.; Fife, J. L.; Casselman, J.; Baker, D. R.

    2018-01-01

    Bubble nucleation and growth control the explosivity of volcanic eruptions, and the kinetics of these processes are generally determined from examinations of natural samples and quenched experimental run products. These samples, however, only provide a view of the final state, from which the initial conditions of a time-evolving magmatic system are then inferred. The interpretations that follow are inexact due to the inability of determining the exact conditions of nucleation and the potential detachment of bubbles from their nucleation sites, an uncertainty that can obscure their nucleation location - either homogeneously within the melt or heterogeneously at the interface between crystals and melts. We present results of a series of dynamic, real-time 4D X-ray tomographic microscopy experiments where we observed the development of bubbles in crystal bearing silicate magmas. Experimentally synthesized andesitic glasses with 0.25-0.5 wt% H2O and seed silicate crystals were heated at 1 atm to induce bubble nucleation and track bubble growth and movement. In contrast to previous studies on natural and experimentally produced samples, we found that bubbles readily nucleated on plagioclase and clinopyroxene crystals, that their contact angle changes during growth and that they can grow to sizes many times that of the silicate on whose surface they originated. The rapid heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles at low degrees of supersaturation in the presence of silicate crystals demonstrates that silicates can affect when vesiculation ensues, influencing subsequent permeability development and effusive vs. explosive transition in volcanic eruptions.

  19. SILICATE COMPOSITION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogerty, S.; Forrest, W.; Watson, D. M.; Koch, I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Sargent, B. A., E-mail: sfogerty@pas.rochester.edu [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. An analysis of the well-known 9.7 μ m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modeled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modeling the optical depth along lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and ζ Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as “polivene.” Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapezium and protoplanetary disks in Taurus.

  20. SILICATE COMPOSITION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogerty, S.; Forrest, W.; Watson, D. M.; Koch, I.; Sargent, B. A.

    2016-01-01

    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. An analysis of the well-known 9.7 μ m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modeled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modeling the optical depth along lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and ζ Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as “polivene.” Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapezium and protoplanetary disks in Taurus.

  1. Model of interfacial melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional model is proposed to describe systems with phase transitions which take place in terms of crystalline as well as internal degrees of freedom. Computer simulation of the model shows that the interplay between the two sets of degrees of freedom permits observation of grain-boundar......-boundary formation and interfacial melting, a nonequilibrium process by which the system melts at the boundaries of a polycrystalline domain structure. Lipid membranes are candidates for systems with pronounced interfacial melting behavior....

  2. U-Pb zircon geochronology of Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous extension-related silicic volcanism in the northern New England Fold Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.E.; Holcombe, R.J.; Fielding, C.R.; Allen, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis of zircons confirm a Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous age (ca 360-350 Ma) for silicic volcanic rocks of the Campwyn Volcanics and Yarrol terrane of the northern New England Fold Belt (Queensland). These rocks are coeval with silicic volcanism recorded elsewhere in the fold belt at this time (Connors Arch, Drummond Basin). The new U-Pb zircon ages, in combination with those from previous studies, show that silicic magmatism was both widespread across the northern New England Fold Belt (>250 000 km 2 and >500 km inboard of plate margin) and protracted, occurring over a period of -15 million years. Zircon inheritance is commonplace in the Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous volcanics, reflecting anatectic melting and considerable reworking of continental crust. Inherited zircon components range from ca 370 to ca 2050 Ma, with Middle Devonian (385-370 Ma) zircons being common to almost all dated units. Precambrian zircon components record either Precambrian crystalline crust or sedimentary accumulations that were present above or within the zone of magma formation This contrasts with a lack of significant zircon inheritance in younger Permo-Carboniferous igneous rocks intruded through,and emplaced on top of, the Devonian-Carboniferous successions. The inheritance data and location of these volcanic rocks at the eastern margins of the northern New England Fold Belt, coupled with Sr-Nd, Pb isotopic data and depleted mantle model ages for Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic magmatism, imply that Precambrian mafic and felsic crustal materials (potentially as old as 2050 Ma), or at the very least Lower Palaeozoic rocks derived from the reworking of Precambrian rocks, comprise basement to the eastern parts of the fold belt. This crustal basement architecture may be a relict from the Late Proterozoic breakup of the Rodinian supercontinent. Copyright (2004) Geological Society of Australia

  3. Rapid timescales for accretion and melting of differentiated planetesimals inferred from Al-Mg chronometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Haack, H.; Baker, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    . Initial Al/Al values range from (1.26 ± 0.37) × 10 to (5.12 ± 0.81) × 10 at the time of magmatism on the EPB and MPB, and are among the highest Al abundances reported for igneous meteorites. These results indicate that widespread silicate melting and differentiation of rocky bodies occurred within 3...

  4. A Structural Molar Volume Model for Oxide Melts Part I: Li2O-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-MnO-PbO-Al2O3-SiO2 Melts—Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric; Gheribi, Aimen E.; Jung, In-Ho

    2016-04-01

    A structural molar volume model was developed to accurately reproduce the molar volume of molten oxides. As the non-linearity of molar volume is related to the change in structure of molten oxides, the silicate tetrahedral Q-species, calculated from the modified quasichemical model with an optimized thermodynamic database, were used as basic structural units in the present model. Experimental molar volume data for unary and binary melts in the Li2O-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-MnO-PbO-Al2O3-SiO2 system were critically evaluated. The molar volumes of unary oxide components and binary Q-species, which are model parameters of the present structural model, were determined to accurately reproduce the experimental data across the entire binary composition in a wide range of temperatures. The non-linear behavior of molar volume and thermal expansivity of binary melt depending on SiO2 content are well reproduced by the present model.

  5. Physical ageing of silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemilov, S.V. [S. I. Vavilov State Optical Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2003-02-01

    The presented review has been devoted to the problem of volume-determined properties relaxation of silicate glasses at room temperature. It is shown that the experimental data are described by the simple Debye exponential law or by a superposition of two exponents. Their parameters are calculated and systematized. A molecular-kinetic model is proposed for these ageing processes. It proceeds from the possibility of volume relaxation due to the cooperative β-relaxation mechanism with no change in the system's topology. The characteristic ageing times can be calculated according to equations obtained based on the viscosity data in the glass transition range. The precision of the calculations is about {+-} 15% at the time variations from a few weeks up to about 15 years. The system of calculated parameters is proposed which characterizes the completeness of ageing and its rate at any glass age. Optical and thermometric glasses have been ranked by their tendency to ageing. The scheme of future investigations predetermined by practice is defined. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic properties of sheet silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, O.; Coey, J.M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Susceptibility, magnetisation and Moessbauer measurements are reported for a representative selection of 2:1 layer phyllosilicates. Eight samples from the mica, vermiculite and smectite groups include examples diluted in iron which are paramagnetic at all temperatures, as well as iron-rich silicates which order magnetically below 10 K. Anisotropic susceptibility of crystals of muscovite, biotite and vermiculite is quantitatively explained with a model where the Fe 2+ ions lie in sites of effective trigonal symmetry, the trigonal axis lying normal to the sheets. The ferrous ground state is an orbital singlet. Ferric iron gives an isotropic contribution to the susceptibility. Fe 2+ -Fe 2+ exchange interactions are ferromagnetic with Gapprox. equal to2 K, whereas Fe 3+ -Fe 3+ coupling is antiferromagnetic in the purely ferric minerals. A positive paramagnetic Curie temperature for glauconite may be attributable to Fe 2+ → Fe 3+ charge transfer. Magnetic order was found to set in inhomogeneously for glauconite at 1-7 K. One biotite sample showed an antiferromagnetic transition at Tsub(N) = 7 K marked by a well-defined susceptibility maximum. Its magnetic structure, consisting of ferromagnetic sheets with moments in their planes coupled antiferromagnetically by other, weak interactions, resembles that found earlier for the 1:1 mineral greenalite. (orig.)

  7. Thirteen million years of silicic magma production in Iceland: Links between petrogenesis and tectonic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2010-04-01

    The origin of the Quaternary silicic rocks in Iceland is thought to be linked to the thermal state of the crust, which in turn depends on the regional tectonic settings. This simple model is tested here on rocks from the Miocene to present, both to suggest an internally consistent model for silicic magma formation in Iceland and to constrain the link between tectonic settings and silicic magma petrogenesis. New major and trace-element compositions together with O-, Sr- and Nd-isotope ratios have been obtained on silicic rocks from 19 volcanic systems ranging in age from 13 Ma to present. This allows us to trace the spatial and temporal evolution of both magma generation and the corresponding sources. Low δ18O (geothermal gradient. But later than 5.5 Ma they were produced in a flank zone environment by fractional crystallisation alone, probably due to decreasing geothermal gradient, of basalts derived from a mantle source with lower 143Nd/ 144Nd. This is in agreement with an eastwards rift-jump, from Snæfellsnes towards the present Reykjanes Rift Zone, between 7 and 5.5 Ma. In the South Iceland Volcanic Zone (SIVZ), the intermediate Nd-signature observed in silicic rocks from the Torfajökull central volcano reflects the transitional character of the basalts erupted at this propagating rift segment. Therefore, the abundant evolved rocks at this major silicic complex result from partial melting of the transitional alkaline basaltic crust (Iceland can, therefore, be used for deciphering past geodynamic settings characterized by rift- and off-rift zones resulting from interaction of a mantle plume and divergent plate boundaries.

  8. Adsorption of aqueous silicate on hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.; Ticknor, K.V.

    1997-08-01

    During radioisotope sorption studies, adsorption of silicate from synthetic groundwaters by synthetic hematite was observed. To further investigate this observation, the adsorption of silicate onto hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) powder from a neutral, aqueous NaC1 solution (0.1 mol/dm 3 ), containing 2.56 x 10 -4 mol/dm 3 of Si added as Na 2 SiO 3 ·9H 2 O, was measured at ∼21 deg C. Equilibrium adsorption of silicate amounted to ∼1.93 μmol/m 2 (one Si(O,OH) 4 moiety per 86 A 2 ). It is important to take this adsorption into account when evaluating the ability of iron oxides to adsorb other species, especially anions, from groundwaters. Silicate adsorption is known to diminish the ability of iron oxides to adsorb other anions. (author)

  9. Na, Rb and Cs partitioning between metal, silicate and sulfide: Implications for volatile depletion in terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujibar, A.; Fei, Y.; Du, Z.; Righter, K.; Bullock, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    Inner Solar System materials are known for their depletion in volatile elements, including the moderately volatile alkalis: Na, K, Rb, and Cs. The origin of this depletion is still uncertain, as several processes could have been involved, during the nebular condensation or planetary accretion. Volatile depletion is commonly estimated through comparison of alkali concentrations relatively to those of chondrites, assuming they remain in planetary mantles during core segregation. However, experimental studies show that substantial K can partition into metals that are enriched in sulfur and oxygen. Several models have also suggested that sulfides may have played an important role during episodes of sulfide segregation from a crystallizing magma ocean (sulfide matte) or accretion of S-rich planetary embryos. For Mercury, a sulfide layer could be present between core and mantle, due to immiscibility between Si-rich and S-rich metals. Therefore, here we investigate whether alkali elements (Na, Cs and Rb) could be partly sequestered in planetary cores during their differentiation. We conducted experiments at high pressure and temperature (1 to 5 GPa and up to 1900 °C) to determine partition coefficients of Na, Rb and Cs between metal and silicate. Our results show that pressure, temperature, sulfur and oxygen in metals enhance the partitioning of Na, Rb and Cs into metals, as previously found for K. For all three investigated alkalis (Na, Rb and Cs), we found a maximum partition coefficient of 1 between sulfides containing 13 wt% O and silicate melt. Therefore, S-rich cores or sulfide layers formed due to immiscibility in Fe-S-O systems could have acted as important geochemical reservoirs for alkali elements. Using our experimental data and different assumptions on initial bulk abundances, we evaluate volatile depletion in terrestrial planets, by comparing resulting mantle alkali concentrations after core segregation, with actual concentrations in the Earth's mantle.

  10. Cumulates, Dykes and Pressure Solution in the Ice-Salt Mantle of Europa: Geological Consequences of Pressure Dependent Liquid Compositions and Volume Changes During Ice-Salt Melting Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S.; Asphaug, E.; Bruesch, L.

    2002-12-01

    Water-salt analogue experiments used to investigate cumulate processes in silicate magmas, along with observations of sea ice and ice shelf behaviour, indicate that crystal-melt separation in water-salt systems is a rapid and efficient process even on scales of millimetres and minutes. Squeezing-out of residual melts by matrix compaction is also predicted to be rapid on geological timescales. We predict that the ice-salt mantle of Europa is likely to be strongly stratified, with a layered structure predictable from density and phase relationships between ice polymorphs, aqueous saline solutions and crystalline salts such as hydrated magnesium sulphates (determined experimentally by, inter alia, Hogenboom et al). A surface layer of water ice flotation cumulate will be separated from denser salt cumulates by a cotectic horizon. This cotectic horizon will be both the site of subsequent lowest-temperature melting and a level of neutral buoyancy for the saline melts produced. Initial melting will be in a narrow depth range owing to increasing melting temperature with decreasing pressure: the phase relations argue against direct melt-though to the surface unless vesiculation occurs. Overpressuring of dense melts due to volume expansion on cotectic melting is predicted to lead to lateral dyke emplacement and extension above the dyke tips. Once the liquid leaves the cotectic, melting of water ice will involve negative volume change. Impact-generated melts will drain downwards through the fractured zones beneath crater floors. A feature in the complex crater Mannan'an, with elliptical ring fractures around a conical depression with a central pit, bears a close resemblance to Icelandic glacier collapse cauldrons produced by subglacial eruptions. Other structures resembling Icelandic cauldrons occur along Europan banded structures, while resurgence of ice rubble within collapse structures may produce certain types of chaos region. More general contraction of the ice mantle

  11. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  12. Electrical conductivity and viscosity of borosilicate glasses and melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrt, Doris; Keding, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    , 0 to 62·5 mol% B2O3, and 25 to 85 mol% SiO2. The glass samples were characterised by different methods. Refractive indices, density and thermal expansion were measured. Phase separation effects were investigated by electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity of glasses and melts were determined......Simple sodium borosilicate and silicate glasses were melted on a very large scale (35 l Pt crucible) to prepare model glasses of optical quality in order to investigate various properties depending on their structure. The composition of the glass samples varied in a wide range: 3 to 33·3 mol% Na2O...... by impedance measurements in a wide temperature range (250 to 1450°C). The activation energies were calculated by Arrhenius plots in various temperature regions: below the glass transition temperature, Tg, above the melting point, Tl, and between Tg and Tl. Viscosity measurements were carried out...

  13. Experimental Determination of Spinel/Melt, Olivine/Melt, and Pyroxene/Melt Partition Coefficients for Re, Ru, Pd, Au, and Pt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies have identified spinels as important hosts phases for many of the highly siderophile elements (HSE). Yet experimental studies involving chromite or Cr-rich spinel have been lacking. Experimental studies of partitioning of HSEs between silicate, oxides and silicate melt are plagued by low solubilities and the presence of small metallic nuggets at oxygen fugacities relevant to magmas, which interfere with analysis of the phases of interest. We have circumvented these problems in two ways: 1) performing experiments at oxidized conditions, which are still relevant to natural systems but in which nuggets are not observed, and 2) analysis of run products with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), allowing a combination of high sensitivity and good spatial resolution.

  14. Uranium-thorium silicates, with specific reference to the species in the Witwatersrand reefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, G.

    1987-01-01

    (U,Th)-silicates form two complete series of anhydrous and hydrated species with general formulae (U,Th)SiO 4 and (U,Th)SiO 4 .nH 2 O respectively. The end-members of the anhydrous series are anhydrous coffinite and thorite, and those of the hydrated series, coffinite and thorogummite. Although the silicates are relatively rare in nature, coffinite is a common ore mineral in uranium deposits of the sandstone type. In the Witwatersrand reefs, (U,Th)-silicates are extremely rare in most reefs, except for the Elsburg Reefs on the West Rand Goldfield and the Dominion Reef. In these reefs detrital uraninite has been partly or entirely transformed to (U,Th)-silicates of coffinite composition, but thorite and thorogummite of detrital origin are also found in the Dominion Reef. In leaching tests on polished sections of rock samples containing (U,Th)-silicates, a dilute sulphuric acid solution, to which ferric iron had been added, was used as the lixiviant. It appeared that the dissolution of coffinite is less rapid than that of uraninite and uraniferous leucoxene. However, the reaction of silicates of high thorium content is much slower, and was not completed during the tests

  15. Effect of layered silicate content on the morphology and thermal properties of Poly(vinyl alcohol) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jessica R.M.B. da; Santos, Barbara F.F. dos; Leite, Itamara F.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of layered silicate content on the morphology and thermal properties of PVA films. The PVA/layered silicate (AN) films were prepared by intercalation solution, using 1 to 2% of bentonite with respect to the PVA total weight. Then the films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results of the FTIR revealed interaction between the functional groups of the PVA and the layered silicate. The XRD analysis showed that nanocomposites with intercalated and partially exfoliated morphology were obtained. The results of TG showed that the nanocomposite PVA/2%AN showed higher thermal stability compared to PVA/1%AN. The DSC results showed that the addition of AN to the PVA did not affect crystallization rate, as well as promoted a reduction in glass transition temperature and melting of the PVA. (author)

  16. Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for potential applications in photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chaofeng [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass & Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France); Zhang, Xianghua, E-mail: xiang-hua.zhang@univ-rennes1.fr [Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France); Ma, Hongli [Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France)

    2016-03-15

    A series of Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses were prepared via the melt-quenching method to explore red luminescent materials for potential applications in photosynthesis of green plants, and these glasses are investigated by means of luminescence decay curves, absorption, emission, and excitation spectra. We find that the as-prepared glasses are transparent in the visible region and can emit strong red light under ultraviolet, purple, and green light excitations. Furthermore, energy transfer from Sb{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} ions occurs in Sb/Mn co-doped glasses. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses may serve as a potential candidate for developing glass greenhouse, which can enhance the utilization of solar energy for the photosynthesis of the green plants.

  17. Contribution of early impact events to metal-silicate separation, thermal annealing, and volatile redistribution: Evidence in the Pułtusk H chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesińska, Agata M.

    2017-11-01

    Three-dimensional X-ray tomographic reconstructions and petrologic studies reveal voluminous accumulations of metal in Pułtusk H chondrite. At the contact of these accumulations, the chondritic rock is enriched in troilite. The rock contains plagioclase-rich bands, with textures suggesting crystallization from melt. Unusually large phosphates are associated with the plagioclase and consist of assemblages of merrillite, and fluorapatite and chlorapatite. The metal accumulations were formed by impact melting, rapid segregation of metal-sulfide melt and the incorporation of this melt into the fractured crater basement. The impact most likely occurred in the early evolution of the H chondrite parent body, when post-impact heat overlapped with radiogenic heat. This enabled slow cooling and separation of the metallic melt into metal-rich and sulfide-rich fractions. This led to recrystallization of chondritic rock in contact with the metal accumulations and the crystallization of shock melts. Phosphorus was liberated from the metal and subsumed by the silicate shock melt, owing to oxidative conditions upon slow cooling. The melt was also a host for volatiles. Upon further cooling, phosphorus reacted with silicates leading to the formation of merrillite, while volatiles partitioned into the residual halogen-rich, dry fluid. In the late stages, the fluid altered merrillite to patchy Cl/F-apatite. The above sequence of alterations demonstrates that impact during the early evolution of chondritic parent bodies might have contributed to local metal segregation and silicate melting. In addition, postshock conditions supported secondary processes: compositional/textural equilibration, redistribution of volatiles, and fluid alterations.

  18. Crystallisation mechanism of a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurth, R.; Pascual, M.J.; Mather, G.C.; Pablos-Martín, A.; Muñoz, F.; Durán, A.; Cuello, G.J.; Rüssel, C.

    2012-01-01

    A base glass of composition 3.5 Li 2 O∙0.15 Na 2 O∙0.2 K 2 O∙1.15 MgO∙0.8 BaO∙1.5 ZnO∙20 Al 2 O 3 ∙67.2 SiO 2 ∙2.6 TiO 2 ∙1.7 ZrO 2 ∙1.2 As 2 O 3 (in wt.%), melted and provided by SCHOTT AG (Mainz), was used to study the crystallisation mechanism of lithium alumino-silicate glass employing X-ray diffraction combined with neutron diffraction and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A high-quartz solid solution of LiAlSi 2 O 6 with nanoscaled crystals forms at 750 °C. Quantitative Rietveld refinement of samples annealed at 750 °C for 8 h determined a crystallised fraction of around 59 wt.%. The room temperature crystallised phase adopts an ordered, β-eucryptite-like structure (2 × 2 × 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. The Avrami parameter (n ∼ 4), calculated from DSC data using different theoretical approaches, indicates that bulk crystallisation occurs and that the number of nuclei increases during annealing. The activation energy of the crystallisation is 531 ± 20 kJ mol −1 . - Highlights: ► Nanoscaled high-quartz crystals from a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass. ► Combined X-ray and neutron diffraction structural refinement. ► β-Eucryptite-like structure (2 × 2×2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. ► 3-Dimensional bulk crystallisation mechanism with an increasing number of nuclei. ► Usage and validation of an alternative approach to calculate the Avrami parameter.

  19. Fine-grained sheet silicate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1977-09-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the possibility of using shales as repositories for radioactive waste and a variety of other waste products, and it appears that over the next few years much money and effort will be expended to investigate and test a wide variety of shales. If shales are to be studied in detail by a large number of investigators, it is important that all concerned have the same concept of what constitutes a shale. The term shale and other terms for fine-grained rocks have been used for many years and have been continually redefined. Most definitions predate the development of modern instrumentation and are based on field observations and intuition; however, the main problem is the diversity of definitions. An attempt is made here to develop a simple, rational classification of fine-grained sediments, and it is hoped that this classification will eliminate some of the present ambiguity. In order that the classification be pertinent, mineral composition and textural data were compiled and evaluated. The data on unconsolidated and consolidated sediments were contrasted and the effects of burial diagenesis assessed. It was found necessary to introduce a new term, physil, to describe all sheet silicate minerals. In contrast to the term clay mineral, the term physil has no size connotation. A simple classification is proposed that is based on the percentage of physils and grain size. In Part II the fine-grained physil rocks are classified on the basis of physil type, non-physil minerals, and texture. Formations are listed which have the mineral and textural characteristics of the most important rock types volumetrically. Selected rock types, and the formations in which they can be found, are recommended for laboratory study to determine their suitability for the storage of high-level radioactive waste

  20. Melting point of yttria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, S.R.

    1977-06-01

    Fourteen samples of 99.999 percent Y 2 O 3 were melted near the focus of a 250-W CO 2 laser. The average value of the observed melting point along the solid-liquid interface was 2462 +- 19 0 C. Several of these same samples were then melted in ultrahigh-purity oxygen, nitrogen, helium, or argon and in water vapor. No change in the observed temperature was detected, with the exception of a 20 0 C increase in temperature from air to helium gas. Post test examination of the sample characteristics, clarity, sphericity, and density is presented, along with composition. It is suggested that yttria is superior to alumina as a secondary melting-point standard

  1. Force induced DNA melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K

    2009-01-01

    When pulled along the axis, double-strand DNA undergoes a large conformational change and elongates by roughly twice its initial contour length at a pulling force of about 70 pN. The transition to this highly overstretched form of DNA is very cooperative. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA axis (unzipping), double-strand DNA can also be separated into two single-stranded DNA, this being a fundamental process in DNA replication. We study the DNA overstretching and unzipping transition using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and argue that the conformational changes of double-strand DNA associated with either of the above mentioned processes can be viewed as force induced DNA melting. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting abruptly/smoothly above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force f m , at which DNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the DNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base pairs. The fraction of Watson-Crick base pair hydrogen bond breaking as a function of force does not show smooth and continuous behavior and consists of plateaus followed by sharp jumps.

  2. Transparent phosphosilicate glasses containing crystals formed during cooling of melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S. J.; Zhang, Yanfei; He, W.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of P2O5-SiO2 substitution on spontaneous crystallization of SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5- Na2O-MgO melts during cooling was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and rotation viscometry. Results show that addition of P2O5 leads...... to amorphous phase separation (APS), i.e., phosphate- and silicate-rich phases. It is due to the tendency of Mg2+ to form [MgO4] linking with [SiO4]. Molar substitution of P2O5 for SiO2 enhances the network polymerization of silicate-rich phase in the melts, and thereby the spontaneous crystallization of cubic...... Na2MgSiO4 is also enhanced during cooling of the melts. In addition, the sizes of the local crystalline and separated glassy domains are smaller than the wavelength of the visible light, and this leads to the transparency of the obtained glasses containing crystals....

  3. Nanostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Cements

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, L. B.; Chae, S. R.; Benmore, C. J.; Wenk, H. R.; Monteiro, P. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the major volume phase in the matrix of Portland cement concrete. Total x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron x rays on synthetic CSH(I) shows nanocrystalline ordering with a particle diameter of 3.5(5) nm, similar to a size-broadened 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal structure. The CSH component in hydrated tricalcium silicate is found to be similar to CSH(I). Only a slight bend and additional disorder within the CaO sheets is required to explain its nanocrystalline structure. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  4. Nanostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Cements

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, L. B.

    2010-05-11

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the major volume phase in the matrix of Portland cement concrete. Total x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron x rays on synthetic CSH(I) shows nanocrystalline ordering with a particle diameter of 3.5(5) nm, similar to a size-broadened 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal structure. The CSH component in hydrated tricalcium silicate is found to be similar to CSH(I). Only a slight bend and additional disorder within the CaO sheets is required to explain its nanocrystalline structure. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  5. The matter of probability controlling melting of nuclear ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihowicz, W.; Sobczyk, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of this work beside description of split power, power of radioactivity disintegration and afterpower and its ability to extinguish, the genera condition of melting nuclear reactor core and its detailed versions were described. This paper also include the description of consequences melting nuclear reactor core both in case of stationary and mobile (ship) reactor and underline substantial differences. Next, fulfilled with succeed, control under melting of stationary nuclear reactor core was characterized.The middle part describe author's idea of controlling melting of nuclear ship reactor core. It is based on: - the suggestion of prevention pressure's untightness in safety tank of nuclear ship reactor by '' corium '' - and the suggestion of preventing walls of this tank from melting by '' corium ''. In the end the technological and construction barriers of the prevention from melting nuclear ship reactor and draw conclusions was presented. (author)

  6. Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 μm emission in Tm3+ doped bismuth silicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guoying; Tian, Ying; Wang, Xin; Fan, Huiyan; Hu, Lili

    2013-01-01

    The emission properties around 1.8 μm in Tm 3+ doped bismuth silicate glass have been investigated. Based on the obtained Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry curves, it is found the introduced Bi 2 O 3 can efficiently reduce the phonon energy of silicate glass to 926 cm −1 . The energy gap between glass transition temperature and onset temperature of crystallization is 169 °C. The OH − content maintains lower in glass by bubbling dry O 2 during the melting process. The cut-off wavelength in mid-infrared range is as long as 5 μm. Bismuth silicate glass has high radiative transition probability of 238.80 s −1 corresponding to the Tm 3+ : 3 F 4 → 3 H 6 transition compared with conventional silicate glasses. The strongest emission at 1.8 μm with a large full width at half-maximum of 238 nm is achieved from this bismuth silicate glass doped with 0.9 mol% Tm 2 O 3 . Its fluorescence lifetime at 1.8 μm is 640 μs. - Highlights: ► The 1.8 μm fluorescence of Tm 3+ -doped bismuth silicate glass is investigated. ► The prepared glass has lower phonon energy than other typical silicate glasses. ► A broadband 1.8 μm emission with the FWHM of 238 nm is observed. ► The fluorescence lifetime of Tm 3+ : 3 F 4 level reaches 640 μs.

  7. Lessons learnt from FARO/TERMOS corium melt quenching experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magallon, D.; Huhtiniemi, I.; Hohmann, H. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Center

    1998-01-01

    The influence of melt quantity, melt composition, water depth and initial pressure on quenching is assessed on the basis of seven tests performed in various conditions in the TERMOS vessel of the FARO facility at JRC-Ispra. Tests involved UO{sub 2}-based melt quantities in the range 18-176 kg at a temperature of approximately 3000 K poured into saturated water. The results suggest that erosion of the melt jet column is an efficient contributor to the amount of break-up, and thus quenching, for large pours of corium melt. The presence of Zr metal in the melt induced a much more efficient quenching than in a similar test with no Zr metal, attributed to the oxidation of the Zr. Significant amounts of H{sub 2} were produced also in tests with pure oxidic melts (e.g. about 300 g for 157 kg melt). In the tests at 5.0 and 2.0 MPa good mixing with significant melt break-up and quenching was obtained during the penetration in the water. At 0.5 MPa, good penetration of the melt into the water could still be achieved, but a jump in the vessel pressurisation occurred when the melt contacted the bottom and part (5 kg) of the debris was re-ejected from the water. (author)

  8. Melting of glass by direct induction heating in ceramic container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooka, Kazuo; Oguino, Naohiko; Kawanishi, Nobuo

    1981-01-01

    The direct induction melting, a process of glass melting by high frequency induction heating, was found to be the effective way of glass melting, especially desirable for the vitrification of High Level Radioactive Liquid Wastes, HLLW. A test instrument in the cold level was equipped with a high frequency oscillator of 65 kW anode output. The direct induction melting was successfully performed with two frequencies of 400 kHz and 3 MHz, and the operation conditions were determined in the five cases of ceramic pot inner diameters of 170, 200, 230, 280 and 325 mm. The start-up of the direct induction melting was carried out by induction heating using a silicon carbide rod which was inserted in raw material powders in the ceramic pot. After the raw material powders partly melted down and the direct induction in the melt began, the start-up rod was removed out of the melt. At this stage, the direct induction melting was successively performed by adjusting the output power of the oscillator and by supplying the raw materials. It was also found that the capacity of this type of melting was reasonably large and the operation could be remotely controlled. Both applied frequencies of 400 kHz and 3 MHz was found to be successful with this melting system, especially in the case of lower frequency which proved more preferable for the in-cell work. (author)

  9. Crust behavior and erosion rate prediction of EPR sacrificial material impinged by core melt jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gen; Liu, Ming, E-mail: ming.liu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Jinshi; Chong, Daotong; Yan, Junjie

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • A numerical code was developed to analyze melt jet-concrete interaction in the frame of MPS method. • Crust and ablated concrete layer at UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt and concrete interface periodically developed and collapsed. • Concrete surface temperature fluctuated around a low temperature and ablation temperature. • Concrete erosion by Fe-Zr melt jet was significantly faster than that by UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt jet. - Abstract: Sacrificial material is a special ferro-siliceous concrete, designed in the ex-vessel core melt stabilization system of European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR). Given a localized break of RPV lower head, the melt directly impinges onto the dry concrete in form of compact jet. The concrete erosion behavior influences the failure of melt plug, and further affects melt spreading. In this study, a numerical code was developed in the frame of Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, to analyze the crust behavior and erosion rate of sacrificial concrete, impinged by prototypic melt jet. In validation of numerical modeling, the time-dependent erosion depth and erosion configuration matched well with the experimental data. Sensitivity study of sacrificial concrete erosion indicates that the crust and ablated concrete layer presented at UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt and concrete interface, whereas no crust could be found in the interaction of Fe-Zr melt with concrete. The crust went through stabilization-fracture-reformation periodic process, accompanied with accumulating and collapsing of molten concrete layer. The concrete surface temperature fluctuated around a low temperature and ablation temperature. It increased as the concrete surface layer was heated to melting, and dropped down when the cold concrete was revealed. The erosion progression was fast in the conditions of small jet diameter and large concrete inclination angle, and it was significantly faster in the erosion by metallic melt jet than by oxidic melt jet.

  10. Electron beam melting state-of-the-art 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakish, R.

    1984-01-01

    In 1984 electron beam melting and refining appear poised for an important new growth phase. The driving force for this phase is improved production economics made possible by technological advances. There is also a new and exciting growth application for electron beam melting: its use for surface properties beneficiation. This article is based in part on the content of the Conference on Electron Beam Melting and Refining, The State-of-the-Art 1983, held in November 1983 in Reno, Nevada

  11. Computer-integrated electric-arc melting process control system

    OpenAIRE

    Дёмин, Дмитрий Александрович

    2014-01-01

    Developing common principles of completing melting process automation systems with hardware and creating on their basis rational choices of computer- integrated electricarc melting control systems is an actual task since it allows a comprehensive approach to the issue of modernizing melting sites of workshops. This approach allows to form the computer-integrated electric-arc furnace control system as part of a queuing system “electric-arc furnace - foundry conveyor” and consider, when taking ...

  12. Melting temperature of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobenko, V.N.; Savvatimskiy, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: Pulse of electrical current is used for fast heating (∼ 1 μs) of metal and graphite specimens placed in dielectric solid media. Specimen consists of two strips (90 μm in thick) placed together with small gap so they form a black body model. Quasy-monocrystal graphite specimens were used for uniform heating of graphite. Temperature measurements were fulfilled with fast pyrometer and with composite 2-strip black body model up to melting temperature. There were fulfilled experiments with zirconium and tungsten of the same black body construction. Additional temperature measurements of liquid zirconium and liquid tungsten are made. Specific heat capacity (c P ) of liquid zirconium and of liquid tungsten has a common feature in c P diminishing just after melting. It reveals c P diminishing after melting in both cases over the narrow temperature range up to usual values known from steady state measurements. Over the next wide temperature range heat capacity for W (up to 5000 K) and Zr (up to 4100 K) show different dependencies of heat capacity on temperature in liquid state. The experiments confirmed a high quality of 2-strip black body model used for graphite temperature measurements. Melting temperature plateau of tungsten (3690 K) was used for pyrometer calibration area for graphite temperature measurement. As a result, a preliminary value of graphite melting temperature of 4800 K was obtained. (author)

  13. Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence study of silicate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sorbable and durable materials for orthopaedic and dental implants, that are capable of bearing high stress ... Other studies showed that these silicate ceramics also possess good in vivo bioactivity (Hench 1998; ... ceramic powders without the intermediate decomposition and/or calcining steps has attracted a good deal of ...

  14. Synthesis of non-siliceous mesoporous oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dong; Schüth, Ferdi

    2014-01-07

    Mesoporous non-siliceous oxides have attracted great interest due to their unique properties and potential applications. Since the discovery of mesoporous silicates in 1990s, organic-inorganic assembly processes by using surfactants or block copolymers as soft templates have been considered as a feasible path for creating mesopores in metal oxides. However, the harsh sol-gel conditions and low thermal stabilities have limited the expansion of this method to various metal oxide species. Nanocasting, using ordered mesoporous silica or carbon as a hard template, has provided possibilities for preparing novel mesoporous materials with new structures, compositions and high thermal stabilities. This review concerns the synthesis, composition, and parameter control of mesoporous non-siliceous oxides. Four synthesis routes, i.e. soft-templating (surfactants or block copolymers as templates), hard-templating (mesoporous silicas or carbons as sacrificial templates), colloidal crystal templating (3-D ordered colloidal particles as a template), and super lattice routes, are summarized in this review. Mesoporous metal oxides with different compositions have different properties. Non-siliceous mesoporous oxides are comprehensively described, including a discussion of constituting elements, synthesis, and structures. General aspects concerning pore size control, atomic scale crystallinity, and phase control are also reviewed.

  15. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Neufuss, Karel; Dubský, Jiří; Chráska, Pavel

    -, č. 31 (2005), s. 315-321 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Optical microscopy * electrical properties * silicates * insulators * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.702, year: 2005

  16. Selective silicate-directed motility in diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondoc, Karen Grace V.; Heuschele, Jan; Gillard, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    the major sink in the global Si cycle. Dissolved silicic acid (dSi) availability frequently limits diatom productivity and influences species composition of communities. We show that benthic diatoms selectively perceive and behaviourally react to gradients of dSi. Cell speed increases under d...

  17. Effect of cooling rate on crystallization in an aluminophosphosilicate melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S. J.; Zhang, Yanfei; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of cooling rate on spontaneous crystallization behavior of an alumino-phospho-silicate melt is studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and viscometry. The cooling rates of 160, 2100 and 12000 K/s are attained by subjecting ......, the opalescence of the glass can be tuned by adjusting the cooling rate. This makes the production of opal glasses or transparent glass ceramics more efficient and energy saving, since the conventional isothermal treatment procedure can be left out....

  18. Property Investigation of Laser Cladded, Laser Melted and Electron Beam Melted Ti-Al6-V4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED Figure 3: Examples of electron beam melted net shape parts; powder bed [3]. 1.4 Laser Cladding ...description, www.arcam.com. [4] K.-H. Hermann, S. Orban, S. Nowotny, Laser Cladding of Titanium Alloy Ti6242 to Restore Damaged Blades, Proceedings...Property Investigation of Laser Cladded , Laser Melted and Electron Beam Melted Ti-Al6-V4 Johannes Vlcek EADS Deutschland GmbH Corporate Research

  19. Making Earth's earliest continental crust - an analogue from voluminous Neogene silicic volcanism in NE-Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Sylvia E.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Riishuus, Morten S.; Deegan, Frances M.; Harris, Chris; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Gústafsson, Ludvik E.

    2014-05-01

    Borgarfjörður Eystri in NE-Iceland represents the second-most voluminous exposure of silicic eruptive rocks in Iceland and is a superb example of bimodal volcanism (Bunsen-Daly gap), which represents a long-standing controversy that touches on the problem of crustal growth in early Earth. The silicic rocks in NE-Iceland approach 25 % of the exposed rock mass in the region (Gústafsson et al., 1989), thus they significantly exceed the usual ≤ 12 % in Iceland as a whole (e.g. Walker, 1966; Jonasson, 2007). The origin, significance, and duration of the voluminous (> 300 km3) and dominantly explosive silicic activity in Borgarfjörður Eystri is not yet constrained (c.f. Gústafsson, 1992), leaving us unclear as to what causes silicic volcanism in otherwise basaltic provinces. Here we report SIMS zircon U-Pb ages and δ18O values from the region, which record the commencement of silicic igneous activity with rhyolite lavas at 13.5 to 12.8 Ma, closely followed by large caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions from the Breiðavik and Dyrfjöll central volcanoes (12.4 Ma). Silicic activity ended abruptly with dacite lava at 12.1 Ma, defining a ≤ 1 Myr long window of silicic volcanism. Magma δ18O values estimated from zircon range from 3.1 to 5.5 (± 0.3; n = 170) and indicate up to 45 % assimilation of a low-δ18O component (e.g. typically δ18O = 0 ‰, Bindeman et al., 2012). A Neogene rift relocation (Martin et al., 2011) or the birth of an off-rift zone to the east of the mature rift associated with a thermal/chemical pulse in the Iceland plume (Óskarsson & Riishuus, 2013), likely brought mantle-derived magma into contact with fertile hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. The resulting interaction triggered large-scale crustal melting and generated mixed-origin silicic melts. Such rapid formation of silicic magmas from sustained basaltic volcanism may serve as an analogue for generating continental crust in a subduction-free early Earth (e.g. ≥ 3 Ga, Kamber et

  20. The Results of the CCI-3 Reactor Material Experiment Investigating 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction and Debris Coolability with a Siliceous Concrete Crucible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.T.; Lomperski, S.; Basu, S.

    2006-01-01

    The OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program conducted reactor materials experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following two objectives: 1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue, and 2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs of future plants. With respect to the second objective, there are remaining uncertainties in the models that evaluate the lateral vs. axial power split during core-concrete interaction because of a lack of truly two-dimensional experiment data. As a result, there are differences in the 2-D cavity erosion profiles predicted by codes such as WECHSL, COSACO, TOLBIAC, MEDICIS, and MELCOR. In the continuing effort to bridge this data gap, the third in a series of large scale Core-Concrete Interaction experiments (CCI-3) has been conducted as part of the MCCI program. This test investigated the long-term interaction of a 375 kg core-oxide melt within a two-dimensional siliceous concrete crucible. The initial phase of the test was conducted under dry conditions. After a predetermined time interval, the cavity was flooded with water to obtain data on the coolability of a core melt after core-concrete interaction has progressed for some time. This paper provides a description of the facility and an overview of results from this test. (authors)

  1. Structure of aluminosilicate melts produced from granite rocks for the manufacturing of petrurgical glass-ceramics construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simakin, A. G.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aluminosilicate melt is a partly ordered phase and is the origin of glass for producing glassceramics and petrurgical materials. They are well extended used as construction materials for pavings and coatings. Its structure can be described in the terms of the aluminosilica tetrahedras coordination so-called Q speciation. The proportions of tetrahedra with different degree of connectivity with others (from totally connected to free has been studied by NMR and IR methods for sodium-silicate melts. Medium range structure can be characterized by the sizes of irreducible rings composed of the aluminosilica tetrahedra. Systematic increase of the four member rings proportion in the sequence of the Ab-An glasses were observed. The water dissolution in sodium-silicate glass affects the Q speciation. Cations network-modifiers positions in the melt structure are important to know since these cations stabilize particular structure configurations. Modification of the distribution of Na coordination in the sodium-silicate glass at water dissolution was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The observed modification of the hydrous aluminosilicate melt structure resulted in the shift of the eutectic composition in the granite system with decreasing of the crystallization field of feldspars. The feldspar growth rates show practically no dependence on the water content in the concentration range 2-4 wt.%. Likewise, the solved water has a little influence on the crystal growth rate of the lithium silicate phase in lithium containing glasses in accordance with estimated enhancing of the diffusion transport.

    Los fundidos de alumino-silicato son una fase parcialmente ordenada. Su estructura puede ser descrita en términos de la coordinación de tetraedros de alúmina-sílice también denominados especies Q. La proporción de tetraedros con diferente grado de conectividad entre si se ha investigado por espectroscopias de RMN e IR en fundidos de silicatos

  2. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  3. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  4. Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium silicate was dissolved in water in either a monomer form or polymer form; the effects of both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution on rose powdery mildew and root rot diseases of miniature rose were examined. Both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution were applied to the roots of the miniature rose.

  5. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. Temperature Effects on Aluminoborosilicate Glass and Melt Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Stebbins, J. F.

    2008-12-01

    Quantitative determination of the atomic-scale structure of multi-component oxide melts, and the effects of temperature on them, is a complex problem. Ca- and Na- aluminoborosilicates are especially interesting, not only because of their major role in widespread technical applications (flat-panel computer displays, fiber composites, etc.), but because the coordination environments of two of their main network cations (Al3+ and B3+) change markedly with composition and temperature is ways that may in part be analogous to processes in silicate melts at high pressures in the Earth. Here we examine a series of such glasses with different cooling rates, chosen to evaluate the role modifier cation field strength (Ca2+ vs. Na+) and of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) content. To explore the effects of fictive temperature, fast quenched and annealed samples were compared. We have used B-11 and Al-27 MAS NMR to measure the different B and Al coordinations and calculated the contents of non-bridging oxygens (NBO). Lower cooling rates increase the fraction of [4]B species in all compositions. The conversion of [3]B to [4]B is also expected to convert NBO to bridging oxygens, which should affect thermodynamic properties such as configurational entropy and configurational heat capacity. For four compositions with widely varying compositions and initial NBO contents, analysis of the speciation changes with the same, simple reaction [3]B = [4]B + NBO yields similar enthalpy values of 25±7 kJ/mol. B-11 triple quantum MAS NMR allows as well the proportions of [3]B boroxol ring and non-ring sites to be determined, and reveals more [3]B boroxol ring structures present in annealed (lower temperature) glasses. In situ, high-temperature MAS NMR spectra have been collected on one of the Na-aluminoborosilicate and on a sodium borate glass at 14.1 T. The exchange of boron between the 3- and 4-coordinated sites is clearly observed well above the glass transition temperatures, confirming the

  7. Core melt retention and cooling concept of the ERP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisshaeupl, H [SIEMENS/KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Yvon, M [Nuclear Power International, Paris (France)

    1996-12-01

    For the French/German European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) mitigative measures to cope with the event of a severe accident with core melt down are considered already at the design stage. Following the course of a postulated severe accident with reactor pressure vessel melt through one of the most important features of a future design must be to stabilize and cool the melt within the containment by dedicated measures. This measures should - as far as possible - be passive. One very promising solution for core melt retention seems to be a large enough spreading of the melt on a high temperature resistant protection layer with water cooling from above. This is the favorite concept for the EPR. In dealing with the retention of a molten core outside of the RPV several ``steps`` from leaving the RPV to finally stabilize the melt have to gone through. These steps are: collection of the melt; transfer of the melt; distribution of the melt; confining; cooling and stabilization. The technical features for the EPR solution of a large spreading of the melt are: Dedicated spreading chamber outside the reactor pit (area about 150 m{sup 2}); high temperature resistant protection layers (e.g. Zirconia bricks) at the bottom and part of the lateral structures (thus avoiding melt concrete interaction); reactor pit and spreading compartment are connected via a discharge channel which has a slope to the spreading area and is closed by a steel plate, which will resist the core melt for a certain time in order to allow a collection of the melt; the spreading compartments is connected with the In-Containment Refuelling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) with pipes for water flooding after spreading. These pipes are closed and will only be opened by the hot melt itself. It is shown how the course of the different steps mentioned above is processed and how each of these steps is automatically and passively achieved. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Melting of gold microclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, I.L.; Jellinek, J.

    1991-01-01

    The transition from solid-like to liquid-like behavior in Au n , n=6, 7, 13, clusters is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. A Gupta-type potential with all-neighbour interactions is employed to incorporate n-body effects. The melting-like transition is described in terms of short-time averages of the kinetic energy per particle, root-mean-square bond length fluctuations and mean square displacements. A comparison between melting temperatures of Au n and Ni n clusters is presented. (orig.)

  9. OXYGEN BUBBLE DEVELOPMENT ON A PLATINUM ELECTRODE IN BOROSILICATE GLASS MELT BY THE EFFECT OF ALTERNATING CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Matej

    2014-10-01

    or on alternating reduction and re-forming of oxidic layer on the electrode in the transition range, has been suggested. Start of bubble evolution at low alternating current density has also been observed in simple sodium-calcium-silicate glass melt. A relation between bubble release and platinum corrosion caused by reduced silicon has been suggested

  10. On determination of melt composition by liquidus curves for a number of oxide systems for crystal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soboleva, L.V.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to liquidus curves in 31 phase diagrams of a series of borate, aluminate, silicate, germanate, titanate and other systems with unlimited mutual solubility in liquid state. Proposed optimal compositions of melts for preparation of crystals of compounds, forming in these systems, were calculated

  11. The Microwave Properties of Simulated Melting Precipitation Particles: Sensitivity to Initial Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. T.; Olson, W. S.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.

    2016-01-01

    A simplified approach is presented for assessing the microwave response to the initial melting of realistically shaped ice particles. This paper is divided into two parts: (1) a description of the Single Particle Melting Model (SPMM), a heuristic melting simulation for ice-phase precipitation particles of any shape or size (SPMM is applied to two simulated aggregate snow particles, simulating melting up to 0.15 melt fraction by mass), and (2) the computation of the single-particle microwave scattering and extinction properties of these hydrometeors, using the discrete dipole approximation (via DDSCAT), at the following selected frequencies: 13.4, 35.6, and 94.0GHz for radar applications and 89, 165.0, and 183.31GHz for radiometer applications. These selected frequencies are consistent with current microwave remote-sensing platforms, such as CloudSat and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. Comparisons with calculations using variable-density spheres indicate significant deviations in scattering and extinction properties throughout the initial range of melting (liquid volume fractions less than 0.15). Integration of the single-particle properties over an exponential particle size distribution provides additional insight into idealized radar reflectivity and passive microwave brightness temperature sensitivity to variations in size/mass, shape, melt fraction, and particle orientation.

  12. The Evolution of Land Plants and the Silicate Weathering Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, D. E.; Caves Rugenstein, J. K.; Bachan, A.; Baresch, A.; Lau, K. V.; Thomas, D.; Lee, J. E.; Boyce, C. K.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    It has long been recognized that the advent of vascular plants in the Paleozoic must have changed silicate weathering and fundamentally altered the long-term carbon cycle. Efforts to quantify these effects have been formulated in carbon cycle models that are, in part, calibrated by weathering studies of modern plant communities. In models of the long-term carbon cycle, plants play a key role in controlling atmospheric CO2, particularly in the late Paleozoic. We test the impact of some established and recent theories regarding plant-enhanced weathering by coupling a one-dimensional vapor transport model to a reactive transport model of silicate weathering. In this coupled model, we evaluate consequences of plant evolutionary innovation that have not been mechanistically incorporated into most existing models: 1) the role of evolutionary shifts in plant transpiration in enhancing silicate weathering by increasing downwind transport and recycling of water vapor to continental interiors; 2) the importance of deeply-rooted plants and their associated microbial communities in increasing soil CO2 and weathering zone length scales; and, 3) the cumulative effect of these processes. Our modeling approach is framed by energy/supply constraints calibrated for minimally vegetated-, vascular plant forested-, and angiosperm-worlds. We find that the emergence of widespread transpiration and associated inland vapor recycling approximately doubles weathering solute concentrations when deep-rooted vascular plants (Devonian-Carboniferous) fully replace a minimally vegetated (pre-Devonian) world. The later evolution of angiosperms (Cretaceous and Cenozoic) and subsequent increase in transpiration fluxes increase weathering solute concentrations by approximately an additional 20%. Our estimates of the changes in weatherability caused by land plant evolution are of a similar magnitude, but explained with new process-based mechanisms, than those used in existing carbon cycle models. We

  13. GLASS MELTING PHENOMENA, THEIR ORDERING AND MELTING SPACE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  14. Interaction of peridotite with Ca-rich carbonatite melt at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa: Implication for merwinite formation in upper mantle, and for the metasomatic origin of sublithospheric diamonds with Ca-rich suite of inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharygin, Igor S.; Shatskiy, Anton; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Golovin, Alexander V.; Ohtani, Eiji; Pokhilenko, Nikolay P.

    2018-03-01

    We performed an experimental study, designed to reproduce the formation of an unusual merwinite + olivine-bearing mantle assemblage recently described as a part of a Ca-rich suite of inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds, through the interaction of peridotite with an alkali-rich Ca-carbonatite melt, derived from deeply subducted oceanic crust. In the first set of experiments, we studied the reaction between powdered Mg-silicates, olivine and orthopyroxene, and a model Ca-carbonate melt (molar Na:K:Ca = 1:1:2), in a homogeneous mixture, at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa. In these equilibration experiments, we observed the formation of a merwinite + olivine-bearing assemblage at 3.1 GPa and 1200 °C and at 6.5 GPa and 1300-1400 °C. The melts coexisting with this assemblage have a low Si and high Ca content (Ca# = molar 100 × Ca/(Ca + Mg) > 0.57). In the second set of experiments, we investigated reaction rims produced by interaction of the same Ca-carbonate melt (molar Na:K:Ca = 1:1:2) with Mg-silicate, olivine and orthopyroxene, single crystals at 3.1 GPa and 1300 °C and at 6.5 GPa and 1400 °C. The interaction of the Ca-carbonate melt with olivine leads to merwinite formation through the expected reaction: 2Mg2SiO4 (olivine) + 6CaCO3 (liquid) = Ca3MgSi2O8 (merwinite) + 3CaMg(CO3)2 (liquid). Thus, our experiments confirm the idea that merwinite in the upper mantle may originate via interaction of peridotite with Ca-rich carbonatite melt, and that diamonds hosting merwinite may have a metasomatic origin. It is remarkable that the interaction of the Ca-carbonate melt with orthopyroxene crystals does not produce merwinite both at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa. This indicates that olivine grain boundaries are preferable for merwinite formation in the upper mantle.

  15. Melting of the Primitive Mercurian Mantle, Insights into the Origin of Its Surface Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujibar, A.; Righter, K.; Rapp, J. F.; Ross, D. K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.; Fontaine, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings of the MESSENGER mission on Mercury have brought new evidence for its reducing nature, widespread volcanism and surface compositional heteregeneity. MESSENGER also provided major elemental ratios of its surface that can be used to infer large-scale differentiation processes and the thermal history of the planet. Mercury is known as being very reduced, with very low Fe-content and high S and alkali contents on its surface. Its bulk composition is therefore likely close to EH enstatite chondrites. In order to elucidate the origin of the chemical diversity of Mercury's surface, we determined the melting properties of EH enstatite chondrites, at pressures between 1 bar and 3 GPa and oxygen fugacity of IW-3 to IW-5, using piston-cylinder experiments, combined with a previous study on EH4 melting at 1 bar. We found that the presence of Ca-rich sulfide melts induces significant decrease of Ca-content in silicate melts at low pressure and low degree of melting (F). Also at pressures lower than 3 GPa, the SiO2-content decreases with F, while it increases at 3 GPa. This is likely due to the chemical composition of the bulk silicate which has a (Mg+Fe+Ca)/Si ratio very close to 1 and to the change from incongruent to congruent melting of enstatite. We then tested whether the various chemical compositions of Mercury's surface can result from mixing between two melting products of EH chondrites. We found that the majority of the geochemical provinces of Mercury's surface can be explained by mixing of two melts, with the exception of the High-Al plains that require an Al-rich source. Our findings indicate that Mercury's surface could have been produced by polybaric melting of a relatively primitive mantle.

  16. Comparative study on the change in index of refraction in ion-exchange interdiffusion in alkali-silicate glasses containing calcium, strontium, barium and titanium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, V.Ya.; Marchuk, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    Different ability to ion exchange from the salts of lithium-sodium-silicate glass melt containing calcium (or strontium, or barium) and titanium oxides in addition has been shown. CaO, SrO and BaO have negative effect, but TiO 2 -positive one on the fullness of ion exchange of lithium-sodium and on the rate of interdiffusion in alkali-silicate glass. The value of change in index of refraction of glass with TiO 2 is twice higher than glass with calcium oxide (or strontium, or barium) as the fourth component

  17. MELTS_Excel: A Microsoft Excel-based MELTS interface for research and teaching of magma properties and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Ghiorso, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    thermodynamic modeling software MELTS is a powerful tool for investigating crystallization and melting in natural magmatic systems. Rhyolite-MELTS is a recalibration of MELTS that better captures the evolution of silicic magmas in the upper crust. The current interface of rhyolite-MELTS, while flexible, can be somewhat cumbersome for the novice. We present a new interface that uses web services consumed by a VBA backend in Microsoft Excel©. The interface is contained within a macro-enabled workbook, where the user can insert the model input information and initiate computations that are executed on a central server at OFM Research. Results of simple calculations are shown immediately within the interface itself. It is also possible to combine a sequence of calculations into an evolutionary path; the user can input starting and ending temperatures and pressures, temperature and pressure steps, and the prevailing oxidation conditions. The program shows partial updates at every step of the computations; at the conclusion of the calculations, a series of data sheets and diagrams are created in a separate workbook, which can be saved independently of the interface. Additionally, the user can specify a grid of temperatures and pressures and calculate a phase diagram showing the conditions at which different phases are present. The interface can be used to apply the rhyolite-MELTS geobarometer. We demonstrate applications of the interface using an example early-erupted Bishop Tuff composition. The interface is simple to use and flexible, but it requires an internet connection. The interface is distributed for free from http://melts.ofm-research.org.

  18. MELT-IIIB: an updated version of the melt code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabb, K.K.; Lewis, C.H.; O'Dell, L.D.; Padilla, A. Jr.; Smith, D.E.; Wilburn, N.P.

    1979-04-01

    The MELT series is a reactor modeling code designed to investigate a wide variety of hypothetical accident conditions, particularly the transient overpower sequence. MELT-IIIB is the latest in the series

  19. Chemical reactions in solvents and melts

    CERN Document Server

    Charlot, G

    1969-01-01

    Chemical Reactions in Solvents and Melts discusses the use of organic and inorganic compounds as well as of melts as solvents. This book examines the applications in organic and inorganic chemistry as well as in electrochemistry. Organized into two parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general properties and the different types of reactions, including acid-base reactions, complex formation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. This text then describes the properties of inert and active solvents. Other chapters consider the proton transfer reactions in

  20. Selective laser melting of Al-12Si

    OpenAIRE

    Prashanth, Konda Gokuldoss

    2014-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder-based additive manufacturing technique consisting of the exact reproduction of a three dimensional computer model (generally a computer-aided design CAD file or a computer tomography CT scan) through an additive layer-by-layer strategy. Because of the high degree of freedom offered by the additive manufacturing, parts having almost any possible geometry can be produced by SLM. More specifically, with this process it is possible to build parts with ext...

  1. Insight into silicate-glass corrosion mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cailleteau, C; Angeli, F; Gin, S; Jollivet, P [CEA VALRHO, DEN, Lab Etude Comportement Long Terme, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France); Devreux, F [Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Phys Mat Condensee, F-91128 Palaiseau, (France); Jestin, J [CEA, CNRS, Lab Leon Brillouin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Spalla, O [CEA, DSM, Lab Interdisciplinaire Org Nanometr et Supramol, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2008-07-01

    The remarkable chemical durability of silicate glass makes it suitable for a wide range of applications. The slowdown of the aqueous glass corrosion kinetics that is frequently observed at long time is generally attributed to chemical affinity effects (saturation of the solution with respect to silica). Here, we demonstrate a new mechanism and highlight the impact of morphological transformations in the alteration layer on the leaching kinetics. A direct correlation between structure and reactivity is revealed by coupling the results of several structure-sensitive experiments with numerical simulations at mesoscopic scale. The sharp drop in the corrosion rate is shown to arise from densification of the outer layers of the alteration film, leading to pore closure. The presence of insoluble elements in the glass can inhibit the film restructuring responsible for this effect. This mechanism may be more broadly applicable to silicate minerals. (authors)

  2. Sorption of Europium in zirconium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.

    2004-01-01

    Some minerals have the property of sipping radioactive metals in solution, that it takes advantage to manufacture contention barriers that are placed in the repositories of nuclear wastes. The more recent investigations are focused in the development of new technologies guided to the sorption of alpha emissors on minerals which avoid their dispersion in the environment. In an effort to contribute to the understanding of this type of properties, some studies of sorption of Europium III are presented like homologous of the americium, on the surface of zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ). In this work the results of sorption experiences are presented as well as the interpretation of the phenomena of the formation of species in the surface of the zirconium silicate. (Author)

  3. Effects of ionization on silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primak, W.

    1982-02-01

    This evaluation of radiation effects in silicate glasses caused by ionization is based on our own investigations, on material collected in our files (reports, articles, and notes), and on a computer literature search through recent issues of Physics Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts (and the apparently pertinent references which appeared). Some of our recent results, available heretofore only in internal correspondence, are presented in some detail. It is concluded that research into the behavior of silicate glasses generally will be required before the specific effects in the radioactive waste storage glasses can be properly understood and evaluated. Two particular neglected areas of investigation are targeted for immediate concern: a kinetic analysis of annealing data and the acquisition of data on effects of irradiation at controlled elevated temperatures

  4. Stability constants for silicate adsorbed to ferrihydrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Wetche, T.P.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    1994-01-01

    Intrinsic surface acidity constants (K(a1)intr, K(a2)intr) and surface complexation constant for adsorption of orthosilicate onto synthetic ferrihydrite (K(Si) for the complex = FeOSi(OH)3) have been determined from acid/base titrations in 0.001-0.1 m NaClO4 electrolytes and silicate adsorption...... experiments in 0.01 m NaNO3 electrolyte (pH 3-6). The surface equilibrium constants were calculated according to the two-layer model by Dzombak & Morel (1990). Near equilibrium between protons/hydroxyls in solution and the ferrihydrite surface was obtained within minutes while equilibration with silicate...

  5. A Physical Model for Three-Phase Compaction in Silicic Magma Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian; Parmigiani, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    We develop a model for phase separation in magma reservoirs containing a mixture of silicate melt, crystals, and fluids (exsolved volatiles). The interplay between the three phases controls the dynamics of phase separation and consequently the chemical and physical evolution of magma reservoirs. The model we propose is based on the two-phase damage theory approach of Bercovici et al. (2001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JB900430) and Bercovici and Ricard (2003, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-246X.2003.01854.x) because it offers the leverage of considering interface (in the macroscopic limit) between phases that can deform depending on the mechanical work and phase changes taking place locally in the magma. Damage models also offer the advantage that pressure is defined uniquely to each phase and does not need to be equal among phases, which will enable us to consider, in future studies, the large capillary pressure at which fluids are mobilized in mature, crystal-rich, magma bodies. In this first analysis of three-phase compaction, we solve the three-phase compaction equations numerically for a simple 1-D problem where we focus on the effect of fluids on the efficiency of melt-crystal separation considering the competition between viscous and buoyancy stresses only. We contrast three sets of simulations to explore the behavior of three-phase compaction, a melt-crystal reference compaction scenario (two-phase compaction), a three-phase scenario without phase changes, and finally a three-phase scenario with a parameterized second boiling (crystallization-induced exsolution). The simulations show a dramatic difference between two-phase (melt crystals) and three-phase (melt-crystals-exsolved volatiles) compaction-driven phase separation. We find that the presence of a lighter, significantly less viscous fluid hinders melt-crystal separation.

  6. SILICATE EVOLUTION IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a compositional analysis of the 10 μm silicate spectra for brown dwarf disks in the Taurus and Upper Scorpius (UppSco) star-forming regions, using archival Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph observations. A variety in the silicate features is observed, ranging from a narrow profile with a peak at 9.8 μm, to nearly flat, low-contrast features. For most objects, we find nearly equal fractions for the large-grain and crystalline mass fractions, indicating both processes to be active in these disks. The median crystalline mass fraction for the Taurus brown dwarfs is found to be 20%, a factor of ∼2 higher than the median reported for the higher mass stars in Taurus. The large-grain mass fractions are found to increase with an increasing strength in the X-ray emission, while the opposite trend is observed for the crystalline mass fractions. A small 5% of the Taurus brown dwarfs are still found to be dominated by pristine interstellar medium-like dust, with an amorphous submicron grain mass fraction of ∼87%. For 15% of the objects, we find a negligible large-grain mass fraction, but a >60% small amorphous silicate fraction. These may be the cases where substantial grain growth and dust sedimentation have occurred in the disks, resulting in a high fraction of amorphous submicron grains in the disk surface. Among the UppSco brown dwarfs, only usd161939 has a signal-to-noise ratio high enough to properly model its silicate spectrum. We find a 74% small amorphous grain and a ∼26% crystalline mass fraction for this object.

  7. Coating and melt induced agglomeration in a poultry litter fired fluidized bed combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, Pieter; Creemers, Benji; Costa, José; Van Caneghem, Jo; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The combustion of poultry litter, which is rich in phosphorus, in a fluidized bed combustor (FBC) is associated with agglomeration problems, which can lead to bed defluidization and consequent shutdown of the installation. Whereas earlier research indicated coating induced agglomeration as the dominant mechanism for bed material agglomeration, it is shown experimentally in this paper that both coating and melt induced agglomeration occur. Coating induced agglomeration mainly takes place at the walls of the FBC, in the freeboard above the fluidized bed, where at the prevailing temperature the bed particles are partially molten and hence agglomerate. In the ash, P 2 O 5 forms together with CaO thermodynamically stable Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , thus reducing the amount of calcium silicates in the ash. This results in K/Ca silicate mixtures with lower melting points. On the other hand, in-bed agglomeration is caused by thermodynamically unstable, low melting HPO 4 2− and H 2 PO 4 − salts present in the fuel. In the hot FBC these salts may melt, may cause bed particles to stick together and may subsequently react with Ca salts from the bed ash, forming a solid bridge of the stable Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 between multiple particles. - Highlights: • Coating induced agglomeration not due to K phosphates, but due to K silicates. • Melt induced agglomeration due to H 2 PO 4 − and HPO 4 2− salts in the fuel. • Wall agglomeration corresponds to coating induced mechanism. • In-bed agglomeration corresponds to melt induced mechanism

  8. Adsorption of dimeric surfactants in lamellar silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcerzak, Mateusz; Pietralik, Zuzanna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Domka, Ludwik [Department of Metalorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Skrzypczak, Andrzej [Institute of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznań (Poland); Kozak, Maciej, E-mail: mkozak@amu.edu.pl [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The intercalation of dimeric surfactants changed the morphology of MMT samples. • XRD indicated structures formed by surfactant molecules in interlayer space. • The four-step thermal decomposition of dimeric surfactant, confirms intercalation. - Abstract: The adsorption of different types of cationic surfactants in lamellar silicates changes their surface character from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This study was undertaken to obtain lamellar silicates modified by a series of novel dimeric (gemini) surfactants of different length alkyl chains and to characterise these organophilised materials. Synthetic sodium montmorillonite SOMASIF® ME 100 (M) and enriched bentonite of natural origin (Nanoclay – hydrophilic bentonite®) were organophilised with dimeric (gemini) surfactants (1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(alkoxymethyl)imidazolium dichlorides). As a result of surfactant molecule adsorption in interlamellar space, the d-spacing (d{sub 001}) increased from 0.97 nm (for the anhydrous structure) to 2.04 nm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the modified systems reveals bands assigned to the stretching vibrations of the CH{sub 2} and CH{sub 3} groups and the scissoring vibrations of the NH group from the structure of the dimeric surfactants. Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) studies imply a four-stage process of surfactant decomposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images provide information on the influence of dimeric surfactant intercalation into the silicate structures. Particles of the modified systems show a tendency toward the formation of irregularly shaped agglomerates.

  9. Lead-silicate glass optical microbubble resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pengfei, E-mail: pengfei.wang@dit.ie [Photonics Research Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Ward, Jonathan; Yang, Yong; Chormaic, Síle Nic [Light-Matter Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Feng, Xian; Brambilla, Gilberto [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Farrell, Gerald [Photonics Research Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2015-02-09

    Microbubble whispering gallery resonators have the potential to become key components in a variety of active and passive photonic circuit devices by offering a range of significant functionalities. Here, we report on the fabrication, optical characterization, and theoretical analysis of lead-silicate glass and optical microbubble resonators. Evanescent field coupling to the microbubbles was achieved using a 1 μm diameter, silica microfiber at a wavelength of circa 775 nm. High Q-factor modes were efficiently excited in both single-stem and two-stem, lead-silicate glass, and microbubble resonators, with bubble diameters of 38 μm (single-stem) and 48 μm (two-stem). Whispering gallery mode resonances with Q-factors as high as 2.3 × 10{sup 5} (single-stem) and 7 × 10{sup 6} (two-stem) were observed. By exploiting the high-nonlinearity of the lead-silicate glass, this work will act as a catalyst for studying a range of nonlinear optical effects in microbubbles, such as Raman scattering and four-wave mixing, at low optical powers.

  10. Treatment of open-hearth steel by lime-silicate melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, G A; Kungurov, V M; Sergeev, A G

    1975-07-01

    Because of the scarcity of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, slags were developed containing larger amounts of SiO/sub 2/ and MgO and with addition of 4-5% CaF/sub 2/. The 2 slags prepared in the laboratory had basicities (CaO-SiO/sub 2/ ratios) of 2.07 and 2.65. They contained 12.8 and 13.9% Al/sub 2/O vs. 38-42% for the control and were obtained from sources such as clay. The extents of desulfurization of low-alloy steels using the new slags, a slag containing 22.2% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and a control slag were approximately the same and were also satisfactory (61-70%) for 4 C steels. The S distributions between slag and metal were calculated. The slag basicity vs. % desulfurization showed maximum of the latter for 2.5-2.8 basicity. The sizes of oxide and sulfide inclusions were smaller for the former and about the same for the latter for the new slags than for the control. The mechanical properties, especially the impact strength at +20 and -70deg, of the steel from the ingots prepared with the new slags were much better than those of the control. A cost analysis showed savings of approximately 70% compared with the usual slag.

  11. Treatment of open-hearth steel by lime-silicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, G.A.; Kungurov, V.M.; Sergeev, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of the scarcity of Al 2 O 3 , slags were developed containing larger amounts of SiO 2 and MgO and with addition of 4-5% CaF 2 . The 2 slags prepared in the laboratory had basicities (CaO-SiO 2 ratios) of 2.07 and 2.65. They contained 12.8 and 13.9% Al 2 O vs. 38-42% for the control and were obtained from sources such as clay. The extents of desulfurization of low-alloy steels using the new slags, a slag containing 22.2% Al 2 O 3 and a control slag were approximately the same and were also satisfactory (61-70%) for 4 C steels. The S distributions between slag and metal were calculated. The slag basicity vs. % desulfurization showed maximum of the latter for 2.5-2.8 basicity. The sizes of oxide and sulfide inclusions were smaller for the former and about the same for the latter for the new slags than for the control. The mechanical properties, especially the impact strength at +20 and -70deg, of the steel from the ingots prepared with the new slags were much better than those of the control. A cost analysis showed savings of approximately 70% compared with the usual slag

  12. Immiscible iron- and silica-rich melt in basalt petrogenesis documented in the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kløve; Veksler, Ilya; Tegner, Christian

    2005-01-01

    colored type contains 30.9 6 4.2 wt% FeOt and 40.7 6 3.6 wt% SiO2, whereas the light colored type contains 8.6 6 5.9 wt% FeOt and 65.6 6 7.3 wt% SiO2. Similar light colored melt inclusions in olivine and fine grained dark and light colored interstitial pockets also give evidence of crystallization from......Silicate liquid immiscibility in basalt petrogenesis is a contentious issue. Immiscible iron and silica-rich liquids were reported in melt inclusions of lunar basalt and in groundmass glasses of terrestrial volcanics. In fully crystallized plutonic rocks, however, silicate liquid immiscibility has...

  13. Bismuth silicate glass containing heavy metal oxide as a promising radiation shielding material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalaily, Nagia A.; Abou-Hussien, Eman M.; Saad, Ebtisam A.

    2016-12-01

    Optical and FTIR spectroscopic measurements and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) properties have been utilized to investigate and characterize the given compositions of binary bismuth silicate glasses. In this work, it is aimed to study the possibility of using the prepared bismuth silicate glasses as a good shielding material for γ-rays in which adding bismuth oxide to silicate glasses causes distinguish increase in its density by an order of magnitude ranging from one to two more than mono divalent oxides. The good thermal stability and high density of the bismuth-based silicate glass encourage many studies to be undertaken to understand its radiation shielding efficiency. For this purpose a glass containing 20% bismuth oxide and 80% SiO2 was prepared using the melting-annealing technique. In addition the effects of adding some alkali heavy metal oxides to this glass, such as PbO, BaO or SrO, were also studied. EPR measurements show that the prepared glasses have good stability when exposed to γ-irradiation. The changes in the FTIR spectra due to the presence of metal oxides were referred to the different housing positions and physical properties of the respective divalent Sr2+, Ba2+ and Pb2+ ions. Calculations of optical band gap energies were presented for some selected glasses from the UV data to support the probability of using these glasses as a gamma radiation shielding material. The results showed stability of both optical and magnetic spectra of the studied glasses toward gamma irradiation, which validates their irradiation shielding behavior and suitability as the radiation shielding candidate materials.

  14. Hard X-ray irradiation of cosmic silicate analogs: structural evolution and astrophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, L.; Jäger, C.; Simionovici, A.; Lemaire, J. L.; Sabri, T.; Foy, E.; Yagoubi, S.; Henning, T.; Salomon, D.; Martinez-Criado, G.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Protoplanetary disks, interstellar clouds, and active galactic nuclei contain X-ray-dominated regions. X-rays interact with the dust and gas present in such environments. While a few laboratory X-ray irradiation experiments have been performed on ices, X-ray irradiation experiments on bare cosmic dust analogs have been scarce up to now. Aims: Our goal is to study the effects of hard X-rays on cosmic dust analogs via in situ X-ray diffraction. By using a hard X-ray synchrotron nanobeam, we seek to simulate cumulative X-ray exposure on dust grains during their lifetime in these astrophysical environments and provide an upper limit on the effect of hard X-rays on dust grain structure. Methods: We prepared enstatite (MgSiO3) nanograins, which are analogs to cosmic silicates, via the melting-quenching technique. These amorphous grains were then annealed to obtain polycrystalline grains. These were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) before irradiation. Powder samples were prepared in X-ray transparent substrates and were irradiated with hard X-rays nanobeams (29.4 keV) provided by beamline ID16B of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble). X-ray diffraction images were recorded in transmission mode, and the ensuing diffractograms were analyzed as a function of the total X-ray exposure time. Results: We detected the amorphization of polycrystalline silicates embedded in an organic matrix after an accumulated X-ray exposure of 6.4 × 1027 eV cm-2. Pure crystalline silicate grains (without resin) do not exhibit amorphization. None of the amorphous silicate samples (pure and embedded in resin) underwent crystallization. We analyze the evolution of the polycrystalline sample embedded in an organic matrix as a function of X-ray exposure. Conclusions: Loss of diffraction peak intensity, peak broadening, and the disappearance of discrete spots and arcs reveal the amorphization

  15. Petrography and trace element signatures in silicates and Fe-Ti-oxides from the Lanjiahuoshan deposit, Panzhihua layered intrusion, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenyuan; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Huang, Fei; Meng, Lin; Gao, Shang

    2017-12-01

    Permian mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions in the central part of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP), Southwestern China, host Fe-Ti-V-oxide ores that have features which distinguish them from other large layered intrusion-hosted deposits. The origin of these ores is highly debated. Careful petrographic examination, whole rock analysis, electron probe microanalysis, and measurement and mapping of trace element concentrations by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in all major and minor minerals (clinopyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, amphibole, titanomagnetite, ilmenite, pleonaste and pyrrhotite) has been undertaken on samples from the Lanjiahuoshan deposit, representing the Middle, Lower and Marginal Zone of the Panzhihua intrusion. Features are documented that impact on interpretation of intrusion petrology and with implications for genesis of the Fe-Ti-V-oxide ores. Firstly, there is evidence, as symplectites between clinopyroxene and plagioclase, for introduction of complex secondary melts. Secondly, reaction between a late hydrothermal fluid and clinopyroxene is recognized, which has led to formation of hydrated minerals (pargasite, phlogopite), as well as a potassium metasomatic event, postdating intrusion solidification, which led to formation of K-feldspar. Lastly, partitioning of trace elements between titanomagnetite and silicates needs to consider scavenging of metals by ilmenite (Mn, Sc, Zr, Nb, Sn, Hf and Ta) and sulfides, as well as the marked partitioning of Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, As and Sb into spinels exsolved from titanomagnetite. The role of these less abundant phases may have been understated in previous studies, highlighting the importance of petrographic examination of complex silicate-oxide-sulfide assemblages, as well as the need for a holistic approach to trace element analysis, acknowledging all minerals within the assemblage.

  16. Crystallization and Melt Removal at Arenal Volcano, Polytopic Vector Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, P. J.; Vogel, T. A.; Bolge, L. L.; Ehrlich, R.; Alvarado, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    Tephra sequences ET3 and ET4 from Arenal volcano in Costa Rica have recently been interpreted to be a product of crystal fractionation by Bolge and coworkers in a series of papers (2004, 2006). The two tephra units are part of a sequence of 22 tephra units that represent a 7000 year span of the Arenal volcano activity. The tephro- stratigraphy has been described extensively by Melson (1982; 1994). The ET3 and ET4 tephras were interpreted (based on major- and trace-element, isotopic analyses of whole rocks and microchemical analyses of individual phases) as clear evidence of crystal separation by gravity settling (Bolge et al., 2004, 2006). The lower ET4 tephra sequence (andesitic and crystal poor) and the upper ET3 tephra (basaltic and crystal rich) represent an inverted snapshot of the magma chamber with contrasting geochemical properties. The ET3 sequence (deeper part of the magma chamber) has nearly constant composition with only a few elements varying stratigraphically (best represented by CaO). This is consistent with gradually decreasing amounts of melt in the upper part of ET3. The lower ET4 tephra (upper part of the magma chamber) contains large chemical gradients in both incompatible and compatible elements. In the present study we use whole-rock geochemical data from the recent tephra sequences ET3 and ET4 as inputs to Polytopic Vector Analysis (PVA) (for a review of this method see Vogel and coworkers, in press). With this method we produce a three end member solution that is consistent with crystallization of Olivine, plagioclase and pyroxene from the most mafic end member (EM1) resulting in a crystal rich mush zone. As crystallization progresses the compositions of the liquids are driven towards an intermediate end member (EM3), which has an intermediate composition liquid. At EM3 composition, rapid depletion of FeO, MgO and TiO2 by crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides, rapidly drives the liquid composition towards the silicic EM1 (incompatible element

  17. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  18. Thermodynamics of Oligonucleotide Duplex Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gosche, Sherrie; Edwards, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Melting temperatures of oligonucleotides are useful for a number of molecular biology applications, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although melting temperatures are often calculated with simplistic empirical equations, application of thermodynamics provides more accurate melting temperatures and an opportunity for students to apply…

  19. Greenland Ice Sheet Melt Characteristics Derived from Passive Microwave Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Greenland ice sheet melt extent data, acquired as part of the NASA Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA), is a daily (or every other day, prior...

  20. Polymer/Layered Silicate Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhit, M.E.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer–clay nano composites have attracted the attention of many researchers and experimental results are presented in a large number of recent papers and patents because of the outstanding mechanical properties and low gas permeabilities that are achieved in many cases. Polymer-clay nano composites are a new class of mineral-field polymer that contain relatively small amounts (<10%) of nanometer-sized clay particles. Polymer/clay nano composites have their origin in the pioneering research conducted at Toyota Central Research Laboratories and the first historical record goes back to 1987. The matrix was nylon-6 and the filler MMT. Because of its many advantages such as high mechanical properties, good gas barrier, flame retardation, etc. polymer/clay nano composites have been intensely investigated and is currently the subject of many research programs. Nano composite materials are commercially important and several types of products with different shapes and applications including food packaging films and containers, engine parts, dental materials, etc. are now available in markets. A number of synthesis routes have been developed in the recent years to prepare these materials, which include intercalation of polymers or prepolymers from solution, in-situ polymerization, melt intercalation etc. In this study, new nano composite materials were produced from the components of rubber (Nbr, SBR and EPDM) as the polymeric matrix and organically modified quaternary alkylammonium montmorillonite in different contents (3, 5, 7, and 10 phr) as the filler by using an extruder then, the rubber nano composite sheets were irradiated at a dose of 0, 50, 75, 100 and 150 KGy using Electron beam Irradiation technique as a crosslinking agent. These new materials can be characterized by using various analytical techniques including X-ray diffractometer XRD, Thermogravimetric analyzer TGA, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM),Fourier transform

  1. Highly CO2-supersaturated melts in the Pannonian lithospheric mantle - A transient carbon reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Créon, Laura; Rouchon, Virgile; Youssef, Souhail; Rosenberg, Elisabeth; Delpech, Guillaume; Szabó, Csaba; Remusat, Laurent; Mostefaoui, Smail; Asimow, Paul D.; Antoshechkina, Paula M.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Boller, Elodie; Guyot, François

    2017-08-01

    Subduction of carbonated crust is widely believed to generate a flux of carbon into the base of the continental lithospheric mantle, which in turn is the likely source of widespread volcanic and non-volcanic CO2 degassing in active tectonic intracontinental settings such as rifts, continental margin arcs and back-arc domains. However, the magnitude of the carbon flux through the lithosphere and the budget of stored carbon held within the lithospheric reservoir are both poorly known. We provide new constraints on the CO2 budget of the lithospheric mantle below the Pannonian Basin (Central Europe) through the study of a suite of xenoliths from the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field. Trails of secondary fluid inclusions, silicate melt inclusions, networks of melt veins, and melt pockets with large and abundant vesicles provide numerous lines of evidence that mantle metasomatism affected the lithosphere beneath this region. We obtain a quantitative estimate of the CO2 budget of the mantle below the Pannonian Basin using a combination of innovative analytical and modeling approaches: (1) synchrotron X-ray microtomography, (2) NanoSIMS, Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry, and (3) thermodynamic models (Rhyolite-MELTS). The three-dimensional volumes reconstructed from synchrotron X-ray microtomography allow us to quantify the proportions of all petrographic phases in the samples and to visualize their textural relationships. The concentration of CO2 in glass veins and pockets ranges from 0.27 to 0.96 wt.%, higher than in typical arc magmas (0-0.25 wt.% CO2), whereas the H2O concentration ranges from 0.54 to 4.25 wt.%, on the low end for estimated primitive arc magmas (1.9-6.3 wt.% H2O). Trapping pressures for vesicles were determined by comparing CO2 concentrations in glass to CO2 saturation as a function of pressure in silicate melts, suggesting pressures between 0.69 to 1.78 GPa. These values are generally higher than trapping pressures for fluid inclusions

  2. Pavement Snow Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The design of pavement snow melting systems is presented based on criteria established by ASHRAE. The heating requirements depends on rate of snow fall, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Piping materials are either metal or plastic, however, due to corrosion problems, cross-linked polyethylene pipe is now generally used instead of iron. Geothermal energy is supplied to systems through the use of heat pipes, directly from circulating pipes, through a heat exchanger or by allowing water to flow directly over the pavement, by using solar thermal storage. Examples of systems in New Jersey, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland and Oregon are presented. Key words: pavement snow melting, geothermal heating, heat pipes, solar storage, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Klamath Falls.

  3. Transient fuel melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, L.; Schmitz, F.

    1982-10-01

    The observation of micrographic documents from fuel after a CABRI test leads to postulate a specific mode of transient fuel melting during a rapid nuclear power excursion. When reaching the melt threshold, the bands which are characteristic for the solid state are broken statistically over a macroscopic region. The time of maintaining the fuel at the critical enthalpy level between solid and liquid is too short to lead to a phase separation. A significant life-time (approximately 1 second) of this intermediate ''unsolide'' state would have consequences on the variation of physical properties linked to the phase transition solid/liquid: viscosity, specific volume and (for the irradiated fuel) fission gas release [fr

  4. Crystallisation mechanism of a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurth, R. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Pascual, M.J., E-mail: mpascual@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Mather, G.C.; Pablos-Martin, A.; Munoz, F.; Duran, A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Boite Postale 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ruessel, C. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    A base glass of composition 3.5 Li{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 0.15 Na{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 0.2 K{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 1.15 MgO Bullet-Operator 0.8 BaO Bullet-Operator 1.5 ZnO Bullet-Operator 20 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Bullet-Operator 67.2 SiO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 2.6 TiO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 1.7 ZrO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 1.2 As{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in wt.%), melted and provided by SCHOTT AG (Mainz), was used to study the crystallisation mechanism of lithium alumino-silicate glass employing X-ray diffraction combined with neutron diffraction and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A high-quartz solid solution of LiAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} with nanoscaled crystals forms at 750 Degree-Sign C. Quantitative Rietveld refinement of samples annealed at 750 Degree-Sign C for 8 h determined a crystallised fraction of around 59 wt.%. The room temperature crystallised phase adopts an ordered, {beta}-eucryptite-like structure (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. The Avrami parameter (n {approx} 4), calculated from DSC data using different theoretical approaches, indicates that bulk crystallisation occurs and that the number of nuclei increases during annealing. The activation energy of the crystallisation is 531 {+-} 20 kJ mol{sup -1}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscaled high-quartz crystals from a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined X-ray and neutron diffraction structural refinement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Eucryptite-like structure (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-Dimensional bulk crystallisation mechanism with an increasing number of nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Usage and validation of an alternative approach to calculate the Avrami parameter.

  5. Nuclear waste management by in-situ melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A systematic assessment of the in-situ melting concept as an ultimate waste disposal option shows that the placement of solidifed, high-level radioactive wastes in an in-situ melting cavity with a crushed rock backfill not only eliminates the major deficiencies inherent in other in-situ melting schemes, but also satisfies reasonable criteria for ultimate disposal. In-situ melting reduces the waste isolation time requirements to several hundred years. Calculated spent fuel and processing waste afterheat values assess the role of actinide and cladding material nuclides in creating the total afterheat and provide quantitative variation with time for these values for contamporary and advanced-design fission reactors. The dominant roles of 134 Cs in thermal spectrum reactor afterheats during the first decade of cooling of the actinide nuclides in all typical waste after-heats following a century or two of cooling are identified. The spatial and temporal behavior of a spherically symmetric waste repository experiencing in-situ melting in an equal density, homogeneous medium for silicate rock and salt is controlled primarily by the overall volumetric thermal source strength, the time-dependent characteristics of the high-level wastes, and the thermophysical properties of the surrounding rock environment. Calculations were verified by experimental data. The hazard index for typical high-level wastes is dominated by the fission product nuclides for the first three centuries of decay. It is then controlled by the actinides, especially americium, which dominates for 10,000 years. With in-situ melting, the hazard index for the re-solidifed rock/waste matrix deepunderground falls below the hazard index of naturally occurring uranium ore bodies within a few hundred years, whether or not the more hazardous actinide nuclides are selectively removed from the wastes prior to storage

  6. Synthesis and crystal structures of a novel layered silicate SSA-1 and its microporous derivatives by topotactic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Kurita, Y; Ikeda, T; Miyamoto, M; Uemiya, S; Oumi, Y

    2016-10-18

    The synthesis of a novel layered silicate SSA-1 (SSA: silicate synthesized with a quaternary amine) was achieved in the SiO 2 -H 2 O-TEAOH (TEAOH: tetraethylammonium hydroxide - as an organic structural directing agent) system. The crystal structure of SSA-1 involved two silicate layers composed of bre [10T]-type CBU (Composite Building Unit) and TEAOH in interlayers. The topotactic transformation of SSA-1 by calcination was examined, resulting in a porous material (PML-1: porous material transformed from a layered silicate) with a 108 m 2 g -1 BET surface area and 0.035 cm 3 g -1 pore volume. PML-1 is a siliceous microporous material with silanols in the framework and possesses unique properties, such as hydrophilicity, in spite of all its silica composition. The most reasonable crystal structure of PML-1 was successfully determined on the basis of the crystal structure of SSA-1 by a combination of manual modelling, PXRD pattern simulation, DFT optimization and Rietveld analysis. Additionally, an interlayer expanded siliceous zeolite SSA-1 (IEZ-SSA-1) was also successfully prepared by silylation using trichloro(methyl)silane under acidic conditions. IEZ-SSA-1 showed hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity properties by changing the functional group of the pillar part in the interlayer. Additionally, IEZ-SSA-1 showed a large gas adsorption property (537 m 2 g -1 and 0.21 cm 3 g -1 ).

  7. Inheritance of silicate differentiation during lunar origin by giant impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    It is pointed out that the implication of the popular giant impact model of lunar origin (e.g., Hartmann and Davis, 1975; Cameron and Ward, 1976; Stevenson, 1987) is that any depth-related silicate differentiation within the impactor (and/or the earth) at the time of the impact must be partly inherited by the preferentially peripheral matter that forms the moon. This paper presents calculations of the magnitude of the net differentiation of the protolunar matter for a variety of elements and scenarios, with different assumptions regarding the geometries of the 'sampled' peripheral zones, the relative proportions of the earth-derived to impactor-derived matter in the final moon, and the degree to which the impactor mantle had crystallized prior to the giant impact. It is shown that these differention effects constrain the overall plausibility of the giant impact hypothesis.

  8. An Interconnected Network of Core-Forming Melts Produced by Shear Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, D.; Groebner, N.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    The formation mechanism of terrestrial planetary is still poorly understood, and has been the subject of numerous experimental studies. Several mechanisms have been proposed by which metal-mainly iron with some nickel-could have been extracted from a silicate mantle to form the core. Most recent models involve gravitational sinking of molten metal or metal sulphide through a partially or fully molten mantle that is often referred to as a'magma ocean. Alternative models invoke percolation of molten metal along an interconnected network (that is, porous flow) through a solid silicate matrix. But experimental studies performed at high pressures have shown that, under hydrostatic conditions, these melts do not form an interconnected network, leading to the widespread assumption that formation of metallic cores requires a magma ocean. In contrast, here we present experiments which demonstrate that shear deformation to large strains can interconnect a significant fraction of initially isolated pockets of metal and metal sulphide melts in a solid matrix of polycrystalline olivine. Therefore, in a dynamic (nonhydrostatic) environment, percolation remains a viable mechanism for the segregation and migration of core-forming melts in a solid silicate mantle.

  9. Silicate Veining Above an Ascending Mantle Plume - Evidence from New Ethiopian Xenolith Localities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, T. O.; Furman, T.; Ayalew, D.; Yirgu, G.

    2004-12-01

    Quaternary basaltic eruptions in the Debre Zeyit (Bishoftu) and Butajira regions of the Main Ethiopian Rift host Al-augite, norite and rare lherzolite xenoliths, xenocrysts and megacrysts. These explosive basaltic eruptions are located 20 km to the west of the main rift axis and are characterized by cinder cones and maars. The host basalt was generated as a small degree partial melt of fertile peridotite between 15 and 25 kb and host abundant Al-augite (Type II) xenoliths derived from pressures up to 10 kb. The central Main Ethiopian Rift lies in a transitional zone between the continental rifting of East Africa and the sea floor spreading associated with the Red Sea. Lithospheric and sub-lithospheric processes that occur during the transition from continental to oceanic magmatism may be investigated using these xenolith-bearing basalts. Neither carbonatitic nor hydrous (amphibole + phlogopite) metasomatism is evident in either the xenoliths or host basalts, suggesting that infiltration of silicate melts that produced Al-augite veining dominates the regional lower crust and lithospheric mantle. These veins are significantly hotter (200 - 300 ° C) than the lherzolite wall rock they intrude suggesting the thermal influence of the Afar plume. Recent geophysical tomography indicates that this veining is pervasive and segmented, supporting the association of these Al-augite veins with the formation of a proto-ridge axis. Al-augite xenoliths and megacrysts have been observed in other continental rift settings such as Durango (Luhr, 2001) and Lake Baikal (Litasov, 2000), indicating Al-augite silicate melt metasomatism is a fundamental process associated with continental rift development.

  10. Silicate Inclusions in IAB Irons: Correlations Between Metal Composition and Inclusion Properties, and Inferences for Their Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedix, G. K.; McCoy, T. J.; Keil, K.

    1995-09-01

    IAB irons are the largest group of iron meteorites, exhibit a large range of siderophile element concentrations in their metal, and commonly contain silicate inclusions with roughly chondritic composition. They are closely related to IIICD irons [1,2] and their inclusions resemble winonaites [3]. It has been suggested that IAB's and IIICD's formed in individual impact melt pools [4,2] on a common parent body. However, it has also been suggested that fractional crystallization [5,6] of a S-saturated core could produce the observed siderophile element trends. Metal composition is correlated with silicate inclusion mineralogy in IIICD's [1], indicating reactions between solid silicates and the metallic magma in a core. These trends observed in IIICD's differ from those in IAB's, suggesting different parent bodies. A bi-modal grouping, based primarily on mineralogy and mineral abundances, was suggested for IAB inclusions [7]. However, recent recoveries of several new silicate-bearing IAB's, along with the emergence of new ideas on their origins, prompted a comprehensive study to document more fully the range of inclusions within IAB irons, to examine possible correlations between the compositions of the metallic host and the silicate inclusions, and to elucidate the origin of IAB irons. We are studying troilite-graphite-silicate inclusions in 24 IAB irons with Ni concentrations ranging from 6.6-25.0%. These include Odessa and Copiapo types [7], newly recovered meteorites (e.g., Lueders [8]) and meteorites with extreme Ni contents (e.g., Jenny's Creek, 6.8%; San Cristobal, 25.0% [9]). The inclusions exhibit a range of textures from recrystallized to partial melts (e.g., Caddo County [10]). Rigorous classification [7] is hampered by heterogeneities between group meteorites, between different samples of distinct meteorites, and within individual inclusions. While intergroup heterogeneities make comparisons between the suite of IAB's somewhat difficult, some general trends

  11. Study on severe fuel damage and in-vessel melt progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Dong; Kim, Sang Baik; Lee, Gyu Jung

    1992-06-01

    In-vessel core melt progression describes the progression of the state of a reactor core from core uncovery up to reactor vessel melt through in uncovered accidents or through temperature stabilization in accidents recovered by core reflooding. Melt progression can be thought as two parts; early melt progression and late melt progression. Early phase of core melt progression includes the progression of core material melting and relocation, which mostly consist of metallic materials. On the other hand, the late phase of core melt progression involves ceramic material melt and relocation to the lower plenum and heat-up the reactor vessel lower head. A large number of information are available for the early melt progression through experiments such as SFD, DF, FLHT test and utilized in the severe accident analysis codes. However, understanding of the late phase melt progression phenomenology is based primary on TMI-2 core examinations and not much experimental information is available. Especilally, the great uncertainties exist in vessel failure mode, melt composition, mass, and temperature. Further research is planned to perform to reduce the uncertainties in understanding of core melt down accidents as parts of long term melt progression research program. A study on the core melt progression at KAERI has been being performed through the Severe Accident Research Program with USNRC. KAERI staff had participated in the PBF SFD experiments at INEL and analyses of experiments were performed using SCDAP code. Experiments of core melt program have not been carried out at KAERI yet. It is planned that further research on core melt down accidents will be performed, which is related to design of future generations of nuclear reactors as parts of long-term project for improvement of nuclear reactor safety. (Author)

  12. Regularities in Low-Temperature Phosphatization of Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenko, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The regularities in low-temperature phosphatization of silicates are defined from long-term experiments on the interaction between different silicate minerals and phosphate-bearing solutions in a wide range of medium acidity. It is shown that the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization of hornblende, orthoclase, and labradorite have the same values as for clayey minerals (kaolinite and montmorillonite). This effect may appear, if phosphotization proceeds, not after silicate minerals with a different structure and composition, but after a secondary silicate phase formed upon interaction between silicates and water and stable in a certain pH range. Variation in the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization at pH ≈ 1.8 is due to the stability of the silicate phase different from that at higher pH values.

  13. Redox dependent behaviour of molybdenum during magmatic processes in the terrestrial and lunar mantle: Implications for the Mo/W of the bulk silicate Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzke, F. P.; Fonseca, R. O. C.; Sprung, P.; Mallmann, G.; Lagos, M.; Michely, L. T.; Münker, C.

    2017-09-01

    We present results of high-temperature olivine-melt, pyroxene-melt and plagioclase-melt partitioning experiments aimed at investigating the redox transition of Mo in silicate systems. Data for a series of other minor and trace elements (Sc, Ba, Sr, Cr, REE, Y, HFSE, U, Th and W) were also acquired to constrain the incorporation of Mo in silicate minerals. All experiments were carried out in vertical tube furnaces at 1 bar and temperatures ranging from ca. 1220 to 1300 °C. Oxygen fugacity was controlled via CO-CO2 gas mixtures and varied systematically from 5.5 log units below to 1.9 log units above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) redox buffer thereby covering the range in oxygen fugacities of terrestrial and lunar basalt genesis. Molybdenum is shown to be volatile at oxygen fugacities above FMQ and that its compatibility in pyroxene and olivine increases three orders of magnitude towards the more reducing conditions covered in this study. The partitioning results show that Mo is dominantly tetravalent at redox conditions below FMQ-4 and dominantly hexavalent at redox conditions above FMQ. Given the differences in oxidation states of the terrestrial (oxidized) and lunar (reduced) mantles, molybdenum will behave significantly differently during basalt genesis in the Earth (i.e. highly incompatible; average DMoperidotite/melt ∼ 0.008) and Moon (i.e. moderately incompatible/compatible; average DMoperidotite/melt ∼ 0.6). Thus, it is expected that Mo will strongly fractionate from W during partial melting in the lunar mantle, given that W is broadly incompatible at FMQ-5. Moreover, the depletion of Mo and the Mo/W range in lunar samples can be reproduced by simply assuming a primitive Earth-like Mo/W for the bulk silicate Moon. Such a lunar composition is in striking agreement with the Moon being derived from the primitive terrestrial mantle after core formation on Earth.

  14. Silicate Based Glass Formulations for Immobilization of U.S. Defense Wastes Using Cold Crucible Induction Melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Gary L.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Marra, James C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Crawford, Charles L.; Vienna, John D.

    2014-05-22

    The cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) is an alternative technology to the currently deployed liquid-fed, ceramic-lined, Joule-heated melter for immobilizing of U.S. tank waste generated from defense related reprocessing. In order to accurately evaluate the potential benefits of deploying a CCIM, glasses must be developed specifically for that melting technology. Related glass formulation efforts have been conducted since the 1990s including a recent study that is first documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to summarize the silicate base glass formulation efforts for CCIM testing of U.S. tank wastes. Summaries of phosphate based glass formulation and phosphate and silicate based CCIM demonstration tests are reported separately (Day and Ray 2013 and Marra 2013, respectively). Combined these three reports summarize the current state of knowledge related to waste form development and process testing of CCIM technology for U.S. tank wastes.

  15. New silicates of rare earths and calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, I.F.; Shevyakov, A.M.; Smorodina, T.P.; Semenov, N.E.

    1975-01-01

    The complex silicates of the third subgroup elements of lanthanides and calcium were synthesized: Ca 3 Er 2 Si 6 O 18 , Ca 3 Lu 2 Si 6 O 18 and Ca 3 Yb 2 Si 6 O 18 . To specify these compounds their physical and chemical properties were studied by means of roentgenographic, IR spectroscopic and crystaloptical methods. The values of Ng, Np,Δn,m,p were determined, the elementary cell parameters: a,b,c,α,β,γ were computed. Existence of such compounds and their analogy in ternary systems MeO-Ln 2 O 3 -SiO 2 were forcasted

  16. Tribo-exoemission from some silicate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, G.; Lesz, J.; Otto, W.

    1983-01-01

    The tribo-exoemission from some minerals has been investigated in view of applications in the porcelain industries. Milling and sample preparation were performed under defined (liquid and solvent free) conditions. Quartz and the members of the alumo-silicate family feldspar, kaolin, and pegmatite are characterised by a strongly overlapped TSEE-peak between 100 0 C and 200 0 C, growing strongly with the mechanical dispersion of the powders. Thermal (TSEE) as well as optical (OSEE) stimulation reveal pegmatite as the strongest emitter with a very low fading of the tribo-signal at room temperature. (author)

  17. Structure peculiarities of mixed alkali silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershtein, V.A.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Egorov, V.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal porperties and structure of alkali and mixed alkali (Li, Na, K) silicate glasses by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the positron annihilation method, X-ray fluorescence and infrared (300-30 cm -1 ) spectroscopy were studied. Introduction of different alkali cations in glass results in nonadditive change in their electron structure (bond covalence degree growth) and the thermal behaviour. The different manifestations of mixed alkali effect can be explained by the lessening of long distance Coulomb interactions and strengthening the short-range forces in the mixed alkali glasses. (orig.)

  18. Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Silicate Matrix for Applications in Effective Media Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Lukáš; Jerman, Miloš; Reiterman, Pavel; Černý, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Silicate materials have an irreplaceable role in the construction industry. They are mainly represented by cement-based- or lime-based materials, such as concrete, cement mortar, or lime plaster, and consist of three phases: the solid matrix and air and water present in the pores. Therefore, their effective thermal conductivity depends on thermal conductivities of the involved phases. Due to the time-consuming experimental determination of the effective thermal conductivity, its calculation by means of homogenization techniques presents a reasonable alternative. In the homogenization theory, both volumetric content and particular property of each phase need to be identified. For porous materials the most problematic part is to accurately identify thermal conductivity of the solid matrix. Due to the complex composition of silicate materials, the thermal conductivity of the matrix can be determined only approximately, based on the knowledge of thermal conductivities of its major compounds. In this paper, the thermal conductivity of silicate matrix is determined using the measurement of a sufficiently large set of experimental data. Cement pastes with different open porosities are prepared, dried, and their effective thermal conductivity is determined using a transient heat-pulse method. The thermal conductivity of the matrix is calculated by means of extrapolation of the effective thermal conductivity versus porosity functions to zero porosity. Its practical applicability is demonstrated by calculating the effective thermal conductivity of a three-phase silicate material and comparing it with experimental data.

  19. The importance of the Maillard-metal complexes and their silicates in astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesch, Patrick J.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2007-09-01

    The Maillard reaction occurs when sugars and amino acids are mixed together in the solid state or in the aqueous solution. Since both amino acids and sugar-like compounds are found on meteorites, we hypothesized that they would also undergo the Maillard reaction. Our recent work supports this idea. We have shown previously that the water-insoluble Maillard products have substantial similarities with the insoluble organic materials from the meteorites. The Maillard organic materials are also part of the desert varnish on Earth, which is a dark, shiny, hard rock coating that contains iron and manganese and is glazed in silicate. Rocks that are similar in appearance to the desert varnish have been observed on the Martian surface. They may also contain the organic materials. We have undertaken study of the interactions between the Maillard products, iron and other metals, and silicates, to elucidate the role of the Maillard products in the chemistry of desert varnish and meteorites. Specifically, we have synthesized a series of the Maillard-metal complexes, and have tested their reactivity towards silicates. We have studied the properties of these Maillard-metal-silicate products by the IR spectroscopy. The astrobiological potential of the Maillard-metal complexes is assessed.

  20. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF SILICATE MUD CONTAMINATION WITH CALCIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The silicate-based drilling fluid is a low solids KCl/polymer system with the addition of soluble sodium or potassium silicate to enhance inhibition and wellbore stability. Silicate-based drilling fluids exhibit remarkable shale and chalk stabilizing properties, resulting in gauge hole and the formation of firm cuttings when drilling reactive shales and soft chalks. Silicates protect shales by in-situ gellation when exposed to the neutral pore fluid and precipitation, which occurs on contact with divalent ions present at the surface of the shale. Also, silicates prevent the dispersion and washouts when drilling soft chalk by reacting with the Ca2+ ions present on chalk surfaces of cutting and wellbore to form a protective film. The silicate-based drilling fluid can be used during drilling hole section through shale interbeded anhydrite formations because of its superior shale stabilizing characteristics. However, drilling through the anhydrite can decrease the silicate concentration and change rheological and filtration fluid properties. So, the critical concentration of calcium ions should be investigated by lab tests. This paper details the mechanism of shale inhibition using silicate-based drilling fluid, and presents results of lab tests conducted to ascertain the effect of Ca2+ ions on silicate level in the fluid and the fluid properties.

  1. Location of silicic caldera formation in arc settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Gwyneth R; Mahood, Gail A [Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, 450 Serra, Mall, Building 320, Stanford, CA 94305-2115 (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Silicic calderas are the surface expressions of silicic magma chambers, and thus their study may yield information about what tectonic and crustal features favor the generation of evolved magma. The goal of this study is to determine whether silicic calderas in arc settings are preferentially located behind the volcanic front. After a global analysis of young, arc-related calderas, we find that silicic calderas at continental margins do form over a wide area behind the front, as compared to other types of arc volcanoes.

  2. In situ study at high pressure and temperature of the environment of water in hydrous Na and Ca aluminosilicate melts and coexisting aqueous fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Losq, Charles; Dalou, Célia; Mysen, Bjorn O.

    2017-07-01

    The bonding and speciation of water dissolved in Na silicate and Na and Ca aluminosilicate melts were inferred from in situ Raman spectroscopy of the samples, in hydrothermal diamond anvil cells, while at crustal temperature and pressure conditions. Raman data were also acquired on Na silicate and Na and Ca aluminosilicate glasses, quenched from hydrous melts equilibrated at high temperature and pressure in a piston cylinder apparatus. In the hydrous melts, temperature strongly influences O-H stretching ν(O-H) signals, reflecting its control on the bonding of protons between different molecular complexes. Pressure and melt composition effects are much smaller and difficult to discriminate with the present data. However, the chemical composition of the melt + fluid system influences the differences between the ν(O-H) signals from the melts and the fluids and, hence, between their hydrogen partition functions. Quenching modifies the O-H stretching signals: strong hydrogen bonds form in the glasses below the glass transition temperature Tg, and this phenomenon depends on glass composition. Therefore, glasses do not necessarily record the O-H stretching signal shape in melts near Tg. The melt hydrogen partition function thus cannot be assessed with certainty using O-H stretching vibration data from glasses. From the present results, the ratio of the hydrogen partition functions of hydrous silicate melts and aqueous fluids mostly depends on temperature and the bulk melt + fluid system chemical composition. This implies that the fractionation of hydrogen isotopes between magmas and aqueous fluids in water-saturated magmatic systems with differences in temperature and bulk chemical composition will be different.

  3. High-level radioactive waste isolation by incorporation in silicate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.L.; Cohen, J.J.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A number of technical possibilities for isolating high-level radioactive materials have been theoretically investigated at various times and places. Isolating such wastes deep underground to ensure long term removal from the biosphere is one such possibility. The present concept involves as a first step creating the necessary void space at considerable depth, say 2 to 5 km, in a very-low-permeability silicate medium such as shale. Waste in dry, calcined or vitrified form is then lowered into the void space, and the access hole or shaft sealed. Energy released by the radioactive decay raises the temperature to a point where the surrounding rock begins to melt. The waste is then dissolved in it. The extent of this melt region grows until the heat generated is balanced by conduction away from the molten zone. Resolidification then begins, and ends when the radioactive decay has progressed to the point that the temperature falls below the melting point of the rock-waste solution. Calculations are presented showing the growth and resolidification process. A nuclear explosion is one way of creating the void space. (author)

  4. Simulation experiment on the flooding behaviour of core melts: KATS-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieg, G.; Massier, H.; Schuetz, W.; Stegmaier, U.; Stern, G.

    2000-11-01

    For future Light Water Reactors special devices (core catchers) are being developed to prevent containment failure by basement erosion after reactor pressure vessel meltthrough during a core meltdown accident. Quick freezing of the molten core masses is desirable to reduce release of radioactivity. Several concepts of core catcher devices have been proposed based on the spreading of corium melt onto flat surfaces with subsequent water cooling. A KATS-experiment has been performed to investigate the flooding behaviour of high temperature melts using alumina-iron thermite melts as a simulant. The oxidic thermite melt is conditioned by adding other oxides to simulate a realistic corium melt as close as possible in terms of liquidus and solidus temperatures. Before flooding with water, spreading of the separate oxidic and metallic melts has been done in one-dimensional channels with a silicate concrete as the substrate. The flooding rate was, in relation to the melt surface, identical to the flooding rate in EPR. (orig.) [de

  5. Tip-induced nanoreactor for silicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Ma, Liran; Liang, Yong; Gao, Yuan; Luo, Jianbin

    2015-09-01

    Nanoscale scientific issues have attracted an increasing amount of research interest due to their specific size-effect and novel structure-property. From macro to nano, materials present some unique chemical reactivity that bulk materials do not own. Here we introduce a facile method to generate silicate with nanoscale control based on the establishment of a confined space between a meso/nanoscale tungsten tip and a smooth silica/silicon substrate. During the process, local water-like droplets deposition can be obviously observed in the confinement between the Si/SiO2 surfaces and the KOH-modified tungsten tip. By the combination of in-situ optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, we were able to take a deep insight of both the product composition and the underlying mechanism of such phenomena. It was indicated that such nanoreactor for silicate could be quite efficient as a result of the local capillarity and electric field effect, with implications at both nano and meso scales.

  6. Thermochemistry of dense hydrous magnesium silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Kunal; Burnley, Pamela; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    1994-01-01

    Recent experimental investigations under mantle conditions have identified a suite of dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) phases that could be conduits to transport water to at least the 660 km discontinuity via mature, relatively cold, subducting slabs. Water released from successive dehydration of these phases during subduction could be responsible for deep focus earthquakes, mantle metasomatism and a host of other physico-chemical processes central to our understanding of the earth's deep interior. In order to construct a thermodynamic data base that can delineate and predict the stability ranges for DHMS phases, reliable thermochemical and thermophysical data are required. One of the major obstacles in calorimetric studies of phases synthesized under high pressure conditions has been limitation due to the small (less than 5 mg) sample mass. Our refinement of calorimeter techniques now allow precise determination of enthalpies of solution of less than 5 mg samples of hydrous magnesium silicates. For example, high temperature solution calorimetry of natural talc (Mg(0.99) Fe(0.01)Si4O10(OH)2), periclase (MgO) and quartz (SiO2) yield enthalpies of drop solution at 1044 K to be 592.2 (2.2), 52.01 (0.12) and 45.76 (0.4) kJ/mol respectively. The corresponding enthalpy of formation from oxides at 298 K for talc is minus 5908.2 kJ/mol agreeing within 0.1 percent to literature values.

  7. Evidence for seismogenic fracture of silicic magma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffen, Hugh; Smith, Rosanna; Sammonds, Peter R

    2008-05-22

    It has long been assumed that seismogenic faulting is confined to cool, brittle rocks, with a temperature upper limit of approximately 600 degrees C (ref. 1). This thinking underpins our understanding of volcanic earthquakes, which are assumed to occur in cold rocks surrounding moving magma. However, the recent discovery of abundant brittle-ductile fault textures in silicic lavas has led to the counter-intuitive hypothesis that seismic events may be triggered by fracture and faulting within the erupting magma itself. This hypothesis is supported by recent observations of growing lava domes, where microearthquake swarms have coincided with the emplacement of gouge-covered lava spines, leading to models of seismogenic stick-slip along shallow shear zones in the magma. But can fracturing or faulting in high-temperature, eruptible magma really generate measurable seismic events? Here we deform high-temperature silica-rich magmas under simulated volcanic conditions in order to test the hypothesis that high-temperature magma fracture is seismogenic. The acoustic emissions recorded during experiments show that seismogenic rupture may occur in both crystal-rich and crystal-free silicic magmas at eruptive temperatures, extending the range of known conditions for seismogenic faulting.

  8. Method of melting solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Katsuyuki; Mizuno, Ryokichi; Kuwana, Katsumi; Sawada, Yoshihisa; Komatsu, Fumiaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the volume reduction treatment of a HEPA filter containing various solid wastes, particularly acid digestion residue, or an asbestos separator at a relatively low temperature range. Method: Solid waste to be heated and molten is high melting point material treated by ''acid digestion treatment'' for treating solid waste, e.g. a HEPA filter or polyvinyl chloride, etc. of an atomic power facility treated with nitric acid or the like. When this material is heated and molten by an electric furnace, microwave melting furnace, etc., boron oxide, sodium boride, sodium carbonate, etc. is added as a melting point lowering agent. When it is molten in this state, its melting point is lowered, and it becomes remarkably fluid, and the melting treatment is facilitated. Solidified material thus obtained through the melting step has excellent denseness and further large volume reduction rate of the solidified material. (Yoshihara, H.)

  9. Petrological Geodynamics of Mantle Melting II. AlphaMELTS + Multiphase Flow: Dynamic Fractional Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirone, Massimiliano

    2018-03-01

    In this second installment of a series that aims to investigate the dynamic interaction between the composition and abundance of the solid mantle and its melt products, the classic interpretation of fractional melting is extended to account for the dynamic nature of the process. A multiphase numerical flow model is coupled with the program AlphaMELTS, which provides at the moment possibly the most accurate petrological description of melting based on thermodynamic principles. The conceptual idea of this study is based on a description of the melting process taking place along a 1-D vertical ideal column where chemical equilibrium is assumed to apply in two local sub-systems separately on some spatial and temporal scale. The solid mantle belongs to a local sub-system (ss1) that does not interact chemically with the melt reservoir which forms a second sub-system (ss2). The local melt products are transferred in the melt sub-system ss2 where the melt phase eventually can also crystallize into a different solid assemblage and will evolve dynamically. The main difference with the usual interpretation of fractional melting is that melt is not arbitrarily and instantaneously extracted from the mantle, but instead remains a dynamic component of the model, hence the process is named dynamic fractional melting (DFM). Some of the conditions that may affect the DFM model are investigated in this study, in particular the effect of temperature, mantle velocity at the boundary of the mantle column. A comparison is made with the dynamic equilibrium melting (DEM) model discussed in the first installment. The implications of assuming passive flow or active flow are also considered to some extent. Complete data files of most of the DFM simulations, four animations and two new DEM simulations (passive/active flow) are available following the instructions in the supplementary material.

  10. Logistics Reduction: Heat Melt Compactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) technology is a waste management technology. Currently, there are...

  11. Melting in trivalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.; Scamehorn, C.; Tosi, M.P.

    1990-11-01

    We report a neutron diffraction study of the liquid structure of YCl 3 and combine the structural data with macroscopic melting and transport data to contrast the behaviour of this molten salt with those of SrCl 2 , ZnCl 2 and AlCl 3 as prototypes of different melting mechanisms for ionic materials. A novel melting mechanism for trivalent metal chlorides, leading to a loose disordered network of edge-sharing octahedral units in the liquid phase, is thereby established. The various melting behaviours are related to bonding character with the help of Pettifor's phenomenological chemical scale. (author). 25 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Melting of contaminated metallic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-S.; Cheng, S.-Y.; Kung, H.-T.; Lin, L.-F.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 100 tons of contaminated metallic wastes were produced each year due to maintenance for each TPC's nuclear power reactor and it was roughly estimated that there will be 10,000 tons of metallic scraps resulted from decommissioning of each reactor in the future. One means of handling the contaminated metal is to melt it. Melting process owns not only volume reduction which saves the high cost of final disposal but also resource conservation and recycling benefits. Melting contaminated copper and aluminum scraps in the laboratory scale have been conducted at INER. A total of 546 kg copper condenser tubes with a specific activity of about 2.7 Bq/g was melted in a vacuum induction melting facility. Three types of products, ingot, slag and dust were derived from the melting process, with average activities of 0.10 Bq/g, 2.33 Bq/g and 84.3 Bq/g respectively. After the laboratory melting stage, a pilot plant with a 500 kg induction furnace is being designed to melt the increasingly produced contaminated metallic scraps from nuclear facilities and to investigate the behavior of different radionuclides during melting. (author)

  13. Optical Characterization of Nano- and Microcrystals of EuPO₄ Created by One-Step Synthesis of Antimony-Germanate-Silicate Glass Modified by P₂O₅.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Miluski, Piotr; Baranowska, Agata; Pisarski, Wojciech A; Pisarska, Joanna; Jadach, Renata; Sitarz, Maciej; Dorosz, Dominik

    2017-09-09

    Technology of active glass-ceramics (GC) is an important part of luminescent materials engineering. The classic method to obtain GC is based on annealing of parent glass in proper temperature and different time periods. Generally, only the bulk materials are investigated as a starting host for further applications. However, the effect of an additional heat-treatment process on emission and structural properties during GC processing is omitted. Here, we focus on the possibility of obtaining transparent glass-ceramic doped with europium ions directly with a melt-quenching method. The influence of phosphate concentration (up to 10 mol %) on the inversion symmetry of local environment of Eu 3+ ions in antimony-germanate-silicate (SGS) glass has been investigated. The Stark splitting of luminescence spectra and the local asymmetry ratio estimated by relation of (⁵D₀→⁷F₂)/(⁵D₀→⁷F₁) transitions in fabricated glass confirms higher local symmetry around Eu 3+ ions. Based on XRD and SEM/EDX measurements, the EuPO₄ nano- and microcrystals with monoclinic geometry were determined. Therefore, in our experiment, we confirmed possibility of one-step approach to fabricate crystalline structures (glass-ceramic) in Eu-doped SGS glass without additional annealing process.

  14. Seismic Evidence for Possible Slab Melting from Strong Scattering Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Horng Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Slab melting in young and hot subduction zones has been studied using geochemical observations and thermal modelling, but there are few data from seismic studies to confirm slab melting. Also the detailed geometry in the deep part of the melting slab is often ambiguous in that the intraslab earthquakes within the Wadati-Benioff zone are only limited to shallower depths. To improve our understanding of both the seismic features and geometry found in a young and hot subducted slab, I analyzed anomalous moonquake-like seismograms that were generated by an intermediate-depth earthquake recorded in central Japan. For this study, possible reflected (or scattered sources were examined using detailed analyses of particle motions and a grid search for travel-time differences between the direct and later P-waves. The results show that using strong seismic scattering, slab melting is likely occurring in the deeper, flexing part of the subducted Philippine Sea plate. Because the subducted Philippine Sea plate in central Japan is young and therefore hot, partial melting might have taken place to produce abundant melting spots in the subducted slab. Melting spots, identified as ¡§bright spots,¡¨ could efficiently reflect or scatter seismic energy and generate many later phases with large amplitudes.

  15. Melting method for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste and melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, Toru; Furukawa, Hirofumi; Uda, Nobuyoshi; Katsurai, Kiyomichi

    1998-01-01

    A vessel containing miscellaneous solid wastes is inserted in a crucible having a releasable material on the inner surface, they are induction-heated from the outside of the crucible by way of low temperature heating coils to melt low melting point materials in the miscellaneous wastes within a temperature range at which the vessel does not melt. Then, they are induction-heated by way of high temperature heating coils to melt the vessel and not yet melted materials, those molten materials are cooled, solidified molten material and the releasable material are taken out, and then the crucible is used again. Then, the crucible can be used again, so that it can be applied to a large scaled melting furnace which treats wastes by a unit of drum. In addition, since the cleaning of the used crucible and the application of the releasable material can be conducted without interrupting the operation of the melting furnace, the operation cycle of the melting furnace can be shortened. (N.H.)

  16. Waste glass melting stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1994-01-01

    Three simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C to 1000 degrees C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentru Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. The behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied. 2 refs., 8 tabs

  17. Waste glass melting stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C--1000 degrees C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied

  18. Spectral properties of porphyrins in the systems with layered silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceklovsky, A.

    2009-03-01

    This work is focused on investigation of hybrid materials based on layered silicates, representing host inorganic component, and porphyrin dyes as organic guest. Aqueous colloidal dispersions, as well as thin solid films of layered silicate/porphyrin systems were studied. Modification of photophysical properties, such as absorption and fluorescence of molecules, adsorbed or incorporated in layered silicate hosts, were studied mainly to spread the knowledge about the environments suitable for incorporating aromatic compounds, providing photoactive properties of potential technological interest. TMPyP cations interact with the surfaces of layered silicates via electrostatic interactions. The extent of dye adsorption on colloidal particles of the silicates is influenced by the CEC values and swelling ability of silicates. Interaction of porphyrins with layered silicate hosts leads to significant changes of dye spectral properties. One of the key parameters that has a crucial impact on this interaction is the layer charge of silicate template. Other factors influence the resulting spectral properties of hybrid systems, such as the method of hybrid material preparation, the material's type (colloid, film), and the modification of the silicate host. Molecular orientation studies using linearly-polarized spectroscopies in VIS and IR regions revealed that TMPyP molecules were oriented in almost parallel fashion with respect to the silicate surface plane. Slightly higher values of the orientation angle of TMPyP transition moment were observed for the TMPyP/FHT system. Thus, flattening of the guest TMPyP molecules is the next important factor (mainly in the systems with lower layer charge), influencing its spectral properties upon the interaction with layered silicates. Fluorescence was effectively quenched in the systems based on solid films prepared from the high concentration of the dye (10-3 mol.dm-3). The quenching is most probably related to the structure of the

  19. Stress-corrosion mechanisms in silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccotti, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    The present review is intended to revisit the advances and debates in the comprehension of the mechanisms of subcritical crack propagation in silicate glasses almost a century after its initial developments. Glass has inspired the initial insights of Griffith into the origin of brittleness and the ensuing development of modern fracture mechanics. Yet, through the decades the real nature of the fundamental mechanisms of crack propagation in glass has escaped a clear comprehension which could gather general agreement on subtle problems such as the role of plasticity, the role of the glass composition, the environmental condition at the crack tip and its relation to the complex mechanisms of corrosion and leaching. The different processes are analysed here with a special focus on their relevant space and time scales in order to question their domain of action and their contribution in both the kinetic laws and the energetic aspects.

  20. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Mari L.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 Si.sub.4 O.sub.13 pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs.sub.2 O and TiO.sub.2 loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO.sub.2 and Cs.sub.2 that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass.

  1. Radiation effects on lead silicate glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.W.; Zhang, L.P.; Borgen, N.; Pannell, K.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in the microstructure of lead silicate glass were investigated in situ under Mg K α irradiation in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Lead-oxygen bond breaking resulting in the formation of pure lead was observed. The segregation, growth kinetics and the structural relaxation of the lead, with corresponding changes in the oxygen and silicon on the glass surfaces were studied by measuring the time-dependent changes in concentration, binding energy shifts, and the full width at half maximum. A bimodal distribution of the oxygen XPS signal, caused by bridging and non-bridging oxygens, was found during the relaxation process. All experimental data indicate a reduction of the oxygen concentration, a phase separation of the lead from the glass matrix, and the metallization of the lead occurred during and after the X-ray irradiation. (author)

  2. Fluorescence yield in rare-earth-doped sol-gel silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversmith, A.J., E-mail: asilvers@hamilton.ed [Physics Department, Hamilton College, 198 College Hill Road, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Nguyen, Nguyen T.T.; Campbell, D.L. [Physics Department, Hamilton College, 198 College Hill Road, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Boye, D.M.; Ortiz, C.P. [Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035 (United States); Hoffman, K.R. [Whitman College, Walla Walla, WA 99362 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    We have used trivalent terbium to investigate the mechanism behind fluorescence enhancement by Al{sup 3+} co-doping. Our results indicate that rare-earth (RE) ions cluster together in aluminum-rich regions of the glass, and behave as if they were dispersed uniformly throughout these regions when the ratio of Al to RE is {approx}10 or greater. We also studied the effects of adding chemical drying agents to the precursor solution for the synthesis of sol-gel-derived silicate glasses. Such glasses can be treated at significantly higher annealing temperatures without degradation of optical quality, and have the density of melt glass. Fluorescence yield from doped RE ions improves markedly with the addition of the drying agents, and the denser glasses are not subject to rehydration.

  3. Applications of high resolution NMR to geochemistry: crystalline, glass, and molten silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, E.

    1985-11-01

    The nuclear spin interactions and the associated quantum mechanical dynamics which are present in solid state NMR are introduced. A brief overview of aluminosilicate structure is presented and crystalline structure is then reviewed, with emphasis on the contributions made by /sup 29/Si NMR spectroscopy. The local structure of glass aluminosilicates as observed by NMR, is presented with analysis of the information content of /sup 29/Si spectra. A high-temperature (to 1300/sup 0/C) NMR spectroscopic investigation of the local environment and dynamics of molecular motion in molten aluminosilicates is described. A comparison is made of silicate liquid, glass, and crystalline local structure. The atomic and molecular motions present in a melt are investigated through relaxation time (T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/) measurements as a function of composition and temperature for /sup 23/Na and /sup 29/Si.

  4. Applications of high resolution NMR to geochemistry: crystalline, glass, and molten silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, E.

    1985-11-01

    The nuclear spin interactions and the associated quantum mechanical dynamics which are present in solid state NMR are introduced. A brief overview of aluminosilicate structure is presented and crystalline structure is then reviewed, with emphasis on the contributions made by 29 Si NMR spectroscopy. The local structure of glass aluminosilicates as observed by NMR, is presented with analysis of the information content of 29 Si spectra. A high-temperature (to 1300 0 C) NMR spectroscopic investigation of the local environment and dynamics of molecular motion in molten aluminosilicates is described. A comparison is made of silicate liquid, glass, and crystalline local structure. The atomic and molecular motions present in a melt are investigated through relaxation time (T 1 and T 2 ) measurements as a function of composition and temperature for 23 Na and 29 Si

  5. Local Structures around Si, Al and Na in Hydrated Silicate Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farges, Francois; Wispelaere, Sidoine de; Rossano, Stephanie; Munos, Manuel; Wilke, Max; Flank, Anne-Marie; Lagarde, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    XANES spectra were collected at the Si-, Al-, and Na K-edge in hydrous silicate glasses to understand the effect of water on the local structure around these cations. Around network forming Si and Al, no drastic changes are observed. Around Na, the dissolution of water creates more ordered environments in Al-bearing glasses and less ordered environment in Al-free glasses. Ab-initio XANES calculations were undertaken to understand the structural origins for these features. Based on these results, a bond valence model was refined that considers not only the present XANES experiments and models but also NMR information. The double percolation model refined explains, among others, the explosive properties of water-bearing hydrous melts, at the origin of a number of cataclysmic eruptions in subduction zones

  6. Metal/silicate partitioning of Pt and the origin of the "late veneer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, W.; Walter, M. J.; Drake, M. J.; Sylvester, P. J.

    2002-12-01

    the melting point of the 1 atm, AnDi system and the melting point of the Pt capsule material. Over 150 piston cylinder and 12 multi anvil experiments have been performed. Pt solubility is only slightly dependent on temperature, decreasing between 1800 and 1400°C by less than an order of magnitude. In consequence, the partitioning behavior of Pt is mostly determined by its oxygen fugacity dependence, which has only been determined in 1 atm experiments. At 10 kbar, metal/silicate partition coefficients (D's) decrease by about 3 orders of magnitude. The reason for this is not understood, but might be attributed to a first order phase transition as found for, e.g., SiO2 or H2O. Above 10 kbar any increase in pressure does not lead to any further significant decrease in partition coefficients. Solubilities stay roughly constant up to 140 kbar. Abundances of moderately siderophile elements were possibly established by metal/silicate equilibrium in a magma ocean. These results for Pt suggest that the abundances of HSEs were most probably established by the accretion of a chondritic veneer following core formation, as metal/silicate partition coefficients are too high to be consistent with metal/silicate equilibrium in a magma ocean.

  7. Early planetesimal melting from an age of 4.5662 Gyr for differentiated meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, J.; Bizzarro, Martin; Wittig, N.

    2005-01-01

    for these meteorites, however, are typically younger than age constraints for planetesimal differentiation. Such young ages indicate that the energy required to melt their parent bodies could not have come from the most likely heat source-radioactive decay of short-lived nuclides (Al and Fe) injected from a nearby...... decay could have triggered planetesimal melting. Small Mg excesses in bulk angrite samples confirm that Al decay contributed to the melting of their parent body. These results indicate that the accretion of differentiated planetesimals pre-dated that of undifferentiated planetesimals, and reveals......Long- and short-lived radioactive isotopes and their daughter products in meteorites are chronometers that can test models for Solar System formation. Differentiated meteorites come from parent bodies that were once molten and separated into metal cores and silicate mantles. Mineral ages...

  8. Rhenium corrosion in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.D.; Shkol'nikov, S.N.; Vetyukov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results investigating rhenium corrosion in chloride melts containing sodium, potassium and chromium ions by a gravimetry potentials in argon atmosphere in a sealing quarth cell are described. Rhenium corrosion is shown to be rather considerable in melts containing CrCl 2 . The value of corrosion rate depending on temperature is determined

  9. UNCONSTRAINED MELTING AND SOLIDIFICATION INSIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... There is a large number of experimental and numerical works on melting and solidification of PCM[6-10], and also its usage as thermal management in building [11-14], electronic devices [15-16] and solar energy. [17-20].Most investigated geometries in melting and freezing process are sphere (spherical.

  10. The role of liquid-liquid immiscibility and crystal fractionation in the genesis of carbonatite magmas: insights from Kerimasi melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmics, Tibor; Zajacz, Zoltán; Mitchell, Roger H.; Szabó, Csaba; Wälle, Markus

    2015-02-01

    We have reconstructed the compositional evolution of the silicate and carbonate melt, and various crystalline phases in the subvolcanic reservoir of Kerimasi Volcano in the East African Rift. Trace element concentrations of silicate and carbonate melt inclusions trapped in nepheline, apatite and magnetite from plutonic afrikandite (clinopyroxene-nepheline-perovskite-magnetite-melilite rock) and calciocarbonatite (calcite-apatite-magnetite-perovskite-monticellite-phlogopite rock) show that liquid immiscibility occurred during the generation of carbonatite magmas from a CO2-rich melilite-nephelinite magma formed at relatively high temperatures (1,100 °C). This carbonatite magma is notably more calcic and less alkaline than that occurring at Oldoinyo Lengai. The CaO-rich (32-41 wt%) nature and alkali-"poor" (at least 7-10 wt% Na2O + K2O) nature of these high-temperature (>1,000 °C) carbonate melts result from strong partitioning of Ca (relative to Mg, Fe and Mn) in the immiscible carbonate and the CaO-rich nature (12-17 wt%) of its silicate parent (e.g., melilite-nephelinite). Evolution of the Kerimasi carbonate magma can result in the formation of natrocarbonatite melts with similar composition to those of Oldoinyo Lengai, but with pronounced depletion in REE and HFSE elements. We suggest that this compositional difference results from the different initial parental magmas, e.g., melilite-nephelinite at Kerimasi and a nephelinite at Oldoinyo Lengai. The difference in parental magma composition led to a significant difference in the fractionating mineral phase assemblage and the element partitioning systematics upon silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility. LA-ICP-MS analysis of coeval silicate and carbonate melt inclusions provides an opportunity to infer carbonate melt/silicate melt partition coefficients for a wide range of elements. These data show that Li, Na, Pb, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, all REE (except Sc), U, V, Nb, Ta, P, Mo, W and S are partitioned into the carbonate

  11. Rock melting technology and geothermal drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    National awareness of the potential future shortages in energy resources has heightened interest in exploration and utilization of a variety of geothermal energy (GTE) reservoirs. The status of conventional drilling of GTE wells is reviewed briefly and problem areas which lead to higher drilling costs are identified and R and D directions toward solution are suggested. In the immediate future, an expanded program of drilling in GTE formations can benefit from improvements in drilling equipment and technology normally associated with oil or gas wells. Over a longer time period, the new rock-melting drill bits being developed as a part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Subterrene Program offer new solutions to a number of problems which frequently hamper GTE drilling, including the most basic problem - high temperature. Two of the most favorable characteristics of rock-melting penetrators are their ability to operate effectively in hot rock and produce glass linings around the hole as an integral part of the drilling process. The technical advantages to be gained by use of rock-melting penetrators are discussed in relation to the basic needs for GTE wells.

  12. Metal-silicate Partitioning and Its Role in Core Formation and Composition on Super-Earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Laura; Petaev, M. I.; Sasselov, Dimitar D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jacobsen, Stein B.; Remo, John L., E-mail: lschaefer@asu.edu [Harvard University, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 20 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We use a thermodynamic framework for silicate-metal partitioning to determine the possible compositions of metallic cores on super-Earths. We compare results using literature values of the partition coefficients of Si and Ni, as well as new partition coefficients calculated using results from laser shock-induced melting of powdered metal-dunite targets at pressures up to 276 GPa, which approaches those found within the deep mantles of super-Earths. We find that larger planets may have little to no light elements in their cores because the Si partition coefficient decreases at high pressures. The planet mass at which this occurs will depend on the metal-silicate equilibration depth. We also extrapolate the equations of state (EOS) of FeO and FeSi alloys to high pressures, and present mass–radius diagrams using self-consistent planet compositions assuming equilibrated mantles and cores. We confirm the results of previous studies that the distribution of elements between mantle and core will not be detectable from mass and radius measurements alone. While observations may be insensitive to interior structure, further modeling is sensitive to compositionally dependent properties, such as mantle viscosity and core freeze-out properties. We therefore emphasize the need for additional high pressure measurements of partitioning as well as EOSs, and highlight the utility of the Sandia Z-facilities for this type of work.

  13. Calcium titanium silicate based glass-ceramic for nuclear waste immobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K.; Srivastav, A. P.; Goswami, M.; Krishnan, Madangopal

    2018-04-01

    Titanate based ceramics (synroc) have been studied for immobilisation of nuclear wastes due to their high radiation and thermal stability. The aim of this study is to synthesis glass-ceramic with stable phases from alumino silicate glass composition and study the loading behavior of actinides in glass-ceramics. The effects of CaO and TiO2 addition on phase evolution and structural properties of alumino silicate based glasses with nominal composition x(10CaO-9TiO2)-y(10Na2O-5 Al2O3-56SiO2-10B2O3); where z = x/y = 1.4-1.8 are reported. The glasses are prepared by melt-quench technique and characterized for thermal and structural properties using DTA and Raman Spectroscopy. Glass transition and peak crystallization temperatures decrease with increase of CaO and TiO2 content, which implies the weakening of glass network and increased tendency of glasses towards crystallization. Sphene (CaTiSiO5) and perovskite (CaTiO3) crystalline phases are confirmed from XRD which are well known stable phase for conditioning of actinides. The microsturcture and elemental analysis indicate the presence of actinide in stable crystalline phases.

  14. Determination of total tin in silicate rocks by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheimer, H.N.; Fries, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of total tin in silicate rocks utilizing a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with a stabilized-temperature platform furnace and Zeeman-effect background correction. The sample is decomposed by lithium metaborate fusion (3 + 1) in graphite crucibles with the melt being dissolved in 7.5% hydrochloric acid. Tin extractions (4 + 1 or 8 + 1) are executed on portions of the acid solutions using a 4% solution of tricotylphosphine oxide in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Ascorbic acid is added as a reducing agent prior to extraction. A solution of diammonium hydrogenphosphate and magnesium nitrate is used as a matrix modifier in the graphite furnace determination. The limit of detection is > 10 pg, equivalent to > 1 ??g l-1 of tin in the MIBK solution or 0.2-0.3 ??g g-61 in the rock. The concentration range is linear between 2.5 and 500 ??g l-1 tin in solution. The precision, measured as relative standard deviation, is < 20% at the 2.5 ??g l-1 level and < 7% at the 10-30 ??g l-1 level of tin. Excellent agreement with recommended literature values was found when the method was applied to the international silicate rock standards BCR-1, PCC-1, GSP-1, AGV-1, STM-1, JGb-1 and Mica-Fe. Application was made to the determination of tin in geological core samples with total tin concentrations of the order of 1 ??g g-1 or less.

  15. Additive Manufacturing Processes: Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Binder Jetting—Selection Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda Gokuldoss, Prashanth; Kolla, Sri; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing or rapid prototyping, is gaining increasing attention due to its ability to produce parts with added functionality and increased complexities in geometrical design, on top of the fact that it is theoretically possible to produce any shape without limitations. However, most of the research on additive manufacturing techniques are focused on the development of materials/process parameters/products design with different additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser melting, electron beam melting, or binder jetting. However, we do not have any guidelines that discuss the selection of the most suitable additive manufacturing process, depending on the material to be processed, the complexity of the parts to be produced, or the design considerations. Considering the very fact that no reports deal with this process selection, the present manuscript aims to discuss the different selection criteria that are to be considered, in order to select the best AM process (binder jetting/selective laser melting/electron beam melting) for fabricating a specific component with a defined set of material properties. PMID:28773031

  16. Additive Manufacturing Processes: Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Binder Jetting-Selection Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokuldoss, Prashanth Konda; Kolla, Sri; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-06-19

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing or rapid prototyping, is gaining increasing attention due to its ability to produce parts with added functionality and increased complexities in geometrical design, on top of the fact that it is theoretically possible to produce any shape without limitations. However, most of the research on additive manufacturing techniques are focused on the development of materials/process parameters/products design with different additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser melting, electron beam melting, or binder jetting. However, we do not have any guidelines that discuss the selection of the most suitable additive manufacturing process, depending on the material to be processed, the complexity of the parts to be produced, or the design considerations. Considering the very fact that no reports deal with this process selection, the present manuscript aims to discuss the different selection criteria that are to be considered, in order to select the best AM process (binder jetting/selective laser melting/electron beam melting) for fabricating a specific component with a defined set of material properties.

  17. Prediction of waste glass melt rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.

    1987-01-01

    Under contract to the Department of Energy, the Du Pont Company has begun construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility to immobilize radioactive wastes now stored as liquids at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. The immobilization process solidifies waste sludge by vitrification into a leach-resistant borosilicate glass. Development of this process has been the responsibility of the Savannah River Laboratory. As part of the development, a simple model was developed to predict the melt rates for the waste glass melter. This model is based on an energy balance for the cold cap and gives very good agreement with melt rate data obtained from experimental campaigns in smaller scale waste glass melters

  18. Reuse of waste foundry sand through interaction with sodium silicate binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.C.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.; Chinelatto, A.L.; Oliveira, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    Green sand molds are used in metal casting process. However, after heating, activated bentonite present in green sand lose the binding properties, and part of the foundry sand has to be discarded from the process. The ABNT NBR 15.984/2011 establishes the management of waste foundry sand (WFS) avoiding disposal in landfills. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility of reusing the WFS from the study of their interaction with sodium silicate binder. Studies with silica sand and new green sand was performed to compare the results obtained with the WFS. The characterizations of the samples were performed by measures the compressive strength, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that there is interaction of the sodium silicate with the WFS as well as with the silica sand and green sand. (author)

  19. Cubic zirconia in >2370 °C impact melt records Earth's hottest crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Nicholas E.; Erickson, Timmons M.; Zanetti, Michael R.; Pearce, Mark A.; Cayron, Cyril; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Reddy, Steven M.; Wittmann, Axel; Carpenter, Paul K.

    2017-11-01

    Bolide impacts influence primordial evolution of planetary bodies because they can cause instantaneous melting and vaporization of both crust and impactors. Temperatures reached by impact-generated silicate melts are unknown because meteorite impacts are ephemeral, and established mineral and rock thermometers have limited temperature ranges. Consequently, impact melt temperatures in global bombardment models of the early Earth and Moon are poorly constrained, and may not accurately predict the survival, stabilization, geochemical evolution and cooling of early crustal materials. Here we show geological evidence for the transformation of zircon to cubic zirconia plus silica in impact melt from the 28 km diameter Mistastin Lake crater, Canada, which requires super-heating in excess of 2370 °C. This new temperature determination is the highest recorded from any crustal rock. Our phase heritage approach extends the thermometry range for impact melts by several hundred degrees, more closely bridging the gap between nature and theory. Profusion of >2370 °C superheated impact melt during high intensity bombardment of Hadean Earth likely facilitated consumption of early-formed crustal rocks and minerals, widespread volatilization of various species, including hydrates, and formation of dry, rigid, refractory crust.

  20. Computationally efficient thermal-mechanical modelling of selective laser melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Ayas, C.; Brabazon, Dermot; Naher, Sumsun; Ul Ahad, Inam

    2017-01-01

    The Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder based additive manufacturing (AM) method to produce high density metal parts with complex topology. However, part distortions and accompanying residual stresses deteriorates the mechanical reliability of SLM products. Modelling of the SLM process is

  1. Melt extraction during heating and cooling of felsic crystal mushes in shallow volcanic systems: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, M.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Sisson, T. W.; Bloch, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    The dynamics and kinetics of melt extraction in near-solidus, rheologically stalled, felsic crystal mushes (> 50 vol.% crystals) are essential to feeding many volcanic eruptions. At shallow depths (volatile-saturated and may be thermally stable for long time periods (104-107 years). In absence of deformation, residual melt can segregate from the mush's crystalline framework stimulated by: 1) gas injecting from hot mafic magmas into felsic mushes (heating / partial melting scenario), and 2) gas exsolving from the crystallizing mush (cooling / crystallizing scenario). The conditions and efficiency of melt extraction from a mush in the two scenarios are not well understood. Thus, we conducted high-temperature (700 to 850 °C) and -pressure (1.1 kbar) cold seal experiments (8-day duration) on synthetic felsic mushes, composed of water-saturated (4.2 wt.%) rhyodacite melt bearing different proportions of added quartz crystals (60, 70, and 80 vol%; 68 mm average particle size). High-spatial resolution X-ray tomography of run products show: 1) in the heating scenario (> 750 °C) melt has not segregated due to coalescence of vesicles (≤ 23 vol%) and large melt connectivity (> 7 vol% glass) / low pressure gradient for melt movement up to 80 vol% crystals; 2) in the cooling scenario (≤ 750 °C) vesicle (< 11 vol%) coalescence is limited or absent and limited amount of melt (3 to 11 vol%) segregated from sample center to its outer periphery (30 to 100 mm melt-rich lenses), testifying to the efficiency of melt extraction dictated by increasing crystallinity. These results suggest that silicic melt hosted within a crystal-rich mush can accumulate rapidly due to the buildup of modest gas pressures during crystallization at temperatures near the solidus.

  2. Diffusion of hydrous species in model basaltic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Xuan; Wang, Qinxia; Ding, Jiale; Ni, Huaiwei

    2017-10-01

    Water diffusion in Fe-free model basaltic melt with up to 2 wt% H2O was investigated at 1658-1846 K and 1 GPa in piston-cylinder apparatus using both hydration and diffusion couple techniques. Diffusion profiles measured by FTIR are consistent with a model in which both molecular H2O (H2Om) and hydroxyl (OH) contribute to water diffusion. OH diffusivity is roughly 13% of H2Om diffusivity, showing little dependence on temperature or water concentration. Water diffusion is dominated by the motion of OH until total H2O (H2Ot) concentration reaches 1 wt%. The dependence of apparent H2Ot diffusivity on H2Ot concentration appears to be overestimated by a previous study on MORB melt, but H2Ot diffusivity at 1 wt% H2Ot in basaltic melt is still greater than those in rhyolitic to andesitic melts. The appreciable contribution of OH to water diffusion in basaltic melt can be explained by enhanced mobility of OH, probably associated with the development of free hydroxyl bonded with network-modifying cations, as well as higher OH concentration. Calculation based on the Nernst-Einstein equation demonstrates that OH may serve as an effective charge carrier in hydrous basaltic melt, which could partly account for the previously observed strong influence of water on electrical conductivity of basaltic melt.

  3. Activity of NaOH buffered by silicate solids in molten sodium acetate-water at 3170C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

    1988-01-01

    Silica and sodium acetate are present in the steam generator tube sheet crevices of many nuclear power plants. Trace solutes in the condensate are tremendously concentrated in the crevices by boiling. Sparingly soluble sodium silicates and other solids precipitate from the crevice liquid leaving an extremely concentrated molten mixture of water, sodium acetate and other salts. The precipitates buffer the activity of sodium hydroxide in the superheated liquid that remains. The activity of NaOH corresponding to the buffers quartz/sodium disilicate and sodium disilicate/sodium metasilicate at 317 0 C has been determined experimentally. The sodium hydroxide content of a sodium acetate-water melt buffered by these reactions was determined by chemical analysis, and the corresponding activity of NaOH at temperature was calculated using the recently published Pitzer-Simonson Model of molten salt-water mixtures. The molten mixture of sodium acetate and water plays the role solvent in these experiments and calculations. The free energies of formation of solid sodium silicates at 317 0 C were also determined. The activity of NaOH corresponding to other silicate and phosphate buffers was calculated using published thermodynamic data and estimated from phase diagrams

  4. DEPENDENCY OF SULFATE SOLUBILITY ON MELT COMPOSITION AND MELT POLYMERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.

    2004-01-01

    Sulfate and sulfate salts are not very soluble in borosilicate waste glass. When sulfate is present in excess it can form water soluble secondary phases and/or a molten salt layer (gall) on the melt pool surface which is purported to cause steam explosions in slurry fed melters. Therefore, sulfate can impact glass durability while formation of a molten salt layer on the melt pool can impact processing. Sulfate solubility has been shown to be compositionally dependent in various studies, (e.g. , B2O3, Li2O, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and Fe2O3 were shown to increase sulfate solubility while Al2O3 and SiO2 decreased sulfate solubility). This compositional dependency is shown to be related to the calculated melt viscosity at various temperatures and hence the melt polymerization

  5. Plasma arc melting of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubesing, P.K.; Korzekwa, D.R.; Dunn, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Zirconium, like some other refractory metals, has an undesirable sensitivity to interstitials such as oxygen. Traditionally, zirconium is processed by electron beam melting to maintain minimum interstitial contamination. Electron beam melted zirconium, however, does not respond positively to mechanical processing due to its large grain size. The authors undertook a study to determine if plasma arc melting (PAM) technology could be utilized to maintain low interstitial concentrations and improve the response of zirconium to subsequent mechanical processing. The PAM process enabled them to control and maintain low interstitial levels of oxygen and carbon, produce a more favorable grain structure, and with supplementary off-gassing, improve the response to mechanical forming

  6. Interstellar silicate analogs for grain-surface reaction experiments: Gas-phase condensation and characterization of the silicate dust grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, T.; Jäger, C. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Vidali, G. [Observatoire de Paris/Université de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay Lussac, F-95000 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Mutschke, H. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Astrophysical Institute and University Observatory, Friedrich Schiller University Jena Schillergässchen 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Henning, T., E-mail: tolou.sabri@uni-jena.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    Amorphous, astrophysically relevant silicates were prepared by laser ablation of siliceous targets and subsequent quenching of the evaporated atoms and clusters in a helium/oxygen gas atmosphere. The described gas-phase condensation method can be used to synthesize homogeneous and astrophysically relevant silicates with different compositions ranging from nonstoichiometric magnesium iron silicates to pyroxene- and olivine-type stoichiometry. Analytical tools have been used to characterize the morphology, composition, and spectral properties of the condensates. The nanometer-sized silicate condensates represent a new family of cosmic dust analogs that can generally be used for laboratory studies of cosmic processes related to condensation, processing, and destruction of cosmic dust in different astrophysical environments. The well-characterized silicates comprising amorphous Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, as well as the corresponding crystalline silicates forsterite and fayalite, produced by thermal annealing of the amorphous condensates, have been used as real grain surfaces for H{sub 2} formation experiments. A specifically developed ultra-high vacuum apparatus has been used for the investigation of molecule formation experiments. The results of these molecular formation experiments on differently structured Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} described in this paper will be the topic of the next paper of this series.

  7. Mafic-silicic magma interaction in the layered 1.87 Ga Soukkio Complex in Mäntsälä, southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni T. Eerola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Svecofennian layered Soukkio Complex (1.87 Ga in Mäntsälä, southern Finland, consists of layered tholeiitic gabbro and porphyritic calc-alkaline monzonite, quartz monzonite and granite, mingled together. The gabbro belongs to a group of ten mafic-ultramafic intrusions of Mäntsälä, part of the 150 km long and 20 km wide, linear, E-W trending Hyvinkää–Mäntsälä Gabbroic Belt(HMGB, representing syn-collisional magmatism. Structures and textures related to magma mingling and mixing occur in a 1–2 km wide zone around Lake Kilpijärvi, located at the center of the Soukkio Complex. The complex is compositionally stratified and consists of four zones:its base, found at the Western Zone, is a dynamically layered gabbro. The followingtonalite is probably a result of magma mixing. Felsic amoeboid layers and pipes, alternating with or cutting the fine-grained gabbro in the Central-Western Zone, resemble those of mafic-silicic layered intrusions in general. Mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs and pillows form the South-Central Zone and disrupted synplutonic mafic dykes or sheets intruded the granite in the Eastern Zone. The MMEs and disrupted synplutonic mafic dykes or sheets show cuspate and chilled margins against the felsic host, quartz ocelli, corroded K-feldspar xenocrysts with or without plagioclase mantles, and acicular apatite, all typical features of magma mingling and mixing. Mixing is suggested by intermediate composition of MMEs between granitoid and gabbro, as well as by their partly linear trends in some Harker diagrams. REE composition of the MMEs is similar to that of the Soukkio Gabbro, as expected for granite hosted MMEs. The model proposed for evolution of the Soukkio Complex involves intrusion of mafic magma into the crust, causing its partial melting. This generated granitic magma above the mafic chamber. Injections of mafic magma invaded the felsic chamber and those magmas interacted mainly by intermingling. Mingling and

  8. Silicic magma differentiation in ascent conduits. Experimental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Castro, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Crystallization of water-bearing silicic magmas in a dynamic thermal boundary layer is reproduced experimentally by using the intrinsic thermal gradient of piston-cylinder assemblies. The standard AGV2 andesite under water-undersaturated conditions is set to crystallize in a dynamic thermal gradient of about 35 °C/mm in 10 mm length capsules. In the hotter area of the capsule, the temperature is initially set at 1200 °C and decreases by programmed cooling at two distinct rates of 0.6 and 9.6 °C/h. Experiments are conducted in horizontally arranged assemblies in a piston cylinder apparatus to avoid any effect of gravity settling and compaction of crystals in long duration runs. The results are conclusive about the effect of water-rich fluids that are expelled out the crystal-rich zone (mush), where water saturation is reached by second boiling in the interstitial liquid. Expelled fluids migrate to the magma ahead of the solidification front contributing to a progressive enrichment in the fluxed components SiO2, K2O and H2O. The composition of water-rich fluids is modelled by mass balance using the chemical composition of glasses (quenched melt). The results are the basis for a model of granite magma differentiation in thermally-zoned conduits with application of in-situ crystallization equations. The intriguing textural and compositional features of the typical autoliths, accompanying granodiorite-tonalite batholiths, can be explained following the results of this study, by critical phenomena leading to splitting of an initially homogeneous magma into two magma systems with sharp boundaries. Magma splitting in thermal boundary layers, formed at the margins of ascent conduits, may operate for several km distances during magma transport from deep sources at the lower crust or upper mantle. Accordingly, conduits may work as chromatographic columns contributing to increase the silica content of ascending magmas and, at the same time, leave behind residual mushes that

  9. Investigation of the stability of melt flow in gating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Larsen, Per

    2011-01-01

    Melt flow in four different gating systems designed for production of brake discs was analysed experimentally and by numerical modelling. In the experiments moulds were fitted with glass fronts and melt flow was recorded on video. The video recordings were compared with modelling of melt flow...... in the gating systems. Particular emphasis was on analysing local pressure and formation of pressure waves in the gating system. It was possible to compare melt flow patterns in experiments directly to modelled flow patterns. Generally there was good agreement between flow patterns and filling times. However...... description of free liquid surfaces proved to be incorrect in the numerical model. Modelled pressure fields served to explain how specific parts of the gating systems cause instability and are a good tool to describe the quality of a gating system. The results shows clearly that sharp changes in the geometry...

  10. Nitrogen Control in VIM Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, P. D.; Hawk, J. A.

    NETL has developed a design and control philosophy for the addition of nitrogen to austenitic and ferritic steels. The design approach uses CALPHAD as the centerpiece to predict the level to which nitrogen is soluble in both the melt and the solid. Applications of this technique have revealed regions of "exclusion" in which the alloy, while within specification limits of prescribed, cannot be made by conventional melt processing. Furthermore, other investigations have found that substantial retrograde solubility of nitrogen exists, which can become problematic during subsequent melt processing and/or other finishing operations such as welding. Additionally, the CALPHAD method has been used to adjust primary melt conditions. To that end, nitrogen additions have been made using chrome nitride, silicon nitride, high-nitrogen ferrochrome as well as nitrogen gas. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach will be discussed and NETL experience in this area will be summarized with respect to steel structure.

  11. Theoretical melting curve of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simozar, S.; Girifalco, L.A.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    A statistical-mechanical model is developed to account for the complex melting curve of caesium. The model assumes the existence of three different species of caesium defined by three different electronic states. On the basis of this model, the free energy of melting and the melting curve are computed up to 60 kbar, using the solid-state data and the initial slope of the fusion curve as input parameters. The calculated phase diagram agrees with experiment to within the experimental error. Other thermodynamic properties including the entropy and volume of melting were also computed, and they agree with experiment. Since the theory requires only one adjustable constant, this is taken as strong evidence that the three-species model is satisfactory for caesium. (author)

  12. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)

  13. Pressure melting and ice skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, S. C.

    1995-10-01

    Pressure melting cannot be responsible for the low friction of ice. The pressure needed to reach the melting temperature is above the compressive failure stress and, if it did occur, high squeeze losses would result in very thin films. Pure liquid water cannot coexist with ice much below -20 °C at any pressure and friction does not increase suddenly in that range. If frictional heating and pressure melting contribute equally, the length of the wetted contact could not exceed 15 μm at a speed of 5 m/s, which seems much too short. If pressure melting is the dominant process, the water films are less than 0.08 μm thick because of the high pressures.

  14. Silicate grout curtains behaviour for the protection of coastal aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elektorowicz, M.; Chifrina, R.; Hesnawi, R.

    1997-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate the behaviour of silicate grout with different reagents (ethylacetate - formamide SA and calcium chloride SC) in pure silica sand and natural soils from coastal areas containing organic matter, clayey soil and silica sand. The grouted specimens were tested with simulated fresh and salt water. The setting process during chemical grouting in the soil and sand was studied. The grouting of soil and sand with SA caused a transfer to the environment of some compounds: sodium formate, sodium acetate, ammonia and part of the initial ethylacetate and formamide. This process had a tendency to decrease for approximately 4 months. The stability of specimens was low. The grouting of soil and sand with SC caused no significant contamination of the environment. The increase of pH of environmental water was even less than with SA grouting. Also, the stability of specimens is higher in comparison with SA grouting. Salt water protected the specimens grouted with SA and SC from destruction and prevented contamination

  15. Relationships between mineralization and silicic volcanism in the central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, P. W.; Halls, C.; Baker, M. C. W.

    1983-01-01

    Existing models for the genesis of porphyry copper deposits indicate that they formed in granodioritic stocks located in the infrastructure of andesitic stratovolcanoes. It is noted that sites of porphyry-type subvolcanic tin mineralization in the Eastern Cordillera of Bolivia are distinguished by the absence of such andesitic structures. The surface expression of a typical subvolcanic porphyry tin deposit is thought to be an extrusive dome of quartz latite porphyry, sometimes related to a larger caldera structure. Evidence from the El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Eocene magmatic belt in Chile indicates that it too may be more closely related to a silicic volcanic structure than to an andesitic stratovolcano. The dome of La Soufriere, Guadeloupe is offered as a modern analog for the surface expression of subvolcanic mineralization processes, with the phreatic eruptions there indicating the formation of hydrothermal breccia bodies in depths. It is pointed out that the occurrence of mineralized porphyries, millions of years after caldera formation, does not necessarily indicate that tin intrusions and mineralization are not genetically related to the subcaldera pluton, but may be a consequence of the long thermal histories (1-10 million years) of the lowermost parts of large plutons.

  16. Electronic structure calculations of calcium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterne, P.A.; Meike, A.

    1995-11-01

    Many phases in the calcium-silicate-hydrate system can develop in cement exposed over long periods of time to temperatures above 25 C. As a consequence, chemical reactions involving these phases can affect the relative humidity and water chemistry of a radioactive waste repository that contains significant amounts of cement. In order to predict and simulate these chemical reactions, the authors are developing an internally consistent database of crystalline Ca-Si-hydrate structures. The results of first principles electronic structure calculations on two such phases, wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ) and xonotlite (Ca 6 Si 6 O 17 (OH) 2 ), are reported here. The calculated ground state properties are in very good agreement with experiment, providing equilibrium lattice parameters within about 1--1.4% of the experimentally reported values. The roles of the different types of oxygen atoms, which are fundamental to understanding the energetics of crystalline Ca-Si-hydrates are briefly discussed in terms of their electronic state densities. The good agreement with experiment for the lattice parameters and the consistency of the electronic density of states features for the two structures demonstrate the applicability of these electronic structure methods in calculating the fundamental properties of these phases

  17. Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohsen

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... suppressive effects of sodium silicate in the polymer form were confirmed against powdery mildew and ... crops (such as rice) controls diseases and could reduce ... negative charge and sodium ions with a positive charge.

  18. Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Foletto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reaction mixture (expressed in terms of molar ratios NaOH/SiO2 and H2O/SiO2. About 90% silica conversion contained in the RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in closed system at 200 °C. The results showed that sodium silicate production from RHA can generate aggregate value to this residue.

  19. Thermodynamics of gas-metal-slag equilibria for applications in in situ and ex situ vitrification melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Reimann, G.A.

    1993-05-01

    An equilibrium thermodynamic model for melting mixed waste was evaluated using the STEPSOL computer code. STEPSOL uses free energy minimization techniques to predict equilibrium composition from input species and user selected species in the output. The model assumes equilibrium between gas, slag, and metallic phases. Input for the model was developed using compositional data from Pit 9 of the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Thermodynamic data were primarily from compilations published by the US Government. The results of model evaluation indicate that the amount of plutonium chloride or plutonium oxyhydroxide that would be evaporated into the vapor phase would be minor. Relatively more uranium chloride and uranium oxyhydroxide would be vaporized. However, a hazards analysis was not part of the present task. Minor amounts of plutonium and uranium would be reduced to the metallic state, but these amounts should alloy with the iron-chromium-nickel metallic phase. The vast majority of the plutonium and uranium are in the slag phase as oxides. Results of the calculations show that silica and silicates dominate the products and that the system is very reducing. The major gases are carbon monoxide and hydrogen, with lesser amounts of carbon dioxide and water. High vapor pressure metals are considered but were not analyzed using STEPSOL. STEPSOL does not make predictions of distribution of species between phases

  20. Synthesis of the Tube Silicate Litidionite and Structural Relationships between It and Some Other Silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-17

    CuSi4015 Others are agrellite, NaCa2Si4O0oF, 1 6 narsarsukite, Na2TiSi4O 1 7 miserite, KCa5 i2 07 Si601 5 (OH)F,18 and probably canasite , Na4K2Ca 5...and canasite are rare. Litidionite is apparently very rare, the only reported occurrence of it being in the crater of Mt. Vesuvius. Both litidionite1...narsarsukite, miserite, and probably canasite contain, like 13-19 lititionite, tube silicate ions. The first three contain ions that are the same as that in

  1. BWR core melt progression phenomena: Experimental analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the BWR Core Melt in Progression Phenomena Program, experimental results concerning severe fuel damage and core melt progression in BWR core geometry are used to evaluate existing models of the governing phenomena. These include control blade eutectic liquefaction and the subsequent relocation and attack on the channel box structure; oxidation heating and hydrogen generation; Zircaloy melting and relocation; and the continuing oxidation of zirconium with metallic blockage formation. Integral data have been obtained from the BWR DF-4 experiment in the ACRR and from BWR tests in the German CORA exreactor fuel-damage test facility. Additional integral data will be obtained from new CORA BWR test, the full-length FLHT-6 BWR test in the NRU test reactor, and the new program of exreactor experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on metallic melt relocation and blockage formation. an essential part of this activity is interpretation and use of the results of the BWR tests. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed experiment-specific models for analysis of the BWR experiments; to date, these models have permitted far more precise analyses of the conditions in these experiments than has previously been available. These analyses have provided a basis for more accurate interpretation of the phenomena that the experiments are intended to investigate. The results of posttest analyses of BWR experiments are discussed and significant findings from these analyses are explained. The ORNL control blade/canister models with materials interaction, relocation and blockage models are currently being implemented in SCDAP/RELAP5 as an optional structural component

  2. Comparison of silicon nanoparticles and silicate treatments in fenugreek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaralian, Sanam; Majd, Ahmad; Irian, Saeed; Najafi, Farzaneh; Ghahremaninejad, Farrokh; Landberg, Tommy; Greger, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Silicon (Si) fertilization improves crop cultivation and is commonly added in the form of soluble silicates. However, most natural plant-available Si originates from plant formed amorphous SiO 2 particles, phytoliths, similar to SiO 2 -nanoparticles (SiNP). In this work we, therefore, compared the effect by sodium silicate and that of SiNP on Si accumulation, activity of antioxidative stress enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, lignification of xylem cell walls and activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) as well as expression of genes for the putative silicon transporter (PST), defensive (Tfgd 1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and protein in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) grown in hydroponics. The results showed that Si was taken up from both silicate and SiNP treatments and increasing sodium silicate addition increased the translocation of Si to the shoot, while this was not shown with increasing SiNP addition. The silicon transporter PST was upregulated at a greater level when sodium silicate was added compared with SiNP addition. There were no differences in effects between sodium silicate and SiNP treatments on the other parameters measured. Both treatments increased the uptake and accumulation of Si, xylem cell wall lignification, cell wall thickness, PAL activity and protein concentration in seedlings, while there was no effect on antioxidative enzyme activity. Tfgd 1 expression was strongly downregulated in leaves at Si addition. The similarity in effects by silicate and SiNP would be due to that SiNP releases silicate, which may be taken up, shown by a decrease in SiNP particle size with time in the medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. PETROLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF CALC-SILICATE SCHISTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKONKOWO

    2012-02-29

    silicate reaction bands have higher contents of CaO and Sr and lower concentrations of K2O, Rb, Ni, and Ba relative to the calc-silicate schists; and relatively higher SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, K2O and P2O5 and lower ...

  4. Melting the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Results presented at the Quark Matter 97 conference, held in December in Tsukuba, Japan, have provided new insights into the confinement of quarks in matter. The current physics paradigm is that the inertial masses of protons and neutrons, and hence of practically all of the matter around us, originate in the zero-point energy caused by the confinement of quarks inside the small volume of the nucleon. Today, 25 years after Harald Fritzsch, Heinrich Leutwyler and Murray Gell-Mann proposed quantum chromodynamics (QCD) as a means for understanding strongly interacting particles such as nucleons and mesons, our understanding of strong interactions and quark confinement remains incomplete. Quarks and the gluons that bind them together have a ''colour'' charge that may be red, green or blue. But quarks are seen in particles that are white: baryons such as protons and neutrons consist of three quarks with different colour charges, while mesons consist of a quark and an antiquark, and again the colour charge cancels out. To prove that confinement arises from quark-gluon fluctuations in the vacuum that quantum theories dictate exists today, we need to find a way of freeing the colour charge of quarks. Experiments must therefore ''melt'' the vacuum to deconfine quarks and the colour charge. By colliding nuclei at high energies, we hope to produce regions of space filled with free quarks and gluons. This deconfined phase is known as the quark-gluon plasma. At the Tsukuba meeting, Scott Pratt of Michigan State University in the US discussed measurements that show that the hot dense state of matter created in these collisions exists for only 2x10 -23 s. So does the quark gluon plasma exist? No-one doubts that it did at one time, before the vacuum froze into its current state about 20 into the life of the universe, causing the nucleons to form as we know them today. The issue is whether we can recreate this early stage of the universe in laboratory experiments. And if we did

  5. Glacial melting in Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Tariyal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are amongst the most flimsy environments on Earth. They are prosperous repositories of biodiversity, water and providers of ecosystem goods and services on which downstream communities, both regional and global, rely. The transport of atmospheric pollutants and climate-altering substances can significantly impact high mountain areas, which are generally considered “clean” regions. The snow glaciers of the Himalayas, considered the “third pole”, one of the largest stores of water on the planet and accelerated melting could have far-reaching effects, such as flooding in the short-term and water shortages in the long-term as the glaciers shrink. The data available on temperature in Himalayas indicate that warming during last 3-4 decades has been more than the global average over the last century. Some of the values indicate that the Himalayas are warming 5-6 times more than the global average. Mountain systems are seen globally as the prime sufferers from climate change. There is a severe gap in the knowledge of the short and long-term implications of the impact of climate change on water and hazards in the Himalayas, and their downstream river basins. Most studies have excluded the Himalayan region because of its extreme and complex topography and the lack of adequate rain gauge data. There is an urgent need to close the knowledge gap by establishing monitoring schemes for snow, ice and water; downscaling climate models; applying hydrological models to predict water availability; and developing basin wide scenarios, which also take water demand and socioeconomic development into account. Climate change induced hazards such as floods, landslides and droughts will impose considerable stresses on the livelihoods of mountain people and downstream populations. Enhancing resilience and promoting adaptation in mountain areas have thus become among the most important priorities of this decade. It is important to strengthen local

  6. The application of silicon and silicates in dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, A-K; Geurtsen, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Silicates and silicate-based compounds are frequently used materials in dentistry. One of their major applications is their use as fillers in different dental filling materials such as glass-ionomer cements, compomers, composites, and adhesive systems. In these materials, the fillers react with acids during the setting process or they improve the mechanical properties by increasing physical resistance, thermal expansion coefficient and radiopacity in acrylic filling materials. They also reduce polymerization shrinkage, and increase esthetics as well as handling properties. Furthermore, silicates are used for the tribochemical silication of different surfaces such as ceramics or alloys. The silicate layer formed in this process is the chemical basis for silanes that form a bond between this layer and the organic composite matrix. It also provides a micromechanical bond between the surface of the material and the composite matrix. Silicates are also a component of dental ceramics, which are frequently used in dentistry, for instance for veneers, inlays, and onlays, for denture teeth, and for full-ceramic crowns or as crown veneering materials.

  7. High Pressure/Temperature Metal Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, G. A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of chemical elements during metal/silicate segregation and their resulting distribution in Earth's mantle and core provide insight into core formation processes. Experimental determination of partition coefficients allows calculations of element distributions that can be compared to accepted values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Tungsten (W) is a moderately siderophile element and thus preferentially partitions into metal versus silicate under many planetary conditions. The partitioning behavior has been shown to vary with temperature, silicate composition, oxygen fugacity, and pressure. Most of the previous work on W partitioning has been conducted at 1-bar conditions or at relatively low pressures, i.e. pressure. Predictions based on extrapolation of existing data and parameterizations suggest an increased pressured dependence on metal/ silicate partitioning of W at higher pressures 5. However, the dependence on pressure is not as well constrained as T, fO2, and silicate composition. This poses a problem because proposed equilibration pressures for core formation range from 27 to 50 GPa, falling well outside the experimental range, therefore requiring exptrapolation of a parametereized model. Higher pressure data are needed to improve our understanding of W partitioning at these more extreme conditions.

  8. Hadean silicate differentiation revealed by anomalous 142Nd in the Réunion hotspot source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. J.; Carlson, R.; Day, J. M.; Horan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Geochemical and geophysical data show that volcanic hotspots can tap ancient domains sequestered in Earth's deep mantle. Evidence from stable and long-lived radiogenic isotope systems has demonstrated that many of these domains result from tectonic and differentiation processes that occurred more than two billion years ago. Recent advances in the analysis of short-lived radiogenic isotopes have further shown that some hotspot sources preserve evidence for metal-silicate differentiation occurring within the first one percent of Earth's history. Despite these discoveries, efforts to detect variability in the lithophile 146Sm-142Nd (t1/2 = 103 Ma) system in Phanerozoic hotspot lavas have not yet detected significant global variation. We report 142Nd/144Nd ratios in Réunion Island basalts that are statistically distinct from the terrestrial Nd standard ranging to both higher and lower 142Nd/144Nd. Variations in 142Nd/144Nd, which total nearly 15 ppm on Réunion, are correlated with 3He/4He among both anomalous and non-anomalous samples. Such behavior implies that there were analogous changes in Sm/Nd and (U+Th)/3He that occurred during a Hadean silicate differentiation event and were not completely overprinted by the depleted mantle. Variations in the 142Nd-143Nd compositions of Réunion basalts can be explained by a single Hadean melting event producing enriched and depleted domains that partially re-mixed after 146Sm was no longer extant. Assuming differentiation occurred at pressures where perovskite is stable, anomalies of the magnitude observed in Réunion basalts require melting of at least 50% across a wide depth range, and up to 90% for melting at pressures near those of the deepest mantle. Models with best fits to Nd isotope data suggest this differentiation occurred around 4.40 Ga and mixing occurred after 4 Ga. This two-stage differentiation process nearly erased the ancient, anomalous 142Nd composition of the Réunion source and produced the relatively

  9. Effect of moisture and chitosan layered silicate on morphology and properties of chitosan/layered silicates films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.R.M.B. da; Santos, B.F.F. dos; Leite, I.F.

    2014-01-01

    Thin chitosan films have been for some time an object of practical assessments. However, to obtain biopolymers capable of competing with common polymers a significant improvement in their properties is required. Currently, the technology of obtaining polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites has proven to be a good alternative. This work aims to evaluate the effect of chitosan content (CS) and layered silicates (AN) on the morphology and properties of chitosan/ layered silicate films. CS/AN bionanocomposites were prepared by the intercalation by solution in the proportion 1:1 and 5:1. Then were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffraction (XRD) and X-ray thermogravimetry (TG). It is expected from the acquisition of films, based on different levels of chitosan and layered silicates, choose the best composition to serve as a matrix for packaging drugs and thus be used for future research. (author)

  10. Potassium silicate and calcium silicate on the resistance of soybean to Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of Asian Soybean Rust (ASR, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been difficult due to the aggressiveness of the pathogen and the lack of resistant cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray of potassium silicate (PS and soil amendment with calcium silicate (CS on soybean resistance to ASR. The PS solution was sprayed to leaves 24 hours prior to fungal inoculation while CS was amended to the soil at thirty-five days before sowing. The infection process of P. pachyrhizi was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The uredia on leaves of plants sprayed with PS were smaller and more compact than those observed on the leaves of plants grown in soil amended with CS or in soil non-amended with CS (control treatment. On leaves of plants from the control treatment, uredia produced many urediniospores at 9 days after inoculation, and the ASR severity was 15, 8 and 9%, respectively, for plants from control, PS and CS treatments. In conclusion, the spray of PS contributed to reduce the number of uredia per cm² of leaf area and both PS spray and CS resulted in lower ASR symptoms.

  11. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  12. Durability of Silicate Glasses: An Historical Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farges, Francois; Etcheverry, Marie-Pierre; Haddi, Amine; Trocellier, Patrick; Curti, Enzo; Brown, Gordon E. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    We present a short review of current theories of glass weathering, including glass dissolution, and hydrolysis of nuclear waste glasses, and leaching of historical glasses from an XAFS perspective. The results of various laboratory leaching experiments at different timescales (30 days to 12 years) are compared with results for historical glasses that were weathered by atmospheric gases and soil waters over 500 to 3000 years. Good agreement is found between laboratory experiments and slowly leached historical glasses, with a strong enrichment of metals at the water/gel interface. Depending on the nature of the transition elements originally dissolved in the melt, increasing elemental distributions are expected to increase with time for a given glass durability context

  13. Durability of Silicate Glasses: An Historical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farges, Francois; /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur. /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci.; Etcheverry, Marie-Pierre; /Marne la Vallee U.; Haddi, Amine; /Marne la Valle U.; Trocellier,; /Saclay; Curti, Enzo; /PSI, Villigen; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-01-02

    We present a short review of current theories of glass weathering, including glass dissolution, and hydrolysis of nuclear waste glasses, and leaching of historical glasses from an XAFS perspective. The results of various laboratory leaching experiments at different timescales (30 days to 12 years) are compared with results for historical glasses that were weathered by atmospheric gases and soil waters over 500 to 3000 years. Good agreement is found between laboratory experiments and slowly leached historical glasses, with a strong enrichment of metals at the water/gel interface. Depending on the nature of the transition elements originally dissolved in the melt, increasing elemental distributions are expected to increase with time for a given glass durability context.

  14. The Origin of the Compositional Diversity of Mercury's Surface Constrained From Experimental Melting of Enstatite Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujibar, A.; Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is known as an endmember planet as it is the most reduced terrestrial planet with the highest core/mantle ratio. MESSENGER spacecraft has shown that its surface is FeO-poor (2-4 wt%) and Srich (up to 6-7 wt%), which confirms the reducing nature of its silicate mantle. Moreover, high resolution images revealed large volcanic plains and abundant pyroclastic deposits, suggesting important melting stages of the Mercurian mantle. This interpretation was confirmed by the high crustal thickness (up to 100 km) derived from Mercury's gravity field. This is also corroborated by a recent experimental result that showed that Mercurian partial melts are expected to be highly buoyant within the Mercurian mantle and could have risen from depths as high as the core-mantle boundary. In addition MESSENGER spacecraft provided relatively precise data on major elemental compositions of Mercury's surface. These results revealed important chemical and mineralogical heterogeneities that suggested several stages of differentiation and re-melting processes. However, the extent and nature of compositional variations produced by partial melting remains poorly constrained for the particular compositions of Mercury (very reducing conditions, low FeO-contents and high sulfur-contents). Therefore, in this study, we investigated the processes that lead to the various compositions of Mercury's surface. Melting experiments with bulk Mercury-analogue compositions were performed and compared to the compositions measured by MESSENGER.

  15. Water- and Boron-Rich Melt Inclusions in Quartz from the Malkhan Pegmatite, Transbaikalia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Badanina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that the pegmatite-forming processes responsible for the formation of the Malkhan pegmatites started at magmatic temperatures around 720 °C. The primary melts or supercritical fluids were very water- and boron-rich (maximum values of about 10% (g/g B2O3 and over the temperature interval from 720 to 600 °C formed a pseudobinary solvus, indicated by the coexistence of two types of primary melt inclusions (type-A and type-B representing a pair of conjugate melts. Due to the high water and boron concentration the pegmatite-forming melts are metastable and can be characterized either as genuine melts or silicate-rich fluids. This statement is underscored by Raman spectroscopic studies. This study suggested that the gel state proposed by some authors cannot represent the main stage of the pegmatite-forming processes in the Malkhan pegmatites, and probably in all others. However there are points in the evolution of the pegmatites where the gel- or gel-like state has left traces in form of real gel inclusions in some mineral in the Malkhan pegmatite, however only in a late, fluid dominated stage.

  16. Melting of superheated molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeta, Ulyana; Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2017-07-01

    Melting dynamics of micrometer scale, polycrystalline samples of isobutane, dimethyl ether, methyl benzene, and 2-propanol were investigated by fast scanning calorimetry. When films are superheated with rates in excess of 105 K s-1, the melting process follows zero-order, Arrhenius-like kinetics until approximately half of the sample has transformed. Such kinetics strongly imply that melting progresses into the bulk via a rapidly moving solid-liquid interface that is likely to originate at the sample's surface. Remarkably, the apparent activation energies for the phase transformation are large; all exceed the enthalpy of vaporization of each compound and some exceed it by an order of magnitude. In fact, we find that the crystalline melting kinetics are comparable to the kinetics of dielectric α-relaxation in deeply supercooled liquids. Based on these observations, we conclude that the rate of non-isothermal melting for superheated, low-molecular-weight crystals is limited by constituent diffusion into an abnormally dense, glass-like, non-crystalline phase.

  17. Automatic Control of Silicon Melt Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Stickel, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    A new circuit, when combined with melt-replenishment system and melt level sensor, offers continuous closed-loop automatic control of melt-level during web growth. Installed on silicon-web furnace, circuit controls melt-level to within 0.1 mm for as long as 8 hours. Circuit affords greater area growth rate and higher web quality, automatic melt-level control also allows semiautomatic growth of web over long periods which can greatly reduce costs.

  18. Effect of layered silicate content on the morphology and thermal properties of Poly(vinyl alcohol) films; Efeito do teor de silicato em camadas na morfologia e propriedades termicas de filmes de poli(alcool vinilico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jessica R.M.B. da; Santos, Barbara F.F. dos; Leite, Itamara F., E-mail: jraquell@homail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of layered silicate content on the morphology and thermal properties of PVA films. The PVA/layered silicate (AN) films were prepared by intercalation solution, using 1 to 2% of bentonite with respect to the PVA total weight. Then the films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results of the FTIR revealed interaction between the functional groups of the PVA and the layered silicate. The XRD analysis showed that nanocomposites with intercalated and partially exfoliated morphology were obtained. The results of TG showed that the nanocomposite PVA/2%AN showed higher thermal stability compared to PVA/1%AN. The DSC results showed that the addition of AN to the PVA did not affect crystallization rate, as well as promoted a reduction in glass transition temperature and melting of the PVA. (author)

  19. COMPARISON OF SOL-GEL SILICATE COATINGS ON Ti SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA HORKAVCOVÁ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the submitted work was to prepare and to characterize two types of silicate coatings prepared by the sol-gel method using the dip-coating technique on a titanium substrate. Efforts have been made to use mechanical properties of bio-inert titanium and bioactive properties of a silicate layer enriched with an admixture of compounds identified below. The first group consisted of silicate coatings containing silver, brushite and monetite. The other group of silicate coatings contained calcium nitrate and triethyl phosphate. Mechanically and chemically treated titanium substrates were dipped into sols and dried and fired. Silicate coatings from the first group were also chemically treated in 10 mol.l-1 solution of sodium hydroxide. All coatings were measured to determine their adhesive and bioactive properties and furthermore the antibacterial properties were tested in the case of first group. Surfaces of the coated substrates were investigated after the firing and after the individual tests with optical and electron microscopy and X-ray microdiffraction. A tape test demonstrated excellent adhesive property of all coatings to the substrate, classified with degree 5. A static in vitro test demonstrated bioactivity of nearly all the coatings. The basic silicate coating from the first group and one type of coating from the second group were identified as inert. Antibacterial properties of silicate coatings containing silver showed to be different when tested against Escherichia coli bacteria. A complete inhibition of the growth of bacteria under our experimental conditions was observed for the coating containing silver and monetite and a partial inhibition of the growth of bacteria for coatings containing silver and silver in combination with brushite.

  20. Magnetic susceptibility of semiconductor melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutvitskij, V.A.; Shurygin, P.M.

    1975-01-01

    The temperature dependences chi of various alloys confirm the existence of cluster formations in molten semiconductors, the stability of these formations in melts being considerably affected by the anion nature. The concentrational dependences of the magnetic susceptibility for all the investigated systems exhibit the diamagnetism maxima corresponding to the compound compositions. Heating the melt causes ''smearing'' the maxima, which is related with the cluster structure dissociation. The existence of the maxima concentrational dependence chi corresponding to BiTe and BiSe is found in the isotherms. The non-linear dependence of chi on the composition shows the absence of a single-valued relation between the phase diagram and the chi-diagram for melts

  1. Argon Diffusion Measured in Rhyolite Melt at 100 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, N.; Edwards, P. M.; Watkins, J. M.; Lesher, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Argon diffusivity (D_{Ar} ) controls the rate and length scale of argon exchange between melt and gas phases and is used as a parameter to model noble gas fractionation during magma degassing. D_{Ar} may also be useful in geochronology to estimate the distribution of excess (non-radiogenic) atmospheric argon in lavas. Our measurements of D_{Ar} in molten anhydrous rhyolite near 1000 °C and 100 MPa add to the existing dataset. Using a rapid-quench cold seal pressure apparatus we exposed cylindrical charges drilled from a Miocene rhyolite flow near Buck Mtn., CA to a pure argon atmosphere resulting in a gradually lengthening argon concentration gradient between the saturated surface and the argon poor interior. Argon concentration was measured by electron microprobe along radial transects from the center to the surface of bisected samples. D_{Ar} was calculated for each transect by fitting relative argon concentration (as a function of distance from the surface) to Green's function (given each experiment's specific temperature, pressure and runtime). Variability (σ = 1.202{μm }^{2} /s) was smaller than in previous studies, but still greater than what is likely due to analytical or experimental uncertainty. We observed a symmetric geometric bias in the distribution of argon in our samples, possibly related to advective redistribution of argon accompanying the deformation of cylindrical charges into spheroids driven by surface tension. Average diffusivity, D_{Ar} = 4.791{μm }^{2} /s, is close to the predicted value, D_{Ar} = {μm }^{2} /s ( σ_{ \\bar{x} } = 1.576 {μm }^{2} /s), suggesting that Behrens and Zhang's (2001) empirical model is valid for anhydrous rhyolite melts to relatively higher temperatures and lower pressures. Behrens, H. and Y. Zhang (2001). "Ar diffusion in hydrous silicic melts: implications for volatile diffusion mechanisms and fractionation." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 192: 363-376.

  2. A subsurface Fe-silicate weathering microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napieralski, S. A.; Buss, H. L.; Roden, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional models of microbially mediated weathering of primary Fe-bearing minerals often invoke organic ligands (e.g. siderophores) used for nutrient acquisition. However, it is well known that the oxidation of Fe(II) governs the overall rate of Fe-silicate mineral dissolution. Recent work has demonstrated the ability of lithtrophic iron oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) to grow via the oxidation of structural Fe(II) in biotite as a source of metabolic energy with evidence suggesting a direct enzymatic attack on the mineral surface. This process necessitates the involvement of dedicated outer membrane proteins that interact with insoluble mineral phases in a process known as extracellular electron transfer (EET). To investigate the potential role FeOB in a terrestrial subsurface weathering system, samples were obtained from the bedrock-saprolite interface (785 cm depth) within the Rio Icacos Watershed of the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico. Prior geochemical evidence suggests the flux of Fe(II) from the weathering bedrock supports a robust lithotrophic microbial community at depth. Current work confirms the activity of microorganism in situ, with a marked increase in ATP near the bedrock-saprolite interface. Regolith recovered from the interface was used as inoculum to establish enrichment cultures with powderized Fe(II)-bearing minerals serving as the sole energy source. Monitoring of the Fe(II)/Fe(total) ratio and ATP generation suggests growth of microorganisms coupled to the oxidation of mineral bound Fe(II). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic libraries from in situ and enrichment culture samples lends further support to FeOB involvement in the weathering process. Multiple metagenomic bins related to known FeOB, including Betaproteobacteria genera, contain homologs to model EET systems, including Cyc2 and MtoAB. Our approach combining geochemistry and metagenomics with ongoing microbiological and genomic characterization of novel isolates obtained

  3. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Morgavi, Daniele; Namur, Olivier; Vetere, Francesco; Perugini, Diego; Mancinelli, Paolo; Pauselli, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    After more than four years of orbiting Mercury, NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft came to an end in late April 2015. MESSENGER has provided many new and surprising results. This session will again highlight the latest results on Mercury based on MESSENGER observations or updated modelling. The session will further address instrument calibration and science performance both retrospective on MESSENGER and on the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission. Papers covering additional themes related to Mercury are also welcomed. Please be aware that this session will be held as a PICO session. This will allow an intensive exchange of expertise and experience between the individual instruments and mission. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows S. Rossi1, D. Morgavi1, O. Namur2, D. Perugini1, F.Vetere1, P. Mancinelli1 and C. Pauselli1 1 Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, piazza Università 1, 06123 Perugia, Italy 2 Uni Hannover Institut für Mineralogie, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Callinstraβe 3, 30167 Hannover, Germany In this contribution we report new measurements of viscosity of synthetic komatitic melts, used the behaviour of silicate melts erupted at the surface of Mercury. Composition of Mercurian surface magmas was calculated using the most recent maps produced from MESSENGER XRS data (Weider et al., 2015). We focused on the northern hemisphere (Northern Volcanic Province, NVP, the largest lava flow on Mercury and possibly in the Solar System) for which the spatial resolution of MESSENGER measurements is high and individual maps of Mg/Si, Ca/Si, Al/Si and S/Si were combined. The experimental starting material contains high Na2O content (≈7 wt.%) that strongly influences viscosity. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out at 1 atm using a concentric cylinder apparatus equipped with an Anton Paar RheolabQC viscometer head at the Department of Physics and Geology (PVRG_lab) at the University of Perugia (Perugia, Italy

  4. On the rapid melt quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usatyuk, I.I.; Novokhatskij, I.A.; Kaverin, Yu.F.

    1994-01-01

    Specific features of instrumentation of traditionally employed method of melt spinning (rapid quenching), its disadvantages being discussed, were analyzed. The necessity of the method upgrading as applied to the problems of studying fine structure of molten metals and glasses was substantiated. The principle flowsheet of experimental facility for extremely rapid quenching of the melts of metals is described, specificity of its original functional units being considered. The sequence and character of all the principal stages of the method developed were discussed. 18 refs.; 3 figs

  5. Distribution, Microfabric, and Geochemical Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks in Central Orogenic Belt, China: Implications for a Hydrothermal Sedimentation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine siliceous rocks are widely distributed in the central orogenic belt (COB of China and have a close connection to the geological evolution and metallogenesis. They display periodic distributions from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic with positive peaks in the Mesoproterozoic, Cambrian—Ordovician, and Carboniferous—Permian and their deposition is enhanced by the tensional geological settings. The compressional regimes during the Jinning, Caledonian, Hercynian, Indosinian, and Yanshanian orogenies resulted in sudden descent in their distribution. The siliceous rocks of the Bafangshan-Erlihe ore deposit include authigenic quartz, syn-depositional metal sulphides, and scattered carbonate minerals. Their SiO2 content (71.08–95.30%, Ba (42.45–503.0 ppm, and ΣREE (3.28–19.75 ppm suggest a hydrothermal sedimentation origin. As evidenced by the Al/(Al + Fe + Mn, Sc/Th, (La/YbN, and (La/CeN ratios and δCe values, the studied siliceous rocks were deposited in a marginal sea basin of a limited ocean. We suggest that the Bafangshan-Erlihe area experienced high- and low-temperature stages of hydrothermal activities. The hydrothermal sediments of the former stage include metal sulphides and silica, while the latter was mainly composed of silica. Despite the hydrothermal sedimentation of the siliceous rocks, minor terrigenous input, magmatism, and biological activity partly contributed to geochemical features deviating from the typical hydrothermal characteristics.

  6. Heterogeneous nucleation of protein crystals on fluorinated layered silicate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Ino

    Full Text Available Here, we describe an improved system for protein crystallization based on heterogeneous nucleation using fluorinated layered silicate. In addition, we also investigated the mechanism of nucleation on the silicate surface. Crystallization of lysozyme using silicates with different chemical compositions indicated that fluorosilicates promoted nucleation whereas the silicates without fluorine did not. The use of synthesized saponites for lysozyme crystallization confirmed that the substitution of hydroxyl groups contained in the lamellae structure for fluorine atoms is responsible for the nucleation-inducing property of the nucleant. Crystallization of twelve proteins with a wide range of pI values revealed that the nucleation promoting effect of the saponites tended to increase with increased substitution rate. Furthermore, the saponite with the highest fluorine content promoted nucleation in all the test proteins regardless of their overall net charge. Adsorption experiments of proteins on the saponites confirmed that the density of adsorbed molecules increased according to the substitution rate, thereby explaining the heterogeneous nucleation on the silicate surface.

  7. Application Regarding the Butt-Welding Through Intermediate Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorel Ene

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It consists in presenting butt welding procedure through intermediate melting and its usage for manufacturing cutting tools type drill, tap screw, reamer by welding the active part (made of high-speed steel to the tool tail (made of unalloyed steel wit low carbon.

  8. Melt pool modelling, simulation and experimental validation for SLM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel

    2017-01-01

    SLM parts are built by successively melting layers of powder in a powder bed. Process parameters are often optimized experimentally by laser scanning a number of single tracks and subsequently determining which settings lead to a good compromise between quality and build speed. However,

  9. Crustal thermal state and origin of silicic magma in Iceland: the case of Torfajökull, Ljósufjöll and Snæfellsjökull volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2007-05-01

    Pleistocene and Holocene peralkaline rhyolites from Torfajökull (South Iceland Volcanic Zone) and Ljósufjöll central volcanoes and trachytes from Snæfellsjökull (Snæfellsnes Volcanic Zone) allow the assessment of the mechanism for silicic magma genesis as a function of geographical location and crustal geothermal gradient. The low δ18O (2.4‰) and low Sr concentration (12.2 ppm) measured in Torfajökull rhyolites are best explained by partial melting of hydrated metabasaltic crust followed by major fractionation of feldspar. In contrast, very high 87Sr/86Sr (0.70473) and low Ba (8.7 ppm) and Sr (1.2 ppm) concentrations measured in Ljósufjöll silicic lavas are best explained by fractional crystallisation and subsequent 87Rb decay. Snæfellsjökull trachytes are also generated by fractional crystallisation, with less than 10% crustal assimilation, as inferred from their δ18O. The fact that silicic magmas within, or close to, the rift zone are principally generated by crustal melting whereas those from off-rift zones are better explained by fractional crystallisation clearly illustrates the controlling influence of the thermal state of the crust on silicic magma genesis in Iceland.

  10. Stress and neutron scattering measurements on linear polymer melts undergoing steady elongational flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Mortensen, Kell; Bach, Anders

    2012-01-01

    We use small-angle neutron scattering to measure the molecular stretching in polystyrene melts undergoing steady elongational flow at large stretch rates. The radius of gyration of the central segment of a partly deuterated polystyrene molecule is, in the stretching direction, increasing...... exhibited by the linear polystyrene melt....

  11. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Some Properties of Bismuth Silicate Glasses and Their Glass Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo Hussein, E.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Glasses containing bismuth oxide have attracted considerable attention, although it is non-conventional glass forming oxide, but it has wide applications. In this work, it is aimed to prove that bismuth silicate glass can act as a good shielding material for γ- rays. For this purpose glass containing 20% bismuth oxide and 80% SiO_2 was prepared using melting-annealing technique. Also effects of adding some alkali heavy metal oxides to this glass such as PbO, BaO or SrO were also studied. The formed glasses were also heat treated at 450 degree C for 4 hours to give the corresponding heat treated glasses. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) measurements show that the prepared glasses and heat treated glasses have very good stability when exposed to γ- irradiation, which encourage the assumption of using these glasses as gamma ray shielding materials. Many properties have been investigated, such as density to understand the structural properties, also mechanical properties were verified by measuring microhardness, while the chemical resistance was identified by testing their durability in both acidic and basic solutions. The EPR results were supported by measuring electrical conductivity of the glass and heat treated glass samples at different temperatures ranging from 298 to 553 K, which proved that these glasses have very low conductivity even at high temperature. The formed phases of heat treated glass or glass ceramic samples were demonstrated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). Also studying the structure of glasses and heat treated glasses before and after irradiation was investigated by the Infrared transmitting spectra. Calculations of optical band gap energies were demonstrated for some selected glasses and heat treated glasses from the data of UV optical absorption spectra to support the probability of using these bismuth silicate glasses for gamma radiation shielding processing.

  12. Sodium silicate solutions from dissolution of glasswastes. Statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Carrasco, M.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It has studied the solubility process of four different waste glasses (with different particle sizes, 125 µm in alkaline solutions (NaOH and NaOH/Na₂CO₃ and water as a reference and under different conditions of solubility (at room temperature, at 80°C and a mechano-chemical process. Have established the optimal conditions of solubility and generation of sodium silicates solutions, and these were: the smaller particle size (Se ha estudiado el proceso de solubilidad de cuatro diferentes residuos vítreos (con distintas granulometrías, 125 µm en disoluciones alcalinas de NaOH y NaOH/Na₂CO₃ y agua como medio de referencia y bajo distintas condiciones de solubilidad (a temperatura ambiente, a 80°C y con un proceso mecano-químico. Se han establecido las condiciones óptimas de solubilidad y generación de disoluciones de silicato sódico, y estas son: menor tamaño de partícula del residuo vítreo (inferior a 45 µm, con la disolución de NaOH/Na₂CO₃ y tratamiento térmico a 80°C durante 6 horas de agitación. El análisis estadístico realizado a los resultados obtenidos da importancia a las variables estudiadas y a las interacciones de las mismas. A través de ²⁹Si RMN MAS se ha confirmado la formación, tras los procesos de disolución, de un silicato monomérico, apto para su utilización como activador en la preparación de cementos y hormigones alcalinos.

  13. Modeling Silicate Weathering for Elevated CO2 and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, E. W.

    2016-12-01

    A reactive transport model (RTM) is used to assess CO2 drawdown by silicate weathering over a wide range of temperature, pCO2, and infiltration rates for basalts and granites. Although RTM's have been used extensively to model weathering of basalts and granites for present-day conditions, we extend such modeling to higher CO2 that could have existed during the Archean and Proterozoic. We also consider a wide range of surface temperatures and infiltration rates. We consider several model basalt and granite compositions. We normally impose CO2 in equilibrium with the various atmospheric ranges modeled and CO2 is delivered to the weathering zone by aqueous transport. We also consider models with fixed CO2 (aq) throughout the weathering zone as could occur in soils with partial water saturation or with plant respiration, which can strongly influence pH and mineral dissolution rates. For the modeling, we use Kinflow: a model developed at Yale that includes mineral dissolution and precipitation under kinetic control, aqueous speciation, surface erosion, dynamic porosity, permeability, and mineral surface areas via sub-grid-scale grain models, and exchange of volatiles at the surface. Most of the modeling is done in 1D, but some comparisons to 2D domains with heterogeneous permeability are made. We find that when CO2 is fixed only at the surface, the pH tends toward higher values for basalts than granites, in large part due to the presence of more divalent than monovalent cations in the primary minerals, tending to decrease rates of mineral dissolution. Weathering rates increase (as expected) with increasing CO2 and temperature. This modeling is done with the support of the Virtual Planetary Laboratory.

  14. Coordinated HArd Sphere Model (CHASM): A Simplified Model for Silicate and Oxide Liquids at Mantle Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent first-principles theoretical calculations (Stixrude 2009) and experimental shock-wave investigations (Mosenfelder 2009) indicate that melting perovskite requires significantly less energy than previously thought, supporting the idea of a deep-mantle magma ocean early in Earth's history. The modern-day solid Earth is thus likely the result of crystallization from an early predominantly molten state, a process that is primarily controlled by the poorly understood behavior of silicate melts at extreme pressures and temperatures. Probing liquid thermodynamics at mantle conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, and further challenges are posed by the large relevant compositional space including at least MgO, SiO2, and FeO. First-principles molecular dynamics has been used with great success to determine the high P-T properties of a small set of fixed composition silicate-oxide liquids including MgO (Karki 2006), SiO2 (Karki 2007), Mg2SiO4 (de Koker 2008), MgSiO3 (Stixrude 2005), and Fe2SiO4 (Ramo 2012). While extremely powerful, this approach has limitations including high computational cost, lower bounds on temperature due to relaxation constraints, as well as restrictions to length scales and time scales that are many orders of magnitude smaller than those relevant to the Earth or experimental methods. As a compliment to accurate first-principles calculations, we have developed the Coordinated HArd Sphere Model (CHASM). We extend the standard hard sphere mixture model, recently applied to silicate liquids by Jing (2011), by accounting for the range of oxygen coordination states available to liquid cations. Utilizing approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, the method can predict complex liquid structure and thermodynamics while remaining computationally efficient. Requiring only minutes on standard desktop computers rather than months on supercomputers, the CHASM approach is well-suited to providing an approximate thermodynamic

  15. Deformation mechanisms and melt nano-structures in experimentally deformed olivine-orthopyroxene rocks with low melt fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloe, P.A. de

    2001-01-01

    The major part of the Earth’s upper mantle is thought to be solid, with some regions in the mantle where the rocks contain a small melt fraction These partially molten rocks are associated with important geological processes such as magma production beneath mid-oceanic ridges and may also play an

  16. Steam based conversion coating on AA6060 alloy: Effect of sodium silicate chemistry and corrosion performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Bordo, Kirill; Tabrizian, Naja; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-11-01

    Surface treatment of aluminium alloy AA6060 using an industrially applicable pilot steam jet system with and without silicate chemistry has been investigated. Treatment using steam alone and steam with silicate, resulted in an oxide layer formation with thickness ∼425 nm and ∼160 nm, respectively. Moreover, the use of sodium silicate resulted in the formation of distinct microstructure and incorporation of silicate into the oxide film. These oxide films reduced the anodic activity 4 times, while the corrosion protection by silicate containing oxide was the function of its concentration. Further, in acid salt spray and filiform corrosion tests, oxide layer containing silicate exhibited two times higher corrosion resistance.

  17. Rubber curing chemistry governing the orientation of layered silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing systems on the orientation and the dispersion of the layered silicates in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposite is reported. Significant differences in X-ray diffraction pattern between peroxide curing and sulfur curing was observed. Intense X-ray scattering values in the XRD experiments from peroxide cured vulcanizates indicate an orientation of the layers in a preferred direction as evinced by transmission electron micrographs. However, sulfur cured vulcanizates show no preferential orientation of the silicate particles. Nevertheless, a closer inspection of transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of peroxide and sulfur cured samples shows exfoliated silicate layers in the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR matrix. It was revealed in the prevailing study that the use of an excess amount of stearic acid in the formulation of the sulfur curing package leads to almost exfoliated type X-ray scattering pattern.

  18. Crystallochemical characteristics of alkali calcium silicates from charoitites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhdestvenskaya, I.V.; Nikishova, L.V.

    2002-01-01

    The characteristic features of the crystal structures of alkali calcium silicates from various deposits are considered. The structures of these minerals, which were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods, are described as the combinations of large construction modules, including the alternating layers of alkali cations and tubular silicate radicals (in canasite, frankamenite, miserite, and agrellite) and bent ribbons linked through hydrogen bonds in the layers (in tinaksite and tokkoite). The incorporation of impurities and the different ways of ordering them have different effects on the structures of these minerals and give rise to the formation of superstructures accompanied by a change of the space group (frankamenite-canasite), leading, in turn, to different mutual arrangements of the layers of silicate tubes and the formation of pseudopolytypes (agrellites), structure deformation, and changes in the unit-cell parameters (tinaksite-tokkoite)

  19. Petrophysical Analysis of Siliceous Ooze Sediments, Ormen Lange Field, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    , but apparent porosity indications in any other lithology, such as siliceous ooze, are wrong and they should be corrected. The apparent bulk density log should be influenced by the hydrogen in opal as also the neutron porosity tools because they are sensitive to the amount of hydrogen in a formation...... present in the solid. Some minerals of siliceous ooze, such as opal, have hydrogen in their structures which influences the measured hydrogen index (HI). The neutron tool obtains the combined signal of the HI of the solid phase and of the water that occupies the true porosity. The HI is equal to true...... to interpret lithology and the unusual physical properties of the studied intervals. The integration of all these data revealed that the studied siliceous ooze is a mixture of opal and non-opal (shale). Our results proved to be reasonably consistent. The studied intervals apparently do not contain hydrocarbons....

  20. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Silicate Grains by Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G Q M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W

    2007-03-28

    While a significant fraction of silicate dust in stellar winds has a crystalline structure, in the interstellar medium nearly all of it is amorphous. One possible explanation for this observation is the amorphization of crystalline silicates by relatively 'low' energy, heavy ion cosmic rays. Here we present the results of multiple laboratory experiments showing that single-crystal synthetic forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) amorphizes when irradiated by 10 MeV Xe{sup ++} ions at large enough fluences. Using modeling, we extrapolate these results to show that 0.1-5.0 GeV heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium.

  1. Synthesis and luminescence properties of erbium silicate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miritello, Maria; Lo Savio, Roberto; Iacona, Fabio; Franzo, Giorgia; Bongiorno, Corrado; Priolo, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the structure and the room temperature luminescence of erbium silicate thin films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering. Films deposited on silicon oxide layers are characterized by good structural properties and excellent stability. The optical properties of these films are strongly improved by rapid thermal annealing processes performed in the range of temperature 800-1250 deg. C. In fact through the reduction of the defect density of the material, a very efficient room temperature photoluminescence at 1535 nm is obtained. We have also investigated the influence of the annealing ambient, by finding that treatments in O 2 atmosphere are significantly more efficient in improving the optical properties of the material with respect to processes in N 2 . Upconversion effects become effective only when erbium silicate is excited with high pump powers. The evidence that all Er atoms (about 10 22 cm -3 ) in erbium silicate films are optically active suggests interesting perspectives for optoelectronic applications of this material

  2. Acoustic detection of melt particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costley, R.D. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Research Department at Sandia National Laboratories is investigating a type of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). In this particular type of accident, core meltdown occurs while the pressure within the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is high. If one of the instrument tube penetrations in the lower head fails, melt particles stream through the cavity and into the containment vessel. This experiment, which simulates this type accident, was performed in the Surtsev Direct Heating Test Facility which is approximately a 1:10 linear scaling of a large dry containment volume. A 1:10 linear scale model of the reactor cavity was placed near the bottom of the Surtsey vessel so that the exit of the cavity was at the vertical centerline of the vessel. A pressure vessel used to create the simulated molten core debris was located at the scaled height of the RPV. In order to better understand how the melt leaves the cavity and streams into the containment an array of five acoustic sensors was placed directly in the path of the melt particles about 30 feet from the exit of the sealed cavity. Highly damped, broadband sensors were chosen to minimize ringing so that individual particle hits could be detected. The goal was to count the signals produced by the individual particle hits to get some idea of how the melt particles left the cavity. This document presents some of the results of the experiment. 9 figs

  3. Thermodynamics of freezing and melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Costigliola, Lorenzo; Bailey, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    phases at a single thermodynamic state point provide the basis for calculating the pressure, density and entropy of fusion as functions of temperature along the melting line, as well as the variation along this line of the reduced crystalline vibrational mean-square displacement (the Lindemann ratio...

  4. Mathematical modeling of quartz particle melting process in plasma-chemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volokitin, Oleg, E-mail: volokitin-oleg@mail.ru; Volokitin, Gennady, E-mail: vgg-tomsk@mail.ru; Skripnikova, Nelli, E-mail: nks2003@mai.ru; Shekhovtsov, Valentin, E-mail: shehovcov2010@yandex.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Vlasov, Viktor, E-mail: rector@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Ave., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Among silica-based materials vitreous silica has a special place. The paper presents the melting process of a quartz particle under conditions of low-temperature plasma. A mathematical model is designed for stages of melting in the experimental plasma-chemical reactor. As calculation data show, quartz particles having the radius of 0.21≤ r{sub p} ≤0.64 mm completely melt at W = 0.65 l/s particle feed rate depending on the Nusselt number, while 0.14≤ r{sub p} ≤0.44 mm particles melt at W = 1.4 l/s. Calculation data showed that 2 mm and 0.4 mm quartz particles completely melted during and 0.1 s respectively. Thus, phase transformations occurred in silicon dioxide play the important part in its heating up to the melting temperature.

  5. Extensive young silicic volcanism produces large deep submarine lava flows in the NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, Robert W.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2018-04-01

    New field observations reveal that extensive (up to 402 km2) aphyric, glassy dacite lavas were erupted at multiple sites in the recent past in the NE Lau basin, located about 200 km southwest of Samoa. This discovery of volumetrically significant and widespread submarine dacite lava flows extends the domain for siliceous effusive volcanism into the deep seafloor. Although several lava flow fields were discovered on the flank of a large silicic seamount, Niuatahi, two of the largest lava fields and several smaller ones ("northern lava flow fields") were found well north of the seamount. The most distal portion of the northernmost of these fields is 60 km north of the center of Niuatahi caldera. We estimate that lava flow lengths from probable eruptive vents to the distal ends of flows range from a few km to more than 10 km. Camera tows on the shallower, near-vent areas show complex lava morphology that includes anastomosing tube-like pillow flows and ropey surfaces, endogenous domes and/or ridges, some with "crease-like" extrusion ridges, and inflated lobes with extrusion structures. A 2 × 1.5 km, 30-m deep depression could be an eruption center for one of the lava flow fields. The Lau lava flow fields appear to have erupted at presumptive high effusion rates and possibly reduced viscosity induced by presumptive high magmatic water content and/or a high eruption temperature, consistent with both erupted composition ( 66% SiO2) and glassy low crystallinity groundmass textures. The large areal extent (236 km2) and relatively small range of compositional variation ( σ = 0.60 for wt% Si02%) within the northern lava flow fields imply the existence of large, eruptible batches of differentiated melt in the upper mantle or lower crust of the NE Lau basin. At this site, the volcanism could be controlled by deep crustal fractures caused by the long-term extension in this rear-arc region. Submarine dacite flows exhibiting similar morphology have been described in ancient

  6. Dense Pure Tungsten Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianzheng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing using tungsten, a brittle material, is difficult because of its high melting point, thermal conductivity, and oxidation tendency. In this study, pure tungsten parts with densities of up to 18.53 g/cm3 (i.e., 96.0% of the theoretical density were fabricated by selective laser melting. In order to minimize balling effects, the raw polyhedral tungsten powders underwent a spheroidization process before laser consolidation. Compared with polyhedral powders, the spherical powders showed increased laser absorptivity and packing density, which helped in the formation of a continuous molten track and promoted densification.

  7. A dearth of intermediate melts at subduction zone volcanoes and the petrogenesis of arc andesites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, Olivier; Blundy, Jon

    2009-10-29

    Andesites represent a large proportion of the magmas erupted at continental arc volcanoes and are regarded as a major component in the formation of continental crust. Andesite petrogenesis is therefore fundamental in terms of both volcanic hazard and differentiation of the Earth. Andesites typically contain a significant proportion of crystals showing disequilibrium petrographic characteristics indicative of mixing or mingling between silicic and mafic magmas, which fuels a long-standing debate regarding the significance of these processes in andesite petrogenesis and ultimately questions the abundance of true liquids with andesitic composition. Central to this debate is the distinction between liquids (or melts) and magmas, mixtures of liquids with crystals, which may or may not be co-genetic. With this distinction comes the realization that bulk-rock chemical analyses of petrologically complex andesites can lead to a blurred picture of the fundamental processes behind arc magmatism. Here we present an alternative view of andesite petrogenesis, based on a review of quenched glassy melt inclusions trapped in phenocrysts, whole-rock chemistry, and high-pressure and high-temperature experiments. We argue that true liquids of intermediate composition (59 to 66 wt% SiO(2)) are far less common in the sub-volcanic reservoirs of arc volcanoes than is suggested by the abundance of erupted magma within this compositional range. Effective mingling within upper crustal magmatic reservoirs obscures a compositional bimodality of melts ascending from the lower crust, and masks the fundamental role of silicic melts (>/=66 wt% SiO(2)) beneath intermediate arc volcanoes. This alternative view resolves several puzzling aspects of arc volcanism and provides important clues to the integration of plutonic and volcanic records.

  8. ∼2 μm fluorescence radiative dynamics and energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in silicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Xueqiang; Guo, Yanyan; Hao, Wei; Hu, Lili; Zhang, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A Er 3+ /Tm 3+ co-doped silicate glass with good thermal stability (k gl = 0.402 for STE glass) is prepared. • Efficient ∼2 μm emission is observed under 808 nm and 980 nm laser excitation. • The glass structure and spectroscopic properties are confirmed by optical absorption, IR transmission, Raman and fluorescence studies. • The content of OH groups deceases efficiently after fluorine ions are introduced. • The energy transfer coefficient from Er 3+ to Tm 3+ in STFE glass is 13.39 × 10 −40 cm 6 /s. - Abstract: A Er 3+ /Tm 3+ co-doped silicate glass with good thermal stability is prepared by melt-quenching method. An efficient emission of ∼2 μm is observed under different selective laser excitations. The optical absorption and transmission spectra, Raman spectra, and emission spectra are tested to characterize ∼2 μm emission properties of Er 3+ /Tm 3+ co-doped silicate glasses and a reasonable energy transfer mechanism of ∼2 μm emission between Er 3+ and Tm 3+ ions is proposed. Based on the optical absorption spectra, the Judd–Ofelt parameters and radiative properties were calculated. Intense ∼2 μm emission is obtained from Er 3+ /Tm 3+ co-doped silicate glasses due to the efficient energy transfer from Er 3+ to Tm 3+ ions. The energy transfer coefficient from Er 3+ to Tm 3+ ions can reach as high as 13.39 × 10 −40 cm 6 /s. In addition, the population of the OH groups is decreased and the ∼2 μm emission is effectively enhanced with fluoride introduction. The emission property, together with good thermal property, indicates that Er 3+ /Tm 3+ co-doped silicate glass is a potential kind of laser glass for efficient ∼2 μm laser

  9. Leaf application of silicic acid to upland rice and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Si (stabilized silicic acid, Silamol® leaf application on mineral nutrition and yield in upland rice and corn crops. The treatments were the control (without Si and Si foliar split spraying using 2 L ha-1 of the Silamol® commercial product, with 0.8% soluble Si as concentrated stabilized silicic acid. Silicon leaf application increased the concentrations of K, Ca and Si in rice and corn leaves, the number of panicles per m2 of rice and the number of grains per ear of corn; accordingly, the Si leaf application provided a higher grain yield in both crops.

  10. Observation of melting conditions in selective laser melting of metals (SLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombansen, U.; Abels, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Process observation in 3D printing of metals currently is one of the central challenges. Many companies strive to employ this additive manufacturing process in their production chains in order to gain competitive advantages through added flexibility in product design and embedded features. The new degrees of freedom are accompanied with the challenge to manufacture every detail of the product to the predefined specifications. Products with filigree internal structures for example require a perfect build to deliver the performance that was designed into these structures. Melting conditions determine properties such as grain structure and density of the finished part before it is sent to post processing steps. Monitoring of such melting conditions is still a challenge where the use of photodiodes, pyrometry and camera systems contribute to an overall picture that might identify errors or deviations during the build process. Additional considerations must be made to decide if these sensors are applied coaxially or from a lateral perspective. Furthermore, setting parameters of focal plane array (FPA) sensors are discussed and events that are seen in the machine vision image are compared against the pyrometry data. The resume of the experiments suggests the application of multiple sensors to the selective laser melting process (SLM) as they jointly contribute to an identification of events. These events need to be understood in order to establish cause effect relationships in the future.

  11. Transient induced tungsten melting at the Joint European Torus (JET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, J. W.; Matthews, G. F.; Krieger, K.; Iglesias, D.; Bunting, P.; Corre, Y.; Silburn, S.; Balboa, I.; Bazylev, B.; Conway, N.; Coffey, I.; Dejarnac, R.; Gauthier, E.; Gaspar, J.; Jachmich, S.; Jepu, I.; Makepeace, C.; Scannell, R.; Stamp, M.; Petersson, P.; Pitts, R. A.; Wiesen, S.; Widdowson, A.; Heinola, K.; Baron-Wiechec, A.; Contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    successfully reproduced the findings from the original leading edge exposure. Since the ILW-1 experiments, the exposed misaligned lamella has now been retrieved from the JET machine and post mortem analysis has been performed. No obvious mass loss is observed. Profilometry of the ILW-1 lamella shows the structure of the melt damage which is in line with the modell predictions thus allowing further model validation. Nuclear reaction analysis shows a tenfold reduction in surface deuterium concentration in the molten surface in comparison to the non-molten part of the lamella.

  12. Effect of antimony-oxide on the shielding properties of some sodium-boro-silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoulfakar, A M; Abdel-Ghany, A M; Abou-Elnasr, T Z; Mostafa, A G; Salem, S M; El-Bahnaswy, H H

    2017-09-01

    Some sodium-silicate-boro-antimonate glasses having the molecular composition [(20) Na 2 O - (20) SiO 2 - (60-x) B 2 O 3 - (x) Sb 2 O 3 (where x takes the values 0, 5 … or 20)] have been prepared by the melt quenching method. The melting and annealing temperatures were 1500 and 650K respectively. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the experimental and empirical density and molar volume values showed gradual increase with increasing Sb 2 O 3 content. The empirical densities showed higher values than those obtained experimentally, while the empirical molar volume values appeared lower than those obtained experimentally, which confirm the amorphous nature and randomness character of the studied samples. The experimentally obtained shielding parameters were approximately coincident with those obtained theoretically by applying WinXCom program. At low gamma-ray energies (0.356 and 0.662MeV) Sb 2 O 3 has approximately no effect on the total Mass Attenuation Coefficient, while at high energies it acts to increase the total Mass Attenuation Coefficient gradually. The obtained Half Value Layer and Mean Free Path values showed gradual decrease as Sb 2 O 3 was gradually increased. Also, the Total Mass Attenuation Coefficient values obtained between about 0.8 and 3.0MeV gamma-ray energy showed a slight decrease, as gamma-ray photon energy increased. This may be due to the differences between the Attenuation Coefficients of both antimony and boron oxides at various gamma-ray photon energies. However, it can be stated that the addition of Sb 2 O 3 into sodium-boro-silicate glasses increases the gamma-ray Attenuation Coefficient and the best sample is that contains 20 mol% of Sb 2 O 3 , which is operating well at 0.356 and 0.662MeV gamma-ray. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and licensing of a melting plant for Chernobyl scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappok, M.; Zunk, H.; Fashevsky, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    One decade after the accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a melting plant for radioactively contaminated metallic materials, the so-called SURF facility, is being planned and licensed for erection in the direct neighbourhood of the NPP area. Main goal is the recycling of the material largely decontaminated by the melting process, by means of manufacturing of casks and containers for waste disposal and of shielding equipment. The melting plant will be part of the Ukrainian waste handling centre (CPPRO). The technology is based on the long-term experience gained at Siempelkamp's CARLA plant in Krefeld. Within 1995 and 1996 the licensing conditions were defined, the licensing documents prepared and the formal procedure initiated. The complex is scheduled to start operation in 2001, in case the necessary financing is allocated. To this end the proposed site of the facility has undergone the state assessment. The technical documentation for construction is at the stage of development. (author)

  14. Estimating the melting point, entropy of fusion, and enthalpy of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entropies of fusion, enthalies of fusion, and melting points of organic compounds can be estimated through three models developed using the SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) platform. The entropy of fusion is modeled through a combination of interaction terms and physical descriptors. The enthalpy of fusion is modeled as a function of the entropy of fusion, boiling point, and fexibility of the molecule. The melting point model is the enthlapy of fusion divided by the entropy of fusion. These models were developed in part to improve SPARC's vapor pressure and solubility models. These models have been tested on 904 unique compounds. The entropy model has a RMS of 12.5 J mol-1K-1. The enthalpy model has a RMS of 4.87 kJ mol-1. The melting point model has a RMS of 54.4°C. Published in the journal, SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of selective laser melted magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.C.; Savalani, M.M.; Lau, M.L.; Man, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of laser processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of selective laser-melted magnesium were investigated. The results show that the microstructure characteristics of the laser-melted samples are dependent on the grain size of SLM magnesium. The grains in the molten zone coarsen as the laser energy density increases. In addition, the average hardness values of the molten zone decreases significantly with an increase of the laser energy densities and then decreased slowly at a relatively high laser energy density irrespective of mode of irradiation. The hardness value was obtained from 0.59 to 0.95 GPa and corresponding elastic modulus ranging from 27 to 33 GPa. The present selective laser-melted magnesium parts are promising for biomedical applications since the mechanical properties are more closely matched with human bone than other metallic biomaterials.

  16. On high-pressure melting of tantalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Nian; Swift, Damian C.

    2007-01-01

    The issues related to high-pressure melting of Ta are discussed within the context of diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments, theoretical calculations and common melting models. The discrepancies between the extrapolations of the DAC melting curve and the melting point inferred from shock wave experiments, cannot be reconciled either by superheating or solid-solid phase transition. The failure to reproduce low-pressure DAC melting curve by melting models such as dislocation-mediated melting and the Lindemann law, and molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics-based calculations, undermines their predictions at moderate and high pressures. Despite claims to the contrary, the melting curve of Ta (as well as Mo and W) remains inconclusive at high pressures.

  17. Deformation, static recrystallization, and reactive melt transport in shallow subcontinental mantle xenoliths (Tok Cenozoic volcanic field, SE Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Andréa; Vauchez, Alain; Ionov, Dmitri A.

    2008-07-01

    Partial melting and reactive melt transport may change the composition, microstructures, and physical properties of mantle rocks. Here we explore the relations between deformation and reactive melt transport through detailed microstructural analysis and crystallographic orientation measurements in spinel peridotite xenoliths that sample the shallow lithospheric mantle beneath the southeastern rim of the Siberian craton. These xenoliths have coarse-grained, annealed microstructures and show petrographic and chemical evidence for variable degrees of reaction with silicate melts and fluids, notably Fe-enrichment and crystallization of metasomatic clinopyroxene (cpx). Olivine crystal preferred orientations (CPO) range from strong to weak. [010]-fiber patterns, characterized by a point concentration of [010] normal to the foliation and by dispersion of [100] in the foliation plane with a weak maximum parallel to the lineation, predominate relative to the [100]-fiber patterns usually observed in lithospheric mantle xenoliths and peridotite massifs. Variations in olivine CPO patterns or intensity are not correlated with modal and chemical compositions. This, together with the analysis of microstructures, suggests that reactive melt percolation postdated both deformation and static recrystallization. Preferential crystallization of metasomatic cpx along (010) olivine grain boundaries points to an influence of the preexisting deformation fabrics on melt transport, with higher permeability along the foliation. Similarity between orthopyroxene (opx) and cpx CPO suggests that cpx orientations may be inherited from those of opx during melt-rock reaction. As observed in previous studies, reactive melt transport does not weaken olivine CPO and seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle, except in melt accumulation domains. In contrast, recovery and selective grain growth during static recrystallization may lead to development of [010]-fiber olivine CPO and, if foliations are

  18. Obtainment and characterization of pure and doped gadolinium oxy ortho silicates with terbium III, precursor of luminescent silicates with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoneti, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Silicate and sulfide lattices are uniquely efficient luminescent materials to excitation by cathodic rays and furthermore the cathodoluminescence study of these compounds have been few investigated. In this work it has been prepared, characterized and investigated some spectroscopic properties of pure and Tb a+ - activated Gd 2 Si O 3 system and it has been tried to substitute oxygen by sulphur in order to obtain this or sulfide-silicate lattices. Products were characterized by vibrational infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction patterns and electronic emission in UV-VIS region. (author)

  19. On melting of boron phosphide under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Solozhenko, Vladimir; Mukhanov, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Melting of cubic boron phosphide, BP, has been studied at pressures to 9 GPa using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements. It has been found that above 2.6 GPa BP melts congruently, and the melting curve exhibits negative slope (–60 ± 7 K/GPa), which is indicative of a higher density of the melt as compared to the solid phase.

  20. Non-conservative controls on distribution of dissolved silicate in Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Joseph, T.; Nair, M.

    Cochin backwater system was studied with regard to dissolved silicate (DSi) to understand its seasonal distribution and behaviour during estuarine mixing. Silicate had a linear relationship with salinity during the high river discharge period...

  1. Wind-Eroded Silicate as a Source of Hydrogen Peroxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, E. N.; Merrison, J. P.; Jensen, S. K.; Nørnberg, P.; Finster, K.

    2014-07-01

    Laboratory simulations show that wind-eroded silicate can be a source of hydrogen peroxide. The ubiquitous, fine-grained silicate dust might thus explain the oxidizing properties of the martian soil and affect the preservation of organic compounds.

  2. SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION'S SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Applications Analysis Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization treatment process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of hazardous waste. The STC immobilization technology utilizes a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stab...

  3. E-Beam-Cured Layered-Silicate and Spherical Silica Epoxy Nanocomposites (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Chenggang; Anderson, David P

    2007-01-01

    .... The nanofillers can be two dimensional (layered-silicate) and zero dimensional (spherical silica). Both the spherical silica epoxy nanocomposite and the layered-silicate epoxy nanocomposite can be cured to a high degree of curing...

  4. Petrological Geodynamics of Mantle Melting I. AlphaMELTS + Multiphase Flow: Dynamic Equilibrium Melting, Method and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Tirone

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex process of melting in the Earth's interior is studied by combining a multiphase numerical flow model with the program AlphaMELTS which provides a petrological description based on thermodynamic principles. The objective is to address the fundamental question of the effect of the mantle and melt dynamics on the composition and abundance of the melt and the residual solid. The conceptual idea is based on a 1-D description of the melting process that develops along an ideal vertical column where local chemical equilibrium is assumed to apply at some level in space and time. By coupling together the transport model and the chemical thermodynamic model, the evolution of the melting process can be described in terms of melt distribution, temperature, pressure and solid and melt velocities but also variation of melt and residual solid composition and mineralogical abundance at any depth over time. In this first installment of a series of three contributions, a two-phase flow model (melt and solid assemblage is developed under the assumption of complete local equilibrium between melt and a peridotitic mantle (dynamic equilibrium melting, DEM. The solid mantle is also assumed to be completely dry. The present study addresses some but not all the potential factors affecting the melting process. The influence of permeability and viscosity of the solid matrix are considered in some detail. The essential features of the dynamic model and how it is interfaced with AlphaMELTS are clearly outlined. A detailed and explicit description of the numerical procedure should make this type of numerical models less obscure. The general observation that can be made from the outcome of several simulations carried out for this work is that the melt composition varies with depth, however the melt abundance not necessarily always increases moving upwards. When a quasi-steady state condition is achieved, that is when melt abundance does not varies significantly

  5. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  6. The V3+-V5+ redox equilibrium reaction and magnetic properties of vanadium ions in binary alkali silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.S.; Singh, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation-reduction equilibrium in binary alkali silicate glasses containing V 3+ , V 4+ and V 5+ ions was studied at 1400 degC in air atmosphere. The ionic equation representing the V 3+ -V 5+ redox equilibrium reaction was used to represent the V 3+ -V 4+ -V 5+ redox reactions in glasses as V 4+ ion was an intermediate species. The V 3+ -V 5+ redox equilibrium was found to shift more towards the oxidized state with the increasing ionic radii of alkali ions or with the increasing concentration of alkali oxide in the same series of glasses. The slopes of the straight lines obtained on plotting log ([V 5+ ]/[V 3+ ][pO 2 ] 1/2 ) against mol% R 2 O (R + = Li + , Na + and K + ions) in binary alkali silicate glasses were approximately inversely proportional to the coulombic force between the alkali ions and nonbridging oxygen ions. This indicates the redox equilibrium shifted more towards oxidized state with increasing oxygen ion activity in the glass. The loss of vanadium from the glass melts with the duration of heat treatment was observed due to volatilization at high temperature, which did not influence the V 3+ -V 5+ redox equilibrium. Magnetic susceptibility of the present glasses, measured at room temperature, did not show any sign of paramagnetism which might be due to the presence of smaller concentration of V 3+ and V 4+ ions in the glass. Further, it indicated a strong diamagnetism because of the presence of higher proportion of vanadium in pentavalent state in the glasses. However, the optical absorption spectra or a silicate glass containing ions of vanadium indicated the presence of V 3+ , V 4+ and V 5+ ions. (author)

  7. Late metal-silicate separation on the IAB parent asteroid: Constraints from combined W and Pt isotopes and thermal modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Alison C.; Cook, David L.; Lichtenberg, Tim; Reger, Philip M.; Ek, Mattias; Golabek, Gregor J.; Schönbächler, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The short-lived 182Hf-182W decay system is a powerful chronometer for constraining the timing of metal-silicate separation and core formation in planetesimals and planets. Neutron capture effects on W isotopes, however, significantly hamper the application of this tool. In order to correct for neutron capture effects, Pt isotopes have emerged as a reliable in-situ neutron dosimeter. This study applies this method to IAB iron meteorites, in order to constrain the timing of metal segregation on the IAB parent body. The ε182W values obtained for the IAB iron meteorites range from -3.61 ± 0.10 to -2.73 ± 0.09. Correlating εiPt with ε182W data yields a pre-neutron capture ε182W of -2.90 ± 0.06. This corresponds to a metal-silicate separation age of 6.0 ± 0.8 Ma after CAI for the IAB parent body, and is interpreted to represent a body-wide melting event. Later, between 10 and 14 Ma after CAI, an impact led to a catastrophic break-up and subsequent reassembly of the parent body. Thermal models of the interior evolution that are consistent with these estimates suggest that the IAB parent body underwent metal-silicate separation as a result of internal heating by short-lived radionuclides and accreted at around 1.4 ± 0.1 Ma after CAIs with a radius of greater than 60 km.

  8. Effect of ZnO on the Physical Properties and Optical Band Gap of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Mohd Hafiz Mohd; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Aziz, Sidek Hj. Abdul; Zakaria, Azmi; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS) glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible) region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased. PMID:22837711

  9. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates subjected to additional annealing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Nevrlá, Barbara; Neufuss, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 105-114 ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Annealing * Dielectric properties * Plasma spraying * Silicates * Electrical properties * Insulators Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films http://pccc.icrc.ac.ir/Articles/1/18/990/

  10. Vesuvianite–wollastonite–grossular-bearing calc-silicate rock near ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Felsic layers are white in colour, whereas mafic layers range from green, brown to grey colour depending on the modal abundance of different mafic minerals. Layers rich in diopside are green coloured and those rich in garnet are brown. Keywords. Vesuvianite; wollastonite; grossular; diopside; calc-silicate rock. J. Earth ...

  11. Decreased water flowing from a forest amended with calcium silicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark B. Green; Amey S. Bailey; Scott W. Bailey; John J. Battles; John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Lucie C. Lepine; Gene E. Likens; Scott V. Ollinger; Paul G. Schaberg

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition during the 20th century caused widespread depletion of available soil calcium (Ca) throughout much of the industrialized world. To better understand how forest ecosystems respond to changes in a component of acidification stress, an 11.8-ha watershed was amended with wollastonite, a calcium silicate mineral, to restore available soil Ca to preindustrial...

  12. Preparation of β-belite using liquid alkali silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutník, P.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is the preparation of β-belite by a solid-state reaction using powdered limestone, amorphous silica and liquid alkali silicates. The raw materials were blended, the mixtures were agglomerated and then burnt. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Free lime content in the β-belite samples was also determined. The effects of CaO/SiO2 ratio (1.6–2.1), burning temperature (800–1400 °C), utilization of different raw materials (silica fume, synthetic silica, potassium silicate, sodium silicate, potassium hydroxide) and burning time (0.5–16 h) on free lime content and mineralogical composition were investigated. The purest ?-belite samples were prepared from a mixture of powdered limestone, silica fume and liquid potassium silicate with a ratio CaO/SiO2 = 2 by burning at temperatures between 1100 and 1300 °C for more than 2 h. Decreasing of the CaO/SiO2 ratio led to rankinite formation and lower a burning temperature led to the formation of wollastonite. [es

  13. Silicon K-edge XANES spectra of silicate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dien; Bancroft, G. M.; Fleet, M. E.; Feng, X. H.

    1995-03-01

    Silicon K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of a selection of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals have been measured using synchrotron radiation (SR). The spectra are qualitatively interpreted based on MO calculation of the tetrahedral SiO{4/4-}cluster. The Si K-edge generally shifts to higher energy with increased polymerization of silicates by about 1.3 eV, but with considerable overlap for silicates of different polymerization types. The substitution of Al for Si shifts the Si K-edge to lower energy. The chemical shift of Si K-edge is also sensitive to cations in more distant atom shells; for example, the Si K-edge shifts to lower energy with the substitution of Al for Mg in octahedral sites. The shifts of the Si K-edge show weak correlation with average Si-O bond distance (dSi-O), Si-O bond valence (sSi-O) and distortion of SiO4 tetrahedra, due to the crystal structure complexity of silicate minerals and multiple factors effecting the x-ray absorption processes.

  14. Preparation and characterization of magnesium–aluminium–silicate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A three-stage heating schedule involving calcination, nucleation and crystallization, has been evolved for the preparation of magnesium aluminium silicate (MAS) glass ceramic with MgF2 as a nucleating agent. The effect of sintering temperature on the density of compacted material was studied. Microstructure and ...

  15. Effect of antioxidants and silicates on peroxides in povidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ajit S; Rao, Venkatramana M; Desai, Divyakant S

    2012-01-01

    Reactive peroxides in povidone often lead to degradation of oxidation-labile drugs. To reduce peroxide concentration in povidone, the roles of storage conditions, antioxidants, and silicates were investigated. Povidone alone and its physical mixtures with ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, sodium sulfite, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were stored at 25 °C and 40 °C, at 11%, 32%, and 50% relative humidity. In addition, povidone solution in methanol was equilibrated with silicates (silica gel and molecular sieves), followed by solvent evaporation to recover povidone powder. Peroxide concentrations in povidone were measured. The concentration of peroxides in povidone increased under very-low-humidity storage conditions. Among the antioxidants, ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, and sodium sulfite reduced the peroxide concentration in povidone, whereas BHA and BHT did not. Water solubility appeared to determine the effectiveness of antioxidants. Also, some silicates significantly reduced peroxide concentration in povidone without affecting its functionality as a tablet binder. Porosity of silicates was critical to their ability to reduce the peroxide concentration in povidone. A combination of these approaches can reduce the initial peroxide concentration in povidone and minimize peroxide growth under routine storage conditions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Mineralogy and trace element chemistry of the Siliceous Earth of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    We report the presence of a 3–5 cm thick loose fragmental layer in the Siliceous Earth at Matti ka. Gol in the Barmer basin of Rajasthan. Petrographic, chemical and mineralogical study reveals the presence of abundant volcanic debris such as glass shards, agglutinates, hollow spheroids, kinked biotites, feldspars showing ...

  17. Small angle X-ray scattering from hydrating tricalcium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollet, D.

    1983-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to study the structural evolution of hydrated tricalcium silicate at room temperature. The changes in specific area of the associated porosity and the evolution of density fluctuations in the solid hydrated phase were deduced from the scattering data. A correlation of these variations with the hydration mechanism is tried. (Author) [pt

  18. In vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of tricalcium silicate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tricalcium silicate powder showed that it could induce bone- like apatite formation after ... ated by soaking them in SBF, cell adhesion and MTT assay, respectively. 2. .... tibility, which might be used as one of the bioactive coating materials and ...

  19. Effects of Mixed Alkaline Earth Oxides in Potash Silicate Glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of mixed alkaline earth oxide in potash silicate glasses with regards to their physical properties. More recently; there has been an increase in the demand for light weight glasses which retains their physical and chemical properties for both domestic and industrial applications.

  20. Determination of reactivity rates of silicate particle-size fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cristina Fernandes Deus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of sources used for soil acidity correction depends on reactivity rate (RR and neutralization power (NP, indicated by effective calcium carbonate (ECC. Few studies establish relative efficiency of reactivity (RER for silicate particle-size fractions, therefore, the RER applied for lime are used. This study aimed to evaluate the reactivity of silicate materials affected by particle size throughout incubation periods in comparison to lime, and to calculate the RER for silicate particle-size fractions. Six correction sources were evaluated: three slags from distinct origins, dolomitic and calcitic lime separated into four particle-size fractions (2, 0.84, 0.30 and <0.30-mm sieves, and wollastonite, as an additional treatment. The treatments were applied to three soils with different texture classes. The dose of neutralizing material (calcium and magnesium oxides was applied at equal quantities, and the only variation was the particle-size material. After a 90-day incubation period, the RER was calculated for each particle-size fraction, as well as the RR and ECC of each source. The neutralization of soil acidity of the same particle-size fraction for different sources showed distinct solubility and a distinct reaction between silicates and lime. The RER for slag were higher than the limits established by Brazilian legislation, indicating that the method used for limes should not be used for the slags studied here.

  1. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina; Yamauchi, Kazuo; Li, Zongjin; Zhang, Xixiang; Ma, Hongyan; Ge, Shenguang

    2017-01-01

    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10

  2. Decomposition of pre calcined aluminium silicate ores of Afghanistan by hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomidi, A.K.; Mamatov, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of pre calcined aluminium silicate ores of Afghanistan by hydrochloric acid. The physicochemical properties of initial aluminium silicate ores were studied by means of X-ray phase, differential thermal and silicate analysis. The chemical composition of aluminium containing ores was determined. The optimal conditions of interaction of initial and pre calcined siallites with hydrochloric acid were defined. The kinetics of acid decomposition of aluminium silicate ores was studied as well.

  3. Silicate Dispersion and Mechanical Reinforcement in Polysiloxane/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Daniel F.

    2010-01-12

    We report the first in-depth comparison of the mechanical properties and equilibrium solvent uptake of a range of polysiloxane nanocomposites based on treated and untreated montmorillonite and fumed silica nanofillers. We demonstrate the ability of equilibrium solvent uptake data (and, thus, overall physical and chemical cross-link density) to serve as a proxy for modulus (combining rubber elasticity and Flory-Rehner theory), hardness (via the theory of Boussinesq), and elongation at break, despite the nonideal nature of these networks. In contrast, we find that tensile and tear strength are not well-correlated with solvent uptake. Interfacial strength seems to dominate equilibrium solvent uptake and the mechanical properties it predicts. In the montmorillonite systems in particular, this results in the surprising consequence that equilibrium solvent uptake and mechanical properties are independent of dispersion state. We conclude that edge interactions play a more significant role than degree of exfoliation, a result unique in the field of polymer nanocomposites. This demonstrates that even a combination of polymer/nanofiller compatibility and thermodynamically stable nanofiller dispersion levels may not give rise to reinforcement. These findings provide an important caveat when attempting to connect structure and properties in polymer nanocomposites, and useful guidance in the design of optimized polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites in particular. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Storage conditions of the mafic and silicic magmas at Cotopaxi, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Caroline; Andújar, Joan; Mothes, Patricia; Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel; Molina, Indira

    2018-04-01

    The 2015 reactivation of the Cotopaxi volcano urges us to understand the complex eruptive dynamics of Cotopaxi for better management of a potential major crisis in the near future. Cotopaxi has commonly transitioned from andesitic eruptions of strombolian style (lava flows and scoria ballistics) or nuées ardentes (pyroclastic flows and ash falls) to highly explosive rhyolitic ignimbrites (pumiceous pyroclastic flows), which entail drastically different risks. To better interpret geophysical and geochemical signals, Cotopaxi magma storage conditions were determined via existing phase-equilibrium experiments that used starting materials chemically close to the Cotopaxi andesites and rhyolites. The results suggest that Cotopaxi's most mafic andesites (last erupted products) can be stored over a large range of depth from 7 km to ≥16 km below the summit (pressure from 200 to ≥400 MPa), 1000 °C, NNO +2, and contain 4.5-6.0±0.7 wt% H2O dissolved in the melt in equilibrium with 30-40% phenocrysts of plagioclase, two pyroxenes, and Fe-Ti oxides. These mafic andesites sometimes evolve towards more silicic andesites by cooling to 950 °C. Rhyolitic magmas are stored at 200-300 MPa (i.e. 7-11 km below the summit), 750 °C, NNO +2, and contain 6-8 wt% H2O dissolved in a nearly aphyric melt (<5% phenocrysts of plagioclase, biotite, and Fe-Ti oxides). Although the andesites produce the rhyolitic magmas by fractional crystallization, the Cotopaxi eruptive history suggests reactivation of either reservoirs at distinct times, likely reflecting flux or time fluctuations during deep magma recharge.

  5. Nanocatalytic growth of Si nanowires from Ni silicate coated SiC nanoparticles on Si solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Bhaskar; Choi, Jaeho; Ji, Hyung Yong; Park, Seungil; Lim, Gyoungho; Kim, Keunjoo

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the nanocatalytic growth of Si nanowires on the microtextured surface of crystalline Si solar cell. 3C-SiC nanoparticles have been used as the base for formation of Ni silicate layer in a catalytic reaction with the Si melt under H2 atmosphere at an annealing temperature of 1100 degrees C. The 10-nm thick Ni film was deposited after the SiC nanoparticles were coated on the microtextured surface of the Si solar cell by electron-beam evaporation. SiC nanoparticles form a eutectic alloy surface of Ni silicate and provide the base for Si supersaturation as well as the Ni-Si alloy layer on Si substrate surface. This bottom reaction mode for the solid-liquid-solid growth mechanism using a SiC nanoparticle base provides more stable growth of nanowires than the top reaction mode growth mechanism in the absence of SiC nanoparticles. Thermally excited Ni nanoparticle forms the eutectic alloy and provides collectively excited electrons at the alloy surface, which reduces the activation energy of the nanocatalytic reaction for formation of nanowires.

  6. Supercoil Formation During DNA Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Mehmet; Avsaroglu, Baris; Kabakcioglu, Alkan

    2009-03-01

    Supercoil formation plays a key role in determining the structure-function relationship in DNA. Biological and technological processes, such as protein synthesis, polymerase chain reaction, and microarrays relys on separation of the two strands in DNA, which is coupled to the unwinding of the supercoiled structure. This problem has been studied theoretically via Peyrard-Bishop and Poland-Scheraga type models, which include a simple representation of the DNA structural properties. In recent years, computational models, which provide a more realtistic representaion of DNA molecule, have been used to study the melting behavior of short DNA chains. Here, we will present a new coarse-grained model of DNA which is capable of simulating sufficiently long DNA chains for studying the supercoil formation during melting, without sacrificing the local structural properties. Our coarse-grained model successfully reproduces the local geometry of the DNA molecule, such as the 3'-5' directionality, major-minor groove structure, and the helical pitch. We will present our initial results on the dynamics of supercoiling during DNA melting.

  7. On the sequence of core-melt accidents: Fission product release, source terms and Chernobyl release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, H

    1986-01-01

    There is a sketch of our ideas on the course of a core melt-out accident in a PWR. There is then a survey of the most important results on fission product release, which were obtained by experiments on the SASCHA melt-out plant. The 3rd part considers questions which are important for determining source terms for the environment and the last part contains some considerations on radioactivity release from the Chernobyl reactor.

  8. Wastewater reuse in liquid sodium silicate manufacturing in alexandria, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Gaber A; Abd El-Salam, Magda M; Arafa, Anwar K

    2009-01-01

    Soluble sodium silicates (waterglass) are liquids containing dissolved glass which have some water like properties. They are widely used in industry as sealants, binders, deflocculants, emulsifiers and buffers. Their most common applications in Egypt are in the pulp and paper industry (where they improve the brightness and efficiency of peroxide bleaching) and the detergent industry, in which they improve the action of the detergent and lower the viscosity of liquid soaps. The survey results showed that the production was carried out batch-wise, in an autoclave (dissolver). Sodium silicate in the state of crushed glass was charged in an autoclave (dissolver) with sodium hydroxide and water. The product is filtered through a press. The left over sludge (mud and silicates impurities) is emptied into the local sewer system. Also, sludge (silica gel) was discharged from the neutralization process of the generated alkaline wastewater and consequently clogging the sewerage system. So this study was carried out to modify the current wastewater management system which eliminates sludge formation, the discharge of higher pH wastewater to the sewer system, and to assess its environmental and economic benefits. To assess the characteristics of wastewater to be reused, physico-chemical parameters of 12 samples were tested using standard methods. The survey results showed that a total capacity of the selected enterprise was 540 tons of liquid sodium silicates monthly. The total amount of wastewater being discharged was 335 m3/month. Reusing of wastewater as feed autoclave water reduced water consumption of 32.1% and reduced wastewater discharge/month that constitutes 89.6% as well as saving in final product of 6 ton/month. It was concluded that reusing of wastewater generated from liquid sodium silicate manufacturing process resulted in cheaper and environmental-friendly product.

  9. Silicate Phases on the Surfaces of Trojan Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Audrey; Emery, Joshua P.; Lindsay, Sean S.

    2017-10-01

    Determining the origin of asteroids provides an effective means of constraining the solar system’s dynamic past. Jupiter Trojan asteroids (hereafter Trojans) may help in determining the amount of radial mixing that occurred during giant planet migration. Previous studies aimed at characterizing surface composition show that Trojans have low albedo surfaces and are spectrally featureless in the near infrared. The thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength range has advantages for detecting silicates on low albedo asteroids such as Trojans. The 10 μm region exhibits strong features due to the Si-O fundamental molecular vibrations. Silicates that formed in the inner solar system likely underwent thermal annealing, and thus are crystalline, whereas silicates that accreted in the outer solar system experienced less thermal processing, and therefore are more likely to have remained in an amorphous phase. We hypothesize that the Trojans formed in the outer solar system (i.e., the Kuiper Belt), and therefore will have a more dominant amorphous spectral silicate component. With TIR spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we identify mineralogical features from the surface of 11 Trojan asteroids. Fine-grain mixtures of crystalline pyroxene and olivine exhibit a 10 μm feature with sharp cutoffs between about 9 μm and 12 μm, which create a broad flat plateau. Amorphous phases, when present, smooth the sharp emission features, resulting in a dome-like shape. Preliminary results indicate that the surfaces of analyzed Trojans contain primarily amorphous silicates. Emissivity spectra of asteroids 1986 WD and 4709 Ennomos include small peaks in the 10 μm region, diagnostic of small amounts of crystalline olivine. One explanation is that Trojans formed in the same region as Kuiper Belt objects, and when giant planet migration ensued, they were swept into Jupiter’s stable Lagrange points where they are found today. As such, it is possible that an ancestral group of Kuiper Belt

  10. The origin and evolution of silicic magmas during continental rifting: new constraints from trace elements and oxygen isotopes from Ethiopian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, W.; Boyce, A.; Mather, T. A.; Pyle, D. M.; Yirgu, G.; Gleeson, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    The petrologic diversity of rift magmas is generated by two key processes: interaction with the crust via partial melting or assimilation; and closed-system fractional crystallization of the parental magma. It is not yet known whether these two petrogenetic processes vary spatially between different rift settings, and whether there are any significant secular variations during rift evolution. The Ethiopian Rift is the ideal setting to test these hypotheses because it captures the transition from continental rifting to sea-floor spreading and has witnessed the eruption of large volumes of mafic and silicic volcanic rocks since 30 Ma. We use new oxygen isotope (δ18O) and trace element data to fingerprint fractional crystallisation and partial crustal melting processes in Ethiopia and evaluate spatial variations between three active rift segments. δ18O measurements are used to examine partial crustal melting processes. We find that most δ18O data from basalts to rhyolites fall within the bounds of modelled fractional crystallization trajectories (i.e., 5.5-6.5 ‰). Few samples deviate from this trend, emphasising that fractional crystallization is the dominant petrogenetic processes and that little fusible Precambrian crustal material (δ18O of 7-18 ‰) remain to be assimilated beneath the magmatic segments. Trace element systematics (e.g., Ba, Sr, Rb, Th and Zr) further underscore the dominant role of fractional crystallization but also reveal important variations in the degree of melt evolution between the volcanic systems. We find that the most evolved silicic magmas, i.e., those with greatest peralkalinity (molar Na2O+K2O>Al2O3), are promoted in regions of lowest magma flux off-axis and along rift. Our findings provide new information on the nature of the crust beneath Ethiopia's active magmatic segments and also have relevance for understanding ancient rift zones and the geotectonic settings that promote genesis of economically-valuable mineral deposits.

  11. Effect of silicate module of water glass on rheological parameters of poly(sodium acrylate)/sodium silicate hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalska-Popiawska, J.; Izak, P.

    2017-01-01

    The poly(sodium acrylate)/sodium silicate hydrogels were synthesized in the presence of sodium thiosulphate and potassium persulphate as the redox initiators and N,N’-methylene-bisacrylamide as the cross-linking monomer. 20 wt% aqueous solution of sodium acrylate was polymerized together with water glass with different silicate modules (M) from 1.74 to 2.29, in three mass ratio of the monomer solution to the water glass 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2. Such obtained hybrid composites were rheologically tested using the oscillation method. It allowed to designate the crossover point during polymerization, as well as to define the viscoelastic properties of the casted hydrogel samples one week after the reaction. The obtained results of the oscillation measurements showed that cross-linking reaction proceeds very quickly and the lower the silicate module is, the process starts faster. After the completion of the reaction the silicate-polymer hydrogels are strongly elastic materials and the highest elasticity characterizes systems with the mass ratio 1:2, i.e. with the highest water glass content.

  12. Suspension hydration of tricalcium silicate at constant pH. I. Variation of particle size and tricalcium silicate content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCurdy, K.G.; Stein, H.N.

    1973-01-01

    Calcium and silicate ion concentrations during suspension hydration of C3S indicate that at pH 11.5 an equilibrium is established between one of the hydrates and the solution during about 80 minutes. The concentrations found in this period are indipendent of the particle size of the C3S and (within

  13. A conceptual model for the asthenosphere: redox melting in the C-O-H-bearing mantle vs. geophysical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Fabrice; Tarits, Pascal; Massuyeau, Malcolm; David, Sifre; Leila, Hashim; Emmanuel, Gardes

    2013-04-01

    pump results in an increasingly reduced mantle with depth. Recent surveys have calibrated the carbon-carbonate redox transition at mantle pressure and have located its depth around 180-250 km (depth of redox melting); Deeper, only diamond is stable; Shallower, carbonates, mostly in its molten state, are expected. This petrological model is confronted to the most recent geophysical observations. Such observations indicate that melting must occur at depth down to 400 km, which conflict with the concept of redox melting. What is the composition of the melt? Hydrous silicate melt or hydrous carbonated melt? What does it mean in terms of deep upper mantle redox state?

  14. A volatile-rich Earth's core inferred from melting temperature of core materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, G.; Andrault, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Nakajima, Y.; Auzende, A. L.; Boulard, E.; Clark, A. N.; Lord, O. T.; Cervera, S.; Siebert, J.; Garbarino, G.; Svitlyk, V.; Mezouar, M.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary cores are mainly constituted of iron and nickel, alloyed with lighter elements (Si, O, C, S or H). Understanding how these elements affect the physical and chemical properties of solid and liquid iron provides stringent constraints on the composition of the Earth's core. In particular, melting curves of iron alloys are key parameter to establish the temperature profile in the Earth's core, and to asses the potential occurrence of partial melting at the Core-Mantle Boundary. Core formation models based on metal-silicate equilibration suggest that Si and O are the major light element components1-4, while the abundance of other elements such as S, C and H is constrained by arguments based on their volatility during planetary accretion5,6. Each compositional model implies a specific thermal state for the core, due to the different effect that light elements have on the melting behaviour of Fe. We recently measured melting temperatures in Fe-C and Fe-O systems at high pressures, which complete the data sets available both for pure Fe7 and other binary alloys8. Compositional models with an O- and Si-rich outer core are suggested to be compatible with seismological constraints on density and sound velocity9. However, their crystallization temperatures of 3650-4050 K at the CMB pressure of 136 GPa are very close to, if not higher than the melting temperature of the silicate mantle and yet mantle melting above the CMB is not a ubiquitous feature. This observation requires significant amounts of volatile elements (S, C or H) in the outer core to further reduce the crystallisation temperature of the core alloy below that of the lower mantle. References 1. Wood, B. J., et al Nature 441, 825-833 (2006). 2. Siebert, J., et al Science 339, 1194-7 (2013). 3. Corgne, A., et al Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 288, 108-114 (2009). 4. Fischer, R. a. et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 167, 177-194 (2015). 5. Dreibus, G. & Palme, H. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60, 1125-1130 (1995). 6. Mc

  15. Structural and optical study on antimony-silicate glasses doped with thulium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosz, D; Zmojda, J; Kochanowicz, M; Miluski, P; Jelen, P; Sitarz, M

    2015-01-05

    Structural, spectroscopic and thermal properties of SiO₂-Al₂O₃-Sb₂O₃-Na₂O glass system doped with 0.2 mol% Tm₂O₃ have been presented. Synthesis of antimony-silicate glasses with relatively low phonon energy (600 cm(-1), which implicates a small non-radiative decay rate) was performed by conventional high-temperature melt-quenching methods. The effect of SiO₂/Sb₂O₃ ratio in fabricated Tm(3+) doped glass on thermal, structural and luminescence properties was investigated. On the basis of structural investigations decomposition of absorption bands in the infrared FTIR region was performed, thus determining that antimony ions are the only glass-forming ions, setting up the lattice of fabricated glasses. Luminescence band at the wavelength of 1.8 μm corresponding to (3)F₄→(3)H₆ transition in thulium ions was obtained under 795 nm laser pumping. It was observed that combination of relatively low phonon energy and greater separation of optically active centers in the fabricated glasses influenced in decreasing the luminescence intensity at 1800 nm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Infrared Spectroscopic Study For Structural Investigation Of Lithium Lead Silicate Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlawat, Navneet; Aghamkar, Praveen; Ahlawat, Neetu; Agarwal, Ashish; Monica

    2011-01-01

    Lithium lead silicate glasses with composition 30Li 2 O·(70-x)PbO·xSiO 2 (where, x = 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mol %)(LPS glasses) were prepared by normal melt quench technique at 1373 K for half an hour in air to understand their structure. Compositional dependence of density, molar volume and glass transition temperature of these glasses indicates more compactness of the glass structure with increasing SiO 2 content. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic data obtained for these glasses was used to investigate the changes induced in the local structure of samples as the ratio between PbO and SiO 2 content changes from 6.0 to 0.4. The observed absorption band around 450-510 cm -1 in IR spectra of these glasses indicates the presence of network forming PbO 4 tetrahedral units in glass structure. The increase in intensity with increasing SiO 2 content (upto x = 30 mol %) suggests superposition of Pb-O and Si-O bond vibrations in absorption band around 450-510 cm -1 . The values of optical basicity in these glasses were found to be dependent directly on PbO/SiO 2 ratio.

  17. High porosity harzburgite and dunite channels for the transport of compositionally heterogeneous melts in the mantle: II. Geochemical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y.; Schiemenz, A.; Xia, Y.; Parmentier, E.

    2009-12-01

    channel drives part of the channel melt in the upper part of the dunite channel into the surrounding harzburgite, providing a physical mechanism for shallow level re-fertilization or mantle metasomatism. The presence of compacting waves in and around a dunite-harzburgite channel system further complicates the melt flow field and provides new mechanisms for melt-peridotite interaction in the mantle. In the presence of chemical heterogeneity, the assumption of local equilibrium between the melt and its surrounding crystals results in significant chromatographic fractionation for incompatible trace elements in the melt percolating in region (d), and moderate fractionation for melt flowing through the harzburgite channel. Chemical disequilibrium between the melt and crystals reduces the extent of chromatographic fractionation during melt percolation and may be needed to explain the observed geochemical data. Alternatively, compositionally heterogeneous melts may be extracted through the high porosity melt channels without interaction with the peridotite matrix. [1] Schiemenz et al. submitted to AGU Fall meeting, 2009.

  18. Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurkić Lela Munjas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silicon (Si is the most abundant element present in the Earth's crust besides oxygen. However, the exact biological roles of silicon remain unknown. Moreover, the ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4, as a major form of bioavailable silicon for both humans and animals, has not been given adequate attention so far. Silicon has already been associated with bone mineralization, collagen synthesis, skin, hair and nails health atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, immune system enhancement, and with some other disorders or pharmacological effects. Beside the ortho-silicic acid and its stabilized formulations such as choline chloride-stabilized ortho-silicic acid and sodium or potassium silicates (e.g. M2SiO3; M= Na,K, the most important sources that release ortho-silicic acid as a bioavailable form of silicon are: colloidal silicic acid (hydrated silica gel, silica gel (amorphous silicon dioxide, and zeolites. Although all these compounds are characterized by substantial water insolubility, they release small, but significant, equilibrium concentration of ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4 in contact with water and physiological fluids. Even though certain pharmacological effects of these compounds might be attributed to specific structural characteristics that result in profound adsorption and absorption properties, they all exhibit similar pharmacological profiles readily comparable to ortho-silicic acid effects. The most unusual ortho-silicic acid-releasing agents are certain types of zeolites, a class of aluminosilicates with well described ion(cation-exchange properties. Numerous biological activities of some types of zeolites documented so far might probably be attributable to the ortho-silicic acid-releasing property. In this review, we therefore discuss biological and potential therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and ortho-silicic acid -releasing silicon compounds as its major natural sources.

  19. Experimental methods for quenching structures in lunar-analog silicate melts - Variations as a function of quench media and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyar, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Compositions analogous to lunar green, orange, and brown glasses were synthesized under consistent conditions, then quenched into a variety of different media when the samples were removed from the furnace. Iron valence and coordination are a direct function of quench media used, spanning the range from brine/ice (most effective quench), water, butyl phthalate, silicone oil, liquid nitrogen, highly reducing CO-CO2 gas, to air (least efficient quench). In the green and brown glasses, Fe(3+) in four-fold and six-fold coordination is observed in the slowest-quenched samples Fe(2+) coordination varies directly with quench efficiency. Less pronounced changes were observed in the Ti-rich orange glass. Therefore the remote-sensed spectrum of a glass-bearing regolith on the moon may be influenced by the process by which the glass cooled, and extreme caution must be used when comparing spectra of synthetic glass analogs with real lunar glasses

  20. Structures and lithofacies of inferred silicic conduits in the Paraná-Etendeka LIP, southernmost Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, M. S.; Lima, E. F.; Sommer, C. A.; Rossetti, L. M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Extensive silicic units in the Paraná-Etendeka LIP have been long interpreted as pyroclastic density currents (rheomorphic ignimbrites) derived from the Messum Complex in Namibia. In recent literature, however, they have been characterized as effusive lava flows and domes. In this paper we describe structures and lithofacies related to postulated silicic lava feeder conduits at Mato Perso, São Marcos and Jaquirana-Cambará do Sul areas in southern Brazil. Inferred conduits are at least 15-25 m in width and the lithofacies include variably vesicular monomictic welded and non-welded breccias in the margins to poorly vesicular, banded, spherulitic and microfractured vitrophyres in the central parts. Flat-lying coherent vitrophyres and massive obsidian are considered to be the subaerial equivalents of the conduits. Large-scale, regional tectonic structures in southern Brazil include the NE-SW aligned Porto Alegre Suture, Leão and Açotea faults besides the Antas Lineament, a curved tectonic feature accompanying the bed of Antas river. South of the Antas Lineament smaller-scale, NW-SE lineaments limit the exposure areas of the inferred conduits. NE-SW and subordinate NW-SE structures within this smaller-scale lineaments are represented by the main postulated conduit outcrops and are parallel to the dominant sub-vertical banding in the widespread banded vitrophyre lithofacies. Upper lava flows display flat-lying foliation, pipe-like and spherical vesicles and have better developed microlites. Petrographic characteristics of the silicic vitrophyres indicate that crystal-poor magmas underwent distinct cooling paths for each inferred conduit area. The vitrophyre chemical composition is defined by the evolution of trachydacitic/dacitic vitrophyres with 62-65 wt% SiO2 to rhyodacite and rhyolite with 66-68 wt% SiO2. The more evolved rocks are assigned to the latest intrusive grey vitrophyre outcropping in the center of the conduits. Degassing pathways formed during

  1. Geological Mapping of Impact Melt Deposits at Lunar Complex Craters: New Insights into Morphological Diversity, Distribution and the Cratering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, D.; Head, J. W., III; Pieters, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    We have completed high resolution geological mapping of impact melt deposits at the young lunar complex craters (wall and rim impact melt units and their relation to floor units have also been mapped. Among the distinctive features of these impact melt deposits are: 1) Impact Melt Wave Fronts: These are extensive (sometimes several kilometers in length) and we have documented their occurrence and distribution in different parts of the crater floor at Jackson and Tycho. These features emphasize melt mobility and style of emplacement during the modification stage of the craters. 2) Variations in Floor Elevations: Spatially extensive and coherent sections of crater floors have different elevations at all the three craters. The observed elevation differences could be caused by subsidence due to cooling of melt and/or structural failure, together with a contribution from regional slope. 3) Melt-Covered Megablocks: We also observe large blocks/rock-fragments (megablocks) covered in impact melt, which could be sections of collapsed wall or in some cases, subdued sections of central peaks. 4) Melt-Covered Central Peaks: Impact melt has also been mapped on the central peaks but varies in spatial extent among the craters. The presence of melt on peaks must be taken into account when interpreting peak mineralogy as exposures of deeper crust. 5) Boulder Distribution: Interesting trends are observed in the distribution of boulder units of various sizes; some impact melt units have spatially extensive boulders, while boulder distribution is very scarce in other units on the floor. We interpret these distributions to be influenced by a) the differential collapse of the crater walls during the modification stage, and b) the amount of relative melt volume retained in different parts of the crater floor. These observations provide important documentation of the morphological diversity and better understanding of the emplacement and final distribution of impact melt deposits.

  2. Wind-eroded silicate as a source of hydrogen peroxide on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Ebbe Norskov; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Jensen, Svend Knak

    -sists of silicates [4] that due to wind erosion has a very fine grained texture. Based on the composition of the surface material and investigations showing that crushing of silicates can give rise to reactive oxygen species [5], we hypothesized that wind erosion of silicates can explain the reactivity of Martian...... soil. Wind-erosion of silicate could thus be one of several causes of the soil’s reactivity. As our experiments show, the globally distributed wind eroded silicate dust can lead to the production of hydrogen peroxide which might explain the reactivity of the Martian soil. The reactivity of eroded...

  3. 3D-printed silicate porous bioceramics using a non-sacrificial preceramic polymer binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocca, A; Elsayed, H; Bernardo, E; Gomes, C M; Lopez-Heredia, M A; Knabe, C; Colombo, P; Günster, J

    2015-05-22

    Silicate bioceramics possess an excellent bioactivity; however, shaping them into complex geometries is still challenging. Therefore, this paper aims to present a new strategy for the shaping of a bioglass-ceramic with controlled geometry and properties starting from a glass powder combined with a preceramic polymer, i.e. a silicon resin, and reactive fillers. The powder-based three-dimensional (3D)-printing of wollastonite (CaSiO3)-based silicate bioceramic parts was demonstrated in this work. The resin plays a dual role, as it not only acts as a non-sacrificial binder for the filler powders in the printing process but it also reacts with the fillers to generate the desired bioceramic phases. The mechanical and physical properties, i.e. ball-on-three-balls test, density, porosity and morphology, were evaluated in 3D-printed discs. These samples possessed a total porosity around 64 vol% and a biaxial flexural strength around 6 MPa. The raw materials used in this work also enabled the 3D-printing of scaffolds possessing a designed multi-scale porosity, suitable bioceramic phase assemblage and a compressive strength of 1 MPa (for cylindrical scaffolds with total porosity ~80 vol%). Solubility in TRIS/HCl and in vitro assays, i.e. viability, cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays, were also performed. In vitro tests indicated good cell viability and no cytotoxicity effect on the cells.

  4. The COMET-L3 experiment on long-term melt. Concrete interaction and cooling by surface flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsmeyer, H.; Cron, T.; Fluhrer, B.; Messemer, G.; Miassoedov, A.; Schmidt-Stiefel, S.; Wenz, T.

    2007-02-01

    The COMET-L3 experiment considers the long-term situation of corium/concrete interaction in an anticipated core melt accident of a light-water-reactor, after the metal melt is layered beneath the oxide melt. The experimental focus is on cavity formation in the basemat and the risk of long term basemat penetration. The experiment investigates the two-dimensional concrete erosion in a cylindrical crucible fabricated from siliceous concrete in the first phase of the test, and the influence of surface flooding in the second phase. Decay heating in the two-component metal and oxide melt is simulated by sustained induction heating of the metal phase that is overlaid by the oxide melt. The inner diameter of the concrete crucible was 60 cm, the initial mass of the melt was 425 kg steel and 211 kg oxide at 1665 C, resulting in a melt height of 450 mm. The net power to the metal melt was about 220 kW from 0 s to 1880 s, when the maximum erosion limit of the crucible was reached and heating was terminated. In the initial phase of the test (less than 100 s), the overheated, highly agitated metal melt causes intense interaction with the concrete, which leads to fast decrease of the initial melt overheat and reduction of the initially high concrete erosion rate. Thereafter, under quasistationary conditions until about 800 s, the erosion by the metal melt slows down to some 0.07 mm/s into the axial direction. Lateral erosion is a factor 3 smaller. Video observation of the melt surface shows an agitated melt with ongoing gas release from the decomposing concrete. Several periods of more intense gas release, gas driven splashing, and release of crusts from the concrete interface indicate the existence and iterative break-up of crusts that probably form at the steel/concrete interface. Surface flooding of the melt is initiated at 800 s by a shower from the crucible head with 0.375 litre water/s. Flooding does not lead to strong melt/water interactions, and no entrapment reactions or

  5. Electron beam melting of sponge titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Hiroshi; Kusamichi, Tatsuhiko; Muraoka, Tetsuhiro; Onouye, Toshio; Nishimura, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental investigations were done on electron beam (EB) melting of sponge titanium by using 80 kW EB melting furnace. Results obtained are as follows: (1) To increase the melting yield of titanium in EB melting of sponge titanium, it is important to recover splashed metal by installation of water-cooled copper wall around the hearth and to decrease evaporation loss of titanium by keeping the surface temperature of molten metal just above the melting temperature of titanium without local heating. (2) Specific power consumption of drip melting of pressed sponge titanium bar and hearth melting of sponge titanium are approximately 0.9 kWh/kg-Ti and 0.5-0.7 kWh/kg-Ti, respectively. (3) Ratios of the heat conducted to water-cooled mould in the drip melting and to water-cooled hearth in the hearth melting to the electron beam input power are 50-65% and 60-65%, respectively. (4) Surface defects of EB-melted ingots include rap which occurs when the EB output is excessively great, and transverse cracks when the EB output is excessively small. To prevent surface defects, the up-down withdrawal method is effective. (author)

  6. Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov-Hansen, S.

    2007-09-15

    By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give

  7. Influence of melt mixer on injection molding of thermoset elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Arif; Zahra, Keith

    2016-10-01

    One of the drawbacks in injection molding is that the plasticizing screw is short such that polymers having high concentrations of additives, such as thermoset elastomers, might not mix homogeneously within the short period of time during the plasticizing stage. In this study, various melt mixers inside the nozzle chamber, together forming a mixing nozzle, were developed. Three different materials were investigated, namely nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), ethylene propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) and fluorocarbon (FKM). The use of these melt mixers resulted in better homogeneity and properties of the molded parts despite a curing time reduction of 10 s. This was due to the increase in mixing and shearing introduced a higher rate of crosslinking formation in the molded parts.

  8. Calc-silicate mineralization in active geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, D.K.; Schiffman, P.; Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; McDowell, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed study of calc-silicate mineral zones and coexisting phase relations in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system were used as examples for thermodynamic evaluation of phase relations among minerals of variable composition and to calculate the chemical characteristics of hydrothermal solutions compatible with the observed calc-silicate assemblages. In general there is a close correlation between calculated and observed fluid compositions. Calculated fugacities of O{sub 2} at about 320{degrees}C in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system are about five orders of magnitude less than that at the nearby Salton Sea geothermal system. This observation is consistent with the occurrence of Fe{sup 3+} rich epidotes in the latter system and the presence of prehnite at Cerro Prieto.

  9. Charge trapping and dielectric breakdown in lead silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, R.A.; Kinser, D.L.; Lee, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    When irradiated with beams of energetic electrons or gamma rays, many insulating glasses and plastics exhibit a spontaneous electrical discharge producing permanent patterns in the materials (Lichtenberg figures). In the case of inorganic glasses, this effect is not observed in pure silicate, germanate, or phosphate glasses nor in their crystalline forms and has only been reported in mixed-oxide glasses with low alkali content. In a series of lead silicate glasses of composition [PbO]/sub (x)/[SiO 2 ]/sub [1-(x)]/, the effect is observed only for 0 less than x less than or equal to 0.40. Changes in electrical properties are related to structural changes in these glasses. Electron microscopy of these glasses confirms the existence of microphase separation in the range 0.2 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.5

  10. Chemical bonding and structural ordering of cations in silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calas, G.; Cormier, L.; Galoisy, L.; Ramos, A.; Rossano, St.

    1997-01-01

    The specific surrounding of cations in multicomponent silicate glasses is briefly presented. Information about interatomic distances and site geometry may be gained by using spectroscopic methods among which x-ray absorption spectroscopy may be used for the largest number of glass components. Scattering of x-rays and neutrons may also be used to determine the importance of medium range order around specific cations. All the existing data show that cations occur in sites with a well-defined geometry, which are in most cases connected to the silicate polymeric network. Medium range order has been detected around cations such as Ti, Ca and Ni, indicating that these elements have an heterogeneous distribution within the glassy matrix. (authors)

  11. Silica from triethylammonium tris (oxalato) silicate (IV) thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, L.C.; Ionashiro, M.; Davolos, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Silica can be obtained from differents precursors by differents methods. In this paper it has been investigated the thermal decomposition of triethylammonium tris (oxalato) silicate (IV) to render silica. Among the trisoxalato-complexes of silicon preparation methods reviewed it has been used the Bessler's one with the reflux adaptaded in microwave oven. Thermal decomposition analysis of the compound has been made by TG-DTG and DTA curves. Silica powders obtained and heated between 300 to 900 0 C in a oven were characterized by infrared vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray powder difraction and nitrogen adsorption isotherm (BET). The triethylammonium tris (oxalato) silicate (IV) thermal decomposition takes place at 300 0 C and the silica powder obtained is non cristalline with impurities that are eliminated with heating at 400 0 C. (author) [pt

  12. Double melting in polytetrafluoroethylene γ-irradiated above its melting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serov, S.A.; Khatipov, S.A.; Sadovskaya, N.V.; Tereshenkov, A.V.; Chukov, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PTFE irradiation leads to formation of double melting peaks in DSC curves. ► This is connected to dual crystalline morphology typical for PTFE. ► Two crystalline types exist in the PTFE irradiated in the melt. - Abstract: PTFE irradiation above its melting point leads to formation of double melting and crystallization peaks in DSC curves. Splitting of melting peaks is connected to dual crystalline morphology typical for PTFE irradiated in the melt. According to electron microscopy, two crystalline types with different size and packing density exist in the irradiated PTFE.